Science.gov

Sample records for additional costs financed

  1. Indirect Costs of Federally Financed Projects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simmons, William

    1970-01-01

    Describes how indirect costs, which have been incurred by a school district or an educational agency to support Federally financed projects, may be reimbursed in accordance with 1969 amendments to the ESEA. (JF)

  2. Reducing Financing Costs for Federal ESPCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hughes, P.J.

    2005-01-28

    This report documents the recommendations of a working group commissioned by the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) in 2002 to identify ways to reduce financing costs in federal energy savings performance contract (ESPC) projects. The working group is part of continuing efforts launched by FEMP since the award of the Department of Energy's (DOE's) Super ESPCs in 1998 and 1999 to ensure that practical, flexible, and cost-effective alternative financing for energy-efficiency improvements is available to all federal agencies. During FY 2002-2004, the working group pursued extensive fact finding, consulted with government and private-sector finance experts, and analyzed data from federal and local government ESPC programs. The working group observed that both competition and transparency were lacking in federal ESPCs. The working group also found that the government often falls short of full compliance with certain provisions of the final rule that codifies the federal ESPC authority into regulation (10 CFR 436), which speak to due diligence in determining fair and reasonable pricing. Based on these findings, the working group formulated their short-term recommendations of actions that agencies can take immediately to reduce ESPC financing costs. The working group recommended requiring competitive solicitation of offers from prospective financiers of ESPC projects, standardization of processes to keep the playing field level and reduce energy service companies (ESCOs) project development costs, and assuring transparency by specifying that the government will see and review all bids. The reforms are intended to enable the government to determine quickly and reliably whether the portion of price related to financing is fair and reasonable and to provide auditable records of the transaction. The working group's recommendations were incorporated into modifications to the Super ESPCs and requirements to be included in the Super ESPC delivery order request for proposal

  3. Costs and Financing in Open Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Du Vivier, Ed

    2008-01-01

    These self-instructional resources have their origins in a workshop on the Costs and Financing of Open & Distance Learning which took place from 6-10 August 2007 in Gabarone, Botswana. The workshop was sponsored by the Commonwealth of Learning (COL) with the overall aim of building capacity to plan, negotiate and manage appropriate financial…

  4. 22 CFR 226.1002 - Local cost financing. [Reserved

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 22 Foreign Relations 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Local cost financing. 226.1002 Section 226.1002 Foreign Relations AGENCY FOR INTERNATIONAL DEVELOPMENT ADMINISTRATION OF ASSISTANCE AWARDS TO U.S. NON-GOVERNMENTAL ORGANIZATIONS USAID-Specific Requirements § 226.1002 Local cost financing....

  5. 7 CFR 1786.167 - Restrictions to additional RUS financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... borrower that has prepaid pursuant to this subpart are in 7 CFR 1717.158. (b) Borrowers that prepay their... 7 Agriculture 12 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions to additional RUS financing. 1786.167... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE (CONTINUED) PREPAYMENT OF RUS GUARANTEED AND INSURED LOANS TO...

  6. Securitizing receivables offers low-cost financing option.

    PubMed

    Sen, S; Lawler, J P

    1995-05-01

    Securitization began in the 1980s with mortgage payments, auto loans, and credit card debt being pooled and used as collateral for securities offerings. More recently, healthcare providers have securitized accounts receivables to obtain low-cost, off-balance-sheet financing. As the need to both raise capital and contain costs grows in health care, providers likely will make increased use of this financing method. PMID:10142191

  7. Leasing strategies reduce the cost of financing healthcare equipment.

    PubMed

    Bayless, M E; Diltz, J D

    1985-10-01

    Prospective payment has increased the importance of controlling capital costs. One area where this may be possible is lease financing. Reasons commonly cited in favor of leasing may be of questionable validity, but, under an easily identified set of circumstances, lease financing can be cost effective. Recent developments in finance make it possible to not only evaluate the financial attractiveness of a given lease, but also to accurately predict bounds within which the terms of the lease must fall. Hospital administrators armed with this information should be able to negotiate more favorable lease terms under given tax and economic environments. PMID:10273774

  8. The Cost and Financing of Legal Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebert, John A.

    2002-01-01

    Discusses developments in the financing of legal education, such as sharp tuition increases, program expenditure increases, reduction in state support, and increased student borrowing and debt. Explores actions that law schools are taking or might consider to counter their negative impact. (EV)

  9. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-09-01

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low-middle income range facing financial constraints.

  10. Alternative windpower ownership structures: Financing terms and project costs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Kahn, E.

    1996-05-01

    Most utility-scale renewable energy projects in the United States are developed and financed by private renewable energy companies. Electric output is then sold to investor-owned and public utilities under long-term contracts. Limited partnerships, sale/leaseback arrangements, and project-financing have historically been the dominant forms of finance in the windpower industry, with project-finance taking the lead more recently. Although private ownership using project-finance is still the most popular form of windpower development, alternative approaches to ownership and financing are becoming more prevalent. U.S. public and investor-owned electric utilities (IOUs) have begun to participate directly in windpower projects by owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing windpower from independent non-utility generators (NUGs) through power purchase agreements (PPAs). In these utility-ownership arrangements, the wind turbine equipment vendor/developer typically designs and constructs a project under a turnkey contract for the eventual project owner (the utility). The utility will also frequently sign an operations and maintenance (O&M) contract with the project developer/equipment vendor. There appear to be a number of reasons for utility involvement in recent and planned U.S. wind projects. One important claim is that utility ownership and self-finance provides substantial cost savings compared to contracting with private NUGs to supply wind-generated power. In this report, we examine that assertion.

  11. Factors That Influence the Financing and Cost of Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPheeters, Harold L.

    Financing and cost factors in medical education and the effect of the many missions of a medical school on funding issues are discussed. The teaching mission of medical schools includes undergraduate medical education (preparation for the MD degree), graduate medical education (training of resident physicians), biomedical specialist education,…

  12. Public financing of the Medicare program will make its uniform structure increasingly costly to sustain.

    PubMed

    Baicker, Katherine; Shepard, Mark; Skinner, Jonathan

    2013-05-01

    The US Medicare program consumes an ever-rising share of the federal budget. Although this public spending can produce health and social benefits, raising taxes to finance it comes at the cost of slower economic growth. In this article we describe a model incorporating the benefits of public programs and the cost of tax financing. The model implies that the "one-size-fits-all" Medicare program, with everyone covered by the same insurance policy, will be increasingly difficult to sustain. We show that a Medicare program with guaranteed basic benefits and the option to purchase additional coverage could lead to more unequal health spending but slower growth in taxation, greater overall well-being, and more rapid growth of gross domestic product. Our framework highlights the key trade-offs between Medicare spending and economic prosperity. PMID:23650321

  13. Public Financing Of The Medicare Program Will Make Its Uniform Structure Increasingly Costly To Sustain

    PubMed Central

    Baicker, Katherine; Shepard, Mark; Skinner, Jonathan

    2013-01-01

    The US Medicare program consumes an ever-rising share of the federal budget. Although this public spending can produce health and social benefits, raising taxes to finance it comes at the cost of slower economic growth. In this article we describe a model incorporating the benefits of public programs and the cost of tax financing. The model implies that the “one-size-fits-all” Medicare program, with everyone covered by the same insurance policy, will be increasingly difficult to sustain. We show that a Medicare program with guaranteed basic benefits and the option to purchase additional coverage could lead to more unequal health spending but slower growth in taxation, greater overall well-being, and more rapid growth of gross domestic product. Our framework highlights the key trade-offs between Medicare spending and economic prosperity. PMID:23650321

  14. The Cost and Financing of the Right to Education in India: Can We Fill the Financing Gap?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrotra, Santosh

    2012-01-01

    India's Parliament passed the Right to Education Act in 2009, which entitles all children 6-14 years old to at least eight years of schooling. This paper examines the cost of achieving this right to education, and asks whether India can fill the financing gap that must be filled if the right is to be realized. The paper notes the very considerable…

  15. Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anthony, Patricia G.; MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    In 1989, federal appellate courts ruled on issues regarding a state's role in financing a court-ordered desegregation plan, and the use of federal funds for vocational rehabilitation and Title I programs. State supreme courts decided on the constitutionality of four states' school financing schemes and, in a fifth state, on distribution of federal…

  16. Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmiller, Richard A.; Rossmiller, Daniel M.

    Cases related to school finance, in which decisions were handed down in 1982, are reviewed in this chapter. It is observed that the constitutionality of existing state school finance programs was upheld in New York, Colorado, and Georgia, and that litigation was prevalent in the areas of taxation for schools and uses of school revenue. Issues…

  17. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance...

  18. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance...

  19. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance...

  20. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance...

  1. 41 CFR 102-192.65 - What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? 102-192.65 Section 102-192.65 Public Contracts and... What features must our finance systems have to keep track of mail costs? All agencies must have an... requirement, because the level at which it is cost-beneficial differs widely. The agency's finance...

  2. A Resource Cost Model: Implications for Local School District Planning in Comprehensive School Finance Reform Efforts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lows, Raymond L.

    This paper describes the current and proposed systems for state and local financing of public education in Illinois and discusses the ramifications for local educational planners of a change from a foundation level program to a resource cost model approach. The paper begins with a brief historical overview of the finance reform effort that began…

  3. Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beezer, Bruce; MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye

    There were no United States Supreme Court decisions in 1987 on either public or private school finance. Cases discussed in this chapter fall under three major topics: (1) public funds for private schools; (2) sources and allocations of public school funds; and (3) school tax issues. Federal appellate court cases included decisions on the…

  4. Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacPhail-Wilcox, Bettye; Anthony, Pat

    One Supreme Court decision, seven federal appellate decisions, and two district court decisions were published in the area of school finance in 1990. The Supreme Court reviewed a case concerning allegations of school district segregation, along with an ensuing tax assessment issue. Federal appellate courts handed down decisions involving alleged…

  5. Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern

    Patterns that emerged from reviewing syllabi for 12 courses on higher education finance are discussed. The prevailing purpose of the course appeared to be to provide an introduction to fiscal problems and issues in higher education. Some courses did, however, go beyond the introductory stages to analyze the economics of higher education. Most…

  6. Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rossmiller, Richard A.

    Two constitutional issues continued to dominate litigation related to school finance during 1977. Questions concerning the spending of public funds for the benefit of students attending private schools (for example, Wolman v. Walter) continued to arise in both state and federal courts. Also, cases involving the constitutionality of state school…

  7. Windpower project ownership and financing: The cost impacts of alternative development structures

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.H.

    1997-12-31

    This paper uses traditional financial cash-flow techniques to examine the impact of different ownership and financing structures on the cost of wind energy. While most large-scale wind projects are constructed, operated, and financed by non-utility generators (NUGs) via project financing, investor- and publicly-owned utilities have expressed interest in owning and financing their own facilities rather than purchasing wind energy from independent generators. A primary justification for utility ownership is that, because of financing and tax benefits, windpower may be cheaper when developed in this fashion. The results presented in this paper support that justification, though some of the estimated cost savings associated with utility ownership are found to be a result of shortcomings in utility analysis procedures and implicit risk shifting. This paper also discusses the comparative value of the federal production tax credit and renewable energy production incentive; estimates the financing premium paid by NUG wind owners compared to traditional gas-fired generation facilities; and explores the impact of electricity restructuring on financing.

  8. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  9. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  10. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  11. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  12. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  13. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  14. 38 CFR 36.4251 - Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Loans to finance the... Manufactured Home Lot Loans § 36.4251 Loans to finance the purchase of manufactured homes and the cost of necessary site preparation. (a) A loan to finance the purchase of a manufactured home may include funds...

  15. Financing, Overhead, and Profit: An In-Depth Discussion of Costs Associated with Third-Party Financing of Residential and Commercial Photovoltaic Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Friedman, B.; Margolis, R.

    2013-10-01

    Previous work quantifying the non-hardware balance-of-system costs -- or soft costs -- associated with building a residential or commercial photovoltaic (PV) system has left a significant portion unsegmented in an 'other soft costs' category. This report attempts to better quantify the 'other soft costs' by focusing on the financing, overhead, and profit of residential and commercial PV installations for a specific business model. This report presents results from a bottom-up data-collection and analysis of the upfront costs associated with developing, constructing, and arranging third-party-financed residential and commercial PV systems. It quantifies the indirect corporate costs required to install distributed PV systems as well as the transactional costs associated with arranging third-party financing.

  16. [Medications and financing of health systems in Third World countries. Cost recovery: a concept to review].

