Science.gov

Sample records for additional control groups

  1. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  2. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  3. Addition polyimide adhesives containing various end groups

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Saint Clair, A. K.; Saint Clair, T. L.

    1982-01-01

    Addition polyimode oligomers have been synthesized from 3,3 prime, 4,4 prime-benzophenone tetracarboxylic acid dianhydride and 3,3 prime-methylenedianiline using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as end-caps. The nominal 1300 molecular weight imide prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents, melt-flow and cure properties, glass transition temperature, and thermal stability on heating in an air atmosphere. Adhesive strengths of the polyimides were obtained both at ambient and elevated temperatures before and after aging at 232 C. Properties of the novel addition polyimides were compared to a known nadic end-capped adhesive, LARC-13.

  4. Thermal Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haslett, Robert; Mahefkey, E. Thomas

    1986-01-01

    The Thermal Control Working Group limited its evaluation to issues associated with Earth orbiting and planetary spacecraft with power levels up to 50 kW. It was concluded that the space station technology is a necessary precursor but does not meet S/C 2000 needs (life, high heat flux, long term cryogenics, and survivability). Additional basic and applied research are required (fluid/materials compatibility and two phase system modeling). Scaling, the key issue, must define accelerated life test criteria. The two phase systems require 0g to 1 g correlation. Additional ground test beds are required and combined space environment tests of materials.

  5. New ESP additive controls particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Durham, M.D.; Baldrey, K.E.; Bustard, C.J.; Martin, C.E.; Dharmarajan, N.N.

    1997-06-01

    This article reports that a conditioning agent enhanced precipitator performance after plant switched to low-sulfur coal. Firing low-sulfur coal at a power plant designed for medium- or high-sulfur coal will impact the downstream particulate control device. Since the performance of an electro-static precipitator (ESP) is a strong function of the sulfur content in the coal, switching to a low-sulfur coal will severely impact collection efficiency. Particle resistivity is the dominant parameter affecting the performance of an ESP. When the resistivity is too high, the ESP must be increased in size by a factor of two to three, resulting in proportionally increased capital and operating costs. Fly ash from low-sulfur coal is known to have a typical resistivity one or two orders of magnitude above that for ideal collection efficiency in a well-designed ESP. Therefore, when a utility burning a medium- or high-sulfur coal switches to a low-sulfur coal, the increase in particle resistivity resulting from the reduced SO{sub 3} concentration will lead to severe problems in the ESP. There have been many instances where utilities have switched from a high- to a low-sulfur coal, and the problems caused by the increased resistivity have had such a devastating effect on the performance of the ESP that emissions have increased by a factor of 10.

  6. Fuel compositions containing deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lilburn, J.E.

    1980-11-18

    Fuel compositions are provided which contain a deposit control additive. The deposit control additive is produced by reacting a hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) alcohol with excess phosgene and an excess amount of certain polyamines. The product comprises hydrocarbylpoly(oxyalkylene) ureylene carbamates.

  7. The Additive Effects of Choice and Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karbowski, Joseph; And Others

    In separate research studies, students who were given a choice of learning materials or who had control over aversive noise, demonstrated higher motivation and better task performance. To investigate the additive effects of choice and control on perception of control, 80 male and female college students participated in a 2 (choice vs. no-choice) X…

  8. Additive Bilingualism, Schooling, and Special Education: A Minority Group Perspective.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Landry, R.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of schooling on the acquisition of an additive type of bilingualism is examined, focusing on additive bilingualism's relation to the ethnolinguistic vitality of linguistic groups and contributions of individual networks of linguistic contacts. A special and regular education merger without domination by a single cultural perspective is…

  9. A practical catalytic asymmetric addition of alkyl groups to ketones.

    PubMed

    García, Celina; LaRochelle, Lynne K; Walsh, Patrick J

    2002-09-18

    Many catalysts will promote the asymmetric addition of alkylzinc reagents to aldehydes. In contrast, there are no reports of additions to ketones that are both general and highly enantioselective. We describe herein a practical catalytic asymmetric addition of ethyl groups to ketones. The catalyst is derived from reaction of camphor sulfonyl chloride and trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane. The resulting diketone is reduced with NaBH4 to give the C2-symmetric exo diastereomer. Use of this ligand with titanium tetraisopropoxide and dialkylzinc at room temperature results in enantioselective addition of the alkyl group to the ketone. The resulting tertiary alcohols are isolated with high enantiomeric excess (all cases give greater than 87% ee, except one). The reaction has been run with 37 mmol (5 g) 3-methylacetophenone and 2 mol % catalyst to afford 73% yield of the resulting tertiary alcohol with 99% ee.

  10. Control systems on Lie groups.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jurdjevic, V.; Sussmann, H. J.

    1972-01-01

    The controllability properties of systems which are described by an evolution equation in a Lie group are studied. The revelant Lie algebras induced by a right invariant system are singled out, and the basic properties of attainable sets are derived. The homogeneous case and the general case are studied, and results are interpreted in terms of controllability. Five examples are given.

  11. The effect of addition of low dose fentanyl to epidural bupivacaine (0.5%) in patients undergoing elective caesarean section: A randomized, parallel group, double blind, placebo controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Parate, LH; Manjrekar, SP; Anandaswamy, TC; Manjunath, B

    2015-01-01

    Background: Opioids have synergistic action with local anesthetics which may alter characteristics of epidural block. Giving opioids to mother before delivery of baby is still fully not accepted with some fearing risk of neonatal depression. Aims: Our primary aim was to evaluate the analgesic effect of addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine in patients undergoing elective caesarean section using visual analog scale. The secondary aim was to assess onset of analgesia, volume of drug required to achieve T6 level, grade and duration of motor block and Apgar score. Materials and Methods: In this prospective, randomized, double blind, placebo controlled study 64 patients scheduled for elective caesarean section under epidural anesthesia were randomly divided into two groups of 32 each. The fentanyl group received 1ml of 50 μg fentanyl and the saline group received 1ml of normal saline mixed with 10ml of 0.5% bupivacaine for epidural anesthesia. VAS score, time to achieve T6 level, dose of bupivacaine, intraoperative analgesic consumption and duration of analgesia, grade and duration of motor block and any adverse maternal and neonatal effects were noted. Statistical Analysis: Data was analyzed using Students t test, chi-square test and Mann-Whitney U-test. The values of P < 0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: Fentanyl improved the VAS score significantly (1.6 ± 1.32) compared to the saline group (3.77 ± 1.0, P < 0.0001). It also reduced the intraoperaitve analgesic supplementation compared to the saline group. (P = 0.031). The postoperative duration of analgesia was prolonged in the fentanyl group (275.80 ± 13.61 min) compared to the saline group (191.47 ± 12.16 min, P < 0.0001). The other characteristics of epidural block were unaltered. Conclusion: Addition of 50 μg fentanyl to epidural 0.5% bupivacaine significantly reduces the VAS score. It also reduces intra-operative analgesia supplementation and prolongs the duration

  12. Combined dispersant fluid loss control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Villa, J. L.; Zeiner, R. N.

    1985-12-31

    Water soluble polymer compositions containing polyacrylic acid and copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide are useful as combined dispersant and fluid loss control additives for aqueous drilling fluids, particularly fresh water, gypsum and seawater muds. An example is a polymer composition containing about 80% by weight polyacrylic acid and about 20% by weight copolymer of itaconic acid and acrylamide in its ammonium salt form.

  13. Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups as additives for lubricating oils

    SciTech Connect

    Nikolaev, V.N.; Abramov, E.G.; Tenyushev, A.I.

    1995-01-01

    Polyetherurethane oligomers with aldehyde groups, which we synthesized from polyoxypropylene diols (molecular weight 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, or 3000) with toluene diisocyanate and salicylaldehyde, are of interest as additives for lubricating oils. The effects of these oligomers on the service properties and physicochemical characteristics of lubricating oils were investigated by methods prreviously described. As the lube base stocks we used castor oil, a polyoxypropylene diol and a polyethoxysiloxane. The oligomers are readily soluble in organic solvents and in the lube base stocks, and their solutions are stable during storage and use. We found that the optimal concentration of oligomers is 5%, providing the best lubricating properties, in particular the best antiwear properties.

  14. Laboratory tests of sludge-control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1996-07-01

    Laboratory {open_quotes}jar{close_quotes} tests compared eleven different fuel oil and diesel fuel sludge-control additives. Factors studied included (1) ability to disperse and prevent buildup of sludge deposits on surfaces, (2) ability to protect steel from corrosion, (3) ability to inhibit growth and proliferation of bacteria, and (4) ability to disperse water. Results varied greatly, and it was found that many commercial products do not do what they claim. It is concluded that fuel retailers should not believe manufacturers` claims for their additive products, but rather should test such products themselves to be sure that the benefits of treatment are real. A simplified form of the procedure used here is proposed as one way for dealers to do such testing.

  15. Quality Control in Small Groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lemmens, L. F.

    2008-11-01

    The smallness of some groups in a set up to control the quality of a service using questionnaires limits the size of the samples, this limitation has several consequences. Indeed the common approach used for relatively large groups, based on the central limit theorem and the law of large numbers, cannot be used anymore to construct estimators for the parameters of the model. Using an inverse probability will lift these restrictions. A questionnaire is a collection of items. In an item the respondent indicates on a Likert scale his or her agreement with a statement. Dimensions are a set of items dealing with one aspect of the service. In a questionnaire several dimensions are addressed but usually the items are presented in a random sequence. The model for an item is hierarchical with following components: a multivariate hypergeometric model takes the sampling in a finite population into account, the multinomial serves as a prior for the sampling and the Dirichlet-distribution serves as a prior for the multinomials. The composition of dimensions allows to use the posterior for one of the items as a prior for another item of that dimension and so on. After analysis of several questionnaires using this model, the reliability of the responses from some respondents turned out to be a key-problem, in the sense the responses can be classified into at least two classes and a decision rule had to be developed to neglect some of them. The influence of rejecting some answers, on the confidence for the most plausible statement can be estimated. This leads often to the result that there is only minimal evidence for the most probable statement.

  16. A Comparison of Group-Oriented Contingencies for Addition Fluency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gross, Thomas J.; Duhon, Gary J.; Shutte, Greg; Rowland, Julie E.

    2016-01-01

    Math fact fluency is critical for understanding complex mathematics. Explicit timing interventions have shown promise for improving math fluency, and they may benefit from being paired with group-oriented contingencies. Further, investigations of independent and dependent group-oriented contingencies would help to identify their relative…

  17. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  18. Iron-control additives improve acidizing

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, M.; Dill, W. ); Besler, M. )

    1989-07-24

    Iron sulfide and sulfur precipitation in sour wells can be controlled with iron-sequestering agents and sulfide modifiers. Oil production has been routinely increased in sour wells where precipitation of iron sulfide and elemental sulfur has been brought under control. Production increases have been especially noteworthy on wells that had a history of rapid production decline after acid stimulation. Twenty-fold production increases have been recorded. Key to the production increase has been to increase permeability with: Iron chelating agents that control precipitation of iron sulfide. A sulfide modifier that reduces precipitation of solids in the presence of excessive amounts of hydrogen sulfide and prevents precipitation of elemental sulfur.

  19. Relational Control in Two Group Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ellis, Donald G.

    1979-01-01

    Examines and explains relational control interaction patterns in two decision-making groups and two women's consciousness-raising groups. Analyzes the interaction data using a Markov model and tracking the control dimension of relationships over time. (JMF)

  20. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's parents... examinations of children, such as a school psychologist, speech-language pathologist, or remedial...

  1. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's parents...) If the child does not have a regular teacher, a regular classroom teacher qualified to teach a...

  2. 34 CFR 300.308 - Additional group members.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Educational Placements Additional Procedures for Identifying Children with Specific Learning Disabilities... learning disability is a child with a disability as defined in § 300.8, must be made by the child's parents...) If the child does not have a regular teacher, a regular classroom teacher qualified to teach a...

  3. CONTROL ROD ALLOY CONTAINING NOBLE METAL ADDITIONS

    DOEpatents

    Anderson, W.K.; Ray, W.E.

    1960-05-01

    Silver-base alloys suitable for use in the fabrication of control rods for neutronic reactors are given. The alloy consists of from 0.5 wt.% to about 1.5 wt.% of a noble metal of platinum, ruthenium, rhodium, osmium, or palladium, up to 10 wt.% of cadmium, from 2 to 20 wt.% indium, the balance being silver.

  4. Attitude Control Working Group report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, Daniel F.; Studer, Phillip A.

    1986-01-01

    The goals were to establish the Attitude Control System (ACS) requirements, constraints, technology assessment, technology shortfalls, expected in the year 2000. These were based upon all missions, military and civil, for LEO and GEO. The critical ACS technology issues were identified and ACS programs developed to address these critical issues.

  5. Microstructural Control of Additively Manufactured Metallic Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collins, P. C.; Brice, D. A.; Samimi, P.; Ghamarian, I.; Fraser, H. L.

    2016-07-01

    In additively manufactured (AM) metallic materials, the fundamental interrelationships that exist between composition, processing, and microstructure govern these materials’ properties and potential improvements or reductions in performance. For example, by using AM, it is possible to achieve highly desirable microstructural features (e.g., highly refined precipitates) that could not otherwise be achieved by using conventional approaches. Simultaneously, opportunities exist to manage macro-level microstructural characteristics such as residual stress, porosity, and texture, the last of which might be desirable. To predictably realize optimal microstructures, it is necessary to establish a framework that integrates processing variables, alloy composition, and the resulting microstructure. Although such a framework is largely lacking for AM metallic materials, the basic scientific components of the framework exist in literature. This review considers these key components and presents them in a manner that highlights key interdependencies that would form an integrated framework to engineer microstructures using AM.

  6. Testing for Additivity at Select Mixture Groups of Interest Based on Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    SciTech Connect

    Stork, LeAnna M.; Gennings, Chris; Carchman, Richard; Carter, Jr., Walter H.; Pounds, Joel G.; Mumtaz, Moiz

    2006-12-01

    Several assumptions, defined and undefined, are used in the toxicity assessment of chemical mixtures. In scientific practice mixture components in the low-dose region, particularly subthreshold doses, are often assumed to behave additively (i.e., zero interaction) based on heuristic arguments. This assumption has important implications in the practice of risk assessment, but has not been experimentally tested. We have developed methodology to test for additivity in the sense of Berenbaum (Advances in Cancer Research, 1981), based on the statistical equivalence testing literature where the null hypothesis of interaction is rejected for the alternative hypothesis of additivity when data support the claim. The implication of this approach is that conclusions of additivity are made with a false positive rate controlled by the experimenter. The claim of additivity is based on prespecified additivity margins, which are chosen using expert biological judgment such that small deviations from additivity, which are not considered to be biologically important, are not statistically significant. This approach is in contrast to the usual hypothesis-testing framework that assumes additivity in the null hypothesis and rejects when there is significant evidence of interaction. In this scenario, failure to reject may be due to lack of statistical power making the claim of additivity problematic. The proposed method is illustrated in a mixture of five organophosphorus pesticides that were experimentally evaluated alone and at relevant mixing ratios. Motor activity was assessed in adult male rats following acute exposure. Four low-dose mixture groups were evaluated. Evidence of additivity is found in three of the four low-dose mixture groups.The proposed method tests for additivity of the whole mixture and does not take into account subset interactions (e.g., synergistic, antagonistic) that may have occurred and cancelled each other out.

  7. [Critical of the additive model of the randomized controlled trial].

    PubMed

    Boussageon, Rémy; Gueyffier, François; Bejan-Angoulvant, Theodora; Felden-Dominiak, Géraldine

    2008-01-01

    Randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trials are currently the best way to demonstrate the clinical effectiveness of drugs. Its methodology relies on the method of difference (John Stuart Mill), through which the observed difference between two groups (drug vs placebo) can be attributed to the pharmacological effect of the drug being tested. However, this additive model can be questioned in the event of statistical interactions between the pharmacological and the placebo effects. Evidence in different domains has shown that the placebo effect can influence the effect of the active principle. This article evaluates the methodological, clinical and epistemological consequences of this phenomenon. Topics treated include extrapolating results, accounting for heterogeneous results, demonstrating the existence of several factors in the placebo effect, the necessity to take these factors into account for given symptoms or pathologies, as well as the problem of the "specific" effect.

  8. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the "laws of perceptual organization" proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. "Additive effect" refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The "where" and "what" pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect.

  9. Additivity of Feature-Based and Symmetry-Based Grouping Effects in Multiple Object Tracking

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chundi; Zhang, Xuemin; Li, Yongna; Lyu, Chuang

    2016-01-01

    Multiple object tracking (MOT) is an attentional process wherein people track several moving targets among several distractors. Symmetry, an important indicator of regularity, is a general spatial pattern observed in natural and artificial scenes. According to the “laws of perceptual organization” proposed by Gestalt psychologists, regularity is a principle of perceptual grouping, such as similarity and closure. A great deal of research reported that feature-based similarity grouping (e.g., grouping based on color, size, or shape) among targets in MOT tasks can improve tracking performance. However, no additive feature-based grouping effects have been reported where the tracking objects had two or more features. “Additive effect” refers to a greater grouping effect produced by grouping based on multiple cues instead of one cue. Can spatial symmetry produce a similar grouping effect similar to that of feature similarity in MOT tasks? Are the grouping effects based on symmetry and feature similarity additive? This study includes four experiments to address these questions. The results of Experiments 1 and 2 demonstrated the automatic symmetry-based grouping effects. More importantly, an additive grouping effect of symmetry and feature similarity was observed in Experiments 3 and 4. Our findings indicate that symmetry can produce an enhanced grouping effect in MOT and facilitate the grouping effect based on color or shape similarity. The “where” and “what” pathways might have played an important role in the additive grouping effect. PMID:27199875

  10. One of two rotodip feeders used to control addition of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    One of two rotodip feeders used to control addition of alum solution into the water - Division Avenue Pumping Station & Filtration Plant, West 45th Street and Division Avenue, Cleveland, Cuyahoga County, OH

  11. Control of pyrite addition in coal liquefaction process

    DOEpatents

    Schmid, Bruce K.; Junkin, James E.

    1982-12-21

    Pyrite addition to a coal liquefaction process (22, 26) is controlled (118) in inverse proportion to the calcium content of the feed coal to maximize the C.sub.5 --900.degree. F. (482.degree. C.) liquid yield per unit weight of pyrite added (110). The pyrite addition is controlled in this manner so as to minimize the amount of pyrite used and thus reduce pyrite contribution to the slurry pumping load and disposal problems connected with pyrite produced slag.

  12. Top-down control in contour grouping.

    PubMed

    Volberg, Gregor; Wutz, Andreas; Greenlee, Mark W

    2013-01-01

    Human observers tend to group oriented line segments into full contours if they follow the Gestalt rule of 'good continuation'. It is commonly assumed that contour grouping emerges automatically in early visual cortex. In contrast, recent work in animal models suggests that contour grouping requires learning and thus involves top-down control from higher brain structures. Here we explore mechanisms of top-down control in perceptual grouping by investigating synchronicity within EEG oscillations. Human participants saw two micro-Gabor arrays in a random order, with the task to indicate whether the first (S1) or the second stimulus (S2) contained a contour of collinearly aligned elements. Contour compared to non-contour S1 produced a larger posterior post-stimulus beta power (15-21 Hz). Contour S2 was associated with a pre-stimulus decrease in posterior alpha power (11-12 Hz) and in fronto-posterior theta (4-5 Hz) phase couplings, but not with a post-stimulus increase in beta power. The results indicate that subjects used prior knowledge from S1 processing for S2 contour grouping. Expanding previous work on theta oscillations, we propose that long-range theta synchrony shapes neural responses to perceptual groupings regulating lateral inhibition in early visual cortex.

  13. Substrate-controlled Michael additions of chiral ketones to enones.

    PubMed

    Fàbregas, Mireia; Gómez-Palomino, Alejandro; Pellicena, Miquel; Reina, Daniel F; Romea, Pedro; Urpí, Fèlix; Font-Bardia, Mercè

    2014-12-05

    Substrate-controlled Michael additions of the titanium(IV) enolate of lactate-derived ketone 1 to acyclic α,β-unsaturated ketones in the presence of a Lewis acid (TiCl4 or SnCl4) provide the corresponding 2,4-anti-4,5-anti dicarbonyl compounds in good yields and excellent diastereomeric ratios. Likely, the nucleophilic species involved in such additions are bimetallic enolates that may add to enones through cyclic transition states. Finally, further studies indicate that a structurally related β-benzyloxy chiral ketone can also participate in such stereocontrolled conjugate additions.

  14. Fluid loss control additives for oil well cementing compositions

    SciTech Connect

    Crema, S.C.; Kucera, C.H.

    1992-03-03

    This patent describes a cementing composition useful in cementing oil, gas and water wells. It comprises hydraulic cement; and a fluid loss additive in an amount effective to reduce fluid loss, the fluid loss additive comprised of a copolymer of acrylamide monomer and vinyl formamide monomer and derivatives thereof in a weight percent ratio of from about 95:5 to 5:95, the copolymer having a molecular weight range of from about 10,000 to 3,000,000, the acrylamide monomer being selected from the group consisting of acrylamide, methacrylamide, N,N-dimethyl(meth)acrylamide, dialkylaminoalkyl(meth) acrylamide and mixtures thereof, the vinyl formamide monomer being selected from the group consisting of vinyl formamide, its hydrolysis products and derivatives thereof.

  15. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, Jr., Earle Dendy; Christiansen, Richard Lee; Lederhos, Joseph P.; Long, Jin Ping; Panchalingam, Vaithilingam; Du, Yahe; Sum, Amadeu Kun Wan

    1997-01-01

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hinderance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C.sub.1 -C.sub.4 group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  16. Additives and method for controlling clathrate hydrates in fluid systems

    DOEpatents

    Sloan, E.D. Jr.; Christiansen, R.L.; Lederhos, J.P.; Long, J.P.; Panchalingam, V.; Du, Y.; Sum, A.K.W.

    1997-06-17

    Discussed is a process for preventing clathrate hydrate masses from detrimentally impeding the possible flow of a fluid susceptible to clathrate hydrate formation. The process is particularly useful in the natural gas and petroleum production, transportation and processing industry where gas hydrate formation can cause serious problems. Additives preferably contain one or more five member, six member and/or seven member cyclic chemical groupings. Additives include polymers having lactam rings. Additives can also contain polyelectrolytes that are believed to improve conformance of polymer additives through steric hindrance and/or charge repulsion. Also, polymers having an amide on which a C{sub 1}-C{sub 4} group is attached to the nitrogen and/or the carbonyl carbon of the amide may be used alone, or in combination with ring-containing polymers for enhanced effectiveness. Polymers having at least some repeating units representative of polymerizing at least one of an oxazoline, an N-substituted acrylamide and an N-vinyl alkyl amide are preferred.

  17. Emission control devices, fuel additive, and fuel composition changes.

    PubMed Central

    Piver, W T

    1977-01-01

    Emission control devices are installed to meet the exhaust standards of the Clean Air Act for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbons, and it is necessary to know, from a public health point of view, how exhaust emissions may be affected by changes in fuel additives and fuel composition. Since these topics are concerned with developing technologies, the available literature on exhaust emission characteristics and the limited information on health effects, is reviewed. PMID:71235

  18. Glucose dehydrogenase polymorphism among ethnic groups of Singapore--with report of two additional alleles (GDH4 and GDH5).

    PubMed

    Saha, N; Bhattacharyya, S P; Yeoh, S C; Chua, S P; Ratnam, S S

    1987-02-01

    Placental glucose dehydrogenase (GDH; E.C.1.1.1.47) polymorphism was studied in 254 Chinese, 104 Malays, and 47 Indians from Singapore using isoelectric focusing. There is suggestive evidence of two additional anodal alleles (GDH4 and GDH5) in addition to the three alleles described in earlier studies. Altogether, 14 phenotypes have been observed in the present investigation, compared with six phenotypes described in earlier studies. It appears that placental GDH is controlled by five codominant autosomal alleles producing 15 possible phenotypes. The gene frequencies of GDH1, GDH2, and GDH3 in these ethnic groups are significantly different from those reported in Caucasians. There were slight differences in the gene frequencies between the three ethnic groups, with those of Indians being nearer to the frequency in Caucasians. In general, the distribution of GDH phenotypes was at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium in all three ethnic groups studied.

  19. External and Turbomachinery Flow Control Working Group

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ahmadi, G.; Alstrom, B.; Colonius, T.; Dannenhoffer, J.; Glauser, M.; Helenbrook, B.; Higuchi, H.; Hodson, H.; Jha, R.; Kabiri, P.; LaGraff, J.; Low,K.; McKeon, B.; Morrison, J.; Obcid, S.; Orbaker, A.; Samimy, M.; Schmit, R.; Seifert, A.; Seume, J.; Shahabi, A.; Shea, P.; Ukeiley, L.; Wallace, R.

    2010-01-01

    Broad Flow Control Issues: a) Understanding flow physics. b) Specific control objective(s). c) Actuation. d) Sensors. e) Integrated active flow control system. f) Development of design tools (CFD, reduced order models, controller design, understanding and utilizing instabilities and other mechanisms, e.g., streamwise vorticity).

  20. Addition of lysophospholipids with large head groups to cells inhibits Shiga toxin binding

    PubMed Central

    Ailte, Ieva; Lingelem, Anne Berit Dyve; Kavaliauskiene, Simona; Bergan, Jonas; Kvalvaag, Audun Sverre; Myrann, Anne-Grethe; Skotland, Tore; Sandvig, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    Shiga toxin (Stx), an AB5 toxin, binds specifically to the neutral glycosphingolipid Gb3 at the cell surface before being transported into cells. We here demonstrate that addition of conical lysophospholipids (LPLs) with large head groups inhibit Stx binding to cells whereas LPLs with small head groups do not. Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI 18:0), the most efficient LPL with the largest head group, was selected for in-depth investigations to study how the binding of Stx is regulated. We show that the inhibition of Stx binding by LPI is reversible and possibly regulated by cholesterol since addition of methyl-β-cyclodextrin (mβCD) reversed the ability of LPI to inhibit binding. LPI-induced inhibition of Stx binding is independent of signalling and membrane turnover as it occurs in fixed cells as well as after depletion of cellular ATP. Furthermore, data obtained with fluorescent membrane dyes suggest that LPI treatment has a direct effect on plasma membrane lipid packing with shift towards a liquid disordered phase in the outer leaflet, while lysophosphoethanolamine (LPE), which has a small head group, does not. In conclusion, our data show that cellular treatment with conical LPLs with large head groups changes intrinsic properties of the plasma membrane and modulates Stx binding to Gb3. PMID:27458147

  1. A microfluidic abacus channel for controlling the addition of droplets.

    PubMed

    Um, Eujin; Park, Je-Kyun

    2009-01-21

    This paper reports the first use of the abacus-groove structure to handle droplets in a wide microchannel, with no external forces integrated to the system other than the pumps. Microfluidic abacus channels are demonstrated for the sequential addition of droplets at the desired location. A control channel which is analogous to biasing in electronics can also be used to precisely determine the number of added droplets, when all other experimental conditions are fixed including the size of the droplets and the frequency of droplet-generation. The device allows programmable and autonomous operations of complex two-phase microfluidics as well as new applications for the method of analysis and computations in lab-on-a-chip devices.

  2. Characterization of a normal control group: are they healthy?

    PubMed

    Aine, C J; Sanfratello, L; Adair, J C; Knoefel, J E; Qualls, C; Lundy, S L; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, J M

    2014-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18-81years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust

  3. Characterization of a Normal Control Group: Are they Healthy?

    PubMed Central

    Aine, CJ; Sanfratello, L; Adair, JC; Knoefel, JE; Qualls, C; Lundy, SL; Caprihan, A; Stone, D; Stephen, JM

    2013-01-01

    We examined the health of a control group (18–81 years) in our aging study, which is similar to control groups used in other neuroimaging studies. The current study was motivated by our previous results showing that one third of the elder control group had moderate to severe white matter hyperintensities and/or cortical volume loss which correlated with poor performance on memory tasks. Therefore, we predicted that cardiovascular risk factors (e.g., hypertension, high cholesterol) within the control group would account for significant variance on working memory task performance. Fifty-five participants completed 4 verbal and spatial working memory tasks, neuropsychological exams, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI), and blood tests to assess vascular risk. In addition to using a repeated measures ANOVA design, a cluster analysis was applied to the vascular risk measures as a data reduction step to characterize relationships between conjoint risk factors. The cluster groupings were used to predict working memory performance. The results show that higher levels of systolic blood pressure were associated with: 1) poor spatial working memory accuracy; and 2) lower fractional anisotropy (FA) values in multiple brain regions. In contrast, higher levels of total cholesterol corresponded with increased accuracy in verbal working memory. An association between lower FA values and higher cholesterol levels were identified in different brain regions from those associated with systolic blood pressure. The conjoint risk analysis revealed that Risk Cluster Group 3 (the group with the greatest number of risk factors) displayed: 1) the poorest performance on the spatial working memory tasks; 2) the longest reaction times across both spatial and verbal memory tasks; and 3) the lowest FA values across widespread brain regions. Our results confirm that a considerable range of vascular risk factors are present in a typical control group, even in younger individuals, which have robust

  4. Annual report of the Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusin Working Group (FWG))

    SciTech Connect

    none,

    1987-04-01

    The Summit Members' Working Group on Controlled Thermonuclear Fusion (Fusion Working Group (FWG)) was established in 1983 in response to the Declaration of the Heads of State and Government at the Versailles Economic Summit meeting of 1982, and in response to the subsequent report of the Working Group in Technology, Growth and Employment (TGE) as endorsed at the Williamsburg Summit meeting, 1983. This document contains the complete written record of each of the three FWG meetings which include the minutes, lists of attendees, agendas, statements, and summary conclusions as well as the full reports of the Technical Working Party. In addition, there is a pertinent exchange of correspondence between FWG members on the role of the Technical Working Party and a requested background paper on the modalities associated with a possible future ETR project.

  5. Striving for group agency: threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of agentic groups

    PubMed Central

    Stollberg, Janine; Fritsche, Immo; Bäcker, Anna

    2015-01-01

    When their sense of personal control is threatened people try to restore perceived control through the social self. We propose that it is the perceived agency of ingroups that provides the self with a sense of control. In three experiments, we for the first time tested the hypothesis that threat to personal control increases the attractiveness of being part or joining those groups that are perceived as coherent entities engaging in coordinated group goal pursuit (agentic groups) but not of those groups whose agency is perceived to be low. Consistent with this hypothesis we found in Study 1 (N = 93) that threat to personal control increased ingroup identification only with task groups, but not with less agentic types of ingroups that were made salient simultaneously. Furthermore, personal control threat increased a sense of collective control and support within the task group, mediated through task-group identification (indirect effects). Turning to groups people are not (yet) part of, Study 2 (N = 47) showed that personal control threat increased relative attractiveness ratings of small groups as possible future ingroups only when the relative agency of small groups was perceived to be high. Perceived group homogeneity or social power did not moderate the effect. Study 3 (N = 78) replicated the moderating role of perceived group agency for attractiveness ratings of entitative groups, whereas perceived group status did not moderate the effect. These findings extend previous research on group-based control, showing that perceived agency accounts for group-based responses to threatened control. PMID:26074832

  6. Dynamics and controls working group summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Oglevie, R. E.

    1984-01-01

    The technology status of the dynamics and controls discipline as it applies to energy storage wheel systems was evaluated. No problems were identified for which an adequate solution could not be proposed. Design issues that influence control were addressed. The dynamics and control aspects associated with the energy storage system concept and its various constituent parts, and the control tasks attendant to large, manned spacecraft are discussed.

  7. Control of Microthrix parvicella by aluminium salts addition.

    PubMed

    Durban, N; Juzan, L; Krier, J; Gillot, S

    2016-01-01

    Aluminium and iron chloride were added to a biological nutrient removal pilot plant (1,500 population equivalent) treating urban wastewater to investigate the control of Microthrix parvicella bulking and foaming by metallic salts. Monitoring plant performance over two 6-month periods showed a slight impact on the removal efficiencies. Addition of metallic salts (Me; aluminium or aluminium + iron) at a concentration of 41 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) (MLSS: mixed liquor suspended solids) over 70 days allowed a stabilization of the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), whereas higher dosages (94 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 35 days or 137 mmol Me(kg MLSS·d) over 14 days induced a significant improvement of the settling conditions. Microscopic observations showed a compaction of biological aggregates with an embedding of filamentous bacteria into the flocs that is not specific to M. parvicella as bacteria from phylum Chloroflexi are embedded too. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting M. parvicella further indicated a possible growth limitation in addition to the flocculation impact at the high dosages of metallic salts investigated. DSVI appeared to be correlated with the relative abundance of M. parvicella.

  8. Method for controlling a laser additive process using intrinsic illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tait, Robert; Cai, Guoshuang; Azer, Magdi; Chen, Xiaobin; Liu, Yong; Harding, Kevin

    2015-05-01

    One form of additive manufacturing is to use a laser to generate a melt pool from powdered metal that is sprayed from a nozzle. The laser net-shape machining system builds the part a layer at a time by following a predetermined path. However, because the path may need to take many turns, maintaining a constant melt pool may not be easy. A straight section may require one speed and power while a sharp bend would over melt the metal at the same settings. This paper describes a process monitoring method that uses the intrinsic IR radiation from the melt pool along with a process model configured to establish target values for the parameters associated with the manufacture or repair. This model is based upon known properties of the metal being used as well as the properties of the laser beam. An adaptive control technique is then employed to control process parameters of the machining system based upon the real-time weld pool measurement. Since the system uses the heat radiant from the melt pool, other previously deposited metal does not confuse the system as only the melted material is seen by the camera.

  9. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups.

    PubMed

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H

    2016-09-15

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and-although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions-related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  10. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-01-01

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several known chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates1. However, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that are able to incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown2. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable, as the resulting products would be subjected to further modifications; such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce3 and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine–copper (with alkyl Grignard4,5, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminum compounds6,7), a diene–iridium (with arylboroxines)8,9, and a bisphosphine–cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes)10. 1,6-conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at C411. It is not clear why certain catalysts favor bond formation at C6, and – while there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions12,13,14,15 – related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. In this manuscript, we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenylboron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 percent yield, >98 percent diastereo- (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Mechanistic details, including the origins of high site- (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst structure and reaction type

  11. Cooperation, control, and concession in meerkat groups.

    PubMed

    Clutton-Brock, T H; Brotherton, P N; Russell, A F; O'Riain, M J; Gaynor, D; Kansky, R; Griffin, A; Manser, M; Sharpe, L; McIlrath, G M; Small, T; Moss, A; Monfort, S

    2001-01-19

    "Limited control" models of reproductive skew in cooperative societies suggest that the frequency of breeding by subordinates is determined by the outcome of power struggles with dominants. In contrast, "optimal skew" models suggest that dominants have full control of subordinate reproduction and allow subordinates to breed only when this serves to retain subordinates' assistance with rearing dominants' own litters. The results of our 7-year field study of cooperative meerkats, Suricata suricatta, support the predictions of limited control models and provide no indication that dominant females grant reproductive concessions to subordinates to retain their assistance with future breeding attempts.

  12. Catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and allyl groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fanke; Li, Xiben; Torker, Sebastian; Shi, Ying; Shen, Xiao; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-09-01

    Conjugate (or 1,4-) additions of carbanionic species to α,β-unsaturated carbonyl compounds are vital to research in organic and medicinal chemistry, and there are several chiral catalysts that facilitate the catalytic enantioselective additions of nucleophiles to enoates. Nonetheless, catalytic enantioselective 1,6-conjugate additions are uncommon, and ones that incorporate readily functionalizable moieties, such as propargyl or allyl groups, into acyclic α,β,γ,δ-doubly unsaturated acceptors are unknown. Chemical transformations that could generate a new bond at the C6 position of a dienoate are particularly desirable because the resulting products could then be subjected to further modifications. However, such reactions, especially when dienoates contain two equally substituted olefins, are scarce and are confined to reactions promoted by a phosphine-copper catalyst (with an alkyl Grignard reagent, dialkylzinc or trialkylaluminium compounds), a diene-iridium catalyst (with arylboroxines), or a bisphosphine-cobalt catalyst (with monosilyl-acetylenes). 1,6-Conjugate additions are otherwise limited to substrates where there is full substitution at the C4 position. It is unclear why certain catalysts favour bond formation at C6, and—although there are a small number of catalytic enantioselective conjugate allyl additions—related 1,6-additions and processes involving a propargyl unit are non-existent. Here we show that an easily accessible organocopper catalyst can promote 1,6-conjugate additions of propargyl and 2-boryl-substituted allyl groups to acyclic dienoates with high selectivity. A commercially available allenyl-boron compound or a monosubstituted allene may be used. Products can be obtained in up to 83 per cent yield, >98:2 diastereomeric ratio (for allyl additions) and 99:1 enantiomeric ratio. We elucidate the mechanistic details, including the origins of high site selectivity (1,6- versus 1,4-) and enantioselectivity as a function of the catalyst

  13. Side Group Addition to the PAH Coronene by UV Photolysis in Cosmic Ice Analogs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bernstein, Max P.; Elsila, Jamie E.; Dworkin, Jason P.; Sandford, Scott A.; Allamandola, Louis J.; Zare, Richard N.; DeVincenzi, D. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Ultraviolet photolysis of various ice mixtures at low temperature and pressure caused the addition of amino (-NH2), methyl (-CH3), methoxy (-OCH3), and cyano (-CN) functional groups to the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) coronene (C22H12). The implications of these results for interstellar and meteoritic chemistry are discussed. Previously only simple PAH photo-oxidation had been reported. This work represents the first experimental evidence that ice photochemistry may have contributed to aromatics bearing carbon and nitrogen containing side groups that are detected in primitive meteorites and interplanetary dust particles. Furthermore, these results suggest a wider range of modified PAHs should be expected in interstellar lees and materials predating solar system formation.

  14. Command Control Group Behaviors. Objective 1. A Methodology for and Identification of Command Control Group Behaviors.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    recordings were DD I JAN 73 1473 EDITION OF I NOV 65 IS OBSOLETE UNCLASSIFIED i SECUPITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE (K4hen Data Entered) ’Ii...numbers of per- sonnet and 2weapons we now have at our disposal. The command and control (C ) process is one such factor where deficiencies invite...OBSERVATIONAL TASKS Position Codes: 01 10 S1 02 20 S2 03 Brigade 3 30 S3 04 40 S4 05 50 XO 06 60 Entire Group 07 70 Commander (71-"A" Co, 72-"B" Co, 73 -"C" Co

  15. Controlling Functional Group Architecture in Artificial Cells

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-02

    cycloadditions to modify reactive groups within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst ...within the phospholipid membrane structure and how the nature of the reactive elements, the copper catalyst , the azide, and the alkyne, affect the...the copper catalyst , the azide, and the alkyne, affect the location and yield of the resulting product in the phospholipid membrane. 2. Reasons why

  16. ProPhenol-Catalyzed Asymmetric Additions by Spontaneously Assembled Dinuclear Main Group Metal Complexes

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Conspectus The development of catalytic enantioselective transformations has been the focus of many research groups over the past half century and is of paramount importance to the pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries. Since the award of the Nobel Prize in 2001, the field of enantioselective transition metal catalysis has soared to new heights, with the development of more efficient catalysts and new catalytic transformations at increasing frequency. Furthermore, catalytic reactions that allow higher levels of redox- and step-economy are being developed. Thus, alternatives to asymmetric alkene dihydroxylation and the enantioselective reduction of α,β-unsaturated ketones can invoke more strategic C–C bond forming reactions, such as asymmetric aldol reactions of an aldehyde with α-hydroxyketone donors or enantioselective alkynylation of an aldehyde, respectively. To facilitate catalytic enantioselective addition reactions, including the aforementioned aldol and alkynylation reactions, our lab has developed the ProPhenol ligand. In this Account, we describe the development and application of the ProPhenol ligand for asymmetric additions of both carbon- and heteroatom-based nucleophiles to various electrophiles. The ProPhenol ligand spontaneously forms chiral dinuclear metal complexes when treated with an alkyl metal reagent, such as Et2Zn or Bu2Mg. The resulting complex contains both a Lewis acidic site to activate an electrophile and a Brønsted basic site to deprotonate a pronucleophile. Initially, our research focused on the use of Zn-ProPhenol complexes to facilitate the direct aldol reaction. Fine tuning of the reaction through ligand modification and the use of additives enabled the direct aldol reaction to proceed in high yields and stereoselectivities with a broad range of donor substrates, including acetophenones, methyl ynones, methyl vinyl ketone, acetone, α-hydroxy carbonyl compounds, and glycine Schiff bases. Additionally, an analogous

  17. Lignin-based cement fluid loss control additive

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, P.

    1990-05-22

    This patent describes a hydraulic cement slurry composition. It comprises: a hydraulic cement, and the following expressed as parts by weight per 100 parts of the hydraulic cement, water from about 25 to 105 parts, and from abut 0.5 to 2.5 parts of a compound selected from the group consisting of a sulfonated lignin and a sulfomethylated lignin, wherein the lignin has been sequentially crosslinked by reacting the lignin with a member of the group consisting of formaldehyde and epichlorohydrin and alkoxylated with between about 2 to about 6 moles of a compound selected from the group consisting of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide and a combination thereof per 1000 g of the lignin.

  18. Control group response variability in short-term toxicity tests

    SciTech Connect

    Gast, L.C.; Shimp, C.; Wang, Q.; Shukla, R.; Fulk, F.

    1995-12-31

    The US EPA`s National Reference Toxicant Database (NRTDB) has afforded an excellent opportunity to examine and document variability in responses within control groups (i.e. zero concentration of the toxicant.) The NRTDB has compiled acute and chronic reference toxicant test results for eight species and currently contains results for 32 laboratories and generally eight to ten tests for a species within each laboratory. The Ceriodaphnia dubia Survival and Reproduction test and the Pimephales promelas (fathead minnow) Survival and Growth test are the most frequently represented chronic tests with 331 and 144 sets of test data, respectively. For this presentation, Ceriodaphnia dubia reproduction data, expressed as total numbers of young in the test period, and fathead minnow survival and growth data were analyzed using a variance components model. The information regarding the control population is useful in examining the sources of inter and intralaboratory variability of chronic testing. In addition, this control population response variability information will be valuable for characterizing what can be termed as ``practically equivalent responses`` between a control and an effluent. The preliminary analysis indicates considerable between-test variability; however, this variability is not consistent across laboratories. Results of further exploration on this issue will be presented.

  19. Quantum group signature scheme based on controlled quantum teleportation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, F. L.; Han, Z. F.

    2016-11-01

    Group signature scheme is a method of allowing a member of a group to sign a message anonymously on behalf of the group. The group administrator is in charge of adding group members and has the ability to reveal the original signer in the event of disputes. Based on controlled quantum teleportation with three-particle entangled W states, we propose a new quantum group signature scheme with designated receiver. Security analysis proves that the proposed scheme possesses the characteristics of group signature and resists the usual attacks. Compared with previous proposed schemes, this scheme follows security definition of group signature fully and meets its basic requirements.

  20. Microstructure-controllable Laser Additive Manufacturing Process for Metal Products

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Wei-Chin; Chuang, Chuan-Sheng; Lin, Ching-Chih; Wu, Chih-Hsien; Lin, De-Yau; Liu, Sung-Ho; Tseng, Wen-Peng; Horng, Ji-Bin

    Controlling the cooling rate of alloy during solidification is the most commonly used method for varying the material microstructure. However, the cooling rate of selective laser melting (SLM) production is constrained by the optimal parameter settings for a dense product. This study proposes a method for forming metal products via the SLM process with electromagnetic vibrations. The electromagnetic vibrations change the solidification process for a given set of SLM parameters, allowing the microstructure to be varied via magnetic flux density. This proposed method can be used for creating microstructure-controllable bio-implant products with complex shapes.

  1. Fouling control in seawater by on-line acid addition

    SciTech Connect

    Salvago, G.; Taccani, G.; Polimeni, R.; Fumagalli, G.; Picenoni, D.

    1996-11-01

    An experimental plant was set up containing once-through test lines supplied with seawater. The pH level of the seawater was maintained at 6.3 by the acids addition. Heat exchange monitoring equipment and channels exposing different metal specimens were installed on each of the lines. Observation by microscope and EDS analyses were carried out both on the specimen surfaces and on the cross section of the fouling after fracturing in liquid N{sub 2}. The results obtained show that: fouling must not be confused with its effects or simply with its biological components; acidifying seawater can prevent the resistance to heat exchange from increasing without impeding its biological activity. Observation by microscope of the fouling cross sections showed that in untreated seawater the foulings on stainless steel were composed of a continuous compact layer, covered by disorderly clusters. These compact layers were found to contain high quantities of corrosion products of the metals. Elements typical of corrosion products of ferrous materials (Fe, Mn) were also found on Pt, copper alloys and plastic materials. The addition of HCl or H{sub 2}SO{sub 4} to the seawater, to bring it to pH 6.3, reduces the amount of fouling adhering to the surfaces, prevents the development of the continuous layer containing iron and prevents significant increases in heat exchange resistance. The addition of CO{sub 2} can encourage the development of incoherent fibrous material with high Si content and low Fe content which is of little impediment to heat exchange. The addition of lactic acid can encourage both the abnormal development of biomass and the formation of several, separate, layers on stainless steel surfaces.

  2. Direct laser additive fabrication system with image feedback control

    DOEpatents

    Griffith, Michelle L.; Hofmeister, William H.; Knorovsky, Gerald A.; MacCallum, Danny O.; Schlienger, M. Eric; Smugeresky, John E.

    2002-01-01

    A closed-loop, feedback-controlled direct laser fabrication system is disclosed. The feedback refers to the actual growth conditions obtained by real-time analysis of thermal radiation images. The resulting system can fabricate components with severalfold improvement in dimensional tolerances and surface finish.

  3. Addition of Dexamethasone and Buprenorphine to Bupivacaine Sciatic Nerve Block: A Randomized, Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    YaDeau, Jacques T.; Paroli, Leonardo; Fields, Kara G.; Kahn, Richard L.; LaSala, Vincent R.; Jules-Elysee, Kethy M.; Kim, David H.; Haskins, Stephen C.; Hedden, Jacob; Goon, Amanda; Roberts, Matthew M.; Levine, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Objectives Sciatic nerve block provides analgesia after foot and ankle surgery, but block duration may be insufficient. We hypothesized that perineural dexamethasone and buprenorphine would reduce pain scores at 24 hours. Methods Ninety patients received ultrasound-guided sciatic (25 mL 0.25% bupivacaine) and adductor canal (10 mL 0.25% bupivacaine) blockade, with random assignment into 3 groups (30 patients per group): control blocks + intravenous dexamethasone (4 mg) (control); control blocks + intravenous buprenorphine (150 mcg) + intravenous dexamethasone (intravenous buprenorphine); nerve blocks containing buprenorphine + dexamethasone (perineural). Patients received mepivacaine neuraxial anesthesia and postoperative oxycodone / acetaminophen, meloxicam, pregabalin, and ondansetron. Patients and assessors were blinded to group assignment. The primary outcome was pain with movement at 24 hours. Results There was no difference in pain with movement at 24 hours (median score 0). However, the perineural group had longer block duration vs control (45.6 vs 30.0 hr). Perineural patients had lower scores for “worst pain” vs control (median 0 vs 2). Both intravenous buprenorphine and perineural groups were less likely to use opioids on the day after surgery, vs control (28.6%, 28.6%, 60.7%, respectively). Nausea after intravenous buprenorphine (but not perineural buprenorphine) was severe, frequent, and bothersome. Conclusions Pain scores were very low at 24 hours after surgery in the context of multimodal analgesia and were not improved by additives. However, perineural buprenorphine and dexamethasone prolonged block duration, reduced the worst pain experienced, and reduced opioid use. Intravenous buprenorphine caused troubling nausea and vomiting. Future research is needed to confirm and extend these observations. PMID:25974277

  4. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part’s porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented. PMID:26601041

  5. Porosity Measurements and Analysis for Metal Additive Manufacturing Process Control.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, John A; Garboczi, Edward J; Hebenstreit, Keith M

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical metal components such as those found in aerospace engines and as customized biomedical implants. Material porosity in these parts is undesirable for aerospace parts - since porosity could lead to premature failure - and desirable for some biomedical implants - since surface-breaking pores allows for better integration with biological tissue. Changes in a part's porosity during an additive manufacturing build may also be an indication of an undesired change in the build process. Here, we present efforts to develop an ultrasonic sensor for monitoring changes in the porosity in metal parts during fabrication on a metal powder bed fusion system. The development of well-characterized reference samples, measurements of the porosity of these samples with multiple techniques, and correlation of ultrasonic measurements with the degree of porosity are presented. A proposed sensor design, measurement strategy, and future experimental plans on a metal powder bed fusion system are also presented.

  6. Child Cancer Control. Report on a Working Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    World Health Organization, Copenhagen (Denmark). Regional Office for Europe.

    This World Health Organization (WHO) report on the proceedings of a Working Group on Child Cancer Control was prepared by the WHO Regional Office for Europe. The working group met in Prague in April 1977 and was comprised of representatives from 14 European countries. Its task was to review existing methods of child cancer control, the efficacy of…

  7. 78 FR 63459 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Department of the Air Force. ACTION..., that the GPS Directorate will host a GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group (SSCWG) meeting on...

  8. Deposit control additives and fuel compositions containing the same

    SciTech Connect

    Abramo, G.P.; Avery, N.L.; Trewella, J.C.

    1992-02-18

    This patent describes a fuel composition comprising a major amount of a fuel and an additive which imparts intake valve deposit inhibiting properties to the fuel. It comprises a polyisobutenyl succinimide which is the reaction product of a polyisobutenyl succinic anhydride and a polyalkylene polyamine; a polymer of isobutylene; an ester which is an adipate, phthalate, isophthalate, terephthalate and trimellitate of iso-octanol, iso-nonanol, iso-decanol, or iso-tridecanol or mixture thereof, polyol ester of neopentyl glycol, pentaerythritol or trimethylol-propane with corresponding monocarboxylic acid, oligomer and polymer ester of dicarboxylic acid, polyol and monoalcohol; and a polyether which is a polymer or copolymer of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, butylene oxide, pentene oxide, hexene oxide, octene oxide, decene oxide or isomer thereof.

  9. Part height control of laser metal additive manufacturing process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pan, Yu-Herng

    Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) has been used to not only make but also repair damaged parts in a layer-by-layer fashion. Parts made in this manner may produce less waste than those made through conventional machining processes. However, a common issue of LMD involves controlling the deposition's layer thickness. Accuracy is important, and as it increases, both the time required to produce the part and the material wasted during the material removal process (e.g., milling, lathe) decrease. The deposition rate is affected by multiple parameters, such as the powder feed rate, laser input power, axis feed rate, material type, and part design, the values of each of which may change during the LMD process. Using a mathematical model to build a generic equation that predicts the deposition's layer thickness is difficult due to these complex parameters. In this thesis, we propose a simple method that utilizes a single device. This device uses a pyrometer to monitor the current build height, thereby allowing the layer thickness to be controlled during the LMD process. This method also helps the LMD system to build parts even with complex parameters and to increase material efficiency.

  10. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-01-01

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25[degrees]C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  11. Motion Control for Nonholonomic Systems on Matrix Lie Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1998-01-01

    representations of systems on a certain nilpotent matrix group. After studying the technique of nilpotentization in the setting of systems on matrix ...the technique of nilpotentization in the setting of systems on matrix Lie groups we show how motion control laws derived for nilpotent systems can be...of systems on a certain nilpotent matrix group. After studying the technique of nilpotentization in the setting of systems on matrix Lie groups we show

  12. Review and evaluation of literature on testing of chemical additives for scale control in geothermal fluids. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Crane, C.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C.

    1981-01-01

    A selected group of reported tests of chemical additives in actual geothermal fluids are reviewed and evaluated to summarize the status of chemical scale-control testing and identify information and testing needs. The task distinguishes between scale control in the cooling system of a flash plant and elsewhere in the utilization system due to the essentially different operating environments involved. Additives for non-cooling geothermal fluids are discussed by scale type: silica, carbonate, and sulfide.

  13. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...-sponsored testing and analysis conducted on a product which is representative of all products in that group... nitroso-compounds; mixed nitro-compounds; mixed alkyl nitrates; mixed alkyl nitrites; peroxides;...

  14. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...-sponsored testing and analysis conducted on a product which is representative of all products in that group... nitroso-compounds; mixed nitro-compounds; mixed alkyl nitrates; mixed alkyl nitrites; peroxides;...

  15. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ...-sponsored testing and analysis conducted on a product which is representative of all products in that group... nitroso-compounds; mixed nitro-compounds; mixed alkyl nitrates; mixed alkyl nitrites; peroxides;...

  16. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ...-sponsored testing and analysis conducted on a product which is representative of all products in that group... nitroso-compounds; mixed nitro-compounds; mixed alkyl nitrates; mixed alkyl nitrites; peroxides;...

  17. 40 CFR 79.56 - Fuel and fuel additive grouping system.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...-sponsored testing and analysis conducted on a product which is representative of all products in that group... nitroso-compounds; mixed nitro-compounds; mixed alkyl nitrates; mixed alkyl nitrites; peroxides;...

  18. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For... control with such person. (2) Persons are under common control if they are members of a “controlled...

  19. Fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with in-wheel motors using actuator-grouping sliding mode controllers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Boyuan; Du, Haiping; Li, Weihua

    2016-05-01

    Although electric vehicles with in-wheel motors have been regarded as one of the promising vehicle architectures in recent years, the probability of in-wheel motor fault is still a crucial issue due to the system complexity and large number of control actuators. In this study, a modified sliding mode control (SMC) is applied to achieve fault-tolerant control of electric vehicles with four-wheel-independent-steering (4WIS) and four-wheel-independent-driving (4WID). Unlike in traditional SMC, in this approach the steering geometry is re-arranged according to the location of faulty wheels in the modified SMC. Three SMC control laws for longitudinal velocity control, lateral velocity control and yaw rate control are designed based on specific vehicle motion scenarios. In addition the actuator-grouping SMC method is proposed so that driving actuators are grouped and each group of actuators can be used to achieve the specific control target, which avoids the strong coupling effect between each control target. Simulation results prove that the proposed modified SMC can achieve good vehicle dynamics control performance in normal driving and large steering angle turning scenarios. In addition, the proposed actuator-grouping SMC can solve the coupling effect of different control targets and the control performance is improved.

  20. Additional Validity Evidence and Across-Group Equivalency of the "HOPE Teacher Rating Scale"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peters, Scott J.; Gentry, Marcia

    2013-01-01

    The "HOPE Scale" was developed to identify academic and social components of giftedness and talent in elementary-aged students with particular attention to students from low-income and/or culturally diverse families. Based on previous findings, additional research was conducted on revisions made to the "HOPE Scale". Items were…

  1. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren.

    PubMed

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Sæteren, Berit

    2016-04-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and focus group interviews, was used. The sample consisted of 19 schoolchildren, aged 12-13 years, 3 of whom were victimized. Six individual interviews and three focus group interviews were conducted. Findings show that support groups contribute to the cessation of bullying and improvements remain 3 months later. The support groups experience feeling important and helping others. It is important for the school nurse and teachers to follow up with victimized children, in collaboration with their parents, to help the victim to no longer be a victim and to take control.

  2. Selective behavioral alterations on addition of a 4'-phenyl group to cocaine.

    PubMed

    Seale, T W; Niekrasz, I; Chang, F; Singh, S; Basmadjian, G P

    1996-01-31

    We synthesized a cocaine analog in which a phenyl group was added at the para-position of the benzene ring of cocaine. This substitution caused a modest reduction (four-fold compared with cocaine) in binding potency for the primate (Papio) dopamine transporter as judged by displacement of [3H]WIN 35,428 binding from caudate/putamen membranes. Behavioral effects of this structural modification in the mouse were complex and selective, comprising absence of stimulation of locomotor activity, enhanced inhibition of locomotion and reduced lethal potency. Convulsant potency was unaltered. Substituents at the 4'-position of cocaine are important in its actions. Simple changes in the chemical structure of this drug may produce complex and selective changes in its neurochemical and behavioral actions.

  3. Geometric Attitude Controls And Estimations On The Special Orthogonal Group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Tse-Huai

    This dissertation is concerned with spacecraft attitude control and estimation problems from the point of view of geometric mechanics. The controllers and observers are built on the special orthogonal group without any parameterizations, where the attitude dynamics is treated in a global and unique manner. The dissertation is composed of three parts. A leader-follower attitude formation control scheme is reported such that the leader spacecraft control its absolute attitude with respect to the inertial reference frame and the follower spacecraft control relative attitude with respect to other spacecraft in the formation. The unique feature is that both the absolute attitude and the relative attitude control systems are developed directly in terms of the line-of-sight observations, where attitude determination and estimation processes are not required. Second, an angular velocity observer is developed such that the estimated angular velocity is guaranteed to converge to the true angular velocity asymptotically from almost all initial estimates. Then, the presented observer is integrated with a proportional-derivative attitude tracking controller to show a separation type property for attitude tracking in the absence of angular velocity measurements. A hybrid observer for the attitude dynamics of a rigid body is proposed to guarantee global asymptotic stability. By designing a set of attitude error functions, attitude estimates are expelled from undesired equilibria to achieve global asymptotic stability. To guarantee that the estimated attitudes evolve on the special orthogonal group, a numerical algorithm based on the Lie group method is presented.

  4. Activity related to the carcinogenicity of plastic additives in the benzophenone group.

    PubMed

    Nakajima, Daisuke; Asada, Shin; Kageyama, Shiho; Yamamoto, Takashi; Kuramochi, Hidetoshi; Tanaka, Noriho; Takeda, Ken; Goto, Sumio

    2006-06-01

    This study examines the activities relating to the carcinogenicity of six types of benzophenone derivatives (benzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone, 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone, 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4,4'-dimethoxybenzophenone) currently used in plastic products as additives to serve as ultraviolet absorbing agents. The evaluation of the initiation activity used a light absorption umu-test, a luminescent umu-test and the Ames test. The promotion activity was examined by a Bhas assay, a method that uses Bhas 42 cells for the formation of transformation foci. The luminescent umu-test indicated positive initiation activity of 2-hydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone, and pseudo-positive activity of 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone and 2,2'-dihydroxy-4-methoxybenzophenone. In the Ames test, 2-hydroxy-4-octyloxybenzophenone showed pseudo-positive initiation activity. Conversely, 2,4-dihydroxybenzophenone indicated weak promotion activity at 10 microg/ml concentration.

  5. Separating the effects of shelter from additional cage enhancements for group-housed BALB/cJ mice.

    PubMed

    Swetter, Brentt J; Karpiak, Christie P; Cannon, J Timothy

    2011-05-20

    Enrichment studies with rodents have demonstrated that cage enhancements can improve animal welfare and performance on common behavioral measures, but few studies have compared more than one type of enrichment or controlled for confounds, and some have revealed undesirable effects including increased aggression. We compared effects on male (n=51) and female (n=52) BALB/cJ mice of three common additions to a standard home cage: shelter, shelter+running wheel, and shelter+novel objects. Mice in all conditions lived in standard sized cages with 3-4 mice per cage. Males evidenced significant condition effects. Shelter increased longevity and maintained low levels of aggression. Adding a running wheel increased aggression over shelter alone, changed behavior in the elevated plus (EP) and open field (OF), and maintained the improved longevity seen in all shelter conditions. Novel objects impacted behavioral measures compared to the standard condition. An Igloo shelter without running wheel creates a very different home cage environment than the same shelter with the running wheel attached. Shelter, with positive impact on animal welfare, minimal effects on some common behavioral measures, and some positive effects on test variance, warrants consideration for routine inclusion with group-housed BALB/cJ males.

  6. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats.

  7. Additional duplicated Hox genes in the earthworm: Perionyx excavatus Hox genes consist of eleven paralog groups.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sung-Jin; Vallès, Yvonne; Kim, Kyong Min; Ji, Seong Chul; Han, Seock Jung; Park, Soon Cheol

    2012-02-10

    Annelida is a lophotrochozoan phylum whose members have a high degree of diversity in body plan morphology, reproductive strategies and ecological niches among others. Of the two traditional classes pertaining to the phylum Annelida (Polychaete and Clitellata), the structure and function of the Hox genes has not been clearly defined within the Oligochaeta class. Using a PCR-based survey, we were able to identify five new Hox genes from the earthworm Perionyx excavatus: a Hox3 gene (Pex-Hox3b), two Dfd genes (Pex-Lox6 and Pex-Lox18), and two posterior genes (Pex-post1 and -post2a). Our result suggests that the eleven earthworm Hox genes contain at least four paralog groups (PG) that have duplicated. We found the clitellates-diagnostic signature residues and annelid signature motif. Also, we show by semi-quantitative RT-PCR that duplicated Hox gene orthologs are differentially expressed in six different anterior-posterior body regions. These results provide essential data for comparative evolution of the Hox cluster within the Annelida.

  8. Additive opportunistic capture explains group hunting benefits in African wild dogs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are described as highly collaborative endurance pursuit hunters based on observations derived primarily from the grass plains of East Africa. However, the remaining population of this endangered species mainly occupies mixed woodland savannah where hunting strategies appear to differ from those previously described. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record fine-scale movement of all members of a single pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. The dogs used multiple short-distance hunting attempts with a low individual kill rate (15.5%), but high group feeding rate due to the sharing of prey. Use of high-level cooperative chase strategies (coordination and collaboration) was not recorded. In the mixed woodland habitats typical of their current range, simultaneous, opportunistic, short-distance chasing by dogs pursuing multiple prey (rather than long collaborative pursuits of single prey by multiple individuals) could be the key to their relative success in these habitats. PMID:27023355

  9. A group additivity algorithm for polychlorinated dibenzofurans derived from selected DFT analyses.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Dennis; Ewan, Bruce C R

    2007-06-14

    The difficulty in measuring the heats of combustion of polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs) has resulted in a shortage of data on their heats of formation, required for the purpose of developing an understanding of the role of thermodynamics and kinetics in their production via industrial processes. B3LYP density functional theory calculations have been carried out on a number of PCDFs using 6-31G(d) and 6-311+G(3df,p) basis sets to estimate their heats of formation based on the known experimental values for dibenzofuran, benzene and chlorobenzene. By examining the interactions among chlorine substituents, it is shown that energy contributions arising from successive chlorination can be interpreted in a predictable way, based on a small number of key energy parameters associated with ring position and chlorine atom repulsions. These parameters have been presented as the basis for a simplified prediction algorithm, which can be used to reproduce the predicted DFT heat of formation to within a few kJ/mol, avoiding the need to carry out extensive DFT calculations on the possible 135 isomers of the dibenzofuran group.