    PubMed

    Velasquez, G

    1989-01-01

    During the 1960s most African countries declared that health care would be free in their newly independent countries. Unfortunately, the health care systems inherited from colonial days were hospital based and emphasized curative rather than preventive care, and were too expensive for most countries to maintain. As the quality and availability of health services have deteriorated, the concept of free care has been questioned. At the same time, the number of countries involved in programs of structural adjustment imposed by the International Monetary Fund has grown steadily since the early 1980s, and some countries have drastically restricted public expenditures for health care. IN the search for new sources of financing, the concept of recovery of costs has become prominent. Various attempts have been made to "recover costs" even before the costs have been assessed. Financing of health care by governments, besides being insufficient, has impeded analysis of health care costs in most African countries. The World Bank proposes that the price of each medical product or service should be equal to the cost of providing it. UNICEF proposals stress the need to rationalize expenses and to defend vulnerable population groups during application of adjustment measures. The World Health Organization approach is geared toward attaining the objective of health for all by the year 2000. The basic question is still how to finance quality health care with reasonable participation of users without impeding access of the population to needed health services. An objective of 100% cost recovery will seriously compromise access for the large number of persons without purchasing power to pay the real price of health care. The term "recovery of costs" is inappropriate; the problem is to achieve a balance between participation of the population and government resources for the health system. Health services are not completely self-financing in any developed country and it appears

  17. Health care costs and financing in world perspective.

    PubMed Central

    Roemer, M. I.

    1991-01-01

    Expenditures for health services, as a percentage of national wealth (gross national product, or GNP), have been rising throughout the world. Data to quantify this trend are available for many industrialized countries. The share of health spending derived from governmental sources has also been increasing. Mandatory or social insurance has developed to support health services in 70 nations. While widely used for paying doctors on a fee basis or by capitation, in Latin America doctors are organized in polyclinics and paid by salaries. General revenues are used to support Ministry of Health programs. Among health expenditures, the largest share goes to hospitalization. Cost sharing by patients is widely used to control rising costs. World trends have promoted equity in health care delivery. PMID:1814057

  18. The Cost and Management of Program Adequacy: An Emerging Issue in Educational Policy and Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clune, William H.

    1994-01-01

    Introduces a special issue on educational program adequacy--the cost of raising poor children's outcomes to functional levels through improved systems of finance, governance, organization, implementation, and educational practice. Essays raise numerous problems, including a weak knowledge base, low educational productivity, political resistance,…

  19. Finance, Management, and Costs of Public and Private Schools in Indonesia.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, Estelle; And Others

    1996-01-01

    Investigates effects of public versus private finance and management of education on school cost and efficiency, using school-level data on revenues, expenditures, enrollments, examination scores, and student characteristics from Indonesian primary schools. In poorly funded schools, more money tends to bring better school quality. Private funding…

  20. Effectiveness of community health financing in meeting the cost of illness.

    PubMed Central

    Preker, Alexander S.; Carrin, Guy; Dror, David; Jakab, Melitta; Hsiao, William; Arhin-Tenkorang, Dyna

    2002-01-01

    How to finance and provide health care for the more than 1.3 billion rural poor and informal sector workers in low- and middle-income countries is one of the greatest challenges facing the international development community. This article presents the main findings from an extensive survey of the literature of community financing arrangements, and selected experiences from the Asia and Africa regions. Most community financing schemes have evolved in the context of severe economic constraints, political instability, and lack of good governance. Micro-level household data analysis indicates that community financing improves access by rural and informal sector workers to needed heath care and provides them with some financial protection against the cost of illness. Macro-level cross-country analysis gives empirical support to the hypothesis that risk-sharing in health financing matters in terms of its impact on both the level and distribution of health, financial fairness and responsiveness indicators. The background research done for this article points to five key policies available to governments to improve the effectiveness and sustainability of existing community financing schemes. This includes: (a) increased and well-targeted subsidies to pay for the premiums of low-income populations; (b) insurance to protect against expenditure fluctuations and re-insurance to enlarge the effective size of small risk pools; (c) effective prevention and case management techniques to limit expenditure fluctuations; (d) technical support to strengthen the management capacity of local schemes; and (e) establishment and strengthening of links with the formal financing and provider networks. PMID:11953793

  1. Breaking the Bank: Three Financing Models for Addressing the Drug Innovation Cost Crisis

    PubMed Central

    Kleinke, J.D.; McGee, Nancy

    2015-01-01

    Background The introduction of innovative specialty pharmaceuticals with high prices has renewed efforts by public and private healthcare payers to constrain their utilization, increase patient cost-sharing, and compel government intervention on pricing. These efforts, although rational for individual payers, have the potential to undermine the public health impact and overall economic value of these innovations for society. The emerging archetypal example is the outcry over the cost of sofosbuvir, a drug proved to cure hepatitis C infection at a cost of $84,000 per person for a course of treatment (or $1000 per tablet). This represents a radical medical breakthrough for public health, with great promise for the long-term costs associated with this disease, but with major short-term cost implications for the budgets of healthcare payers. Objectives To propose potential financing models to provide a workable and lasting solution that directly addresses the misalignment of incentives between healthcare payers confronted with the high upfront costs of innovative specialty drugs and the rest of the US healthcare system, and to articulate these in the context of the historic struggle over paying for innovation. Discussion We describe 3 innovative financing models to manage expensive specialty drugs that will significantly reduce the direct, immediate cost burden of these drugs to public and private healthcare payers. The 3 financing models include high-cost drug mortgages, high-cost drugs reinsurance, and high-cost drug patient rebates. These models have been proved successful in other areas and should be adopted into healthcare to mitigate the high-cost of specialty drugs. We discuss the distribution of this burden over time and across the healthcare system, and we match the financial burden of medical innovations to the healthcare stakeholders who capture their overall value. All 3 models work within or replicate the current healthcare marketplace mechanisms for

  2. The costs and financing of perinatal care in the United States.

    PubMed Central

    Long, S H; Marquis, M S; Harrison, E R

    1994-01-01

    OBJECTIVES. The purpose of this study was to estimate the aggregate annual costs of maternal and infant health care and to describe the flow of funds that finance that care. METHODS. Estimates of costs and financing based on household and provider surveys, third-party claims data, and hospital discharge data were combined into a single, best estimate. RESULTS. The total cost of perinatal care in 1989 was $27.8 billion, or $6850 per mother-infant pair. Payments made directly by patients or third parties for this care totaled $25.4 billion, or about 7% of personal health care spending by the nonaged population. Payments were less than costs because they did not include a value for direct delivery care or for bad debt and charity care, which accounted for $2.4 billion. Private insurance accounted for about 63% of total payments, and Medicaid accounted for 17% of the total. CONCLUSIONS. National health reform would provide windfall receipts to hospitals, which would receive payment for the considerable bad debt and charity care they provide. Reform might also provide short-term gains to providers as private payment rates are substituted for those of Medicaid. PMID:8092374

  3. Partners assume risks, lower finance costs of delayed coker-cogeneration project in Chile

    SciTech Connect

    Alveal, E.D.; Karpenski, M.J.

    1997-03-31

    Foster Wheeler Power Systems Inc., and its partners--Petrox SA Refineria de Petroleo and Empresa Nacional de Petroleo (ENAP), the Chilean national oil company--closed on the financing of Petropower Energia Limitada, a $237 million financed combination delayed coker-cogeneration facility. The facility is now under construction adjacent to Petrox`s 84,000 b/d Talcahuano refinery, near Concepcion. In addition to the low interest rate of 7.36%--only 170 basis points over the 10 year US Treasury yield--the project was rated investment-grade by Standard and Poor`s. The Petropower project also has the distinction of having the longest term--18 years--for any project financing in Latin America. The project is unique in other ways: it is the Republic of Chile`s first public/private partnership and also the first project to combine petroleum coking technology with cogeneration technology in a single project financing. The paper discusses risk assumption, the Petropower project, organization, delayed coker facility, hydrotreater unit, cogeneration facility, environmental assessment, Chile`s changing market, and project benefit.

  4. Universal public finance of tuberculosis treatment in India: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Verguet, Stéphane; Laxminarayan, Ramanan; Jamison, Dean T

    2015-03-01

    Universal public finance (UPF)-government financing of an intervention irrespective of who is receiving it-for a health intervention entails consequences in multiple domains. First, UPF increases intervention uptake and hence the extent of consequent health gains. Second, UPF generates financial consequences including the crowding out of private expenditures. Finally, UPF provides insurance either by covering catastrophic expenditures, which would otherwise throw households into poverty or by preventing diseases that cause them. This paper develops a method-extended cost-effectiveness analysis (ECEA)-for evaluating the consequences of UPF in each of these domains. It then illustrates ECEA with an evaluation of UPF for tuberculosis treatment in India. Using plausible values for key parameters, our base case ECEA concludes that the health gains and insurance value of UPF would accrue primarily to the poor. Reductions in out-of-pocket expenditures are more uniformly distributed across income quintiles. A variant on our base case suggests that lowering costs of borrowing for the poor could potentially achieve some of the health gains of UPF, but at the cost of leaving the poor more deeply in debt. PMID:24497185

  5. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  6. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  7. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocation of indirect costs to sponsored research and development. (3) The cost of IR & D, including its proportionate share of indirect costs, is unallowable. (End of... are allowable as indirect costs. (3) B & P costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in...

  8. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocations of indirect costs of sponsored research and development. The costs of independent research and development, including its proportionate share of indirect...

  9. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocations of indirect costs of sponsored research and development. The costs of independent research and development, including its proportionate share of indirect...

  10. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past... indirect costs on the same basis as the allocations of indirect costs of sponsored research and development. The costs of independent research and development, including its proportionate share of indirect...

  11. Financing and cost-effectiveness analysis of public-private partnerships: provision of tuberculosis treatment in South Africa

    PubMed Central

    Sinanovic, Edina; Kumaranayake, Lilani

    2006-01-01

    Background Public-private partnerships (PPP) could be effective in scaling up services. We estimated cost and cost-effectiveness of different PPP arrangements in the provision of tuberculosis (TB) treatment, and the financing required for the different models from the perspective of the provincial TB programme, provider, and the patient. Methods Two different models of TB provider partnerships are evaluated, relative to sole public provision: public-private workplace (PWP) and public-private non-government (PNP). Cost and effectiveness data were collected at six sites providing directly observed treatment (DOT). Effectiveness for a 12-month cohort of new sputum positive patients was measured using cure and treatment success rates. Provider and patient costs were estimated, and analysed according to sources of financing. Cost-effectiveness is estimated from the perspective of the provider, patient and society in terms of the cost per TB case cured and cost per case successfully treated. Results Cost per case cured was significantly lower in PNP (US $354–446), and comparable between PWP (US $788–979) and public sites (US $700–1000). PPP models could significantly reduce costs to the patient by 64–100%. Relative to pure public sector provision and financing, expansion of PPPs could reduce government financing required per TB patient treated from $609–690 to $130–139 in PNP and $36–46 in PWP. Conclusion There is a strong economic case for expanding PPP in TB treatment and potentially for other types of health services. Where PPPs are tailored to target groups and supported by the public sector, scaling up of effective services could occur at much lower cost than solely relying on public sector models. PMID:16756653

  12. Financing the Future: Postsecondary Students, Costs, and Financial Aid, 1993-1994. Household Economic Studies. Current Population Reports.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Day, Jennifer Cheeseman; Witkowski, Kristine

    This report uses data collected in the Survey of Income and Program Participation (SIPP) to examine the characteristics of postsecondary education students, their schooling costs, and avenues of financing education for the academic year 1993-1994. The SIPP provides information on all students who were enrolled at any time, for any duration, during…

  13. Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings: Today's Trends in Project Finance, Clean Fuel Fleets, Combined Heat& Power, Emissions Markets

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2003-07-01

    The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings covers today's trends in project finance, combined heat& power, clean fuel fleets and emissions trading. The guide is directed at campus facilities and business managers and contains general guidance, contact information and case studies from colleges and universities across the country.

  14. Can Additional Homeopathic Treatment Save Costs? A Retrospective Cost-Analysis Based on 44500 Insured Persons

    PubMed Central

    Ostermann, Julia K.; Reinhold, Thomas; Witt, Claudia M.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to compare the health care costs for patients using additional homeopathic treatment (homeopathy group) with the costs for those receiving usual care (control group). Methods Cost data provided by a large German statutory health insurance company were retrospectively analysed from the societal perspective (primary outcome) and from the statutory health insurance perspective. Patients in both groups were matched using a propensity score matching procedure based on socio-demographic variables as well as costs, number of hospital stays and sick leave days in the previous 12 months. Total cumulative costs over 18 months were compared between the groups with an analysis of covariance (adjusted for baseline costs) across diagnoses and for six specific diagnoses (depression, migraine, allergic rhinitis, asthma, atopic dermatitis, and headache). Results Data from 44,550 patients (67.3% females) were available for analysis. From the societal perspective, total costs after 18 months were higher in the homeopathy group (adj. mean: EUR 7,207.72 [95% CI 7,001.14–7,414.29]) than in the control group (EUR 5,857.56 [5,650.98–6,064.13]; p<0.0001) with the largest differences between groups for productivity loss (homeopathy EUR 3,698.00 [3,586.48–3,809.53] vs. control EUR 3,092.84 [2,981.31–3,204.37]) and outpatient care costs (homeopathy EUR 1,088.25 [1,073.90–1,102.59] vs. control EUR 867.87 [853.52–882.21]). Group differences decreased over time. For all diagnoses, costs were higher in the homeopathy group than in the control group, although this difference was not always statistically significant. Conclusion Compared with usual care, additional homeopathic treatment was associated with significantly higher costs. These analyses did not confirm previously observed cost savings resulting from the use of homeopathy in the health care system. PMID:26230412

  15. Financing the Future of Education & Explaining Public K-12 Funding Cost for the 21st Century: A School Finance Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    West, P. R., Sr.