  10. Anaerobic Activation of p-Cymene in Denitrifying Betaproteobacteria: Methyl Group Hydroxylation versus Addition to Fumarate

    PubMed Central

    Strijkstra, Annemieke; Trautwein, Kathleen; Jarling, René; Wöhlbrand, Lars; Dörries, Marvin; Reinhardt, Richard; Drozdowska, Marta; Golding, Bernard T.; Wilkes, Heinz

    2014-01-01

    The betaproteobacteria “Aromatoleum aromaticum” pCyN1 and “Thauera” sp. strain pCyN2 anaerobically degrade the plant-derived aromatic hydrocarbon p-cymene (4-isopropyltoluene) under nitrate-reducing conditions. Metabolite analysis of p-cymene-adapted “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 cells demonstrated the specific formation of 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde, whereas with “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, exclusively 4-isopropylbenzylsuccinate and tentatively identified (4-isopropylphenyl)itaconate were observed. 4-Isopropylbenzoate in contrast was detected with both strains. Proteogenomic investigation of p-cymene- versus succinate-adapted cells of the two strains revealed distinct protein profiles agreeing with the different metabolites formed from p-cymene. “A. aromaticum” pCyN1 specifically produced (i) a putative p-cymene dehydrogenase (CmdABC) expected to hydroxylate the benzylic methyl group of p-cymene, (ii) two dehydrogenases putatively oxidizing 4-isopropylbenzyl alcohol (Iod) and 4-isopropylbenzaldehyde (Iad), and (iii) the putative 4-isopropylbenzoate-coenzyme A (CoA) ligase (Ibl). The p-cymene-specific protein profile of “Thauera” sp. pCyN2, on the other hand, encompassed proteins homologous to subunits of toluene-activating benzylsuccinate synthase (termed [4-isopropylbenzyl]succinate synthase IbsABCDEF; identified subunits, IbsAE) and protein homologs of the benzylsuccinate β-oxidation (Bbs) pathway (termed BisABCDEFGH; all identified except for BisEF). This study reveals that two related denitrifying bacteria employ fundamentally different peripheral degradation routes for one and the same substrate, p-cymene, with the two pathways apparently converging at the level of 4-isopropylbenzoyl-CoA. PMID:25261521

  11. 78 FR 67132 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-08

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Air Force, DoD. ACTION: Meeting notice... December 2013 from 0900-1300 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is...

  12. 77 FR 70421 - GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-26

    ... Department of the Air Force GPS Satellite Simulator Control Working Group Meeting AGENCY: Space and Missile Systems Center, Global Positioning Systems (GPS) Directorate, Department of the Air Force, DoD. ACTION... 14 December 2012 from 0900-1600 PST at Los Angeles Air Force Base. The purpose of this meeting is...

  13. FYI: Services to Poor Families; Controlling Infectious Diseases; Parent Groups.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Children Today, 1987

    1987-01-01

    Discusses services and resources available for families, parents, and child care providers. Describes a National Resource Center for Children in Poverty; a guide for controlling infectious diseases among young children in day care; a directory of parent support groups; and reports of a link between household pesticides and childhood leukemia. (BB)

  14. 76 FR 31543 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-01

    ... Internal Revenue Service 26 CFR Part 1 RIN 1545-BI92 Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses; Hearing AGENCY: Internal Revenue Service (IRS), Treasury. ACTION: Notice of public hearing on proposed rulemaking. SUMMARY: This document provides notice of public hearing on a notice of proposed rulemaking providing...

  15. Marathon Group: Changes in Perceived Locus of Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foulds, Melvin L.; And Others

    1974-01-01

    Fifteen college students participated in a 24-hour marathon group and responded to the Internal-External Scale immediately before and after the experience. The results disclosed significant positive change at the .001 level in perceived locus of internal-external control of reinforcement expectancies in the direction of increased internality.…

  16. Additive effects of neurofeedback on the treatment of ADHD: A randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Eun-Jeong; Jung, Chul-Ho

    2017-02-01

    Neurofeedback (NF) has been identified as a "possibly efficacious" treatment in current evidence-based reviews; therefore, more research is needed to determine its effects. The current study examined the potential additive effect of NF for children diagnosed with ADHD beginning a medication trial first. Thirty-six children (6-12 years) with a DSM-IV-TR diagnosis of ADHD were randomly assigned to an NF with medication (NF condition) or a medication only condition. Children in the NF group attended 20 twice-weekly sessions. Outcome measures included individual cognitive performance scores (ADS, K-WISC-III), ADHD rating scores completed by their parents (ARS, CRS) and brainwave indices of left and right hemispheres before and after NF treatment. Significant additive treatment effect in any of the symptom variables was found and a reduction of theta waves in both the right and left hemispheres was recorded in NF condition participants. However our randomized controlled study could not demonstrate superior effects of combined NF on intelligent functioning compared to the medication treatment only. This study suggested any possible evidence of positive and additive treatment effects of NF on brainwaves and ADHD symptomatology.

  17. Evaluation of support group interventions for children in troubled families: study protocol for a quasi-experimental control group study

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Support groups for children in troubled families are available in a majority of Swedish municipalities. They are used as a preventive effort for children in families with different parental problems such as addiction to alcohol/other drugs, mental illness, domestic violence, divorce situations, or even imprisonment. Children from families with these problems are a well-known at-risk group for various mental health and social problems. Support groups aim at strengthening children’s coping behaviour, to improve their mental health and to prevent a negative psycho-social development. To date, evaluations using a control-group study design are scarce. The aim of the current study is to evaluate the effects of support groups. This paper describes the design of an effectiveness study, initially intended as a randomized controlled trial, but instead is pursued as a quasi-experimental study using a non-randomized control group. Methods/design The aim is to include 116 children, aged 7–13 years and one parent/another closely related adult, in the study. Participants are recruited via existing support groups in the Stockholm county district and are allocated either into an intervention group or a waiting list control group, representing care as usual. The assessment consists of questionnaires that are to be filled in at baseline and at four months following the baseline. Additionally, the intervention group completes a 12-month follow-up. The outcomes include the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ S11-16), the Kids Coping Scale, the “Ladder of life” which measures overall life satisfaction, and “Jag tycker jag är” (I think I am) which measures self-perception and self-esteem. The parents complete the SDQ P4-16 (parent-report version) and the Swedish scale “Familjeklimat” (Family Climate), which measures the emotional climate in the family. Discussion There is a need for evaluating the effects of support groups targeted to children from

  18. 29 CFR 4001.3 - Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Trades or businesses under common control; controlled... CORPORATION GENERAL TERMINOLOGY § 4001.3 Trades or businesses under common control; controlled groups. For purposes of title IV of ERISA: (a)(1) The PBGC will determine that trades and businesses (whether or...

  19. Nonproliferation and arms control technology working group. RD database focus group. 1996 annual report. Annual report

    SciTech Connect

    1996-12-31

    In response to guidance from the Nonproliferation and Arms Control Technology Working Group (NPAC TWG), the Proliferation Modeling Focus Group (PMFG) formulated objectives and terms of reference from which to conduct its activities. A major recommendation of this group in its report last year was that NPAC TWG needed to establish a separate focus group to develop and implement communications and data sharing within the larger NPAC TWG and among its various focus groups. The need was recognized for communicating and data sharing at both classified and unclassified levels. In response to this recommendation, the NPAC TWG established the Research and Development Database Focus Group. To facilitate our communication needs, it was decided to use a three-tier approach on three parallel communications networks: the Internet`s World Wide Web, Secret Internet Protocol Router Network`s (SIPRNET) INTELINK-S, and Joint Worldwide Intelligence Communications System`s (JWICS) INTELINK. Since all three networks at all classification levels use WEB browsers (Mosaic, Netscape, Microsoft`s Navigator, and others) and Internet tools to search and display data, and all networks are or could be made available to all members, it was propitious to use them as the infrastructure for NPAC TWG`s information sharing requirements.

  20. Cost and performance of Group 2 boiler NOx controls

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, S.; Maibodi, M.; Srivastava, R.

    1997-12-31

    This paper presents the results of a study conducted to assist EPA in developing the Phase II NO{sub x} rule under Title IV of the Clean Air Act Amendment of 1990 (the Act). The specific purpose of this study was to assess the performance and capital and total levelized costs of NO{sub x} controls pertinent to Group 2 boilers. Group 2 boilers are all coal-fired boilers that are not dry-bottom wall-fired and tangentially fired and include cell burner-fired, cyclone-fired, wet-bottom, vertically fired, stoker-fired, and fluidized-bed boilers.

  1. Explanations for improvement in both experimental and control groups.

    PubMed

    Becker, Heather; Roberts, Greg; Voelmeck, Wayne

    2003-10-01

    A true experimental design with random assignment to groups protects against false causal inferences that could be made when both the treatment and control groups change because of factors such as testing effects, reactivity, contamination, maturation, history, and other measurement effects. The occurrence of these phenomena, however, provides interesting information about factors affecting health care attitudes, knowledge, and behavior change, which can interfere with a nursing study's ability to demonstrate an experimental effect. In this article, we discuss these design threats, illustrate them with examples from recent health research, and suggest strategies for decreasing them in clinical nursing studies.

  2. A cohort-controlled trial of the addition of customized foot orthotics to standard care in fibromyalgia.

    PubMed

    Ferrari, Robert

    2012-07-01

    Customized foot orthotics are widely prescribed for patients with chronic, non-specific low back pain and lower limb pain, but there are few trials demonstrating effectiveness, and none for fibromyalgia. A total of 67 consecutive patients presenting with chronic, widespread pain, who met the 1990 American College of Rheumatology criteria for fibromyalgia, were included in the study. A total of 32 subjects were prescribed a spinal exercise therapy program along with analgesics. These subjects formed the Control group. A second group, comprised of 35 subjects, received the same therapy, along with customized foot orthotics (Orthotics group). All subjects completed the Revised Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQR) at the initiation of the study and at 8 weeks follow-up. The number of subjects using any type of prescription analgesic or other medication for chronic pain at baseline and at 8 weeks was also recorded. A total of 30 subjects in the Control group and 33 in the Orthotics group completed the study. All subjects completed the baseline and 8-week FIQR. The two groups were well matched in terms of age (45.3 ± 11.5 years in the Orthotics group vs. 47.2 ± 8.7 years in the cohort Control), medication use, duration of pain (6.5 ± 4.3 years in the Orthotics group vs. 6.2 ± 3.4 years in the cohort Control group), as well as baseline FIQR scores (55.2 ± 11.0 in the Orthotics group vs. 56.3 ± 12.2 in the cohort Control group). At 8 weeks, the Orthotics group had a greater reduction in the FIQR score than the cohort Control group (reduction of 9.9 ± 5.9 vs. 4.3 ± 4.4, respectively), and this was mainly due to changes in the 'function' domain of the FIQR (reduction of 19.6 ± 9.4 in the Orthotics group vs. 8.1 ± 4.3 in the cohort Control group). As part of a complex intervention, in a cohort-controlled trial of primary care patients with fibromyalgia, the addition of custom-made foot orthotics to usual care appears to improve functioning in the short term.

  3. PTS performance by flight- and control-group macaques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Washburn, D. A.; Rumbaugh, D. M.; Richardson, W. K.; Gulledge, J. P.; Shlyk, G. G.; Vasilieva, O. N.

    2000-01-01

    A total of 25 young monkeys (Macaca mulatta) were trained with the Psychomotor Test System, a package of software tasks and computer hardware developed for spaceflight research with nonhuman primates. Two flight monkeys and two control monkeys were selected from this pool and performed a psychomotor task before and after the Bion 11 flight or a ground-control period. Monkeys from both groups showed significant disruption in performance after the 14-day flight or simulation (plus one anesthetized day of biopsies and other tests), and this disruption appeared to be magnified for the flight animal.

  4. Proper use of sludge-control additives in residential heating oil systems

    SciTech Connect

    Tatnall, R.E.

    1995-04-01

    Discussed are various aspects of heating oil `sludge`: How it forms, typical problems it causes, how sludge-control additives work, what should be expected of them, and what happens in a contaminated system when such additives are used. Test results from laboratory and field experiments demonstrate that performance of commercially available additives varies greatly. The concept of `end-of-the-line` treatment is described and compared with bulk fuel treatment. A procedure is described whereby a retailer can test additives himself, and thus determine just what those additives will or will not do for his business. Finally, the economics of an effective treatment program are outlined.

  5. Group additive values for the gas-phase standard enthalpy of formation, entropy and heat capacity of oxygenates.

    PubMed

    Paraskevas, Paschalis D; Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Papayannakos, Nikos; Marin, Guy B

    2013-11-25

    A complete and consistent set of 60 Benson group additive values (GAVs) for oxygenate molecules and 97 GAVs for oxygenate radicals is provided, which allow to describe their standard enthalpies of formation, entropies and heat capacities. Approximately half of the GAVs for oxygenate molecules and the majority of the GAVs for oxygenate radicals have not been reported before. The values are derived from an extensive and accurate database of thermochemical data obtained by ab initio calculations at the CBS-QB3 level of theory for 202 molecules and 248 radicals. These compounds include saturated and unsaturated, α- and β-branched, mono- and bifunctional oxygenates. Internal rotations were accounted for by using one-dimensional hindered rotor corrections. The accuracy of the database was further improved by adding bond additive corrections to the CBS-QB3 standard enthalpies of formation. Furthermore, 14 corrections for non-nearest-neighbor interactions (NNI) were introduced for molecules and 12 for radicals. The validity of the constructed group additive model was established by comparing the predicted values with both ab initio calculated values and experimental data for oxygenates and oxygenate radicals. The group additive method predicts standard enthalpies of formation, entropies, and heat capacities with chemical accuracy, respectively, within 4 kJ mol(-1) and 4 J mol(-1) K(-1) for both ab initio calculated and experimental values. As an alternative, the hydrogen bond increment (HBI) method developed by Lay et al. (T. H. Lay, J. W. Bozzelli, A. M. Dean, E. R. Ritter, J. Phys. Chem.- 1995, 99, 14514) was used to introduce 77 new HBI structures and to calculate their thermodynamic parameters (Δ(f)H°, S°, C(p)°). The GAVs reported in this work can be reliably used for the prediction of thermochemical data for large oxygenate compounds, combining rapid prediction with wide-ranging application.

  6. Additional benefit of yoga to standard lifestyle modification on blood pressure in prehypertensive subjects: a randomized controlled study.

    PubMed

    Thiyagarajan, Ramkumar; Pal, Pravati; Pal, Gopal Krushna; Subramanian, Senthil Kumar; Trakroo, Madanmohan; Bobby, Zachariah; Das, Ashok Kumar

    2015-01-01

    High blood pressure (BP) is a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease morbidity. Considering the growing evidence of nonpharmacological interventions in the management of high BP, we designed a randomized, parallel active-controlled study on the effect of yoga and standard lifestyle modification (LSM) on BP and heart rate in individuals with prehypertension (systolic BP 120-139 mm Hg and/or diastolic BP 80-89 mm Hg). Volunteers (20-60 years) of both genders without any known cardiovascular disease were randomized into either LSM group (n = 92) or LSM+yoga group (n = 92). Before the intervention, age, waist circumference, physical activity, BP and fasting plasma glucose and lipids were comparable between the groups. After 12 weeks of intervention, we observed a significant reduction in the BP and heart rate in both the groups. Further, the reduction in systolic BP was significantly more in LSM+yoga group (6 mm Hg) as compared with LSM group (4 mm Hg). In addition, 13 prehypertensives became normotensives in LSM+yoga group and four in LSM group. The results indicate efficacy of nonpharmacological intervention and the additional benefit of yoga to standard LSM. Further research in this field may add to the level of evidence on the benefit of yoga, in the reduction of BP in high BP subjects, in the scientific literature.

  7. The addition of upper cervical manipulative therapy in the treatment of patients with fibromyalgia: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Moustafa, Ibrahim M; Diab, Aliaa A

    2015-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the immediate and long-term effects of a one-year multimodal program, with the addition of upper cervical manipulative therapy, on fibromyalgia management outcomes in addition to three-dimensional (3D) postural measures. This randomized clinical trial with one-year follow-up was completed at the research laboratory of our university. A total of 120 (52 female) patients with fibromyalgia syndrome (FMS) and definite C1-2 joint dysfunction were randomly assigned to the control or an experimental group. Both groups received a multimodal program; additionally, the experimental group received upper cervical manipulative therapy. Primary outcomes were the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), whereas secondary outcomes included Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS), algometric score, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI), Beck Depression Inventory (BDI), and 3D postural measures. Measures were assessed at three time intervals: baseline, 12 weeks, and 1 year after the 12-week follow-up. The general linear model with repeated measures indicated a significant group × time effect in favor of the experimental group on the measures of 3D postural parameters (P < .0005), FIQ (P < .0005), PCS (P < .0005), algometric score (F = P < .0005), PSQI (P < .0005), BAI (P < .0005), and BDI (P < .0005). The addition of the upper cervical manipulative therapy to a multimodal program is beneficial in treating patients with FMS.

  8. Army Corps of Engineers: Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-01

    ARMY CORPS OF ENGINEERS Additional Steps Needed for Review and Revision of Water Control Manuals Report to...Revision of Water Control Manuals What GAO Found According to U.S. Army Corps of Engineers (Corps) officials, the agency conducts ongoing, informal...reviews of selected water control manuals and has revised some of them, but the extent of the reviews and revisions is unclear because they are not

  9. Selectivity in the Addition Reactions of Organometallic Reagents to Aziridine-2-carboxaldehydes: The Effects of Protecting Groups and Substitution Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Kulshrestha, Aman; Schomaker, Jennifer M.; Holmes, Daniel; Staples, Richard J.; Jackson, James E.; Borhan, Babak

    2014-01-01

    Good to excellent stereo-selectivity has been found in the addition reactions of Grignard and organo-zinc reagents to N-protected aziridine-2-carboxaldehydes. Specifically, high syn selectivity was obtained with benzyl-protected cis, tert-butyloxycar-bonyl-protected trans, and tosyl-pro-tected 2,3-disubstituted aziridine-2-car-boxaldehydes. Furthermore, rate and selectivity effects of ring substituents, temperature, solvent, and Lewis acid and base modifiers were studied. The diastereomeric preference of addition is dominated by the substrate aziri-dines’ substitution pattern and especially the electronic character and conformational preferences of the nitrogen protecting groups. To help rationalize the observed stereochemical outcomes, conformational and electronic structural analyses of a series of model systems representing the various substitution patterns have been explored by density functional calculations at the B3LYP/6–31G* level of theory with the SM8 solvation model to account for solvent effects. PMID:21928447

  10. The additional value of a night splint to eccentric exercises in chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy: a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    de Vos, R J; Weir, A; Visser, R J A; de Winter, ThC; Tol, J L

    2007-01-01

    Aim To assess whether the use of a night splint is of added benefit on functional outcome in treating chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. Methods This was a single‐blind, prospective, single centre, randomised controlled trial set in the Sports Medical Department, The Hague Medical Centre, The Netherlands. Inclusion criteria were: age 18–70 years, active participation in sports, and tendon pain localised at 2–7 cm from distal insertion. Exclusion criteria were: insertional disorders, partial or complete ruptures, or systemic illness. 70 tendons were included and randomised into one of two treatment groups: eccentric exercises with a night splint (night splint group, n = 36) or eccentric exercises only (eccentric group, n = 34). Interventions Both groups completed a 12‐week heavy‐load eccentric training programme. One group received a night splint in addition to eccentric exercises. At baseline and follow‐up at 12 weeks, patient satisfaction, Victorian Institute of Sport Assessment–Achilles questionnaire (VISA‐A) score and reported compliance were recorded by a single‐blind trained researcher who was blinded to the treatment. Results After 12 weeks, patient satisfaction in the eccentric group was 63% compared with 48% in the night splint group. The VISA‐A score significantly improved in both groups; in the eccentric group from 50.1 to 68.8 (p = 0.001) and in the night splint group from 49.4 to 67.0 (p<0.001). There was no significant difference between the two groups in VISA‐A score (p = 0.815) and patient satisfaction (p = 0.261). Conclusion A night splint is not beneficial in addition to eccentric exercises in the treatment of chronic midportion Achilles tendinopathy. PMID:17178774

  11. Control system developments for the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, Martin; Wilkes, John D.; Amos, Clive S.

    1995-06-01

    A number of improvements have been made to the servo control systems of the 4.2 m William Herschel Telescope (WHT) at the Isaac Newton Group of telescopes on La Palma in the Canary Islands. The successful upgrading of both the Cassegrain and prime focus rotators to meet more stringent science and engineering requirements is described. Simulation (using Matlab(superscript R) and Simulink(superscript R)) of a model reference adaptive controller to improve azimuth tracking in the presence of torque disturbances is presented together with some preliminary results and a discussion of the way forward. Further enhancements to the WHT's subsystems are also discussed. The smaller 2.5 m Isaac Newton Telescope (INT) and the 1 m Jacobus Kapteyn Telescope (JKT) are also being considered for major improvements to their drives and encoders. Studies are being carried out to determine the requirements and appropriate goals of such improvements and whether modern control approaches can offer cost-effective solutions with minimal re-engineering work. The current performance, generally pointing and tracking, of these telescopes is presented and the subsystems which limit performance are examined; these may be drives, encoders, mirror supports, and structural components. A range of solutions is considered and the technical proposals developed so far are discussed.

  12. A quantum chemical study of the mechanisms of olefin addition to group 9 transition metal dioxo compounds.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Issahaku; Tia, Richard; Adei, Evans

    2016-01-01

    triplet PES than on the singlet PES for the formation of similar analogues. There are fewer competitive reaction pathways on the triplet surface than on the singlet PES. Also, cycloadditions that seem impossible on the singlet PES seem possible on the doublet and or triplet PESs, this is the case typically for the Rh and Co complexes, illustrating the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions.Graphical AbstractTable of Contents Synopsis: A study of the mechanism of ethylene addition to MO2(CH2)(CH3)(M=Co,Rh,Ir) shows the reactions of the Co complex have lower activation barriers for the preferred [3+2] and [2+2] addition pathways and fewer side reactions than those of Rh and Ir. Reactions are more feasible and selective on the triplet PES than on the singlet PES. These illustrate the importance of multiple spin states in organometallic reactions and shows catalyst activity and selectivity decreases down the group.

  13. Mental health problems in adolescents with cochlear implants: peer problems persist after controlling for additional handicaps

    PubMed Central

    Huber, Maria; Burger, Thorsten; Illg, Angelika; Kunze, Silke; Giourgas, Alexandros; Braun, Ludwig; Kröger, Stefanie; Nickisch, Andreas; Rasp, Gerhard; Becker, Andreas; Keilmann, Annerose

    2015-01-01

    The aims of the present multi-center study were to investigate the extent of mental health problems in adolescents with a hearing loss and cochlear implants (CIs) in comparison to normal hearing (NH) peers and to investigate possible relations between the extent of mental health problems of young CI users and hearing variables, such as age at implantation, or functional gain of CI. The survey included 140 adolescents with CI (mean age = 14.7, SD = 1.5 years) and 140 NH adolescents (mean age = 14.8, SD = 1.4 years), their parents and teachers. Participants were matched by age, gender and social background. Within the CI group, 35 adolescents were identified as “risk cases” due to possible and manifest additional handicaps, and 11 adolescents were non-classifiable. Mental health problems were assessed with the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) in the versions “Self,” “Parent,” and “Teacher.” The CI group showed significantly more “Peer Problems” than the NH group. When the CI group was split into a “risk-group” (35 “risk cases” and 11 non-classifiable persons) and a “non-risk group” (n = 94), increased peer problems were perceived in both CI subgroups by adolescents themselves. However, no further differences between the CI non-risk group and the NH group were observed in any rater. The CI risk-group showed significantly more hyperactivity compared to the NH group and more hyperactivity and conduct problems compared to the CI non-risk group. Cluster analyses confirmed that there were significantly more adolescents with high problems in the CI risk-group compared to the CI non-risk group and the NH group. Adolescents with CI, who were able to understand speech in noise had significantly less difficulties compared to constricted CI users. Parents, teachers, and clinicians should be aware that CI users with additionally special needs may have mental health problems. However, peer problems were also experienced by CI

  14. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:25030908

  15. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  16. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: a preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-08-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6-8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions' similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout.

  17. Group cognitive behavioural therapy and group recreational activity for adults with autism spectrum disorders: A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This preliminary randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive behavioural therapy and recreational activity. Both interventions comprised 36 weekly 3-h sessions led by two therapists in groups of 6–8 patients. A total of 68 psychiatric patients with autism spectrum disorders participated in the study. Outcome measures were Quality of Life Inventory, Sense of Coherence Scale, Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale and an exploratory analysis on measures of psychiatric health. Participants in both treatment conditions reported an increased quality of life at post-treatment (d = 0.39, p < 0.001), with no difference between interventions. No amelioration of psychiatric symptoms was observed. The dropout rate was lower with cognitive behavioural therapy than with recreational activity, and participants in cognitive behavioural therapy rated themselves as more generally improved, as well as more improved regarding expression of needs and understanding of difficulties. Both interventions appear to be promising treatment options for adults with autism spectrum disorder. The interventions’ similar efficacy may be due to the common elements, structure and group setting. Cognitive behavioural therapy may be additionally beneficial in terms of increasing specific skills and minimizing dropout. PMID:24089423

  18. 26 CFR 1.414(b)-1 - Controlled group of corporations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Controlled group of corporations. 1.414(b)-1... Controlled group of corporations. (a) Defintion of controlled group of corporations. For purposes of this section, the term “controlled group of corporations” has the same meaning as is assigned to the term...

  19. Torsional Control of Stereoselectivities in Electrophilic Additions and Cycloadditions to Alkenes

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Hao; Houk, K. N.

    2013-01-01

    Torsional effects control the π-facial stereoselectivities of a variety of synthetically important organic reactions. This review surveys theoretical calculations that have led to the understanding of the influence of the torsional effects on several types of stereoselective organic reactions, especially electrophilic additions and cycloadditions to alkenes. PMID:24409340

  20. Chill water additive controls transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter by improved chlorine efficacy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In earlier work, we showed that a proprietary additive (T-128) maintains chlorine activity in the presence of organic material such as broiler parts. T-128 improves the efficacy of chlorine to control transfer of Campylobacter and Salmonella from inoculated wings to un-inoculated wings during immer...

  1. The Use of Nominal Group Technique to Determine Additional Support Needs for a Group of Victorian TAFE Managers and Senior Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bailey, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    The nominal group technique (NGT) is a structured process to gather information from a group. The technique was first described in 1975 and has since become a widely-used standard to facilitate working groups. The NGT is effective for generating large numbers of creative new ideas and for group priority setting. This paper describes the process of…

  2. Morphology-Controlled High-Efficiency Small Molecule Organic Solar Cells without Additive Solvent Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Il Ku; Jo, Jun Hyung; Yun, Jung-Ho

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on nano-morphology-controlled small-molecule organic solar cells without solvent treatment for high power-conversion efficiencies (PCEs). The maximum high PCE reaches up to 7.22% with a bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) thickness of 320 nm. This high efficiency was obtained by eliminating solvent additives such as 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO) to find an alternative way to control the domain sizes in the BHJ layer. Furthermore, the generalized transfer matrix method (GTMM) analysis has been applied to confirm the effects of applying a different thickness of BHJs for organic solar cells from 100 to 320 nm, respectively. Finally, the study showed an alternative way to achieve high PCE organic solar cells without additive solvent treatments to control the morphology of the bulk-heterojunction.

  3. CCA addition to tRNA: implications for tRNA quality control.

    PubMed

    Hou, Ya-Ming

    2010-04-01

    The CCA sequence is conserved at the 3' end of all mature tRNA molecules to function as the site of amino acid attachment. This sequence is acquired and maintained by stepwise nucleotide addition by the ubiquitous CCA enzyme, which is an unusual RNA polymerase that does not use a nucleic acid template for nucleotide addition. Crystal structural work has divided CCA enzymes into two structurally distinct classes, which differ in the mechanism of template-independent nucleotide selection. Recent kinetic work of the class II E. coli CCA enzyme has demonstrated a rapid and uniform rate constant for the chemistry of nucleotide addition at each step of CCA synthesis, although the enzyme uses different determinants to control the rate of each step. Importantly, the kinetic work reveals that, at each step of CCA synthesis, E. coli CCA enzyme has an innate ability to discriminate against tRNA backbone damage. This discrimination suggests the possibility of a previously unrecognized quality control mechanism that would prevent damaged tRNA from CCA maturation and from entering the ribosome machinery of protein synthesis. This quality control is relevant to cellular stress conditions that damage tRNA backbone and predicts a role of CCA addition in stress response.

  4. A Simple and Inexpensive Device for Slow, Controlled Addition of a Solution to a Reaction Mixture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Osvath, Peter

    1995-07-01

    A number of reactions require the slow and controlled addition of a solution containing one reagent to another. Attempting to control the flow rate over a number of hours using a conventional constant pressure addition funnel is a frustrating exercise; commercially available constant volume addition funnels are expensive and must be adjusted by trial and error each time a reaction is carried out. The use of an (expensive) peristaltic pump or syringe pump overcomes these problems but can introduce other complications. We have recently had occasion to carry out the synthesis of thioether macrocycles and cages requiring the slow and controlled addition of DMF solutions of (offensively odoriferous) thiols or (air-sensitive) thiolates to a reactant solution under nitrogen(1), Although the use of a syringe pump was called for, there are obvious difficulties associated with purging the solution and assembling such an apparatus under nitrogen, and we report a simple and inexpensive solution. A Male Luer Lock tip (recovered from a broken syringe) was sweated onto the flattened tip of a pressure-equalizing addition funnel and a syringe needle was attached. Judicious selection of needle length, bore size, and reactant volume can be used to control the addition time simply and reproducibly. With a 250-mL funnel, the flow rate changes by <25% from the beginning to the end of the addition. (In fact, a reduction in the rate of addition may even be advantageous as the reaction proceeds, the reagent in the receiving flask is consumed, its concentration drops, and the rate of reaction will decrease). A piece of fine Teflon tubing of appropriate length attached to the needle can be used to reduce the flow rate even further, but this is only necessary for very slow rates of addition. For example, the time of addition of 200 mL, of an ethanolic solution could be varied from approximately 5 minutes (150mm/17 gauge) to approximately 5 h (200mm/22 gauge), and once the addition time for a

  5. Modular Skeletal Evolution in Sticklebacks Is Controlled by Additive and Clustered Quantitative Trait Loci

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Craig T.; Glazer, Andrew M.; Summers, Brian R.; Blackman, Benjamin K.; Norman, Andrew R.; Shapiro, Michael D.; Cole, Bonnie L.; Peichel, Catherine L.; Schluter, Dolph; Kingsley, David M.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the genetic architecture of evolutionary change remains a long-standing goal in biology. In vertebrates, skeletal evolution has contributed greatly to adaptation in body form and function in response to changing ecological variables like diet and predation. Here we use genome-wide linkage mapping in threespine stickleback fish to investigate the genetic architecture of evolved changes in many armor and trophic traits. We identify >100 quantitative trait loci (QTL) controlling the pattern of serially repeating skeletal elements, including gill rakers, teeth, branchial bones, jaws, median fin spines, and vertebrae. We use this large collection of QTL to address long-standing questions about the anatomical specificity, genetic dominance, and genomic clustering of loci controlling skeletal differences in evolving populations. We find that most QTL (76%) that influence serially repeating skeletal elements have anatomically regional effects. In addition, most QTL (71%) have at least partially additive effects, regardless of whether the QTL controls evolved loss or gain of skeletal elements. Finally, many QTL with high LOD scores cluster on chromosomes 4, 20, and 21. These results identify a modular system that can control highly specific aspects of skeletal form. Because of the general additivity and genomic clustering of major QTL, concerted changes in both protective armor and trophic traits may occur when sticklebacks inherit either marine or freshwater alleles at linked or possible “supergene” regions of the stickleback genome. Further study of these regions will help identify the molecular basis of both modular and coordinated changes in the vertebrate skeleton. PMID:24652999

  6. A mechanistic study of manganese(iii) acetate-mediated phosphonyl group additions to [60]- and [70]-fullerenes: the oxidative-ion-transfer mechanism vs. free radical addition.

    PubMed

    Tumanskii, Boris L; Sabirov, Denis S; Lyakhovetsky, Yury I

    2016-11-14

    The phosphonylation of C60 with HP(O)(OAlk)2 and Mn(OAc)3·2H2O has been considered to occur via a free radical (FR) path involving intermediate radicals ˙P(O)(OAlk)2. The present study provides evidence in support of another mechanism for the reactions, oxidative-ion-transfer (OIT). The mechanism involves the change of an acetate group in Mn(OAc)3 for the phosphonate group and oxidation of C60 by the Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 formed to a pair: (C60˙(+), Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2˙(-)) followed by the transfer of the phosphonate anion to give the monophposphonylfullerenyl radical. It undergoes reversible dimerization. The polyaddition occurs analogously. Moreover, the compounds Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OAlk)2 (Alk = Et and i-Pr) obtained make novel reagents for phosphonylation of fullerenes working by the OIT mechanism. The reactions of C60 in benzene with equimolar amounts of Mn(OAc)2P(O)(OPr-i)2 or Hg[P(O)(OPr-i)2]2 which is known as working by the FR mechanism since it produces radical ˙P(O)(OPr-i)2 under UV-irradiation, furnished the same radical ˙C60P(O)(OPr-i)2. However, at a 20-fold molar excess of the reagent toward C60, a single derivative C60[P(O)(OPr-i)2]4 and a mixture of derivatives bearing between two and eight phosphonyls were obtained in the former and latter cases, respectively. With C70, the change of the mechanism produced a change in the regioselectivity: 5 and 3 isomers of ˙C70P(O)(OPr-i)2 were obtained, respectively. DFT-calculations provided the hyperfine coupling (hfc) constants of the isomers and explained the regioselectivity change.

  7. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Pilot-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary M. Blythe

    2006-03-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, ''Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive.'' The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemissions of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate that the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project will conduct pilot and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosage requirements to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. A third utility, to be named later, will provide the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing in

  8. Controlling quality of ferroalloys and alloying additives in the manufacture of nickel alloys for nuclear applications

    SciTech Connect

    Stryker, R.S.

    1981-01-01

    Nickel alloys supplied to the nuclear industry must meet strict requirements for quality and traceability of constituents. Ensuring that end products meet those requirements involves careful control of the raw materials used in melting the alloys. Especially important is an effective system of quality control for purchasing and consuming ferroalloys and alloying additives. Development and operation of such a system requires (1) adequate specifications, (2) good relations with suppliers, (3) an approved-suppliers list, (4) formal receiving inspection, and (5) backup surveillance during processing.

  9. Controlling crystalline structure of ZnS nanocrystals only by tuning sulfur precursor addition rate.

    PubMed

    Bi, Chong; Pan, Liqing; Xu, Mei; Xiao, John Q

    2010-12-01

    Unlike previous studies that emphasize the important role of thermodynamics or surface energy on the structure stabilization of ZnS nanocrystals, we successfully controlled the crystalline structure of ZnS nanocrystals simply by tuning sulfur precursor addition rate under exactly the same other conditions. We observed the structure of as prepared ZnS nanocrystals was evolved from wurtzite into zinc blende with increasing the addition rate of sulfur precursor. The method may extend to engineer other nanomaterials with desired physicochemical properties by controlling crystalline structure. On the other hand, it also makes a new approach to understand the crucial factors that determine the growth mechanism and the crystal structure of nanomaterials in theory.

  10. Website Use and Effects of Online Information About Tobacco Additives Among the Dutch General Population: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Crutzen, Rik; Kienhuis, Anne S; Talhout, Reinskje; de Vries, Hein

    2017-01-01

    Background As a legal obligation, the Dutch government publishes online information about tobacco additives to make sure that it is publicly available. Little is known about the influence this website (”tabakinfo”) has on visitors and how the website is evaluated by them. Objective This study assesses how visitors use the website and its effect on their knowledge, risk perception, attitude, and smoking behavior. The study will also assess how the website is evaluated by visitors using a sample of the Dutch general population, including smokers and nonsmokers. Methods A randomized controlled trial was conducted, recruiting participants from an online panel. At baseline, participants (N=672) were asked to fill out an online questionnaire about tobacco additives. Next, participants were randomly allocated to either one of two experimental groups and invited to visit the website providing information about tobacco additives (either with or without a database containing product-specific information) or to a control group that had no access to the website. After 3 months, follow-up measurements took place. Results At follow-up (n=492), no statistically significant differences were found for knowledge, risk perception, attitude, or smoking behavior between the intervention and control groups. Website visits were positively related to younger participants (B=–0.07, 95% CI –0.12 to –0.01; t11=–2.43, P=.02) and having a low risk perception toward tobacco additives (B=–0.32, 95% CI –0.63 to –0.02; t11=–2.07, P=.04). In comparison, having a lower education (B=–0.67, 95% CI –1.14 to –0.17; t11=–2.65, P=.01) was a significant predictor for making less use of the website. Furthermore, the website was evaluated less positively by smokers compared to nonsmokers (t324=–3.55, P<.001), and males compared to females (t324=–2.21, P=.02). Conclusions The website did not change perceptions of tobacco additives or smoking behavior. Further research is

  11. Low-boiling-point solvent additives can also enable morphological control in polymer solar cells

    SciTech Connect

    Mahadevapuram, Rakesh C.; Carr, John A.; Chen, Yuqing; Bose, Sayantan; Nalwa, Kanwar S.; Petrich, Jacob W.; Chaudhary, Sumit

    2013-11-02

    Processing organic photovoltaic (OPV) blend solutions with high-boiling-point solvent additives has recently been used for morphological control in bulk-heterojunction OPV cells. Here we show that even low-boiling-point solvents can be effective additives. When P3HT:PCBM OPV cells were processed with a low-boiling-point solvent tetrahydrafuran as an additive in parent solvent o-dichlorobenzene, charge extraction increased leading to fill factors as high as 69.5%, without low work-function cathodes, electrode buffer layers or thermal treatment. This was attributed to PCBM demixing from P3HT domains and better vertical phase separation, as indicated by photoluminescence lifetimes, hole mobilities, and shunt leakage currents. Dependence on solvent parameters and applicability beyond P3HT system was also investigated. (C) 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Sodium Bicarbonate Prevents Contrast-Induced Nephropathy in Addition to Theophylline: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Huber, Wolfgang; Huber, Toni; Baum, Stephan; Franzen, Michael; Schmidt, Christian; Stadlbauer, Thomas; Beitz, Analena; Schmid, Roland M; Schmid, Sebastian

    2016-05-01

    In this study, we investigated whether hydration with sodium bicarbonate is superior to hydration with saline in addition to theophylline (both groups) in the prophylaxis of contrast-induced nephropathy (CIN). It was a prospective, randomized, double-blinded study in a university hospital on 2 general intensive care units (63% of investigations) and normal wards.After approval of the local ethics committee and informed consent 152 patients with screening serum creatinine ≥1.1 mg/dL and/or at least 1 additional risk factor for CIN undergoing intravascular contrast media (CM) exposure were randomized to receive a total of 9 mL/kg bicarbonate 154 mmol/L (group B; n = 74) or saline 0.9% (group S; n = 78) hydration within 7 h in addition to intravenous application of 200 mg theophylline. Serum creatinine was determined immediately before, 24 and 48 h after CM exposure. As primary endpoint we investigated the incidence of CIN (increase of serum creatinine ≥0.5 mg/dL and/or ≥25% within 48 h of CM).Both groups were comparable regarding baseline characteristics. Incidence of CIN was significantly less frequent with bicarbonate compared to sodium hydration (1/74 [1.4%] vs 7/78 [9.0%]; P = 0.035). Time course of serum creatinine was more favorable in group B with decreases in serum creatinine after 24 h (-0.084 mg/dL [95% confidence interval: -0.035 to -0.133 mg/dL]; P = 0.008) and 48 h (-0.093 mg/dL (-0.025 to -0.161 mg/dL); P = 0.007) compared to baseline which were not observed in group S.In patients at increased risk of CIN receiving prophylactic theophylline, hydration with sodium bicarbonate reduces contrast-induced renal impairment compared to hydration with saline.

  13. From Victim to Taking Control: Support Group for Bullied Schoolchildren

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kvarme, Lisbeth Gravdal; Aabø, Liv Sandnes; Saeteren, Berit

    2016-01-01

    School bullying is a serious problem affecting the victims in their daily lives at school. The aim of this study was to investigate whether support groups were able to help the victims of bullying to overcome their victim status and to explore what it means to be a member of a support group. An exploratory qualitative design, with individual and…

  14. PID Controller Design Based on Global Optimization Technique with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozana, Stepan; Docekal, Tomas

    2016-05-01

    This paper deals with design of PID controller with the use of methods of global optimization implemented in Matlab environment and Optimization Toolbox. It is based on minimization of a chosen integral criterion with respect to additional requirements on control quality such as overshoot, phase margin and limits for manipulated value. The objective function also respects user-defined weigh coefficients for its particular terms for a different penalization of individual requirements that often clash each other such as for example overshoot and phase margin. The described solution is designated for continuous linear time-invariant static systems up to 4th order and thus efficient for the most of real control processes in practice.

  15. A survey of ring-building network protocols suitable for command and control group communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sobeih, Ahmed; Yurcik, William

    2005-05-01

    Multicasting is the enabling technology for group communication. However, network-layer multicasting (e.g., IP multicast) has not been widely adopted more than 10 years of its invention due to the concerns related to deployment, scalability and network management. Application-layer multicast (ALM) has been proposed as an alternative for IP multicast. In ALM, group communications take place on an overlay network in which each edge corresponds to a direct unicast path between two group members. ALM protocols differ in, among other aspects, the topology of the underlying overlay network (e.g., tree, mesh or ring). Ring-based ALM protocols have the advantages of providing a constant node degree, and enabling the implementation of reliable and totally-ordered message delivery through the use of a ring with a token that contains ordering and flow control information. In addition, a ring overlay network topology is inherently reliable to single node failures. In this paper, we provide a survey and a taxonomy of several ring-building group communication protocols. Investigating the major characteristics of ring-building network protocols is an important step towards understanding which of them are suitable for command and control group communications.

  16. Terminal groups control self-assembly of amphiphilic block copolymers in solution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grzelakowski, M.; Kita-Tokarczyk, K.

    2016-03-01

    The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability.The terminal groups of amphiphilic block copolymers are shown to control macromolecular self-assembly in aqueous solutions, in the micellar/lamellar region of the phase diagram. At the same concentration and using the same self-assembly conditions, dramatic differences are observed in polymer hydration and the resulting nano-/microstructure for two series of polymers with identical block chemistry and hydrophilic-lipophilic balance (HLB). This suggests a strong contribution from end groups to the hydration as the initial step of the self-assembly process, and could be conveniently used to guide the particle morphology and size. Additionally, for polymers with those head groups which drive vesicular structures, differences in membrane organization affect their physical properties, such as permeability. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1: Particle diameters for hydrated NH2-ABA-NH2 polymers with different degrees of functionalization; Fig. S2: TEM characterization of compound micelles from BA-OH polymer after extrusion; Fig. S3: Cryo-TEM and stopped flow characterization of lipid vesicles; Fig. S4 and S5: NMR spectra for ABA and BA polymers

  17. The Additive Impact of Group and Individual Publicly Displayed Feedback: Examining Individual Response Patterns and Response Generalization in a Safe-Driving Occupational Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ludwig, Timothy D.; Geller, E. Scott; Clarke, Steven W.

    2010-01-01

    Additive effects of publicly posting individual feedback following group goal-setting and feedback were evaluated. The turn-signal use of pizza deliverers was studied in a multiple baseline design across two pizza stores. After baseline observations, pizza deliverers voted on a group turn-signal goal and then received 4 weeks of group feedback on…

  18. Additional value of CSF amyloid-beta 40 levels in the differentiation between FTLD and control subjects.

    PubMed

    Verwey, Nicolaas A; Kester, Maartje I; van der Flier, Wiesje M; Veerhuis, Robert; Berkhof, Hans; Twaalfhoven, Harry; Blankenstein, Marinus A; Scheltens And, Philip; Pijnenburg, Yolande A L

    2010-01-01

    To determine the additional value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF)amyloid-beta1-40 (Abeta40) next to amyloid-beta1-42 (beta42), total tau (Tau), and tau phosphorylated at threonine-181 (pTau) to distinguish patients with frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and controls, we measured CSF levels of Abeta40, Abeta42, pTau, and Tau in 55 patients with FTLD, 60 with AD, and 40 control subjects. Logistic regression was used to identify biomarkers that best distinguished the groups. Additionally, a decision tree (cost=test method; Matlab 7.7) was used to predict diagnosis selecting the best set of biomarkers with the optimal cut-off. Logistic regression showed that Abeta42 and pTau CSF levels provided optimal distinction between AD and FTLD. A combination of Abeta42, Tau, and Abeta40 optimally discriminated FTLD from controls and AD from controls. The decision tree used Abeta42 (cut-off 578 pg/ml) to identify AD (positive predictive value (PPV) 97%), followed by Tau(cut-off 336 pg/ml) to identify FTLD (PPV 67%), and in the last step,Abeta40 (cut-off 10 ng/ml) was used to differentiate controls (PPV68%). Applying CSF Abeta40 levels in the model, the PPV of diagnosis increased to 75% as opposed to 70% when only Abeta42 and Tau were used. CSF Abeta40 levels added to the conventional CSF biomarkers increases the potential to discriminate subjects with dementia from controls. Our findings favor the implementation of CSF Abeta40 in differential diagnosis between FTLD, AD, and control subjects.

  19. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-31

    This document is the final report for DOE-NETL Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project has been to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project was intended to demonstrate whether such additives can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project involved pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests were intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and project cost sharing. Southern Company provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested, and project cost sharing. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation provided the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company provided the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies also supplied technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project was conducted in six tasks. Of the six tasks, Task 1 involved project planning and Task 6 involved

  20. Controlling the motion of a group of mobile agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levin, V. A.; Osipov, G. V.

    2016-03-01

    We propose a method of controlling an ensemble of mobile agents with variable coupling topology that is based on the principles of phase synchronization in a system of regular and chaotic oscillators. Results of modeling of the controlled motion of mobile agents in systems with serial, parallel, and strictly preset motion are presented.

  1. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-04-01

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  2. Compliance and control characteristics of an additive manufactured-flexure stage

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, ChaBum; Tarbutton, Joshua A.

    2015-04-15

    This paper presents a compliance and positioning control characteristics of additive manufactured-nanopositioning system consisted of the flexure mechanism and voice coil motor (VCM). The double compound notch type flexure stage was designed to utilize the elastic deformation of two symmetrical four-bar mechanisms to provide a millimeter-level working range. Additive manufacturing (AM) process, stereolithography, was used to fabricate the flexure stage. The AM stage was inspected by using 3D X-ray computerized tomography scanner: air-voids and shape irregularity. The compliance, open-loop resonance peak, and damping ratio of the AM stage were measured 0.317 mm/N, 80 Hz, and 0.19, respectively. The AM stage was proportional-integral-derivative positioning feedback-controlled and the capacitive type sensor was used to measure the displacement. As a result, the AM flexure mechanism was successfully 25 nm positioning controlled within 500 μm range. The resonance peak was found approximately at 280 Hz in closed-loop. This research showed that the AM flexure mechanism and the VCM can provide millimeter range with high precision and can be a good alternative to an expensive metal-based flexure mechanism and piezoelectric transducer.

  3. Selective Morphology Control of Bulk Heterojunction in Polymer Solar Cells Using Binary Processing Additives.

    PubMed

    Jung, Yen-Sook; Yeo, Jun-Seok; Kim, Nam-Koo; Lee, Sehyun; Kim, Dong-Yu

    2016-11-09

    We report the effect of binary additives on the fabrication of polymer solar cells (PSCs) based on a bulk heterojunction (BHJ) system. The combination of 1,8-diiodooctane (DIO), a high-boiling and selective solvent, for fullerene derivatives and poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS) precursor, a nonvolatile insulating additive, affords complementary functions on the effective modulation of BHJ morphology. It was found that DIO and PDMS precursor each play different roles in the control of BHJ morphology, and thus, the power conversion efficiency (PCE) can be further enhanced to 7.6% by improving the fill factor (FF) from 6.8% compared to that achieved using a conventional device employing only a DIO additive. In the BHJ of the active layer, DIO suppressed the large phase separation of PBDTTT-CF and PC71BM while allowing the formation of continuous polymer networks in the donor polymer through phase separation of the PDMS precursor and BHJ components. The appropriate amount of PDMS precursor does not disturb charge transport in the BHJ despite having insulating properties. In addition, the dependence of photovoltaic parameters on different light intensities reveals that the charge recombination in the device with DIO and PDMS precursor decreases compared to that achieved using the device with only DIO.

  4. Tetrachlorvinphos as an ineffective feed additive in control of gastrointestinal nematodes of beef cattle.

    PubMed

    Noblet, G P

    1978-06-01

    Tetrachlorvinphos was evaluated for anthelmintic efficacy as a feed additive against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle. Tetrachlorvinphos was added to the mineral mixture of medicated cattle (n = 13) at the rate of 1.6 mg/day/kg of body weight for a 29-week period beginning May 2, 1975. Data suggest that the level of parasitism, as estimated by the number of nematode eggs per gram of feces, was not reduced by the addition of tetrachlorvinphos to the mineral mixture of medicated cattle. Results obtained from identification and quantification of nematodes recovered at necropsy from 6 medicated and 6 nonmedicated control heifers indicated that tetrachlorvinphos was ineffective as an anthelmintic against gastrointestinal nematodes of cattle.

  5. 29 CFR 4043.62 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.62... § 4043.62 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event and information required. Advance notice is required for a change in a plan's contributing sponsor or controlled group,...

  6. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... knowledge of the transaction and of the controlled group relationship; and (3) Press releases; Forms 10Q. If... 29 Labor 9 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. 4043.29... Events § 4043.29 Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group. (a) Reportable event. A...

  7. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Companies B and C will leave plan A's controlled group. Company B (Plan B's contributing sponsor) and the plan administrator of Plan B are required to report that Company A will leave Plan B's controlled group... the structure of Company Q's controlled group. On the effective date of the sale, Company R...

  8. 29 CFR 4043.29 - Change in contributing sponsor or controlled group.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Companies B and C will leave plan A's controlled group. Company B (Plan B's contributing sponsor) and the plan administrator of Plan B are required to report that Company A will leave Plan B's controlled group... the structure of Company Q's controlled group. On the effective date of the sale, Company R...

  9. Bifunctional Molecular Photoswitches Based on Overcrowded Alkenes for Dynamic Control of Catalytic Activity in Michael Addition Reactions.

    PubMed

    Pizzolato, Stefano F; Collins, Beatrice S L; van Leeuwen, Thomas; Feringa, Ben L

    2016-11-23

    The emerging field of artificial photoswitchable catalysis has recently shown striking examples of functional light-responsive systems allowing for dynamic control of activity and selectivity in organocatalysis and metal-catalysed transformations. While our group has already disclosed systems featuring first generation molecular motors as the switchable central core, a design based on second generation molecular motors is lacking. Here, the syntheses of two bifunctionalised molecular switches based on a photoresponsive tetrasubstituted alkene core are reported. They feature a thiourea substituent as hydrogen-donor moiety in the upper half and a basic dimethylamine group in the lower half. This combination of functional groups offers the possibility for application of these molecules in photoswitchable catalytic processes. The light-responsive central cores were synthesized by a Barton-Kellogg coupling of the prefunctionalized upper and lower halves. Derivatization using Buchwald-Hartwig amination and subsequent introduction of the thiourea substituent afforded the target compounds. Control of catalytic activity in the Michael addition reaction between (E)-3-bromo-β-nitrostyrene and 2,4-pentanedione is achieved upon irradiation of stable-(E) and stable-(Z) isomers of the bifunctional catalyst 1. Both isomers display a decrease in catalytic activity upon irradiation to the metastable state, providing systems with the potential to be applied as ON/OFF catalytic photoswitches.

  10. Additive-free controllable fabrication of bismuth vanadates and their photocatalytic activity toward dye degradation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Yingna; Yang, Xia; Ma, Fengyan; Li, Kexin; Xu, Lei; Yuan, Xing; Guo, Yihang

    2010-01-01

    Bismuth vanadates (BiVO 4) with various crystal structures (tetragonal scheelite, monoclinic scheelite, and tetragonal zircon) and morphologies (sphere-, nanosheet-, dendrite-, and flower-like) were controllably fabricated by using a mild additive-free hydrothermal treatment process under the different preparation conditions. The crystal structures, morphologies, and photophysical properties of the products were well-characterized. Subsequently, their UV- as well as visible-light photocatalytic performance was evaluated via dyes rhodamine B (RB) and methylene blue (MB) degradation. Special attention was paid to evaluate the correlation of the reactivity with crystal structure, morphology, and electronic structure of as-prepared BiVO 4 samples.

  11. Group Theoretical Approach for Controlled Quantum Mechanical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-06

    evolution equation with Hamiltonians which may possess discrete , continuous, and mixed spectrum. For such a quantum system, the Hamiltonian operator...study of classical linear and nonlinear systems, which proves to be very useful in understanding the design problems such as disturbance decoupling...developed by Kunita can then be implemented to establish controllability conditions for the original time-dependent Schrodinger control problem. The end

  12. Design and tuning of standard additive model based fuzzy PID controllers for multivariable process systems.

    PubMed

    Harinath, Eranda; Mann, George K I

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes a design and two-level tuning method for fuzzy proportional-integral derivative (FPID) controllers for a multivariable process where the fuzzy inference uses the inference of standard additive model. The proposed method can be used for any n x n multi-input-multi-output process and guarantees closed-loop stability. In the two-level tuning scheme, the tuning follows two steps: low-level tuning followed by high-level tuning. The low-level tuning adjusts apparent linear gains, whereas the high-level tuning changes the nonlinearity in the normalized fuzzy output. In this paper, two types of FPID configurations are considered, and their performances are evaluated by using a real-time multizone temperature control problem having a 3 x 3 process system.

  13. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies.

  14. 76 FR 22336 - Controlled Groups; Deferral of Losses

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY... investment and sells the land at a loss to another member of its consolidated group (B), and B develops the land and sells developed lots to unrelated customers, S's intercompany loss will be taken into...

  15. Polar Addition to C=C Group: Why Is Anti-Markovnikov Hydroboration-Oxidation of Alkenes Not "Anti-"?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ilich, Predrag-Peter; Rickertsen, Lucas S.; Becker, Erienne

    2006-01-01

    For 137 years Markovnikov's rule has been extensively used in organic chemical education and research to describe the regioselectivity in electrophilic addition reactions to alkenes and alkynes. When the structures of the final reaction products are used as reference, the rule requests that certain polar addition reactions be termed…

  16. Consensus definitions and application guidelines for control groups in cerebrospinal fluid biomarker studies in multiple sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Teunissen, Charlotte; Menge, Til; Altintas, Ayse; Álvarez-Cermeño, José C; Bertolotto, Antonio; Berven, Frode S; Brundin, Lou; Comabella, Manuel; Degn, Matilde; Deisenhammer, Florian; Fazekas, Franz; Franciotta, Diego; Frederiksen, Jette L; Galimberti, Daniela; Gnanapavan, Sharmilee; Hegen, Harald; Hemmer, Bernhard; Hintzen, Rogier; Hughes, Steve; Iacobaeus, Ellen; Kroksveen, Ann C; Kuhle, Jens; Richert, John; Tumani, Hayrettin; Villar, Luisa M; Drulovic, Jelena; Dujmovic, Irena; Khalil, Michael; Bartos, Ales

    2013-11-01

    The choice of appropriate control group(s) is critical in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarker research in multiple sclerosis (MS). There is a lack of definitions and nomenclature of different control groups and a rationalized application of different control groups. We here propose consensus definitions and nomenclature for the following groups: healthy controls (HCs), spinal anesthesia subjects (SASs), inflammatory neurological disease controls (INDCs), peripheral inflammatory neurological disease controls (PINDCs), non-inflammatory neurological controls (NINDCs), symptomatic controls (SCs). Furthermore, we discuss the application of these control groups in specific study designs, such as for diagnostic biomarker studies, prognostic biomarker studies and therapeutic response studies. Application of these uniform definitions will lead to better comparability of biomarker studies and optimal use of available resources. This will lead to improved quality of CSF biomarker research in MS and related disorders.

  17. Low fluid leakoff cementing compositions and filtration control additive for cement

    SciTech Connect

    Forrest, G.T.

    1993-07-20

    A cementing composition is described, for cementing oil or gas wells penetrating subterranean formations, capable of forming a fluid slurry when mixed with water comprising: dry hydraulic cement; and a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh. In a process for cementing a casing in an oil or gas well penetrating a subterranean formation wherein a cement slurry, formed by mixing water and hydraulic cement, is pumped down the well to flow upwardly between the casing and the subterranean formation, the improvement is described comprising: utilizing as a filtration control additive of from about 0.2 to 5.0 percent by weight, based upon dry hydraulic cement, of finely ground peanut hulls, and utilizing finely ground peanut hulls wherein 10 percent or more of the finely ground peanut hulls is in the particle size range of less than 20 standard sieve mesh and greater than 500 standard sieve mesh.

  18. ABO blood groups in oral cancer: a first case-control study in a defined group of Iranian patients.

    PubMed

    Mortazavi, Hamed; Hajian, Shima; Fadavi, Elnaz; Sabour, Siamak; Baharvand, Maryam; Bakhtiari, Sedigheh

    2014-01-01

    The ABO blood group has been recently proposed to influence development of oral cancer. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between the type of ABO blood group and oral cancer. In a case-control study, 104 patients with oral cancer were compared with 90 blood donors without cancer as controls. Data regarding the patient demographics, blood groups, Rh status, cancer characteristics and oral habits were also compared between two subgroups of squamous and non-squamous oral cancers. For statistical analysis, Chi-square test, t-student Test and Logistic Regression were used to analyze the relationship between ABO blood groups and oral cancer. The frequency of blood group B was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than controls (32% vs 13%) (p value=0.01), but Rh factor did not show significant difference between cases and controls. According to Logistic Regression, people with blood group B and those older than 50 had 3.5 and 19.4 times elevated risk of developing oral cancer, respectively. The frequency of squamous cell cancer was also significantly higher in men and people older than 50. On the other hand, females, people under 50, and those with blood group B were at 5.6, 2.9 and 4.3 times higher risk of developing non-squamous cell oral cancer,respectively. People with blood group B are at a greater risk of developing oral cancer, and female patients under 50 years of age with blood group B have the highest risk to develop non-squamous cell oral cancer.

  19. Communication Control and Leadership in Telecommunications by Small Groups.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-06-01

    used in this experiment (see section on Prob- lems). Dependent measures have generally included the time it takes groups to solve the problems, the... section , Questionnaire subsection). :. 10 HYPOTHESES Three main hypotheses were generated from the re- sults found in the literature: 1. Subjects who...similar to the MRC network. A decentralized network is provided by continuously open audio and video channels (see Method section , Switching subsection). 2

  20. tRNA integrity is a prerequisite for rapid CCA addition: implication for quality control.

    PubMed

    Dupasquier, Marcel; Kim, Sangbumn; Halkidis, Konstantine; Gamper, Howard; Hou, Ya-Ming

    2008-06-06

    CCA addition to the 3' end is an essential step in tRNA maturation. High-resolution crystal structures of the CCA enzymes reveal primary enzyme contact with the tRNA minihelix domain, consisting of the acceptor stem and T stem-loop. RNA and DNA minihelices are efficient substrates for CCA addition in steady-state kinetics. However, in contrast to structural models and steady-state experiments, we show here by single-turnover kinetics that minihelices are insufficient substrates for the Escherichia coli CCA enzyme and that only the full-length tRNA is kinetically competent. Even a nick in the full-length tRNA backbone in the T loop, or as far away from the minihelix domain as in the anticodon loop, prevents efficient CCA addition. These results suggest a kinetic quality control provided by the CCA enzyme to inspect the integrity of the tRNA molecule and to discriminate against nicked or damaged species from further maturation.

  1. Modest additive effects of integrated vector control measures on malaria prevalence and transmission in western Kenya

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The effect of integrating vector larval intervention on malaria transmission is unknown when insecticide-treated bed-net (ITN) coverage is very high, and the optimal indicator for intervention evaluation needs to be determined when transmission is low. Methods A post hoc assignment of intervention-control cluster design was used to assess the added effect of both indoor residual spraying (IRS) and Bacillus-based larvicides (Bti) in addition to ITN in the western Kenyan highlands in 2010 and 2011. Cross-sectional, mass parasite screenings, adult vector populations, and cohort of active case surveillance (ACS) were conducted before and after the intervention in three study sites with two- to three-paired intervention-control clusters at each site each year. The effect of larviciding, IRS, ITNs and other determinants of malaria risk was assessed by means of mixed estimating methods. Results Average ITN coverage increased from 41% in 2010 to 92% in 2011 in the study sites. IRS intervention had significant added impact on reducing vector density in 2010 but the impact was modest in 2011. The effect of IRS on reducing parasite prevalence was significant in 2011 but was seasonal specific in 2010. ITN was significantly associated with parasite densities in 2010 but IRS application was significantly correlated with reduced gametocyte density in 2011. IRS application reduced about half of the clinical malaria cases in 2010 and about one-third in 2011 compare to non-intervention areas. Conclusion Compared with a similar study conducted in 2005, the efficacy of the current integrated vector control with ITN, IRS, and Bti reduced three- to five-fold despite high ITN coverage, reflecting a modest added impact on malaria transmission. Additional strategies need to be developed to further reduce malaria transmission. PMID:23870708

  2. Can Vitamin D Supplementation in Addition to Asthma Controllers Improve Clinical Outcomes in Patients With Asthma?

    PubMed Central

    Luo, Jian; Liu, Dan; Liu, Chun-Tao

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Effects of vitamin D on acute exacerbation, lung function, and fraction of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) in patients with asthma are controversial. We aim to further evaluate the roles of vitamin D supplementation in addition to asthma controllers in asthmatics. From 1946 to July 2015, we searched the PubMed, Embase, Medline, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and ISI Web of Science using “Vitamin D,” “Vit D,” or “VitD” and “asthma,” and manually reviewed the references listed in the identified articles. Randomized controlled trials which reported rate of asthma exacerbations and adverse events, forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1, % of predicted value), FeNO, asthma control test (ACT), and serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were eligible. We conducted the heterogeneities test and sensitivity analysis of the enrolled studies, and random-effects or fixed-effects model was applied to calculate risk ratio (RR) and mean difference for dichotomous and continuous data, respectively. Cochrane systematic review software Review Manager (RevMan) was used to test the hypothesis by Mann–Whitney U test, which were displayed in Forest plots. Seven trials with a total of 903 patients with asthma were pooled in our final studies. Except for asthma exacerbations (I2 = 81%, χ2 = 10.28, P = 0.006), we did not find statistical heterogeneity in outcome measures. The pooled RR of asthma exacerbation was 0.66 (95% confidence interval: 0.32–1.37), but without significant difference (z = 1.12, P = 0.26), neither was in FEV1 (z = 0.30, P = 0.77), FeNO (z = 0.28, P = 0.78), or ACT (z = 0.92, P = 0.36), although serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D was significantly increased (z = 6.16, P < 0.001). Vitamin D supplementation in addition to asthma controllers cannot decrease asthma exacerbation and FeNO, nor improve lung function and asthma symptoms, although it can be safely applied to increase serum 25

  3. Sedimentological and Stratigraphic Controls on Natural Fracture Distribution in Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benaafi, Mohammed; Hariri, Mustafa; Abdullatif, Osman; Makkawi, Mohammed; Korvin, Gabor

    2016-04-01

    The Cambro-Permian Wajid Group, SW Saudi Arabia, is the main groundwater aquifer in Wadi Al-Dawasir and Najran areas. In addition, it has a reservoir potentiality for oil and natural gas in Rub' Al-Khali Basin. Wajid Group divided into four formations, ascending Dibsiyah, Sanamah, Khussyayan and Juwayl. They are mainly sandstone and exposed in an area extend from Wadi Al-Dawasir southward to Najran city and deposited within fluvial, shallow marine and glacial environments. This study aims to investigate the sedimentological and stratigraphic controls on the distribution of natural fractures within Wajid Group outcrops. A scanline sampling method was used to study the natural fracture network within Wajid Group outcrops, where the natural fractures were measured and characterized in 12 locations. Four regional natural fracture sets were observed with mean strikes of 050o, 075o, 345o, and 320o. Seven lithofacies characterized the Wajid Group at these locations and include fine-grained sandstone, coarse to pebbly sandstone, cross-bedded sandstone, massive sandstone, bioturbated sandstone, conglomerate sandstone, and conglomerate lithofacies. We found that the fine-grained and small scale cross-bedded sandstones lithofacies are characterized by high fracture intensity. In contrast, the coarse-grained sandstone and conglomerate lithofacies have low fracture intensity. Therefore, the relative fracture intensity and spacing of natural fractures within Wajid Group in the subsurface can be predicted by using the lithofacies and their depositional environments. In terms of stratigraphy, we found that the bed thickness and the stratigraphic architecture are the main controls on fractures intensity. The outcomes of this study can help to understand and predict the natural fracture distribution within the subsurface fractured sandstone hosting groundwater and hydrocarbon in Wajid and Rub' Al-Khali Basins. Hence, the finding of this study might help to explore and develop the

  4. A Tuneable Switch for Controlling Environmental Degradation of Bioplastics: Addition of Isothiazolinone to Polyhydroxyalkanoates

    PubMed Central

    Woolnough, Catherine Anne; Yee, Lachlan Hartley; Charlton, Timothy Stuart; Foster, Leslie John Ray

    2013-01-01

    Controlling the environmental degradation of polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) and polyhydroxyvalerate (P(HB-co-HV)) bioplastics would expand the range of their potential applications. Combining PHB and P(HB-co-HV) films with the anti-fouling agent 4,5-dichloro-2-n-octyl-4-isothiazolin-3-one (DCOI, <10% w/w) restricted microbial colonisation in soil, but did not significantly affect melting temperature or the tensile strength of films. DCOI films showed reduced biofouling and postponed the onset of weight loss by up to 100 days, a 10-fold increase compared to unmodified films where the microbial coverage was significant. In addition, the rate of PHA-DCOI weight loss, post-onset, reduced by about 150%; in contrast a recorded weight loss of only 0.05% per day for P(HB-co-HV) with a 10% DCOI loading was observed. This is in stark contrast to the unmodified PHB film, where a recorded weight loss of only 0.75% per day was made. The ‘switch’ that initiates film weight loss, and its subsequent reduced rate, depended on the DCOI loading to control biofouling. The control of biofouling and environmental degradation for these DCOI modified bioplastics increases their potential use in biodegradable applications. PMID:24146779

  5. Statins Have No Additional Benefit for Pulmonary Hypertension: A Meta-Analysis of Randomized Controlled Trials

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lin; Qu, Moying; Chen, Yao; Zhou, Yaxiong; Wan, Zhi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives We performed a meta-analysis to explore the effects of adding statins to standard treatment on adult patients of pulmonary hypertension (PH). Methods A systematic search up to December, 2015 of Medline, EMBASE, Cochrane Database of Systematic reviews and Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials was performed to identify randomized controlled trials with PH patients treated with statins. Results Five studies involving 425 patients were included into this meta-analysis. The results of our analysis showed that the statins can’t significantly increase 6-minute walking distance (6MWD, mean difference [MD] = -0.33 [CI: -18.25 to 17.59]), decrease the BORG dyspnea score (MD = -0.72 [CI: -2.28 to 0.85]), the clinical worsening risk (11% in statins vs. 10.1% in controls, Risk ratio = 1.06 [CI: 0.61, 1.83]), or the systolic pulmonary arterial pressure (SPAP) (MD = -0.72 [CI: -2.28 to 0.85]). Subgroup analysis for PH due to COPD or non-COPD also showed no significance. Conclusions Statins have no additional beneficial effect on standard therapy for PH, but the results from subgroup of PH due to COPD seem intriguing and further study with larger sample size and longer follow-up is suggested. PMID:27992469

  6. Analytical optimal controls for the state constrained addition and removal of cryoprotective agents

    PubMed Central

    Chicone, Carmen C.; Critser, John K.

    2014-01-01

    Cryobiology is a field with enormous scientific, financial and even cultural impact. Successful cryopreservation of cells and tissues depends on the equilibration of these materials with high concentrations of permeating chemicals (CPAs) such as glycerol or 1,2 propylene glycol. Because cells and tissues are exposed to highly anisosmotic conditions, the resulting gradients cause large volume fluctuations that have been shown to damage cells and tissues. On the other hand, there is evidence that toxicity to these high levels of chemicals is time dependent, and therefore it is ideal to minimize exposure time as well. Because solute and solvent flux is governed by a system of ordinary differential equations, CPA addition and removal from cells is an ideal context for the application of optimal control theory. Recently, we presented a mathematical synthesis of the optimal controls for the ODE system commonly used in cryobiology in the absence of state constraints and showed that controls defined by this synthesis were optimal. Here we define the appropriate model, analytically extend the previous theory to one encompassing state constraints, and as an example apply this to the critical and clinically important cell type of human oocytes, where current methodologies are either difficult to implement or have very limited success rates. We show that an enormous increase in equilibration efficiency can be achieved under the new protocols when compared to classic protocols, potentially allowing a greatly increased survival rate for human oocytes, and pointing to a direction for the cryopreservation of many other cell types. PMID:22527943

  7. Comparability and representativeness of control groups in a case-control study of infant leukemia: a report from the Children's Oncology Group.

    PubMed

    Puumala, Susan E; Spector, Logan G; Robison, Leslie L; Bunin, Greta R; Olshan, Andrew F; Linabery, Amy M; Roesler, Michelle A; Blair, Cindy K; Ross, Julie A

    2009-08-01

    Traditionally, controls in US pediatric cancer studies were selected through random digit dialing. With declining participation and lack of nonparticipant information, random digit dialing (RDD) controls may be substandard. Birth certificate (BC) controls are an alternative, because they are population based and include data from nonparticipants. The authors examined controls collected by random digit dialing and birth certificates for a Children's Oncology Group case-control study of infant leukemia in 1995-2006. Demographic variables were used to assess differences in RDD and BC controls and their representativeness. RDD and BC controls did not differ significantly with regard to maternal variables (age, race, education, marital status, alcohol during pregnancy) or child variables (sex, gestational age, birth weight), but they varied in smoking during pregnancy (22% RDD controls, 12% BC controls) (P = 0.05). The study's combined control group differed significantly from US births: Mothers of controls were more likely to be older (29.8 vs. 27.2 years), white (84% vs. 59%), and married (85% vs. 67%) and to have >16 years of education (37% vs. 25%). Control children were more often full term (88% vs. 81%) and heavier (3,436 vs. 3,317 g). Finally, participating BC mothers were likely to be older and to have more education than nonparticipants. Thus, the study's control groups were comparable but differed from the population of interest.

  8. Simultaneous interpreters vs. professional multilingual controls: Group differences in cognitive control as well as brain structure and function.

    PubMed

    Becker, Maxi; Schubert, Torsten; Strobach, Tilo; Gallinat, Jürgen; Kühn, Simone

    2016-07-01

    There is a vast amount of literature indicating that multiple language expertise leads to positive transfer effects onto other non-language cognitive domains possibly due to enhanced cognitive control. However, there is hardly any evidence about underlying mechanisms on how complex behavior like simultaneous interpreting benefits cognitive functioning in other non-language domains. Therefore, we investigated whether simultaneous interpreters (SIs) exhibit cognitive benefits in tasks measuring aspects of cognitive control compared to a professional multilingual control group. We furthermore investigated in how far potential cognitive benefits are related to brain structure (using voxel-based morphometry) and function (using regions-of-interest-based functional connectivity and graph-analytical measures on low-frequency BOLD signals in resting-state brain data). Concerning cognitive control, the results reveal that SIs exhibit less mixing costs in a task switching paradigm and a dual-task advantage compared to professional multilingual controls. In addition, SIs show more gray matter volume in the left frontal pole (BA 10) compared to controls. Graph theoretical analyses revealed that this region exhibits higher network values for global efficiency and degree and is functionally more strongly connected to the left inferior frontal gyrus and middle temporal gyrus in SIs compared to controls. Thus, the data provide evidence that SIs possess cognitive benefits in tasks measuring cognitive control. It is discussed in how far the central role of the left frontal pole and its stronger functional connectivity to the left inferior frontal gyrus represents a correlate of the neural mechanisms for the observed behavioral effects.

  9. Solvation free energy of the peptide group: its model dependence and implications for the additive-transfer free-energy model of protein stability.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Asthagiri, D; Weber, Valéry

    2013-09-17

    The group-additive decomposition of the unfolding free energy of a protein in an osmolyte solution relative to that in water poses a fundamental paradox: whereas the decomposition describes the experimental results rather well, theory suggests that a group-additive decomposition of free energies is, in general, not valid. In a step toward resolving this paradox, here we study the peptide-group transfer free energy. We calculate the vacuum-to-solvent (solvation) free energies of (Gly)n and cyclic diglycine (cGG) and analyze the data according to experimental protocol. The solvation free energies of (Gly)n are linear in n, suggesting group additivity. However, the slope interpreted as the free energy of a peptide unit differs from that for cGG scaled by a factor of half, emphasizing the context dependence of solvation. However, the water-to-osmolyte transfer free energies of the peptide unit are relatively independent of the peptide model, as observed experimentally. To understand these observations, a way to assess the contribution to the solvation free energy of solvent-mediated correlation between distinct groups is developed. We show that linearity of solvation free energy with n is a consequence of uniformity of the correlation contributions, with apparent group-additive behavior in the water-to-osmolyte transfer arising due to their cancellation. Implications for inferring molecular mechanisms of solvent effects on protein stability on the basis of the group-additive transfer model are suggested.

  10. Stereoselective synthesis of tricyclic compounds by intramolecular palladium-catalyzed addition of aryl iodides to carbonyl groups

    PubMed Central

    Saadi, Jakub; Bentz, Christoph; Redies, Kai; Lentz, Dieter; Zimmer, Reinhold

    2016-01-01

    Summary Starting from γ-ketoesters with an o-iodobenzyl group we studied a palladium-catalyzed cyclization process that stereoselectively led to bi- and tricyclic compounds in moderate to excellent yields. Four X-ray crystal structure analyses unequivocally defined the structure of crucial cyclization products. The relative configuration of the precursor compounds is essentially transferred to that of the products and the formed hydroxy group in the newly generated cyclohexane ring is consistently in trans-arrangement with respect to the methoxycarbonyl group. A transition-state model is proposed to explain the observed stereochemical outcome. This palladium-catalyzed Barbier-type reaction requires a reduction of palladium(II) back to palladium(0) which is apparently achieved by the present triethylamine. PMID:27559374

  11. Spin-Orbit Twisted Spin Waves: Group Velocity Control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perez, F.; Baboux, F.; Ullrich, C. A.; D'Amico, I.; Vignale, G.; Karczewski, G.; Wojtowicz, T.

    2016-09-01

    We present a theoretical and experimental study of the interplay between spin-orbit coupling (SOC), Coulomb interaction, and motion of conduction electrons in a magnetized two-dimensional electron gas. Via a transformation of the many-body Hamiltonian we introduce the concept of spin-orbit twisted spin waves, whose energy dispersions and damping rates are obtained by a simple wave-vector shift of the spin waves without SOC. These theoretical predictions are validated by Raman scattering measurements. With optical gating of the density, we vary the strength of the SOC to alter the group velocity of the spin wave. The findings presented here differ from that of spin systems subject to the Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interaction. Our results pave the way for novel applications in spin-wave routing devices and for the realization of lenses for spin waves.

  12. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Kyunga; Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W.; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-08-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for the addition of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to the synthesis of the antiparasitic drug fluralaner (Bravecto, presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in the control of enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate the future development of transformations that involve fluoroorganic entities.

  13. Quality control of laser- and powder bed-based Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berumen, Sebastian; Bechmann, Florian; Lindner, Stefan; Kruth, Jean-Pierre; Craeghs, Tom

    The quality of metal components manufactured by laser- and powder bed-based additive manufacturing technologies has continuously been improved over the last years. However, to establish this production technology in industries with very high quality standards the accessibility of prevalent quality management methods to all steps of the process chain needs still to be enhanced. This publication describes which tools are and will be available to fulfil those requirements from the perspective of a laser machine manufacturer. Generally five aspects of the part building process are covered by separate Quality Management (QM) modules: the powder quality, the temperature management, the process gas atmosphere, the melt pool behaviour and the documentation module. This paper sets the focus on melt pool analysis and control.

  14. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-06-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  15. Catalytic enantioselective addition of organoboron reagents to fluoroketones controlled by electrostatic interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lee, KyungA; Silverio, Daniel L.; Torker, Sebastian; Robbins, Daniel W.; Haeffner, Fredrik; van der Mei, Farid W.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2016-01-01

    Organofluorine compounds are central to modern chemistry, and broadly applicable transformations that generate them efficiently and enantioselectively are in much demand. Here we introduce efficient catalytic methods for additions of allyl and allenyl organoboron reagents to fluorine-substituted ketones. These reactions are facilitated by readily and inexpensively available catalysts and deliver versatile and otherwise difficult-to-access tertiary homoallylic alcohols in up to 98% yield and >99:1 enantiomeric ratio. Utility is highlighted by a concise enantioselective approach to synthesis of anti-parasitic drug Bravecto™ (presently sold as the racemate). Different forms of ammonium-organofluorine interactions play a key role in controlling enantioselectivity. The greater understanding of various non-bonding interactions afforded by these studies should facilitate future development of transformations involving fluoro-organic entities. PMID:27442282

  16. Additive controlled synthesis of gold nanorods (GNRs) for two-photon luminescence imaging of cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Jing; Yong, Ken-Tye; Roy, Indrajit; Hu, Rui; Ding, Hong; Zhao, Lingling; Swihart, Mark T; He, Guang S; Cui, Yiping; Prasad, Paras N

    2010-07-16

    Gold nanorods (GNRs) with a longitudinal surface plasmon resonance peak that is tunable from 600 to 1100 nm have been fabricated in a cetyl trimethylammoniumbromide (CTAB) micellar medium using hydrochloric acid and silver nitrate as additives to control their shape and size. By manipulating the concentrations of silver nitrate and hydrochloric acid, the aspect ratio of the GNRs was reliably and reproducibly tuned from 2.5 to 8. The GNRs were first coated with polyelectrolyte multilayers and then bioconjugated to transferrin (Tf) to target pancreatic cancer cells. Two-photon imaging excited from the bioconjugated GNRs demonstrated receptor-mediated uptake of the bioconjugates into Panc-1 cells, overexpressing the transferrin receptor (TfR). The bioconjugated GNR formulation exhibited very low toxicity, suggesting that it is biocompatible and potentially suitable for targeted two-photon bioimaging.

  17. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge.

    PubMed

    Liu, R L; Hurley, M F; Kvryan, A; Williams, G; Scully, J R; Birbilis, N

    2016-06-28

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes.

  18. Remote sulfonamido group enhances reactivity and selectivity for asymmetric Michael addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chao; Uang, Biing-Jiun

    2014-09-01

    The pyrrolidine-camphorsulfonamide-based catalyst 1 a catalyzes the enantioselective conjugate addition of nitroalkanes to α,β-unsaturated aldehydes in the presence of five equivalents of water in iPrOH to give the corresponding chiral Michael adducts in good yields and high enantioselectivities (up to 99% ee) with a catalyst loading as low as 1 mol%.

  19. Lamotrigine XR conversion to monotherapy: first study using a historical control group.

    PubMed

    French, Jacqueline A; Temkin, Nancy R; Shneker, Bassel F; Hammer, Anne E; Caldwell, Paul T; Messenheimer, John A

    2012-01-01

    The efficacy and safety of lamotrigine extended-release tablets (LTG XR) as monotherapy for partial seizures were evaluated using the conversion-to-monotherapy design, and historical data as the control. This methodology was recently approved by the United States Food and Drug Administration, and this study is the first historical control design in epilepsy to complete enrollment. Patients ≥13 years old with uncontrolled partial epilepsy receiving monotherapy with valproate or a noninducing antiepileptic drug were converted to once-daily LTG XR (250 mg or 300 mg) as monotherapy and were followed up for 12 additional weeks. Efficacy was measured by the proportion of patients meeting predefined escape criteria for seizure worsening compared with aggregated pseudoplacebo control data from 8 previously conducted conversion-to-monotherapy trials. Nonoverlap of the 95% confidence limit for LTG XR and the 95% prediction interval of the historical control denotes efficacy. Of 226 randomized patients, 174 (93 in 300 mg/day group and 81 in 250 mg/day group) started withdrawal of the background AED and were evaluated for escape. In the historical control analysis population, the lower 95% prediction interval of the historical control (65.3%) was not overlapped by the upper 95% confidence limit of either LTG XR (300 mg/day; 37.2%) or LTG XR (250 mg/day; 43.4%). Adverse events were reported in 53% and 61% of patients receiving LTG XR (300 mg/day and 250 mg/day, respectively). LTG XR (250 mg or 300 mg once daily) is effective for conversion-to-monotherapy treatment of partial seizures in patients ≥13 years old.

  20. Weight change among people randomized to minimal intervention control groups in weight loss trials

    PubMed Central

    Johns, David J.; Hartmann‐Boyce, Jamie; Jebb, Susan A.; Aveyard, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Objective Evidence on the effectiveness of behavioral weight management programs often comes from uncontrolled program evaluations. These frequently make the assumption that, without intervention, people will gain weight. The aim of this study was to use data from minimal intervention control groups in randomized controlled trials to examine the evidence for this assumption and the effect of frequency of weighing on weight change. Methods Data were extracted from minimal intervention control arms in a systematic review of multicomponent behavioral weight management programs. Two reviewers classified control arms into three categories based on intensity of minimal intervention and calculated 12‐month mean weight change using baseline observation carried forward. Meta‐regression was conducted in STATA v12. Results Thirty studies met the inclusion criteria, twenty‐nine of which had usable data, representing 5,963 participants allocated to control arms. Control arms were categorized according to intensity, as offering leaflets only, a single session of advice, or more than one session of advice from someone without specialist skills in supporting weight loss. Mean weight change at 12 months across all categories was −0.8 kg (95% CI −1.1 to −0.4). In an unadjusted model, increasing intensity by moving up a category was associated with an additional weight loss of −0.53 kg (95% CI −0.96 to −0.09). Also in an unadjusted model, each additional weigh‐in was associated with a weight change of −0.42 kg (95% CI −0.81 to −0.03). However, when both variables were placed in the same model, neither intervention category nor number of weigh‐ins was associated with weight change. Conclusions Uncontrolled evaluations of weight loss programs should assume that, in the absence of intervention, their population would weigh up to a kilogram on average less than baseline at the end of the first year of follow‐up. PMID:27028279

  1. Predicting Participation in Group Parenting Education in an Australian Sample: The Role of Attitudes, Norms, and Control Factors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Katherine M.; Wellington, Larne

    2009-01-01

    We examined the theory of planned behavior (TPB) in predicting intentions to participate in group parenting education. One hundred and seventy-six parents (138 mothers and 38 fathers) with a child under 12 years completed TPB items assessing attitude, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and two additional social influence…

  2. Full-scale control of Mycolata foam by FEX-120 addition.

    PubMed

    Kragelund, C; Nilsson, B; Eskilsson, K; Bøgh, A M; Nielsen, P H

    2010-01-01

    Foaming incidents in activated sludge treatment plants are a worldwide problem and occur on a regular basis in both municipal and industrial activated sludge treatment plants. Foaming is most often caused by excessive growth of filamentous bacteria, especially the gram-positive ones affiliated within the Actinobacteria, e.g. the branched Mycolata or Candidatus Microthrix parvicella. Previous studies have shown that populations of Microthrix can be controlled by addition of certain polyaluminium compounds, but until now no effective chemicals have been identified to control other important foam formers such as the Mycolata. A new chemical (FilamentEx, FEX-120) was tested in full-scale in a Swedish wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) with immense foaming problems. In total, three different dosing events were carried out for more than 1 year. After only 8-17 weeks in each period, all foam had disappeared, and dosing of FEX-120 was stopped. Another 11 full-scale WWTPs in different countries were treated with FEX-120 because of severe Mycolata foaming on process tanks. In nine out of 11 plants, where the causative organisms were Gordonia or Skermania, a significant reduction of foam up to 100% was observed after treatment for approx. 10 weeks. In two WWTPs with unknown Mycolata organisms, no reduction was observed.

  3. Group Cognitive Behavioural Therapy and Group Recreational Activity for Adults with Autism Spectrum Disorders: A Preliminary Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hesselmark, Eva; Plenty, Stephanie; Bejerot, Susanne

    2014-01-01

    Although adults with autism spectrum disorder are an increasingly identified patient population, few treatment options are available. This "preliminary" randomized controlled open trial with a parallel design developed two group interventions for adults with autism spectrum disorders and intelligence within the normal range: cognitive…

  4. Enhancing a cancer prevention and control curriculum through interactive group discussions.

    PubMed

    Forsythe, L P; Gadalla, S M; Hamilton, J G; Heckman-Stoddard, B M; Kent, E E; Lai, G Y; Lin, S W; Luhn, P; Faupel-Badger, J M

    2012-06-01

    The Principles and Practice of Cancer Prevention and Control course (Principles course) is offered annually by the National Cancer Institute Cancer Prevention Fellowship Program. This 4-week postgraduate course covers the spectrum of cancer prevention and control research (e.g., epidemiology, laboratory, clinical, social, and behavioral sciences) and is open to attendees from medical, academic, government, and related institutions across the world. In this report, we describe a new addition to the Principles course syllabus, which was exclusively a lecture-based format for over 20 years. In 2011, cancer prevention fellows and staff designed and implemented small group discussion sessions as part of the curriculum. The goals of these sessions were to foster an interactive environment, discuss concepts presented during the Principles course, exchange ideas, and enhance networking among the course participants and provide a teaching and leadership opportunity to current cancer prevention fellows. Overall, both the participants and facilitators who returned the evaluation forms (n=61/87 and 8/10, respectively) reported a high satisfaction with the experience for providing both an opportunity to explore course concepts in a greater detail and to network with colleagues. Participants (93%) and facilitators (100%) stated that they would like to see this component remain a part of the Principles course curriculum, and both groups provided recommendations for the 2012 program. The design, implementation, and evaluation of this initial discussion group component of the Principles course are described herein. The findings in this report will not only inform future discussion group sessions in the Principles course but may also be useful to others planning to incorporate group learning into large primarily lecture-based courses.

  5. Interaction of Polycomb-group proteins controlling flowering in Arabidopsis.

    PubMed

    Chanvivattana, Yindee; Bishopp, Anthony; Schubert, Daniel; Stock, Christine; Moon, Yong-Hwan; Sung, Z Renee; Goodrich, Justin

    2004-11-01

    In Arabidopsis, the EMBYRONIC FLOWER2 (EMF2), VERNALISATION2 (VRN2) and FERTILISATION INDEPENDENT ENDOSPERM2 (FIS2) genes encode related Polycomb-group (Pc-G) proteins. Their homologues in animals act together with other Pc-G proteins as part of a multimeric complex, Polycomb Repressive Complex 2 (PRC2), which functions as a histone methyltransferase. Despite similarities between the fis2 mutant phenotype and those of some other plant Pc-G members, it has remained unclear how the FIS2/EMF2/VRN2 class Pc-G genes interact with the others. We have identified a weak emf2 allele that reveals a novel phenotype with striking similarity to that of severe mutations in another Pc-G gene, CURLY LEAF (CLF), suggesting that the two genes may act in a common pathway. Consistent with this, we demonstrate that EMF2 and CLF interact genetically and that this reflects interaction of their protein products through two conserved motifs, the VEFS domain and the C5 domain. We show that the full function of CLF is masked by partial redundancy with a closely related gene, SWINGER (SWN), so that null clf mutants have a much less severe phenotype than emf2 mutants. Analysis in yeast further indicates a potential for the CLF and SWN proteins to interact with the other VEFS domain proteins VRN2 and FIS2. The functions of individual Pc-G members may therefore be broader than single mutant phenotypes reveal. We suggest that plants have Pc-G protein complexes similar to the Polycomb Repressive Complex2 (PRC2) of animals, but the duplication and subsequent diversification of components has given rise to different complexes with partially discrete functions.

  6. The influence of control group reproduction on the statistical ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Because of various Congressional mandates to protect the environment from endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs), the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) initiated the Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program. In the context of this framework, the Office of Research and Development within the USEPA developed the Medaka Extended One Generation Reproduction Test (MEOGRT) to characterize the endocrine action of a suspected EDC. One important endpoint of the MEOGRT is fecundity of breeding pairs of medaka. Power analyses were conducted to determine the number of replicates needed in proposed test designs and to determine the effects that varying reproductive parameters (e.g. mean fecundity, variance, and days with no egg production) will have on the statistical power of the test. A software tool, the MEOGRT Reproduction Power Analysis Tool, was developed to expedite these power analyses by both calculating estimates of the needed reproductive parameters (e.g. population mean and variance) and performing the power analysis under user specified scenarios. The manuscript illustrates how the reproductive performance of the control medaka that are used in a MEOGRT influence statistical power, and therefore the successful implementation of the protocol. Example scenarios, based upon medaka reproduction data collected at MED, are discussed that bolster the recommendation that facilities planning to implement the MEOGRT should have a culture of medaka with hi

  7. Enhanced control of end-group composition in poly(3-hexylthiophene)s prepared by GRIM

    SciTech Connect

    Kochemba, William Michael; Kilbey, II, S Michael; Pickel, Deanna L

    2012-01-01

    The ability to prepare well-defined semiconducting polymers is essential for understanding the link between structure and function in organic photovoltaic devices. A general method for enhanced control of the degree of functionality of end-functionalized poly(3-hexylthiophene)s (P3HT) prepared by Grignard Metathesis (GRIM) polymerization has been developed. In the absence of additives, the degree of functionality of end-functional P3HTs prepared by quenching of the GRIM polymerization with a Grignard reagent is dependent on the Grignard reagent utilized. In this study, additives such as styrene and 1-pentene are shown to alter the end-group composition of tolyl-functionalized P3HTs as determined by MALDI-TOF MS. In particular, when quenching the GRIM polymerization with tolylmagnesium bromide a modest decrease in the difunctional product is observed, and the yield of the monofunctional product increases significantly. Temperature and lithium chloride (LiCl) addition also play impactful roles. Monofunctional P3HT is found to be the major product (65%) when the functionalization is done in the presence of LiCl and styrene at 0oC, whereas in the absence of additives the monofunctional product is present at only 20%.

  8. Group Lidcombe Program Treatment for Early Stuttering: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnott, Simone; Onslow, Mark; O'Brian, Sue; Packman, Ann; Jones, Mark; Block, Susan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: This study adds to the Lidcombe Program evidence base by comparing individual and group treatment of preschoolers who stutter. Method: A randomized controlled trial of 54 preschoolers was designed to establish whether group delivery outcomes were not inferior to the individual model. The group arm used a rolling group model, in which a…

  9. [Decomposition of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into absorption spectra of prosthetic group and apoprotein by means of an additive model].

    PubMed

    Lavrinenko, I A; Vashanov, G A; Artyukhov, V G

    2015-01-01

    The decomposition pathways of hemoglobin UV absorption spectrum into the absorption spectra of the protein and non-protein components are proposed and substantiated by means of an additive model. We have established that the heme component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 269.2 nm (ε = 97163) and the apoprotein component has an absorption band with a maximum at λ(max) = 278.4 nm (ε = 48669) for the wavelength range from 240.0 to 320.0 nm. An integral relative proportion of absorption for the heme fraction (78.8%) and apoprotein (21.2%) in the investigating wavelength range is defined.

  10. Additional borehole geophysical logging at Waste Area Grouping 1 at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    This technical memorandum describes the borehole geophysical logging performed at selected coreholes at Waste Area Grouping 1 between March and November 1991 in support of the remedial investigation. The primary objectives of the borehole geophysical logging program were to (1) identify fractured bedrock zones and identify those fractured bedrock zones participating in active groundwater flow, (2) correlate the fractured intervals with the regional stratigraphy described, and (3) further characterize local bedrock geology and hydrogeology and gain insight about the bedrock aquifer flow system. A secondary objective was to provide stratigraphic correlations with existing logs for coreholes CH001 through CH005. Fractured bedrock zones and active or open fractures were identified in all coreholes logged. The fracture identification and analysis process was intended to distinguish between open or active fractures participating in active groundwater flow and closed or inactive fractures that are partially or completely filled (such as with calcite mineralization) and do not support groundwater circulation. Most of the fractures identified are bedding plane. Fracture occurrence varies with the different units of the Chickamauga Group; the greatest density of fractures and active fractures occurs in the upper 150 ft of stratum cored. Fractures actively contributing to groundwater flow were also identified, and direction of fluid movement within fractures was identified for those coreholes with flowmeter data.

  11. Analysis of Time to Event Outcomes in Randomized Controlled Trials by Generalized Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Argyropoulos, Christos; Unruh, Mark L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Randomized Controlled Trials almost invariably utilize the hazard ratio calculated with a Cox proportional hazard model as a treatment efficacy measure. Despite the widespread adoption of HRs, these provide a limited understanding of the treatment effect and may even provide a biased estimate when the assumption of proportional hazards in the Cox model is not verified by the trial data. Additional treatment effect measures on the survival probability or the time scale may be used to supplement HRs but a framework for the simultaneous generation of these measures is lacking. Methods By splitting follow-up time at the nodes of a Gauss Lobatto numerical quadrature rule, techniques for Poisson Generalized Additive Models (PGAM) can be adopted for flexible hazard modeling. Straightforward simulation post-estimation transforms PGAM estimates for the log hazard into estimates of the survival function. These in turn were used to calculate relative and absolute risks or even differences in restricted mean survival time between treatment arms. We illustrate our approach with extensive simulations and in two trials: IPASS (in which the proportionality of hazards was violated) and HEMO a long duration study conducted under evolving standards of care on a heterogeneous patient population. Findings PGAM can generate estimates of the survival function and the hazard ratio that are essentially identical to those obtained by Kaplan Meier curve analysis and the Cox model. PGAMs can simultaneously provide multiple measures of treatment efficacy after a single data pass. Furthermore, supported unadjusted (overall treatment effect) but also subgroup and adjusted analyses, while incorporating multiple time scales and accounting for non-proportional hazards in survival data. Conclusions By augmenting the HR conventionally reported, PGAMs have the potential to support the inferential goals of multiple stakeholders involved in the evaluation and appraisal of clinical trial

  12. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the CD-1 mouse.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul; Reeve, Lesley

    2007-06-01

    Current regulatory thinking allows for the use of single control groups for rodent carcinogenicity testing although there has been a trend until recently to use dual control groups. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether a shift from dual to single control groups will affect the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. A recent evaluation of dual control carcinogenicity data in the rat (Baldrick, Toxicol Pathol 2005, 33: 283-291) showed that although no major differences in tumor incidences between the control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred and in cases were a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. In this paper, the results of 10 mouse carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2004, with 2 control groups, are presented. As in the rat, interstudy variation was seen and in some cases, the use of dual control groups assisted in the tumor risk assessment. Thus, the continued use of 2 control groups can have a vital role in mouse carcinogenicity studies. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used mouse strain.

  13. Safety Evaluation Report related to Hydrogen Control Owners Group assessment of Mark 3 containments

    SciTech Connect

    Li, C.Y.; Kudrick, J.A.

    1990-10-01

    Title 10 of the Code of Federal Regulations (10 CFR), Section 50.44 Standards for Combustible Gas Control System in Light-Water-Cooled Power Reactors,'' requires that systems be provided to control hydrogen concentration in the containment atmosphere following an accident to ensure that containment integrity is maintained. The purpose of this report is to provide regulatory guidance to licensees with Mark III containments with regard to demonstrating compliance with 10 CFR 50.44, Section (c)(3)(vi) and (c)(3)(vii). In this report, the staff provides its evaluation of the generic methodology proposed by the Hydrogen Control Owners Group. This generic methodology is documented in Topical Report HGN-112-NP, Generic Hydrogen Control Information for BWR/6 Mark III Containments.'' In addition, the staff has recommended that the vulnerability to interruption of power to the hydrogen igniters be evaluated further on a plant-specific basis as part of the individual plant examination of the plants with Mark III containments. 10 figs., 1 tab.

  14. A randomized clinical trial comparing general exercise, McKenzie treatment and a control group in patients with neck pain.

    PubMed

    Kjellman, Görel; Oberg, Birgitta

    2002-07-01

    Seventy-seven patients with neck pain in the primary health care were included in a prospective, randomized clinical trial and randomly assigned to general exercise, McKenzie treatment, or a control group. Seventy patients completed the treatment; response rate 93% at 12-month follow-up. All three groups showed significant improvement regarding the main outcomes, pain intensity and Neck Disability Index, even at 12-month follow-up, but there was no significant difference between the groups. In all, 79% reported that they were better or completely restored after treatment, although 51% reported constant/daily pain. In the McKenzie group compared with the control group, a tendency toward greater improvement was noted for pain intensity at 3 weeks and at 6-month follow-up, and for post-treatment Neck Disability Index. Significant improvement in Distress and Risk Assessment Method scores was shown in the McKenzie group only. The three groups had similar recurrence rates, although after 12 months the McKenzie group showed a tendency toward fewer visits for additional health care. The study did not provide a definite evidence of treatment efficacy in patients with neck pain, however, there was a tendency toward a better outcome with the two active alternatives compared with the control group.

  15. Orientation Control of Block Copolymers Using Surface Active, Phase-Preferential Additives.

    PubMed

    Vora, Ankit; Schmidt, Kristin; Alva, Gabriela; Arellano, Noel; Magbitang, Teddie; Chunder, Anindarupa; Thompson, Leslie E; Lofano, Elizabeth; Pitera, Jed W; Cheng, Joy Y; Sanders, Daniel P

    2016-11-02

    Orientation control of thin film nanostructures derived from block copolymers (BCPs) are of great interest for various emerging technologies like separation membranes, nanopatterning, and energy storage. While many BCP compositions have been developed for these applications, perpendicular orientation of these BCP domains is still very challenging to achieve. Herein we report on a new, integration-friendly approach in which small amounts of a phase-preferential, surface active polymer (SAP) was used as an additive to a polycarbonate-containing BCP formulation to obtain perpendicularly oriented domains with 19 nm natural periodicity upon thermal annealing. In this work, the vertically oriented BCP domains were used to demonstrate next generation patterning applications for advanced semiconductor nodes. Furthermore, these domains were used to demonstrate pattern transfer into a hardmask layer via commonly used etch techniques and graphoepitaxy-based directed self-assembly using existing lithographic integration schemes. We believe that this novel formulation-based approach can easily be extended to other applications beyond nanopatterning.

  16. Controlling the corrosion and cathodic activation of magnesium via microalloying additions of Ge

    PubMed Central

    Liu, R. L.; Hurley, M. F.; Kvryan, A.; Williams, G.; Scully, J. R.; Birbilis, N.

    2016-01-01

    The evolution of corrosion morphology and kinetics for magnesium (Mg) have been demonstrated to be influenced by cathodic activation, which implies that the rate of the cathodic partial reaction is enhanced as a result of anodic dissolution. This phenomenon was recently demonstrated to be moderated by the use of arsenic (As) alloying as a poison for the cathodic reaction, leading to significantly improved corrosion resistance. The pursuit of alternatives to toxic As is important as a means to imparting a technologically safe and effective corrosion control method for Mg (and its alloys). In this work, Mg was microalloyed with germanium (Ge), with the aim of improving corrosion resistance by retarding cathodic activation. Based on a combined analysis herein, we report that Ge is potent in supressing the cathodic hydrogen evolution reaction (reduction of water) upon Mg, improving corrosion resistance. With the addition of Ge, cathodic activation of Mg subject to cyclic polarisation was also hindered, with beneficial implications for future Mg electrodes. PMID:27350286

  17. Thermochemical Properties Enthalpy, Entropy, and Heat Capacity of C1-C4 Fluorinated Hydrocarbons: Fluorocarbon Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Castillo, Álvaro; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2015-07-23

    Enthalpies of formation for 14 C2–C4 fluorinated hydrocarbons were calculated with nine popular ab initio and density functional theory methods: B3LYP, CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, M06, M06-2X, ωB97X, G4, G4(MP2)-6X, and W1U via several series of isodesmic reactions. The recommended ideal gas phase ΔHf298° (kcal mol(–1)) values calculated in this study are the following: −65.4 for CH3CH2F; −70.2 for CH3CH2CH2F; −75.3 for CH3CHFCH3; −75.2 for CH3CH2CH2CH2F; −80.3 for CH3CHFCH2CH3; −108.1 for CH2F2; −120.9 for CH3CHF2; −125.8 for CH3CH2CHF2; −133.3 for CH3CF2CH3; −166.7 for CHF3; −180.5 for CH3CF3; −185.5 for CH3CH2CF3; −223.2 for CF4; and −85.8 for (CH3)3CF. Entropies (S298° in cal mol(–1) K(–1)) were estimated using B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) computed frequencies and geometries. Rotational barriers were determined and hindered internal rotational contributions for S298°, and Cp(T) were calculated using the rigid rotor harmonic oscillator approximation, with direct integration over energy levels of the intramolecular rotation potential energy curve. Thermochemical properties for the fluorinated carbon groups C/C/F/H2, C/C2/F/H, C/C/F2/H, C/C2/F2, and C/C/F3 were derived from the above target fluorocarbons. Previously published enthalpies and groups for 1,2-difluoroethane, 1,1,2-trifluoroethane, 1,1,2,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2-tetrafluoroethane, 1,1,1,2,2-pentafluoroethane, 2-fluoro-2-methylpropane that were previously determined via work reaction schemes are revised using updated reference species values. Standard deviations are compared for the calculation methods.

  18. Ring Walking/Oxidative Addition Reactions for the Controlled Synthesis of Conjugated Polymers

    SciTech Connect

    Bazan, Guillermo C

    2012-04-03

    Power conversion efficiencies of plastic solar cells depend strongly on the molecular weight characteristics of the semiconducting polymers used for their fabrication. The synthesis of these materials typically relies on transition metal mediated catalytic reactions. In many instances, the ideal structures cannot be attained because of deficiencies in these reactions, particularly when it comes to being able to achieve high number average molecular weights and narrow molecular weight distributions. Another important conjugated polymer structure of interest is one in which a single functional group is attached at the end group of the chain. Such systems would be ideal for modifying surface properties at interfaces and for labeling biomolecular probes used in fluorescent biosensors. To respond to the challenges above, our efforts have centered on the design of homogenous transition metal complexes that are easy to prepare and effective in carrying out living, or quasi-living, condensative chain polymerization reactions. The key mechanistic challenge for the success of this reaction is to force the insertion of one monomer unit at a time via a process that involves migration of the transition metal-containing fragment to one terminus of the polymer chain. Chain growth characteristics are therefore favored when the metal does not dissociate from the newly formed reductive elimination product. We have proposed that dissociation is disfavored by the formation of a -complex, in which the metal can sample various locations of the electronically delocalized framework, a process that we term ring-walking , and find the functionality where oxidative addition takes place. Success has been achieved in the nickel-mediated cross coupling reaction of Grignard reagents with aromatic halides by using bromo[1,2-bis(diphenylphosphino)ethane]phenylnickel. This reagent can yield poly(thiophene)s (one of the most widely used type of polymer in plastic solar cells) with excellent

  19. Three Additional Linkage Groups That Repress Transcription and Meiotic Recombination in the Mating-Type Region of Schizosaccharomyces Pombe

    PubMed Central

    Thon, G.; Cohen, A.; Klar, A. J.

    1994-01-01

    The mating-type genes of Schizosaccharomyces pombe are found at three locations in the same chromosomal region. These genes are in an active configuration at the mat1 locus and in an inactive configuration at the mat2 and mat3 loci. The mechanism that represses transcription of mat2 and mat3 also inactivates other promoters introduced nearby and is accompanied by a block to meiotic recombination in the mat2-mat3 interval, suggesting that this mechanism involves a particular chromatin structure. We present evidence that the transcription and recombination blocks require three newly defined trans-acting loci, clr2, clr3 and clr4, in addition to the previously identified clr1, rik1 and swi6 loci. We also investigated the role of mat2 cis-acting sequences in silencing. Four cis-acting elements that repress mat2 in a plasmid context were previously identified. Deletion of two of these elements proved to have little effect in a chromosomal context. However, when combined with mutations in trans-acting genes, deletion of the same two elements greatly enhanced mat2 expression. The observed cumulative effects suggest a redundancy in the silencing mechanism. PMID:8001791

  20. Remember to do: insomnia versus control groups in a prospective memory task.

    PubMed

    Fabbri, Marco; Tonetti, Lorenzo; Martoni, Monica; Natale, Vincenzo

    2015-01-01

    Primary insomnia is characterized by difficulty in falling asleep and/or remaining asleep, by early morning awakening and/or nonrestorative sleep, and resultant daytime dysfunction in the absence of specific physical, mental, or substance-related causes. However, the studies on daytime cognitive functioning of insomnia patients report inconclusive results. This retrospective study aimed to compare the performance of insomnia patients (N = 54) to that of controls (N = 113) in a naturalistic prospective memory task. Task performance was defined by the percentage of times the event-marker button of an actigraph was pressed, at lights-off time and at wake-up time. The performance pattern in the prospective memory task was similar in both groups. In addition, the task was performed better at lights-off time than at wake-up time regardless of group. Post-hoc subgroup analysis showed that there were more insomnia patients who performed the task perfectly (i.e., 100%) than controls. Performance at wake-up time was significantly correlated to objective sleep quality (i.e., sleep efficiency) only in insomnia patients.

  1. Additive Effect of Qidan Dihuang Grain, a Traditional Chinese Medicine, and Angiotensin Receptor Blockers on Albuminuria Levels in Patients with Diabetic Nephropathy: A Randomized, Parallel-Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Xiang, Lei; Jiang, Pingping; Zhou, Lin; Sun, Xiaomin; Bi, Jianlu; Cui, Lijuan; Nie, Xiaoli; Luo, Ren; Liu, Yanyan

    2016-01-01

    Albuminuria is characteristic of early-stage diabetic nephropathy (DN). The conventional treatments with angiotensin receptor blockers (ARB) are unable to prevent the development of albuminuria in normotensive individuals with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Purpose. The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of ARB combined with a Chinese formula Qidan Dihuang grain (QDDHG) in improving albuminuria and Traditional Chinese Medicine Symptom (TCMS) scores in normotensive individuals with T2DM. Methods. Eligible patients were randomized to the treatment group and the control group. Results. Compared with baseline (week 0), both treatment and control groups markedly improved the 24-hour albuminuria, total proteinuria (TPU), and urinary albumin to creatinine ratio (A/C) at 4, 8, and 12 weeks. Between treatment and the control group, the levels of albuminuria in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the control group at 8 and 12 weeks (p < 0.05). In addition, treatment group markedly decreased the scores of TCMS after treatment. Conclusion. This trial suggests that QDDHG combined with ARB administration decreases the levels of albuminuria and the scores for TCMS in normotensive individuals with T2DM. PMID:27375762

  2. Feasibility of a multi-component additive for efficient control of activated sludge filamentous bulking.

    PubMed

    Seka, A M; Van De Wiele, T; Verstraete, W

    2001-08-01

    Instantaneous improvement of the settling of bulking filamentous activated sludge can be achieved by the addition of a polymer or a large amount (up to 100% of the MLSS concentration) of talc powder to the sludge. Long-term improvement relies on repeated additions, as these additives have no adverse effects on the causative filaments. A multi-component additive was compared to the traditional additives in lab-scale activated sludge units using three highly filamentous sludges from different industrial treatment plants. The study demonstrated that the multi-component additive was superior to the traditional remedies. It was shown that, in the case of severe filamentous bulking, a single addition of the new additive immediately improved sludge settling and exerted a destructive effect on the causative filamentous bacteria. Thus, the latter additive also ensured a long-term sludge sedimentation improvement. The traditional additives exhibited an immediate and short-term effect. The novel additive also retarded sludge rising due to denitrification and it improved sludge dewaterability. The study revealed Nostocoido limicola II, with slightly hydrophobic cell wall, to be somewhat resistant to the quaternary ammonium salt present as biocide in the additive.

  3. A Serious Videogame as an Additional Therapy Tool for Training Emotional Regulation and Impulsivity Control in Severe Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tárrega, Salomé; Castro-Carreras, Laia; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Santamaría, Juan J.; Forcano, Laura; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits. It is also linked to deficits in emotional regulation and frequently co-occurs with anxiety and depression symptoms. There is also evidence that emotional dysregulation may play a mediatory role between GD and psychopathological symptomatology. Few studies have reported the outcomes of psychological interventions that specifically address these underlying processes. Objectives: To assess the utility of the Playmancer platform, a serious video game, as an additional therapy tool in a CBT intervention for GD, and to estimate pre-post changes in measures of impulsivity, anger expression and psychopathological symptomatology. Method: The sample comprised a single group of 16 male treatment-seeking individuals with severe GD diagnosis. Therapy intervention consisted of 16 group weekly CBT sessions and, concurrently, 10 additional weekly sessions of a serious video game. Pre-post treatment scores on South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (I7), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T), and Novelty Seeking from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) were compared. Results: After the intervention, significant changes were observed in several measures of impulsivity, anger expression and other psychopathological symptoms. Dropout and relapse rates during treatment were similar to those described in the literature for CBT. Conclusion: Complementing CBT interventions for GD with a specific therapy approach like a serious video game might be helpful in addressing certain underlying factors which are usually difficult to change, including impulsivity and anger expression. PMID:26617550

  4. Addition of Ceftriaxone and Amikacin to a Ciprofloxacin plus Metronidazole Regimen for Preventing Infectious Complications of Transrectal Ultrasound-Guided Prostate Biopsy: A Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Izadpanahi, Mohammad-Hossein; Majidi, Seyed Mahmood; Khorrami, Mohammad-Hatef; Mohammadi-Sichani, Mehrdad

    2017-01-01

    Background. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of adding single doses of ceftriaxone and amikacin to a ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole regimen on the reduction of infectious complications following transrectal ultrasound-guided prostate biopsy (TRUS Bx). Materials and Methods. Four hundred and fifty patients who were candidates for TRUS Bx were divided into two groups of 225 each. The control group received ciprofloxacin 500 mg orally every 12 hours together with metronidazole 500 mg orally every 8 hours from the day prior to the procedure until the fifth postoperative day. In the second group, single doses of ceftriaxone 1 g by intravenous infusion and amikacin 5 mg/kg intramuscularly were administered 30–60 minutes before TRUS Bx in addition to the oral antimicrobials described for group 1. The incidence of infection was compared between the groups. Results. The incidence of infectious complications in the intervention group was significantly lower than that in the control group (4.6% versus 0.9%, p = 0.017). Conclusion. The addition of single doses of intramuscular amikacin and intravenously infused ceftriaxone to our prophylactic regimen of ciprofloxacin plus metronidazole resulted in a statistically significant reduction of infectious complications following TRUS Bx. PMID:28167960

  5. Water makes the difference: rearrangement of water solvation layer triggers non-additivity of functional group contributions in protein-ligand binding.

    PubMed

    Biela, Adam; Betz, Michael; Heine, Andreas; Klebe, Gerhard

    2012-08-01

    The binding of four congeneric peptide-like thermolysin inhibitors has been studied by high-resolution crystal structure analysis and isothermal titration calorimetry. The ligands differ only by a terminal carboxylate and/or methyl group. A surprising non-additivity of functional group contributions for the carboxylate and/or methyl groups is detected. Adding the methyl first and then the carboxylate group results in a small Gibbs free energy increase and minor enthalpy/entropy partitioning for the first modification, whereas the second involves a strong affinity increase combined with large enthalpy/entropy changes. However, first adding the carboxylate and then the methyl group yields reverse effects: the acidic group attachment now causes minor effects, whereas the added methyl group provokes large changes. As all crystal structures show virtually identical binding modes, affinity changes are related to rearrangements of the first solvation layer next to the S(2)' pocket. About 20-25 water molecules are visible next to the studied complexes. The added COO(-) groups perturb the local water network in both carboxylated complexes, and the attached methyl groups provide favorable interaction sites for water molecules. Apart from one example, a contiguously connected water network between protein and ligand functional groups is observed in all complexes. In the complex with the carboxylated ligand, which still lacks the terminal methyl group, the water network is unfavorably ruptured. This results in a surprising thermodynamic signature showing only a minor affinity increase upon COO(-) group attachment. Because the further added methyl group provides a favorable interaction site for water, the network can be reestablished, and a strong affinity increase with a large enthalpy/entropy signature is then detected.

  6. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. 46 CFR Appendix F to Subpart C of... - Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds [Optional Rider to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds F Appendix F to Subpart C of Part 515 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION... Against Ocean Transportation Intermediaries Pt. 515, Subpt. C, App. F Appendix F to Subpart C of Part...

  8. 46 CFR Appendix F to Subpart C of... - Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds [Optional Rider to...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 9 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Optional Rider for Additional NVOCC Financial Responsibility for Group Bonds F Appendix F to Subpart C of Part 515 Shipping FEDERAL MARITIME COMMISSION... Against Ocean Transportation Intermediaries Pt. 515, Subpt. C, App. F Appendix F to Subpart C of Part...

  9. Time optimal control of an additional food provided predator-prey system with applications to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2010-04-01

    Use of additional food has been widely recognized by experimental scientists as one of the important tools for biological control such as species conservation and pest management. The quality and quantity of additional food supplied to the predators is known to play a vital role in the controllability of the system. The present study is continuation of a previous work that highlights the importance of quality and quantity of the additional food in the dynamics of a predator-prey system in the context of biological control. In this article the controllability of the predator-prey system is analyzed by considering inverse of quality of the additional food as the control variable. Control strategies are offered to steer the system from a given initial state to a required terminal state in a minimum time by formulating Mayer problem of optimal control. It is observed that an optimal strategy is a combination of bang-bang controls and could involve multiple switches. Properties of optimal paths are derived using necessary conditions for Mayer problem. In the light of the results evolved in this work it is possible to eradicate the prey from the eco-system in the minimum time by providing the predator with high quality additional food, which is relevant in the pest management. In the perspective of biological conservation this study highlights the possibilities to drive the state to an admissible interior equilibrium (irrespective of its stability nature) of the system in a minimum time.

  10. Addition of surfactants in ozonated water cleaning for the suppression of functional group formation and particle adhesion on the SiO2 surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Jahyun; Im, Kyungtaek; Lim, Sangwoo

    2011-04-01

    Various kinds of surfactants were added to a cleaning solution and deionized (DI) water, and their effect on the suppression of organic function group formation and particle adhesion to a SiO2 surface was analyzed using multi-internal reflection Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The results implied that attached organic functional groups are affected by the chemical structure of a surfactant in DI water. Furthermore, the addition of anionic glycolic acid ethoxylate 4-tert-butylphenyl ether (GAE4E) is the most effective in terms of preventing organic group attachment and particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface, whether it was added to the cleaning solution or post-cleaning rinse water, with or without polystyrene latex particles. Moreover, it was possible to completely prevent particle adhesion to the SiO2 surface with the proper addition of GAE4E in DIO3 solution.

  11. A feasibility study regarding the addition of a fifth control to a rotorcraft in-flight simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, Simon; Andrisani, Dominick, II

    1992-01-01

    The addition of a large movable horizontal tail surface to the control system of a rotorcraft in-flight simulator being developed from a Sikorsky UH-60A Black Hawk Helicopter is evaluated. The capabilities of the control surface as a trim control and as an active control are explored. The helicopter dynamics are modeled using the Generic Helicopter simulation program developed by Sikorsky Aircraft. The effect of the horizontal tail on the helicopter trim envelope is examined by plotting trim maps of the aircraft attitude and controls as a function of the flight speed and horizontal tail incidence. The control power of the tail surface relative to that of the other controls is examined by comparing control derivatives extracted from the simulation program over the flight speed envelope. The horizontal tail's contribution as an active control is evaluated using an explicit model following control synthesis involving a linear model of the helicopter in steady, level flight at a flight speed of eighty knots. The horizontal tail is found to provide additional control flexibility in the longitudinal axis. As a trim control, it provides effective control of the trim pitch attitude at mid to high forward speeds. As an active control, the horizontal tail provides useful pitching moment generating capabilities at mid to high forward speeds.

  12. Establishment of a series of alien monosomic addition lines of Japanese bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.) with extra chromosomes from shallot (A. cepa L. aggregatum group).

    PubMed

    Shigyo, M; Tashiro, Y; Isshiki, S; Miyazaki, S

    1996-12-01

    Forty one plants of alien monosomic addition lines of Allium fistulosum L. with extra chromosomes from A. cepa L. Aggregatum group (FF + nA) were produced through the second backcross of amphidiploids between these two species to A. fistulosum. Identification of the extra chromosomes in the 16 plants by elaborate karyotype analyses indicate that a complete series (eight different types) of the alien monosomic addition lines was established in Allium for the first time in this study. Chromosomal locations of malate dehydrogenase (MDH) gene, triosephosphate isomerase (TPI) gene and 5S rDNA of A. cepa Aggregatum group were determined using the series; The gene locus Mdh-1 was located on 4A, Tpi-1 on 3A and a 5S rDNA locus on 7A. Our previous and present studies using the alien monosomic addition lines revealed 11 genetic markers (isozyme and 5S rDNA) assigned to all eight chromosomes of A. cepa Aggregatum group, and these markers reconfirmed the completion of the series. Extra chromosomes of 25 other plants were examined by means of simple analyses of the chromosome markers and karyotypes. Of the total 41 plants, frequencies of the alien monosomic addition lines with extra chromosomes 1A to 8A were as follows: 1A, 5 plants; 2A, 3; 3A, 5; 4A, 9; 5A, 4; 6A, 2; 7A, 11; and 8A, 2.

  13. 78 FR 74218 - Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-10

    ... Imposition of Additional Sanctions on Syria Under the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare... chemical weapons in violation of international law or lethal chemical weapons against its own nationals... the Chemical and Biological Weapons Control and Warfare Elimination Act of 1991, 22 U.S.C. 5604(a)...

  14. Competition between planar and central chiral control elements in nucleophilic addition to ferrocenyl imine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Joly, Kévin M; Wilson, Claire; Blake, Alexander J; Tucker, James H R; Moody, Christopher J

    2008-11-07

    Planar chirality associated with the ferrocene in ferrocenyl oximes and hydrazones bearing chiral auxiliaries effectively competes with or overrides the normally excellent stereocontrol afforded by the auxiliary in determining the diastereoselectivity of addition to the C=N bond.

  15. Asymmetric synthesis of intermediates for otamixaban and premafloxacin by the chiral ligand-controlled asymmetric conjugate addition of a lithium amide.

    PubMed

    Sakai, Takeo; Kawamoto, Yoshito; Tomioka, Kiyoshi

    2006-06-09

    A chiral ligand-controlled conjugate addition reaction of lithium benzyl(trimethylsilyl)amide with tert-butyl enoates gave the corresponding lithium enolates that were then treated with electrophiles, giving anti-alkylation products with high ee up to 98%. The benzyl group on the amino nitrogen was removed by the oxidation of secondary amines to imines and subsequent transoximation to give 3-aminoalkanoates in good yields. The products are the possible key intermediates of otamixaban and premafloxacin.

  16. Controlled synthesis of monodisperse gold nanorods with different aspect ratios in the presence of aromatic additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yun; Wang, Feihu; Guo, Yuan; Chen, Rongjun; Shen, Yuanyuan; Guo, Aijie; Liu, Jieying; Zhang, Xiao; Zhou, Dejian; Guo, Shengrong

    2014-12-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of monodisperse gold nanorods (GNRs) via a simple seeded growth approach in the presence of different aromatic additives, such as 7-bromo-3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (7-BrHNA), 3-hydroxy-2-naphthoic acid (HNA), 5-bromosalicylic acid (5-BrSA), salicylic acid (SA), or phenol (PhOH). Effects of the aromatic additives and hydrochloric acid (HCl) on the structure and optical properties of the synthesized GNRs were investigated. The longitudinal surface plasmon resonance (LSPR) peak wavelength of the resulting GNRs was found to be dependent on the aromatic additive in the following sequence: 5-BrSA (778 nm) > 7-BrHNA (706 nm) > SA (688 nm) > HNA (676 nm) > PhOH (638 nm) without the addition of HCl, but this was changed to 7-BrHNA (920 nm) > SA (890 nm) > HNA (872 nm) > PhOH (858 nm) > 5-BrSA (816 nm) or 7-BrHNA (1,005 nm) > PhOH (995 nm) > SA (990 nm) > HNA (980 nm) > 5-BrSA (815 nm) with the addition of HCl or HNO3, respectively. The LSPR peak wavelength was increased with the increasing concentration of 7-BrHNA without HCl addition; however, there was a maximum LSPR peak wavelength when HCl was added. Interestingly, the LSPR peak wavelength was also increased with the amount of HCl added. The results presented here thus established a simple approach to synthesize monodisperse GNRs of different LSPR wavelengths.

  17. The influence of different growth hormone addition protocols to poor ovarian responders on clinical outcomes in controlled ovary stimulation cycles

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Li; Wang, Li; Lv, Fang; Huang, Xia-Man; Wang, Li-Ping; Pan, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Background: Growth hormone (GH) is used as an adjuvant therapy in in vitro fertilization and embryo transfer (IVF-ET) for poor ovarian responders, but findings for its effects on outcomes of IVF have been conflicting. The aim of the study was to compare IVF-ET outcomes among women with poor ovarian responders, and find which subgroup can benefit from the GH addition. Methods: We searched the databases, using the terms “growth hormone,” “GH,” “IVF,” “in vitro fertilization.” Randomized controlled trials (RCT) were included if they assessed pregnancy rate, live birth rate, collected oocytes, fertilization rate, and implantation rate. Extracted the data from the corresponding articles, Mantel–Haenszel random-effects model, or fixed-effects model was used. Eleven studies were included. Results: Clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.65, 95% CI 1.23–2.22), live birth rate (RR1.73, 1.25–2.40), collected oocytes number (SMD 1.09, 95% CI 0.54–1.64), MII oocytes number (SMD 1.48, 0.84–2.13), and E2 on human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG) day (SMD 1.03, 0.18–1.89) were significantly increased in the GH group. The cancelled cycles rate (RR 0.65, 0.45–0.94) and the dose of gonadotropin (Gn) (SMD –0.83, –1.47, –0.19) were significantly lower in patients who received GH. Subgroup analysis indicated that the GH addition with Gn significantly increased the clinical pregnancy rate (RR 1.76, 1.25–2.48) and the live birth rate (RR 1.91, 1.29–2.83). Conclusion: The GH addition can significantly improve the clinical pregnancy rate and live birth rate. Furthermore, the GH addition time and collocation of medications may affect the pregnancy outcome. PMID:28328856

  18. Effectiveness of preventive support groups for children of mentally ill or addicted parents: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van Santvoort, Floor; Hosman, Clemens M H; van Doesum, Karin T M; Janssens, Jan M A M

    2014-06-01

    In various countries preventive support groups are offered to children of mentally ill and/or addicted parents to reduce the risk that they will develop problems themselves. This study assessed the effectiveness of Dutch support groups for children aged 8-12 years old in terms of reducing negative cognitions; improving social support, competence, and parent-child interaction (direct intervention goals); and reducing emotional and behavioural problems (ultimate intervention aim). Children from 254 families were randomly assigned to the intervention or a control condition. Parents and children completed questionnaires at baseline and 3 and 6 months later. Emotional and behavioural problems of intervention group children were also assessed 1 year after the start. Univariate analyses of variance showed that children in the intervention group experienced a greater decrease in negative cognitions and sought more social support, immediately after participation and 3 months later, as compared to control group children. They also remained stable in their feelings of social acceptance (competence aspect) immediately after the intervention, whereas these feelings declined in control group children. The intervention and control groups both improved over time in terms of cognitions, competence, parent-child interaction and emotional and behavioural problem scores. Additional improvement in terms of problem scores was found in the intervention group 1 year after baseline. Further enhancement of effectiveness requires re-consideration of the support group goals; it should be studied whether the goals reflect the most important and influential risk and protective factors for this specific population. Besides, effects should be studied over a longer period.