    The three primary sources of funding for public education in America are the federal government, the state government, and the community. This paper presents an overview of trends in funding K-12 public education; the stability of local-funding sources; the value of public education as a factor in cost; political influences on school funding;…

  16. Estimating the additional cost of disability: beyond budget standards.

    PubMed

    Wilkinson-Meyers, Laura; Brown, Paul; McNeill, Robert; Patston, Philip; Dylan, Sacha; Baker, Ronelle

    2010-11-01

    Disabled people have long advocated for sufficient resources to live a life with the same rights and responsibilities as non-disabled people. Identifying the unique resource needs of disabled people relative to the population as a whole and understanding the source of these needs is critical for determining adequate levels of income support and for prioritising service provision. Previous attempts to identify the resources and costs associated with disability have tended to rely on surveys of current resource use. These approaches have been criticised as being inadequate for identifying the resources that would be required to achieve a similar standard of living to non-disabled people and for not using methods that are acceptable to and appropriate for the disabled community. The challenge is therefore to develop a methodology that accurately identifies these unique resource needs, uses an approach that is acceptable to the disabled community, enables all disabled people to participate, and distinguishes 'needs' from 'wants.' This paper describes and presents the rationale for a mixed methodology for identifying and prioritising the resource needs of disabled people. The project is a partnership effort between disabled researchers, a disability support organisation and academic researchers in New Zealand. The method integrates a social model of disability framework and an economic cost model using a budget standards approach to identify additional support, equipment, travel and time required to live an 'ordinary life' in the community. A survey is then used to validate the findings and identify information gaps and resource priorities of the community. Both the theoretical basis of the approach and the practical challenges of designing and implementing a methodology that is acceptable to the disabled community, service providers and funding agencies are discussed. PMID:20933315

  17. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... scientific, cost and other data needed to support the bids, proposals and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  18. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ...-Federal contracts, grants, and agreements, including the development of scientific, cost, and other data... method, they may be accepted if they are found to be reasonable and equitable. (4) B & P costs do...

  19. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... practice is to treat these costs by some other method, they may be accepted if they are found to...

  20. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  1. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  2. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  3. University-level nutrition training in West Africa: cost and financing issues

    PubMed Central

    Sodjinou, Roger; Bosu, William; Fanou, Nadia; Zagre, Noel; Tchibindat, Félicité; Baker, Shawn; Delisle, Helene

    2015-01-01

    's programs appeared to charge higher fees than older ones. We found a significant negative correlation between tuition fees and the age of the program, after controlling for school ownership (r=−0.33, p<0.001). Conclusions Our findings underscore the urgent need for national governments in the region to establish benchmarks and regulate nutrition training costs. In a region where the average annual gross national income (GNI) per capita is barely 890$, the rising cost of tuition fees is likely to hinder access of students from poor background to nutrition training. Governments should institute financing mechanisms such as scholarships, public–private partnerships, credit facilities, and donor funding to facilitate access to tertiary-level nutrition training in the region. PMID:26560690

  4. Analysis of the First Year of Operation of the Federal Alternative Financing Program for Individuals with Disabilities: Providing Low Cost Loans for the Purchase of Assistive Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    RESNA: Association for the Advancement of Rehabilitation Technology, Arlington, VA.

    This report analyzes the first year of the Federal Alternative Financing Program (AFP), a program designed to help individuals with disabilities who need to purchase assistive technology (AT) find a way to pay for the equipment. The program receives funding under Title III of the Assistive Technology Act of 1998 and provides low-cost financing for…

  5. Information technology financing options.

    PubMed

    Rai, D

    1996-01-01

    Healthcare executives facing the challenges of delivering quality care and controlling costs must consider the role information technology systems can play in meeting those challenges. To make the best use of information system expenditures, organizations must carefully plan how to finance system acquisitions. Some options that should be considered are paying cash, financing, financing "soft" costs, leasing, credit warehousing and early acceptance financing, and tax-exempt and conduit financing. PMID:10154097

  6. Cutting Costs, Keeping Quality: Financing Strategies for Youth-Serving Organizations in a Difficult Economy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Eric

    2010-01-01

    This research brief highlights three effective financing strategies that successful youth-serving organizations are using to maintain quality services despite difficult economic times. The brief provides examples of how organizations have implemented these strategies and offers tips to help leaders consider how best to adapt these strategies to…

  7. Including Ethics in Banking and Finance Programs: Teaching "We Shouldn't Win at Any Cost"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oates, Grainne; Dias, Roshanthi

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to identify whether ethics is incorporated into the curriculum in postgraduate banking and finance programmes. There is growing concern that moral failure preceded the global financial crisis with waves of ethical scandals overwhelming the global banking industry highlighting a lack of integrity. Consequently,…

  8. Bond Insurance Can Help Lower the Cost of Financing Your Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sockwell, Oliver R.

    1993-01-01

    For many colleges, universities, and teaching hospitals, the need to expand, renovate, or replace aging structures and equipment is crucial. Institutions need not be large and well known to tap nationwide capital pools. By using municipal bond insurance when issuing tax-exempt bonds for financing, they improve their credit rating and increase…

  9. A General History of Public School Finance in Alaska. Operating and Capital Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Nathaniel H.

    This document examines the chronological history of financing the Alaskan public school system. The first section traces the influence of the Greco-Russian Church and the Russian-American Company on education in Russian Alaska. The second section focuses on early United States education efforts, including the Sheldon Jackson era, the Organic Act…

  10. Data Collection for Current U.S. Wind Energy Projects: Component Costs, Financing, Operations, and Maintenance; January 2011 - September 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Martin-Tretton, M.; Reha, M.; Drunsic, M.; Keim, M.

    2012-01-01

    DNV Renewables (USA) Inc. (DNV) used an Operations and Maintenance (O&M) Cost Model to evaluate ten distinct cost scenarios encountered under variations in wind turbine component failure rates. The analysis considers: (1) a Reference Scenario using the default part failure rates within the O&M Cost Model, (2) High Failure Rate Scenarios that increase the failure rates of three major components (blades, gearboxes, and generators) individually, (3) 100% Replacement Scenarios that model full replacement of these components over a 20 year operating life, and (4) Serial Failure Scenarios that model full replacement of blades, gearboxes, and generators in years 4 to 6 of the wind project. DNV selected these scenarios to represent a broad range of possible operational experiences. Also in this report, DNV summarizes the predominant financing arrangements used to develop wind energy projects over the past several years and provides summary data on various financial metrics describing those arrangements.

  11. Cost Sharing in Education: Public Finance, School and Household Perspectives. Education Research Paper.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Penrose, Perran

    This report examines cost sharing, a term that combines the concepts of direct-cost recovery and indirect contributions from pupils, their parents, and sponsors. Such contributions may be voluntary, quasi-compulsory, or even compulsory. For the study reported here, cost sharing is used when the subject under discussion is not restricted to…

  12. Cost & efficiency evaluation of a publicly financed & publicly delivered referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, India

    PubMed Central

    Prinja, Shankar; Manchanda, Neha; Aggarwal, Arun Kumar; Kaur, Manmeet; Jeet, Gursimer; Kumar, Rajesh

    2013-01-01

    Background & objectives: Various models of referral transport services have been introduced in different States in India with an aim to reduce maternal and infant mortality. Most of the research on referral transport has focussed on coverage, quality and timeliness of the service with not much information on cost and efficiency. This study was undertaken to analyze the cost of a publicly financed and managed referral transport service model in three districts of Haryana State, and to assess its cost and technical efficiency. Methods: Data on all resources spent for delivering referral transport service, during 2010, were collected from three districts of Haryana State. Costs incurred at State level were apportioned using appropriate methods. Data Envelopment Analysis (DEA) technique was used to assess the technical efficiency of ambulances. To estimate the efficient scale of operation for ambulance service, the average cost was regressed on kilometres travelled for each ambulance station using a quadratic regression equation. Results: The cost of referral transport per year varied from ₹5.2 million in Narnaul to ₹9.8 million in Ambala. Salaries (36-50%) constituted the major cost. Referral transport was found to be operating at an average efficiency level of 76.8 per cent. Operating an ambulance with a patient load of 137 per month was found to reduce unit costs from an average ₹ 15.5 per km to ₹ 9.57 per km. Interpretation & conclusions: Our results showed that the publicly delivered referral transport services in Haryana were operating at an efficient level. Increasing the demand for referral transport services among the target population represents an opportunity for further improving the efficiency of the underutilized ambulances. PMID:24521648

  13. Determinants of the cost of capital for privately financed hospital projects in the UK.

    PubMed

    Colla, Paolo; Hellowell, Mark; Vecchi, Veronica; Gatti, Stefano

    2015-11-01

    Many governments make use of private finance contracts to deliver healthcare infrastructure. Previous work has shown that the rate of return to investors in these markets often exceeds the efficient level. Our focus is on the factors that influence that return. We examine the effect of macroeconomic, project- and firm-level variables using a detailed sample of 84 UK private finance initiative (PFI) contracts signed between 1997 and 2010. Of the above variables, macroeconomic conditions and lead sponsor size are related to the investor return. However, our results show a remarkable degree of stability in the return to investors over the 14-year period. We find evidence of a 'prevailing norm' that is robust to project- and firm-level variation. The sustainability of excess returns over a long period is indicative of a concentrated market structure. We argue that policymakers should consider new mechanisms for increasing competition in the equity market, while ensuring that authorities have the specialist resources required to negotiate efficient contract prices. PMID:26432655

  14. Report: cost and financing of municipal solid waste collection services in Istanbul.

    PubMed

    Doğan, Karadag; Süleyman, Sakar

    2003-10-01

    The collection is a high priority in the management of solid wastes in a modern city, and in order to plan and operate a collection service well, the cost and financial sources must be known and understood in detail. In this study the cost of collection services and environmental tax are evaluated for the year 2001 in Istanbul. The percentage of the employees working in municipal solid waste collection services is 83% by the private sector and 17% by the public sector. With privatisation, the labour costs can be reduced by approximately 75%. The unit collection cost ranges from 12.2 US dollar/ton to 50.7 US dollar/ton, and the average collection cost for Istanbul is 24.4 US dollar/ton. The cost of the collection service is about 70% of the total solid waste management costs, the cost of transfer is 17% and the regular disposal cost amounts to 13%. The proportion of collected tax to expenditures of waste collection varies from 3% to 67%. The management of solid wastes accounts for between 12 and 25% of the total expenditure of municipal authorities. PMID:14661896

  15. Estimating the Full Cost of Family-Financed Time Inputs to Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levine, Victor

    This paper presents a methodology for estimating the full cost of parental time allocated to child-care activities at home. Building upon the human capital hypothesis, a model is developed in which the cost of an hour diverted from labor market activity is seen as consisting of three components: 1) direct wages foregone; 2) investments in…

  16. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery. 25.111 Section 25.111 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at...

  17. Financing New Information Access Paradigms, or Why Academic Information Managers Need Cost Models.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Katz, Richard N.

    1992-01-01

    This speech addresses the need for institutions of higher education to develop economic models to assist in the management of academic information systems (including both print and computerized systems) in light of restricted economic resources. Steps in development of a comprehensive model of information costs are outlined. (DB)

  18. Community College Finance: A Cost Analysis of Community College Expenditures Related to Maintenance and Operations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Collins, Michael T.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to develop a costing model for maintenance and operations expenditures among 16 single-campus California community college districts and assess the impact of a variety of variables including size of student enrollment, physical plant age, acreage, gross square footage, and general obligation facility bonds on district…

  19. Making It Real: Incorporating Cost Management and Productivity Improvements into Financing Decisions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane

    2010-01-01

    Higher education is being challenged to increase access and degree attainment for all student groups--a tall order under any circumstances, but particularly daunting in the current economy. To do this, institutional and policy leaders will need to find ways to reduce costs and permanently reduce spending demands while they maintain access. This…

  20. Financing Higher Education in Ethiopia: Analysis of Cost-Sharing Policy and its Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ayalew, Sewale Abate

    2013-01-01

    Cost-sharing as a policy in Ethiopian higher education institutions (HEIs) has been adopted since 2003 to achieve a set of objectives such as supplementing revenue as an alternative non-governmental source, maintaining and enhancing access to higher education, addressing equity in terms of opportunity in higher education and making students…

  1. Child Health Supervision: Analytical Studies in the Financing, Delivery, and Cost-Effectiveness of Preventive and Health Promotion Services for Infants, Children, and Adolescents.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solloway, Michele R., Ed.; Budetti, Peter P., Ed.

    This report presents findings of a George Washington University Center for Health Policy Research (CHPR) multi-year project to conduct analytical studies on the financing, delivery, and cost effectiveness of child health supervision services. Against a backdrop of decline in private sector coverage for children, a growing number of children living…

  2. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  4. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  5. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  6. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  7. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  8. The cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccination in addition to screening: a Dutch perspective.