  19. Control of Escherichia coli O157:H7 in contaminated alfalfa silage: Effects of silage additives.

    PubMed

    Ogunade, I M; Kim, D H; Jiang, Y; Weinberg, Z G; Jeong, K C; Adesogan, A T

    2016-06-01

    This study was conducted to examine if adding microbial inoculants or propionic acid to alfalfa silages contaminated with Escherichia coli O157:H7 would inhibit the growth of the pathogen during or after ensiling. Alfalfa forage was harvested at the early bloom stage, wilted to a dry matter concentration of 54%, chopped to 19-mm lengths, and ensiled after treatment with one of the following: (1) distilled water (control); (2) 1×10(5) cfu/g of E. coli O157:H7 (EC); (3) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus plantarum (EC+LP); (4) EC and 1×10(6) cfu/g of Lactobacillus buchneri (EC+LB); and (5) EC and 2.2g/kg of propionic acid (EC+PA). Each treatment was ensiled in quadruplicate in laboratory silos for 0, 3, 7, 16, and 100d and analyzed for EC counts, pH, and organic acids. In addition, samples from d 100 were analyzed for chemical composition, ammonia-N, counts of yeasts and molds, and aerobic stability. Escherichia coli O157:H7 was detected in all silages until d 7, but by d 16 it was not detected in those treated with EC+LB and EC+LP, though it was still detected in EC and EC+PA silages. However, by d 100, the pathogen was not detected in any silage. The rate of pH decrease to 5.0 was fastest for the EC+LP silage (7d), followed by the EC+LB silage (16d). Nevertheless, all silages had attained a pH of or less than 5.0 by d 100. The rapid decrease in pH in EC+LP and EC+LB silages was observed due to higher lactate and acetate concentrations, respectively, relative to the other silages during the early fermentation phase (d 3-16). Propionic acid was only detected in the EC+PA silage. Yeast counts were lowest in EC+LB and EC+PA silages. Subsamples of all d-100 silages were reinoculated with 1×10(5) cfu/g of EC immediately after silo opening. When the pathogen was subsequently enumerated after 168h of aerobic exposure, it was not detected in silages treated with EC+PA, EC+LB, or EC+LP, which all had pH values less than 5.0. Whereas the EC silage had a pH value of 5

  20. Efficacy and nontarget effects of Larvadex as a feed additive for controlling house flies in caged-layer poultry manure.

    PubMed

    Axtell, R C; Edwards, T D

    1983-12-01

    The insect growth regulator N-cyclopropyl-1,3,5-triazine-2,4,6 triamine (Larvadex, CGA 72662, cyromazine) was provided as a feed additive (.3% Premix per ton of feed) to caged laying hens under field conditions in high rise, wide span and narrow poultry houses. The chemical effectively controlled house flies (Musca domestica) and soldier flies (Hermetia illucens). The feed additive had no adverse effect on the populations of manure-inhabiting mites (Macrochelidae and Uropodidae) and histerid beetles (Carcínops pumulio), which prey on fly eggs and larvae. Satisfactory fly control was demonstrated by use of the additive 50% of the time when the interval without the additive in the feed was 4 days but not when the interval was 7 days. Use of a fly monitoring program to time the use of the feed additive is advocated.

  1. Process Control and Development for Ultrasonic Additive Manufacturing with Embedded Fibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hehr, Adam J.

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a recent additive manufacturing technology which combines ultrasonic metal welding, CNC machining, and mechanized foil layering to create large gapless near net-shape metallic parts. The process has been attracting much attention lately due to its low formation temperature, the capability to join dissimilar metals, and the ability to create complex design features not possible with traditional subtractive processes alone. These process attributes enable light-weighting of structures and components in an unprecedented way. However, UAM is currently limited to niche areas due to the lack of quality tracking and inadequate scientific understanding of the process. As a result, this thesis work is focused on improving both component quality tracking and process understanding through the use of average electrical power input to the welder. Additionally, the understanding and application space of embedding fibers into metals using UAM is investigated, with particular focus on NiTi shape memory alloy fibers.

  2. Group additivity values for estimating the enthalpy of formation of organic compounds: an update and reappraisal. 2. C, H, N, O, S, and halogens.

    PubMed

    Holmes, John L; Aubry, Christiane

    2012-07-05

    This study extends a previous publication on group additivity values (GAVs) for the elements C, H, and O, to include the elements nitrogen, sulfur, and the halogens. The present state and utility of the Benson additivity schemes for estimating the enthalpy of formation (Δ(f)H(0)) of organic compounds are again described, extending them to include more elements. Old and new GAVs for a wide variety of compounds are provided and are revised where necessary. When new terms are proposed, or old ones are significantly altered, the rationale for so doing is presented. GAV derived ring strain values for benzene and pyridine indicate that the aromatic stabilization of each is essentially the same. As before, the thermochemical consequences of replacing one functional group by another are also shown, thus permitting quick shortcuts to the estimation of new Δ(f)H(0) values.

  3. Surface developmental dyslexia is as prevalent as phonological dyslexia when appropriate control groups are employed.

    PubMed

    Wybrow, Dean P; Hanley, J Richard

    2015-01-01

    Previous investigations of the incidence of developmental surface and phonological dyslexia using reading-age-matched control groups have identified many more phonological dyslexics (poor nonword reading relative to irregular-word reading) than surface dyslexics (poor irregular-word reading relative to nonword reading). However, because the measures that have been used to estimate reading age include irregular-word reading ability, they appear inappropriate for assessing the incidence of surface dyslexia. The current study used a novel method for generating control groups whose reading ability was matched to that of the dyslexic sample. The incidence of surface dyslexia was assessed by comparing dyslexic performance with that of a control group who were matched with the dyslexics on a test of nonword reading. The incidence of phonological dyslexia was assessed with reference to a control group who were matched with the dyslexics at irregular-word reading. These control groups led to the identification of an approximately equal number of children with surface and phonological dyslexia. It appeared that selecting control participants who were matched with dyslexics for reading age led to the recruitment of individuals with relatively high nonword reading scores relative to their irregular-word reading scores compared with other types of control group. The theoretical implications of these findings are discussed.

  4. High-dose inhaled corticosteroids or addition of theophylline in patients with poorly controlled asthma?

    PubMed

    Celis, Pilar; Rada, Gabriel

    2015-08-19

    There are several management strategies for patients with poorly controlled asthma despite usual treatment. Increasing doses of inhaled corticosteroids or adding theophylline are among the therapeutic alternatives. However, the latter is associated with important adverse effects. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening 30 databases, we identified only one systematic review including four pertinent randomized controlled trials. We combined the evidence using meta-analysis and generated a summary of findings following the GRADE approach. We concluded it is not clear whether theophylline or high-dose inhaled corticosteroids constitute a better alternative for symptomatic control or reduction in exacerbations in poorly controlled asthmatic patients because the certainty of the evidence is very low.

  5. Food groups and the risk of colorectal cancer: results from a Jordanian case-control study.

    PubMed

    Abu Mweis, Suhad S; Tayyem, Reema F; Shehadah, Ihab; Bawadi, Hiba A; Agraib, Lana M; Bani-Hani, Kamal E; Al-Jaberi, Tareq; Al-Nusairr, Majed

    2015-07-01

    The role of diet in colorectal cancer (CRC) in Jordan has not been studied previously. This study aimed at examining the association between food groups (including grains, fruits, vegetables, milk, and meat and legumes) and CRC risk in Jordan. We compared intakes of the different food groups among CRC patients (n=167) and matched controls (n=240) by age, sex, occupation, and marital status. A validated food frequency questionnaire was used to collect dietary data. Logistic regression was used to evaluate the association of quartiles of intakes of the different food groups with CRC risk. In addition, the association of selected food items with CRC risk was examined. Odds ratios (ORs) for the fourth versus the first quartile of intake were 2.92 [95% confidence interval (CI): 1.40-6.08] for grains, 1.66 (95% CI: 0.81-3.40) for vegetables, 0.55 (95% CI: 0.26-1.16) for fruits, 0.96 (95% CI: 0.46-1.97) for milk, and 1.43 (95% CI: 0.68-2.98) for meat and legumes. In a comparison of the highest with the lowest weekly frequency of consumption, there was a direct association between the risk of CRC and the frequency of consumption of chicken (OR=2.52, 95% CI: 1.33-4.77). An increase in risk was observed with increased consumption of white bread (OR=3.13, 95% CI: 1.18-9.25), whereas consumption of whole bread was associated with a decreased risk for CRC (OR=0.32, 95% CI: 0.12-0.84). Our results support a role of diet in CRC. Direct associations were found for grains, white bread, and chicken, whereas an inverse relation was reported for whole bread.

  6. LONG-TERM DEMONSTRATION OF SORBENT ENHANCEMENT ADDITIVE TECHNOLOGY FOR MERCURY CONTROL

    SciTech Connect

    Jason D. Laumb; Dennis L. Laudal; Grant E. Dunham; John P. Kay; Christopher L. Martin; Jeffrey S. Thompson; Nicholas B. Lentz; Alexander Azenkeng; Kevin C. Galbreath; Lucinda L. Hamre

    2011-05-27

    Long-term demonstration tests of advanced sorbent enhancement additive (SEA) technologies have been completed at five coal-fired power plants. The targeted removal rate was 90% from baseline conditions at all five stations. The plants included Hawthorn Unit 5, Mill Creek Unit 4, San Miguel Unit 1, Centralia Unit 2, and Hoot Lake Unit 2. The materials tested included powdered activated carbon, treated carbon, scrubber additives, and SEAs. In only one case (San Miguel) was >90% removal not attainable. The reemission of mercury from the scrubber at this facility prevented >90% capture.

  7. Using electric fields for pulse compression and group-velocity control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Qian; Kinos, Adam; Thuresson, Axel; Rippe, Lars; Kröll, Stefan

    2017-03-01

    In this article, we experimentally demonstrate a way of controlling the group velocity of an optical pulse by using a combination of spectral hole burning, the slow-light effect, and the linear Stark effect in a rare-earth-ion-doped crystal. The group velocity can be changed continuously by a factor of 20 without significant pulse distortion or absorption of the pulse energy. With a similar technique, an optical pulse can also be compressed in time. Theoretical simulations were developed to simulate the group-velocity control and the pulse compression processes. The group velocity as well as the pulse reshaping are solely controlled by external voltages which makes it promising in quantum information and quantum communication processes. It is also proposed that the group velocity can be changed even more in an Er-doped crystal while at the same time having a transmission band matching the telecommunication wavelength.

  8. Environmental Assessment for a Two-Story Addition to Building 503 -- Hydraulic Flight Controls Lean Transformation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-03-01

    The addition will be outfitted with state-of-the-art equipment and the repair process and layout will be transformed in accordance with lean ... manufacturing concepts. Following federal regulations, this Environmental Assessment (EA) has been designed and written to do the following: (1) provide the

  9. Taxonomy of the hyper-diverse ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in the Malagasy region (Hymenoptera, Formicidae, Myrmicinae) – first record of the T. setigerum species group and additions to the Malagasy species groups with an updated illustrated identification key

    PubMed Central

    Hita Garcia, Francisco; Fisher, Brian L.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract In this study we provide an update to the taxonomy of the ant genus Tetramorium Mayr in Madagascar. We report the first record of the Tetramorium setigerum species group in Madagascar and describe the only Malagasy representative as Tetramorium cavernicola sp. n., which is known only from a cave in Ankarana. In addition, we provide an overview of the 19 proposed Malagasy species groups, and discuss their zoogeography and relationships to other groups and larger lineages within the hyper-diverse genus Tetramorium. At present, we recognise a highly unique Malagasy Tetramorium fauna with 113 species endemic to the island of Madagascar out of a total of 125 translating into an endemism rate of 93%. We hypothesise that this fauna is based on one or a few colonisation events from the Afrotropical region, with subsequent adaptive radiation in Madagascar. Furthermore, we present an updated and illustrated identification key to the Tetramorium species groups in the Malagasy region. PMID:26257564

  10. Motion Control of Drift-Free, Left-Invariant Systems on Lie Groups

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Motion Control of Drift-Free, Left-Invariant Systems on Lie Groups Naomi Ehrich Leonardy Department of Mechanical ...SI R INSTITUTE FOR SYSTEMS RESEARCH Sponsored by the National Science Foundation Engineering Research Center Program, the University of Maryland...Harvard University, and Industry TECHNICAL RESEARCH REPORT Motion Control of Drift-Free, Left-Invariant Systems on Lie Groups by N.E. Leonard, P.S

  11. All-optical tunable group-velocity control of femtosecond pulse by quadratic nonlinear cascading interactions.

    PubMed

    Lu, Wenjie; Chen, Yuping; Miu, Lihong; Chen, Xianfeng; Xia, Yuxing; Zeng, Xianglong

    2008-01-07

    Based on cascading nonlinear interactions of second harmonic generation (SHG) and difference frequency generation (DFG), we present a novel scheme to control the group velocity of femtosecond pulse in MgO doped periodically poled lithium niobate crystal. Group velocity of tunable signal pulse can be controlled by another pump beam within a wide bandwidth of 180nm. Fractional advancement of 2.4 and fractional delay of 4 are obtained in our simulations.

  12. Controlled deposition of NIST-traceable nanoparticles as additional size standards for photomask applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jing; Pui, David Y. H.; Qi, Chaolong; Yook, Se-Jin; Fissan, Heinz; Ultanir, Erdem; Liang, Ted

    2008-03-01

    Particle standard is important and widely used for calibration of inspection tools and process characterization and benchmarking. We have developed a method for generating and classifying monodisperse particles of different materials with a high degree of control. The airborne particles are first generated by an electrospray. Then a tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (TDMA) system is used to obtain monodisperse particles with NIST-traceable sizes. We have also developed a clean and well-controlled method to deposit airborne particles on mask blanks or wafers. This method utilizes electrostatic approach to deposit particles evenly in a desired spot. Both the number of particles and the spot size are well controlled. We have used our system to deposit PSL, silica and gold particles ranging from 30 nm to 125 nm on 193nm and EUV mask blanks. We report the experimental results of using these particles as calibration standards and discuss the dependency of sensitivity on the types of particles and substrate surfaces.

  13. Carcinogenicity evaluation: comparison of tumor data from dual control groups in the Sprague-Dawley rat.

    PubMed

    Baldrick, Paul

    2005-01-01

    Following recent clarification in Europe that a single control group is now acceptable for rodent carcinogenicity studies, the use of dual controls may be reduced or disappear. To date, virtually nothing has been published on whether this latter situation has improved the identification of tumorigenic risk potential in these studies. In this paper, the results of 13 rat carcinogenicity studies, performed between 1991 and 2002, with 2 control groups, are presented. Although no major differences in tumor incidences between these dual control groups were found, some interstudy variation occurred. In cases where a notable difference was seen, the use of 2 control groups, as well as robust, contemporary background data, allowed an easier interpretation of findings in drug-treated groups. Thus, the continued use of dual control groups has a vital role in the assessment of tumoriogenic risk. The paper also presents an update on survival, on the range and extent of background spontaneous neoplasms, and comments on genetic drift in this commonly used rat strain.

  14. A Controlled Evaluation of Reminiscence and Current Topics Discussion Groups in a Nursing Home Context.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rattenbury, Christine; Stones, M. J.

    1989-01-01

    Compared psychological well-being of elderly nursing home residents who participated in reminiscence and current topics group discussions with control group of residents. Rated participants' happiness/depression, activity, mood, and functional levels before and after intervention. Intervention had significant effect only on happiness/depression…

  15. Summary report on beam and radiation generation, monitoring and control (working group 6).

    SciTech Connect

    Power, J. G.; Gordon, D. F.; High Energy Physics; Naval Research Lab.

    2009-01-01

    The discussions of the working group on beam and radiation generation, monitoring, and control (working group 6) at the 2008 advanced accelerator concepts workshop are summarized. The discussions concerned electron injectors, phase space manipulation, beam diagnostics, pulse train generation, intense beam physics, and radiation generation.

  16. Doing Anger Differently: Two Controlled Trials of Percussion Group Psychotherapy for Adolescent Reactive Aggression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Currie, Michael; Startup, Mike

    2012-01-01

    This study evaluates efficacy and effectiveness of "Doing Anger Differently" (DAD), a group treatment for reactively aggressive 12-15 year old males. DAD uses percussion exercises to aid treatment. Study 1 compared a ten-week treatment with a waitlist control at pre, post and 6 month (treatment group only) follow-up. Study 2 replicated Study 1,…

  17. Terminological Control of "Anonymous Groups" for Catalogues of Audiovisual Television Documents

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Caldera-Serrano, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    This article discusses the exceptional nature of the description of moving images for television archives, deriving from their audiovisual nature, and of the specifications in the queries of journalists as users of the Document Information System. It is suggested that there is a need to control completely "Anonymous Groups"--groups without any…

  18. Mountain gorilla tug-of-war: Silverbacks have limited control over reproduction in multimale groups

    PubMed Central

    Bradley, Brenda J.; Robbins, Martha M.; Williamson, Elizabeth A.; Steklis, H. Dieter; Steklis, Netzin Gerald; Eckhardt, Nadin; Boesch, Christophe; Vigilant, Linda

    2005-01-01

    To determine who fathers the offspring in wild mountain gorilla groups containing more than one adult male silverback, we genotyped nearly one-fourth (n = 92) of the mountain gorillas (Gorilla beringei beringei) living in the Virunga Volcanoes region of Africa. Paternity analysis of 48 offspring born into four groups between 1985 and 1999 revealed that, although all infants were sired by within-group males, the socially dominant silverback did not always monopolize reproduction within his group. Instead, the second-ranking male sired an average of 15% of group offspring. This result, in combination with previous findings that second-ranking males fare best by not leaving the group but by staying and waiting to assume dominance even if no reproduction is possible while waiting, is not consistent with expectations from a reproductive skew model in which the silverback concedes controllable reproduction to the second-ranking male. Instead, the data suggest a “tug-of-war” scenario in which neither the dominant nor the second-ranking male has full control over his relative reproductive share. The two top-ranked males were typically unrelated and this, in combination with the mixed paternity of group offspring, means that multimale gorilla groups do not approximate family groups. Instead, as long-term assemblages of related and unrelated individuals, gorilla groups are similar to chimpanzee groups and so offer interesting possibilities for kin-biased interactions among individuals. PMID:15964984

  19. Controlling the Electrostatic Discharge Ignition Sensitivity of Composite Energetic Materials Using Carbon Nanotube Additives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-10

    Michelle L. Pantoya, Michael A. Daniels Se. TASK NUMBER Sf. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAMES AND ADDRESSES 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION...of composite energetic materials using carbon nanotube additives Kade H. Poper a, Eric S. Collins a, Michelle L. Pantoya a, *, Michael A. Daniels b a...Thermochim. Acta 451 (1 2) (2006). [2] Chelsea Weir, Michelle L. Pantoya, Michael Daniels , Electrostatic discharge sensitivity and electrical conductivity

  20. Additive manufacturing of scaffolds with dexamethasone controlled release for enhanced bone regeneration.

    PubMed

    Costa, Pedro F; Puga, Ana M; Díaz-Gomez, Luis; Concheiro, Angel; Busch, Dirk H; Alvarez-Lorenzo, Carmen

    2015-12-30

    The adoption of additive manufacturing in tissue engineering and regenerative medicine (TERM) strategies greatly relies on the development of novel 3D printable materials with advanced properties. In this work we have developed a material for bone TERM applications with tunable bioerosion rate and dexamethasone release profile which can be further employed in fused deposition modelling (the most common and accessible 3D printing technology in the market). The developed material consisted of a blend of poly-ϵ-caprolactone (PCL) and poloxamine (Tetronic®) and was processed into a ready-to-use filament form by means of a simplified melt-based methodology, therefore eliminating the utilization of solvents. 3D scaffolds composed of various blend formulations were additively manufactured and analyzed revealing blend ratio-specific degradation rates and dexamethasone release profiles. Furthermore, in vitro culture studies revealed a similar blend ratio-specific trend concerning the osteoinductive activity of the fabricated scaffolds when these were seeded and cultured with human mesenchymal stem cells. The developed material enables to specifically address different regenerative requirements found in various tissue defects. The versatility of such strategy is further increased by the ability of additive manufacturing to accurately fabricate implants matching any given defect geometry.

  1. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments

    SciTech Connect

    Xueli Sun; Upal Ghosh

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. The GAC used was bituminous coal-based type TOP. For sediment treated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 {mu}m size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 {mu}m size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility. 29 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  2. PCB bioavailability control in Lumbriculus variegatus through different modes of activated carbon addition to sediments.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xueli; Ghosh, Upal

    2007-07-01

    PCB bioavailability to a freshwater oligochaete (Lumbriculus variegatus) was studied using sediments from a PCB-impacted river that was treated with different modes of granular activated carbon (GAC) addition. For sedimenttreated with 2.6% GAC and mixed for 2 min prior to L. variegatus addition, the reduction in total PCB biouptake was 70% for 75-300 microm size carbon, and 92% for the 45-180 microm size carbon. For the case where the GAC was placed as a thin layer on top of the sediments without mixing, the reduction in total PCB uptake was 70%. PCB biouptake kinetics study using treated and untreated sediment showed that the maximum PCB uptake in tissue was achieved at 28 days and decreased after that time. Although the absolute uptake of PCB changed over time, the percent reduction in total PCB uptake upon GAC amendment remained constant after the first few days. Our results indicated that PCB bioavailability was reduced upon the addition and little or no mixing of GAC into sediments. PCB aqueous equilibrium concentration and desorption rates were greatly reduced after GAC amendment, indicating reductions in the two primary mechanisms of PCB bioavailability in sediments: chemical activity and chemical accessibility.

  3. Controlled laboratory challenge demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance to Streptococcus iniae in Nile tilapia

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. An alternative and ...

  4. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ...”) shall each submit to the Regional Administrator a study or studies of various alternative strategies to... consistent with the national primary ambient air quality standards. These studies may be combined into one or more joint studies. These studies shall contain recommendations for control measures to be...

  5. 40 CFR 52.1163 - Additional control measures for East Boston.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ...”) shall each submit to the Regional Administrator a study or studies of various alternative strategies to... consistent with the national primary ambient air quality standards. These studies may be combined into one or more joint studies. These studies shall contain recommendations for control measures to be...

  6. Direct and Nondirect Marathon Group Therapy and Internal---External Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kilmann, Peter R.

    1974-01-01

    Investigates whether direct and nondirect therapist techniques within a 23-hour marathon format would differentially induce client shifts in locus of control. The no-treatment control group experienced a significant shift toward externality, while the marathon subjects did not fluctuate significantly from pretherapy to posttherapy. (Author)

  7. Does addition of `mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  8. Does addition of 'mud-pack and hot pool treatment' to patient education make a difference in fibromyalgia patients? A randomized controlled single blind study.

    PubMed

    Bağdatlı, Ali Osman; Donmez, Arif; Eröksüz, Rıza; Bahadır, Güler; Turan, Mustafa; Erdoğan, Nergis

    2015-12-01

    The aim of this randomized controlled single-blind study is to explore whether addition of mud-pack and hot pool treatments to patient education make a significant difference in short and mild term outcomes of the patients with fibromyalgia. Seventy women with fibromyalgia syndrome were randomly assigned to either balneotherapy with mud-pack and hot pool treatments (35) or control (35) groups. After randomization, five patients from balneotherapy group and five patients from control group were dropped out from the study with different excuses. All patients had 6-h patient education programme about fibromyalgia syndrome and were given a home exercise programme. The patients in balneotherapy group had heated pool treatment at 38 °C for 20 min a day, and mud-pack treatment afterwards on back region at 45 °C. Balneotherapy was applied on weekdays for 2 weeks. All patients continued to take their medical treatment. An investigator who was blinded to the intervention assessed all the patients before and after the treatment, at the first and the third months of follow-up. Outcome measures were FIQ, BDI and both patient's and physician's global assessments. Balneotherapy group was significantly better than control group at after the treatment and at the end of the first month follow-up assessments in terms of patient's and physician's global assessment, total FIQ score, and pain intensity, fatigue, non-refreshed awaking, stiffness, anxiety and depression subscales of FIQ. No significant difference was found between the groups in terms of BDI scores. It is concluded that patient education combined with 2 weeks balneotherapy application has more beneficial effects in patients with fibromyalgia syndrome as compared to patient education alone.

  9. Addition of Somatostatin After Successful Endoscopic Variceal Ligation Does not Prevent Early Rebleeding in Comparison to Placebo: A Double Blind Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Ashish; Jha, Sanjeev K.; Mittal, Vibhu V.; Sharma, Praveen; Sharma, Barjesh C.; Sarin, Shiv K.

    2015-01-01

    Background Efficacy of endoscopic sclerotherapy in controlling acute variceal bleeding is significantly improved when vasoactive drug is added. Endoscopic variceal ligation (EVL) is superior to sclerotherapy. Whether efficacy of EVL will also improve with addition of somatostatin is not known. We compared EVL plus somatostatin versus EVL plus placebo in control of acute variceal bleeding. Methods Consecutive cirrhotic patients with acute esophageal variceal bleeding were enrolled. After emergency EVL, patients were randomized to receive either somatostatin (250 mcg/hr) or placebo infusion. Primary endpoint was treatment failure within 5 days. Treatment failure was defined as fresh hematemesis ≥2 h after start of therapy, or a 3 gm drop in Hb, or death. Results 61 patients were enrolled (EVL plus somatostatin group, n = 31 and EVL plus placebo group, n = 30). The baseline characteristics were similar. Within the initial 5-day period, the frequency of treatment failure was similar in both the groups (EVL plus somatostatin group 8/31 [26%] versus EVL plus placebo group 7/30 [23%]; P = 1.000). The mortality was also similar in the two groups (3/31 [10%] vs. 3/30 [10%]; P = 1.000). Baseline HVPG ≥19 mm Hg and active bleeding at index endoscopy were independent predictors of treatment failure. Conclusions Addition of somatostatin infusion to EVL therapy does not offer any advantage in control of acute variceal bleeding or reducing mortality. The reason for this may be its failure to maintain sustained reduction in portal pressure for five days. Active bleeding at index endoscopy and high baseline HVPG should help choose early alternative treatment options. Trial registered with ClincalTrials.gov vide NCT01267669. PMID:26628838

  10. A Multicenter, Prospective, Randomized Controlled Trial to Evaluate the Additional Benefit of a Multistrain Synbiotic (Prodefen®) in the Clinical Management of Acute Viral Diarrhea in Children

    PubMed Central

    García-Menor, Emilia; García-Marín, Fátima; Vecino-López, Raquel; Horcajo-Martínez, Gloria; de Ibarrondo Guerrica-Echevarría, María-José; Gómez-González, Pedro; Velasco-Ortega, Syra; Suárez-Almarza, Javier; Nieto-Magro, Concepción

    2016-01-01

    This randomized, open-label study evaluated the additional benefits of the synbiotic Prodefen® in the clinical management of acute diarrhea of suspected viral origin in children between 6 months and 12 years of age. Study outcomes included the duration of diarrhea, the recovery from diarrhea, and the tolerability and acceptance of the treatment. The proportion of patients without diarrhea over the study period was greater in the synbiotic group than in the control group at all study time points, showing a statistically significant difference on the fifth day (95% vs 79%, p < 0.001). The duration of diarrhea (median and interquartile range) was reduced by 1 day in the synbiotic-treated patients (3 [2-5] vs 4 [3-5], p = 0.377). The tolerability of the treatment regimen, as evaluated by the parents, was significantly better in those receiving the synbiotic than in the control group. Overall, 96% of the parents of children receiving the synbiotic reported being satisfied to very satisfied with the treatment regimen. The results of this study indicate that the addition of the synbiotic Prodefen® is a well-tolerated and well-accepted approach that provides an additional benefit to the standard supportive therapy in the management of acute viral diarrhea in children. PMID:28229091

  11. Group additivity equations of state for calculating the standard molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous organic species at elevated temperatures and pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amend, Jan P.; Helgeson, Harold C.

    1997-01-01

    Group additivity equations of state for aqueous organic molecules have been generated by combining the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state ( Shock and Helgeson, 1988, 1990; Tanger and Helgeson, 1988; Shock et al., 1989, 1992) with experimental values of the standard molal properties of aqueous alkanes, alkanols, alkylbenzenes, car☐ylic acids, amides, and amines. Equations of state parameters for the groups represented by -CH 2-, -CH 3, -CHCH 3-, -C 6H 5, -CH 2OH, -COOH, -CONH 2, and -CH 2NH 2 were determined by regression of the experimental data. This procedure permits calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of these groups at elevated temperatures and pressures. Although curves representing the apparent standard molal Gibbs free energies (Δ G°) and enthalpies (Δ H°) of formation, and the standard molal entropies ( S°) of the groups as a function of temperature and pressure are respectively similar for each of them, the temperature dependence of the standard molal heat capacities ( Cp°) and volumes ( V°) of a number of the groups are quite different from one another. For example, the standard molal heat capacities of the hydrocarbon groups minimize with increasing temperature, but those of -CH 2OH and -CH 2NH 2 maximize. Computed values of Δ G°, Δ H°, S°, Cp°, V°, and the equations of state parameters for the various groups were used together with group additivity relations to generate corresponding values of these properties for aqueous n-alkanes, 2-methylalkanes, n-alkylbenzenes, n-alkanols, n-car☐ylic acids, n-amides, and n-amines at temperatures ≤ 250°C and pressures ≤ 1 kbar. The validity and generality of the equations of state are supported by the fact that predicted equilibrium constants for liquid n-alkane solubility reactions in water compare favorably with experimental values reported in the literature for temperatures as high as 200°C. Furthermore, equilibrium constants for aqueous ethane

  12. From lab to industrial: PZT nanoparticles synthesis and process control for application in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Hsien-Lin

    Lead Zirconate Titanate (PZT) nanoparticles hold many promising current and future applications, such as PZT ink for 3-D printing or seeds for PZT thick films. One common method is hydrothermal growth, in which temperature, duration time, or mineralizer concentrations are optimized to produce PZT nanoparticles with desired morphology, controlled size and size distribution. A modified hydrothermal process is used to fabricate PZT nanoparticles. The novelty is to employ a high ramping rate (e.g., 20 deg C/min) to generate abrupt supersaturation so as to promote burst nucleation of PZT nanoparticles as well as a fast cooling rate (e.g., 5 deg C/min) with a controlled termination of crystal growth. As a result, PZT nanoparticles with a size distribution ranging from 200 nm to 800 nm are obtained with cubic morphology and good crystallinity. The identification of nanoparticles is confirmed through use of X-ray diffractometer (XRD). XRD patterns are used to compare sample variations in their microstructures such as lattice parameter. A cubic morphology and particle size are also examined via SEM images. The hydrothermal process is further modified with excess lead (from 20% wt. to 80% wt.) to significantly reduce amorphous phase and agglomeration of the PZT nanoparticles. With a modified process, the particle size still remains within the 200 nm to 800 nm. Also, the crystal structures (microstructure) of the samples show little variations. Finally, a semi-continuous hydrothermal manufacturing process was developed to substantially reduce the fabrication time and maintained the same high quality as the nanoparticles prepared in an earlier stage. In this semi-continuous process, a furnace is maintained at the process temperature (200 deg C), whereas autoclaves containing PZT sol are placed in and out of the furnace to control the ramp-up and cooling rates. This setup eliminates an extremely time-consuming step of cooling down the furnace, thus saving tremendous amount of

  13. Formalin treatments pass new tests. Additional notes on the control of ecto-parasitic protozoa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    1940-01-01

    After the completion of the eхреriments reported recently, in which the efficacy of formalin in controlling infections of Gostia mecatrix was demonstrated, the author was afforded an opportunity to test the value of formalin solutions in combatting established mixed infections of (Gyrodactylus, Tricbodina, Cyclochaeta) and a stalked protozoan on rainbow trout fingerlings. This opportunity was provided through the courtesy and cooperation of Clarence F. Pautzke, Chief Biologist for the Washington State Game Department, and Lee Walters, Superintendent of the Washington State Hatchery at Seward Park, Seattle.

  14. Interference control in working memory: comparing groups of children with atypical development.

    PubMed

    Palladino, Paola; Ferrari, Marcella

    2013-01-01

    The study aimed to test whether working memory deficits in children at risk of Learning Disabilities (LD) and/or attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) can be attributed to deficits in interference control, thereby implicating prefrontal systems. Two groups of children known for showing poor working memory (i.e., children with poor comprehension and children with ADHD) were compared to a group of children with specific reading decoding problems (i.e., having severe problems in phonological rather than working memory) and to a control group. All children were tested with a verbal working memory task. Interference control of irrelevant items was examined by a lexical decision task presented immediately after the final recall in about half the trials, selected at random. The interference control measure was therefore directly related to working memory performance. Results confirmed deficient working memory performance in poor comprehenders and children at risk of ADHD + LD. More interestingly, this working memory deficit was associated with greater activation of irrelevant information than in the control group. Poor decoders showed more efficient interference control, in contrast to poor comprehenders and ADHD + LD children. These results indicated that interfering items were still highly accessible to working memory in children who fail the working memory task. In turn, these findings strengthen and clarify the role of interference control, one of the most critical prefrontal functions, in working memory.

  15. ABO blood group system and gastric cancer: a case-control study and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiwei; Liu, Lei; Ji, Jun; Zhang, Jianian; Yan, Min; Zhang, Jun; Liu, Bingya; Zhu, Zhenggang; Yu, Yingyan

    2012-10-17

    This study focuses on the association between the ABO blood group system and the risk of gastric cancer or Helicobacter pylori infection. The data for the ABO blood group was collected from 1045 cases of gastric cancer, whereby the patient underwent a gastrectomy in Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai. The information on the ABO blood group from 53,026 healthy blood donors was enrolled as control. We searched the Pubmed database on the relationship between ABO blood groups and gastric cancer risk for meta-analysis. In our case-control study, the risk of gastric cancer in blood group A was significantly higher than that in non-A groups (O, B and AB) (odd ratio, OR1.34; 95% confidential interval, CI 1.25-1.44). Compared with non-O groups (A, B and AB), individuals with blood group O demonstrated a reduced risk of gastric cancer (OR = 0.80; 95% CI 0.72-0.88). The proportion of H. pylori infection in blood group A individuals was significantly higher than that in non-A blood groups (OR = 1.42; 95% CI 1.05-1.93). We further combined our data with the published data of others, and crossreferenced the risk of gastric cancer with the blood type, finding consistent evidence that gastric cancer risk in the blood A group was higher than that in the non-A groups (OR = 1.11; 95% CI 1.07-1.15), and that blood type O individuals were consistently shown gastric cancer risk reduction (OR = 0.91; 95% CI 0.89-0.94). Our study concluded that there was a slightly increased risk of gastric cancer in blood group A individuals, and people with blood type A are more prone to be infected by H. pylori than other ABO blood type individuals, whereas, a slightly decreased risk of gastric cancer was identified in blood type O individuals.

  16. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  17. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  18. Powder Layer Preparation Using Vibration-controlled Capillary Steel Nozzles for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stichel, Thomas; Laumer, Tobias; Baumüller, Tobias; Amend, Philipp; Roth, Stephan

    In this report, the dry delivery of polyamide 12 powders by vibrating capillary steel nozzles is investigated and discussed regarding its potential for powder layer preparation in Laser Beam Melting. Therefore, a setup including a steel nozzle assembled on a piezoelectric actuator is presented, which enables the precise control over very small powder quantities by vibration excitation. An analysis reveals that the mass flow through the nozzle can be adjusted by the vibration modes in a certain range depending on the nozzle's specifications, whereas the vibration modes themselves show a complicated behaviour. Using a positioning system in combination with the vibrating nozzle, single-layer patterns consisting of polyamide 12 are produced and characterized regarding surface homogeneity and selectivity using a laser stripe sensor.

  19. Chemical control of the sea lamprey: the addition of a chemical to the environment.

    PubMed

    Menzie, C M; Hunn, J B

    1976-01-01

    Construction of the Welland Canal enabled shipping to by-pass Niagara Falls and enter the upper Great Lakes and also eliminated the barrier to the entry to the lakes by the sea lamprey (Petromyzon marinus Linnaeus). Within forty years the commercial fisheries of the Great Lakes was almost eliminated by this parasitic cyclostome. A search for selective chemical control of the sea lamprey was undertaken in the 1950's and culminated with the discovery of TFM (3-Trifluoromethyl-4-nitrophenol). At the request of the International Great Lakes Fishery Commission, the Bureau of Sport Fisheries and Wildlife undertook to assess the hazard of TFM to the aquatic ecosystem, to humans as well as to fish and wildlife. Studies were undertaken in Bureau laboratories as well as by contracts with university and private laboratories. Results of these studies to-date indicate that this material is not subject to biomagnification and does not pose a hazard to man or the the environment.

  20. Addition of citral controls ROS and reduces toxicity in 5-fluorouracil treated Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells.

    PubMed

    Patel, Pinaki B; Thakkar, Vasudev R

    2015-03-01

    In systemic therapy, chemotherapeutic drugs, often, cause considerable side effects; and combination of natural compounds lessen the extent of such effects. In the present study, combined effect of citral and 5-fluorouracil was studied in Schizosaccharomyces pombe cells. The antagonistic combination index found was at 0.01 and 0.025 mM of citral with 40 μg or higher concentration of 5-fluorouracil. The combined treatment was so effective that higher number of cells underwent apoptosis compared to individual treatment of 5-fluorouracil. Citral controlled ROS levels and increased survival of normal cells. Several differentially expressed proteins observed in the citral treatment could further help understanding its mechanism of action.

  1. Laboratory and field evaluation of a combined fluid-loss-control additive and gel breaker for fracturing fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Cantu, L.A.; Boyd, P.A. )

    1990-08-01

    More than 200% increase in fracture conductivity and permeability was obtained when a new degradable fluid-loss-control additive was used in place of silica flour (SF) in 40-lbm crosslinked hydroxypropyl-guar (HPG) fracturing-fluid systems. The new additive, and organic acid particulate (OAP), slowly degraded into water-soluble monomeric units at temperatures {ge}150{degrees}F after fracture stimulation experiments. The high-acid-content degradation product then acted as an excellent HPG gel breaker and effectively cleaned the proppant packs. As a fluid-loss-control additive, the measured wall-building coefficients were as good as, or better than, those of SF in crosslinked-gel, linear-gel, and N{sub 2}-foam systems. This paper summarizes a 2-year study of the evaluation and application of this new product in fracturing-fluid systems.

  2. Analysis of postural control and muscular performance in young and elderly women in different age groups

    PubMed Central

    Gomes, Matheus M.; Reis, Júlia G.; Carvalho, Regiane L.; Tanaka, Erika H.; Hyppolito, Miguel A.; Abreu, Daniela C. C.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: muscle strength and power are two factors affecting balance. The impact of muscle strength and power on postural control has not been fully explored among different age strata over sixty. OBJECTIVES: the aim of the present study was to assess the muscle strength and power of elderly women in different age groups and determine their correlation with postural control. METHOD: eighty women were divided into four groups: the young 18-30 age group (n=20); the 60-64 age group (n=20); the 65-69 age group (n=20); and the 70-74 age group (n=20). The participants underwent maximum strength (one repetition maximum or 1-RM) and muscle power tests to assess the knee extensor and flexor muscles at 40%, 70%, and 90% 1-RM intensity. The time required by participants to recover their balance after disturbing their base of support was also assessed. RESULTS: the elderly women in the 60-64, 65-69, and 70-74 age groups exhibited similar muscle strength, power, and postural control (p>0.05); however, these values were lower than those of the young group (p<0.05) as expected. There was a correlation between muscle strength and power and the postural control performance (p<0.05). CONCLUSION: despite the age difference, elderly women aged 60 to 74 years exhibited similar abilities to generate strength and power with their lower limbs, and this ability could be one factor that explains the similar postural control shown by these women. PMID:25651132

  3. Very low dose naltrexone addition in opioid detoxification: a randomized, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Mannelli, Paolo; Patkar, Ashwin A; Peindl, Kathi; Gorelick, David A; Wu, Li-Tzy; Gottheil, Edward

    2009-04-01

    Although current treatments for opioid detoxification are not always effective, medical detoxification remains a required step before long-term interventions. The use of opioid antagonist medications to improve detoxification has produced inconsistent results. Very low dose naltrexone (VLNTX) was recently found to reduce opioid tolerance and dependence in animal and clinical studies. We decided to evaluate safety and efficacy of VLNTX adjunct to methadone in reducing withdrawal during detoxification. In a multi-center, double-blind, randomized study at community treatment programs, where most detoxifications are performed, 174 opioid-dependent subjects received NTX 0.125 mg, 0.250 mg or placebo daily for 6 days, together with methadone in tapering doses. VLNTX-treated individuals reported attenuated withdrawal symptoms [F = 7.24 (2,170); P = 0.001] and reduced craving [F = 3.73 (2,107); P = 0.03]. Treatment effects were more pronounced at discharge and were not accompanied by a significantly higher retention rate. There were no group differences in use of adjuvant medications and no treatment-related adverse events. Further studies should explore the use of VLNTX, combined with full and partial opioid agonist medications, in detoxification and long-term treatment of opioid dependence.

  4. Lie Group Methods and Control Theory Workshop Held on 28 June-1 July 2004 (CD-ROM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    CONTROL THEORY , *WORKSHOPS, *LIE GROUPS, ROBOTICS, NUMERICAL INTEGRATION, DIFFERENTIAL EQUATIONS, INTEGRATORS, NONLINEAR ANALYSIS, COMPACT DISKS, GROUPS(MATHEMATICS), SCOTLAND, MANIFOLDS(MATHEMATICS).

  5. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    DOE PAGES

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; ...

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. Thismore » symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.« less

  6. Foreword: Additive Manufacturing: Interrelationships of Fabrication, Constitutive Relationships Targeting Performance, and Feedback to Process Control

    SciTech Connect

    Carpenter, John S.; Beese, Allison M.; Bourell, David L.; Hamilton, Reginald F.; Mishra, Rajiv; Sears, James

    2015-06-26

    Additive manufacturing (AM) offers distinct advantages over conventional manufacturing processes including the capability to both build and repair complex part shapes; to integrate and consolidate parts and thus overcome joining concerns; and to locally tailor material compositions as well as properties. Moreover, a variety of fields such as aerospace, military, automotive, and biomedical are employing this manufacturing technique as a way to decrease costs, increase manufacturing agility, and explore novel geometry/functionalities. In order to increase acceptance of AM as a viable processing method, pathways for qualifying both the material and the process need to be developed and, perhaps, standardized. This symposium was designed to serve as a venue for the international AM community—including government, academia, and industry—to define the fundamental interrelationships between feedstock, processing, microstructure, shape, mechanical behavior/materials properties, and function/performance. Eventually, insight into the connections between processing, microstructure, property, and performance will be achieved through experimental observations, theoretical advances, and computational modeling of physical processes. Finally, once this insight matures, AM will be able to move from the realm of making parts to making qualified materials that are certified for use with minimal need for post-fabrication characterization.

  7. Roles of additives and surface control in slurry atomization. Final project report

    SciTech Connect

    Tsai, S.C.

    1992-12-31

    This project studies the rheology and airblast atomization of micronized coal slurries. Its major objectives are (1) to promote further understanding of the mechanisms and the roles of additives in airblast atomization of coal water slurry (CWS), and (2) to investigate the impacts of coal particle surface properties and interparticle forces on CWS rheology. We have found that the flow behavior index (n) of a suspension (or slurry) is determined by the relative importance of the interparticle van der Waals attraction and the interparticle electrostatic repulsion. The interparticle attraction, measured by the Hamaker constant scaled to the thermal energy at 25{degrees}C (A/kT), causes particle aggregation, which breaks down at high shear rates, and thus leads to slurry pseudoplastic behavior (n< 1). At a constant particle volume fraction and surface charge density (qualitatively measured by the zeta potential in deionized water), n decreases linearly as A/kT increases. The relative viscosity of the pseudoplastic suspension with respect to that of the suspending liquid is found to be independent of particle density and correlate well with the particle Peclet number which equals the particle diffusional relaxation time multiplied by shear rate. Specifically, the relative viscosities of the pseudoplastic glycerol/water coal slurry and the ethylene glycol/glycerol sand slurry, at same volume fractions as well as similar particle size distributions and liquid viscosities, as functions of the particle Peclet number fall along the same line.

  8. Formation of the geometrically controlled carbon coils by manipulating the additive gas (SF6) flow rate.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Young-Chul; Kim, Sung-Hoon

    2012-07-01

    Carbon coils could be synthesized using C2H2/H2 as source gases and SF6 as an incorporated additive gas under the thermal chemical vapor deposition system. The nickel catalyst layer deposition and then hydrogen plasma pretreatment were performed prior to the carbon coils deposition reaction. The flow rate and the injection time of SF6 varied according to the different reaction processes. Geometries of carbon coils developed from embryos to nanosized coils with increasing SF, flow rate from 5 to 35 sccm under the short SF6 flow injection time (5 minutes) condition. The gradual development of carbon coils geometries from nanosized to microsized types could be observed with increasing SF6 flow rate under the full time (90 minutes) SF6 flow injection condition. The flow rate of SF6 for the coil-type geometry formation should be more than or at least equal to the flow rate of carbon source gas (C2H2). A longer injection time of SF6 flow would increase the size of coils diameters from nanometer to micrometer.

  9. Immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma: Beneficial effect on local control without additional negative impact on pituitary function and life expectancy

    SciTech Connect

    Bergh, Alfons C.M. van den . E-mail: a.c.m.van.den.bergh@rt.umcg.nl; Berg, Gerrit van den; Schoorl, Michiel A.; Sluiter, Wim J.; Vliet, Anton M. van der; Hoving, Eelco W.; Szabo, Ben G.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Wolffenbuttel, Bruce H.R.; Dullaart, Robin P.F.

    2007-03-01

    Purpose: To demonstrate the benefit of immediate postoperative radiotherapy in residual nonfunctioning pituitary adenoma (NFA) in perspective to the need for hormonal substitution and life expectancy. Methods and Materials: Retrospective cohort analysis of 122 patients, operated for NFA between 1979 and 1998. Recurrence was defined as regrowth on computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. The occurrence of hormonal deficiencies was defined as the starting date of hormonal substitution therapy. Results: Seventy-six patients had residual NFA after surgery and received immediate postoperative radiotherapy (Group 1); three patients developed a recurrence, resulting in a 95% local control rate at 10 years. Twenty-eight patients had residual NFA after surgery, but were followed by a wait-and-see policy (Group 2). Sixteen developed a recurrence, resulting in a local control rate of 49% at 5 years and 22% at 10 years (p < 0.001 compared with Group 1). There were no differences between Group 1 and 2 regarding the need for substitution with thyroid hormone, glucocorticoids, and sex hormones before first surgery, directly after surgery and at end of follow-up. There were no differences in hormone substitution free survival between Group 1 and Group 2 during the study period after first surgery. Life expectancy was similar in Group 1 and 2, and their median life expectancy did not differ from median life expectancy in the general population. Conclusions: Immediate postoperative radiotherapy provides a marked improvement of local control among patients with residual NFA compared with surgery alone, without an additional deleterious effect on pituitary function and life expectancy.

  10. Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of aqueous amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins as a function of temperature, pressure and ionization state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, J. M.; Larowe, D. E.; Helgeson, H. C.

    2005-10-01

    Thermodynamic calculation of the chemical speciation of proteins and the limits of protein metastability affords a quantitative understanding of the biogeochemical constraints on the distribution of proteins within and among different organisms and chemical environments. These calculations depend on accurate determination of the ionization states and standard molal Gibbs free energies of proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, which are not generally available. Hence, to aid predictions of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pressure, calculated values are given below of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar and the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of the structural groups comprising amino acids, polypeptides and unfolded proteins. Group additivity and correlation algorithms were used to calculate contributions by ionized and neutral sidechain and backbone groups to the standard molal Gibbs free energy (Δ G°), enthalpy (Δ H°), entropy (S°), isobaric heat capacity (C°P), volume (V°) and isothermal compressibility (κ°T) of multiple reference model compounds. Experimental values of C°P, V° and κ°T at high temperature were taken from the recent literature, which ensures an internally consistent revision of the thermodynamic properties and equations of state parameters of the sidechain and backbone groups of proteins, as well as organic groups. As a result, Δ G°, Δ H°, S° C°P, V° and κ°T of unfolded proteins in any ionization state can be calculated up to T~-300°C and P~-5000 bars. In addition, the ionization states of unfolded proteins as a function of not only pH, but also temperature and pressure can be calculated by taking account of the degree of ionization of the sidechain and backbone groups present in the sequence. Calculations of this kind represent a first step in the prediction of chemical affinities of many

  11. Control of Metal/graphite Interfacial Energy Through the Interfacial Segregation of Alloying Additions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Utpal

    Equilibrium segregation of Ni to the interface of a solid Pb/graphite and Au/graphite was studied using a solid state wetting approach and the crater edge profiling technique on a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). All experiments were performed under ultra high vacuum (UHV) to reduce the effects due to surface adsorption of impurities. For the Pb/graphite system, increasing amounts of Ni ranging from 0 to 0.2wt% Ni added to Pb were found to systematically lower the contact angle for samples equilibrated at 285 ^circC. No significant surface segregation of Ni was observed at the Pb surface. The reduction of the contact angle was therefore attributed entirely to the lowering of the interfacial energy by interfacial adsorption of Ni. The interfacial energy and interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of bulk Ni content. The presence of excess Ni at the interface was also determined using the crater edge profiling technique on the SAM for various bulk concentrations of Ni in Pb. The temperature dependence of the segregation process was also studied using the solid state wetting approach. The contact angle of Pb(Ni)/graphite was found to vary as a function of temperature for a given Ni content. No temperature dependence was observed in the case of pure Pb/graphite. The change in interfacial energy and the interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of temperature from thermodynamic considerations, and from that the enthalpy and the entropy of interfacial segregation were determined. For the Au/graphite system at 850^circC, addition of 15at%Ni to Au caused a reduction of contact angle by 7.8^circ with accompanying reduction in interfacial energy. Ni was found to segregate to both the free Au surface as well as to the Au/graphite interface. In addition C was also found to segregate to the Au surface thus lowering the surface energy. The modified surface energy was considered in the determination of the interfacial energy and interfacial Ni

  12. Controlling Phase Separation of Interpenetrating Polymer Networks by Addition of Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    2015-03-01

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to produce mechanically superior thermoset blends relative to the neat components. In this study, IPNs were prepared consisting of polydicyclopentadiene (polyDCPD), contributing high fracture toughness, and an epoxy resin (the diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured with nadic methyl anhydride), contributing high tensile strength and modulus. In the absence of compatibilization, the simultaneous curing of the networks leads to a macroscopically phase separated blend that exhibits poor mechanical behavior. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructured IPNs, block copolymers were designed to compatibilize this system, where one block possesses affinity to polyDCPD (polynorbornene in this study) and the other block possesses affinity to DGEBA (poly(ɛ-caprolactone) in this study). The influence of the block copolymer composition on the degree of phase separation and interfacial adhesion in the IPN was studied using a combination of small-angle scattering and imaging techniques. The resultant mechanical properties were explored and structure-property relationships were developed in this blend system.

  13. Additional studies of sheep haemopexin: genetic control, frequencies and postnatal development.

    PubMed

    Stratil, A; Bobák, P; Margetín, M; Glasnák, V

    1989-01-01

    This study presents evidence that sheep haemopexin phenotypes are genetically controlled by three alleles, HpxA, HpxB1 and HpxB2, of a single autosomal locus. Frequencies of two alleles, HpxA and HpxB (HpxB encompasses two isoalleles, HpxB1 and HpxB2), were studied in eight sheep breeds in Czechoslovakia. The frequency of the HpxA allele was highest (ranging from 0.81 in Merino to 1.0 in East Friesian sheep). Qualitative and quantitative changes in haemopexin during postnatal development were studied by starch gel electrophoresis and rocket immunoelectrophoresis respectively. In electrophoresis, 1- or 2-day-old lambs had two very weak zones corresponding in mobility to two slower zones of adult animals. Later, the third more anodic zone appeared and gradually increased in intensity. In 1-month-old lambs the patterns were practically identical with those of adult animals. Using rocket immunoelectrophoresis, the level of haemopexin shortly after birth was practically zero. It rose sharply till the sixth day of life; then the level continued to rise slowly till about 1 month of age. The mean haemopexin level in adult sheep was 64.5 +/- 18.26 (SD) mg/100ml serum, ranging from 30.5 to 116.5 mg/100ml.

  14. Controlling Phase Separation of Tough Interpenetrating Polymer Networks via Addition of Amphiphilic Block Copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rohde, Brian; Krishnamoorti, Ramanan; Robertson, Megan

    Interpenetrating polymer networks (IPNs) offer a unique way to combine the mechanical properties of two thermoset systems. Often used to create a material that possesses both high toughness and tensile properties, here we use polydicyclopentadiene, cured via ring opening metathesis polymerization, to contribute high toughness and diglycidyl ether of bisphenol A cured via anhydride chemistry to contribute high tensile strength and modulus. As the uncompatibilized system reacts in the presence of one another, mesoscopic phase separation occurs and dictates the overall efficacy of combining mechanical properties. To control phase separation and drive the system towards more mechanically robust nanostructed IPNs, amphiphilic block copolymers of polybutadiene- b-polyethylene oxide, where one block possesses strong affinity to polyDCPD and the other the DGEBA, were added to the system. Here we present a systematic study of the influence of block copolymer composition in the overall blend on degree of phase separation and morphology using a combination of small-angle x-ray scattering (SAXS) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) techniques. The resultant mechanical properties are then explored in an effort to link mechanical properties to blend morphology.

  15. Stereochemical Control of Enzymatic Carbon-Carbon Bond-Forming Michael-Type Additions by "Substrate Engineering".

    PubMed

    Miao, Yufeng; Tepper, Pieter G; Geertsema, Edzard M; Poelarends, Gerrit J

    2016-11-01

    The enzyme 4-oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4-OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael-type addition of acetaldehyde to β-nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ-nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ-aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4-OT-catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)- and (S)-γ-nitroaldehydes and 4-substituted chroman-2-ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate. Stereochemical control of these enzymatic Michael-type additions by "substrate engineering" allowed the enantioselective synthesis of valuable γ-aminobutyric acid precursors. In addition, the results suggest a novel enzymatic synthesis route towards precursors for chromans and derivatives, which are valuable scaffolds for preparing biologically active natural products.

  16. Precise control of polymer coated nanopores by nanoparticle additives: Insights from computational modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eskandari Nasrabad, Afshin; Jasnow, David; Zilman, Anton; Coalson, Rob D.

    2016-08-01

    Polymer-nanoparticle composites are a promising new class of materials for creation of controllable nano-patterned surfaces and nanopores. We use coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations augmented with analytical theory to study the structural transitions of surface grafted polymer layers (brushes) induced by infiltration of nanoparticles that are attracted to the polymers in the layer. We systematically compare two different polymer brush geometries: one where the polymer chains are grafted to a planar surface and the other where the chains are grafted to the inside of a cylindrical nanochannel. We perform a comprehensive study of the effects of the material parameters such as the polymer chain length, chain grafting density, nanoparticle size, strength of attraction between nanoparticles and polymer monomers, and, in the case of the cylindrically grafted brush, the radius of the cylinder. We find a very general behavioral motif for all geometries and parameter values: the height of the polymer brush is non-monotonic in the nanoparticle concentration in solution. As the nanoparticle concentration increases, the brush height first decreases and after passing through a minimum value begins to increase, resulting in the swelling of the nanoparticle infused brush. These morphological features may be useful for devising tunable "smart" nano-devices whose effective dimensions can be reversibly and precisely adjusted by changing the nanoparticle concentration in solution. The results of approximate Self-Consistent Field Theory (SCFT) calculations, applicable in the regime of strong brush stretching, are compared to the simulation results. The SCFT calculations are found to be qualitatively, even semi-quantitatively, accurate when applied within their intended regime of validity, and provide a useful and efficient tool for modeling such materials.

  17. Control over hygroscopic growth of saline aqueous aerosol using Pluronic polymer additives.

    PubMed

    Haddrell, Allen E; Hargreaves, Graham; Davies, James F; Reid, Jonathan P

    2013-02-25

    difference in diameter is RH dependent, and may be much greater at higher humidities. These findings suggest that the addition of μM concentrations of larger Pluronic polymers to nebulizer formulations may greatly reduce the size of aerosols produced.

  18. Cell-specific CO2 fixation rates of two distinct groups of plastidic protists in the Atlantic Ocean remain unchanged after nutrient addition.

    PubMed

    Grob, Carolina; Jardillier, Ludwig; Hartmann, Manuela; Ostrowski, Martin; Zubkov, Mikhail V; Scanlan, David J

    2015-04-01

    To assess the role of open-ocean ecosystems in global CO2 fixation, we investigated how picophytoplankton, which dominate primary production, responded to episodic increases in nutrient availability. Previous experiments have shown nitrogen alone, or in combination with phosphorus or iron, to be the proximate limiting nutrient(s) for total phytoplankton grown over several days. Much less is known about how nutrient upshift affects picophytoplankton CO2 fixation over the duration of the light period. To address this issue, we performed a series of small volume (8-60 ml) - short term (10-11 h) nutrient addition experiments in different regions of the Atlantic Ocean using NH4 Cl, FeCl3 , K medium, dust and nutrient-rich water from 300 m depth. We found no significant nutrient stimulation of group-specific CO2 fixation rates of two taxonomically and size-distinct groups of plastidic protists. The above was true regardless of the region sampled or nutrient added, suggesting that this is a generic phenomenon. Our findings show that at least in the short term (i.e. daylight period), nutrient availability does not limit CO2 fixation by the smallest plastidic protists, while their taxonomic composition does not determine their response to nutrient addition.

  19. Tuberculosis control in big cities and urban risk groups in the European Union: a consensus statement.

    PubMed

    van Hest, N A; Aldridge, R W; de Vries, G; Sandgren, A; Hauer, B; Hayward, A; Arrazola de Oñate, W; Haas, W; Codecasa, L R; Caylà, J A; Story, A; Antoine, D; Gori, A; Quabeck, L; Jonsson, J; Wanlin, M; Orcau, Å; Rodes, A; Dedicoat, M; Antoun, F; van Deutekom, H; Keizer, St; Abubakar, I

    2014-03-06

    In low-incidence countries in the European Union (EU), tuberculosis (TB) is concentrated in big cities, especially among certain urban high-risk groups including immigrants from TB high-incidence countries, homeless people, and those with a history of drug and alcohol misuse. Elimination of TB in European big cities requires control measures focused on multiple layers of the urban population. The particular complexities of major EU metropolises, for example high population density and social structure, create specific opportunities for transmission, but also enable targeted TB control interventions, not efficient in the general population, to be effective or cost effective. Lessons can be learnt from across the EU and this consensus statement on TB control in big cities and urban risk groups was prepared by a working group representing various EU big cities, brought together on the initiative of the European Centre for Disease Prevention and Control. The consensus statement describes general and specific social, educational, operational, organisational, legal and monitoring TB control interventions in EU big cities, as well as providing recommendations for big city TB control, based upon a conceptual TB transmission and control model.

  20. Temporal gap solitons and all-optical control of group delay in line-defect waveguides.

    PubMed

    Malaguti, S; Bellanca, G; Combrié, S; de Rossi, A; Trillo, S

    2012-10-19

    We show that a model based on anticrossing between highly group velocity-mismatched gap-guided and index-guided modes describes gap soliton propagation in photonic crystal waveguides. Such nonlinear solutions can be exploited for exploring new regimes such as all-optical control of group velocity (dispersionless slow light) over a submillimeter length scale, and propagation beyond the linear modal cutoff. The results are validated by means of finite-difference time domain simulations.

  1. What Factors Control Platinum-Group Element (PGE) Abundances in Basalts From the Ontong Java Plateau?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chazey, W. J.; Neal, C. R.