    PubMed

    Setiawan, Didik; Luttjeboer, Jos; Westra, Tjalke Arend; Wilschut, Jan C; Suwantika, Auliya A; Daemen, Toos; Atthobari, Jarir; Wilffert, Bob; Postma, Maarten J

    2015-04-01

    Addition of the HPV vaccine to available cytological screening has been proposed to increase HPV-related cancer prevention. A comprehensive review on this combined strategy implemented in the Netherlands is lacking. For this review, we therefore analyzed all relevant studies on cost-effectiveness of HPV vaccines in combination with cervical screening in the Netherlands. Most of the studies agree that vaccination in pre-sexual-activity periods of life is cost-effective. Based on published sensitivity analyses, the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was found to be mainly driven by vaccine cost and discount rates. Fewer vaccine doses, inclusion of additional benefits of these vaccines to prevent HPV-related non-cervical cancers and vaccination of males to further reduce the burden of HPV-induced cancers are three relevant options suggested to be investigated in upcoming economic evaluations. PMID:25482311

  9. Cost-effectiveness of additional catheter-directed thrombolysis for deep vein thrombosis

    PubMed Central

    ENDEN, T.; RESCH, S.; WHITE, C.; WIK, H. S.; KLØW, N. E.; SANDSET, P. M.

    2013-01-01

    Summary Background Additional treatment with catheter-directed thrombolysis (CDT) has recently been shown to reduce post-thrombotic syndrome (PTS). Objectives To estimate the cost effectiveness of additional CDT compared with standard treatment alone. Methods Using a Markov decision model, we compared the two treatment strategies in patients with a high proximal deep vein thrombosis (DVT) and a low risk of bleeding. The model captured the development of PTS, recurrent venous thromboembolism and treatment-related adverse events within a lifetime horizon and the perspective of a third-party payer. Uncertainty was assessed with one-way and probabilistic sensitivity analyzes. Model inputs from the CaVenT study included PTS development, major bleeding from CDT and utilities for post DVT states including PTS. The remaining clinical inputs were obtained from the literature. Costs obtained from the CaVenT study, hospital accounts and the literature are expressed in US dollars ($); effects in quality adjusted life years (QALY). Results In base case analyzes, additional CDT accumulated 32.31 QALYs compared with 31.68 QALYs after standard treatment alone. Direct medical costs were $64 709 for additional CDT and $51 866 for standard treatment. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was $20 429/QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analysis showed model sensitivity to the clinical efficacy of both strategies, but the ICER remained < $55 000/QALY over the full range of all parameters. The probability that CDT is cost effective was 82% at a willingness to pay threshold of $50 000/QALY gained. Conclusions Additional CDT is likely to be a cost-effective alternative to the standard treatment for patients with a high proximal DVT and a low risk of bleeding. PMID:23452204

  10. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  11. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  12. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  13. Geothermal Financing Workbook

    SciTech Connect

    Battocletti, E.C.

    1998-02-01

    This report was prepared to help small firm search for financing for geothermal energy projects. There are various financial and economics formulas. Costs of some small overseas geothermal power projects are shown. There is much discussion of possible sources of financing, especially for overseas projects. (DJE-2005)

  14. The Costs of Higher Education: An Essay on the Comparative Financing of Universities. Special Studies in Comparative Education No. 23.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce

    The paper uses data from the United States and several other industrialized nations to evaluate the costs of post-secondary education. Discussed are: variations on the concept of higher educational costs; three cost issues (how much higher education, the unit costs of higher education, and sharing the costs); higher education costs and social…

  15. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  16. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith; England, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  17. SideRack: A Cost-Effective Addition to Commercial Zebrafish Housing Systems

    PubMed Central

    Burg, Leonard; Gill, Ryan; Balciuniene, Jorune

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Commercially available aquatic housing systems provide excellent and relatively trouble-free hardware for rearing and housing juvenile as well as adult zebrafish. However, the cost of such systems is quite high and potentially prohibitive for smaller educational and research institutions. The need for tank space prompted us to experiment with various additions to our existing Aquaneering system. We also noted that high water exchange rates typical in commercial systems are suboptimal for quick growth of juvenile fish. We devised a housing system we call “SideRack,” which contains 20 large tanks with air supply and slow water circulation. It enables cost-effective expansion of existing fish facility, with a key additional benefit of increased growth and maturation rates of juvenile fish. PMID:24611601

  18. The Supply and Cost of Education and the Vote: A Political-Economic Theory of School Finance Elections.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boss, Michael

    The recent marked increase in voter-taxpayer rejection of school budget and school bond issues at polls across the United States -- a phenomenon popularly called the "taxpayers' revolt" -- has given rise to the widespread claim that public school finance is in a state of crisis. This paper develops a simplified model of a political marketplace,…

  19. Personal Finance Calculations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Argo, Mark

    1982-01-01

    Contains explanations and examples of mathematical calculations for a secondary level course on personal finance. How to calculate total monetary cost of an item, monthly payments, different types of interest, annual percentage rates, and unit pricing is explained. (RM)

  20. Economics and health: beyond financing.

    PubMed

    Horwitz, A

    1988-01-01

    World Bank publications have a large influence on the decisions of governments. This article analyzes the publication "Financing Health Services in Developing Countries: An Agenda for Reform" part of the World Bank Policy Studies series. This study assesses only peripheral reasons for the lack of public and private financial investments in health services. It does not include the result of economic recession, budget cutbacks, and poverty on financing systems. There has been excessive expenditure on luxury in health institutions which takes considerable finances from disease prevention and health promotion services. There is low demand for private services because of the high cost, but public health services sometimes lack tools and money necessary for adequate care. The study does not address the relationship between needs and demand and the supply of health services. It outlines "4 Policy Reforms" in which the aims are to increase to cost of curative services and to use the additional money for prevention. The World Bank favors using private sector services but does not seem to view decentralization of health care as important. Social security systems have been in place in Latin America for 63 years. These systems are funded by wage earners and do not cover lower income rural citizens. Chile was the 1st country to adopt compulsory insurance in 1924 for catastrophes and diseases. The Chilean National Health Service combines institutional and community resources to provide quality health care. Social insurance and other prepayment systems are the rational approaches for financing health care in the Americas. These systems should be based on contributions by the State, employers, and urban and rural workers. There is a need for fund redistribution from institutional curative care to community preventative care. Health care costs should reflect income proportionally. The World Bank contributes vital analysis to the problem of health service financing. Hopefully

  1. Costs and financing of improvements in the quality of maternal health services through the Bamako Initiative in Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Ogunbekun, I; Adeyi, O; Wouters, A; Morrow, R H

    1996-12-01

    This paper reports on a study to assess the quality of maternal health care in public health facilities in Nigeria and to identify the resource implications of making the necessary quality improvements. Drawing upon unifying themes from quality assurance, basic microeconomics and the Bamako Initiative, locally defined norms were used to estimate resource requirements for improving the quality of maternal health care. Wide gaps existed between what is required (the norm) and what was available in terms of fixed and variable resources required for the delivery of maternal health services in public facilities implementing the Bamako Initiative in the Local Government Areas studied. Given such constraints, it was highly unlikely that technically acceptable standards of care could be met without additional resource inputs to meet the norm. This is part of the cost of doing business and merits serious policy dialogue. Revenue generation from health services was poor and appeared to be more related to inadequate supply of essential drugs and consumables than to the use of uneconomic fee scales. It is likely that user fees will be necessary to supplement scarce government budgets, especially to fund the most critical variable inputs associated with quality improvements. However, any user fee system, especially one that raises fees to patients, will have to be accompanied by immediate and visible quality improvements. Without such quality improvements, cost recovery will result in even lower utilization and attempts to generate new revenues are unlikely to succeed. PMID:10164194

  2. Optimizing breast cancer follow-up: diagnostic value and costs of additional routine breast ultrasound.

    PubMed

    Wojcinski, Sebastian; Farrokh, Andre; Hille, Ursula; Hirschauer, Elke; Schmidt, Werner; Hillemanns, Peter; Degenhardt, Friedrich

    2011-02-01

    A total of 2,546,325 breast cancer survivors are estimated to live in the United States. The organized breast cancer follow-up programs do not generally include breast ultrasound in asymptomatic women. The purpose of our prospective study was to investigate the efficacy of breast ultrasound in detecting previously occult recurrences. A total of 735 eligible patients with a history of breast cancer were recruited. We assessed the same patient population before (routine follow-up program) and after (study follow-up program) the introduction of an additional ultrasound examination. In the routine follow-up program 245 of 735 patients (33.3% [95% confidence-interval (CI): 29.9-36.7]) had an ultrasound due to abnormal local or mammographic findings. 490 of 735 patients (66.7% [95% CI: 63.3-70.1]) were initially considered asymptomatic and received an additional ultrasound exclusively within the study follow-up program. All positive examination results were followed by accelerated core needle biopsy. The routine follow-up program led to a biopsy in 66 of 735 patients (9.0%) revealing a recurrent cancer in 27 cases (3.7%). The study follow-up program with the additional ultrasound led to another 21 biopsies raising the total number of patients who had to undergo a biopsy from 9.0% (95% CI: 6.9-11.1) to 11.8% (95% CI: 9.5-14.2). Finally, we diagnosed a previously occult malignant lesion in an additional six patients following this protocol. Therefore, the rate of detected recurrences rose from 3.7% (95% CI: 2.3-5.0) in the routine follow-up program to 4.5% (95% CI: 3.0-6.0) in the study follow-up program (p = 0.041). Negative side effects were the additional costs (the costs per detected malignancy in the routine follow-up program were $2455.69; the costs for each additionally detected malignancy in the study follow-up program were $7580.30), the higher overall biopsy rate (9.0 vs. 11.8%) and the elevated benign biopsies rate (59.1% vs. 71.4%). Regarding these results, the

  3. Financing and budgetary impact of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in NW Germany - an economic analysis using landslide database information and cost survey data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurischat, Philipp; Klose, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Recent studies show that landslides cause even in low mountain areas of Central and Western Europe millions of dollars in annual losses (Klose et al., 2012; Vranken et al., 2013). The objective of this study has therefore been to model landslide disaster financing and to assess budgetary impacts of landslide losses for highways and urban infrastructures in the Lower Saxon Uplands, NW Germany. The present contribution includes two case studies on the financial burden of landslides for public budgets using the examples of the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation and the city of Hann. Münden. The basis of this research is a regional subset of a landslide database for the Federal Republic of Germany. Using a toolset for landslide cost modeling based on landslide databases (Klose et al., 2013), the direct costs of more than 30 landslide damage events to highways in a local case study area were determined. The annual average landslide maintenance, repair, and mitigation costs for highways in this case study area are estimated at 0.76 million between 1980 and 2010. Alternatively, a cost survey based on expert interviews has been conducted to collect landslide loss data for urban infrastructures. This cost survey for the city of Hann. Münden shows annual landslide losses of up to 3.4 million during the previous 10 years. Further expert interviews at city and highway agency level were focused on identifying procedure, resources, and limits of financing landslide damage costs. The information on landslide disaster financing and cost survey data on annual maintenance and construction budgets for highways, city sewer lines, and urban roads were used to evaluate the fiscal significance of estimated landslide losses. The results of this economic impact assessment prove variable financial burdens of analyzed public budgets. Thus, in costly years with landslide losses of more than 7 million, the Lower Saxony Department of Transportation is required to shift up to 19% of its

  4. Financing Higher Standards in Public Education: The Importance of Accounting for Educational Costs. Policy Brief, No. 10.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Duncombe, William; Yinger, John

    This policy brief explains why performance focus and educational cost indexes must go hand in hand, discusses alternative methods for estimating educational cost indexes, and shows how these costs indexes can be incorporated into a performance-based state aid program. A shift to educational performance standards, whether these standards are…

  5. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  6. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  7. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and... LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of...) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by someone other than...

  8. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds... circumstances of the construction process (i.e., cost overruns). If the Secretary is unable to fund the... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions...

  9. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds... circumstances of the construction process (i.e., cost overruns). If the Secretary is unable to fund the... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions...

  10. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  11. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... sufficient additional funds are awarded. (See 25 CFR 900.130(e).) Miscellaneous Provisions ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  12. Solar thermal financing guidebook

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, T.A.; Cole, R.J.; Brown, D.R.; Dirks, J.A.; Edelhertz, H.; Holmlund, I.; Malhotra, S.; Smith, S.A.; Sommers, P.; Willke, T.L.

    1983-05-01

    This guidebook contains information on alternative financing methods that could be used to develop solar thermal systems. The financing arrangements discussed include several lease alternatives, joint venture financing, R and D partnerships, industrial revenue bonds, and ordinary sales. In many situations, alternative financing arrangements can significantly enhance the economic attractiveness of solar thermal investments by providing a means to efficiently allocate elements of risk, return on investment, required capital investment, and tax benefits. A net present value approach is an appropriate method that can be used to investigate the economic attractiveness of alternative financing methods. Although other methods are applicable, the net present value approach has advantages of accounting for the time value of money, yielding a single valued solution to the financial analysis, focusing attention on the opportunity cost of capital, and being a commonly understood concept that is relatively simple to apply. A personal computer model for quickly assessing the present value of investments in solar thermal plants with alternative financing methods is presented in this guidebook. General types of financing arrangements that may be desirable for an individual can be chosen based on an assessment of his goals in investing in solar thermal systems and knowledge of the individual's tax situation. Once general financing arrangements have been selected, a screening analysis can quickly determine if the solar investment is worthy of detailed study.