    2002-12-01

    Eleven samples encompassing four sites drilled by Ocean Drilling Program Leg 192 to the Ontong Java Plateau (OJP) were analyzed for major, trace and platinum-group (PGEs: Ir, Ru, Rh, Pt, and Pd) elements. Based on major and trace element chemistry, these are divided into two groups: a primitive group, which was newly discovered on Leg 192, and Kwaimbaita-type basalts, which are ubiquitous on the OJP (cf. Tejada et al., 2002, J. Pet. 43:449). The primitive group is relatively enriched in MgO, Ni, and Cr and relatively depleted in incompatible elements compared to the Kwaimbaita-type basalts. Petrography indicates that the fractionating phases during emplacement of both types of basalts were olivine and Cr-spinel +/- plagioclase +/- cpx. Normalized PGE profiles are fractionated, but exhibit a flattening between Ru and Ir and occasionally an enrichment in Ir. It has been shown that chromite can preferentially incorporate Os and Ru (Kd ?150) over Ir (Kd ?100), which may account for the Ir and Ru systematics. We do not consider sulfide to be a factor in fractionating the PGEs because it is either absent or present as a trace phase in these basalts and the OJP basalts are sulfur undersaturated (Michael and Cornell, 1996, EOS 77:714). Additionally, the primitive samples from the OJP also have Cu/Pd ratios (4500-8000) that are roughly similar to primitive mantle (7300), and have a generally flat transition from Pd to Y on a primitive mantle-normalized plot. It is unlikely that these samples reached sulfur saturation. The Kwaimbaita-type basalts have slightly elevated Cu/Pd ratios (9000-14000). While there are subtle differences between the PGE profiles of basalts from the Leg 192 drill cores compared to OJP basalts from subaerial outcrops in the Solomon Islands (e.g., the former have general lower Pt/Rh and higher Rh/Ru ratios), it is apparent that silicate and oxide phases are controlling the PGE profiles and abundances. For example, the six samples analyzed from Site

  2. CAG repeat polymorphism in the androgen receptor (AR) gene of SBMA patients and a control group.

    PubMed

    Sułek, Anna; Hoffman-Zacharska, Dorota; Krysa, Wioletta; Szirkowiec, Walentyna; Fidziańska, Elzbieta; Zaremba, Jacek

    2005-01-01

    Spinobulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA) is an X-linked form of motor neuron disease characterized by progressive atrophy of the muscles, dysphagia, dysarthria and mild androgen insensitivity. SBMA is caused by CAG repeat expansion in the androgen receptor gene. CAG repeat polymorphism was analysed in a Polish control group (n = 150) and patients suspected of SBMA (n = 60). Normal and abnormal ranges of CAG repeats were established in the control group and in 21 patients whose clinical diagnosis of SBMA was molecularly confirmed. The ranges are similar to those reported for other populations.

  3. Thermochemical properties, rotation barriers, and group additivity for unsaturated oxygenated hydrocarbons and radicals resulting from reaction of vinyl and phenyl radical systems with O2.

    PubMed

    Sebbarand, Nadia; Bockhorn, Henning; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2005-03-17

    Oxidation of unsaturated and aromatic hydrocarbons in atmospheric and combustion processes results in formation of linear and cyclic unsaturated, oxygenated-hydrocarbon intermediates. The thermochemical parameters delatafH degrees 298, S degrees 298, and C(p)(f298)(T) for these intermediates are needed to understand their stability and reaction paths in further oxidation. These properties are not available for a majority of these unsaturated oxy-hydrocarbons and their corresponding radicals, even via group additivity methods. Enthalpy, entropy, and heat capacity of a series of 40 oxygenated and non-oxygenated molecules, or radicals corresponding to hydrogen atom loss from the parent stable molecules are determined in this study. Enthalpy (delatafH degrees 298 in kcal mol(-1)) is derived from the density function calculations at the B3LYP/6-311g(d,p) calculated enthalpy of reaction (delatafH degrees rxn,298) and by use of isodesmic (work) reactions. Estimation of error in enthalpy delatafH degrees 298, from use of computational chemistry coupled with work reactions analysis, is presented using comparisons between the calculated and literature enthalpies of reaction. Entropies (S degrees 298) and heat capacities (C(p)(f298)(T)) were calculated using the B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) determined frequencies and geometries. Potential barriers for internal rotors in each molecule were determined and used (in place of torsion frequencies) to calculate contributions to S and C(p)(T) from the hindered rotors. Twenty-six groups for use in group additivity (GA) are also developed.

  4. Production and characterization of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of Japanese bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Shigyo, Masayoshi; Yamauchi, Naoki; Tashiro, Yosuke

    2004-10-01

    First and second backcrosses of amphidiploid hybrids (2n = 4x = 32, genomes AAFF) between shallot (Allium cepa Aggregatum group) and A. fistulosum were conducted to produce A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien addition lines. When shallot (A. cepa Aggregatum group) was used as a pollinator, the amphidiploids and allotriploids set germinable BC(1) and BC(2) seeds, respectively. The 237 BC(1) plants mainly consisted of 170 allotriploids (2n = 3x = 24, AAF) and 42 hypo-allotriploids possessing 23 chromosomes, i.e., single-alien deletions (2n = 3x-1 = 23, AAF-nF). The single-alien deletions in the BC(1) progeny showed dwarfing characteristics and were discriminated from the allotriploids (2n = 24) and hyper-allotriploids (2n = 25) by means of flow cytometric analysis. The chromosome numbers of 46 BC(2) seedlings varied from 16 to 24. Eight monosomic additions (2n = 2x+1 = 17, AA+nF) and 20 single-alien deletions were found in these BC(2) seedlings. Consequently, six kinds of A. cepa - A. fistulosum alien chromosome additions possessing different chromosome numbers (2n = 17, 18, 20, 21, 22, 23) were recognized in the BC(1) and BC(2) populations. A total of 79 aneuploids, including 62 single-alien deletions, were analyzed by a chromosome 6F-specific isozyme marker (Got-2) in order to recognize its existence in their chromosome complements. This analysis revealed that two out of 62 single-alien deletions did not possess 6F. One (AAF-6F) out of the possible eight single-alien deletions could be identified at first. The present study is a first step toward the development of a useful tool, such as a complete set of eight different single-alien deletions, for the rapid chromosomal assignment of genes and genetic markers in A. fistulosum.

  5. Male mice housed in groups engage in frequent fighting and show a lower response to additional bone loading than females or individually housed males that do not fight.

    PubMed

    Meakin, Lee B; Sugiyama, Toshihiro; Galea, Gabriel L; Browne, William J; Lanyon, Lance E; Price, Joanna S

    2013-05-01

    Experiments to investigate bone's physiological adaptation to mechanical loading frequently employ models that apply dynamic loads to bones in vivo and assess the changes in mass and architecture that result. It is axiomatic that bones will only show an adaptive response if the applied artificial loading environment differs in a significant way from that to which the bones have been habituated by normal functional loading. It is generally assumed that this normal loading is similar between experimental groups. In the study reported here we found that this was not always the case. Male and female 17-week-old C57BL/6 mice were housed in groups of six, and a single episode (40 cycles) of non-invasive axial loading, engendering 2,200 με on the medial surface of the proximal tibiae in sample mice, was applied to right tibiae on alternate days for two weeks. This engendered an adaptive increase in bone mass in females, but not males. Observation revealed the main difference in behaviour between males and females was that males were involved in fights 1.3 times per hour, whereas the females never fought. We therefore housed all mice individually. In females, there was a similar significant osteogenic response to loading in cortical and trabecular bone of both grouped and individual mice. In contrast, in males, adaptive increases in the loaded compared with non-loaded control bones was only apparent in animals housed individually. Our interpretation of these findings is that the frequent vigorous fighting that occurs between young adult males housed in groups could be sufficient to engender peak strains and strain rates that equal or exceed the stimulus derived from artificial loading. This indicates the importance of ensuring that physical activity is consistent between groups. Reducing the background level of the naturally engendered strain environment allows adaptive responses to artificial loading to be demonstrated at lower loads.

  6. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  7. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-01-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy. PMID:28272523

  8. Controlling self-assembly of diphenylalanine peptides at high pH using heterocyclic capping groups

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martin, Adam D.; Wojciechowski, Jonathan P.; Robinson, Andrew B.; Heu, Celine; Garvey, Christopher J.; Ratcliffe, Julian; Waddington, Lynne J.; Gardiner, James; Thordarson, Pall

    2017-03-01

    Using small angle neutron scattering (SANS), it is shown that the existence of pre-assembled structures at high pH for a capped diphenylalanine hydrogel is controlled by the selection of N-terminal heterocyclic capping group, namely indole or carbazole. At high pH, changing from a somewhat hydrophilic indole capping group to a more hydrophobic carbazole capping group results in a shift from a high proportion of monomers to self-assembled fibers or wormlike micelles. The presence of these different self-assembled structures at high pH is confirmed through NMR and circular dichroism spectroscopy, scanning probe microscopy and cryogenic transmission electron microscopy.

  9. Additive effects of low-level laser therapy with exercise on subacromial syndrome: a randomised, double-blind, controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Abrisham, Seyyed Mohammad Jalil; Kermani-Alghoraishi, Mohammad; Ghahramani, Rahil; Jabbari, Latife; Jomeh, Hossein; Zare, Maryam

    2011-10-01

    The subacromial syndrome is the most common source of shoulder pain. The mainstays of conservative treatment are non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and exercise therapy. Recently, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been popularized in the treatment of various musculoskeletal disorders. The aim of this study is to evaluate the additive effects of LLLT with exercise in comparison with exercise therapy alone in treatment of the subacromial syndrome. We conducted a randomised clinical study of 80 patients who presented to clinic with subacromial syndrome (rotator cuff and biceps tendinitis). Patients were randomly allocated into two groups. In group I (n = 40), patients were given laser treatment (pulsed infrared laser) and exercise therapy for ten sessions during a period of 2 weeks. In group II (n = 40), placebo laser and the same exercise therapy were given for the same period. Patients were evaluated for the pain with visual analogue scale (VAS) and shoulder range of motion (ROM) in an active and passive movement of flexion, abduction and external rotation before and after treatment. In both groups, significant post-treatment improvements were achieved in all parameters (P = 0.00). In comparison between the two groups, a significant improvement was noted in all movements in group I (P = 0.00). Also, there was a substantial difference between the groups in VAS scores (P = 0.00) which showed significant pain reduction in group I. This study indicates that LLLT combined exercise is more effective than exercise therapy alone in relieving pain and in improving the shoulder ROM in patients with subacromial syndrome.

  10. The effectiveness of a graphical presentation in addition to a frequency format in the context of familial breast cancer risk communication: a multicenter controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inadequate understanding of risk among counselees is a common problem in familial cancer clinics. It has been suggested that graphical displays can help counselees understand cancer risks and subsequent decision-making. We evaluated the effects of a graphical presentation in addition to a frequency format on counselees’ understanding, psychological well-being, and preventive intentions. Design: Multicenter controlled trial. Setting: Three familial cancer clinics in the Netherlands. Methods Participants: Unaffected women with a breast cancer family history (first-time attendees). Intervention: Immediately after standard genetic counseling, an additional consultation by a trained risk counselor took place where women were presented with their lifetime breast cancer risk in frequency format (X out of 100) (n = 63) or frequency format plus graphical display (10 × 10 human icons) (n = 91). Main outcome measures: understanding of risk (risk accuracy, risk perception), psychological well-being, and intentions regarding cancer prevention. Measurements were assessed using questionnaires at baseline, 2-week and 6-month follow-up. Results Baseline participant characteristics did not differ between the two groups. In both groups there was an increase in women’s risk accuracy from baseline to follow-up. No significant differences were found between women who received the frequency format and those who received an additional graphical display in terms of understanding, psychological well-being and intentions regarding cancer prevention. The groups did not differ in their evaluation of the process of counseling. Conclusion Women’s personal risk estimation accuracy was generally high at baseline and the results suggest that an additional graphical display does not lead to a significant benefit in terms of increasing understanding of risk, psychological well-being and preventive intentions. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials http://ISRCTN14566836

  11. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 3 Full-scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe

    2007-05-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of a flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additive, Degussa Corporation's TMT-15, to prevent the reemission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine TMT salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the TMT-15 additive in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} reemissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Power River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, TXU Generation Company LP, Southern Company, and Degussa Corporation. TXU Generation has provided the Texas lignite/PRB cofired test site for pilot FGD tests, Monticello Steam Electric Station Unit 3. Southern Company is providing the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems to be tested. IPL, an AES company, provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive and technical support to the test program as cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management and reporting. The other four tasks involve field testing on FGD systems, either at pilot or full scale. The four tasks include: Task 2 - Pilot Additive Testing

  12. Short term modulation of trunk neuromuscular responses following spinal manipulation: a control group study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most frequent musculoskeletal conditions in industrialized countries and its economic impact is important. Spinal manipulation therapy (SMT) is believed to be a valid approach in the treatment of both acute and chronic LBP. It has also been shown that SMT can modulate the electromyographic (EMG) activity of the paraspinal muscle. The purpose of this study was to investigate, in a group of patients with low back pain, the persistence of changes observed in trunk neuromuscular responses after a spinal manipulation (SMT). Methods Sixty adult participants with LBP performed a block of 5 flexion-extension movements. Participants in the experimental group (n=30) received lumbar SMT whereas participants in the control group (n=30) were positioned similarly for the treatment but did not receive SMT. Blocks of flexion-extension movements were repeated immediately after the manipulation as well as 5 and 30 minutes after SMT (or control position). EMG activity of paraspinal muscles was recorded at L2 and L5 level and kinematic data were collected to evaluate the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Pain intensity was noted after each block. Normalized EMG, pain intensity and lumbo-pelvic kinematics were compared across experimental conditions. Results Participants from the control group showed a significant increase in EMG activity during the last block (30 min) of flexion-extension trials in both flexion and full-flexion phases at L2. Increase in VAS scores was also observed in the last 2 blocks (5 min and 30 min) in the control group. No significant group x time interaction was seen at L5. No significant difference was observed in the lumbo-pelvic kinematics. Conclusion Changes in trunk neuromuscular control following HVLA spinal manipulation may reduce sensitization or muscle fatigue effects related to repetitive movement. Future studies should investigate short term changes in neuromuscular components, tissue properties and clinical

  13. Catalytic hydrofunctionalization of alkynes through P-H bond addition: the unique role of orientation and properties of the phosphorus group in the insertion step.

    PubMed

    Ananikov, Valentine P; Makarov, Anton V; Beletskaya, Irina P

    2011-11-04

    The puzzling question of alkyne insertion into Pd-P and Pd-H bonds leading to the formation of new Pd-C, C-P, and C-H bonds was explored by theoretical calculations at the CCSD(T) and B3LYP levels of theory. The key factors responsible for selectivity of catalytic hydrofunctionalization of alkynes were resolved and studied in details for the models of hydrophosphorylation, hydrophosphinylation, and hydrophospination reactions. In contrast with the generally accepted mechanistic picture, the calculations have shown that several pathways are possible depending on the nature and geometrical arrangement of the phosphorus group. It was found that the product of alkyne insertion into the metal-hydrogen bond should be easily formed under kinetic-control conditions, while the product of alkyne insertion into the metal-phosphorus bond may be formed in certain cases under thermodynamic control. For the first time, the calculations have revealed the role of the oxygen atom in the reactivity of P=P(O)R(2) groups and the role of the interactions involving the lone pair of the P=PR(2) group in the reagent. The fundamental properties of the Pd-P, C-P, and P-H bonds were reported, and the larger bond strength upon increasing the number of oxygen atoms bound to phosphorus (P=PR(2), P(O)R(2), and P(O)(OR)(2)) have been shown. The relationship between bond energy, acidity, and reactivity of the studied phosphorus compounds has been determined.

  14. Transformations and reactions of Re2(CO)8(mu-SbPh2)(mu-H) induced by the addition of a platinum(tri-t-butylphosphine) group.

    PubMed

    Adams, Richard D; Hall, Michael B; Pearl, William C; Yang, Xinzheng

    2009-01-19

    Three products Re(2)[Pt(PBu(t)(3))](mu-SbPh(2))(CO)(8)(mu-H), 2, Re(2)[Pt(CO)(PBu(t)(3))]Ph(CO)(8)(mu(3)-SbPh)(mu-H), 3, and Re(2)[Pt(PBu(t)(3))](2)(CO)(8)(mu(4)-Sb(2)Ph(2))(mu-H)(2), 4, were obtained from the reaction of Re(2)(CO)(8)(mu-SbPh(2))(mu-H), 1, with Pt(PBu(t)(3))(2). Compound 3 was also obtained from 2 by further reaction with Pt(PBu(t)(3))(2). Compound 2 is a Pt(PBu(t)(3)) adduct of 1 formed by the insertion of the platinum atom into one of the Re-Sb bonds of 1 with formation of two Pt-Re bonds. Compound 3 contains an open Re(2)Pt cluster and was also obtained in a low yield by the addition of CO to 2. The addition of SbPh(3) to 2 yielded the compound Re(2)Pt(PBu(t)(3))(Ph)(CO)(8)(SbPh(3))(mu(3)-SbPh)(mu-H), 5, a SbPh(3) derivative of 3. Compound 4 can be viewed as a dimer of the fragment Re[Pt(PBu(t)(3))](CO)(4)(SbPh)(mu-H). The two halves of the molecule are held together by Pt-Sb bonds and a significant interaction directly between the Sb atoms, Sb-Sb distance, 2.9834(7) A. The Sb-Sb bonding in 4 was explained by density functional calculations. Compound 4 adds 2 equiv of CO at 1 atm/25 degrees C, one to each platinum atom, to yield the compound [Re(CO)(4)Pt(H)(CO)(PBu(t)(3))(mu(3)-SbPh)](2) which exists as a mixture of two noninterconverting isomers, cis-6 and trans-6. Both isomers of 6 were isolated and structurally characterized. Each isomer of 6 consists of a central planar Re(2)Sb(2) core composed of two Re(CO)(4) groups with two bridging SbPh ligands. There is a Pt(H)(CO)(PBu(t)(3)) group coordinated to each antimony atom of 6. In the cis-isomer both Pt(H)(CO)(PBu(t)(3)) groups lie on the same side of the Re(2)Sb(2) plane. In the trans-isomer the Pt(H)(CO)(PBu(t)(3)) groups lie on opposite sides of the Re(2)Sb(2) plane.

  15. A randomised controlled trial of group cognitive behavioural therapy for perfectionism.

    PubMed

    Handley, Alicia K; Egan, Sarah J; Kane, Robert T; Rees, Clare S

    2015-05-01

    Perfectionism is associated with symptoms of anxiety disorders, eating disorders and mood disorders. Treatments targeting perfectionism may reduce the symptoms of these disorders (Egan, Wade, & Shafran, 2011). This study is the first randomised controlled trial to investigate the efficacy of group cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) for perfectionism. Forty-two participants with elevated perfectionism and a range of anxiety, eating and mood disorders were randomised to group CBT for perfectionism or a waitlist control. The treatment group reported significantly greater pre-post reductions in perfectionism, symptoms of depression, eating disorders, social anxiety, anxiety sensitivity and rumination, as well as significantly greater pre-post increases in self-esteem and quality of life compared to the waitlist control group. The impact of treatment on most of these outcomes was mediated by pre-post change in perfectionism (Concern over Mistakes). Treatment gains were reliable and clinically significant, and were maintained at 6-month follow-up. Findings support group CBT for perfectionism being an efficacious treatment for perfectionism and related psychopathology, as well as increasing self-esteem and quality of life.

  16. Synonymy of strains of Center for Disease Control group DF-1 with species of Capnocytophaga.

    PubMed Central

    Williams, B L; Hollis, D; Holdeman, L V

    1979-01-01

    Of eight strains of Center for Disease Control group DF-1 examined, seven had 62 to 87% deoxyribonucleic acid homology with the neotype strain of Capnocytophaga ochracea and one had 72% deoxyribonucleic acid homology with the type strain of C. gingivalis. Deoxyribonucleic acid homology of four strains of Bacteroides ochraceus with the neotype strain of C. ochrecea was 76 to 86%. PMID:528685

  17. Analyzing Data from a Pretest-Posttest Control Group Design: The Importance of Statistical Assumptions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zientek, Linda; Nimon, Kim; Hammack-Brown, Bryn

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Among the gold standards in human resource development (HRD) research are studies that test theoretically developed hypotheses and use experimental designs. A somewhat typical experimental design would involve collecting pretest and posttest data on individuals assigned to a control or experimental group. Data from such a design that…

  18. What to Do when Data Are Missing in Group Randomized Controlled Trials. NCEE 2009-0049

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Puma, Michael J.; Olsen, Robert B.; Bell, Stephen H.; Price, Cristofer

    2009-01-01

    This NCEE Technical Methods report examines how to address the problem of missing data in the analysis of data in Randomized Controlled Trials (RCTs) of educational interventions, with a particular focus on the common educational situation in which groups of students such as entire classrooms or schools are randomized. Missing outcome data are a…

  19. Effect of kaolin addition on the performance of controlled low-strength material using industrial waste incineration bottom ash.

    PubMed

    Naganathan, Sivakumar; Razak, Hashim Abdul; Hamid, Siti Nadzriah Abdul

    2010-09-01

    Incineration of industrial waste produces large quantities of bottom ash which are normally sent to secured landfill, but is not a sustainable solution. Use of bottom ash in engineering applications will contribute to sustainability and generate revenue. One way of using the industrial waste incineration bottom ash is in controlled low-strength material (CLSM). Use of bottom ash in CLSM has problems related to bleeding and excessive strength development and so an additive has to be used to control bleeding and strength development. The main objective of this research is to study the effect of kaolin addition on the performance of CLSM made using industrial waste incineration bottom ash. CLSM mixes were made with bottom ash, cement, and refined kaolin. Various tests were performed on the CLSM in fresh and hardened states including compressive strength, water absorption, California bearing ratio (CBR) and the tests for concentration of leachable substances on the bleed and leachate. The compressive strength of CLSM tested ranged from 0.11 to 9.86 MPa. CBR values ranged from 6 to 46, and water absorption values from 12 to 36%. It was shown that the addition of kaolin delayed the initial setting time of CLSM mixtures, reduced bleeding, lowered the compressive strength, and increased the values of water absorption, sorption, and initial surface absorption. The CLSM tested did not have corrosivity. It was shown that the hardened CLSM was non hazardous, and the addition of kaolin increased the concentration of heavy metals and salts in the bleed and leachate.

  20. Variation of phytoplankton functional groups modulated by hydraulic controls in Hongze Lake, China.

    PubMed

    Tian, Chang; Pei, Haiyan; Hu, Wenrong; Hao, Daping; Doblin, Martina A; Ren, Ying; Wei, Jielin; Feng, Yawei

    2015-11-01

    Hongze Lake is a large, shallow, polymictic, eutrophic lake in the eastern China. Phytoplankton functional groups in this lake were investigated from March 2011 to February 2013, and a comparison was made between the eastern, western, and northern regions. The lake shows strong fluctuations in water level caused by monsoon rains and regular hydraulic controls. By application of the phytoplankton functional group approach, this study aims to investigate the spatial and temporal dynamics and analyze their influencing factors. Altogether, 18 functional groups of phytoplankton were identified, encompassing 187 species. In order to seek the best variable describing the phytoplankton functional group distribution, 14 of the groups were analyzed in detail using redundancy analysis. Due to the turbid condition of the lake, the dominant functional groups were those tolerant of low light. The predominant functional groups in the annual succession were D (Cyclotella spp. and Synedra acus), T (Planctonema lauterbornii), P (Fragilaria crotonensis), X1 (Chlorella vulgaris and Chlorella pyrenoidosa), C (Cyclotella meneghiniana and Cyclotella ocellata), and Y (Cryptomonas erosa). An opposite relationship between water level and the biomass of predominant groups was observed in the present study. Water level fluctuations, caused by monsoonal climate and artificial drawdown, were significant factors influencing phytoplankton succession in Hongze Lake, since they alter the hydrological conditions and influence light and nutrient availability. The clearly demonstrated factors, which significantly influence phytoplankton dynamics in Hongze Lake, will help government manage the large shallow lakes with frequent water level fluctuations.

  1. Quantitative dermatoglyphic asymmetry: a comparative study between schizophrenic patients and control groups of West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Karmakar, B; Sengupta, M

    2012-01-01

    Quantitative Fluctuating (FA) and Directional asymmetry (DA) of dermatoglyphics on digito-palmar complex were analyzed in a group of 111 patients (males: 61, females: 50) with schizophrenia (SZ), and compared to an ethnically matched phenotypically healthy control (males: 60, females: 60) through MANOVA, ANOVA and canonical Discriminant analyses. With few exceptions, asymmetries are higher among patients, and this is more prominent in FA than DA. Statistically significant differences were observed between patient and control groups, especially in males. In both sexes, FA of combined dermatoglyphic traits (e.g. total finger ridge count, total palmar pattern ridge count) are found to be a strong discriminator between the two groups with a correct classification of over 83% probability.

  2. Learning in the tutorial group: a balance between individual freedom and institutional control.

    PubMed

    McAllister, Anita; Aanstoot, Janna; Hammarström, Inger Lundeborg; Samuelsson, Christina; Johannesson, Eva; Sandström, Karin; Berglind, Ulrika

    2014-01-01

    The study investigates factors in problem-based learning tutorial groups which promote or inhibit learning. The informants were tutors and students from speech-language pathology and physiotherapy programmes. Semi-structured focus-group interviews and individual interviews were used. Results revealed three themes: Responsibility. Time and Support. Under responsibility, the delicate balance between individual and institutional responsibility and control was shown. Time included short and long-term perspectives on learning. Under support, supporting documents, activities and personnel resources were mentioned. In summary, an increased control by the program and tutors decreases student's motivation to assume responsibility for learning. Support in tutorial groups needs to adapt to student progression and to be well aligned to tutorial work to have the intended effect. A lifelong learning perspective may help students develop a meta-awareness regarding learning that could make tutorial work more meaningful.

  3. Adapting Minority Group Threat to Examine the Social Control of Sexual Orientation Bias.

    PubMed

    Stacey, Michele

    2016-02-24

    Blalock proposed that the threat of a minority group toward a majority in sheer size, economic competition, or power will result in an increase in discrimination toward that group. His original formulation of this theory of minority group threat, and its subsequent extensions, has focused almost exclusively on racial minority-majority relationships; however, Blalock asserted that his theory would apply to any minority-majority group relationship. Extensions to religious groups have shown this is likely the case. The current analysis assesses a further extension of minority group threat by reframing the arguments of the theory and adding two additional sources of threat to examine sexual orientation bias. Data from the Uniform Crime Reports Hate Crime Statistics program are used to assess whether the minority group threat hypotheses explain the reporting of sexual orientation bias crimes. The findings indicate that the original formulation of Blalock's theory does not suffice to explain the reporting of anti-Lesbian, Gay, and Bisexual bias crime, but the proposed extensions may explain some of this variation.

  4. Tooth Size in Patients with Mild, Moderate and Severe Hypodontia and a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Khalaf, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: To compare tooth size between subjects with mild, moderate and severe hypodontia and a control group. Material and Methods: The study comprised 120 patients with hypodontia divided into three groups of 40 mild (≤2 teeth congenitally missing), 40 moderate (3-5 teeth congenitally missing) and 40 severe (≥6 teeth congenitally missing) hypodontia; and 40 age and sex matched controls. Tooth size was recorded by measuring the mesiodistal and buccolingual dimensions of all fully erupted teeth on study models using digital callipers and compared between all hypodontia and control groups using Two-way ANOVA and Post Hoc Tests of subgroup comparison. Results: Two-way ANOVA revealed patients with hypodontia had significantly smaller mesiodistal and buccolingual tooth dimensions compared with controls (p<0.05). Furthermore patients with more severe hypodontia demonstrated significantly smaller tooth dimensions than those in the mild and moderate hypodontia subgroups (p<0.05). The most affected tooth in terms of tooth size reduction was the maxillary lateral incisor and the least affected tooth was the mandibular first molar. Conclusion: Patients with hypodontia have smaller tooth dimensions than control. Tooth size appears to be affected by the degree of hypodontia, with severe hypodontia having a greater effect on tooth size reduction. The findings of this study may contribute to understanding the aetiology of hypodontia and aid the multidisciplinary management of this complex condition. PMID:27583048

  5. Application of photoremovable protecting group for controlled release of plant growth regulators by sunlight.

    PubMed

    Atta, Sanghamitra; Ikbal, Mohammed; Kumar, Ashutosh; Pradeep Singh, N D

    2012-06-04

    We report a novel technique for controlled release of plant growth regulators (PGRs) by sunlight using photoremovable protecting group (PRPG) as a delivery device. In the present work, carboxyl-containing PGRs of the auxin group [indoleacetic acid (IAA) and naphthoxyacetic acid (NOAA)] were chemically caged using PRPGs of coumarin derivatives. Photophysical studies showed that caged PGRs exhibited good fluorescence properties. Irradiation of caged PGRs by sunlight in both aqueous ethanol and soil media resulted in controlled release of PGRs. The results of the bioactivity experiments indicated that caged PGRs showed better enhancement in the root and shoot length growth of Cicer arietinum compared to PGRs after 10days of sunlight exposure. Our results indicated that use of PRPG as a delivery device for controlled release of PGRs by sunlight in soil holds great interest for field application since it can overcome the rapid loss of PGRs in environmental conditions.

  6. Temperature, pressure, and electrochemical constraints on protein speciation: Group additivity calculation of the standard molal thermodynamic properties of ionized unfolded proteins

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dick, J. M.; Larowe, D. E.; Helgeson, H. C.

    2006-07-01

    Thermodynamic calculations can be used to quantify environmental constraints on the speciation of proteins, such as the pH and temperature dependence of ionization state, and the relative chemical stabilities of proteins in different biogeochemical settings. These calculations depend in part on values of the standard molal Gibbs energies of proteins and their ionization reactions as a function of temperature and pressure. Because these values are not generally available, we calculated values of the standard molal thermodynamic properties at 25°C and 1 bar as well as the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers equations of state parameters of neutral and charged zwitterionic reference model compounds including aqueous amino acids, polypeptides, and unfolded proteins. The experimental calorimetric and volumetric data for these species taken from the literature were combined with group additivity algorithms to calculate the properties and parameters of neutral and ionized sidechain and backbone groups in unfolded proteins. The resulting set of group contributions enables the calculation of the standard molal Gibbs energy, enthalpy, entropy, isobaric heat capacity, volume, and isothermal compressibility of unfolded proteins in a range of proton ionization states to temperatures and pressures exceeding 100°C and 1000 bar. This approach provides a useful frame of reference for thermodynamic studies of protein folding and complexation reactions. It can also be used to assign provisional values of the net charge and Gibbs energy of ionized proteins as a function of temperature and pH. Using these values, an Eh-pH diagram for a reaction representing the speciation of extracellular proteins from Pyrococcus furiosus and Bacillus subtilis was generated. The predicted predominance limits of these proteins correspond with the different electrochemical conditions of hydrothermal vents and soils. More comprehensive calculations of this kind may reveal pervasive chemical potential

  7. Controlling surface functionality through generation of thiol groups in a self-assembled monolayer.

    SciTech Connect

    Lud, S. Q.; Neppl, S.; Richter, G.; Bruno, P.; Gruen, D. M.; Jordan, R.; Feulner, P.; Stutzmann, M.; Garrido, J. A.; Materials Science Division; Technische Univ. Munchen

    2010-01-01

    A lithographic method to generate reactive thiol groups on functionalized synthetic diamond for biosensor and molecular electronic applications is developed. We demonstrate that ultrananocrystalline diamond (UNCD) thin films covalently functionalized with surface-generated thiol groups allow controlled thiol-disulfide exchange surface hybridization processes. The generation of the thiol functional head groups was obtained by irradiating phenylsulfonic acid (PSA) monolayers on UNCD surfaces. The conversion of the functional headgroup of the self-assembled monolayer was verified by using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS), and fluorescence microscopy. Our findings indicate the selective generation of reactive thiol surface groups. Furthermore, we demonstrate the grafting of yeast cytochrome c to the thiol-modified diamond surface and the electron transfer between protein and electrode.

  8. Comparison of Value System among a Group of Military Prisoners with Controls in Tehran

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Objective Religious values were investigated in a group of Iranian Revolutionary Guards in Tehran. Methods The sample consisted of official duty troops and conscripts who were in prison due to a crime. One hundred thirty seven individuals cooperated with us in the project (37 Official personnel and 100 conscripts). The instruments used included a demographic questionnaire containing personal data and the Allport, Vernon and Lindzey's Study of Values Test. Most statistical methods used descriptive statistical methods such as frequency, mean, tables and t-test. Results The results showed that religious value was lower in the criminal group than the control group (p<.001). Discussion This study showed lower religious value scores in the criminals group, suggesting the possibility that lower religious value increases the probability of committing crimes. PMID:22952535

  9. Group Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy and Group Interpersonal Psychotherapy for the Nonpurging Bulimic Individual: A Controlled Comparison.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilfrey, Denise E.; And Others

    1993-01-01

    Evaluated effectiveness of group cognitive-behavioral treatment (CBT) and group interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT) for binge eating among 56 women with nonpurging bulimia. At posttreatment, both CBT and IPT conditions showed significant improvement in reducing binge eating, compared to waiting-list condition. Binge eating remained significantly…

  10. Group hypnosis vs. relaxation for smoking cessation in adults: a cluster-randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite the popularity of hypnotherapy for smoking cessation, the efficacy of this method is unclear. We aimed to investigate the efficacy of a single-session of group hypnotherapy for smoking cessation compared to relaxation in Swiss adult smokers. Methods This was a cluster-randomised, parallel-group, controlled trial. A single session of hypnosis or relaxation for smoking cessation was delivered to groups of smokers (median size = 11). Participants were 223 smokers consuming ≥ 5 cigarettes per day, willing to quit and not using cessation aids (47.1% females, M = 37.5 years [SD = 11.8], 86.1% Swiss). Nicotine withdrawal, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and adverse reactions were assessed at a 2-week follow-up. The main outcome, self-reported 30-day point prevalence of smoking abstinence, was assessed at a 6-month follow up. Abstinence was validated through salivary analysis. Secondary outcomes included number of cigarettes smoked per day, smoking abstinence self-efficacy, and nicotine withdrawal. Results At the 6-month follow up, 14.7% in the hypnosis group and 17.8% in the relaxation group were abstinent. The intervention had no effect on smoking status (p = .73) or on the number of cigarettes smoked per day (p = .56). Smoking abstinence self-efficacy did not differ between the interventions (p = .14) at the 2-week follow-up, but non-smokers in the hypnosis group experienced reduced withdrawal (p = .02). Both interventions produced few adverse reactions (p = .81). Conclusions A single session of group hypnotherapy does not appear to be more effective for smoking cessation than a group relaxation session. Trial registration Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN72839675. PMID:24365274

  11. Closing plenary summary of working group 4 instrumentation and controls for ERL2011

    SciTech Connect

    Gassner, D.; Obina, T.

    2011-10-16

    Working group 4 was charged with presentations and discussions on instrumentation and controls with regards to Energy Recovery Linacs (ERL). There were 4 sessions spanning 3.5 hours in which 7 talks were delivered, the first being an invited plenary presentation. The time allotted for each talk was limited to 20-25 minutes in order to allow 5-10 minutes for discussion. Most of the talks were held in joint session with working group 5 (Unwanted Beam Loss). This format was effective for the purpose of this workshop. A final series of discussion sessions were also held with working group 5. Summary of the working group 4 activities, presented in the closing plenary session. We had a plenary presentation on operational performance, experience, and future plans at the existing ERL injector prototype at Cornell. This included instrumentation data, controls system configurations, as well as description of future needs. This was followed by four talks from KEK and RIKEN/SPring-8 that described electron beam instrumentation already in use or under development that can be applied to ERL facilities. The final talks described the ERLs under construction at KEK and BNL. The format of having joint sessions with working group 5 was beneficial as there were a significant number of common topics and concerns with regards to the causes of beam loss, instrumentation hardware, and techniques used to measure and analyze beam loss.

  12. The Buried in Treasures Workshop: waitlist control trial of facilitated support groups for hoarding.

    PubMed

    Frost, Randy O; Ruby, Dylan; Shuer, Lee J

    2012-11-01

    Hoarding is a serious form of psychopathology that has been associated with significant health and safety concerns, as well as the source of social and economic burden (Tolin, Frost, Steketee, & Fitch, 2008; Tolin, Frost, Steketee, Gray, & Fitch, 2008). Recent developments in the treatment of hoarding have met with some success for both individual and group treatments. Nevertheless, the cost and limited accessibility of these treatments leave many hoarding sufferers without options for help. One alternative is support groups that require relatively few resources. Frost, Pekareva-Kochergina, and Maxner (2011) reported significant declines in hoarding symptoms following a non-professionally run 13-week support group (The Buried in Treasures [BIT] Workshop). The BIT Workshop is a highly structured and short term support group. The present study extended these findings by reporting on the results of a waitlist control trial of the BIT Workshop. Significant declines in all hoarding symptom measures were observed compared to a waitlist control. The treatment response rate for the BIT Workshop was similar to that obtained by previous individual and group treatment studies, despite its shorter length and lack of a trained therapist. The BIT Workshop may be an effective adjunct to cognitive behavior therapy for hoarding disorder, or an alternative when cognitive behavior therapy is inaccessible.

  13. Mechanisms Controlling Carbon Turnover from Diverse Microbial Groups in Temperate and Tropical Forest Soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Throckmorton, H.; Dane, L.; Bird, J. A.; Firestone, M. K.; Horwath, W. R.

    2010-12-01

    Microorganisms represent an important intermediate along the pathway of plant litter decomposition to the formation of soil organic matter (SOM); yet little is known of the fate and stability of microbial C in soils and the importance of microbial biochemistry as a factor influencing SOM dynamics. This research investigates mechanisms controlling microbial C stabilization in a temperate forest in the Sierra Nevada of California (CA) and a tropical forest in Puerto Rico (PR). Biochemically diverse microbial groups (fungi, actinomycetes, bacteria gram (+), and bacteria gram (-)) were isolated from both sites, grown in the laboratory with C13 media, killed, and nonliving residues were added back to soils as a reciprocal transplant of microbial groups. The native microbial community in CA is dominated by fungi and in PR is dominated by bacteria, which provides an opportunity to asses the metabolic response of distinct microbial communities to the diverse microbial additions. CA and PR soils were sampled five times over a 3 and 2 year period, respectively. In CA there was no significant difference in the mean residence time (MRT) of diverse C13 microbial treatments; whereas in PR there were significant differences, whereby temperate fungi, temperate Gram (+) bacteria, and tropical actinomycetes exhibited a significantly longer MRT as compared with tropical fungi and temperate Gram (-). These results suggest that a bacterial dominated microbial community discriminates more amongst diverse substrates than a fungal-dominated community. MRT for labeled-C in CA was 5.21 ± 1.11 years, and in PR was 2.22 ± 0.45. Despite substantial differences in MRT between sites, physical fractionation of soils into light (LF), aggregated-occluded (OF), and mineral-associated (MF) fractions provided evidence that accelerated decomposition in PR (presumably due to climate) operated primarily on labeled-C unassociated with the mineral matrix (LF); labeled-C occluded within aggregates (OF) or

  14. Small functional groups for controlled differentiation of hydrogel-encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benoit, Danielle S. W.; Schwartz, Michael P.; Durney, Andrew R.; Anseth, Kristi S.

    2008-10-01

    Cell-matrix interactions have critical roles in regeneration, development and disease. The work presented here demonstrates that encapsulated human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) can be induced to differentiate down osteogenic and adipogenic pathways by controlling their three-dimensional environment using tethered small-molecule chemical functional groups. Hydrogels were formed using sufficiently low concentrations of tether molecules to maintain constant physical characteristics, encapsulation of hMSCs in three dimensions prevented changes in cell morphology, and hMSCs were shown to differentiate in normal growth media, indicating that the small-molecule functional groups induced differentiation. To our knowledge, this is the first example where synthetic matrices are shown to control induction of multiple hMSC lineages purely through interactions with small-molecule chemical functional groups tethered to the hydrogel material. Strategies using simple chemistry to control complex biological processes would be particularly powerful as they could make production of therapeutic materials simpler, cheaper and more easily controlled.

  15. Clinical characteristics of patients with motor disability due to conversion disorder: a prospective control group study

    PubMed Central

    Binzer, M.; Andersen, P.; Kullgren, G.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVES—Previous studies have suggested associations between conversion and many different clinical characteristics. This study investigates these findings in a prospective design including a control group.
METHODS—Thirty consecutive patients with a recent onset of motor disability due to a conversion disorder were compared with a control group of patients with corresponding motor symptoms due to a definite organic lesion. Both groups had a similar duration of symptoms and a comparable age and sex profile and were assessed on a prospective basis. Background information about previous somatic and psychiatric disease was collected and all patients were assessed by means of a structured clinical interview linked to the diagnostic system DSM III-R, the Hamilton rating depression scale, and a special life events inventory.
RESULTS—The conversion group had a higher degree of psychopathology with 33% of the patients fulfilling the criteria for psychiatric syndromes according to DSM-III-R axis I, whereas 50% had axis II personality disorders compared with 10% and 17% respectively in the control group. Conversion patients also had significantly higher scores according to the Hamilton rating depression scale. Although patients with known neurological disease were not included in the conversion group, a concomitant somatic disorder was found in 33% of the patients and 50% complained of benign pain. The educational background in conversion patients was poor with only 13% having dropped out of high school compared with 67% in the control group. Self reported global assessment of functioning according to the axis V on DSM IV was significantly lower in conversion patients, who also registered significantly more negative life events before the onset of symptoms than controls. Logistic regression analysis showed that low education, presence of a personality disorder, and high Hamilton depression score were significantly associated with conversion disorder

  16. Teaching Emotional Intelligence: A Control Group Study of a Brief Educational Intervention for Emergency Medicine Residents

    PubMed Central

    Gorgas, Diane L.; Greenberger, Sarah; Bahner, David P.; Way, David P.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Emotional Intelligence (EI) is defined as an ability to perceive another’s emotional state combined with an ability to modify one’s own. Physicians with this ability are at a distinct advantage, both in fostering teams and in making sound decisions. Studies have shown that higher physician EI’s are associated with lower incidence of burn-out, longer careers, more positive patient-physician interactions, increased empathy, and improved communication skills. We explored the potential for EI to be learned as a skill (as opposed to being an innate ability) through a brief educational intervention with emergency medicine (EM) residents. Methods This study was conducted at a large urban EM residency program. Residents were randomized to either EI intervention or control groups. The intervention was a two-hour session focused on improving the skill of social perspective taking (SPT), a skill related to social awareness. Due to time limitations, we used a 10-item sample of the Hay 360 Emotional Competence Inventory to measure EI at three time points for the training group: before (pre) and after (post) training, and at six-months post training (follow up); and at two time points for the control group: pre- and follow up. The preliminary analysis was a four-way analysis of variance with one repeated measure: Group x Gender x Program Year over Time. We also completed post-hoc tests. Results Thirty-three EM residents participated in the study (33 of 36, 92%), 19 in the EI intervention group and 14 in the control group. We found a significant interaction effect between Group and Time (p≤0.05). Post-hoc tests revealed a significant increase in EI scores from Time 1 to 3 for the EI intervention group (62.6% to 74.2%), but no statistical change was observed for the controls (66.8% to 66.1%, p=0.77). We observed no main effects involving gender or level of training. Conclusion Our brief EI training showed a delayed but statistically significant positive impact

  17. Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive for Enhanced Mercury Control - Task 5 Full-Scale Test Results

    SciTech Connect

    Gary Blythe; MariJon Owens

    2007-12-01

    This Topical Report summarizes progress on Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42309, 'Field Testing of a Wet FGD Additive'. The objective of the project is to demonstrate the use of two flue gas desulfurization (FGD) additives, Evonik Degussa Corporation's TMT-15 and Nalco Company's Nalco 8034, to prevent the re-emission of elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) in flue gas exiting wet FGD systems on coal-fired boilers. Furthermore, the project intends to demonstrate whether the additive can be used to precipitate most of the mercury (Hg) removed in the wet FGD system as a fine salt that can be separated from the FGD liquor and bulk solid byproducts for separate disposal. The project is conducting pilot- and full-scale tests of the additives in wet FGD absorbers. The tests are intended to determine required additive dosages to prevent Hg{sup 0} re-emissions and to separate mercury from the normal FGD byproducts for three coal types: Texas lignite/Powder River Basin (PRB) coal blend, high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal, and low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal. The project team consists of URS Group, Inc., EPRI, Luminant Power (was TXU Generation Company LP), Southern Company, IPL (an AES company), Evonik Degussa Corporation and the Nalco Company. Luminant Power has provided the Texas lignite/PRB co-fired test site for pilot FGD tests and cost sharing. Southern Company has provided the low-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal host site for wet scrubbing tests, as well as the pilot- and full-scale jet bubbling reactor (JBR) FGD systems tested. IPL provided the high-sulfur Eastern bituminous coal full-scale FGD test site and cost sharing. Evonik Degussa Corporation is providing the TMT-15 additive, and the Nalco Company is providing the Nalco 8034 additive. Both companies are also supplying technical support to the test program as in-kind cost sharing. The project is being conducted in six tasks. Of the six project tasks, Task 1 involves project planning and Task 6 involves management

  18. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  19. Self-control of feedback during motor learning: accounting for the absolute amount of feedback using a yoked group with self-control over feedback.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Steve; Pfeiffer, Jacob; Patterson, Jae Todd

    2011-01-01

    A traditional control group yoked to a group that self-controls their reception of feedback receives feedback in the same relative and absolute manner. This traditional control group typically does not learn the task as well as the self-control group. Although the groups are matched for the amount of feedback they receive, the information is provided on trials in which the individual may not request feedback if he or she were provided the opportunity. Similarly, individuals may not receive feedback on trials for which it would be a beneficial learning experience. Subsequently, the mismatch between the provision of feedback and the potential learning opportunity leads to a decrement in retention. The present study was designed to examine motor learning for a yoked group with the same absolute amount of feedback, but who could self-control when they received feedback. Increased mental processing of error detection and correction was expected for the participants in the yoked self-control group because of their choice to employ a limited resource in the form of a decreasing amount of feedback opportunities. Participants in the yoked with self-control group committed fewer errors than the self-control group in retention and the traditional yoked group in both the retention and time transfer blocks. The results suggest that the yoked with self-control group was able to produce efficient learning effects and can be a viable control group for further motor learning studies.

  20. Is There a Relation between ABO Blood Groups and Clinical Outcome in Patients with Pemphigoid? A Case-Control Study

    PubMed Central

    Bakhtiari, Sedigheh; Toosi, Parviz; Azimi, Somayyeh; Esmaili, Nafiseh; Montazami, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background. Relationship between blood groups and dermatologic diseases remains controversial and was not yet fully elucidated nor explained clearly. The aim of this study was to examine if any relation exists between different types of pemphigoid diseases and ABO blood group. Methods. In this case-control study, 159 pemphigoid patients and 152 healthy matched-controls were evaluated. All blood group (including Rh status) data for the study was obtained from the hospital medical records. Statistical comparisons were completed with chi-square test and logistic regression. Results. Blood group “O” was found in 32.9% of patients and 38.2% of control group. Blood group “A” was found among 30.8% of patients and 34.2% of control group, while group “B” was reported in 27.4% of cases and 21.1% of controls and “AB” was identified among 8.9% of patients and 6.6% of control group. 84.9% of patients were Rh positive, while in the control group 86.2% of patients were Rh positive. No significant differences were found regarding ABO blood groups (P = 0.46) or Rh (P = 0.76) between pemphigoid patients and control group. Also, older females had the higher risk of developing bullous pemphigoid. Conclusion. We found no relationship between ABO blood groups and pemphigoid disease. PMID:27437000

  1. Stereochemical Control of Enzymatic Carbon–Carbon Bond‐Forming Michael‐Type Additions by “Substrate Engineering”

    PubMed Central

    Miao, Yufeng; Tepper, Pieter G.; Geertsema, Edzard M.

    2016-01-01

    The enzyme 4‐oxalocrotonate tautomerase (4‐OT) promiscuously catalyzes the Michael‐type addition of acetaldehyde to β‐nitrostyrene derivatives to yield chiral γ‐nitroaldehydes, which are important precursors for pharmaceutically active γ‐aminobutyric acids. In this study, we investigated the effect of different substituents at the aromatic ring of the Michael acceptor on the catalytic efficiency and stereoselectivity of the 4‐OT‐catalyzed acetaldehyde addition reactions. Highly enantioenriched (R)‐ and (S)‐γ‐nitroaldehydes and 4‐substituted chroman‐2‐ol could be obtained in good to excellent yields by applying different substituents at appropriate positions of the aromatic substrate. Stereochemical control of these enzymatic Michael‐type additions by “substrate engineering” allowed the enantioselective synthesis of valuable γ‐aminobutyric acid precursors. In addition, the results suggest a novel enzymatic synthesis route towards precursors for chromans and derivatives, which are valuable scaffolds for preparing biologically active natural products. PMID:27917069

  2. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles.

  3. Stability of ZnO quantum dots tuned by controlled addition of ethylene glycol during their growth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zimmermann, Lizandra M.; Baldissera, Paulo V.; Bechtold, Ivan H.

    2016-07-01

    ZnO quantum dots were prepared via a sol-gel route from zinc acetate and sodium hydroxide. The influence of ethylene glycol addition during the first stages of reaction (1-5 min) as a stabilizer, as well as the influence of its concentration in 2-propanol were investigated. The optimization led to particles with enough stability and homogeneity around 3.7 nm of diameter to allow for quantum confinement effect. Spectroscopic UV-vis absorption measurements allowed to explore the underlying mechanism of nucleation and growth and to have the control of it. The emission of the ZnO nanoparticles was explored under experimental perturbations with addition of small amounts of water to investigate the interplay between surface defects and the excitonic effect. The results suggest that the water interferes directly on the defects first and later on the excitonic recombination. Their morphology was determined with transmission electron microscopy.

  4. Development of a New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel Facility to Investigate Electromagnetic Energy Addition for Flow Control and Basic Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B.; Pereira, A. L.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    2006-05-01

    A new 0.6-m. diameter Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is been designed, fabricated and will be installed at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The brand new hypersonic facility, designated as T3, is primarily intended to be used as an important tool in the investigation of supersonic combustion management and of electromagnetic energy addition for flow control. The design of the runnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for basic supersonic combustion and energy addition by laser experiments. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures of 200 atm. and 5,500 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization and the new facility is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2006.

  5. Comparing tumor rates in current and historical control groups in rodent cancer bioassays.

    PubMed

    Dinse, Gregg E; Peddada, Shyamal D

    2011-02-01

    When evaluating carcinogenicity, tumor rates from the current study are informally assessed within the context of relevant historical control tumor rates. Current rates outside the range of historical rates raise concerns. We propose a statistical procedure that formally compares tumor rates in current and historical control groups. We use a normal approximation for the null distribution of the proposed test when there are at least 5 historical control groups and the average tumor rate is above 0.5%; otherwise, we apply standard bootstrap techniques. For comparison purposes, we show that formally basing decisions on the range of historical control rates would yield unusually high false positive rates. That is, a range-based decision rule would not maintain the nominal 5% significance level and could produce Type I error rates as high as 67%. In other cases, the power could go to zero. The proposed test, however, controls Type I errors while adjusting for survival and extra variability among the historical studies. We illustrate the methods with data from a study of benzophenone. Compared to a range-based decision rule, the proposed test has several important advantages, including operating at the specified level and being applicable with as few as one historical study.

  6. The Take Control Course: Conceptual Rationale for the Development of a Transdiagnostic Group for Common Mental Health Problems

    PubMed Central

    Morris, Lydia; Mansell, Warren; McEvoy, Phil

    2016-01-01

    Background: Increasingly, research supports the utility of a transdiagnostic understanding of psychopathology. However, there is no consensus regarding the theoretical approach that best explains this. Transdiagnostic interventions can offer service delivery advantages; this is explored in the current review, focusing on group modalities and primary care settings. Objective: This review seeks to explore whether a Perceptual Control Theory (PCT) explanation of psychopathology across disorders is a valid one. Further, this review illustrates the process of developing a novel transdiagnostic intervention (Take Control Course; TCC) from a PCT theory of functioning. Method: Narrative review. Results and Conclusions: Considerable evidence supports key tenets of PCT. Further, PCT offers a novel perspective regarding the mechanisms by which a number of familiar techniques, such as exposure and awareness, are effective. However, additional research is required to directly test the relative contribution of some PCT mechanisms predicted to underlie psychopathology. Directions for future research are considered. PMID:26903907

  7. Molecular and biochemical identification of alien chromosome additions in shallot (Allium cepa L. Aggregatum group) carrying extra chromosome(s) of bunching onion (A. fistulosum L.).

    PubMed

    Yaguchi, Shigenori; Hang, Tran Thi Minh; Tsukazaki, Hikaru; Hoa, Vu Quynh; Masuzaki, Shin-ichi; Wako, Tadayuki; Masamura, Noriya; Onodera, Shuichi; Shiomi, Norio; Yamauchi, Naoki; Shigyo, Masayoshi

    2009-02-01

    To develop the bunching onion (Allium fistulosum L.; genomes, FF) chromosome-specific genetic markers for identifying extra chromosomes, eight shallot (A. cepa L. Aggregatum group; genomes, AA)--A. fistulosum monosomic addition plants (AA+nF) and 62 shallot--A. fistulosum single-alien deletion plants (AAF-nF) were analyzed by 23 different chromosome-specific genetic markers of shallot. The eight monosomic addition plants consisted of one AA+2F, two AA+6F, and five AA+8F. Of the 62 single-alien deletion plants, 60 could be identified as six different single-alien deletion lines (AAF-1F, -3F, -4F, -6F, -7F, and -8F) out of the eight possible types. Several single-alien deletion lines were classified on the basis of leaf and bulb characteristics. AAF-8F had the largest number of expanded leaves of five deletion plants. AAF-7F grew most vigorously, as expressed by its long leaf blade and biggest bulb size. AAF-4F had very small bulbs. AAF-7F and AAF-8F had different bulbs from those of shallot as well as other types of single-alien deletion lines in skin and outer scale color. Regarding the sugar content of the bulb tissues, the single-alien deletion lines showed higher fructan content than shallot. Moreover, shallot could not produce fructan with degree of polymerization (DP) 12 or higher, although the single-alien deletion lines showed DP 20 or higher. The content of S-alk(en)yl-L-cysteine sulfoxide (ACSO) in the single-alien deletion lines was significantly lower than that in shallot. These results indicated that chromosomes from A. fistulosum might carry anonymous factors to increase the highly polymerized fructan production and inhibit the synthesis of ACSO in shallot bulbs. Accordingly, alien chromosomes from A. fistulosum in shallot would contribute to modify the quality of shallot bulbs.

  8. Can jurors recognize missing control groups, confounds, and experimenter bias in psychological science?

    PubMed

    McAuliff, Bradley D; Kovera, Margaret Bull; Nunez, Gabriel

    2009-06-01

    This study examined the ability of jury-eligible community members (N = 248) to detect internal validity threats in psychological science presented during a trial. Participants read a case summary in which an expert testified about a study that varied in internal validity (valid, missing control group, confound, and experimenter bias) and ecological validity (high, low). Ratings of expert evidence quality and expert credibility were higher for the valid versus missing control group versions only. Internal validity did not influence verdict or ratings of plaintiff credibility and no differences emerged as a function of ecological validity. Expert evidence quality, expert credibility, and plaintiff credibility were positively correlated with verdict. Implications for the scientific reasoning literature and for trials containing psychological science are discussed.

  9. Recommendations on multiple testing adjustment in multi-arm trials with a shared control group.

    PubMed

    Howard, Dena R; Brown, Julia M; Todd, Susan; Gregory, Walter M

    2016-09-19

    Multi-arm clinical trials assessing multiple experimental treatments against a shared control group can offer efficiency advantages over independent trials through assessing an increased number of hypotheses. Published opinion is divided on the requirement for multiple testing adjustment to control the family-wise type-I error rate (FWER). The probability of a false positive error in multi-arm trials compared to equivalent independent trials is affected by the correlation between comparisons due to sharing control data. We demonstrate that this correlation in fact leads to a reduction in the FWER, therefore FWER adjustment is not recommended solely due to sharing control data. In contrast, the correlation increases the probability of multiple false positive outcomes across the hypotheses, although standard FWER adjustment methods do not control for this. A stringent critical value adjustment is proposed to maintain equivalent evidence of superiority in two correlated comparisons to that obtained within independent trials. FWER adjustment is only required if there is an increased chance of making a single claim of effectiveness by testing multiple hypotheses, not due to sharing control data. For competing experimental therapies, the correlation between comparisons can be advantageous as it eliminates bias due to the experimental therapies being compared to different control populations.

  10. Validation Methods for Fault-Tolerant avionics and control systems, working group meeting 1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The proceedings of the first working group meeting on validation methods for fault tolerant computer design are presented. The state of the art in fault tolerant computer validation was examined in order to provide a framework for future discussions concerning research issues for the validation of fault tolerant avionics and flight control systems. The development of positions concerning critical aspects of the validation process are given.

  11. [Medicamentous obstetric analgesia with pentazocine in comparison with an untreated control group].

    PubMed

    Freise, K; Brockerhoff, P; Rathgen, G H; Gundlach, G; Schicketanz, K H

    1988-01-01

    In order to establish whether a powerful analgesic such as pentazocine administered during birth may damage the child or have negative influence on the course of birth, the course of delivery was studied in 40 patients, 20 of whom were given a single dose of 30 mg pentazocine administered intramuscularly. There were no differences in duration of birth, CTG, blood gases post partum, or Apgar scores as compared to the untreated control group. As regards the pharmacokinetics, the serum pentazocine levels of the gravidae corresponded to those found in non-pregnant subjects; the levels found in blood from umbilical cords and new-borns were at the lower limit of detectability. Almost all of the gravidae described the obstetric analgesia as good or adequate. The principal side effect, mentioned by one-third of the pentazocine group, was slight fatigue. As regards the newborns, the fetal outcome in the two groups was the same.

  12. Social integration of robots into groups of cockroaches to control self-organized choices.

    PubMed

    Halloy, J; Sempo, G; Caprari, G; Rivault, C; Asadpour, M; Tâche, F; Saïd, I; Durier, V; Canonge, S; Amé, J M; Detrain, C; Correll, N; Martinoli, A; Mondada, F; Siegwart, R; Deneubourg, J L

    2007-11-16

    Collective behavior based on self-organization has been shown in group-living animals from insects to vertebrates. These findings have stimulated engineers to investigate approaches for the coordination of autonomous multirobot systems based on self-organization. In this experimental study, we show collective decision-making by mixed groups of cockroaches and socially integrated autonomous robots, leading to shared shelter selection. Individuals, natural or artificial, are perceived as equivalent, and the collective decision emerges from nonlinear feedbacks based on local interactions. Even when in the minority, robots can modulate the collective decision-making process and produce a global pattern not observed in their absence. These results demonstrate the possibility of using intelligent autonomous devices to study and control self-organized behavioral patterns in group-living animals.

  13. Control of oxo-group functionalization and reduction of the uranyl ion.

    PubMed

    Arnold, Polly L; Pécharman, Anne-Frédérique; Lord, Rianne M; Jones, Guy M; Hollis, Emmalina; Nichol, Gary S; Maron, Laurent; Fang, Jian; Davin, Thomas; Love, Jason B

    2015-04-06

    Uranyl complexes of a large, compartmental N8-macrocycle adopt a rigid, "Pacman" geometry that stabilizes the U(V) oxidation state and promotes chemistry at a single uranyl oxo-group. We present here new and straightforward routes to singly reduced and oxo-silylated uranyl Pacman complexes and propose mechanisms that account for the product formation, and the byproduct distributions that are formed using alternative reagents. Uranyl(VI) Pacman complexes in which one oxo-group is functionalized by a single metal cation are activated toward single-electron reduction. As such, the addition of a second equivalent of a Lewis acidic metal complex such as MgN″2 (N″ = N(SiMe3)2) forms a uranyl(V) complex in which both oxo-groups are Mg functionalized as a result of Mg-N bond homolysis. In contrast, reactions with the less Lewis acidic complex [Zn(N″)Cl] favor the formation of weaker U-O-Zn dative interactions, leading to reductive silylation of the uranyl oxo-group in preference to metalation. Spectroscopic, crystallographic, and computational analysis of these reactions and of oxo-metalated products isolated by other routes have allowed us to propose mechanisms that account for pathways to metalation or silylation of the exo-oxo-group.

  14. Use of Antimicrobial Food Additives as Potential Dipping Solutions to Control Pseudomonas spp. Contamination in the Frankfurters and Ham

    PubMed Central

    Oh, Mi-Hwa; Park, Beom-Young; Choi, Kyoung-Hee

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of sodium diacetate and sodium lactate solutions for reducing the cell count of Pseudomonas spp. in frankfurters and hams. A mixture of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (NCCP10338, NCCP10250, and NCCP11229), and Pseudomonas fluorescens (KACC10323 and KACC10326) was inoculated on cooked frankfurters and ham. The inoculated samples were immersed into control (sterile distilled water), sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), sodium lactate (5 and 10%), 5% sodium diacetate + 5% sodium lactate, and 10% sodium diacetate + 10% sodium lactate for 0-10 min. Inoculated frankfurters and ham were also immersed into acidified (pH 3.0) solutions such as acidified sodium diacetate (5 and 10%), and acidified sodium lactate (5 and 10%) in addition to control (acidified distilled water) for 0-10 min. Total aerobic plate counts for Pseudomonas spp. were enumerated on Cetrimide agar. Significant reductions (ca. 2 Log CFU/g) in Pseudomonas spp. cells on frankfurters and ham were observed only for a combination treatment of 10% sodium lactate + 10% sodium diacetate. When the solutions were acidified to pH 3.0, the total reductions of Pseudomonas spp. were 1.5-4.0 Log CFU/g. The order of reduction amounts of Pseudomonas spp. cell counts was 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate ≥ 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for frankfurters, and 10% sodium lactate > 5% sodium lactate > 10% sodium diacetate > 5% sodium diacetate > control for ham. The results suggest that using acidified food additive antimicrobials, as dipping solutions, should be useful in reducing Pseudomonas spp. on frankfurters and ham. PMID:26761492

  15. Analysis of KIR gene frequencies and HLA class I genotypes in prostate cancer and control group.

    PubMed

    Portela, P; Jobim, L F; Salim, P H; Koff, W J; Wilson, T J; Jobim, M R; Schwartsmann, G; Roesler, R; Jobim, M

    2012-10-01

    Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in men, with a significant increase in incidence and mortality in men over 50 years of age. Natural killer cells (NK) are part of the innate immune system recognizing class I HLA molecules on target cells through their membrane receptors, called killer cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIR). The aim of our study is to evaluate the association between the KIR genes and HLA alleles in patients with prostate cancer and healthy controls. Two hundred patients with prostate cancer and 185 healthy controls were typed for HLA class I and KIR genes by PCR-SSP. When both groups were compared, no significant differences were found for HLA-C group 1 and group 2, HLA-Bw4, HLA-A3 and A11. No difference was seen either in KIR frequency between patients with prostate cancer and controls. In conclusion, our data suggest no potential role for the KIR gene system in prostate cancer.