  13. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  14. Lower Costs, Higher Returns: UNCF HBCUs in a High-Priced College Environment. Financing African American College Aspirations Series

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richards, David A. R.

    2014-01-01

    While research consistently shows the earning power of college degrees, those returns are best weighed against the cost of attending post-secondary institutions, historically black colleges and universities (HBCUs) included. This study is an update of "Affordability of UNCF-Member Institutions" (2009), and compares the average costs at…

  15. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  16. Cost Analysis and its Use in Simulation of Policy Options: The Papua New Guinea Education Finance Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Webster, Thomas

    1997-01-01

    Describes the structure and operations of a computer simulation model used in Papua New Guinea, developed with technical assistance from UNESCO. Notes that model establishes baseline data on student enrollments, teacher posts, and costs of education, and can be used to simulate policies under consideration and provide output on student flows,…

  17. Has Adequacy Been Achieved? A Study of Finances and Costs a Decade after Court-Ordered Reform

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Verstegen, Deborah A.

    2007-01-01

    This article discusses the methods and results of a study designed to determine the cost of education under the curriculum frameworks and state laws in a northeastern state after major education reform and a judicial decision finding the system inadequate and unconstitutional. The study is designed to determine the funding levels necessary for…

  18. The Growing Imbalance: Recent Trends in U.S. Postsecondary Education Finance. A Report of the Delta Cost Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wellman, Jane V.; Desrochers, Donna M.; Lenihan, Colleen M.

    2008-01-01

    Despite clear evidence that college tuitions are rising (the only incontrovertible fact in this conversation), the policy debate about college costs is remarkably poorly informed by data about college spending patterns, revenue availability, and the relation between spending and tuition increases. The last national study of trends in college…

  19. Surgical streams in the flow of health care financing. The role of surgery in national expenditures: what costs are controllable?

    PubMed Central

    Moore, F D

    1985-01-01

    The dollar flow in United States medical care has been analyzed in terms of a six-level model; this model and the gross 1981 flow data are set forth. Of the estimated $310 billion expended in 1981, it is estimated that $85-$95 billion was the "surgical stream", i.e., that amount expended to take care of surgical patients at a variety of institutional types and including ambulatory care and surgeons' fees. Some of the determinants of surgical flow are reviewed as well as controllable costs and case mix pressures. Surgical complications, when severe, increase routine operative costs by a factor of 8 to 20. Maintenance of high quality in American surgery, despite new manpower pressures, is the single most important factor in cost containment. By voluntary or imposed controls on fees, malpractice premiums, case mix selection, and hospital utilization, a saving of $2.0-$4.0 billion can be seen as reachable and practical. This is five per cent of the surgical stream and is a part of the realistic "achievable" savings of total flow estimated to be about +15 billion or 5 per cent. PMID:3918514

  20. Personal Finance Resource Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This personal finance guide assists teachers and curriculum committees in the selection of appropriate materials. The listings follow a common format: title; a brief description of the materials; the areas covered; the cost of materials; and information on how to obtain them. Materials cover the following areas: financial planning; purchase of…

  1. [Cost of a renal transplant: medico-economic analysis of the amount reimbursed by the French national health program to finance renal transplantation].

    PubMed

    Sainsaulieu, Yoël; Sambuc, Cléa; Logerot, Hélène; Bongiovanni, Isabelle; Couchoud, Cécile

    2014-07-01

    Successful organ transplantation relies on several ancillary activities such as the identification of a compatible donor, organ allocation and procurement and the coordination of the transplant process. No existing study of the overall costs, in France, of these additional transplantation activities could be identified. This study determines the total additional costs of ancillary transplantation activities by comparing the costs of kidney transplantations with living donors against those using deceased donors. The data used are drawn from the 2013 public healthcare tariff calculations, PMSI recorded activity and transplant activity in 2012 as assessed and reported by the Agence de la biomédecine. The results show that, in 2012, additional transplant costs varied from 13835.44 € to 20050.67 € for a deceased donor and were 13601.66 € for a living donor. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that all the costs covered by National Health Insurance need to be taken into account in the economic impact evaluation of renal transplantation and during the development of this national priority activity. PMID:24985351

  2. Conceptual HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) scaleup design: Capital and operating costs: Part 5. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; Kerivan, D.; Hendrick, C.; Kosek, B.; Tackett, D.; Golightley, M.

    1988-12-01

    Hydrate addition at low temperature (or the HALT process) is a retrofit option for moderate SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in coal burning utility plants. This dry FGD process involves injecting calcium based dry hydrate particles into flue gas ducting downstream of the air preheater where the flue gas temperature is typically in the range of 280-325/degree/F. This report is comprised of the conceptual scaleup design of the HALT process to a 180 MW and a 500 MW coal fired utility station followed by detailed capital and operating cost estimates. A cost sensitivity analysis of major process variables for the 500 MW unit is also included. 1 fig.

  3. 12 CFR 1026.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 9 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Finance charge. 1026.4 Section 1026.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) § 1026.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of consumer credit as a dollar amount. It includes...

  4. 12 CFR 1026.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finance charge. 1026.4 Section 1026.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 1026.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of consumer credit as a dollar amount. It...

  5. 12 CFR 1026.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Finance charge. 1026.4 Section 1026.4 Banks and Banking BUREAU OF CONSUMER FINANCIAL PROTECTION TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 1026.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is the cost of consumer credit as a dollar amount. It...

  6. Creative Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Richard M.

    1984-01-01

    This article analyzes cooperative programs that reduce the risks of financing energy conservation equipment. Savings guarantees, cash flow leasing, shared savings, and cooperative savings programs are described and sources of further information noted. (MJL)

  7. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs. PMID:21279684

  8. 78 FR 32224 - Availability of Version 3.1.2 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ... as part of the Model Design PN, 77 FR 38804, June 29, 2012, of the possible significant economic...). See Electronic Filing of Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic...; Additional Discussion Topics in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal...

  9. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  10. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Design PN, 77 FR 38804, June 29, 2012, of the possible significant economic impact on a substantial... Documents in Rulemaking Proceedings, 63 FR 24121, May 1, 1998. Electronic Filers: Comments may be filed... document, the Wireline Competition Bureau seeks public input on additional questions relating to...

  11. Financing under the California Pollution Control Financing Authority

    SciTech Connect

    Seegmiller, K.M.

    1994-12-31

    The California Pollution Control Financing Authority (CPCFA) provides California industry with a method of financing facilities needed to control and eliminate pollution hazards to the environment. The program enables private companies to utilize funds received from the sale of CPCFA bonds for the acquisition, construction, or installation of pollution control facilities and, when possible, to meet environmental requirements imposed by public agencies. Subsequent changes in federal and state law authorized CPCFA to finance municipal and biomass resource recovery projects. Most bonds sold by the CPCFA pay interest to investors that is exempt from both federal and state income taxes. The insurance of these tax-exempt bonds has resulted in significant reductions in pollution control project financing costs for companies which otherwise would have to secure private taxable financing for their projects.

  12. Quantum Finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.

    2007-09-01

    Foreword; Preface; Acknowledgements; 1. Synopsis; Part I. Fundamental Concepts of Finance: 2. Introduction to finance; 3. Derivative securities; Part II. Systems with Finite Number of Degrees of Freedom: 4. Hamiltonians and stock options; 5. Path integrals and stock options; 6. Stochastic interest rates' Hamiltonians and path integrals; Part III. Quantum Field Theory of Interest Rates Models: 7. Quantum field theory of forward interest rates; 8. Empirical forward interest rates and field theory models; 9. Field theory of Treasury Bonds' derivatives and hedging; 10. Field theory Hamiltonian of forward interest rates; 11. Conclusions; Appendix A: mathematical background; Brief glossary of financial terms; Brief glossary of physics terms; List of main symbols; References; Index.

  13. Exploring asset-based financing for physician practices.

    PubMed

    Kramb, L

    1997-01-01

    Asset-based financing is an often overlooked option for financing acquistions. Two criteria for determining its applicability are the viability of the acquired entity and the liquid value of the borrowing base. Asset-based financing requires a lower initial investment than other forms of financing. However, overall costs may be higher than for traditional loans. PMID:10174977

  14. 13 CFR 120.890 - Source of interim financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Source of interim financing. 120... Development Company Loan Program (504) Interim Financing § 120.890 Source of interim financing. A Project may use interim financing for all Project costs except the Borrower's contribution. Any source...

  15. Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wagner, June G.

    2003-01-01

    This newsletter presents four articles designed to help business educators educate learners in grades K-12 about personal finance. "Now More Than Ever: The Need for Financial Literacy" examines the following topics: evidence that the United States is becoming a nation of debtors; the plummeting personal savings rate; the increasing complexity of…

  16. Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marine Corps Inst., Washington, DC.

    Developed as part of the Marine Corps Institute (MCI) correspondence training program, this course on personal finance is designed to provide all Marines with the ability to manage their financial affairs successfully. Introductory materials include specific information for MCI students, a course introduction, and a study guide (guidelines to…

  17. Financing of Graduate Medical Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maryland State Dept. of Fiscal Services, Annapolis.

    This study, conducted for the Maryland legislature, evaluated the current method for financing graduate medical education in hospital rates, particularly whether the costs of graduate education at the state's two academic medical centers are too high. The study involved discussions with the Health Services Cost Review Commission (HSCRC),…

  18. Formation of gold nanostructures on copier paper surface for cost effective SERS active substrate - Effect of halide additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Desmonda, Christa; Kar, Sudeshna; Tai, Yian

    2016-03-01

    In this study, we report the simple fabrication of an active substrate assisted by gold nanostructures (AuNS) for application in surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) using copier paper, which is a biodegradable and cost-effective material. As cellulose is the main component of paper, it can behave as a reducing agent and as a capping molecule for the synthesis of AuNS on the paper substrate. AuNS can be directly generated on the surface of the copier paper by addition of halides. The AuNS thus synthesized were characterized by ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, SEM, XRD, and XPS. In addition, the SERS effect of the AuNS-paper substrates synthesized by using various halides was investigated by using rhodamine 6G and melamine as probe molecules.

  19. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  20. The impact of financing of screening tests on utilization and outcomes: The case of amniocentesis.

    PubMed

    Shurtz, Ity; Brzezinski, Amnon; Frumkin, Ayala

    2016-07-01

    We use a 1993 policy change in Israel's public healthcare system that lowered the eligibility age for amniocentesis to 35 to study the effects of financing of screening tests. Financing is found to have increased amniocentesis testing by about 35%. At ages above the eligibility threshold, utilization rates rose to roughly 33%, reflection nearly full takeup among prospective users of amniocentesis. Additionally, whereas below the age-35 threshold amniocentesis utilization rates increase with maternal age, this relation is muted above this age. Finally, no evidence is found that financing affects outcomes such as pregnancy terminations and births of children with Down syndrome. These results support the view that women above the eligibility threshold tend to refrain from acquiring inexpensive information about their degree of risk that absent the financing they would acquire, and instead, undergo the accurate and costly test regardless of additional information that noninvasive screening would provide. PMID:27062339

  1. Finance for practicing radiologists.

    PubMed

    Berlin, Jonathan W; Lexa, Frank James

    2005-03-01

    This article reviews basic finance for radiologists. Using the example of a hypothetical outpatient computed tomography center, readers are introduced to the concept of net present value. This concept refers to the current real value of anticipated income in the future, realizing that revenue in the future has less value than it does today. Positive net present value projects add wealth to a practice and should be pursued. The article details how costs and revenues for a hypothetical outpatient computed tomography center are determined and elucidates the difference between fixed costs and variable costs. The article provides readers with the steps used to calculate the break-even volume for an outpatient computed tomography center given situation-specific assumptions regarding staff, equipment lease rates, rent, and third-party payer mix. PMID:17411808

  2. [Dilemmas of health financing].

    PubMed

    Herrera Zárate, M; González Torres, R

    1989-01-01

    The economic crisis had had a profound effect on the finances of health services in Mexico. The expenditure on health has decreased, both in absolute terms and in relation to the national gross product. Funding problems have been aggravated by inequities in budget distribution: social security institutions have been favored; geographical distribution of resources is concentrated in the central areas of the country and in the more developed states, and curative health care has prevailed over preventive medicine. Administrative inefficiency hinders even more the appropriate utilization of resources. Diversification of funding sources has been proposed, through external debt, local funding, and specific health taxing. But these proposals are questionable. The high cost of the debt service has reduced international credits as a source of financing. Resource concentration at the federal level, and the different compromises related to the economic solidarity pact have also diminished the potentiality of local state financing. On the other hand, a special health tax is not viable within the current fiscal framework. The alternatives are a better budget planning, a change in the institutional and regional distribution of resources, and improvement in the administrative mechanisms of funding. PMID:2697097

  3. Creative Bus Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malone, Wade

    1982-01-01

    Alternative ways of financing school bus purchases include financing privately through contractors or commercial banks, financing through sources such as insurance companies and pension funds, leasing the buses, or contracting for transportation services. (Author/MLF)

  4. Financing the Electronic Library: Models and Options.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waters, Richard L.; Kralisz, Victor Frank

    1981-01-01

    Places the cost considerations associated with public library automation in a framework of public finance comfortable to most administrators, discusses the importance of experience with use patterns in the electronic library in opening up new and innovative financing methods, and stresses the role of the library in the information industry. (JL)

  5. 49 CFR 663.11 - Audit financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Audit financing. 663.11 Section 663.11..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION PRE-AWARD AND POST-DELIVERY AUDITS OF ROLLING STOCK PURCHASES General § 663.11 Audit financing. A recipient purchasing revenue rolling stock with FTA funds may charge the cost...