  16. Generation of "virtual" control groups for single arm prostate cancer adjuvant trials.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhenyu; Lilly, Michael B; Koziol, James A; Chen, Xin; Xia, Xiao-Qin; Wang, Yipeng; Skarecky, Douglas; Sutton, Manuel; Sawyers, Anne; Ruckle, Herbert; Carpenter, Philip M; Wang-Rodriguez, Jessica; Jiang, Jun; Deng, Mingsen; Pan, Cong; Zhu, Jian-Guo; McLaren, Christine E; Gurley, Michael J; Lee, Chung; McClelland, Michael; Ahlering, Thomas; Kattan, Michael W; Mercola, Dan

    2014-01-01

    It is difficult to construct a control group for trials of adjuvant therapy (Rx) of prostate cancer after radical prostatectomy (RP) due to ethical issues and patient acceptance. We utilized 8 curve-fitting models to estimate the time to 60%, 65%, … 95% chance of progression free survival (PFS) based on the data derived from Kattan post-RP nomogram. The 8 models were systematically applied to a training set of 153 post-RP cases without adjuvant Rx to develop 8 subsets of cases (reference case sets) whose observed PFS times were most accurately predicted by each model. To prepare a virtual control group for a single-arm adjuvant Rx trial, we first select the optimal model for the trial cases based on the minimum weighted Euclidean distance between the trial case set and the reference case set in terms of clinical features, and then compare the virtual PFS times calculated by the optimum model with the observed PFSs of the trial cases by the logrank test. The method was validated using an independent dataset of 155 post-RP patients without adjuvant Rx. We then applied the method to patients on a Phase II trial of adjuvant chemo-hormonal Rx post RP, which indicated that the adjuvant Rx is highly effective in prolonging PFS after RP in patients at high risk for prostate cancer recurrence. The method can accurately generate control groups for single-arm, post-RP adjuvant Rx trials for prostate cancer, facilitating development of new therapeutic strategies.

  17. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... section); (C) A combined group (as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section); or (D) A life insurance... corporation S. X, Y, Z, and S are members of the same combined group. (5) Life insurance controlled group—(i) Definition. The term life insurance controlled group means two or more life insurance companies each of...

  18. Prevalence of Oral Mucosal Disorders in Diabetes Mellitus Patients Compared with a Control Group

    PubMed Central

    Paredes, Víctor Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Chronic hyperglycemia is associated with impaired wound healing and higher susceptibility to infections. It is unclear whether patients with diabetes mellitus (DM) present more oral mucosal disorders compared to control groups. The objectives were to compare (a) the prevalence rates of oral mucosal disorders in the DM and non-DM population and (b) the prevalence rates of specific disorders in the DM and non-DM population. Full-text articles were included if they met the following inclusion criteria: (a) they must be original articles from scientific journals, (b) they must be only cross-sectional studies in English, (c) the prevalence of oral mucosal disorders in DM patients must be evaluated, (d) results must be compared with a healthy control group, and (e) oral mucosal disorders must be specified in DM and non-DM group. All studies showed higher prevalence of oral mucosal disorders in DM patients in relation to non-DM population: 45–88% in type 2 DM patients compared to 38.3–45% in non-DM groups and 44.7% in type 1 DM patients compared to 25% in non-DM population. Tongue alterations and denture stomatitis were the most frequent significant disorders observed. The quality assessment following the Joanna Briggs Institute (JBI) Prevalence Critical Appraisal Tool showed the low quality of the existing studies. PMID:27847829

  19. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized using polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Yunus, Muhammad; Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions on controlling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods (AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as a salt precursor and performed at the oil bath temperature of 140°C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorods were characterized using SEM and XRD. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline of silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorods decreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  20. Selection for increased desiccation resistance in Drosophila melanogaster: Additive genetic control and correlated responses for other stresses

    SciTech Connect

    Hoffmann, A.A.; Parsons, P.A. )

    1989-08-01

    Previously we found that Drosophila melanogaster lines selected for increased desiccation resistance have lowered metabolic rate and behavioral activity levels, and show correlated responses for resistance to starvation and a toxic ethanol level. These results were consistent with a prediction that increased resistance to many environmental stresses may be genetically correlated because of a reduction in metabolic energy expenditure. Here we present experiments on the genetic basis of the selection response and extend the study of correlated responses to other stresses. The response to selection was not sex-specific and involved X-linked and autosomal genes acting additively. Activity differences contributed little to differences in desiccation resistance between selected and control lines. Selected lines had lower metabolic rates than controls in darkness when activity was inhibited. Adults from selected lines showed increased resistance to a heat shock, {sup 60}Co-gamma-radiation, and acute ethanol and acetic acid stress. The desiccation, ethanol and starvation resistance of isofemale lines set up from the F2s of a cross between one of the selected and one of the control lines were correlated. Selected and control lines did not differ in ether-extractable lipid content or in resistance to acetone, ether or a cold shock.

  1. Effects of silver and group II fluoride solid lubricant additions to plasma-sprayed chromium carbide coatings for foil gas bearings to 650 C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.; Sliney, Harold E.

    1986-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide formulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed in a research program on high temperature solid lubricants. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for complaint foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start-stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The journals were Inconel 748. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The additional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized Inconel X-750 foil bearings were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-Psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rPm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  2. International tobacco control: a focus group study of U.S. anti-tobacco activists.

    PubMed

    David, S; DeJong, W; Resnick, N

    2001-01-01

    Massachusetts tobacco control activists participated in focus groups to explore their knowledge, beliefs, and attitudes regarding international tobacco control. Initially, each of three focus groups ranked this issue at or near the bottom of important tobacco control issues. Participants ranked ten message concepts for their ability to motivate politically active Americans to contact a government representative about international tobacco issues. The top four message concepts dealt with deliberate marketing of cigarettes to children, dramatic increases in global mortality due to smoking, American hypocrisy in being the world's largest tobacco exporter, and use of overseas profits to finance youth-oriented marketing in the U.S. The rankings revealed little initial concern about U.S. diplomatic pressure to force foreign nations to open up their markets to American tobacco products. Yet during the subsequent discussion this was among the message concepts the generated the most outrage. This suggests that international tobacco control issues would resonate among U.S. opinion leaders once the facts were presented to them through a media advocacy campaign.

  3. Optimal Control of Shock Tube Flow via Water Addition with Application to Ignition Overpressure Mitigation in Launch Vehicles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moshman, Nathan

    2009-11-01

    Ignition Overpressure (IOP) in launch vehicles occurs at the start of ignition when a steep rise in pressure propagates outward from the rocket nozzle. It is crucial to minimize the overpressure so as to decrease risk of damage to the rocket body. Currently, CFD studies exist on this situation but there are no optimization studies of the water addition as a means to suppress the IOP. The proposed dissertation will use a numerical method to compute an approximate solution for an optimal control problem constrained by the one-dimensional Euler PDEs of fluid dynamics as well as volume fraction conservation. A model for inter-phase transport of mass momentum and energy and fluid interface quantities will be given. The control will be water addition from external nozzles. The adjoint system of equations will be derived and discretized. Necessary optimal conditions will be derived. An SQP method will solve an optimal situation. Predictions will be validated against shock tube experiments at the NPS rocket lab.

  4. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... corporations which is— (A) A parent-subsidiary controlled group (as defined in paragraph (a)(2) of this section....1563-2. (2) Parent-subsidiary controlled group—(i) Definition. The term parent-subsidiary controlled group means one or more chains of corporations connected through stock ownership with a common...

  5. Multiple regression analyses in artificial-grammar learning: the importance of control groups.

    PubMed

    Lotz, Anja; Kinder, Annette; Lachnit, Harald

    2009-03-01

    In artificial-grammar learning, it is crucial to ensure that above-chance performance in the test stage is due to learning in the training stage but not due to judgemental biases. Here we argue that multiple regression analysis can be successfully combined with the use of control groups to assess whether participants were able to transfer knowledge acquired during training when making judgements about test stimuli. We compared the regression weights of judgements in a transfer condition (training and test strings were constructed by the same grammar but with different letters) with those in a control condition. Predictors were identical in both conditions-judgements of control participants were treated as if they were based on knowledge gained in a standard training stage. The results of this experiment as well as reanalyses of a former study support the usefulness of our approach.

  6. Cooperative enclosing control for multiple moving targets by a group of agents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shi, Y. J.; Li, R.; Teo, K. L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, the enclosing control problem of second-order multi-agent systems is considered, where the targets can be either stationary or moving. The objective is to achieve an equidistant circular formation for a group of agents to enclose a team of targets. In order to do so, we first introduce a formal definition explaining certain basic properties of the exploring relation between the agents and the targets. We then construct the estimator of the centre of the targets, which is used to build the control protocol to achieve equidistant circular enclosing. Using a Lyapunov function and Lasalle's Invariance Principle, the convergency of the estimator and control protocol are, respectively, established. We then construct a smooth function to approximate the discontinuous term in the estimator. Finally, the simulations for stationary targets and moving targets are given to verify the validity of the results obtained.

  7. Falls among dizzy patients in primary healthcare: an intervention study with control group.

    PubMed

    Hansson, Eva Ekvall; Månsson, Nils-Ove; Ringsberg, Karin A; Håkansson, Anders

    2008-03-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate whether vestibular rehabilitation can improve balance, reduce self-perceived handicap because of dizziness and, if possible, reduce falls among dizzy patients in primary healthcare. The study also finds out which of the balance measures and measure of self-perceived handicap, if any, predicted the risk of falls. The design of this study is an intervention study with control group. Fifty-eight patients, 65 years and older, with multisensory dizziness were taken as participants. The intervention group trained vestibular rehabilitation twice a week for 9 weeks. All patients were assessed at baseline and after 3 months, with four different balance measures and the Dizziness Handicap Inventory. After 6, 9 and 12 months, a follow-up by telephone was performed and, at 12 months, the patients also filled out a Dizziness Handicap Inventory questionnaire. Statistically significant differences were found between the groups between baseline and 3 months in one static balance measure and in one dynamic measure (P=0.038 and 0.044). In total, 40 falls were reported, 31 were classified as intrinsic falls, 26 of them caused by vertigo and nine falls were classified as extrinsic. No difference was found between the two groups in proportions of patients who fell. Poor ability to stand in tandem stance doubled the risk for falls. Vestibular rehabilitation can improve balance in elderly patients with multisensory dizziness. Vertigo is a common cause of falls in this group of patients and vestibular rehabilitation is a feasible treatment.

  8. Thermochemical Properties and Bond Dissociation Energies for Fluorinated Methanol, CH3-xFxOH, and Fluorinated Methyl Hydroperoxides, CH3-xFxOOH: Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-09-08

    Oxygenated fluorocarbons are routinely found in sampling of environmental soils and waters as a result of the widespread use of fluoro and chlorofluoro carbons as heat transfer fluids, inert materials, polymers, fire retardants and solvents; the influence of these chemicals on the environment is a growing concern. The thermochemical properties of these species are needed for understanding their stability and reactions in the environment and in thermal process. Structures and thermochemical properties on the mono- to trifluoromethanol, CH3-xFxOH, and fluoromethyl hydroperoxide, CH3-xFxOOH (1 ≤ x ≤ 3), are determined by CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, and G4 calculations. Entropy, S°298, and heat capacities, Cp(T)'s (300 ≤ T/K ≤ 1500) from vibration, translation, and external rotation contributions are calculated on the basis of the vibration frequencies and structures obtained from the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional method. Potential barriers for the internal rotations are also calculated from this method and used to calculate hindered rotor contributions to S°298 and Cp(T)'s using direct integration over energy levels of the internal rotational potentials. Standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°298 (units in kcal mol(-1)) are CH2FOOH (-83.7), CHF2OOH (-138.1), CF3OOH (-193.6), CH2FOO(•) (-44.9), CHF2OO(•) (-99.6), CF3OO(•) (-153.8), CH2FOH (-101.9), CHF2OH (-161.6), CF3OH (-218.1), CH2FO(•) (-49.1), CHF2O(•) (-97.8), CF3O(•) (-150.5), CH2F(•) (-7.6), CHF2(•) (-58.8), and CF3(•) (-112.6). Bond dissociation energies for the R-OOH, RO-OH, ROO-H, R-OO(•), RO-O(•), R-OH, RO-H, R-O(•), and R-H bonds are determined and compared with methyl hydroperoxide to observe the trends from added fluoro substitutions. Enthalpy of formation for the fluoro-hydrocarbon oxygen groups C/F/H2/O, C/F2/H/O, C/F3/O, are derived from the above fluorinated methanol and fluorinated hydroperoxide species for use in Benson's Group Additivity. It was determined that

  9. Air Traffic Controllers’ Long-Term Speech-in-Noise Training Effects: A Control Group Study

    PubMed Central

    Zaballos, María T.P.; Plasencia, Daniel P.; González, María L.Z.; de Miguel, Angel R.; Macías, Ángel R.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Speech perception in noise relies on the capacity of the auditory system to process complex sounds using sensory and cognitive skills. The possibility that these can be trained during adulthood is of special interest in auditory disorders, where speech in noise perception becomes compromised. Air traffic controllers (ATC) are constantly exposed to radio communication, a situation that seems to produce auditory learning. The objective of this study has been to quantify this effect. Subjects and Methods: 19 ATC and 19 normal hearing individuals underwent a speech in noise test with three signal to noise ratios: 5, 0 and −5 dB. Noise and speech were presented through two different loudspeakers in azimuth position. Speech tokes were presented at 65 dB SPL, while white noise files were at 60, 65 and 70 dB respectively. Results: Air traffic controllers outperform the control group in all conditions [P<0.05 in ANOVA and Mann-Whitney U tests]. Group differences were largest in the most difficult condition, SNR=−5 dB. However, no correlation between experience and performance were found for any of the conditions tested. The reason might be that ceiling performance is achieved much faster than the minimum experience time recorded, 5 years, although intrinsic cognitive abilities cannot be disregarded. Discussion: ATC demonstrated enhanced ability to hear speech in challenging listening environments. This study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions, although good cognitive qualities are likely to be a basic requirement for this training to be effective. Conclusion: Our results show that ATC outperform the control group in all conditions. Thus, this study provides evidence that long-term auditory training is indeed useful in achieving better speech-in-noise understanding even in adverse conditions. PMID:27991470

  10. Control of morphology and nanostructure of copper and cobalt oxalates: Effect of complexing ions, polymeric additives and molecular weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowen, Paul; Pujol, Ollivier; Jongen, Nathalie; Lemaître, Jacques; Fink, Alke; Stadleman, Pierre; Hofmann, Heinrich

    2010-11-01

    Precipitated oxalates are often nanostructured and can be used as precursors for nanostructured oxides for different applications. The modification of the particle shape and nanostructures of both copper and cobalt oxalates has been demonstrated using polymeric additives or complexing counter-ions. In the case of cobalt oxalate the characteristic elongated rod particle shape (axial ratio of 10) can be modified by using polymethymethacrylate (PMMA) to produce particles with lower axial ratios of 2, through cubes all the way to platelets (axial ratio 0.2). The PMMA inhibits the growth of the particles along the [101] direction more and more strongly as the concentration of the polymer increases. The crystallite size from XRD line broadening is not modified by the PMMA indicating that the PMMA does not influence the nucleation and growth but modifies the aggregation kinetics. Copper oxalates precipitated in the presence of different cellulose derived polymers with different molecular weights and functional groups (methyl and propyl) showed sensitivity to both molecular weight and functional group. Higher molecular weights did not influence the copper oxalate particle shape, whereas methyl cellulose gave elongated particles and propyl celluloses gave platelet like particles. Copper oxalate precipitated in the presence of acetate counter ions gave platelets with an axial ratio of 0.15 compared to the cushion-like morphology (axial ratio 0.5). The primary crystallites were more elongated along the [001] direction in the presence of acetate, modifying the proportion of the hydrophobic and hydrophilic surfaces and hence influencing the aggregation kinetics and particle shape. The copper and cobalt oxalate particle formation seems to be dominated by the primary particle aggregation with the different additives interacting specifically with different crystallographic faces of the primary particles. By tuning this interaction particles with different shapes and substructures

  11. Sucrose taken during mixed meal has no additional hyperglycaemic action over isocaloric amounts of starch in well-controlled diabetics.

    PubMed

    Slama, G; Haardt, M J; Jean-Joseph, P; Costagliola, D; Goicolea, I; Bornet, F; Elgrably, F; Tchobroutsky, G

    1984-07-21

    The hyperglycaemic effect of 20 g sucrose taken at the end of a regular mixed meal by diabetic patients was measured in six adult type 1 diabetics, C-peptide negative, controlled by the artificial pancreas, and twelve adult type 2 diabetics, with fasting plasma glucose levels below 7.2 mmol/l (130 mg/100 ml) and post-prandial plasma glucose levels below 10.0 mmol/l (180 mg/100 ml), treated by diet alone or with glibenclamide and/or metformin. All the patients were given on consecutive days, in random order, two mixed meals of grilled meat, green beans, and cheese, as well as a cake made either of rice, skimmed milk, and saccharine (meal A) or rice, skimmed milk, and 20 g sucrose (meal B). The meals contained equal amounts of calories and of carbohydrate. There was no difference between the meals in plasma glucose curves and plasma insulin or insulin infusion rate variations whether in peak values, peaking times, or areas under the curves, in either group of patients. Sparing use of sucrose taken during mixed meals might help well-controlled diabetic patients to comply with their daily dietary prescription while maintaining good blood glucose control.

  12. Chemical additive to enhance antimicrobial efficacy of chlorine and control cross-contamination during immersion chill of broiler carcasses.

    PubMed

    Schambach, B T; Berrang, M E; Harrison, M A; Meinersmann, R J

    2014-09-01

    Immersion chilling of broiler carcasses can be a site for cross-contamination between the occasional highly contaminated carcass and those that are co-chilled. Chlorine is often used as an antimicrobial but can be overcome by organic material. A proprietary chlorine stabilizer (T-128) based on phosphoric acid-propylene glycol was tested as a chill tank additive in experiments simulating commercial broiler chilling. In bench-scale experiments, 0.5% T-128 was compared with plain water (control), 50 ppm of chlorine, and the combination of 0.5% T-128 with 50 ppm of chlorine to control transfer of Salmonella and Campylobacter from inoculated wing drummettes to co-chilled uninoculated drummettes. Both chlorine and T-128 lessened cross-contamination with Salmonella (P < 0.05); T-128 and T-128 with chlorine were significantly more effective (P < 0.05) than the control or plain chlorine for control of Campylobacter. T-128 treatments were noted to have a pH of less than 4.0; an additional experiment demonstrated that the antimicrobial effect of T-128 was not due merely to a lower pH. In commercial broiler chilling, a pH close to 6.0 is preferred to maximize chlorine effectiveness, while maintaining water-holding capacity of the meat. In a set of pilot-scale experiments with T-128, a near-ideal pH of 6.3 was achieved by using tap water instead of the distilled water used in bench-scale experiments. Pilot-scale chill tanks were used to compare the combination of 0.5% T-128 and 50 ppm of chlorine with 50 ppm of plain chlorine for control of cross-contamination between whole carcasses inoculated with Salmonella and Campylobacter and co-chilled uninoculated carcasses. The T-128 treatment resulted in significantly less crosscontamination by either direct contact or water transfer with both organisms compared with plain chlorine treatment. T-128 may have use in commercial broiler processing to enhance the effectiveness of chlorine in processing water.

  13. Chloride ion addition for controlling shapes and properties of silver nanorods capped by polyvinyl alcohol synthesized by polyol method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Junaidi, Triyana, Kuwat; Harsojo, Suharyadi, Edi

    2016-04-01

    We report our investigation on the effect of chloride ions oncontrolling the shapes and properties of silver nanorods(AgNRs) synthesized using a polyol method. In this study, we used polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as a capping agent and sodium chloride (NaCl) as asalt precursor and performed at the oilbath temperature of 140 °C. The chloride ions originating from the NaCl serve to control the growth of the silver nanorods. Furthermore, the synthesized silver nanorodswere characterized using UV-VIS, XRD, SEM and TEM. The results showed that besides being able to control the growth of AgCl atoms, the chloride ions were also able to control the growth of multi-twinned-particles into the single crystalline silver nanorods by micrometer-length. At an appropriate concentration of NaCl, the diameter of silver nanorodsdecreased significantly compared to that of without chloride ion addition. This technique may be useful since a particular diameter of silver nanorods affects a particular application in the future.

  14. Restricted random labeling: testing for between-group interaction after controlling for joint population and within-group spatial structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kronenfeld, Barry J.; Leslie, Timothy F.

    2015-01-01

    Statistical measures of spatial interaction between multiple types of entities are commonly assessed against a null model of either toroidal shift (TS), which controls for spatial structure of individual subpopulations, or random labeling (RL), which controls for spatial structure of the joint population. Neither null model controls for both types of spatial structure simultaneously, although this may sometimes be desirable when more than two subpopulations are present. To address this, we propose a flexible framework for specifying null models that we refer to as restricted random labeling (rRL). Under rRL, a specified subset of individuals is restricted and other individuals are randomly relabeled. Within this framework, two specific null models are proposed for pairwise analysis within populations consisting of three or more subpopulations, to simultaneously control for spatial structure in the joint population and one or the other of the two subpopulations being analyzed. Formulas are presented for calculating expected nearest neighbor counts and co-location quotients within the proposed framework. Differences between TS, RL and rRL are illustrated by application to six types of generating processes in a simulation study, and to empirical datasets of tree species in a forest and crime locations in an urban setting. These examples show that rRL null models are typically stricter than either TS or RL, which often detect "interactions" that are an expected consequence either of the joint population pattern or of individual subpopulation patterns.

  15. Examination of early group dynamics and treatment outcome in a randomized controlled trial of group cognitive behavior therapy for binge eating disorder.

    PubMed

    Pisetsky, Emily M; Durkin, Nora E; Crosby, Ross D; Berg, Kelly C; Mitchell, James E; Crow, Scott J; Wonderlich, Stephen A; Peterson, Carol B

    2015-10-01

    This study examined whether perceptions of group dynamics early in treatment predicted eating disorder outcomes in a sample of adults (N = 190) with binge eating disorder (BED) who participated in a 15-session group cognitive behavior therapy (gCBT) treatment with differing levels of therapist involvement (therapist led, therapist assisted, and self-help). The group dynamic variables included the Engaged subscale of the Group Climate Questionnaire--Short Form and the Group Attitude Scale, measured at session 2 and session 6. Treatment outcome was assessed in terms of global eating disorder severity and frequency of binge eating at end of treatment, 6-month, and 12-month follow-up. Session 2 engagement and group attitudes were associated with improved outcome at 12-month follow-up. No other group dynamic variables were significantly associated with treatment outcome. Group dynamic variables did not differ by levels of therapist involvement. Results indicate that early engagement and attitudes may be predictive of improved eating disorder psychopathology at 12 month follow-up. However, the pattern of mostly insignificant findings indicates that in gCBT, group process variables may be less influential on outcomes relative to other treatment components. Additionally, participants were able to engage in group treatment regardless of level of therapist involvement.

  16. Development of risk-based nanomaterial groups for occupational exposure control

    PubMed Central

    Kuempel, E. D.; Castranova, V.; Geraci, C. L.; Schulte, P. A.

    2015-01-01

    Given the almost limitless variety of nanomaterials, it will be virtually impossible to assess the possible occupational health hazard of each nanomaterial individually. The development of science-based hazard and risk categories for nanomaterials is needed for decision-making about exposure control practices in the workplace. A possible strategy would be to select representative (benchmark) materials from various mode of action (MOA) classes, evaluate the hazard and develop risk estimates, and then apply a systematic comparison of new nanomaterials with the benchmark materials in the same MOA class. Poorly soluble particles are used here as an example to illustrate quantitative risk assessment methods for possible benchmark particles and occupational exposure control groups, given mode of action and relative toxicity. Linking such benchmark particles to specific exposure control bands would facilitate the translation of health hazard and quantitative risk information to the development of effective exposure control practices in the workplace. A key challenge is obtaining sufficient dose–response data, based on standard testing, to systematically evaluate the nanomaterials’ physical–chemical factors influencing their biological activity. Categorization processes involve both science-based analyses and default assumptions in the absence of substance-specific information. Utilizing data and information from related materials may facilitate initial determinations of exposure control systems for nanomaterials. PMID:26504427

  17. An effective group psychoeducational intervention for improving compliance with vaginal dilation: A randomized controlled trial

    SciTech Connect

    Jeffries, Sherryl A.; Robinson, John W. . E-mail: johnrobi@cancerboard.ab.ca; Craighead, Peter S.; Keats, Melanie R.

    2006-06-01

    Purpose: Although vaginal dilation is often recommended to minimize or prevent vaginal scarring after pelvic radiotherapy, compliance with this recommendation has historically been very low. Therefore, effective intervention strategies are needed to enhance compliance with vaginal dilation after radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. Methods and Materials: This study was a randomized controlled clinical trial of a psychoeducational intervention specifically designed to increase compliance with vaginal dilation. The information-motivation-behavioral skills model of enhancing compliance with behavioral change was the basis for the intervention design. Forty-two sexually active women, 21 to 65 years of age, diagnosed with Stages Ic-III cervical or endometrial cancer, who received pelvic radiotherapy, were randomized to either the experimental psychoeducational group or the information-only control group. Assessment via questionnaire occurred before treatment and at 6-week, 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Assessment via interview also occurred at 6-month, 12-month, 18-month, and 24-month follow-up. Results: The psychoeducational intervention was successful in increasing compliance with vaginal dilation. Conclusions: This study is the first randomized controlled study to demonstrate the effectiveness of an intervention in increasing compliance with the use of vaginal dilators.

  18. DSM-5 personality traits discriminate between posttraumatic stress disorder and control groups.

    PubMed

    James, Lisa M; Anders, Samantha L; Peterson, Carly K; Engdahl, Brian E; Krueger, Robert F; Georgopoulos, Apostolos P

    2015-07-01

    The relevance of personality traits to the study of psychopathology has long been recognized, particularly in terms of understanding patterns of comorbidity. In fact, a multidimensional personality trait model reflecting five higher-order personality dimensions-negative affect, detachment, antagonism, disinhibition, and psychoticism-is included in the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) and represented in the Personality Inventory for DSM-5 (PID-5). However, evaluation of these dimensions and underlying personality facets within clinical samples has been limited. In the present study, we utilized the PID-5 to evaluate the personality profile elevation and composition of 150 control veterans and 35 veterans diagnosed with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Results indicated that veterans with PTSD endorsed significantly more personality pathology than control veterans, with scores on detachment and psychoticism domains most clearly discriminating between the two groups. When personality domain scores were considered as parts of each subject's personality profile, a slightly different picture emerged. Specifically, the PTSD composition was primarily characterized by detachment and negative affect, followed by disinhibition, psychoticism, and antagonism in that order of relative importance. The profile of the control group was significantly different, mostly accounted for differences in antagonism and psychoticism. Using these complementary analytic strategies, the findings demonstrate the relevance of personality pathology to PTSD, highlight internalizing features of PTSD, and pave the way for future research aimed at evaluating the role of shared maladaptive personality traits in underlying the comorbidity of PTSD and related disorders.

  19. Neurodynamic responses in children with migraine or cervicogenic headache versus a control group. A comparative study.

    PubMed

    von Piekartz, Harry J M; Schouten, Sara; Aufdemkampe, Geert

    2007-05-01

    Headache in children with unknown aetiology is an increasing phenomenon in industrial countries, especially during growth spurts. During this growth phase, the Long Sitting Slump (LSS) can be a useful tool for measurement of neurodynamics and management. This study investigated the difference in cervical flexion and sensory responses (intensity and location) during the LSS tests in children (n=123) aged 6-12 years, between a migraine (primary headache group=PG), cervicogenic headache (secondary headache group=SG) and control group (CG). The results indicated that the intensities of the sensory response rate were highest in the PG and SG when compared to CG. The responses in the legs were predominantly found in the PG (81.9%) and responses in the spine in the SG (80%). The sacrum position varied significantly between both headache groups (PG and SG) and the CG (p<0.0001), but there was no significant difference between the CG and the PG (p>0.05). No significant difference in the neck flexion range was measured in LSS, nor in standardized knee flexion between the PG and CG (p>0.05). The cervical flexion ranges differed significantly (p<0.0001) between the SG on the one hand and the PG and CG on the other. The biggest difference in neck flexion during knee extension was between the SG and CG.

  20. Control groups in paediatric epilepsy research: do first-degree cousins show familial effects?

    PubMed

    Hanson, Melissa; Morrison, Blaise; Jones, Jana E; Jackson, Daren C; Almane, Dace; Seidenberg, Michael; Zhao, Qianqian; Rathouz, Paul J; Hermann, Bruce P

    2017-03-01

    To determine whether first-degree cousins of children with idiopathic focal and genetic generalized epilepsies show any association across measures of cognition, behaviour, and brain structure. The presence/absence of associations addresses the question of whether and to what extent first-degree cousins may serve as unbiased controls in research addressing the cognitive, psychiatric, and neuroimaging features of paediatric epilepsies. Participants were children (aged 8-18) with epilepsy who had at least one first-degree cousin control enrolled in the study (n=37) and all enrolled cousin controls (n=100). Participants underwent neuropsychological assessment and brain imaging (cortical, subcortical, and cerebellar volumes), and parents completed the Child Behaviour Checklist (CBCL). Data (based on 42 outcome measures) from cousin controls were regressed on the corresponding epilepsy cognitive, behavioural, and imaging measures in a linear mixed model and case/control correlations were examined. Of the 42 uncorrected correlations involving cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging measures, only two were significant (p<0.05). The median correlation was 0.06. A test for whether the distribution of p values deviated from the null distribution under no association was not significant (p>0.25). Similar results held for the cognition/behaviour and brain imaging measures separately. Given the lack of association between cases and first-degree cousin performances on measures of cognition, behaviour, and neuroimaging, the results suggest a non-significant genetic influence on control group performance. First-degree cousins appear to be unbiased controls for cognitive, behavioural, and neuroimaging research in paediatric epilepsy.

  1. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia

    PubMed Central

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W.; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-01-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks). PMID:25051224

  2. Group behavioral activation for patients with severe obesity and binge eating disorder: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Alfonsson, Sven; Parling, Thomas; Ghaderi, Ata

    2015-03-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether behavioral activation (BA) is an efficacious treatment for decreasing eating disorder symptoms in patients with obesity and binge eating disorder (BED). Ninety-six patients with severe obesity and BED were randomized to either 10 sessions of group BA or wait-list control. The study was conducted at an obesity clinic in a regular hospital setting. The treatment improved some aspects of disordered eating and had a positive effect on depressive symptoms but there was no significant difference between the groups regarding binge eating and most other symptoms. Improved mood but lack of effect on binge eating suggests that dysfunctional eating (including BED) is maintained by other mechanisms than low activation and negative mood. However, future studies need to investigate whether effects of BA on binge eating might emerge later than at post-assessment, as in interpersonal psychotherapy for bulimia nervosa.

  3. Mitochondrial DNA control region analysis of three ethnic groups in the Republic of Macedonia.

    PubMed

    Jankova-Ajanovska, Renata; Zimmermann, Bettina; Huber, Gabriela; Röck, Alexander W; Bodner, Martin; Jakovski, Zlatko; Janeska, Biljana; Duma, Aleksej; Parson, Walther

    2014-11-01

    A total of 444 individuals representing three ethnic groups (Albanians, Turks and Romanies) in the Republic of Macedonia were sequenced in the mitochondrial control region. The mtDNA haplogroup composition differed between the three groups. Our results showed relatively high frequencies of haplogroup H12 in Albanians (8.8%) and less in Turks (3.3%), while haplogroups M5a1 and H7a1a were dominant in Romanies (13.7% and 10.3%, respectively) but rare in the former two. This highlights the importance of regional sampling for forensic mtDNA databasing purposes. These population data will be available on EMPOP under accession numbers EMP00644 (Albanians), EMP00645 (Romanies) and EMP00646 (Turks).

  4. Nitric oxide sensing in plants is mediated by proteolytic control of group VII ERF transcription factors.

    PubMed

    Gibbs, Daniel J; Md Isa, Nurulhikma; Movahedi, Mahsa; Lozano-Juste, Jorge; Mendiondo, Guillermina M; Berckhan, Sophie; Marín-de la Rosa, Nora; Vicente Conde, Jorge; Sousa Correia, Cristina; Pearce, Simon P; Bassel, George W; Hamali, Bulut; Talloji, Prabhavathi; Tomé, Daniel F A; Coego, Alberto; Beynon, Jim; Alabadí, David; Bachmair, Andreas; León, José; Gray, Julie E; Theodoulou, Frederica L; Holdsworth, Michael J

    2014-02-06

    Nitric oxide (NO) is an important signaling compound in prokaryotes and eukaryotes. In plants, NO regulates critical developmental transitions and stress responses. Here, we identify a mechanism for NO sensing that coordinates responses throughout development based on targeted degradation of plant-specific transcriptional regulators, the group VII ethylene response factors (ERFs). We show that the N-end rule pathway of targeted proteolysis targets these proteins for destruction in the presence of NO, and we establish them as critical regulators of diverse NO-regulated processes, including seed germination, stomatal closure, and hypocotyl elongation. Furthermore, we define the molecular mechanism for NO control of germination and crosstalk with abscisic acid (ABA) signaling through ERF-regulated expression of ABSCISIC ACID INSENSITIVE5 (ABI5). Our work demonstrates how NO sensing is integrated across multiple physiological processes by direct modulation of transcription factor stability and identifies group VII ERFs as central hubs for the perception of gaseous signals in plants.

  5. Control of the intermolecular photodimerization of anthracene derivatives by hydrogen bonding of urea groups in dilute solution.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Hisato; Nishimura, Yoshinobu; Arai, Tatsuo

    2016-08-04

    The photodimerization reaction of anthracene derivatives was performed by capitalizing on intermolecular hydrogen bonds. Anthracene derivatives that can control the dimerization reaction depending on the substitution site were designed by using two anthryl moieties and one urea group, referred to as N,N'-dianthracen-n-ylurea, nDAU (n = 1, 2 and 9), which are symmetrically substituted by 1-anthryl, 2-anthryl and 9-anthryl groups, respectively. We investigated the excimer emission and photodimerization reaction of these anthracene-urea derivatives using absorption, emission, and (1)H NMR spectroscopy along with fluorescence decay measurements. All derivatives showed a concentration dependence of their fluorescence spectra and multiple fluorescence lifetime components even at 10(-6) M. Significantly, 9DAU resulted in an intermolecular photodimerization reaction. These differences in photoreactivity of nDAU may depend on variations in the overlap of the intermolecularly associated anthracene rings of nDAU by hydrogen bonding between intermolecular urea moieties. Furthermore, the dimerization quantum yield of 9DAU was reduced by the addition of tetrabutylammonium acetate (TBAAc). Consequently, we revealed that the substitution site and the addition of TBAAc affected the dimerization reaction of anthracene-urea derivatives.

  6. Stochastic sampled-data control for synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays.

    PubMed

    Rakkiyappan, R; Sakthivel, N; Cao, Jinde

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the exponential synchronization of complex dynamical networks with control packet loss and additive time-varying delays. Additionally, sampled-data controller with time-varying sampling period is considered and is assumed to switch between m different values in a random way with given probability. Then, a novel Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional (LKF) with triple integral terms is constructed and by using Jensen's inequality and reciprocally convex approach, sufficient conditions under which the dynamical network is exponentially mean-square stable are derived. When applying Jensen's inequality to partition double integral terms in the derivation of linear matrix inequality (LMI) conditions, a new kind of linear combination of positive functions weighted by the inverses of squared convex parameters appears. In order to handle such a combination, an effective method is introduced by extending the lower bound lemma. To design the sampled-data controller, the synchronization error system is represented as a switched system. Based on the derived LMI conditions and average dwell-time method, sufficient conditions for the synchronization of switched error system are derived in terms of LMIs. Finally, numerical example is employed to show the effectiveness of the proposed methods.

  7. ‘Putting Life in Years’ (PLINY) telephone friendship groups research study: pilot randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Loneliness in older people is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQoL). We undertook a parallel-group randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of telephone befriending for the maintenance of HRQoL in older people. An internal pilot tested the feasibility of the trial and intervention. Methods Participants aged >74 years, with good cognitive function, living independently in one UK city were recruited through general practices and other sources, then randomised to: (1) 6 weeks of short one-to-one telephone calls, followed by 12 weeks of group telephone calls with up to six participants, led by a trained volunteer facilitator; or (2) a control group. The main trial required the recruitment of 248 participants in a 1-year accrual window, of whom 124 were to receive telephone befriending. The pilot specified three success criteria which had to be met in order to progress the main trial to completion: recruitment of 68 participants in 95 days; retention of 80% participants at 6 months; successful delivery of telephone befriending by local franchise of national charity. The primary clinical outcome was the Short Form (36) Health Instrument (SF-36) Mental Health (MH) dimension score collected by telephone 6 months following randomisation. Results We informed 9,579 older people about the study. Seventy consenting participants were randomised to the pilot in 95 days, with 56 (80%) providing valid primary outcome data (26 intervention, 30 control). Twenty-four participants randomly allocated to the research arm actually received telephone befriending due to poor recruitment and retention of volunteer facilitators. The trial was closed early as a result. The mean 6-month SF-36 MH scores were 78 (SD 18) and 71 (SD 21) for the intervention and control groups, respectively (mean difference, 7; 95% CI, -3 to 16). Conclusions Recruitment and retention of participants to a definitive trial with a

  8. Understanding the association between maltreatment history and adolescent risk behavior by examining popularity motivations and peer group control.

    PubMed

    Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2009-10-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine how peer group processes of pressure and control and individual motivations for popularity would add to, and moderate the relationship between, childhood maltreatment and risky behavior in adolescence. A total of 1558 youth (804 girls) from three high schools in Ontario, Canada (M age = 15.02 years, SD = .86) reported on their alcohol use, delinquent behavior, childhood experiences of physical and emotional maltreatment and neglect, peer group processes involving control and individual popularity motivations. Regression analyses showed that, beyond the significant contributions of childhood maltreatment, peer group control predicted risky alcohol use and delinquent behavior. Peer group control and popularity motivations exacerbated the negative effect of physical maltreatment on delinquent behavior. Boys' experiences of peer group control were more strongly linked to alcohol use and delinquent behavior than girls'. These results suggest that there is a significant window of opportunity during adolescence where the peer group context can exacerbate or buffer childhood experiences.

  9. Addition of hydrogen peroxide for the simultaneous control of bromate and odor during advanced drinking water treatment using ozone.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yongjing; Yu, Jianwei; Zhang, Dong; Yang, Min

    2014-03-01

    Complete removal of the characteristic septic/swampy odor from Huangpu River source water could only be achieved under an ozone dose as high as 4.0 mg/L in an ozone-biological activated carbon (O3-BAC) process, which would lead to the production of high concentrations of carcinogenic bromate due to the high bromide content. This study investigated the possibility of simultaneous control of bromate and the septic/swampy odor by adding H2O2 prior to the O3-BAC process for the treatment of Huangpu River water. H2O2 addition could reduce the bromate concentration effectively at an H2O2/O3 (g/g) ratio of 0.5 or higher. At the same time, the septic/swampy odor removal was enhanced by the addition of H2O2, although optimization of the H2O2/O3 ratio was required for each ozone dose. At an ozone dose of 2.0 mg/L, the odor was removed completely at an H2O2/O3 ratio of 0.5. The results indicated that H2O2 application at a suitable dose could enhance the removal of the septic/swampy odor while suppressing the formation of bromate during ozonation of Huangpu River source water.

  10. From the N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Conjugate Addition of Alcohols to the Controlled Polymerization of (Meth)acrylates.

    PubMed

    Ottou, Winnie Nzahou; Bourichon, Damien; Vignolle, Joan; Wirotius, Anne-Laure; Robert, Fredéric; Landais, Yannick; Sotiropoulos, Jean-Marc; Miqueu, Karinne; Taton, Daniel

    2015-06-22

    Among various N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) tested, only 1,3-bis(tert-butyl)imidazol-2-ylidene (NHC(tBu) ) proved to selectively promote the catalytic conjugate addition of alcohols onto (meth)acrylate substrates. This rather rare example of NHC-catalyzed 1,4-addition of alcohols was investigated as a simple means to trigger the polymerization of both methyl methacrylate and methyl acrylate (MMA and MA, respectively). Well-defined α-alkoxy poly(methyl (meth)acrylate) (PM(M)A) chains, the molar masses of which could be controlled by the initial [(meth)acrylate]0/[ROH]0 molar ratio, were ultimately obtained in N,N-dimethylformamide at 25 °C. A hydroxyl-terminated poly(ethylene oxide) (PEO-OH) macro-initiator was also employed to directly access PEO-b-PMMA amphiphilic block copolymers. Investigations into the reaction mechanism by DFT calculations revealed the occurrence of two competitive concerted pathways, involving either the activation of the alcohol or that of the monomer by NHC(tBu) .

  11. Critical Point Facility (CPE) Group in the Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1992-01-01

    The primary payload for Space Shuttle Mission STS-42, launched January 22, 1992, was the International Microgravity Laboratory-1 (IML-1), a pressurized manned Spacelab module. The goal of IML-1 was to explore in depth the complex effects of weightlessness of living organisms and materials processing. Around-the-clock research was performed on the human nervous system's adaptation to low gravity and effects of microgravity on other life forms such as shrimp eggs, lentil seedlings, fruit fly eggs, and bacteria. Materials processing experiments were also conducted, including crystal growth from a variety of substances such as enzymes, mercury iodide, and a virus. The Huntsville Operations Support Center (HOSC) Spacelab Payload Operations Control Center (SL POCC) at the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) was the air/ground communication channel used between the astronauts and ground control teams during the Spacelab missions. Featured is the Critical Point Facility (CPE) group in the SL POCC during STS-42, IML-1 mission.

  12. Tinted lenses and dyslexics--a controlled study. SPELD (S.A.) Tinted Lenses Study Group.

    PubMed

    Gole, G A; Dibden, S N; Pearson, C C; Pidgeon, K J; Mann, J W; Rice, D; Rooney, K F; Hannell, G; Fitzgerald, B A; Kortman, J Y

    1989-05-01

    We have carried out a randomised prospective controlled trial of the effect of tinted lenses on the reading ability of 24 non-asthmatic dyslexic children aged between nine and twelve years. Reading ability was assessed using the Neale Analysis of Reading. After one school term, there was no significant difference in the change in reading age between treatment and control groups. After two school terms (approximately six months), only 11 children (44%) were still wearing the glasses. Of 381 suitable subjects for entry into the study, 208 were excluded because of a diagnosis of asthma (to avoid effects of medication on cerebral function). As a result, we may have excluded subjects who would have responded favourably to tinted lenses.

  13. The use of control groups in music therapy research: a content analysis of articles in the Journal of Music Therapy.

    PubMed

    Jones, Jennifer D

    2006-01-01

    The use of a control group is fundamental to experimental research design, though the use with clinical populations must be carefully considered. The purpose of this research was to examine the use of control groups in research with clinical and nonclinical populations published in Journal of Musical Therapy from 1964 through 2004. Criteria for inclusion were music or music therapy as an independent variable applied to one or more groups and at least one control group that did not receive a music treatment. Control groups were qualified as alternative treatment, placebo, no contact, and treatment as usual. Of the 692 articles, 94 met these criteria, 62 clinical and 32 nonclinical, representing 13.5% of the publications. Results indicated that research with clinical populations involved a mean of 38.1 subjects typically divided into two groups, an experimental and a control group. The pretest-posttest design was the most common (55%) as was a treatment as usual control group (45%). These design methods maximized the impact of the experimental music treatment on outcome. Experimental music groups significantly improved over control groups in the vast majority of studies identified. Undoubtedly, the foundation for evidence-based clinical practice is firm.

  14. Severe sepsis in women with group B Streptococcus in pregnancy: an exploratory UK national case–control study

    PubMed Central

    Kalin, Asli; Acosta, Colleen; Kurinczuk, Jennifer J; Brocklehurst, Peter; Knight, Marian

    2015-01-01

    Objective To estimate the incidence of severe maternal sepsis due to group B Streptococcus (GBS) in the UK, and to investigate the associated outcomes for mother and infant. Design National case–control study. Setting All UK consultant-led maternity units. Participants 30 women with confirmed or suspected severe GBS sepsis, and 757 control women. Main outcome measures Disease incidence, additional maternal morbidity, critical care admission, length of stay, infant infection, mortality. Results The incidences of confirmed and presumed severe maternal GBS sepsis were 1.00 and 2.75 per 100 000 maternities, respectively, giving an overall incidence of 3.75 per 100 000. Compared with controls, severe GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of additional maternal morbidity (OR 12.35, 95% CI 3.96 to 35.0), requiring level 2 (OR 39.3, 95% CI 16.0 to 99.3) or level 3 (OR 182, 95% CI 21.0 to 8701) care and longer hospital stay (median stay in cases and controls was 7 days (range 3–29 days) and 2 days (range 0–16 days), respectively, p<0.001). None of the women died. Severe maternal GBS sepsis was associated with higher odds of infant sepsis (OR 32.7, 95% CI 8.99 to 119.0); 79% of infants, however, did not develop sepsis. There were no associated stillbirths or neonatal deaths. Conclusions Severe maternal GBS sepsis is a rare occurrence in the UK. It is associated with adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. PMID:26450426

  15. Additive effects of nutritional supplementation, together with bisphosphonates, on bone mineral density after hip fracture: a 12-month randomized controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Flodin, Lena; Sääf, Maria; Cederholm, Tommy; Al-Ani, Amer N; Ackermann, Paul W; Samnegård, Eva; Dalen, Nils; Hedström, Margareta

    2014-01-01

    Background After a hip fracture, a catabolic state develops, with increased bone loss during the first year. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of postoperative treatment with calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonates (alone or together) with nutritional supplementation on total hip and total body bone mineral density (BMD). Methods Seventy-nine patients (56 women), with a mean age of 79 years (range, 61–96 years) and with a recent hip fracture, who were ambulatory before fracture and without severe cognitive impairment, were included. Patients were randomized to treatment with bisphosphonates (risedronate 35 mg weekly) for 12 months (B; n=28), treatment with bisphosphonates along with nutritional supplementation (40 g protein, 600 kcal daily) for the first 6 months (BN; n=26), or to controls (C; n=25). All participants received calcium (1,000 mg) and vitamin D3 (800 IU) daily. Total hip and total body BMD were assessed with dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry at baseline, 6, and 12 months. Marker of bone resorption C-terminal telopeptide of collagen I and 25-hydroxy vitamin D were analyzed in serum. Results Analysis of complete cases (70/79 at 6 months and 67/79 at 12 months) showed an increase in total hip BMD of 0.7% in the BN group, whereas the B and C groups lost 1.1% and 2.4% of BMD, respectively, between baseline and 6 months (P=0.071, between groups). There was no change in total body BMD between baseline and 12 months in the BN group, whereas the B group and C group both lost BMD, with C losing more than B (P=0.009). Intention-to-treat analysis was in concordance with the complete cases analyses. Conclusion Protein-and energy-rich supplementation in addition to calcium, vitamin D, and bisphosphonate therapy had additive effects on total body BMD and total hip BMD among elderly hip fracture patients. PMID:25045257

  16. Extrinsic visual feedback and additional cognitive/physical demands affect single-limb balance control in individuals with ankle instability

    PubMed Central

    Hung, You-jou; Miller, Jacob

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the impact of extrinsic visual feedback and additional cognitive/physical demands on single-limb balance in individuals with ankle instability. METHODS Sixteen subjects with ankle instability participated in the study. Ankle instability was identified using the Cumberland Ankle Instability Tool (CAIT). The subject’s unstable ankle was examined using the Athletic Single Leg Stability Test of the Biodex Balance System with 4 different protocols: (1) default setting with extrinsic visual feedback from the monitor; (2) no extrinsic visual feedback; (3) no extrinsic visual feedback with cognitive demands; and (4) no extrinsic visual feedback with physical demands. For the protocol with added cognitive demands, subjects were asked to continue subtracting 7 from a given number while performing the same test without extrinsic visual feedback. For the protocol with added physical demands, subjects were asked to pass and catch a basketball to and from the examiner while performing the same modified test. RESULTS The subject’s single-limb postural control varied significantly among different testing protocols (F = 103; P = 0.000). Subjects’ postural control was the worst with added physical demands and the best with the default condition with extrinsic visual feedback. Pairwise comparison shows subjects performed significantly worse in all modified protocols (P < 0.01 in all comparisons) compared to the default protocol. Results from all 4 protocols are significantly different from each other (P < 0.01) except for the comparison between the “no extrinsic visual feedback” and “no extrinsic visual feedback with cognitive demands” protocols. Comparing conditions without extrinsic visual feedback, adding a cognitive demand did not significantly compromise single-limb balance control but adding a physical demand did. Scores from the default protocol are significantly correlated with the results from all 3 modified protocols: No extrinsic visual

  17. The Effectiveness of Group Cognitive Behavioral Therapy in Treating Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder in Women with Multiple Sclerosis (MS): A randomized double-blind controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Sayyah, Mehdi; Bagheri, Parisa; Karimi, Negar; Ghasemzadeh, Azizreza

    2016-01-01

    Background Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is one of the most prevalent psychiatric disorders and can cause problems for individuals in all aspects of life, including social and personal dimensions. Objective To study the effect of group cognitive-behavioral therapy on the reduction of OCD symptoms in female participants with multiple sclerosis (MS). Methods This double-blind randomized control trial was conducted from May 2012 to December 2014. The participants included 75 patients with MS who suffered from OCD and were referred to the Loghman Hakim and Imam Khomeini hospitals in Tehran, Iran. Thirty participants had been diagnosed through Yale-Brown Obsessive-Compulsive Symptoms (Y-BOCS). The participants were randomly divided into an experimental group (n=15) and a control group (n=15). Eleven sessions of cognitive-behavioral therapy were provided for the experimental group. Patients in the control group continued with their normal living. Hypotheses were tested using an analysis of covariance (ANCOVA). Results A significant reduction was found in the experimental group’s obsessive-compulsive symptoms after cognitive-behavioral therapy (p<0.001). In addition, mean scores for participants in the experimental group were significantly lower than for those in the control group (p=0.000). Conclusion It can be inferred that cognitive-behavioral therapy could considerably reduce OCD symptoms in women with MS. The application of this method by therapists, especially Iranian clinicians, is recommended. PMID:27279999

  18. The Pervasive Problem With Placebos in Psychology: Why Active Control Groups Are Not Sufficient to Rule Out Placebo Effects.

    PubMed

    Boot, Walter R; Simons, Daniel J; Stothart, Cary; Stutts, Cassie

    2013-07-01

    To draw causal conclusions about the efficacy of a psychological intervention, researchers must compare the treatment condition with a control group that accounts for improvements caused by factors other than the treatment. Using an active control helps to control for the possibility that improvement by the experimental group resulted from a placebo effect. Although active control groups are superior to "no-contact" controls, only when the active control group has the same expectation of improvement as the experimental group can we attribute differential improvements to the potency of the treatment. Despite the need to match expectations between treatment and control groups, almost no psychological interventions do so. This failure to control for expectations is not a minor omission-it is a fundamental design flaw that potentially undermines any causal inference. We illustrate these principles with a detailed example from the video-game-training literature showing how the use of an active control group does not eliminate expectation differences. The problem permeates other interventions as well, including those targeting mental health, cognition, and educational achievement. Fortunately, measuring expectations and adopting alternative experimental designs makes it possible to control for placebo effects, thereby increasing confidence in the causal efficacy of psychological interventions.

  19. Goal-directed and transfer-cue-elicited drug-seeking are dissociated by pharmacotherapy: evidence for independent additive controllers.

    PubMed

    Hogarth, Lee

    2012-07-01

    According to contemporary learning theory, drug-seeking behavior reflects the summation of 2 dissociable controllers. Whereas goal-directed drug-seeking is determined by the expected current incentive value of the drug, stimulus-elicited drug-seeking is determined by the expected probability of the drug independently of its current incentive value, and these 2 controllers contribute additively to observed drug-seeking. One applied prediction of this model is that smoking cessation pharmacotherapies selectively attenuate tonic but not cue-elicited craving because they downgrade the expected incentive value of the drug but leave expected probability intact. To test this, the current study examined whether nicotine replacement therapy (NRT) nasal spray would modify goal-directed tobacco choice in a human outcome devaluation procedure, but leave cue-elicited tobacco choice in a Pavlovian to instrumental transfer (PIT) procedure intact. Smokers (N= 96) first underwent concurrent choice training in which 2 responses earned tobacco or chocolate points, respectively. Participants then ingested either NRT nasal spray (1 mg) or chocolate (147 g) to devalue 1 outcome. Concurrent choice was then tested again in extinction to measure goal-directed control of choice, and in a PIT test to measure the extent to which tobacco and chocolate stimuli enhanced choice of the same outcome. It was found that NRT modified tobacco choice in the extinction test but not the extent to which the tobacco stimulus enhanced choice of the tobacco outcome in the PIT test. This dissociation suggests that the propensity to engage in drug-seeking is determined independently by the expected value and probability of the drug, and that pharmacotherapy has partial efficacy because it selectively effects expected drug value.

  20. Exploration and classification of chromatographic fingerprints as additional tool for identification and quality control of several Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Goedele; Pieters, Sigrid; Logie, Hans; Van Erps, Jürgen; Merino-Arévalo, Maria; Dejaegher, Bieke; Smeyers-Verbeke, Johanna; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The World Health Organization accepts chromatographic fingerprints as a tool for identification and quality control of herbal medicines. This is the first study in which the distinction, identification and quality control of four different Artemisia species, i.e. Artemisia vulgaris, A. absinthium, A. annua and A. capillaris samples, is performed based on the evaluation of entire chromatographic fingerprint profiles developed with identical experimental conditions. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detection (DAD) was used to develop the fingerprints. Application of factorial designs leads to methanol/water (80:20 (v/v)) as the best extraction solvent for the pulverised plant material and to a shaking bath for 30 min as extraction method. Further, so-called screening, optimisation and fine-tuning phases were performed during fingerprint development. Most information about the different Artemisia species, i.e. the highest number of separated peaks in the fingerprint, was acquired on four coupled Chromolith columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm I.D.). Trifluoroacetic acid 0.05% (v/v) was used as mobile-phase additive in a stepwise linear methanol/water gradient, i.e. 5, 34, 41, 72 and 95% (v/v) methanol at 0, 9, 30, 44 and 51 min, where the last mobile phase composition was kept isocratic till 60 min. One detection wavelength was selected to perform data analysis. The lowest similarity between the fingerprints of the four species was present at 214 nm. The HPLC/DAD method was applied on 199 herbal samples of the four Artemisia species, resulting in 357 fingerprints. The within- and between-day variation of the entire method, as well as the quality control fingerprints obtained during routine analysis, were found acceptable. The distinction of these Artemisia species was evaluated based on the entire chromatographic profiles, developed by a shared method, and visualised in score plots by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) exploratory data

  1. Kinesio Taping Does Not Provide Additional Benefits in Patients With Chronic Low Back Pain Who Receive Exercise and Manual Therapy: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Added, Marco Aurélio Nemitalla; Costa, Leonardo Oliveira Pena; de Freitas, Diego Galace; Fukuda, Thiago Yukio; Monteiro, Renan Lima; Salomão, Evelyn Cassia; de Medeiros, Flávia Cordeiro; Costa, Lucíola da Cunha Menezes

    2016-07-01

    Study Design Randomized controlled trial. Background Many clinical practice guidelines endorse both manual therapy and exercise as effective treatment options for patients with low back pain. To optimize the effects of the treatments recommended by the guidelines, a new intervention known as Kinesio Taping is being widely used in these patients. Objectives To determine the effectiveness of Kinesio Taping in patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain when added to a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy. Methods One hundred forty-eight patients with chronic nonspecific low back pain were randomly allocated to receive 10 (twice weekly) sessions of physical therapy, consisting of exercise and manual therapy, or the same treatment with the addition of Kinesio Taping applied to the lower back. The primary outcomes were pain intensity and disability (5 weeks after randomization) and the secondary outcomes were pain intensity, disability (3 months and 6 months after randomization), global perceived effect, and satisfaction with care (5 weeks after treatment). Data were collected by a blinded assessor. Results No between-group differences were observed in the primary outcomes of pain intensity (mean difference, -0.01 points; 95% confidence interval [CI]: -0.88, 0.85) or disability (mean difference, 1.14 points; 95% CI: -0.85, 3.13) at 5 weeks' follow-up. In addition, no between-group differences were observed for any of the other outcomes evaluated, except for disability 6 months after randomization (mean difference, 2.01 points; 95% CI: 0.03, 4.00) in favor of the control group. Conclusion Patients who received a physical therapy program consisting of exercise and manual therapy did not get additional benefit from the use of Kinesio Taping. Level of Evidence Therapy, level 1b. Prospectively registered May 28, 2013 at www.ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01866332). J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2016;46(7):506-513. Epub 6 Jun 2016. doi:10.2519/jospt.2016.6590.

  2. The ADDITION-Cambridge trial protocol: a cluster – randomised controlled trial of screening for type 2 diabetes and intensive treatment for screen-detected patients

    PubMed Central

    Echouffo-Tcheugui, Justin B; Simmons, Rebecca K; Williams, Kate M; Barling, Roslyn S; Prevost, A Toby; Kinmonth, Ann Louise; Wareham, Nicholas J; Griffin, Simon J

    2009-01-01

    Background The increasing prevalence of type 2 diabetes poses a major public health challenge. Population-based screening and early treatment for type 2 diabetes could reduce this growing burden. However, the benefits of such a strategy remain uncertain. Methods and design The ADDITION-Cambridge study aims to evaluate the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness of (i) a stepwise screening strategy for type 2 diabetes; and (ii) intensive multifactorial treatment for people with screen-detected diabetes in primary care. 63 practices in the East Anglia region participated. Three undertook the pilot study, 33 were allocated to three groups: no screening (control), screening followed by intensive treatment (IT) and screening plus routine care (RC) in an unbalanced (1:3:3) randomisation. The remaining 27 practices were randomly allocated to IT and RC. A risk score incorporating routine practice data was used to identify people aged 40–69 years at high-risk of undiagnosed diabetes. In the screening practices, high-risk individuals were invited to take part in a stepwise screening programme. In the IT group, diabetes treatment is optimised through guidelines, target-led multifactorial treatment, audit, feedback, and academic detailing for practice teams, alongside provision of educational materials for newly diagnosed participants. Primary endpoints are modelled cardiovascular risk at one year, and cardiovascular mortality and morbidity at five years after diagnosis of diabetes. Secondary endpoints include all-cause mortality, development of renal and visual impairment, peripheral neuropathy, health service costs, self-reported quality of life, functional status and health utility. Impact of the screening programme at the population level is also assessed through measures of mortality, cardiovascular morbidity, health status and health service use among high-risk individuals. Discussion ADDITION-Cambridge is conducted in a defined high-risk group accessible through primary

  3. Pathological gamblers and a non-psychiatric control group taking gender differences into account.

    PubMed

    Echeburúa, Enrique; González-Ortega, Itxaso; de Corral, Paz; Polo-López, Rocío

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to identify personality traits, emotional states and adjustment variables in a sample of pathological gamblers as compared to a non-gambling control group taking gender differences into account. The sample for this study consisted of 206 subjects (103 pathological gamblers and 103 non-psychiatric subjects from the general population matched for age and gender). Pathological gamblers had a lower educational level and a family history of alcohol abuse higher than non-gamblers. In turn, female gamblers were affected by unemployment and a lower socioeconomic status more often than female non-gamblers. Pathological gamblers were more anxious and impulsive and suffered from a poorer self-esteem than non-gamblers. Likewise, pathological gamblers had a greater history of other Axis I psychiatric disorders and were more often affected by anxiety and depression symptoms and showed a more problematic adjustment to everyday life than non-gamblers. Alcohol abuse was not higher in pathological gamblers than in non-gamblers, but, when gender was taken into account, male gamblers were more affected by alcohol abuse than male non-gamblers. Importantly 68.6% of female gamblers versus 9.8% of control group women reported being victims of intimate partner violence. These findings can be used to specifically inform prevention and intervention efforts.

  4. Dynamic Key Management Schemes for Secure Group Access Control Using Hierarchical Clustering in Mobile Ad Hoc Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsaur, Woei-Jiunn; Pai, Haw-Tyng

    2008-11-01

    The applications of group computing and communication motivate the requirement to provide group access control in mobile ad hoc networks (MANETs). The operation in MANETs' groups performs a decentralized manner and accommodated membership dynamically. Moreover, due to lack of centralized control, MANETs' groups are inherently insecure and vulnerable to attacks from both within and outside the groups. Such features make access control more challenging in MANETs. Recently, several researchers have proposed group access control mechanisms in MANETs based on a variety of threshold signatures. However, these mechanisms cannot actually satisfy MANETs' dynamic environments. This is because the threshold-based mechanisms cannot be achieved when the number of members is not up to the threshold value. Hence, by combining the efficient elliptic curve cryptosystem, self-certified public key cryptosystem and secure filter technique, we construct dynamic key management schemes based on hierarchical clustering for securing group access control in MANETs. Specifically, the proposed schemes can constantly accomplish secure group access control only by renewing the secure filters of few cluster heads, when a cluster head joins or leaves a cross-cluster. In such a new way, we can find that the proposed group access control scheme can be very effective for securing practical applications in MANETs.

  5. Improving parental stress levels among mothers living with HIV: a randomized control group intervention study.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Erica R; Davies, Susan L; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J; Shrestha, Sadeep; Kempf, Mirjam-Colette

    2015-04-01

    Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85(th) and 90(th) percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH.