  6. Compare benefits before entering receivables financing.

    PubMed

    Ferconio, S; Lane, M R

    1991-02-01

    Financing accounts receivables is becoming a popular strategy in the healthcare industry. Factoring and securitization are two financing methods available to hospitals. Patient accounts managers who understand the programs' structures, incentives, and costs will be able to achieve the maximum benefit for their hospitals when choosing one of these transactions. PMID:10109699

  7. Costs and Patterns of Financing Maternal Health Care Services in Rural Communities in Northern Nigeria: Evidence for Designing National Fee Exemption Policy

    PubMed Central

    Kalu-Umeh, Nnennaya N.; Sambo, Mohammed N.; Idris, Suleiman H.; Kurfi, Abubakar M.

    2013-01-01

    Background: As population and access to information increases, so does the demand for health services. Unfortunately, many people who genuinely require these services do not usually have access to them. To increase access, various financing options have been used. Despite this, maternal morbidity and mortality rates remain high and spending is still largely out of pocket. This study assesses maternal health problems, preferred sources of care and the pattern of financing in a semi-rural community in North Western part of Nigeria. Methodology: A cross-sectional descriptive study design was used. The study population consisted of women within the reproductive age group who had experienced childbirth 12 months or less prior to the study. A sample size of 240 was drawn using cluster and random sampling techniques. Interviewer administered questionnaires were used and the results were analyzed using Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS). Results: The mean age of the respondents was 29 years and 49% had no personal income. Fever was the commonest problem. Although majority received antenatal care, those who lacked antenatal care mostly cited financial difficulties. Nearly half of the women delivered at home as opposed to a health facility. On average, women spent between Nigerian Naira (N) N1, 350-N14, 850 (USD$9-99) for a total package of maternal health services. Out of pocket spending by the husbands or household heads and the women themselves accounted for 73.3% of expenses. Conclusion and Public Health Implications: In Nigeria, women are still vulnerable to common and preventable causes of maternal morbidity and mortality due to lack of access to antenatal health care. Out of pocket spending is still a popular method of financing. Harmonization of fee exemption policies can improve access to maternal healthcare.

  8. Review of Junior College Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Coordinating Council for Higher Education, Sacramento.

    This report updates the January 1967 study of California junior college financing, considering particularly the possibility of the state assuming all operating costs of the system. Using data not available for the earlier study, it is also examines certain new areas. Section I contains the introduction, a summary, and 12 overall recommendations.…

  9. Off-Balance Sheet Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Adams, Matthew C.

    1998-01-01

    Examines off-balance sheet financing, the facilities use of outsourcing for selected needs, as a means of saving operational costs and using facility assets efficiently. Examples of using outside sources for energy supply and food services, as well as partnering with business for facility expansion are provided. Concluding comments address tax…

  10. Financing is next step in Brazil-Bolivia natural gas project. [Economic costs and benefits of a new natural gas pipeline project

    SciTech Connect

    Cajueiro Costa, A.S. )

    1993-11-01

    This paper reviews a new four billion dollar arrangement which would start a major gas network between Brazil and Bolivia. The proposed 2,200 mile long, 28 and 14 inch pipeline network would connect Bolivian reserves with the undeserved markets of southern Brazil. The paper briefly reviews the economic involvement and impacts on both countries and the current market for natural gas in Brazil. Because most of Brazil's energy is currently from hydroelectric power or petroleum, the new distribution network will have dramatic effects on industries which need this high-grade fuel source for operation. Financing of this project will be by Petrobras and 49 percent through stock options.

  11. Expanding Nonresidential Property Tax Bases for School Finance in New York State: Implications for Student Equity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brent, Brian O.

    1998-01-01

    Examines the efficacy of nonresidential expanded tax base (ETB) approaches to school finance. A simulation estimated effects of statewide and regional nonresidential ETB approaches on measures of student equity for New York school districts. ETB approaches would improve student equity at no additional cost to the state and need not adversely…

  12. Financing Strategies for Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2005-12-01

    To help meet our nation’s energy needs, reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel is being considered more and more as a necessary step in a future nuclear fuel cycle, but incorporating this step into the fuel cycle will require considerable investment. This report presents an evaluation of financing scenarios for reprocessing facilities integrated into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options, from fully government owned to fully private owned, was evaluated using a DPL (Dynamic Programming Language) 6.0 model, which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest life-cycle cost, lowest unit cost). Though all business decisions follow similar logic with regard to financing, reprocessing facilities are an exception due to the range of financing options available. The evaluation concludes that lowest unit costs and lifetime costs follow a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. Other financing arrangements, however, including regulated utility ownership and a hybrid ownership scheme, led to acceptable costs, below the Nuclear Energy Agency published estimates. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual capacity led to the greatest fluctuations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; the annual operating costs dominate the government case. It is concluded that to finance the construction and operation of such a facility without government ownership could be feasible with measures taken to mitigate risk, and that factors besides unit costs should be considered (e.g., legal issues, social effects, proliferation concerns) before making a decision on financing strategy.

  13. State Policy Initiatives for Financing Energy Efficiency in Public Buildings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business Officer, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Alternative financing methods (other than state financing) for developing cost-effective energy efficiency projects are discussed. It is suggested that by properly financing energy efficiency investments, state campuses can generate immediate positive cash savings. The following eight initiatives for maximizing energy savings potential are…

  14. Public School Finance. Report of the Joint Senate Interim Committee.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Peat, Marwick, Mitchell and Co., Houston, TX.

    This study examines the current Texas school finance plan, the finance plans and proposals of other states, national school finance research, and the results of a survey of Texas leaders and educators before presenting alternative revenue and distribution plans, their effects and costs, and possible revenue sources. The study was conducted under…

  15. Financing of private small scale hydroelectric projects

    SciTech Connect

    Smukler, L.M.

    1981-03-01

    This manual is a description of the financing process associated with the private development of SSH projects. It examines the institutional framework and the actors within that framework who will have vital impact upon the potential for success of a project. The manual describes the information a developer should obtain in order to make intelligent decisions concerning the multiple directions in which project development can proceed. This information should assist the developer in formulating a business plan. Factors to be considered in choosing a business organizational form are discussed. Included is an analysis of the federal income tax factors relevant to SSH in context of the treatment of specific items: business expenses, depreciation, the Investment Tax Credit, and the Energy Tax Credit as modified by COWPTA. In addition, the tax and organizational factors are applied to an analysis of two mechanisms which can lower development costs through maximum utilization of available tax benefits: limited partnerships and leveraged leases. The manual lists and analyzes the major sources of debt and equity financing that are potentially available to a developer. Finally, all the previously discussed pieces are put together and how the decisions relating to such factors as marketing, taxation and debt financing interrelate to determine the probable success and profitability of a project are investigated. Furthermore, this part of the manual will provide an illustrated guide to understanding the financing process, leading the reader through the decisionmaking and negotiation points, and highlighting what should be borne in mind, what a developer may be giving up and what the perspective of other key actors will be at those points.

  16. Financing strategic healthcare facilities: the growing attraction of alternative capital.

    PubMed

    Zismer, Daniel K; Fox, James; Torgerson, Paul

    2013-05-01

    Community health system leaders often dismiss use of alternative capital to finance strategic facilities as being too expensive and less strategically useful, preferring to follow historical precedent and use tax-exempt bonding to finance such facilities. Proposed changes in accounting rules should cause third-party-financed facility lease arrangements to be treated similarly to tax-exempt debt financings with respect to the income statement and balance sheet, increasing their appeal to community health systems. An in-depth comparison of the total costs associated with each financing approach can help inform the choice of financing approaches by illuminating their respective advantages and disadvantages. PMID:23678696

  17. Engineering and environmental properties of thermally treated mixtures containing MSWI fly ash and low-cost additives.

    PubMed

    Polettini, A; Pomi, R; Trinci, L; Muntoni, A; Lo Mastro, S

    2004-09-01

    An experimental work was carried out to investigate the feasibility of application of a sintering process to mixtures composed of Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) fly ash and low-cost additives (waste from feldspar production and cullet). The proportions of the three constituents were varied to adjust the mixture compositions to within the optimal range for sintering. The material was compacted in cylindrical specimens and treated at 1100 and 1150 degrees C for 30 and 60 min. Engineering and environmental characteristics including weight loss, dimensional changes, density, open porosity, mechanical strength, chemical stability and leaching behavior were determined for the treated material, allowing the relationship between the degree of sintering and both mixture composition and treatment conditions to be singled out. Mineralogical analyses detected the presence of neo-formation minerals from the pyroxene group. Estimation of the extent of metal loss from the samples indicated that the potential for volatilization of species of Pb, Cd and Zn is still a matter of major concern when dealing with thermal treatment of incinerator ash. PMID:15268956

  18. The Financial Dimensions of Recent School Finance Reforms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garms, Walter I.

    1974-01-01

    Discusses four categories of problems getting the greatest attention among those interested in reforming school finance: fiscal neutrality, cost differentials, individual needs, and municipal overburden. (Author/DN)

  19. Public Education Finances, 2009

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2011

    2011-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finances and an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Sections 161 and 182. The Census of Government Finances has been conducted every 5 years since 1957, while the Annual Survey of Government Finances has been conducted annually since 1977 in…

  20. Public Education Finances: 2010

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dixon, Mark

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finances and an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Sections 161 and 182. The Census of Government Finances has been conducted every 5 years since 1957, while the Annual Survey of Government Finances has been conducted annually since 1977 in…

  1. Financing Solar Thermal Power Plants

    SciTech Connect

    Price, H. W.; Kistner, R.

    1999-11-01

    The commercialization of concentrating solar power technology took a major step forward in the mid 1980s and early 1990s with the development of the SEGS plants in California. Over the years they have proven that parabolic trough power technologies are the most cost-effective approach for commercial scale solar power generation in the sunbelt countries of the world. However, the question must be asked why no additional solar power plants have been build following the bankruptcy of the developer of the SEGS projects, LUZ International Limited. Although many believe the SEGS projects were a success as a result of parabolic trough technology they employ, in truth, the SEGS projects were developed simply because they represented an attractive opportunity for investors. Simply stated, no additional projects have been developed because no one has been able to put together a similarly attractive financial package to potential investors. More than $1.2 billion in private capital was raised i n debt and equity financing for the nine SEGS plants. Investors and bankers who make these investments are the real clients for solar power technologies. They are not interested in annual solar to electric efficiencies, but in risk, return on investments, and coverage ratios. This paper will take a look at solar power projects from the financier's perspective. The challenge in moving forward is to attract private investors, commercial lenders, and international development agencies and to find innovative solutions to the difficult issues that investment in the global power market poses for solar power technologies.

  2. The Cost of Education Index: Measurement of Price Differences of Education Personnel Among New York State School Districts. Working Paper in Education Finance No. 26.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wendling, Wayne

    This report is divided into four sections. Section 1 is a short discussion of the economic theory underlying the construction of the cost of education index and an example of how the index is calculated. Also presented are descriptions of the factors included in the statistical analysis to control for quality, quantity, and cost differences and…

  3. Decentralized responsibility for costs of outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals in Sweden. Assessment of models for decentralized financing of subsidies from a management perspective.

    PubMed

    Bergström, Gina; Karlberg, Ingvar

    2007-05-01

    In this study, models for decentralization of responsibility for costs of subsidised outpatient prescription pharmaceuticals within the county councils in Sweden were studied. The aims of the decentralization were to cut the escalating costs associated with risk sharing mechanisms on a national level and to integrate utilization of drugs into the priority process in health care. History of development and the characteristics of the solutions on county level were identified, described and analysed from taped interviews with relevant persons in central management positions in the selected counties. Information was supplemented from documentation. Two main models were found, a population based model and a prescriber based. In the population based model, family medicine in primary care was responsible for subsidies of drugs classified as "basic" (80%) regardless of prescriber. In this model, hospital departments were responsible for the "special" drugs (20%) regardless of prescriber. In the prescriber based model each provider was responsible for costs of its own prescribing. We found that the prescriber based model was chosen for the strong incentives for cost containment, while the population based model was expected to focus more on service to patients. This reform was based on the assumption that incentives for cost containment on an organisational level are effective. Experiences from other reforms in health care support this hypothesis. This means that there is a risk that cost containment jeopardises medical decisions on patient level. PMID:16942815

  4. First- and Second-Line Bevacizumab in Addition to Chemotherapy for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer: A United States–Based Cost-Effectiveness Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Goldstein, Daniel A.; Chen, Qiushi; Ayer, Turgay; Howard, David H.; Lipscomb, Joseph; El-Rayes, Bassel F.; Flowers, Christopher R.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based chemotherapy is a standard of care for previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer. Continuation of bevacizumab beyond progression is an accepted standard of care based on a 1.4-month increase in median overall survival observed in a randomized trial. No United States–based cost-effectiveness modeling analyses are currently available addressing the use of bevacizumab in metastatic colorectal cancer. Our objective was to determine the cost effectiveness of bevacizumab in the first-line setting and when continued beyond progression from the perspective of US payers. Methods We developed two Markov models to compare the cost and effectiveness of fluorouracil, leucovorin, and oxaliplatin with or without bevacizumab in the first-line treatment and subsequent fluorouracil, leucovorin, and irinotecan with or without bevacizumab in the second-line treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer. Model robustness was addressed by univariable and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. Health outcomes were measured in life-years and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs). Results Using bevacizumab in first-line therapy provided an additional 0.10 QALYs (0.14 life-years) at a cost of $59,361. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $571,240 per QALY. Continuing bevacizumab beyond progression provided an additional 0.11 QALYs (0.16 life-years) at a cost of $39,209. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio was $364,083 per QALY. In univariable sensitivity analyses, the variables with the greatest influence on the incremental cost-effectiveness ratio were bevacizumab cost, overall survival, and utility. Conclusion Bevacizumab provides minimal incremental benefit at high incremental cost per QALY in both the first- and second-line settings of metastatic colorectal cancer treatment. PMID:25691669

  5. Financing Strategies For A Nuclear Fuel Cycle Facility

    SciTech Connect

    David Shropshire; Sharon Chandler

    2006-07-01

    To help meet the nation’s energy needs, recycling of partially used nuclear fuel is required to close the nuclear fuel cycle, but implementing this step will require considerable investment. This report evaluates financing scenarios for integrating recycling facilities into the nuclear fuel cycle. A range of options from fully government owned to fully private owned were evaluated using DPL (Decision Programming Language 6.0), which can systematically optimize outcomes based on user-defined criteria (e.g., lowest lifecycle cost, lowest unit cost). This evaluation concludes that the lowest unit costs and lifetime costs are found for a fully government-owned financing strategy, due to government forgiveness of debt as sunk costs. However, this does not mean that the facilities should necessarily be constructed and operated by the government. The costs for hybrid combinations of public and private (commercial) financed options can compete under some circumstances with the costs of the government option. This analysis shows that commercial operations have potential to be economical, but there is presently no incentive for private industry involvement. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act (NWPA) currently establishes government ownership of partially used commercial nuclear fuel. In addition, the recently announced Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) suggests fuels from several countries will be recycled in the United States as part of an international governmental agreement; this also assumes government ownership. Overwhelmingly, uncertainty in annual facility capacity led to the greatest variations in unit costs necessary for recovery of operating and capital expenditures; the ability to determine annual capacity will be a driving factor in setting unit costs. For private ventures, the costs of capital, especially equity interest rates, dominate the balance sheet; and the annual operating costs, forgiveness of debt, and overnight costs dominate the costs computed for

  6. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  7. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  8. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  9. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9. (b... AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  10. Selected Papers in School Finance, 1994.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    Of all the areas within public elementary and secondary education that are experiencing rapid change, none is experiencing more turmoil than school finance. This publication contains papers commissioned by the National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) to address the twin concerns of what additional school-finance information NCES should…

  11. Capital Financing For Private & Independent Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online Submission, 2005

    2005-01-01

    This paper is a primer for school boards and management. It provides a basic overview of the key issues, considerations and options associated with the use of debt by private schools to address facility financing needs. In addition, for a school which has decided to pursue debt financing, it provides basic guidelines for the choice of debt…

  12. Financing of Tribal Colleges.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Laughlin, Jeanie

    In addition to higher education programs, tribal colleges offer welfare-to-work programs, adult education, vocational and agricultural training, and childcare, which makes their costs higher than those of conventional colleges. Most tribal colleges are small, resulting in higher than average per student costs. Tribal colleges charge an average of…

  13. Design and Implementation Status of a System Supporting Quasi On-line Hospital Operational Cost-monitoring and Performance-oriented Financing

    PubMed Central

    Spyropoulos, B.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the project is to propose a new design and a partial on-line implementation of a Patient Classification System (PCS) supporting quasi real-time vigilance for Hospital operational-cost monitoring and health-care service remuneration, within the Greek National Health System (GNHS).

  14. An Analysis of Education Costs across Local School Districts in the State of Missouri, 1975-76. Working Papers in Education Finance, Paper No. 7.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chambers, Jay G.

    This report presents both a methodology for educational cost index computation and empirical evidence for determining the extent to which Missouri school district expenditures are beyond the control of local decision-makers. The author demonstrates considerable stability in the teachers' salary index from 1974-75 to 1975-76. The report extends…

  15. Commentary on "Finance, Management, and Costs of Public and Private Schools in Indonesia" and "Do Local Contributions Affect the Efficiency of Public Primary Schools?"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berger, Mark C.

    1996-01-01

    Studies on Indonesia and the Philippines in this special issue examine how local financial control affects costs of providing primary schooling. In both countries, schools with greater financial decentralization operated more efficiently. These results have important implications for U.S. schools, where decentralization reforms in Kentucky and…

  16. Medicaid: Determining Cost-Effectiveness of Home and Community-Based Services. Report to the Administrator, Health Care Financing Administration, Department of Health and Human Services.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    General Accounting Office, Washington, DC.

    To examine alternatives to nursing home care, states have been testing home and community-based services under the Medicaid program. Information on the operations of the state projects will be vital to designing cost-effective alternative services in the future. The General Accounting Office (GAO) reviewed state reports to see if accurate,…

  17. Protecting child health and nutrition status with ready-to-use food in addition to food assistance in urban Chad: a cost-effectiveness analysis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite growing interest in use of lipid nutrient supplements for preventing child malnutrition and morbidity, there is inconclusive evidence on the effectiveness, and no evidence on the cost-effectiveness of this strategy. Methods A cost effectiveness analysis was conducted comparing costs and outcomes of two arms of a cluster randomized controlled trial implemented in eastern Chad during the 2010 hunger gap by Action contre la Faim France and Ghent University. This trial assessed the effect on child malnutrition and morbidity of a 5-month general distribution of staple rations, or staple rations plus a ready-to-use supplementary food (RUSF). RUSF was distributed to households with a child aged 6–36 months who was not acutely malnourished (weight-for-height > = 80% of the NCHS reference median, and absence of bilateral pitting edema), to prevent acute malnutrition in these children. While the addition of RUSF to a staple ration did not result in significant reduction in wasting rates, cost-effectiveness was assessed using successful secondary outcomes of cases of diarrhea and anemia (hemoglobin <110 g/L) averted among children receiving RUSF. Total costs of the program and incremental costs of RUSF and related management and logistics were estimated using accounting records and key informant interviews, and include costs to institutions and communities. An activity-based costing methodology was applied and incremental costs were calculated per episode of diarrhea and case of anemia averted. Results Adding RUSF to a general food distribution increased total costs by 23%, resulting in an additional cost per child of 374 EUR, and an incremental cost per episode of diarrhea averted of 1,083 EUR and per case of anemia averted of 3,627 EUR. Conclusions Adding RUSF to a staple ration was less cost-effective than other standard intervention options for averting diarrhea and anemia. This strategy holds potential to address a broad array of health and

  18. Finance leadership imperatives in clinical redesign.

    PubMed

    Harris, John; Holm, Craig E; Inniger, Meredith C

    2015-03-01

    As physicians embrace their roles in managing healthcare costs and quality, finance leaders should seize the opportunity to engage physicians in clinical care redesign to ensure both high-quality performance and efficient resource use. Finance leaders should strike a balance between risk and reward to achieve a portfolio of clinical initiatives that is organizationally sustainable and responsive to current external drivers of payment changes. Because these initiatives should be driven by physicians, the new skill set of finance leaders should include an emphasis on relationship building to achieve consensus and drive change across an organization. PMID:26492760

  19. Consumer Decision Rules and Residential Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brandt, Jeanette A.; Jaffe, Austin J.

    1979-01-01

    As guidelines for residential financing, the authors compare different approaches to understanding and figuring the costs of home ownership: the relation of income to house price and housing costs, interest rate, and mortgage term. Instead of the traditional method, they recommend the time value of money approach. (MF)

  20. Financial Quality Control of In-Patient Chemotherapy in Germany: Are Additional Payments Cost-Covering for Pharmaco-Oncological Expenses?

    PubMed Central

    Jacobs, Volker R.; Mallmann, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Summary Background Cost-covering in-patient care is increasingly important for hospital providers in Germany, especially with regard to expensive oncological pharmaceuticals. Additional payments (Zusatzentgelte; ZE) on top of flat rate diagnose-related group (DRG) reimbursement can be claimed by hospitals for in-patient use of selected medications. To verify cost coverage of in-patient chemotherapies, the costs of medication were compared to their revenues. Method From January to June 2010, a retrospective cost-revenue study was performed at a German obstetrics/gynecology university clinic. The hospital's pharmacy list of inpatient oncological therapies for breast and gynecological cancer was checked for accuracy and compared with the documented ZEs and the costs and revenues for each oncological application. Results N = 45 in-patient oncological therapies were identified in n = 18 patients, as well as n = 7 bisphosphonate applications; n = 11 ZEs were documented. Costs for oncological medication were € 33,752. The corresponding ZE revenues amounted to only € 13,980, resulting in a loss of € 19,772. All in-patient oncological therapies performed were not cost-covering. Data discrepancy, incorrect documentation and cost attribution, and process aborts were identified. Conclusions Routine financial quality control at the medicine-pharmacy administration interface is implemented, with monthly comparison of costs and revenues, as well as admission status. Non-cost-covering therapies for in-patients should be converted to out-patient therapies. Necessary adjustments of clinic processes are made according to these results, to avoid future losses. PMID:21673822

  1. Task-sharing or public finance for the expansion of surgical access in rural Ethiopia: an extended cost-effectiveness analysis.

    PubMed

    Shrime, Mark G; Verguet, Stéphane; Johansson, Kjell Arne; Desalegn, Dawit; Jamison, Dean T; Kruk, Margaret E

    2016-07-01

    Despite a high burden of surgical disease, access to surgical services in low- and middle-income countries is often limited. In line with the World Health Organization's current focus on universal health coverage and equitable access to care, we examined how policies to expand access to surgery in rural Ethiopia would impact health, impoverishment and equity. An extended cost-effectiveness analysis was performed. Deterministic and stochastic models of surgery in rural Ethiopia were constructed, utilizing pooled estimates of costs and probabilities from national surveys and published literature. Model calibration and validation were performed against published estimates, with sensitivity analyses on model assumptions to check for robustness. Outcomes of interest were the number of deaths averted, the number of cases of poverty averted and the number of cases of catastrophic expenditure averted for each policy, divided across wealth quintiles. Health benefits, financial risk protection and equity appear to be in tension in the expansion of access to surgical care in rural Ethiopia. Health benefits from each of the examined policies accrued primarily to the poor. However, without travel vouchers, many policies also induced impoverishment in the poor while providing financial risk protection to the rich, calling into question the equitable distribution of benefits by these policies. Adding travel vouchers removed the impoverishing effects of a policy but decreased the health benefit that could be bought per dollar spent. These results were robust to sensitivity analyses. PMID:26719347

  2. EPA evaluation of the SYNERGY-1 fuel additive under Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Syria, S.L.

    1981-06-01

    This document announces the conclusions of the EPA evaluation of the 'SYNERGY-1' device under provisions of Section 511 of the Motor Vehicle Information and Cost Savings Act. This additive is intended to improve fuel economy and exhaust emission levels of two and four cycle gasoline fueled engines.

  3. Potential of Securitization in Solar PV Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Lowder, T.; Mendelsohn, M.

    2013-12-01

    This report aims to demonstrate, hypothetically and at a high level, what volumes of solar deployment could be supported given solar industry access to the capital markets in the form of security issuance. Securitization is not anticipated to replace tax equity in the near- to mid-term, but it could provide an additional source of funds that would be comparatively inexpensive and could reduce the weighted average cost of capital for a given solar project or portfolio. Thus, the potential to securitize solar assets and seek financing in the capital markets could help to sustain the solar industry when the investment tax credit (ITC) -- one of the federal incentives that has leveraged billions of dollars of private capital in the solar industry -- drops from 30% to 10% at the close of 2016. The report offers analysis on the size of the U.S. third-party financed solar market, as well as on the volumes (in MW) of solar asset origination possible through a $100 million securitization fund (assuming no overcollateralization). It also provides data on the size of the relevant securities markets and how the solar asset class may fit into these markets.