  6. Improving Parental Stress Levels Among Mothers Living with HIV: A Randomized Control Group Intervention Study

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Erica R.; Davies, Susan L.; Aban, Inmaculada; Mugavero, Michael J.; Shrestha, Sadeep

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Limited knowledge exists regarding parenting efficacy interventions for mothers living with HIV (MLH). This study evaluated the impact of a supportive group intervention on lowering parenting stress among MLH. Eighty MLH were randomized to a parenting (N=34) or health focused (control) (N=46) group intervention. Pre- and post-intervention stress levels were assessed using the Parental Stress Index-Short Form (PSI/SF). Differences in PSI/SF scores were examined using ANOVA, and predictors of PSI/SF scores were evaluated using multivariable linear regression. Findings indicate that both groups experienced significant decreases in parenting stress from baseline to post-intervention (p=0.0001), with no significant differences between interventions. At baseline, 41% of participants were identified as highly stressed and 30% as clinically stressed, with PSI/SF scores above the 85th and 90th percentile, respectively. Amongst the highly stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in PSI/SF scores for Parental Distress PSI/SF (p=0.039), Difficult Child PSI/SF (p=0.048), and total PSI/SF (p=0.036) were seen, with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Among the clinically stressed subpopulation, significant improvements in total post-intervention PSI/SF scores were seen (p=0.049), with greater improvements in the parenting intervention. Results indicate that screening for high levels of stress should be considered in clinical practice to effectively implement stress-reducing interventions among MLH. PMID:25734870

  7. Randomized Controlled Pilot Trial of a Novel Dissonance-Based Group Treatment for Eating Disorders

    PubMed Central

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S.; Marti, C. Nathan

    2015-01-01

    Objective Conduct a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Method Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Body Acceptance Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Results Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ2[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = 0.79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). Conclusions This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment. PMID:25577189

  8. Randomized controlled pilot trial of a novel dissonance-based group treatment for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Stice, Eric; Rohde, Paul; Butryn, Meghan; Menke, Katharine S; Marti, C Nathan

    2015-02-01

    The authors conducted a pilot trial of a new dissonance-based group eating disorder treatment designed to be a cost-effective front-line transdiagnostic treatment that could be more widely disseminated than extant individual or family treatments that are more expensive and difficult to deliver. Young women with a DSM-5 eating disorder (N = 72) were randomized to an 8-week dissonance-based Counter Attitudinal Therapy group treatment or a usual care control condition, completing diagnostic interviews and questionnaires at pre, post, and 2-month follow-up. Intent-to-treat analyses revealed that intervention participants showed greater reductions in outcomes than usual care controls in a multivariate multilevel model (χ(2)[6] = 34.1, p < .001), producing large effects for thin-ideal internalization (d = .79), body dissatisfaction (d = 1.14), and blinded interview-assessed eating disorder symptoms (d = .95), and medium effects for dissonance regarding perpetuating the thin ideal (d = .65) and negative affect (d = .55). Midway through this pilot we refined engagement procedures, which was associated with increased effect sizes (e.g., the d for eating disorder symptoms increased from .51 to 2.30). This new group treatment produced large reductions in eating disorder symptoms, which is encouraging because it requires about 1/20th the therapist time necessary for extant individual and family treatments, and has the potential to provide a cost-effective and efficacious approach to reaching the majority of individuals with eating disorders who do not presently received treatment.

  9. A randomized controlled trial of a brief versus standard group parenting program for toddler aggression.

    PubMed

    Tully, Lucy A; Hunt, Caroline

    2016-11-17

    Physical aggression (PA) in the toddler years is common and developmentally normal, however, longitudinal research shows that frequent PA is highly stable and associated with long-term negative outcomes. Significant research has demonstrated the efficacy of parenting interventions for reducing externalizing behavior in children yet their typical length may overburden families, leading to low participation rates and high attrition rates. To increase the reach of parenting interventions and impact on the prevalence of externalizing behavior problems, brief interventions are needed. This RCT compared a standard (8 session) group Triple P to a brief (3 session) discussion group and a waitlist control for reducing toddler PA, dysfunctional parenting and related aspects of parent functioning. Sixty-nine self-referred families of toddlers with PA were randomized to the respective conditions. At post-assessment, families in the standard intervention had significantly lower levels of observed child aversive behavior, mother reports of PA and dysfunctional parenting, and higher levels of mother- and partner-rated behavioral self-efficacy than the waitlist control. Families in the standard intervention also had significantly lower levels mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than the brief intervention, and the brief intervention had significantly lower levels of mother-rated dysfunctional parenting than waitlist. There were no significant group differences at post-assessment for measures of parental negative affect or satisfaction with the partner relationship. By 6 month follow-up, families in the brief and standard intervention did not differ significantly on any measure. The implications of the findings to delivery of brief parenting interventions are discussed. Aggr. Behav. 9999:1-13, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Effects of eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR) on non-specific chronic back pain: a randomized controlled trial with additional exploration of the underlying mechanisms

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Non-specific chronic back pain (CBP) is often accompanied by psychological trauma, but treatment for this associated condition is often insufficient. Nevertheless, despite the common co-occurrence of pain and psychological trauma, a specific trauma-focused approach for treating CBP has been neglected to date. Accordingly, eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR), originally developed as a treatment approach for posttraumatic stress disorders, is a promising approach for treating CBP in patients who have experienced psychological trauma. Thus, the aim of this study is to determine whether a standardized, short-term EMDR intervention added to treatment as usual (TAU) reduces pain intensity in CBP patients with psychological trauma vs. TAU alone. Methods/design The study will recruit 40 non-specific CBP patients who have experienced psychological trauma. After a baseline assessment, the patients will be randomized to either an intervention group (n = 20) or a control group (n = 20). Individuals in the EMDR group will receive ten 90-minute sessions of EMDR fortnightly in addition to TAU. The control group will receive TAU alone. The post-treatment assessments will take place two weeks after the last EMDR session and six months later. The primary outcome will be the change in the intensity of CBP within the last four weeks (numeric rating scale 0–10) from the pre-treatment assessment to the post-treatment assessment two weeks after the completion of treatment. In addition, the patients will undergo a thorough assessment of the change in the experience of pain, disability, trauma-associated distress, mental co-morbidities, resilience, and quality of life to explore distinct treatment effects. To explore the mechanisms of action that are involved, changes in pain perception and pain processing (quantitative sensory testing, conditioned pain modulation) will also be assessed. The statistical analysis of the primary outcome will be performed

  11. 26 CFR 1.1563-1 - Definition of controlled group of corporations and component members and related concepts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... and component members and related concepts. 1.1563-1 Section 1.1563-1 Internal Revenue INTERNAL... members and related concepts. (a) Controlled group of corporations—(1) In general—(i) Types of controlled... section); (C) A combined group (as defined in paragraph (a)(4) of this section); or (D) A life...

  12. Alcohol Habits in Patients with Long-Term Musculoskeletal Pain: Comparison with a Matched Control Group from the General Population

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thelin Bronner, Kerstin Birgitta; Wennberg, Peter; Kallmen, Hakan; Schult, Marie-Louise Birgitta

    2012-01-01

    This prospective study aimed to describe alcohol habits in patients with chronic pain compared with those in a matched control group from the general Swedish population. In total, 100 consecutive patients enrolled were matched against 100 individuals in a control group on the basis of age and sex. Alcohol habits were measured using the Alcohol Use…

  13. Experience with multiple control groups in a large population-based case-control study on genetic and environmental risk factors.

    PubMed

    Pomp, E R; Van Stralen, K J; Le Cessie, S; Vandenbroucke, J P; Rosendaal, F R; Doggen, C J M

    2010-07-01

    We discuss the analytic and practical considerations in a large case-control study that had two control groups; the first control group consisting of partners of patients and the second obtained by random digit dialling (RDD). As an example of the evaluation of a general lifestyle factor, we present body mass index (BMI). Both control groups had lower BMIs than the patients. The distribution in the partner controls was closer to that of the patients, likely due to similar lifestyles. A statistical approach was used to pool the results of both analyses, wherein partners were analyzed with a matched analysis, while RDDs were analyzed without matching. Even with a matched analysis, the odds ratio with partner controls remained closer to unity than with RDD controls, which is probably due to unmeasured confounders in the comparison with the random controls as well as intermediary factors. However, when studying injuries as a risk factor, the odds ratio remained higher with partner control subjects than with RRD control subjects, even after taking the matching into account. Finally we used factor V Leiden as an example of a genetic risk factor. The frequencies of factor V Leiden were identical in both control groups, indicating that for the analyses of this genetic risk factor the two control groups could be combined in a single unmatched analysis. In conclusion, the effect measures with the two control groups were in the same direction, and of the same order of magnitude. Moreover, it was not always the same control group that produced the higher or lower estimates, and a matched analysis did not remedy the differences. Our experience with the intricacies of dealing with two control groups may be useful to others when thinking about an optimal research design or the best statistical approach.

  14. Control of hydrogen sulfide production in oil fields by managing microbial communities through nitrate or nitrite addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hubert, Casey R. J.

    Nitrate or nitrite injection into oil reservoirs during water flooding has the potential to control biological souring, the production of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) by sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Souring control is essential because sulfide is toxic, sulfide precipitates can plug reservoir formations, souring lowers crude oil value, and SRB induce corrosion. Nitrate and nitrite can stimulate heterotrophic nitrate- or nitrite-reducing bacteria (hNRB) and nitrate- or nitrite-reducing, sulfide oxidizing bacteria (NRSOB). Nitrite also inhibits SRB activity by blocking the sulfate reduction pathway. Continuous up-flow packed-bed bioreactors were inoculated with produced water from the Coleville oil field to establish sulfide-producing biofilms similar to those found in sour reservoirs. Nitrate or nitrite addition to bioreactors indicated that the dose required for hNRB or NR-SOB to control souring depended on the concentration of oil organics. Either mechanism mediates the net removal of oil organics (lactate) with nitrate or nitrite, with lower doses of nitrate required due to its greater oxidative power. Microbial community analysis by reverse sample genome probing (RSGP) revealed that NR-SOB mediated sulfide removal at low nitrate or nitrite concentrations when lactate was still available to SRB and the redox potential was low. At high nitrate doses hNRB oxidized lactate directly, produced nitrite and maintained a high redox potential, thus excluding SRB activity. Facultatively chemolithotrophic Campylobacter sp. strains were isolated from the bioreactors and incorporated into RSGP analyses, revealing their dominance in both NR-SOB- and hNRB-containing communities. The metabolic flexibility of these strains may confer a competitive advantage over obligate chemolithotrophs like Thiomicrospira sp. strain CVO or hNRB that do not have NR-SOB activity like newly isolated Thauera sp. and Rhodobacter sp. strains. A single high dose of nitrite resulted in immediate

  15. Mindfulness training improves attentional task performance in incarcerated youth: a group randomized controlled intervention trial

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Noelle R.; Jha, Amishi P.; Casarjian, Bethany; Goolsarran, Merissa; Garcia, Cristina; Cleland, Charles M.; Gwadz, Marya V.; Massey, Zohar

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the impact of cognitive behavioral therapy and mindfulness training (CBT/MT) on attentional task performance in incarcerated adolescents. Attention is a cognitive system necessary for managing cognitive demands and regulating emotions. Yet persistent and intensive demands, such as those experienced during high-stress intervals like incarceration and the events leading to incarceration, may deplete attention resulting in cognitive failures, emotional disturbances, and impulsive behavior. We hypothesized that CBT/MT may mitigate these deleterious effects of high stress and protect against degradation in attention over the high-stress interval of incarceration. Using a quasi-experimental, group randomized controlled trial design, we randomly assigned dormitories of incarcerated youth, ages 16–18, to a CBT/MT intervention (youth n = 147) or an active control intervention (youth n = 117). Both arms received approximately 750 min of intervention in a small-group setting over a 3–5 week period. Youth in the CBT/MT arm also logged the amount of out-of-session time spent practicing MT exercises. The Attention Network Test was used to index attentional task performance at baseline and 4 months post-baseline. Overall, task performance degraded over time in all participants. The magnitude of performance degradation was significantly less in the CBT/MT vs. control arm. Further, within the CBT/MT arm, performance degraded over time in those with no outside-of-class practice time, but remained stable over time in those who practiced mindfulness exercises outside of the session meetings. Thus, these findings suggest that sufficient CBT/MT practice may protect against functional attentional impairments associated with high-stress intervals. PMID:24265621

  16. The Effects of Waiting for Treatment: A Meta-Analysis of Waitlist Control Groups in Randomized Controlled Trials for Social Anxiety Disorder.

    PubMed

    Steinert, Christiane; Stadter, Katja; Stark, Rudolf; Leichsenring, Falk

    2016-07-22

    Social anxiety disorder (SAD) is a highly prevalent mental disorder. However, little is known about how SAD changes in subjects who do not receive treatment. Waitlist control groups (WLCGs) are frequently included in randomized controlled trials (RCTs) on the treatment of mental disorders. Data from WLCGs are of value as they provide information on the untreated short-term course of a disorder and may serve as disorder-specific norms of change (benchmarks) against which treatment outcomes of SAD can be compared. Thus, we performed a meta-analysis focusing on the effects occurring in WLCGs of RCTs for SAD. Our study was conducted along the PRISMA guidelines. Thirty RCTs (total n = 2460) comprising 30 WLCGs and 47 treatment groups were included. Mean waiting time was 10.6 weeks. The pooled effect of waiting on SAD measures was g = 0.128 (95% CI: 0.057-0.199). Effects regarding other forms of anxiety, depression and functioning were of similarly small size. In contrast, change in the treatment groups was large, both within (g = 0.887) and between groups (g = 0.860). Our results show that for SAD, changes occurring in WLCGs of RCTs are small. The findings may serve as benchmarks in pilot studies of a new treatment or as an additional comparison in studies comparing two active treatments. For psychotherapy research in general, the small effect sizes found in WLCGs confirm that testing a treatment against a waiting list is not a very strict test. Further research on WLCGs in specific mental disorders is required, for example examining the expectancies of patients randomized to waiting. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Key Practitioner Message In clinical practice, patients suffering from a mental disorder often have to wait for treatment. By analyzing data from waitlist control groups we can gain estimates of symptom change that occur during waiting. It could be seen that waiting for treatment only results in a negligible effect. Thus, in the

  17. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  18. Plant species, atmospheric CO2 and soil N interactively or additively control C allocation within plant-soil systems.

    PubMed

    F U, Shenglei; Ferris, Howard

    2006-12-01

    Two plant species, Medicago truncatula (legume) and Avena sativa (non-legume), were grown in low- or high-N soils under two CO2 concentrations to test the hypothesis whether C allocation within plant-soil system is interactively or additively controlled by soil N and atmospheric CO2 is dependent upon plant species. The results showed the interaction between plant species and soil N had a significant impact on microbial activity and plant growth. The interaction between CO2 and soil N had a significant impact on soil soluble C and soil microbial biomass C under Madicago but not under Avena. Although both CO2 and soil N affected plant growth significantly, there was no interaction between CO2 and soil N on plant growth. In other words, the effects of CO2 and soil N on plant growth were additive. We considered that the interaction between N2 fixation trait of legume plant and elevated CO2 might have obscured the interaction between soil N and elevated CO2 on the growth of legume plant. In low-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Avena dropped from 2.63 +/- 0.20 in the early growth stage to 1.47 +/- 0.03 in the late growth stage, indicating that Avena plant allocated more energy to roots to optimize nutrient uptake (i.e. N) when soil N was limiting. In high-N soil, the shoot-to-root ratio of Medicago increased significantly over time (from 2.45 +/- 0.30 to 5.43 +/- 0.10), suggesting that Medicago plants allocated more energy to shoots to optimize photosynthesis when N was not limiting. The shoot-to-root ratios were not significantly different between two CO2 levels.

  19. Improving Quality of Life in Men With Prostate Cancer: A Randomized Controlled Trial of Group Education Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Lepore, Stephen J.; Helgeson, Vicki S.; Eton, David T.; Schulz, Richard

    2008-01-01

    Men who were recently treated for prostate cancer (N = 250) were randomly assigned to a control group, a group education intervention (GE), or a group education-plus-discussion intervention (GED). Both GE and GED increased prostate cancer knowledge. In the year postintervention, men in the GED condition were less bothered by sexual problems than men in the control condition, and they were more likely to remain steadily employed (93.0%) than men in the GE (75.6%) or control (72.5%) conditions. Among noncollege graduates, GED and GE resulted in better physical functioning than the control condition, and GED resulted in more positive health behaviors than the control or GE condition. Among college graduates, controls were comparable with the GE and GED groups in physical functioning and positive health behaviors. PMID:14570527

  20. A carbonate controlled-addition method for amorphous calcium carbonate spheres stabilized by poly(acrylic acid)s.

    PubMed

    Huang, Shu-Chen; Naka, Kensuke; Chujo, Yoshiki

    2007-11-20

    Stable amorphous calcium carbonate (ACC) composite particle with a size-controlled monodispersed sphere was obtained by a new simple carbonate controlled-addition method by using poly(acrylic acid) (PAA) (Mw = 5000), in which an aqueous ammonium carbonate solution was added into an aqueous solution of PAA and CaCl2 with a different time period. The obtained ACC composite products consist of about 50 wt % of ACC, 30 wt % of PAA, and H2O. Average particle sizes of the ACC spheres increased from (1.8 +/- 0.4) x 102 to (5.5 +/- 1.2) x 102 nm with an increase of the complexation time of the PAA-CaCl2 solution from 3 min to 24 h, respectively. The ACC formed from the complexation time for 3 min was stable for 10 days with gentle stirring as well as 3 months under a quiescent condition in the aqueous solution. Moreover, the ACC was also stable at 400 degrees C. Stability of the amorphous phase decreased with an increase of the complexation time of the PAA-CaCl2 solution. No ACC was obtained when the lower molar mass PAAs (Mw = 1200 and 2100) were used. In the higher molar mass case (Mw = 25 000), a mixture of the amorphous phase and vaterite and calcite crystalline product was produced. The present results demonstrate that the interaction and the reaction kinetics of the PAA-Ca2+-H2O complex play an important role in the mineralization of CaCO3.

  1. Wormlike micelles in poly(oxyethylene) surfactant solution: Growth control through hydrophilic-group size variation.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Toufiq; Aramaki, Kenji

    2008-11-01

    Viscoelastic micellar solutions are formed in poly(oxyethylene) cholesteryl ether (ChEO(m), m=15, 30) aqueous solutions on addition of tri(ethyleneglycol) mono n-dodecyl ether (C(12)EO(3)). The steady-shear and dynamic rheological behavior of the systems is characteristic of wormlike micellar solution. In either system, the plateau modulus (G(0)) and relaxation time (tau) are found to increase with increasing cosurfactant mixing fractions. The plateau modulus of the ChEO(30)-C(12)EO(3) system at the maximum viscosity region is found to be higher than that in the ChEO(15)-C(12)EO(3) system at the maximum viscosity region, whereas for the relaxation time the opposite relation is found. The maximum viscosities obtained in the two systems are of the same order of magnitude. In the ChEO(30)-C(12)EO(3) system, the maximum viscosity is obtained at a higher cosurfactant mixing fraction than that in the ChEO(15)-C(12)EO(3) system. It is concluded that decreasing the head-group size of the hydrophilic surfactant favors micellar growth. Monolaurin, another hydrophobic surfactant known to induce growth in some systems, is found to cause phase separation before significant micellar growth occurs in ChEO(m) solutions, although the effect of head-group size of ChEO(m) is found to be similar to the ChEO(m)-C(12)EO(3) systems.

  2. [Whooping cough in Spain. Current epidemiology, prevention and control strategies. Recommendations by the Pertussis Working Group].

    PubMed

    Campins, Magda; Moreno-Pérez, David; Gil-de Miguel, Angel; González-Romo, Fernando; Moraga-Llop, Fernando A; Arístegui-Fernández, Javier; Goncé-Mellgren, Anna; Bayas, José M; Salleras-Sanmartí, Lluís

    2013-04-01

    A large increase of pertussis incidence has been observed in recent years in countries with high vaccination coverage. Outbreaks of pertussis are increasingly being reported. The age presentation has a bipolar distribution: infants younger 6months that have not initiated or completed a vaccination schedule, and adolescents and adults, due to the lost of natural or vaccine immunity over time. These epidemiological changes justify the need to adopt new vaccination strategies in order to protect young infants and to reduce pertussis incidence in all age groups. Adolescents and adults immunization must be a priority. In the first group, strategy is easy to implement, and with a very low additional cost (to replace dT vaccine by dTap one). Adult vaccination may be more difficult to implement; dT vaccine decennial booster should be replaced by dTap. The immunization of household contacts of newborn infants (cocooning) is the strategy that has a most important impact on infant pertussis. Recently, pregnant women vaccination (after 20weeks of gestation) has been recommended in some countries as the most effective way to protect the newborn.

  3. Controlling light absorption and photoelectric properties of coumarin-triphenylaminedye by different acceptor functional groups.

    PubMed

    Sun, Chaofan; Bai, Yanpeng; Li, Yuanzuo; Liu, Dejiang; Xu, Beibei; Wang, Qungui

    2016-11-01

    The ground state and excited state properties of three coumarin dyes, ZCJ1, ZCJ2 and ZCJ3, including ground state structures, energy levels, absorption spectra and driving forces of electron injection, were investigated via density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent density functional theory (TD-DFT). In addition, five new molecules ZCJ3-1, ZCJ3-2, ZCJ3-3, ZCJ3-4 and ZCJ3-5 were designed through the introduction of a -CN group into molecule ZCJ3. The ground state and excited state properties of the five designed molecules were also calculated and compared with that of the original molecule, aiming to investigate the effect of different position of -CN groups on the optical and electrical properties of dye molecules. Moreover, the external electric field was taken into account. The results indicated that all three original molecules have better absorption within the visible-light range, and the molecule with a thiophene-thiophene conjugated bridge enables a red shift of the absorption spectrum. The molecule with a thiophene-benzene ring conjugated bridge enables the increase of driving force of electron injection. The energy levels, spectra and driving force of electron injection for the designed molecules are discussed in terms of studying their potential utility in dye-sensitized solar cells.

  4. Covalently-controlled properties by design in group IV graphane analogues.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Shishi; Arguilla, Maxx Q; Cultrara, Nicholas D; Goldberger, Joshua E

    2015-01-20

    CONSPECTUS: The isolation of graphene has sparked a renaissance in the study of two-dimensional materials. This led to the discovery of new and unique phenomena such as extremely high carrier mobility, thermal conductivity, and mechanical strength not observed in the parent 3D structure. While the emergence of these phenomena has spurred widespread interest in graphene, the paradox between the high-mobility Fermi-Dirac electronic structure and the need for a sizable band gap has challenged its application in traditional semiconductor devices. While graphene is a fascinating and promising material, the limitation of its electronic structure has inspired researchers to explore other 2D materials beyond graphene. In this Account, we summarize our recent work on a new family of two-dimensional materials based on sp(3)-hybridized group IV elements. Ligand-terminated Si, Ge, and Sn graphane analogues are an emerging and unique class of two-dimensional materials that offer the potential to tailor the structure, stability, and properties. Compared with bulk Si and Ge, a direct and larger band gap is apparent in group IV graphane analogues depending on the surface ligand. These materials can be synthesized in gram-scale quantities and in thin films via the topotactic deintercalation of layered Zintl phase precursors. Few layers and single layers can be isolated via manual exfoliation and deintercalation of epitaxially grown Zintl phases on Si/Ge substrates. The presence of a fourth bond on the surface of the layers allows various surface ligand termination with different organic functional groups achieved via conventional soft chemical routes. In these single-atom thick materials, the electronic structure can be systematically controlled by varying the identities of the main group elements and by attaching different surface terminating ligands. In contrast to transition metal dichalcogenides, the weaker interlayer interaction allows the direct band gap single layer

  5. Cytoplasmic 3' poly(A) addition induces 5' cap ribose methylation: implications for translational control of maternal mRNA.

    PubMed Central

    Kuge, H; Richter, J D

    1995-01-01

    During the early development of many animal species, the expression of new genetic information is governed by selective translation of stored maternal mRNAs. In many cases, this translational activation requires cytoplasmic poly(A) elongation. However, how this modification at the 3' end of an mRNA stimulates translation from the 5' end is unknown. Here we show that cytoplasmic polyadenylation stimulates cap ribose methylation during progesterone-induced oocyte maturation in Xenopus laevis. Translational recruitment of a chimeric reporter mRNA that is controlled by cytoplasmic polyadenylation coincides temporally with cap ribose methylation during this period. In addition, the inhibition of cap ribose methylation by S-isobutyladenosine significantly reduces translational activation of a reporter mRNA without affecting the increase of general protein synthesis or polyadenylation during maturation. These results provide evidence for a functional interaction between the termini of an mRNA molecule and suggest that 2'-O-ribose cap methylation mediates the translational recruitment of maternal mRNA. Images PMID:8557049

  6. Fluorescence enhancement in rare earth doped sol-gel glass by N , N dimethylformamide as a drying control chemical additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beyler, A. P.; Boye, D. M.; Hoffman, K. R.; Silversmith, A. J.

    Studies of terbium fluorescence intensity as a function of annealing temperature reveal the cause of increased fluorescence yields observed in rare earth doped sol-gel silicates prepared using N , N-dimethylformamide (DMF) as a drying control chemical additive (DCCA). While gels prepared with DMF actually have lower fluorescence yields than gels prepared without DMF at lower annealing temperatures, DMF gels can be annealed at much higher temperatures while retaining high optical quality. At these higher temperatures, terbium fluorescence yields increase dramatically as the sol-gel network undergoes densification, closing the pores of the network and eliminating the fluorescence quenching silanols on pore surfaces. DMF is therefore found to enhance the fluorescence properties of rare earth sol-gel glasses by reducing micro-fracturing and facilitating network densification. Further investigations are underway to determine the effectiveness of other promising DCCAs, such as glycerol, and to explore the possibility of exploiting the solubility properties of DCCAs to improve rare earth dopant dispersion.

  7. Morphology control of lithium peroxide using Pd3Co as an additive in aprotic Li-O2 batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Sung Man; Yom, Jee Ho; Hwang, Sun Woo; Seong, Il Won; Kim, Jiwoong; Cho, Sung Ho; Yoon, Woo Young

    2017-02-01

    During discharge in aprotic Li-O2 batteries, lithium peroxide (Li2O2) can be formed by a surface- or solution-mediated route. In the surface-mediated process, a Li2O2 film is formed electrochemically on the cathode surface, leading to low capacity and rate capability. In contrast, in high donor or acceptor number electrolyte systems, Li2O2 toroids are formed by solution-mediated growth through a disproportionation reaction, resulting in high capacity and rate capability. However, during charging, high donor or acceptor number solvents cause poor rechargeability because of the high crystallinity of Li2O2 toroids and byproduct formation. Therefore, controlling the size of Li2O2 in a solution-mediated discharge process is the key to the development of Li-O2 batteries with high capacity and good rechargeability. We demonstrate the application of Pd3Co nanoparticles to enhance the rechargeability of a Li-O2 cell in a solution-mediated process. Scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies indicate that the Li2O2 particles formed during discharge are small and the decomposition of the reaction products is reversible. A cell fabricated with Pd3Co nanoparticles exhibits a lower overpotential than the one without the nanoparticles. The additive may provide nucleation sites for Li2O2 particles, leading to enhanced rechargeability and appropriate capacity in a solution-mediated process for Li-O2 batteries.

  8. Controlled molecular weight poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)s endcapped with benzimidazole and acetylene groups

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, J.G. Jr.; Connell, J.W.; Hergenrother, P.M.

    1993-12-31

    As a continuation of work on poly(arylene ether benzimidazole)s (PAEBIs), a series of controlled molecular weight polymers endcapped with benzimidazole, ethynyl, and phenylethynyl groups were prepared at stoichiometric imbalances of 7 and 10 mole percent and characterized. Earlier work with benzimidazole endcapped PAEBIs prepared at stoichiometric imbalances as high as 7 mole percent has shown very good retention of thin film properties up to 232{degrees}C. Ethynyl and phenylethynyl endcapped PAEBIs, air cured to 330{degrees}C, exhibited increases in Tgs of {approximately}20-30{degrees}C with respect to benzimidazole endcapped PAEBIs. Thin film properties for the ethynyl and phenylethynyl endcapped PAEBIs were similar to benzimidazole endcapped PAEBIs up to 232{degrees}C. Ethynyl and phenylethynyl endcapped PAEBI films tested at 250{degrees}C exhibited good retention of tensile properties.

  9. Using photolabile protecting groups for the controlled release of bioactive volatiles.

    PubMed

    Herrmann, Andreas

    2012-03-01

    To develop their biological activity, bioactive volatile compounds, such as pheromones or fragrances, have to evaporate from surfaces. Because these surfaces are usually exposed to natural daylight, the preparation of non-volatile precursors using photoremovable protecting groups is an ideal tool to control the release of caged volatile molecules from various surfaces by light-induced covalent bond cleavage. Many photoreactions occur under mild environmental conditions and are highly selective. To break covalent bonds under typical application conditions, the photoreaction has to proceed at ambient daylight, to tolerate the presence of oxygen and to run in polar media (e.g. in water). The amount of volatiles generated from photochemical delivery systems depends on the light intensity to which the systems are exposed. Both photoisomerisations and photofragmentations have successfully been investigated for the slow release of caged pheromones and fragrances from their corresponding precursors.

  10. Effects of group music intervention on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia: a pilot-controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Choi, Ae-Na; Lee, Myeong Soo; Cheong, Kwang-Jo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2009-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on behavioral and psychological symptoms in patients with dementia. Twenty patients were nonrandomly allocated to either a music-intervention group, or an usual care group. The music-intervention group received 50 minutes of music intervention 3 times per week for 5 consecutive weeks. After 15 sessions, the music-intervention group showed significant in improvement with regard to agitation, and the total scores of both patients and caregivers were lower, compared with the control group. These findings suggest that music can improve behavioral and psychological symptoms, especially in patients with dementia and their caregivers.

  11. Effects of a Psychoeducational Group on Mood and Glycemic Control in Adults with Diabetes and Visual Impairments.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Trozzolino, Linda; Thompson, Pamela S.; Tansman, Mara S.; Azen, Stanley P.

    2003-01-01

    This study evaluated the effectiveness of a 12-week psychoeducational group therapy program in improving mood and glycemic control in 48 adults with diabetes and visual impairments. Participants made statistically significant gains in glycemic control. There was a significant positive relationship between control and improvement in depression, but…

  12. Schistosomiasis Sustained Control Program in Ethnic Groups Around Ninefescha (Eastern Senegal).

    PubMed

    N'Diaye, Monique; Dioukhane, Elhadji M; Ndao, Babacar; Diedhiou, Kemo; Diawara, Lamine; Talla, Idrissa; Vernet, Charlotte; Bessin, François; Barbier, Dominique; Dewavrin, Patrick; Klotz, Francis; Georges, Pierre

    2016-09-07

    Schistosomiasis is the second most significant parasitic disease in children in several African countries. For this purpose, the "Programme National de Lutte contre les Bilharzioses" (PNLB) was developed in partnership with the World Health Organization (WHO) to control this disease in Senegal. However, geographic isolation of Bedik ethnic groups challenged implementation of the key elements of the schistosomiasis program in eastern Senegal, and therefore, a hospital was established in Ninefescha to improve access to health care as well as laboratory support for this population. The program we have implemented from 2008 in partnership with the PNLB/WHO involved campaigns to 1) evaluate schistosomiasis prevalence in children of 53 villages around Ninefescha hospital, 2) perform a mass drug administration following the protocol established by the PNLB in school-aged children, 3) monitor annual prevalence, 4) implement health education campaigns, and 5) oversee the building of latrines. This campaign led to a drop in schistosomiasis prevalence but highlighted that sustainable schistosomiasis control by praziquantel treatment, awareness of the use of latrines, and inhabitants' voluntary commitment to the program are crucial to improve Schistosoma elimination. Moreover, this study revealed that preschool-aged children, for whom praziquantel was not recommended until 2014 in Senegal, constituted a significant reservoir for the parasite.

  13. Detection of stanozolol O- and N-sulfate metabolites and their evaluation as additional markers in doping control.

    PubMed

    Balcells, Georgina; Matabosch, Xavier; Ventura, Rosa

    2016-10-07

    Stanozolol (STAN) is one of the most frequently detected anabolic androgenic steroids in sports drug testing. STAN misuse is commonly detected by monitoring metabolites excreted conjugated with glucuronic acid after enzymatic hydrolysis or using direct detection by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). It is well known that some of the previously described metabolites are the result of the formation of sulfate conjugates in C17, which are converted to their 17-epimers in urine. Therefore, sulfation is an important phase II metabolic pathway of STAN that has not been comprehensively studied. The aim of this work was to evaluate the sulfate fraction of STAN metabolism by LC-MS/MS to establish potential long-term metabolites valuable for doping control purposes. STAN was administered to six healthy male volunteers involving oral or intramuscular administration and urine samples were collected up to 31 days after administration. Sulfation of the phase I metabolites commercially available as standards was performed in order to obtain MS data useful to develop analytical strategies (neutral loss scan, precursor ion scan and selected reaction monitoring acquisitions modes) to detect potential sulfate metabolites. Eleven sulfate metabolites (M-I to M-XI) were detected and characterized by LC-MS/MS. This paper provides valuable data on the ionization and fragmentation of O-sulfates and N-sulfates. For STAN, results showed that sulfates do not improve the retrospectivity of the detection compared to the previously described long-term metabolite (epistanozolol-N-glucuronide). However, sulfate metabolites could be additional markers for the detection of STAN misuse.

  14. Control of Cr6+ emissions from gas metal arc welding using a silica precursor as a shielding gas additive.

    PubMed

    Topham, Nathan; Wang, Jun; Kalivoda, Mark; Huang, Joyce; Yu, Kuei-Min; Hsu, Yu-Mei; Wu, Chang-Yu; Oh, Sewon; Cho, Kuk; Paulson, Kathleen

    2012-03-01

    Hexavalent chromium (Cr(6+)) emitted from welding poses serious health risks to workers exposed to welding fumes. In this study, tetramethylsilane (TMS) was added to shielding gas to control hazardous air pollutants produced during stainless steel welding. The silica precursor acted as an oxidation inhibitor when it decomposed in the high-temperature welding arc, limiting Cr(6+) formation. Additionally, a film of amorphous SiO(2) was deposited on fume particles to insulate them from oxidation. Experiments were conducted following the American Welding Society (AWS) method for fume generation and sampling in an AWS fume hood. The results showed that total shielding gas flow rate impacted the effectiveness of the TMS process. Increasing shielding gas flow rate led to increased reductions in Cr(6+) concentration when TMS was used. When 4.2% of a 30-lpm shielding gas flow was used as TMS carrier gas, Cr(6+) concentration in gas metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes was reduced to below the 2006 Occupational Safety and Health Administration standard (5 μg m(-3)) and the efficiency was >90%. The process also increased fume particle size from a mode size of 20 nm under baseline conditions to 180-300 nm when TMS was added in all shielding gas flow rates tested. SiO(2) particles formed in the process scavenged nanosized fume particles through intercoagulation. Transmission electron microscopy imagery provided visual evidence of an amorphous film of SiO(2) on some fume particles along with the presence of amorphous SiO(2) agglomerates. These results demonstrate the ability of vapor phase silica precursors to increase welding fume particle size and minimize chromium oxidation, thereby preventing the formation of hexavalent chromium.

  15. Group Music Intervention Reduces Aggression and Improves Self-esteem in Children with Highly Aggressive Behavior: A Pilot Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Myeong Soo; Lee, Jung-Sook

    2010-01-01

    We investigated the effects of group music intervention on aggression and self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Forty-eight children were allocated to either a music intervention group or an untreated control group. The music intervention group received 50 min of music intervention twice weekly for 15 consecutive weeks. The outcome measures were Child Behavior Checklist Aggression Problems Scale (Parents), Child Aggression Assessment Inventory (Teachers) and Rosenberg Self-esteem Scale. After 15 weeks, the music intervention group showed significant reduction of aggression and improvement of self-esteem compared with the control group. All outcome measures were significantly lower in the music intervention group than prior to treatment, while there was no change in the control group. These findings suggest that music can reduce aggressive behavior and improve self-esteem in children with highly aggressive behavior. Music intervention is an easily accessible therapy for children and as such may be an effective intervention for aggressive behavior. Further more, objective and replicable measures are required from a randomized controlled trial with a larger sample size and active comparable control. PMID:18955314

  16. Differentiation of African Components of Ancestry to Stratify Groups in a Case–Control Study of a Brazilian Urban Population

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Mario H.; Luchessi, Andre D.; Genvigir, Fabiana D.V.; Cerda, Alvaro; Rodrigues, Alice C.; Willrich, Maria A.V.; Arazi, Simone S.; Dorea, Egidio L.; Bernik, Marcia M.S.; Faludi, Andre A.; Bertolami, Marcelo C.; Santos, Carla; Carracedo, Ángel; Salas, Antonio; Freire, Ana; Lareu, Maria Victoria; Phillips, Christopher; Porras-Hurtado, Liliana; Fondevila, Manuel; Hirata, Rosario D.C.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Balancing the subject composition of case and control groups to create homogenous ancestries between each group is essential for medical association studies. Methods: We explored the applicability of single-tube 34-plex ancestry informative markers (AIM) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) to estimate the African Component of Ancestry (ACA) to design a future case–control association study of a Brazilian urban sample. Results: One hundred eighty individuals (107 case group; 73 control group) self-described as white, brown-intermediate or black were selected. The proportions of the relative contribution of a variable number of ancestral population components were similar between case and control groups. Moreover, the case and control groups demonstrated similar distributions for ACA <0.25 and >0.50 categories. Notably a high number of outlier values (23 samples) were observed among individuals with ACA <0.25. These individuals presented a high probability of Native American and East Asian ancestral components; however, no individuals originally giving these self-described ancestries were observed in this study. Conclusions: The strategy proposed for the assessment of ancestry and adjustment of case and control groups for an association study is an important step for the proper construction of the study, particularly when subjects are taken from a complex urban population. This can be achieved using a straight forward multiplexed AIM-SNPs assay of highly discriminatory ancestry markers. PMID:22288895

  17. Replacing C6F5 groups with Cl and H atoms in frustrated Lewis pairs: H2 additions and catalytic hydrogenations.

    PubMed

    Chernichenko, K; Kótai, B; Nieger, M; Heikkinen, S; Pápai, I; Repo, T

    2017-02-14

    2-(Dialkylamino)phenylboranes containing the BXZ group, where X, Z = C6F5, Cl, and H, were prepared in a few synthetic steps and demonstrated the cleavage of H2 under mild conditions. Depending on the nature of the dialkylamino group, X, and Z, the stability of the produced zwitterionic H2 adducts varies from isolated solids indefinitely stable in an inert atmosphere to those quickly equilibrating with the initial aminoborane and H2. Using a combined experimental/computational approach on a series of isostructural aminoboranes (dialkylamino = 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperid-1-yl), it was demonstrated that the electronegativity and the steric effect of the substituents generally follow the trend C6F5 ∼ Cl ≫ H. This observation is useful for designing new FLPs for practical applications. As an example, we demonstrated the hydrogenation of alkynes to cis-alkenes under mild conditions that was catalyzed by a chloro-analogue of the C6F5-substituted aminoborane developed previously. The presence of a BHCl group in the aminochloroboranes or in their H2 adducts features facile redistribution of the H and Cl atoms and the formation of polychloro and polyhydrido species.

  18. Under-represented students' engagement in secondary science learning: A non-equivalent control group design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vann-Hamilton, Joy J.

    Problem. A significant segment of the U.S. population, under-represented students, is under-engaged or disengaged in secondary science education. International and national assessments and various research studies illuminate the problem and/or the disparity between students' aspirations in science and the means they have to achieve them. To improve engagement and address inequities among these students, more contemporary and/or inclusive pedagogy is recommended. More specifically, multicultural science education has been suggested as a potential strategy for increased equity so that all learners have access to and are readily engaged in quality science education. While multicultural science education emphasizes the integration of students' backgrounds and experiences with science learning , multimedia has been suggested as a way to integrate the fundamentals of multicultural education into learning for increased engagement. In addition, individual characteristics such as race, sex, academic track and grades were considered. Therefore, this study examined the impact of multicultural science education, multimedia, and individual characteristics on under-represented students' engagement in secondary science. Method. The Under-represented Students Engagement in Science Survey (USESS), an adaptation of the High School Survey of Student Engagement, was used with 76 high-school participants. The USESS was used to collect pretest and posttest data concerning their types and levels of student engagement. Levels of engagement were measured with Strongly Agree ranked as 5, down to Strongly Disagree ranked at 1. Participants provided this feedback prior to and after having interacted with either the multicultural or the non-multicultural version of the multimedia science curriculum. Descriptive statistics for the study's participants and the survey items, as well as Cronbach's alpha coefficient for internal consistency reliability with respect to the survey subscales, were

  19. The Daily Lives of People With HIV Infection: A Qualitative Study of the Control Group in an Expressive Writing Intervention.

    PubMed

    Metaweh, Maria; Ironson, Gail; Barroso, Julie

    2016-01-01

    Emotional disclosure is an expressive writing technique used in psychotherapy to process traumatic and stressful life experiences. While emotional disclosure interventions frequently use control groups, there are few qualitative analyses of these control groups. Our study's purpose was to analyze the control essays written by HIV-infected informants about their daily activities in an augmented written emotional disclosure intervention. Latent and manifest qualitative content analyses revealed prevalent contextual themes within the data. The emergent themes were socioeconomic status (SES), self-care, religiosity/spirituality, and social support. Emotional disclosure control subjects contributed substantial findings in terms of SES, self-care, resiliency, religiosity/spirituality, and social support and altruism.

  20. Role of quantity of additional food to predators as a control in predator-prey systems with relevance to pest management and biological conservation.

    PubMed

    Srinivasu, P D N; Prasad, B S R V

    2011-10-01

    Necessity to understand the role of additional food as a tool in biological control programs is being increasingly felt, particularly due to its eco-friendly nature. A thorough mathematical analysis in this direction revealed the vital role of quality and quantity of the additional food in the controllability of the predator-prey systems. In this article controllability of the additional food--provided predator-prey system is studied from perspectives of pest eradication and biological conservation. Time optimal paths have been constructed to drive the state of the system to a desired terminal state by choosing quantity of the additional food as control variable. The theory developed in this article has been illustrated by solving problems related to pest eradication and biological conservation.

  1. 77 FR 29307 - Control of Alcohol and Drug Use: Addition of Post-Accident Toxicological Testing for Non...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-17

    ... routinely tests only for alcohol and controlled substances. At this time, FRA intends to add two types of..., FRA intends to add testing for two types of non-controlled substances (tramadol (a synthetic opioid... anithistamines are usually taken as OTC drugs. Adding testing for these types of non-controlled substances to...

  2. 75 FR 37742 - Addition of New Export Control Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... Classification Number 6A981 Passive Infrasound Sensors to the Commerce Control List of the Export Administration... Control List (CCL) to control passive infrasound sensors because of their military and commercial utility... CONTACT: James Thompson, Sensors and Aviation Division, Bureau of Industry and Security, Telephone:...

  3. The Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G): A new research tool for controlled simultaneous social stress exposure in a group format.

    PubMed

    von Dawans, Bernadette; Kirschbaum, Clemens; Heinrichs, Markus

    2011-05-01

    Psychological stress is an ubiquitous challenge across human cultures affecting mental and physical health. Recent evidence indicates that performance tasks combining elements of socio-evaluative threat and uncontrollability elicit reliable stress responses. The Trier Social Stress Test (TSST) is the most frequently used psychological protocol in stress research; however, to date it has only been available in a single-subject version. In particular, there is an increasing need in several emerging research fields such as stress research or social neurosciences for a standardized research tool to expose relatively large groups of subjects to controlled simultaneous stress. In search of a laboratory stressor that allows simultaneous stress exposure in a group format, we exposed a total of 25 healthy male participants to the Trier Social Stress Test for Groups (TSST-G; public speaking and mental arithmetic tasks in front of a panel of two evaluators in groups of six participants) and a specific control condition. Results showed that the TSST-G induced significant increases in cortisol, heart rate, and psychological stress responses. The TSST-G provides a novel, effective, and economical protocol for experimental paradigms requiring simultaneous stress induction in multiple participants.

  4. Evaluation of strategies for the control of canola and lupin seedling diseases caused by Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia diseases of canola and lupin including several methods with potential for the management of Rhizoctonia plant resistance, fungicide seed treatment and biological control using binucleate Rhizoctonia anastomosis groups (AGs) were evalua...

  5. Effect of a workplace design and training intervention on individual performance, group effectiveness and collaboration: the role of environmental control.

    PubMed

    Robertson, Michelle M; Huang, Yueng-Hsiang

    2006-01-01

    The effects of a workplace design and training intervention and the relationships between perceived satisfaction of office workplace design factors (layout and storage) and work performance measures (individual performance, group collaboration and effectiveness) were studied with 120 office workers using the Workplace Environment Questionnaire. Further, we examined whether environmental control had a direct effect on work performance, and then explored whether environmental control mediated or moderated the relationship between workplace design factors and work performance. Results showed a significant, positive impact of the intervention on environmental satisfaction for workstation layout. Satisfaction with workstation layout had a significant relationship with individual performance, group collaboration and effectiveness; and satisfaction with workstation storage had a significant relationship with individual performance and group collaboration. Environmental control had a direct impact on individual performance and group collaboration; whereas, the mediating and moderating effects of environmental control on the relationship between workplace design factors and outcome variables were not significant.

  6. Outcomes of Total Parathyroidectomy with Autotransplantation versus Subtotal Parathyroidectomy with Routine Addition of Thymectomy to both Groups: Single Center Experience of Secondary Hyperparathyroidism

    PubMed Central

    Sakman, Gürhan; Parsak, Cem Kaan; Balal, Mustafa; Seydaoglu, Gülşah; Eray, İsmail Cem; Sarıtaş, Gökhan; Demircan, Orhan

    2014-01-01

    Background: Secondary hyperparathyroidism is a common acquired disorder seen in chronic renal failure. It may result in potentially serious complications including metabolic bone diseases, severe atherosclerosis and undesirable cardiovascular events. Parathyroidectomy is required in about 20% of patients after 3–10 years of dialysis and in up to 40% after 20 years. Aims: The aim of the current study was to evaluate the short-term and long-term outcomes of patients with secondary hyperparathyroidism who had undergone total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation and thymectomy or subtotal parathyroidectomy with thymectomy by the same surgical team during the study period. Study Design: Retrospective comparative study. Methods: Clinical data of 50 patients who underwent parathyroid surgery for secondary hyperparathyroidism between 2003 and 2011 were reviewed retrospectively. Patients were divided into two subgroups of total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation or subtotal parathyroidectomy. Thymectomy was routinely performed for both groups. Short term outcome parameters included intact parathyroid hormone, ionized calcium and alkaline phosphatase levels. Bone pain, bone fractures, persistent or recurrent disease were included in long term outcome parameters. Results: The mean duration of dialysis was eight years. The mean ionized calcium levels dropped significantly in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (p=0.016). No serious postoperative complications were observed. Postoperative intravenous calcium supplementation was required in four patients in the total parathyroidectomy with autotransplantation group (total PTX+AT) and in three patients in the subtotal parathyroidectomy group (subtotal PTX). Postoperatively, all patients received oral calcium carbonate and calcitriol. The length of average hospital stay was 5 (3–10) days. Including nine patients who underwent successful renal transplantation pre-operative bone symptoms

  7. The effect of adding group-based counselling to individual lifestyle counselling on changes in dietary intake. The Inter99 study – a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Toft, Ulla; Kristoffersen, Lis; Ladelund, Steen; Ovesen, Lars; Lau, Cathrine; Pisinger, Charlotta; Smith, Lisa von Huth; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Jørgensen, Torben

    2008-01-01

    Background Few studies have investigated the specific effect of single intervention components in randomized controlled trials. The purpose was to investigate the effect of adding group-based diet and exercise counselling to individual life-style counselling on long-term changes in dietary habits. Methods The study was a randomized controlled intervention study. From a general Danish population, aged 30 to 60 years (n = 61,301), two random sample were drawn (group A, n = 11,708; group B, n = 1,308). Subjects were invited for a health screening program. Participation rate was 52.5%. All participants received individual life-style counselling. Individuals at high risk of ischemic heart disease in group A were furthermore offered group-based life-style counselling. The intervention was repeated for high-risk individuals after one and three years. At five-year follow-up all participants were invited for a health examination. High risk individuals were included in this study (n = 2 356) and changes in dietary intake were analyzed using multilevel linear regression analyses. Results At one-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio compared to group B and in men a significantly greater decrease in saturated fat intake was found in group A compared to group B (net change: -1.13 E%; P = 0.003). No differences were found between group A and B at three-year follow-up. At five-year follow-up group A had significantly increased the unsaturated/saturated fat ratio (net change: 0.09; P = 0.01) and the fish intake compared to group B (net change: 5.4 g/day; P = 0.05). Further, in men a non-significant tendency of a greater decrease was found at five year follow-up in group A compared to group B (net change: -0.68 E%; P = 0.10). The intake of fibre and vegetables increased in both groups, however, no significant difference was found between the groups. No differences between groups were found for saturated fat intake in women. Conclusion

  8. A power comparison of generalized additive models and the spatial scan statistic in a case-control setting

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background A common, important problem in spatial epidemiology is measuring and identifying variation in disease risk across a study region. In application of statistical methods, the problem has two parts. First, spatial variation in risk must be detected across the study region and, second, areas of increased or decreased risk must be correctly identified. The location of such areas may give clues to environmental sources of exposure and disease etiology. One statistical method applicable in spatial epidemiologic settings is a generalized additive model (GAM) which can be applied with a bivariate LOESS smoother to account for geographic location as a possible predictor of disease status. A natural hypothesis when applying this method is whether residential location of subjects is associated with the outcome, i.e. is the smoothing term necessary? Permutation tests are a reasonable hypothesis testing method and provide adequate power under a simple alternative hypothesis. These tests have yet to be compared to other spatial statistics. Results This research uses simulated point data generated under three alternative hypotheses to evaluate the properties of the permutation methods and compare them to the popular spatial scan statistic in a case-control setting. Case 1 was a single circular cluster centered in a circular study region. The spatial scan statistic had the highest power though the GAM method estimates did not fall far behind. Case 2 was a single point source located at the center of a circular cluster and Case 3 was a line source at the center of the horizontal axis of a square study region. Each had linearly decreasing logodds with distance from the point. The GAM methods outperformed the scan statistic in Cases 2 and 3. Comparing sensitivity, measured as the proportion of the exposure source correctly identified as high or low risk, the GAM methods outperformed the scan statistic in all three Cases. Conclusions The GAM permutation testing methods

  9. Single-Amino Acid Modifications Reveal Additional Controls on the Proton Pathway of [FeFe]-Hydrogenase

    SciTech Connect

    Cornish, Adam J.; Ginovska, Bojana; Thelen, Adam; da Silva, Julio C. S.; Soares, Thereza A.; Raugei, Simone; Dupuis, Michel; Shaw, Wendy J.; Hegg, Eric L.

    2016-06-07

    The proton pathway of [FeFe]-hydrogenase is essential for enzymatic H2 production and oxidation and is composed of four residues and a modeled water molecule. Recently, a computational analysis of this pathway revealed that the solvent-exposed residue of the pathway (Glu282) could form hydrogen bonds to two residues outside of the pathway (Arg286 and Ser320), implicating that these residues could function in regulating proton transfer. Substituting Arg286 with leucine eliminates hydrogen bonding with Glu282 and results in a 2.5-fold enhancement in H2 production activity, suggesting that Arg286 serves an important role in controlling the rate of proton delivery. In contrast, substitution of Ser320 with alanine reduces the rate approximately 5-fold, implying that it either acts as a member of the pathway or influences Glu282 to enable proton transfer. Interestingly, QM/MM and molecular dynamics calculations indicate that Ser320 does not play an electronic or structural role. QM calculations also estimate that including Ser320 in the pathway does not significantly change the barrier to proton movement, providing further support for its role as a member of the proton pathway. While further studies are needed to quantify the role of Ser320, collectively, these data provide evidence that the enzyme scaffold plays a significant role in modulating the activity of the enzyme, demonstrating that the rate of intraprotein proton transfer can be accelerated, particularly in a non-biological context. This work was supported by the DOE Great Lakes Bioenergy Research Center (DOE BER Office of Science, DE-FC02-07ER64494). In addition, support from the DOE Office of Science Early Career Research Program through the Office of Basic Energy Sciences (WJS, BGP, SR) is gratefully acknowledged. Computational resources were provided at W. R. Wiley Environmental Molecular Science Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy’s Office of

  10. The addition of sirolimus to tacrolimus/methotrexate GVHD prophylaxis in children with ALL: a phase 3 Children's Oncology Group/Pediatric Blood and Marrow Transplant Consortium trial.

    PubMed

    Pulsipher, Michael A; Langholz, Bryan; Wall, Donna A; Schultz, Kirk R; Bunin, Nancy; Carroll, William L; Raetz, Elizabeth; Gardner, Sharon; Gastier-Foster, Julie M; Howrie, Denise; Goyal, Rakesh K; Douglas, James G; Borowitz, Michael; Barnes, Yvonne; Teachey, David T; Taylor, Candace; Grupp, Stephan A

    2014-03-27

    Sirolimus has activity against acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) in xenograft models and efficacy in preventing acute graft-versus-host disease (aGVHD). We tested whether addition of sirolimus to GVHD prophylaxis of children with ALL would decrease aGVHD and relapse. Patients were randomized to tacrolimus/methotrexate (standard) or tacrolimus/methotrexate/sirolimus (experimental). The study met futility rules for survival after enrolling 146 of 259 patients. Rate of Grade 2-4 aGVHD was 31% vs 18% (standard vs experimental, P = .04), however, grade 3-4 aGVHD was not different (13% vs 10%, P = .28). Rates of veno-occlusive disease (VOD) and thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) were lower in the nonsirolimus arm (9% vs 21% VOD, P = .05; 1% vs 10% TMA, P = .06). At 2 years, event free survival (EFS) and overall survival (OS) were 56% vs 46%, and 65% vs 55% (standard vs experimental), respectively (P = .28 and .23). Multivariate analysis showed increased relapse risk in children with ≥0.1% minimal residual disease (MRD) pretransplant, and decreased risk in patients with grades 1-3 aGVHD (P = .04). Grades 1-3 aGVHD were associated with improved EFS (P = .02), whereas grade 4 aGVHD and extramedullary disease at diagnosis led to inferior OS. Although addition of sirolimus decreased aGVHD, survival was not improved. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov as #NCT00382109.

  11. Comparison of the frequency of psychiatric disorders among patients with chronic low back pain and control group

    PubMed Central

    Farajirad, Elnaz; Tohidi, Hadi; Farajirad, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    Background: Low back pain (LBP) is one of the most common complaints of patients referred to the clinics. Studies indicated that psychosocial factors have great impact on the patients’ complaints and disability. The aim of this study was to evaluate a broad range of psychiatric disorders in patients with chronic LBP (CLBP) and compare them with those of the control group. Patients and Methods: We applied Symptom Checklist 90-R to compare 50 CLBP patients in the case group with 100 participants without it in the control group. The questionnaire measured somatization, obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, anxiety, phobic anxiety, hostility, interpersonal sensitivity, paranoid ideation, and psychoticism. Results: Average “global severity index” was 1.10 in the case and 0.5 in the control group. Average “positive symptom total” was 45.26 in the case and 27.41 in the control group. Average “positive symptom distress index” was 2.50 in the case and 1.50 in the control group. Average scores for all test dimensions were significantly different between the two groups (P = 0.00). Conclusions: All dimensions were significantly more common in CLBP patients. Therefore, early diagnosis and treatment of these disorders may improve the outcome of CLBP. PMID:27366258

  12. Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy as Treatments for Academic Procrastination: A Randomized Controlled Group Session

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Shuo; Zhou, Ya; Yu, Shi; Ran, Li-Wen; Liu, Xiang-Ping; Chen, Yu-Fei

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study tested the efficacy of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy (ACT), compared with Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy (CBT), in alleviating academic procrastination. Method: A total of 60 (53.3% male) undergraduates suffering from academic procrastination were randomly assigned to two treatment groups (ACT and CBT) and a control group.…

  13. A Controlled Comparison of Cognitive Therapy and Self-Help Support Groups in the Treatment of Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Payne, Annette; Blanchard, Edward B.

    1995-01-01

    Patients with irritable bowel syndrome (n=34) were randomly assigned to 1 of 3 treatment conditions for 8 weeks: individualized cognitive treatment, support group, or control. Results indicated significantly greater reductions in gastrointestinal symptoms and amelioration of depression and anxiety for the cognitive therapy group, and these results…

  14. Effectiveness of group body psychotherapy for negative symptoms of schizophrenia: multicentre randomised controlled trial†

    PubMed Central

    Priebe, S.; Savill, M.; Wykes, T.; Bentall, R. P.; Reininghaus, U.; Lauber, C.; Bremner, S.; Eldridge, S.; Röhricht, F.

    2016-01-01

    Background Negative symptoms of schizophrenia have a severe impact on functional outcomes and treatment options are limited. Arts therapies are currently recommended but more evidence is required. Aims To assess body psychotherapy as a treatment for negative symptoms compared with an active control (trial registration: ISRCTN84216587). Method Schizophrenia out-patients were randomised into a 20-session body psychotherapy or Pilates group. The primary outcome was negative symptoms at end of treatment. Secondary outcomes included psychopathology, functional, social and treatment satisfaction outcomes at treatment end and 6-months later. Results In total, 275 participants were randomised. The adjusted difference in negative symptoms was 0.03 (95% CI −1.11 to 1.17), indicating no benefit from body psychotherapy. Small improvements in expressive deficits and movement disorder symptoms were detected in favour of body psychotherapy. No other outcomes were significantly different. Conclusions Body psychotherapy does not have a clinically relevant beneficial effect in the treatment of patients with negative symptoms of schizophrenia. PMID:27151073

  15. Ongoing quality control in digital radiography: Report of AAPM Imaging Physics Committee Task Group 151

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, A. Kyle Geiser, William; Heintz, Philip; Goldman, Lee; Jerjian, Khachig; Martin, Melissa; Peck, Donald; Pfeiffer, Douglas; Ranger, Nicole; Yorkston, John

    2015-11-15

    Quality control (QC) in medical imaging is an ongoing process and not just a series of infrequent evaluations of medical imaging equipment. The QC process involves designing and implementing a QC program, collecting and analyzing data, investigating results that are outside the acceptance levels for the QC program, and taking corrective action to bring these results back to an acceptable level. The QC process involves key personnel in the imaging department, including the radiologist, radiologic technologist, and the qualified medical physicist (QMP). The QMP performs detailed equipment evaluations and helps with oversight of the QC program, the radiologic technologist is responsible for the day-to-day operation of the QC program. The continued need for ongoing QC in digital radiography has been highlighted in the scientific literature. The charge of this task group was to recommend consistency tests designed to be performed by a medical physicist or a radiologic technologist under the direction of a medical physicist to identify problems with an imaging system that need further evaluation by a medical physicist, including a fault tree to define actions that need to be taken when certain fault conditions are identified. The focus of this final report is the ongoing QC process, including rejected image analysis, exposure analysis, and artifact identification. These QC tasks are vital for the optimal operation of a department performing digital radiography.

  16. Analysis of the corneal reflex with air puff: normal controls and patient groups.

    PubMed

    Varolgüneŝ, N; Celebisoy, N; Akyürekli, O; Pehlivan, M; Akyürekli, O

    1999-09-01

    Though there are several reports published about the corneal reflex elicited by different methods, a standardized electrophysiologic study with air puff in man has not been published. The aim of this study is to standardize the corneal reflex elicited by air puff to cornea. The authors studied the corneal reflex with air puff and direct touch by using a standardized method in patients with thalamic hemorrhage (n = 15), hemispheric infarction (n = 9), brainstem infarction (n = 9), multiple sclerosis (n = 12), and Bell's palsy (n = 12) and in normal control subjects (n = 21). The conventional blink reflex (BR) was also studied. The reflex responses were recorded from both orbicularis oculi muscles by air puff and direct touch to cornea in addition to the electrical stimulation of the supraorbital nerve. No statistical difference could be detected between the responses elicited by air puff or direct touch to cornea (P > 0.05). Corneal reflex responses were statistically different from the R2 response of the BR (P < 0.005). Because the responses elicited by direct touch and air puff to cornea are identical, air puff to cornea can be used confidently to study the corneal reflex.

  17. Impulsivity-focused group intervention to reduce binge eating episodes in patients with binge eating disorder: study protocol of the randomised controlled IMPULS trial

    PubMed Central

    Schag, Kathrin; Leehr, Elisabeth J; Martus, Peter; Bethge, Wolfgang; Becker, Sandra; Zipfel, Stephan; Giel, Katrin E

    2015-01-01

    Introduction The core symptom of binge eating disorder (BED) is recurrent binge eating that is accompanied by a sense of loss of control. BED is frequently associated with obesity, one of the main public health challenges today. Experimental studies deliver evidence that general trait impulsivity and disorder-specific food-related impulsivity constitute risk factors for BED. Cognitive-behavioural treatment (CBT) is deemed to be the most effective intervention concerning BED. We developed a group intervention based on CBT and especially focusing on impulsivity. We hypothesise that such an impulsivity-focused group intervention is able to increase control over impulsive eating behaviour, that is, reduce binge eating episodes, further eating pathology and impulsivity. Body weight might also be influenced in the long term. Methods and analysis The present randomised controlled trial investigates the feasibility, acceptance and efficacy of this impulsivity-focused group intervention in patients with BED. We compare 39 patients with BED in the experimental group to 39 patients with BED in the control group at three appointments: before and after the group intervention and in a 3-month follow-up. Patients with BED in the experimental group receive 8 weekly sessions of the impulsivity-focused group intervention with 5-6 patients per group. Patients with BED in the control group receive no group intervention. The primary outcome is the binge eating frequency over the past 4 weeks. Secondary outcomes comprise further eating pathology, general impulsivity and food-related impulsivity assessed by eye tracking methodology, and body weight. Additionally, we assess binge eating and other impulsive behaviour weekly in process analyses during the time period of the group intervention. Ethics and dissemination This study has been approved by the ethics committee of the medical faculty of Eberhard Karls University Tübingen and the University Hospital Tübingen. Data are monitored

  18. 75 FR 3901 - Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-25

    ... Department of the Air Force Announcement of IS-GPS-200E Interface Control Working Group (ICWG) Teleconference... notice informs the public that the Global Positioning Systems Wing will be hosting an Interface Control.../Navigation User Interfaces). The meeting will address comments received on L2 Phase Relationships after...

  19. Japanese Wolves are Genetically Divided into Two Groups Based on an 8-Nucleotide Insertion/Deletion within the mtDNA Control Region.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Naotaka; Inoshima, Yasuo; Yanai, Tokuma; Sasaki, Motoki; Matsui, Akira; Kikuchi, Hiroki; Maruyama, Masashi; Hongo, Hitomi; Vostretsov, Yuri E; Gasilin, Viatcheslav; Kosintsev, Pavel A; Quanjia, Chen; Chunxue, Wang

    2016-02-01

    The mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) control region (198- to 598-bp) of four ancient Canis specimens (two Canis mandibles, a cranium, and a first phalanx) was examined, and each specimen was genetically identified as Japanese wolf. Two unique nucleotide substitutions, the 78-C insertion and the 482-G deletion, both of which are specific for Japanese wolf, were observed in each sample. Based on the mtDNA sequences analyzed, these four specimens and 10 additional Japanese wolf samples could be classified into two groups- Group A (10 samples) and Group B (4 samples)-which contain or lack an 8-bp insertion/deletion (indel), respectively. Interestingly, three dogs (Akita-b, Kishu 25, and S-husky 102) that each contained Japanese wolf-specific features were also classified into Group A or B based on the 8-bp indel. To determine the origin or ancestor of the Japanese wolf, mtDNA control regions of ancient continental Canis specimens were examined; 84 specimens were from Russia, and 29 were from China. However, none of these 113 specimens contained Japanese wolf-specific sequences. Moreover, none of 426 Japanese modern hunting dogs examined contained these Japanese wolf-specific mtDNA sequences. The mtDNA control region sequences of Groups A and B appeared to be unique to grey wolf and dog populations.

  20. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  1. 40 CFR 60.5412 - What additional requirements must I meet for determining initial compliance with control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... as the control device, then you must introduce the vent stream into the flame zone of the boiler or... spent carbon in a thermal treatment unit for which you have been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part... spent carbon in a thermal treatment unit equipped with and operating air emission controls in...

  2. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  3. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  4. The effectiveness of the McKenzie method in addition to first-line care for acute low back pain: a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Low back pain is a highly prevalent and disabling condition worldwide. Clinical guidelines for the management of patients with acute low back pain recommend first-line treatment consisting of advice, reassurance and simple analgesics. Exercise is also commonly prescribed to these patients. The primary aim of this study was to evaluate the short-term effect of adding the McKenzie method to the first-line care of patients with acute low back pain. Methods A multi-centre randomized controlled trial with a 3-month follow-up was conducted between September 2005 and June 2008. Patients seeking care for acute non-specific low back pain from primary care medical practices were screened. Eligible participants were assigned to receive a treatment programme based on the McKenzie method and first-line care (advice, reassurance and time-contingent acetaminophen) or first-line care alone, for 3 weeks. Primary outcome measures included pain (0-10 Numeric Rating Scale) over the first seven days, pain at 1 week, pain at 3 weeks and global perceived effect (-5 to 5 scale) at 3 weeks. Treatment effects were estimated using linear mixed models. Results One hundred and forty-eight participants were randomized into study groups, of whom 138 (93%) completed the last follow-up. The addition of the McKenzie method to first-line care produced statistically significant but small reductions in pain when compared to first-line care alone: mean of -0.4 points (95% confidence interval, -0.8 to -0.1) at 1 week, -0.7 points (95% confidence interval, -1.2 to -0.1) at 3 weeks, and -0.3 points (95% confidence interval, -0.5 to -0.0) over the first 7 days. Patients receiving the McKenzie method did not show additional effects on global perceived effect, disability, function or on the risk of persistent symptoms. These patients sought less additional health care than those receiving only first-line care (P = 0.002). Conclusions When added to the currently recommended first-line care of acute

  5. Effects of silver and group 2 fluorides addition to plasma sprayed chromium carbide high temperature solid lubricant for foil gas bearing to 650 deg C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, R. C.; Sliney, H. E.

    1984-01-01

    A new self-lubricating coating composition of nickel aluminide-bonded chromium carbide formulated with silver and Group II fluorides was developed in a research program on high temperature solid lubricants. One of the proposed applications for this new coating composition is as a wide temperature spectrum solid lubricant for complaint foil gas bearings. Friction and wear properties were obtained using a foil gas bearing start/stop apparatus at temperatures from 25 to 650 C. The journals were Inconel 718. Some were coated with the plasma sprayed experimental coating, others with unmodified nickel aluminide/chromium carbide as a baseline for comparison. The addtitional components were provided to assist in achieving low friction over the temperature range of interest. Uncoated, preoxidized Inconel X-750 foil bearings were operated against these surfaces. The foils were subjected to repeated start/stop cycles under a 14-kPa (2-psi) bearing unit loading. Sliding contact occurred during lift-off and coastdown at surface velocities less than 6 m/s (3000 rpm). Testing continued until 9000 start/stop cycles were accumulated or until a rise in starting torque indicated the journal/bearing had failed. Comparison in coating performance as well as discussions of their properties and methods of application are given.

  6. Association between group A beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women: a case-control study.

    PubMed

    Bruins, M J; Damoiseaux, R A M J; Ruijs, G J H M

    2009-08-01

    Guidelines for the management of vaginal discharge mention Candida albicans, Trichomonas vaginalis, bacterial vaginosis, Chlamydia trachomatis and Neisseria gonorrhoeae as causes and do not recommend full microbiological culture. The role of non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci in vaginal cultures is unclear, except for group A streptococci that are known to cause vulvovaginitis in children. In a case-control study, we investigated the association between non-group B beta-haemolytic streptococci and vulvovaginitis in adult women. Cases were women with recurrent vaginal discharge from whom a sample was cultured. Controls were asymptomatic women who consented to submitting a vaginal swab. Group A streptococci were isolated from 49 (4.9%) of 1,010 cases and not from the 206 controls (P < 0.01). Isolation rates of group C, F and G streptococci were low and did not differ statistically between cases and controls. Group A beta-haemolytic streptococci are associated with vaginal discharge in adult women. The other non-group B streptococci require more study. For the adequate management of vaginal discharge, culturing is necessary if initial treatment fails. Guidelines should be amended according to these results.

  7. [Introduction of additional thiol groups into glucoamylase in Aspergillus awamori and their effect on the thermal stability and catalytic activity of the enzyme].

    PubMed

    Surzhik, M A; Shmidt, A E; Glazunov, E A; Firsov, D L; Petukhov, M G

    2014-01-01

    Five mutant forms of glucoamylase (GA) from the filamentous fungus Aspergillus awamori with artificial disulfide bonds (4D-G137A\\A14C, 6D-A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, 10D-V13C\\G396C, 11D-V13C\\G396C\\A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, and 20D-G137A\\A246C\\A14C) were constructed using computer simulation and experimentally tested for thermostability. The introduction of two additional disulfide bonds between its first and thirteenth alpha-helices and that of the loop located close to a catalytic residue--E400--made it possible to assess the effects of disulfide bridges on protein thermostability. The mutant proteins with combined amino acid substitutions G137A\\A14C, V13C\\G396C\\A14C\\Y419C\\G137A, and G137A\\A246C\\A14C showed higher thermal stability as compared to the wild-type protein. At the same time, new disulfide bridges in the mutant A14C\\Y419C\\G137A and V13C\\G396C proteins led to the destabilization of their structure and the loss of thermal stability.

  8. Identity development as a buffer of adolescent risk behaviors in the context of peer group pressure and control.

    PubMed

    Dumas, Tara M; Ellis, Wendy E; Wolfe, David A

    2012-08-01

    We examined identity development as a moderator of the relation between peer group pressure and control and adolescents' engagement in risk behaviors. Participants (n=1070; M(age)=15.45 years) completed a self-report measure of identity exploration, the degree to which they have explored a variety of self-relevant values, beliefs and goals, and identity commitment, the degree to which they have secured a personal identity. Participants further reported on their frequency of risk behaviors (substance use and general deviancy) and experienced peer group pressure and control. Results confirmed that identity commitment was a buffer of substance use and identity exploration was a buffer of general deviancy in more pressuring peer groups. In more controlling peer groups, teens with greater identity commitment engaged in less risk behavior than teens with low-identity commitment. Thus, identity development may be a suitable target to deter negative effects of peer pressure in high-risk adolescents.

  9. Community-based group exercise for persons with Parkinson disease: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Combs, Stephanie A; Diehl, M Dyer; Chrzastowski, Casey; Didrick, Nora; McCoin, Brittany; Mox, Nicholas; Staples, William H; Wayman, Jessica

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare group boxing training to traditional group exercise on function and quality of life in persons with Parkinson disease (PD). A convenience sample of adults with PD (n = 31) were randomly assigned to boxing training or traditional exercise for 24-36 sessions, each lasting 90 minutes, over 12 weeks. Boxing training included: stretching, boxing (e.g. lateral foot work, punching bags), resistance exercises, and aerobic training. Traditional exercise included: stretching, resistance exercises, aerobic training, and balance activities. Participants were tested before and after completion of training on balance, balance confidence, mobility, gait velocity, gait endurance, and quality of life. The traditional exercise group demonstrated significantly greater gains in balance confidence than the boxing group (p < 0.025). Only the boxing group demonstrated significant improvements in gait velocity and endurance over time with a medium between-group effect size for the gait endurance (d = 0.65). Both groups demonstrated significant improvements with the balance, mobility, and quality of life with large within-group effect sizes (d ≥ 0.80). While groups significantly differed in balance confidence after training, both groups demonstrated improvements in most outcome measures. Supporting options for long-term community-based group exercise for persons with PD will be an important future consideration for rehabilitation professionals.

  10. Additive-controlled stereoselective glycosylations of 2,3-oxazolidinone protected glucosamine or galactosamine thioglycoside donors with phenols based on preactivation protocol.

    PubMed

    Qin, Qi; Xiong, De-Cai; Ye, Xin-Shan

    2015-02-11

    Stereo-controllable glycosylation reactions of 2,3-oxazolidinone protected glucosamine thioglycoside donor with different phenol acceptors based on preactivation protocol, are described. It was found that BF3·Et2O worked as α-directing additive, while TTBP acted as β-directing additive. Simply by altering additives, either α-aryl glycosides or β-aryl glycosides were achieved in a stereoselective manner. The additives were also applied to the stereoselective glycosylation reactions of 2,3-oxazolidinone protected galactosamine donor with phenol substrates.

  11. Additional cytogenetic abnormalities in adults with Philadelphia chromosome-positive acute lymphoblastic leukaemia: a study of the Cancer and Leukaemia Group B.

    PubMed

    Wetzler, Meir; Dodge, Richard K; Mrózek, Krzysztof; Stewart, Carleton C; Carroll, Andrew J; Tantravahi, Ramana; Vardiman, James W; Larson, Richard A; Bloomfield, Clara D

    2004-02-01

    We analysed the nature and prognostic significance of secondary cytogenetic changes in 111 newly diagnosed adults with acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (ALL) and t(9;22)(q34;q11.2) or its variants. Secondary aberrations were seen in 75 (68%) patients. They included, in order of descending frequency: +der(22)t(9;22), +21, abnormalities of 9p, high hyperdiploidy (>50 chromosomes), +8, -7, +X and abnormalities resulting in loss of material from 8p, gain of 8q, gain of 1q and loss of 7p. Eighty patients (72%) had > or =1 normal metaphase in their karyotype. There were four balanced and 12 unbalanced translocations previously unreported in ALL with t(9;22). The t(2;7)(p11;p13) and der(18)t(8;18)(q11.2;p11.2) were seen in two cases each, and have never before been reported in haematological malignancy. All but four patients were treated on front-line Cancer and Leukaemia Group B clinical protocols. The presence of -7 as a sole secondary abnormality was associated with a lower complete remission (CR) rate (P = 0.004), while the presence of > or =3 aberrations was associated with a higher CR rate (P = 0.009) and +der(22)t(9;22) with a higher cumulative incidence of relapse (P = 0.02). It will be of interest to see if newly diagnosed t(9;22)-positive adult ALL patients with these and other secondary aberrations respond differently to treatment regimens that include imatinib mesylate.

  12. Escalation of daunorubicin and addition of etoposide in the ADE regimen in acute myeloid leukemia patients aged 60 years and older: Cancer and Leukemia Group B Study 9720.

    PubMed

    Baer, M R; George, S L; Sanford, B L; Mrózek, K; Kolitz, J E; Moore, J O; Stone, R M; Powell, B L; Caligiuri, M A; Bloomfield, C D; Larson, R A

    2011-05-01

    Untreated de novo (n=421) and secondary (n=189) acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients ≥60 years received intensified chemotherapy, including daunorubicin 60 mg/m(2) and etoposide 100 mg/m(2) during days 1, 2, 3 with cytarabine 100 mg/m(2) during days 1-7, with a second induction if needed and one consolidation course with these drugs and doses for 2, 2 and 5 days, respectively. In all, 287 (47%) achieved complete remission (CR), 136 (22%) died and 187 (31%) were non-responders. CR rates were 27, 44 and 52% for complex karyotypes, rare aberrations and neither (P<0.001), 52 and 37% for de novo and secondary AML (P=0.003), and 53 and 42% for age 60-69 and ≥70 years (P=0.015). In multivariable analysis, CR predictors included non-complex/non-rare karyotypes (P<0.001), de novo AML (P<0.001), better performance status (PS) (P<0.001) and younger age (P=0.001). Disease-free (DFS) and overall (OS) survival medians were 6.8 (95% CI: 6.2, 7.8) and 7.2 (95% CI: 6.4, 8.6) months. In multivariable analysis, DFS was shorter for complex karyotypes (P<0.001) and increasing white blood count (WBC) (P<0.001) and age (P=0.038), and OS for complex karyotypes (P<0.001), increasing WBC (P=0.001) and age (P<0.001), poorer PS (P<0.001) and secondary AML (P=0.010). Outcomes and prognostic factors were similar to those in previous Cancer and Leukemia Group B studies.

  13. Two Group A Streptococcal Peptide Pheromones Act through Opposing Rgg Regulators to Control Biofilm Development

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Jennifer C.; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C.; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J.

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  14. Two group A streptococcal peptide pheromones act through opposing Rgg regulators to control biofilm development.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jennifer C; LaSarre, Breah; Jimenez, Juan C; Aggarwal, Chaitanya; Federle, Michael J

    2011-08-01

    Streptococcus pyogenes (Group A Streptococcus, GAS) is an important human commensal that occasionally causes localized infections and less frequently causes severe invasive disease with high mortality rates. How GAS regulates expression of factors used to colonize the host and avoid immune responses remains poorly understood. Intercellular communication is an important means by which bacteria coordinate gene expression to defend against host assaults and competing bacteria, yet no conserved cell-to-cell signaling system has been elucidated in GAS. Encoded within the GAS genome are four rgg-like genes, two of which (rgg2 and rgg3) have no previously described function. We tested the hypothesis that rgg2 or rgg3 rely on extracellular peptides to control target-gene regulation. We found that Rgg2 and Rgg3 together tightly regulate two linked genes encoding new peptide pheromones. Rgg2 activates transcription of and is required for full induction of the pheromone genes, while Rgg3 plays an antagonistic role and represses pheromone expression. The active pheromone signals, termed SHP2 and SHP3, are short and hydrophobic (DI[I/L]IIVGG), and, though highly similar in sequence, their ability to disrupt Rgg3-DNA complexes were observed to be different, indicating that specificity and differential activation of promoters are characteristics of the Rgg2/3 regulatory circuit. SHP-pheromone signaling requires an intact oligopeptide permease (opp) and a metalloprotease (eep), supporting the model that pro-peptides are secreted, processed to the mature form, and subsequently imported to the cytoplasm to interact directly with the Rgg receptors. At least one consequence of pheromone stimulation of the Rgg2/3 pathway is increased biogenesis of biofilms, which counteracts negative regulation of biofilms by RopB (Rgg1). These data provide the first demonstration that Rgg-dependent quorum sensing functions in GAS and substantiate the role that Rggs play as peptide receptors across the

  15. Design rules for rational control of polymer glass formation behavior and mechanical properties with small molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Simmons, David

    Small molecule additives have long been employed to tune polymers' glass formation, mechanical and transport properties. For example, plasticizers are commonly employed to suppress polymer Tg and soften the glassy state, while antiplasticizers, which stiffen the glassy state of a polymer while suppressing its Tg, are employed to enhance protein and tissue preservation in sugar glasses. Recent literature indicates that additives can have a wide range of possible effects, but all of these have not been clearly understood and well appreciated. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to establish design rules for the selection of small molecule additives with size, molecular stiffness, and interaction energy chosen to achieve targeted effects on polymer properties. We furthermore find that a given additive's effect on a polymer's Tg can be predicted from its Debye-Waller factor via a function previously found to describe nanoconfinement effects on the glass transition. These results emphasize the potential for a new generation of targeted molecular additives to contribute to more targeted rational design of polymers. We acknowledge the Keck Foundation and the Ohio Supercomputing Center for financial and computational support of this effort, respectively.

  16. Controllable negative and positive group delay in transmission through a single quantum well at finite magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ban, Yue; Chen, Xi; Li, Chun-Fang

    2007-04-01

    We investigate the controllable negative and positive group delay in transmission through a single quantum well at the finite longitudinal magnetic fields. It is shown that the magneto-coupling effect between the longitudinal motion component and the transverse Landau orbits plays an important role in the group delay. The group delay depends not only on the width of potential well and the incident energy, but also on the magnetic-field strengthen and the Landau quantum number. The results show that the group delay can be changed from positive to negative by the modulation of the magnetic field. These interesting phenomena may lead to the tunable quantum mechanical delay line.

  17. Group cognitive remediation therapy for chronic schizophrenia: A randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Tan, Shuping; Zou, Yizhuang; Wykes, Til; Reeder, Clare; Zhu, Xiaolin; Yang, Fude; Zhao, Yanli; Tan, Yunlong; Fan, Fengmei; Zhou, Dongfeng

    2016-07-28

    Individual-level cognitive remediation therapy (CRT) has been shown to be effective for cognitive improvement and social function amelioration. Here, we aimed to test the efficacy of group-based CRT in Chinese subjects with schizophrenia. One-hundred and four inpatients were randomly assigned to either 40 sessions of small-group CRT therapy or therapeutic contact-matched Musical and Dancing Therapy (MDT). Cognitive and social functioning, as well as clinical symptoms, were evaluated over the course of treatment. Specifically, cognitive function was evaluated using a battery of cognitive measurements, clinical symptoms were evaluated using the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale, and social function was evaluated using the Nurse's Observation Scale for Inpatient Evaluation-30. All patients were evaluated pre- and post-treatment. Forty-four individuals in the CRT group and 46 in the MDT group completed all of the planned treatments and analyses. Cognitive functions, especially cognitive flexibility and memory, showed significant improvement in the CRT group over the course of the study. The MDT group also showed improvement in several cognitive flexibility assessments, but the degree of improvement was significantly greater in the CRT group. Several social-function factors exhibited a significant improvement in the CRT group, but not in the MDT group. Cognitive function improvement correlated positively with social function without predicting social function change. We conclude that group-based CRT is an effective and promising therapy.

  18. Intra-Articular Corticosteroids in Addition to Exercise for Reducing Pain Sensitivity in Knee Osteoarthritis: Exploratory Outcome from a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Soriano-Maldonado, Alberto; Klokker, Louise; Bartholdy, Cecilie; Bandak, Elisabeth; Ellegaard, Karen; Bliddal, Henning; Henriksen, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of one intra-articular corticosteroid injection two weeks prior to an exercise-based intervention program for reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee osteoarthritis (OA). Design Randomized, masked, parallel, placebo-controlled trial involving 100 participants with clinical and radiographic knee OA that were randomized to one intra-articular injection on the knee with either 1 ml of 40 mg/ml methylprednisolone (corticosteroid) dissolved in 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml) or 1 ml isotonic saline (placebo) mixed with 4 ml lidocaine (10 mg/ml). Two weeks after the injections all participants undertook a 12-week supervised exercise program. Main outcomes were changes from baseline in pressure-pain sensitivity (pressure-pain threshold [PPT] and temporal summation [TS]) assessed using cuff pressure algometry on the calf. These were exploratory outcomes from a randomized controlled trial. Results A total of 100 patients were randomized to receive either corticosteroid (n = 50) or placebo (n = 50); 45 and 44, respectively, completed the trial. Four participants had missing values for PPT and one for TS at baseline; thus modified intention-to-treat populations were analyzed. The mean group difference in changes from baseline at week 14 was 0.6 kPa (95% CI: -1.7 to 2.8; P = 0.626) for PPT and 384 mm×sec (95% CI: -2980 to 3750; P = 0.821) for TS. Conclusions These results suggest that adding intra-articular corticosteroid injection 2 weeks prior to an exercise program does not provide additional benefits compared to placebo in reducing pain sensitivity in patients with knee OA. Trial Registration EU clinical trials (EudraCT): 2012-002607-18 PMID:26871954

  19. Control of product selectivity using solid acids for the catalytic addition of phenol to hydroxy fatty acids

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The acid catalyzed reactions of hydroxy fatty acids, such as ricinoleic and lesquerolic, in the presence of phenolics can lead to four products or product groups. These include simple dehydration to dienoic acids, cyclization to epoxides, Friedel-Crafts alkylations of the double bonds, or ether for...

  20. Group consensus control for heterogeneous multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen, Guoguang; Huang, Jun; Wang, Chunyan; Chen, Zhi; Peng, Zhaoxia

    2016-02-01

    In this paper, the group consensus problems of heterogeneous multi-agent systems with fixed and switching topologies are investigated. First, a class of distributed group consensus protocol is proposed for achieving the group consensus of heterogeneous multi-agent systems by using the neighbours' information. Then, some corresponding sufficient conditions are obtained to guarantee the achievement of group consensus. Rigorous proofs are given by using graph theory, matrix theory and Lyapunov theory. Finally, numerical simulations are also given to verify the theoretical analysis.

  1. Amino group combined P/Ge and P/Sn Lewis pairs: synthesis and dipolar addition reactions to alkyne and aldehyde molecules.

    PubMed

    Yu, Ying; Li, Jiancheng; Liu, Weiping; Ye, Qingsong; Zhu, Hongping

    2016-04-14

    Amino group combined P/Ge-based frustrated Lewis pairs (FLPs) Ph2PN(R)GeCl3 (R = 2,6-iPr2C6H3 (1), 2,4,6-Me3C6H2 (2), and C6H11 (3)) and Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeMe3 (4) as well as P/Sn-based FLP Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)SnMe3 (5) were prepared and utilized for reactions with alkyne and aldehyde molecules. Compounds 1-3 each reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give zwitterionic cyclic vinyls [Ph2PN(R)GeCl3](MeO2CC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (6-8) and compound 1 reacted with HC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give the similar compound [Ph2PN(2,4,6-Me3C6H2)GeCl3](HC[double bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me) (9). Compound 4 reacted with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to afford acyclic vinyls 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(R)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)GeMe3 (R = CO2Me (10), H (11)) and 5 reacted with MeO2CC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to give 2,6-iPr2C6H3N[double bond, length as m-dash]P(Ph2)C(CO2Me)[double bond, length as m-dash]C(CO2Me)SnMe3 (12). The reactions of 1 with CH3CH2CHO and 1,4-(CHO)2C6H4 were also investigated and yielded novel zwitterionic OCPNGe five-heteroatom cycles [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][CH(CH2CH3)O] (13) and [Ph2PN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)GeCl3][p-(OCH)C6H4CHO][Cl3GeN(2,6-iPr2C6H3)PPh2] (14). Compounds 1-14 were characterized by NMR ((1)H, (13)C, and (31)P) and CHN elemental analysis, of which 1, 7, and 10-14 were further studied by X-ray crystallography. The reactions of 4 (or 5) with RC[triple bond, length as m-dash]CCO2Me to produce 10-12 present a novel way of obtaining the germyl (or stannyl) and iminophosphoranyl co-substituted vinyls.

  2. Moderating Effect of Negative Peer Group Climate on the Relation Between Men's Locus of Control and Aggression Toward Intimate Partners.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Megan R; Lisco, Claire G; Parrott, Dominic J; Tharp, Andra T

    2016-03-01

    The present study sought to examine the interactive effects of an external locus of control and interaction in a negative peer group climate on men's perpetration of physical aggression and infliction of injury toward their female intimate partners. Participants were 206 heterosexual males recruited from the metro-Atlanta community who completed self-report measures of external locus of control, involvement in a negative peer group climate, and physical aggression and infliction of injury against intimate partners during the past 12 months. Negative peer group climate was conceptualized as a peer group that displays behavior which may instigate aggressive norms, attitudes, and behaviors. Results indicated that men with an external locus of control were more likely to perpetrate physical aggression toward and inflict injury on their intimate partners if they reported high, but not low, involvement in a negative peer group climate. These results extend current research suggesting external locus of control as a risk factor for intimate partner aggression by highlighting the impact of negative peer groups. Implications and future intervention research are discussed.

  3. Article I: Prevention and education regarding rabies in human beings. National Working Group on Rabies Prevention and Control.

    PubMed

    Hanlon, C A; Olson, J G; Clark, C J

    1999-11-01

    Substantial changes in the epizootic characteristics of rabies have transpired in the United States during the past 50 years. Traditional veterinary practices and public health recommendations have effectively controlled rabies in dogs and prevented associated human fatalities; however, they have been unable to adequately address the problem of rabies in wildlife. Attributable in part to a renewed focus on emerging infectious diseases, a conference was held at the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention in 1993 to begin discussion focused on the reemergence of rabies and to formulate new suggestions for prevention and control of rabies in the United States. Three major working groups were formed from a national committee of professionals representing a broad array of biomedical disciplines. These groups concentrated on prevention of rabies in human beings, education, laboratory diagnosis of rabies, and rabies control in animals. The groups described the perceived minimum requirements to promote prevention and control of rabies in the United States into the next century. The following article describes the needs and recommendations identified by the prevention and education working group. Two other articles, scheduled for the Nov 15 and Dec 1, 1999 issues of JAVMA, will relay the needs and recommendations of the working groups on laboratory diagnosis of rabies and rabies in wildlife.

  4. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children.

  5. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  6. The Effect of Group Psychoeducation Program on Medication Adherence in Patients with Bipolar Mood Disorders: a Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Rahmani, Farnaz; Ebrahimi, Hossein; Ranjbar, Fatemeh; Razavi, Seyed Sajjad; Asghari, Elnaz

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Medication nonadherence is highly prevalent in patients with bipolar disorders and often results in worsening disease prognosis. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of group psychoeducation on medication adherence in female patients with bipolar mood disorder type I. Methods: This randomized controlled trial was conducted on 76 patients with bipolar mood disorder admitted in female psychiatric wards of Razi teaching hospital, Tabriz, Iran. The participants were selected by convenience sampling method and were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Patients in experimental group received 10 continuous 90 minutes sessions of psychoeducation, two times a week. Medication adherence was measured using the medicine check list and medication adherence rating scale (MARS) before and after intervention. Data analysis was performed with SPSS ver.13. Results: There was no significant difference between two groups regarding medication adherence before the intervention. After the study intervention, the mean scores of medication adherence check list and medication adherence rating scale in the experimental group were significantly higher than the control group. Conclusion: Since group psychoeducation was effective in improving patients' medication adherence, it could be recommended for psychiatric nurses to apply this intervention in the clinical setting. PMID:28032073

  7. Yearling trait comparisons among inbred lines and selected noninbred and randomly bred control groups of Rambouillet, Targhee and Columbia ewes.

    PubMed

    Ercanbrack, S K; Knight, A D

    1983-02-01

    Inbreeding with concurrent selection was used to develop 26 Rambouillet, 20 Targhee and 10 Columbia inbred lines of sheep. Inbreeding coefficients averaged 30, 29 and 30% for the three breeds, respectively, at the conclusion of the study. A selected noninbred control group and a randomly bred unselected control group were maintained for each breed. Yearling traits were evaluated for 545 Rambouillet, 572 Targhee and 411 Columbia yearling ewes, each belonging to one of the inbred lines or control groups. In each breed, the selected controls were generally of greatest overall merit, the unselected controls intermediate and the inbred lines of least merit. Only a few yearling traits of only a few inbred lines were superior (P less than .05) to those of their appropriate selected control groups. Selection within inbred lines was generally ineffective in offsetting inbreeding depression. However, single trait selection for traits of high heritability, notably yearling weight, clean fleece weight and staple length, appeared to compensate for inbreeding effects on those traits. Deleterious consequences of inbreeding were particularly apparent in yearling weight, average daily gain, type and condition scores, grease and clean fleece weights and index of overall merit. Inbreeding also resulted in fewer neck folds among inbreds of all three breeds. Correlations between the rankings of inbred lines at weaning and yearling ages were high for traits of higher heritability. Superiority of the selected controls in most traits was of about the same magnitude at weaning and yearling ages. In no case did the final overall merit (index value) of an inbred line of any of the three breeds significantly exceed the overall merit of its respective selected control group.

  8. Comparing Acceptance and Commitment Group Therapy and 12-Steps Narcotics Anonymous in Addict's Rehabilitation Process: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

    PubMed

    Azkhosh, Manoochehr; Farhoudianm, Ali; Saadati, Hemn; Shoaee, Fateme; Lashani, Leila

    2016-10-01

    Objective: Substance abuse is a socio-psychological disorder. The aim of this study was to compare the effectiveness of acceptance and commitment therapy with 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous on psychological well-being of opiate dependent individuals in addiction treatment centers in Shiraz, Iran. Method: This was a randomized controlled trial. Data were collected at entry into the study and at post-test and follow-up visits. The participants were selected from opiate addicted individuals who referred to addiction treatment centers in Shiraz. Sixty individuals were evaluated according to inclusion/ exclusion criteria and were divided into three equal groups randomly (20 participants per group). One group received acceptance and commitment group therapy (Twelve 90-minute sessions) and the other group was provided with the 12-steps Narcotics Anonymous program and the control group received the usual methadone maintenance treatment. During the treatment process, seven participants dropped out. Data were collected using the psychological well-being questionnaire and AAQ questionnaire in the three groups at pre-test, post-test and follow-up visits. Data were analyzed using repeated measure analysis of variance. Results: Repeated measure analysis of variance revealed that the mean difference between the three groups was significant (P<0.05) and that acceptance and commitment therapy group showed improvement relative to the NA and control groups on psychological well-being and psychological flexibility. Conclusion: The results of this study revealed that acceptance and commitment therapy can be helpful in enhancing positive emotions and increasing psychological well-being of addicts who seek treatment.

  9. The Hydrogeologic Conditions in the Upper Dockum Group at the Waste Control Specialists Site, West Texas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holt, R. M.; grisak, G. E.; Hughes, E.; Pickens, J. F.; Powers, D. W.; Kuszmaul, J. S.; Cook, S.

    2011-12-01

    The Waste Control Specialists (WCS) site in Andrews County, west Texas has licenses from the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality for the disposal of radioactive and hazardous material. Four landfills are constructed on the WCS site, including a hazardous waste landfill and three landfills for radioactive waste. All landfills are constructed below grade and within the low-permeability Triassic Dockum Group mudrocks (Cooper Canyon Formation). The Dockum consists of mudrocks with sparse siltstone/sandstone interbeds that developed in a semi-arid environment from an ephemeral meandering fluvial system. Sedimentary studies reveal that the mudrocks are ancient floodplain vertisols (soils with swelling clays) and siltstone/sandstone interbeds are fluvial channel deposits that were frequently subaerially exposed. The Dockum would be generally classified as an aquitard. At the WCS site, the vertical effective hydraulic conductivity of the Dockum is 1.2×10-9 cm/s, and its horizontal effective conductivity is 2.9×10-7 cm/s. Core samples reveal that at least the upper 300+ feet of the Dockum is in the unsaturated zone. The average capillary pressure in Dockum core samples is -2.84 MPa, with an average saturation of 0.87. High saturation values are not surprising, as Dockum air-entry pressures range from 0.016 to 9.8 MPa, with a mean of 1.0 MPa. Heat dissipation sensors, thermocouple psychrometers, and advanced tensiometers installed in Dockum borehole arrays generally show capillary pressures one order of magnitude less than those measured on core samples. These differences with core data are attributed to the presence of a trapped and compressed gas phase within Dockum materials. In the vicinity of an instrumented borehole, the gas phase pressure equilibrates with atmospheric pressure, lowering the capillary pressure. Little fluid has circulated vertically through the Dockum. Measurements of the electrical conductivity of a saturated paste consisting of water and

  10. Effects of drying control chemical additive on properties of Li 4Ti 5O 12 negative powders prepared by spray pyrolysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ju, Seo Hee; Kang, Yun Chan

    High-density Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders comprising spherical particles are prepared by spray pyrolysis from a solution containing dimethylacetamide (drying control chemical additive) and citric acid and ethylene glycol (organic additives). The prepared powders have high discharge capacities and good cycle properties. The optimum concentration of dimethylacetamide is 0.5 M. The addition of dimethylacetamide to the polymeric spray solutions containing citric acid and ethylene glycol helps in the effective control of the morphology of the Li 4Ti 5O 12 powders. At a constant current density of 0.17 mA g -1, the initial discharge capacities of the powders obtained from the spray solution with and without the organic additives are 171 and 167 mAh g -1, respectively.

  11. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  12. 40 CFR 82.18 - Availability of production in addition to baseline production allowances for class II controlled...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... quantity of production that the nation is permitted under the Montreal Protocol or to receive from the... allowances, for a specified control period through trades with another Party to the Protocol as set forth in... that is also listed in Appendix C, Annex 1 of the Protocol as having ratified the Beijing...

  13. Controlled challenge experiment demonstrates substantial additive genetic variation in resistance of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus) to Streptococcus iniae

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Streptococcus iniae is an etiologic agent of streptococcal disease in tilapia and is one of several Streptococcus spp. that negatively impact worldwide tilapia production. Methods for the prevention and control of S. iniae include vaccines, management strategies, and antibiotics. A complimentary pre...

  14. Use deposit control additives to lower auto/engine hydrocarbon and CO emissions, even with increased combustion chamber deposits

    SciTech Connect

    Zahalka, T.L.; Kulinowski, A.M.; Malfer, D.J.

    1996-01-01

    Mandated reductions in allowable emissions from spark-ignited engines have presented considerable challenges to the automotive industry. The achievement of lower emissions without a loss in vehicular performance has resulted in complicated electronic engine control strategies. As engine management systems have become more complex, the effect of deposits has become an issue with the operation of modern engines. The oil industry, in providing fuel to the ever-growing vehicle fleet, has become a partner in the emissions reduction effort. Through joint work, such as the Auto/Oil Research Program, it has been demonstrated that changes to the physical properties of the fuel can contribute to lower overall vehicle emissions. While certain fuel parameters can be adjusted to minimize emissions, the demand for gasoline in North America (and a growing demand globally) limits the refiners ability to control the deposit-forming tendencies of a fuel without an external aid. The gap between a modern engine`s appetite for clean fuel, and the refiners` ability to provide enough of this fuel has resulted in the application of gasoline detergents to minimize deposit formation. During the past several decades, gasoline detergents have evolved to control induction system deposits that a affected vehicle performance and emissions. The earliest problem involved icing and deposit formation in automotive carburetors. Deposits interfered with fuel induction, causing poor driveability, and an increased in emissions and fuel consumption. Simple low molecular weight amine detergents were effective in controlling deposits in the throttling areas of the carburetor.

  15. 40 CFR 60.5412 - What additional requirements must I meet for determining initial compliance with control devices...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... you must introduce the vent stream into the flame zone of the boiler or process heater. (2) You must... thermal treatment unit for which you have been issued a final permit under 40 CFR part 270 that implements... thermal treatment unit equipped with and operating air emission controls in accordance with this...

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. Analysis of apoB gene polymorphism in control sample and group of patients with coronary heart disease from Moscow

    SciTech Connect

    Slominsky, P.A.; Shadrina, M.I.; Pogoda, T.V.

    1994-09-01

    We have analyzed two polymorphic regions of the apo B gene (5{prime} (CA)n microsatellite and insertion/deletion polymorphisms) in a random control sample and coronary heart disease (CHD) patients from Moscow. For this purpose we have used PCR technique followed by high-resolution PAGE. In the control sample only 3 different allelic variants of the 5{prime} minisatellite existed with 14 (frequency 70,7%), 15 (26,8%) and 16 (2.5%) CA repeats. In the patient`s group, allelic variants were also found with 13 CA repeats, but the frequency was very low (2.5%). However, we did not reveal any significant differences in allele and genotype distributions of insertion/deletion polymorphisms in the control group and the group of CHD patients (insertion frequency 67.9% and 62.5%, respectively).

  18. Opportunities and challenges in using studies without a control group in comparative effectiveness reviews.

    PubMed

    Paulus, Jessica K; Dahabreh, Issa J; Balk, Ethan M; Avendano, Esther E; Lau, Joseph; Ip, Stanley

    2014-06-01

    When examining the evidence on therapeutic interventions to answer a comparative effectiveness research question, one should consider all studies that are informative on the interventions' causal effects. "Single group studies" evaluate outcomes longitudinally in cohorts of subjects who are managed with a single treatment strategy. Because these studies are "missing" a direct, concurrent comparison group, they are typically deemed non-informative on comparative effectiveness. However, in principle, single group studies can provide information on causal treatment effects by extrapolating expected outcomes in the "missing" untreated arm. Single group studies rely on before-after, implicit, or historical comparisons as a proxy for an ideal comparison group. The validity of these comparisons must be carefully examined on a case-by-case basis. While in many cases, researchers will disagree on whether such extrapolations are reasonable; circumstances exist where such studies are generally acceptable as a source of evidence. This article provides an overview of issues related to the interpretation of single group studies with a focus on the assumptions required to support their consideration in comparative effectiveness reviews. We discuss the various settings in which single group studies are employed, common research designs that systematic reviewers need to interpret, and challenges associated with using these designs to inform comparative effectiveness questions.

  19. Effectiveness of policy to provide breastfeeding groups (BIG) for pregnant and breastfeeding mothers in primary care: cluster randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Britten, Jane; Prescott, Gordon J; Tappin, David; Ludbrook, Anne; Godden, David J

    2009-01-01

    Objective To assess the clinical effectiveness and cost effectiveness of a policy to provide breastfeeding groups for pregnant and breastfeeding women. Design Cluster randomised controlled trial with prospective mixed method embedded case studies to evaluate implementation processes. Setting Primary care in Scotland. Participants Pregnant women, breastfeeding mothers, and babies registered with 14 of 66 eligible clusters of general practices (localities) in Scotland that routinely collect breastfeeding outcome data. Intervention Localities set up new breastfeeding groups to provide population coverage; control localities did not change group activity. Main outcome measures Primary outcome: any breast feeding at 6-8 weeks from routinely collected data for two pre-trial years and two trial years. Secondary outcomes: any breast feeding at birth, 5-7 days, and 8-9 months; maternal satisfaction. Results Between 1 February 2005 and 31 January 2007, 9747 birth records existed for intervention localities and 9111 for control localities. The number of breastfeeding groups increased from 10 to 27 in intervention localities, where 1310 women attended, and remained at 10 groups in control localities. No significant differences in breastfeeding outcomes were found. Any breast feeding at 6-8 weeks declined from 27% to 26% in intervention localities and increased from 29% to 30% in control localities (P=0.08, adjusted for pre-trial rate). Any breast feeding at 6-8 weeks increased from 38% to 39% in localities not participating in the trial. Women who attended breastfeeding groups were older (P<0.001) than women initiating breast feeding who did not attend and had higher income (P=0.02) than women in the control localities who attended postnatal groups. The locality cost was £13 400 (€14 410; $20 144) a year. Conclusion A policy for providing breastfeeding groups in relatively deprived areas of Scotland did not improve breastfeeding rates at 6-8 weeks. The costs of

  20. Efficacy of group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder: A meta-analysis of randomized-controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Barkowski, Sarah; Schwartze, Dominique; Strauss, Bernhard; Burlingame, Gary M; Barth, Jürgen; Rosendahl, Jenny

    2016-04-01

    Group psychotherapy for social anxiety disorder (SAD) is an established treatment supported by findings from primary studies and earlier meta-analyses. However, a comprehensive summary of the recent evidence is still pending. This meta-analysis investigates the efficacy of group psychotherapy for adult patients with SAD. A literature search identified 36 randomized-controlled trials examining 2171 patients. Available studies used mainly cognitive-behavioral group therapies (CBGT); therefore, quantitative analyses were done for CBGT. Medium to large positive effects emerged for wait list-controlled trials for specific symptomatology: g=0.84, 95% CI [0.72; 0.97] and general psychopathology: g=0.62, 95% CI [0.36; 0.89]. Group psychotherapy was also superior to common factor control conditions in alleviating symptoms of SAD, but not in improving general psychopathology. No differences appeared for direct comparisons of group psychotherapy and individual psychotherapy or pharmacotherapy. Hence, group psychotherapy for SAD is an efficacious treatment, equivalent to other treatment formats.

  1. Persistence Differences between the Three Mile Island Residents and a Control Group

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-05-11

    film . During this film gruesome woodshop accidents were depicted — such as a worker being killed by a wooden plank being driven through his body...tracks was used. For one group the film was presented as staged; for another it was presented as an authentic depiction of events -- to increase safety...awareness; for a third group no instructions were provided. When the subjects’ appraisal of the film was manipulated by giving them instructions

  2. Graphene oxide as a high-performance fluid-loss-control additive in water-based drilling fluids.

    PubMed

    Kosynkin, Dmitry V; Ceriotti, Gabriel; Wilson, Kurt C; Lomeda, Jay R; Scorsone, Jason T; Patel, Arvind D; Friedheim, James E; Tour, James M

    2012-01-01

    Graphene oxide (GO) performs well as a filtration additive in water-based drilling fluids at concentrations as low as 0.2 % (w/w) by carbon content. Standard American Petroleum Institute (API) filtration tests were conducted on pH-adjusted, aqueous dispersions of GO and xanthan gum. It was found that a combination of large-flake GO and powdered GO in a 3:1 ratio performed best in the API tests, allowing an average fluid loss of 6.1 mL over 30 min and leaving a filter cake ~20 μm thick. In comparison, a standard suspension (~12 g/L) of clays and polymers used in the oil industry gave an average fluid loss of 7.2 mL and a filter cake ~280 μm thick. Scanning electron microscopy imaging revealed the extreme pliability of well-exfoliated GO, as the pressure due to filtration crumpled single GO sheets, forcing them to slide through pores with diameters much smaller than the flake's flattened size. GO solutions also exhibited greater shear thinning and higher temperature stability compared to clay-based fluid-loss additives, demonstrating potential for high-temperature well applications.

  3. Calcium nitrate addition to control the internal load of phosphorus from sediments of a tropical eutrophic reservoir: microcosm experiments.

    PubMed

    Yamada, T M; Sueitt, A P E; Beraldo, D A S; Botta, C M R; Fadini, P S; Nascimento, M R L; Faria, B M; Mozeto, A A

    2012-12-01

    The main objective of this study was to perform laboratory experiments on calcium nitrate addition to sediments of a tropical eutrophic urban reservoir (Ibirité reservoir, SE Brazil) to immobilize the reactive soluble phosphorus (RSP) and to evaluate possible geochemical changes and toxic effects caused by this treatment. Reductions of 75 and 89% in the concentration of RSP were observed in the water column and interstitial water, respectively, after 145 days of nitrate addition. The nitrate application increased the rate of autotrophic denitrification, causing a consumption of 98% of the added nitrate and oxidation of 99% of the acid volatile sulfide. As a consequence, there were increases in the sulfate and iron (II) concentrations in the sediment interstitial water and water column, as well as changes in the copper speciation in the sediments. Toxicity tests initially indicated that the high concentrations of nitrate and nitrite in the sediment interstitial water (up to 2300 mg L(-1) and 260 mg L(-1), respectively) were the major cause of mortality of Ceriodaphnia silvestrii and Chironomus xanthus. However, at the end of the experiment, the sediment toxicity was completely removed and a reduction in the 48 h-EC50 of the water was also observed. Based on these results we can say that calcium nitrate treatment proved to be a valuable tool in remediation of eutrophic aquatic ecosystems leading to conditions that can support a great diversity of organisms after a restoration period.

  4. Additive effect of elcatonin to risedronate for chronic back pain and quality of life in postmenopausal women with osteoporosis: a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Hongo, Michio; Miyakoshi, Naohisa; Kasukawa, Yuji; Ishikawa, Yoshinori; Shimada, Yoichi

    2015-07-01

    Calcitonin has been reported to reduce acute and chronic back pain in osteoporotic patients. The additive effect of calcitonin with a bisphosphonate on chronic back pain remains unclear. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of combining elcatonin (eel calcitonin) with risedronate for patients with chronic back pain. Forty-five postmenopausal women diagnosed as having osteoporosis with chronic back pain persisting for more than 3 months, after excluding women with fresh vertebral fractures within the last 6 months, were randomly allocated to a risedronate group (risedronate alone, n = 22) and a combined group (risedronate and elcatonin, n = 23). The study period was 6 months. Pain was evaluated with a visual analogue scale (VAS) and the Roland-Morris questionnaire (RDQ). Back extensor strength, bone mineral density, and quality of life on the SF-36 and the Japanese osteoporosis quality of life score were also evaluated. Significant improvements were found in the combined group for VAS at final follow-up compared with baseline and 3 months, mental health status on the SF-36, and JOQOL domains for back pain and general health. The JOQOL domain for back pain improved significantly, but no change was found in the VAS or other domains in the risedronate group. Bone mineral density increased significantly in the two groups, but no significant difference was found between the groups. Back extensor strength did not change in both groups. In conclusion, the use of elcatonin in addition to risedronate for more than 3 months reduced chronic back pain. The additional therapy of risedronate with elcatonin may be a useful and practical choice for the treatment of osteoporosis with chronic back pain persisting more than 3 months.

  5. Anger-Control Group Counseling for Women Recovering from Alcohol or Drug Addiction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gonzalez-Prendes, A. Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Two experimental conditions, a manualized cognitive-behavioral anger-control treatment incorporating empowerment strategies and a relapse-prevention treatment without the anger-control component, were compared to assess their impact on levels of trait anger and attributional styles of women recovering from alcohol and drug addiction. Participants…

  6. DVD training for depression identification and treatment in older adults: a two-group, randomized, wait-list control study.

    PubMed

    Lysack, Cathy; Leach, Carrie; Russo, Theresa; Paulson, Daniel; Lichtenberg, Peter A

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. To test the effectiveness of an educational intervention aimed at improving mental health knowledge and skills in occupational therapists working with older rehabilitation patients. METHOD. The DVD-format educational intervention was evaluated using a two-group randomized wait-list control design. Occupational therapists (n = 75) completed a 32-item knowledge questionnaire at three time points. Patient charts were reviewed (n = 960) at 3 months before and 3 and 6 months after DVD training to evaluate clinical practice change. RESULTS. A two-way analysis of variance showed knowledge scores increased significantly for both groups after DVD training. A significant Group × Time interaction and significant main effects for time and group were found. Chart review data also showed significant increases in desired clinical behaviors in both groups after training. The greatest single item of clinical practice change was use of a standardized depression screen. CONCLUSION. DVD-based training can significantly improve mental health practice.

  7. Peer-based control in self-managing teams: linking rational and normative influence with individual and group performance.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Greg L; Courtright, Stephen H; Barrick, Murray R

    2012-03-01

    The authors use a multilevel framework to introduce peer-based control as a motivational state that emerges in self-managing teams. The authors specifically describe how peer-based rational control, which is defined as team members perceiving the distribution of economic rewards as dependent on input from teammates, extends and interacts with the more commonly studied normative control force of group cohesion to explain both individual and collective performance in teams. On the basis of data from 587 factory workers in 45 self-managing teams at 3 organizations, peer-based rational control corresponded with higher performance for both individuals and collective teams. Results further demonstrated that the rational and normative mechanism of peer-based control interacted to explain performance at both the individual and team levels. Increased peer-based rational control corresponded with higher individual and collective performance in teams with low cohesion, but the positive effects on performance were attenuated in cohesive teams.

  8. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum group hormone in humans during sleep

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howard, J. C.; Young, D. R.

    1975-01-01

    Plasma growth hormone concentrations during sleep were determined experimentally. An elevated level of plasma growth hormone was observed during the initial phase of sleep and remained elevated for approximately 3 hr before returning to the steady-state level. Moreover, subsequent to a prolonged interruption of sleep, of the order of 2-3 hr, an elevated level of plasma growth hormone was again observed during the initial phase of resumed sleep. A control system formulation of the mechanism that controls the secretions of serum growth hormone in humans was used to account for the growth hormone responses observed.

  9. An Additional Approach to Model Current Followers and Amplifiers with Electronically Controllable Parameters from Commercially Available ICs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotner, R.; Kartci, A.; Jerabek, J.; Herencsar, N.; Dostal, T.; Vrba, K.

    2012-12-01

    Several behavioral models of current active elements for experimental purposes are introduced in this paper. These models are based on commercially available devices. They are suitable for experimental tests of current- and mixed-mode filters, oscillators, and other circuits (employing current-mode active elements) frequently used in analog signal processing without necessity of onchip fabrication of proper active element. Several methods of electronic control of intrinsic resistance in the proposed behavioral models are discussed. All predictions and theoretical assumptions are supported by simulations and experiments. This contribution helps to find a cheaper and more effective way to preliminary laboratory tests without expensive on-chip fabrication of special active elements.

  10. Cost Benefit Analysis of Expeditionary Warfare Training Group Atlantic Forward Air Controller / Joint Terminal Attack Controller Training Options

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-13

    rotary-wing aircraft against hostile targets that are in close proximity to friendly forces and that require detailed integration of each air mission with... proximity of these two ranges is irrelevant for FW aircraft. Additionally, all future EWTGLANT TACP training is planned for G-10. Transit times for each...analysis of Time-on-Station and transit times constructed to support determination of support Overhead. Range proximity to aircraft home station

  11. Assessing handwriting intervention effectiveness in elementary school students: a two-group controlled study.

    PubMed

    Howe, Tsu-Hsin; Roston, Karen Laurie; Sheu, Ching-Fan; Hinojosa, Jim

    2013-01-01

    This study examined the effectiveness of two approaches used in elementary schools to improve children's handwriting. Participants were 72 New York City public school students from the first and second grades. A nonequivalent pretest-posttest group design was used in which students engaged in handwriting activities using two approaches: intensive handwriting practice and visual-perceptual-motor activities. Handwriting speed, legibility, and visual-motor skills were examined after a 12-wk Handwriting Club using multivariate analysis of variance. The results showed that students in the intensive handwriting practice group demonstrated significant improvements in handwriting legibility compared with students in the visual-perceptual-motor activity group. No significant effects in handwriting speed and visual-motor skills were found between the students in intensive handwriting practice group and the students in visual-perceptual-motor activities group. The Handwriting Club model is a natural intervention that fits easily into existing school curriculums and can be an effective short-term intervention (response to intervention Tier II).

  12. Failed heart rate control with oral metoprolol prior to coronary CT angiography: effect of additional intravenous metoprolol on heart rate, image quality and radiation dose.

    PubMed

    Jiménez-Juan, Laura; Nguyen, Elsie T; Wintersperger, Bernd J; Moshonov, Hadas; Crean, Andrew M; Deva, Djeven P; Paul, Narinder S; Torres, Felipe S

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of intravenous (i.v.) metoprolol after a suboptimal heart rate (HR) response to oral metoprolol (75-150 mg) on HR control, image quality (IQ) and radiation dose during coronary CTA using 320-MDCT. Fifty-three consecutive patients who failed to achieve a target HR of < 60 bpm after an oral dose of metoprolol and required supplementary i.v. metoprolol (5-20 mg) prior to coronary CTA were evaluated. Patients with HR < 60 bpm during image acquisition were defined as responders (R) and those with HR ≥ 60 bpm as non-responders (NR). Two observers assessed IQ using a 3-point scale (1-2, diagnostic and 3, non-diagnostic). Effective dose (ED) was estimated using dose-length product and a 0.014 mSV/mGy.cm conversion factor. Baseline characteristics and HR on arrival were similar in the two groups. 58% of patients didn't achieve the target HR after receiving i.v. metoprolol (NR). R had a significantly higher HR reduction after oral (mean HR 63.9 ± 4.5 bpm vs. 69.6 ± 5.6 bpm) (p < 0.005) and i.v. (mean HR 55.4 ± 3.9 bpm vs. 67.4 ± 5.3 bpm) (p < 0.005) doses of metoprolol. Studies from NR showed a significantly higher ED in comparison to R (8.0 ± 2.9 vs. 6.1 ± 2.2 mSv) (p = 0.016) and a significantly higher proportion of non-diagnostic coronary segments (9.2 vs. 2.5%) (p < 0.001). 58% of patients who do not achieve a HR of <60 bpm prior to coronary CTA with oral fail to respond to additional i.v. metoprolol and have studies with higher radiation dose and worse image quality.

  13. Adjusting the surface areal density of click-reactive azide groups by kinetic control of the azide substitution reaction on bromine-functional SAMs.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuo; Maidenberg, Yanir; Luo, Kai; Koberstein, Jeffrey T

    2014-06-03

    Azide-alkyne click chemistry has emerged as an important and versatile means for tethering a wide variety of guest molecules to virtually any substrate. In many of these applications, it is important to exercise control over the areal density of surface functional groups to achieve a desired areal density of the tethered guest molecule of interest. We demonstrate herein that the areal density of surface azide groups on flat germanium surfaces and nanoparticle substrates (silica and iron oxide) can be controlled kinetically by appropriately timed quenching of the S(N)2 substitution reaction of bromo-alkane-silane monolayers induced by the addition of sodium azide. The kinetics of the azide substitution reaction on monolayers formed on flat Ge substrates, determined by attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy (ATR-IR), are found to be identical to those for monolayers formed on both silica and iron oxide nanoparticles, the latter determined by transmission infrared spectroscopy. To validate the method, the percentages of surface bromine groups converted to azide groups after various reaction times were measured by quenching the S(N)2 reaction followed by analysis with ATR-IR (for Ge) and thermogravimetric analysis (after a subsequent click reaction with an alkyne-terminal polymer) for the nanoparticle substrates. The conversions found after quenching agree well with those expected from the standard kinetic curves. The latter result suggests that the kinetic method for the control of azide group areal density is a versatile means for functionalizing substrates with a prescribed areal density of azide groups for subsequent click reactions, and that the method is universal for any substrate, flat or nanoparticle, that can be modified with bromo-alkane-silane monolayers. Regardless of the surface geometry, we find that the azide substitution reaction is complete within 2-3 h, in sharp contrast to previous reports that indicate times of 48-60 h required for

  14. Feasibility of in situ controlled heat treatment (ISHT) of Inconel 718 during electron beam melting additive manufacturing

    DOE PAGES

    Sames, William J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Helmreich, Grant W.; ...

    2016-10-07

    A novel technique was developed to control the microstructure evolution in Alloy 718 processed using Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In situ solution treatment and aging of Alloy 718 was performed by heating the top surface of the build after build completion scanning an electron beam to act as a planar heat source during the cool down process. Results demonstrate that the measured hardness (478 ± 7 HV) of the material processed using in situ heat treatment similar to that of peak-aged Inconel 718. Large solidification grains and cracks formed, which are identified as the likely mechanism leading to failure ofmore » tensile tests of the in situ heat treatment material under loading. Despite poor tensile performance, the technique proposed was shown to successively age Alloy 718 (increase precipitate size and hardness) without removing the sample from the process chamber, which can reduce the number of process steps in producing a part. Lastly, tighter controls on processing temperature during layer melting to lower process temperature and selective heating during in situ heat treatment to reduce over-sintering are proposed as methods for improving the process.« less

  15. Feasibility of in situ controlled heat treatment (ISHT) of Inconel 718 during electron beam melting additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Sames, William J.; Unocic, Kinga A.; Helmreich, Grant W.; Kirka, Michael M.; Medina, Frank; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Babu, Sudarsanam Suresh

    2016-10-07

    A novel technique was developed to control the microstructure evolution in Alloy 718 processed using Electron Beam Melting (EBM). In situ solution treatment and aging of Alloy 718 was performed by heating the top surface of the build after build completion scanning an electron beam to act as a planar heat source during the cool down process. Results demonstrate that the measured hardness (478 ± 7 HV) of the material processed using in situ heat treatment similar to that of peak-aged Inconel 718. Large solidification grains and cracks formed, which are identified as the likely mechanism leading to failure of tensile tests of the in situ heat treatment material under loading. Despite poor tensile performance, the technique proposed was shown to successively age Alloy 718 (increase precipitate size and hardness) without removing the sample from the process chamber, which can reduce the number of process steps in producing a part. Lastly, tighter controls on processing temperature during layer melting to lower process temperature and selective heating during in situ heat treatment to reduce over-sintering are proposed as methods for improving the process.

  16. Metformin Treatment in Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy: An Active Controlled, Parallel-Group, Randomized, Open Label Study in Patients with Type 2 Diabetes in Pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Ainuddin, Jahan Ara; Karim, Nasim; Zaheer, Sidra; Ali, Syed Sanwer; Hasan, Anjum Ara

    2015-01-01

    Aims. To assess the effect of metformin and to compare it with insulin treatment in patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy in terms of perinatal outcome, maternal complications, additional insulin requirement, and treatment acceptability. Methods. In this randomized, open label study, 206 patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy who met the eligibility criteria were selected from the antenatal clinics. Insulin was added to metformin treatment when required, to maintain the target glycemic control. The patients were followed up till delivery. Maternal, and perinatal outcomes and pharmacotherapeutic characteristics were recorded on a proforma. Results. Maternal characteristics were comparable in metformin and insulin treated group. 84.9% patients in metformin group required add-on insulin therapy at mean gestational age of 26.58 ± 3.85 weeks. Less maternal weight gain (P < 0.001) and pregnancy induced hypertension (P = 0.029) were observed in metformin treated group. Small for date babies were more in metformin group (P < 0.01). Neonatal hypoglycemia was significantly less and so was NICU stay of >24 hours in metformin group (P < 0.01). Significant reduction in cost of treatment was found in metformin group. Conclusion. Metformin alone or with add-on insulin is an effective and cheap treatment option for patients with type 2 diabetes in pregnancy. This trial is registered with clinical trial registration number: Clinical trials.gov NCT01855763. PMID:25874236

  17. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  18. The role of control groups in mutagenicity studies: matching biological and statistical relevance.

    PubMed

    Hauschke, Dieter; Hothorn, Torsten; Schäfer, Juliane

    2003-06-01

    The statistical test of the conventional hypothesis of "no treatment effect" is commonly used in the evaluation of mutagenicity experiments. Failing to reject the hypothesis often leads to the conclusion in favour of safety. The major drawback of this indirect approach is that what is controlled by a prespecified level alpha is the probability of erroneously concluding hazard (producer risk). However, the primary concern of safety assessment is the control of the consumer risk, i.e. limiting the probability of erroneously concluding that a product is safe. In order to restrict this risk, safety has to be formulated as the alternative, and hazard, i.e. the opposite, has to be formulated as the hypothesis. The direct safety approach is examined for the case when the corresponding threshold value is expressed either as a fraction of the population mean for the negative control, or as a fraction of the difference between the positive and negative controls.

  19. Evaluation of a disease management program for COPD using propensity matched control group

    PubMed Central

    George, Pradeep Paul; Heng, Bee Hoon; Lim, Tow Keang; Abisheganaden, John; Ng, Alan Wei Keong; Lim, Fong Seng

    2016-01-01

    Background Disease management programs (DMPs) have proliferated recently as a means of improving the quality and efficiency of care for patients with chronic illness. These programs include education about disease, optimization of evidence-based medications, information and support from case managers, and institution of self-management principles. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Singapore and worldwide. DMP aims to reduce mortality, hospitalizations, and average length of stay in such patients. This study assesses the outcomes of the DMP, comparing the propensity score matched DMP patients with controls. Methods DMP patients were compared with the controls, who were COPD patients fulfilling the DMP’s inclusion criteria but not included in the program. Control patients were identified from Operations Data Store (ODS) database. The outcomes of interest were average length of stay, number of days admitted to hospital per 100 person days, readmission, and mortality rates per person year. The risk of death and readmission was estimated using Cox, and competing risk regression respectively. Propensity score was estimated to identify the predictors of DMP enrolment. DMP patients and controls were matched on their propensity score. Results There were 170 matched DMP patients and control patients having 287 and 207 hospitalizations respectively. Program patient had lower mortality than the controls (0.12 vs. 0.27 per person year); cumulative 1-year survival was 91% among program patient and 76% among the control patients. Readmission, and hospital days per 100 person-days was higher for the program patients (0.36 vs. 0.17 per person year), and (2.19 vs. 1.88 per person year) respectively. Conclusions Participation in “DMP” was associated with lower all-cause mortality when compared to the controls. This survival gain in the program patients was paradoxically associated with an increase in readmission rate and

  20. Ohio Arms Control Study Group: Workshop I, June 24-26, 1976, The Ohio State University. Summary of Proceedings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio State Univ., Columbus. Mershon Center.

    The booklet summarizes proceedings of a conference coordinated by the Ohio Arms Control Study Group (OACSG) on the topic of United States-USSR relations and the influence of nuclear weapons upon international behavior and strategic thought. The OACSG is composed of faculty members from Ohio colleges and universities who have a vocational or…