  4. Financing hospital disaster preparedness.

    PubMed

    De Lorenzo, Robert A

    2007-01-01

    Disaster preparedness and response have gained increased attention in the United States as a result of terrorism and disaster threats. However, funding of hospital preparedness, especially surge capacity, has lagged behind other preparedness priorities. Only a small portion of the money allocated for national preparedness is directed toward health care, and hospitals receive very little of that. Under current policy, virtually the entire funding stream for hospital preparedness comes from general tax revenues. Medical payers (e.g., Medicare, Medicaid, and private insurance) directly fund little, if any, of the current bill. Funding options to improve preparedness include increasing the current federal grants allocated to hospitals, using payer fees or a tax to subsidize preparedness, and financing other forms of expansion capability, such as mobile hospitals. Alternatively, the status quo of marginal preparedness can be maintained. In any event, achieving higher levels of preparedness likely will take the combined commitment of the hospital industry, public and private payers, and federal, state, and local governments. Ultimately, the costs of preparedness will be borne by the public in the form of taxes, higher healthcare costs, or through the acceptance of greater risk. PMID:18087914

  5. Examine realistic financing alternatives to find the best match for your project

    SciTech Connect

    1995-08-01

    Different project financing alternatives carry different requirements and different costs. Those costs must fit an operator`s goals. A company that offers financial advice and investment banking services for oil and gas companies, outlined project finance alternatives at the Independent Petroleum Association of America annual meeting. This report describes those financing alternatives.

  6. Community financing of health care.

    PubMed

    Carrin, G

    1988-01-01

    This article discusses ways to lesson the restrictions on health development in sub-Saharan Africa caused by limited public health budgets. Health improvements can be funded by the implementation of health insurance, the use of foreign aid, the raising of taxes, the reallocation of public money, and direct contributions by users or households either in the form of charges for services received or prepayments for future services. Community financing, i.e. the direct financing of health care by households in villages or distinct urban communities, is seen as preferable to a national or regional plan. When community financing is chosen, a choice must then be made between direct payment, fee-for-service, and prepayment (insurance) systems. The 3 systems, using the example of an essential drugs program, are described. Theoretically, with direct payment the government receives full cost recovery, and the patients receive the drugs they need, thereby improving their health. Of course the poor may not be able to purchase the drugs, therefore a subsidy system must be worked out at the community level. Fee-for-service means charging for a consultation or course of treatment, including drugs. A sliding scale of fees or discounts for certain types of consultations (e.g. pre-and post natal) can be used. In fee-for-service the risk is shared; because the cost of drugs is financed by the fees, those who receive costly treatments are subsidized by those whose treatments are relatively inexpensive. With prepayment or health insurance the risk of illness is shifted from the patient to the insurance firm or state. 2 issues make insurance plans hard to implement. When patients are covered by insurance, they may demand "too much" medical care (moral hazard) and thus premiums may be too small to cover treatment costs. On the other hand, people in low-risk groups may be unwilling to pay a higher premium, thus leading to adverse selection. Eventually, premiums may rise to the point where

  7. 78 FR 59751 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of supporting Federal credit..., including the use of appropriate automated, electronic, mechanical, or other technological...

  8. Additive manufacturing of liquid/gas diffusion layers for low-cost and high-efficiency hydrogen production

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Mo, Jingke; Zhang, Feng -Yuan; Dehoff, Ryan R.; Peter, William H.; Toops, Todd J.; Green, Jr., Johney Boyd

    2016-01-14

    The electron beam melting (EBM) additive manufacturing technology was used to fabricate titanium liquid/gas diffusion media with high-corrosion resistances and well-controllable multifunctional parameters, including two-phase transport and excellent electric/thermal conductivities, has been first demonstrated. Their applications in proton exchange membrane eletrolyzer cells have been explored in-situ in a cell and characterized ex-situ with SEM and XRD. Compared with the conventional woven liquid/gas diffusion layers (LGDLs), much better performance with EBM fabricated LGDLs is obtained due to their significant reduction of ohmic loss. The EBM technology components exhibited several distinguished advantages in fabricating gas diffusion layer: well-controllable pore morphology and structure,more » rapid prototyping, fast manufacturing, highly customizing and economic. In addition, by taking advantage of additive manufacturing, it possible to fabricate complicated three-dimensional designs of virtually any shape from a digital model into one single solid object faster, cheaper and easier, especially for titanium. More importantly, this development will provide LGDLs with control of pore size, pore shape, pore distribution, and therefore porosity and permeability, which will be very valuable to develop modeling and to validate simulations of electrolyzers with optimal and repeatable performance. Further, it will lead to a manufacturing solution to greatly simplify the PEMEC/fuel cell components and to couple the LGDLs with other parts, since they can be easily integrated together with this advanced manufacturing process« less

  9. Berkeley Program Offers New Option for Financing Residential PV Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A

    2008-07-06

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy-efficiency improvements and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have had mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including a historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, a lack of program awareness, a reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy and not in need of financing. Some of these barriers have begun to fade. Most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates. The passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005), however, introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from a number of U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the city of Berkeley, Calif., these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather than a more

  10. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1–4 Hz) and beta (13–35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4–8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  11. Neural Correlates of Task Cost for Stance Control with an Additional Motor Task: Phase-Locked Electroencephalogram Responses.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Ing-Shiou; Huang, Cheng-Ya

    2016-01-01

    With appropriate reallocation of central resources, the ability to maintain an erect posture is not necessarily degraded by a concurrent motor task. This study investigated the neural control of a particular postural-suprapostural procedure involving brain mechanisms to solve crosstalk between posture and motor subtasks. Participants completed a single posture task and a dual-task while concurrently conducting force-matching and maintaining a tilted stabilometer stance at a target angle. Stabilometer movements and event-related potentials (ERPs) were recorded. The added force-matching task increased the irregularity of postural response rather than the size of postural response prior to force-matching. In addition, the added force-matching task during stabilometer stance led to marked topographic ERP modulation, with greater P2 positivity in the frontal and sensorimotor-parietal areas of the N1-P2 transitional phase and in the sensorimotor-parietal area of the late P2 phase. The time-frequency distribution of the ERP primary principal component revealed that the dual-task condition manifested more pronounced delta (1-4 Hz) and beta (13-35 Hz) synchronizations but suppressed theta activity (4-8 Hz) before force-matching. The dual-task condition also manifested coherent fronto-parietal delta activity in the P2 period. In addition to a decrease in postural regularity, this study reveals spatio-temporal and temporal-spectral reorganizations of ERPs in the fronto-sensorimotor-parietal network due to the added suprapostural motor task. For a particular set of postural-suprapostural task, the behavior and neural data suggest a facilitatory role of autonomous postural response and central resource expansion with increasing interregional interactions for task-shift and planning the motor-suprapostural task. PMID:27010634

  12. Managing costs. [Resource recovery facility costs

    SciTech Connect

    Paret, M.P. ); Strouse, R.K. )

    1992-03-01

    This article examines the costs associated with a resource recovery facility in Indianapolis and how keeping these costs low provides flexibility for enacting economic incentives and new funding mechanisms that are generally needed today to encourage cost-effective recycling. The topics discussed in the article include project development, program finances, cogeneration, and the future outlook.

  13. Public Education Finances, 2006

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2008

    2008-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2006 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  14. Public Education Finances, 2005

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2005 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  15. Public Education Finances, 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2010

    2010-01-01

    The United States Census Bureau conducts an Annual Survey of Government Finances as authorized by law under Title 13, United States Code, Section 182. The 2008 survey, similar to other annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and…

  16. Public Education Finances, 2007

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Census Bureau, 2009

    2009-01-01

    Every five years, the U.S. Census Bureau conducts a Census of Government Finance, as authorized by law under Title 13, U.S. Code, Section 182. The 2007 Census, similar to annual surveys and censuses of governments conducted for many years, covers the entire range of government finance activities--revenue, expenditure, debt, and assets (cash and…

  17. Finance Law Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forth, Douglas S.

    1975-01-01

    Reviews recent state and federal court decisions dealing with issues relevant to educational finance. Within the area of elementary and secondary education, cases involve general school finance, state funding programs, employee negotiations, and business management. In the area of higher education, cases involve taxation, student fees,…

  18. Debt Financing: Academia's Funding Alternative.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baum, Rudy M.

    1981-01-01

    Discusses debt financing as a way to help universities alleviate the problems of obsolete scientific equipment and facilities for research. Reviews several forms of tax-exempt financing and takes note of some of the advantages of debt financing. (CS)

  19. The School Finance Reform Movement: Implications for School Business Administration.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jordan, K. Forbis

    In this speech, the author summarizes the economic and political issues relating to the current interest in school finance reform and discusses the research efforts of the National Educational Finance Project. He focuses on those efforts of direct relevance to school business administration -- cost differentials among educational programs,…

  20. Financing Secondary Education in Developing Countries: Strategies for Sustainable Growth.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lewin, Keith; Caillods, Francoise

    This book explores the problems and issues of secondary-school financing in developing countries. It outlines the rationale for expanding secondary education, investigates under what conditions it might be possible to do so at sustainable cost levels, presents case studies of secondary-school financing, and offers policy recommendations. The first…

  1. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  2. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  3. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  4. 43 CFR 29.6 - Financing, accounting, and audit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 1 2012-10-01 2011-10-01 true Financing, accounting, and audit. 29.6... LIABILITY FUND § 29.6 Financing, accounting, and audit. (a)(1) The Operator of the Pipeline shall notify... the day at the end of each month or other agreed upon accounting period. (b) Costs of...

  5. Cost-effectiveness of rituximab in addition to fludarabine and cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the first-line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Müller, Dirk; Fischer, Kirsten; Kaiser, Peter; Eichhorst, Barbara; Walshe, Ronald; Reiser, Marcel; Kellermann, Lenka; Borsi, Lisa; Civello, Daniele; Mensch, Alexander; Bahlo, Jasmin; Hallek, Michael; Stock, Stephanie; Fingerle-Rowson, Günter

    2016-05-01

    The cost-effectiveness of rituximab in combination with fludarabine/cyclophosphamide (R-FC) for the first line treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) was evaluated. Based on long-term clinical data (follow-up of 5.9 years) from the CLL8-trial, a Markov-model with three health states (Free from disease progression, Progressive disease, Death) was used to evaluate the cost per quality-adjusted life-year (QALY) and cost per life years gained (LYG) of R-FC from the perspective of the German statutory health insurance (SHI). The addition of rituximab to FC chemotherapy results in a gain of 1.1 quality-adjusted life-years. The incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) of R-FC compared with FC was €17 979 per QALY (€15 773 per LYG). Results were robust in deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses. From the German SHI perspective, rituximab in combination with FC chemotherapy represents good value for first-line treatment of patients with CLL and compares favorably with chemotherapy alone. PMID:26584689

  6. Threshold concepts in finance: conceptualizing the curriculum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-08-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to the mastery of finance and by exploring their potential for informing curriculum design and pedagogical practices to improve student outcomes. In this paper, we report the results of an online survey of finance academics at multiple institutions in Australia, Canada, New Zealand, South Africa and the United Kingdom. The outcomes of our research are recommendations for threshold concepts in finance endorsed by quantitative evidence, as well as a model of the finance curriculum incorporating finance, modelling and statistics threshold concepts. In addition, we draw conclusions about the application of threshold concept theory supported by both quantitative and qualitative evidence. Our methodology and findings have general relevance to the application of threshold concept theory as a means to investigate and inform curriculum design and delivery in higher education.

  7. The future of financing for HIV services in Uganda and the wider sub-Saharan Africa region: should we ask patients to contribute to the cost of their care?

    PubMed

    Kakaire, Tom; Schlech, Walter; Coutinho, Alex; Brough, Richard; Parkes-Ratanshi, Rosalind

    2016-01-01

    Whilst multi-lateral funding for HIV/AIDS dramatically increased from 2004 to 2008, it has largely plateaued in the last 8 years. Across sub-Saharan Africa, up to 20 % of total spending on health is used for HIV services, and of this over 85 % is estimated to come from international funding rather than in-country sources. In Uganda, the fiscal liability to maintain services for all those who are currently receiving it is estimated to be as much as 3 % of Gross Domestic Product (GDP). In order to meet the growing need of increased patient numbers and further ART coverage the projected costs of comprehensive HIV care and treatment services will increase substantially. Current access to HIV care includes free at point of delivery (provided by Ministry of Health clinics), as well as out-of-pocket financing and health insurance provided care at private for- and not for- profit facilities. The HIV response is funded through Ugandan Ministry of Health national budget allocations, as well as multilateral donations such as the President's Emergency Plan for AIDS in Africa (PEPFAR) and Global Fund (GF) and other international funders. We are concerned that current funding mechanism for HIV programs in Uganda may be difficult to sustain and as service providers we are keen to explore ways in which provide lifelong HIV care to as many people living with HIV (PLHIV) as possible. Until such time as the Ugandan economy can support universal, state-supported, comprehensive healthcare, bridging alternatives must be considered. We suggest that offering patients with the sufficient means to assume some of the financial burden for their care in return for more convenient services could be one component of increasing coverage and sustaining services for those living with HIV. PMID:27567669

  8. Private Housing or Alternative Financing?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruno, Nick

    1999-01-01

    Explores the history of privatizing university housing and some current financing options, including use of developer and private foundations. Examples of successful alternative financing methods are highlighted. (GR)

  9. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Iosava, Lela

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Georgia. States develop educational funding formulas to determine the total amount of funds needed for each student and to establish the state's share of those costs. Although the large majority of states use the common base or foundation formula (25 states and D.C.) or…

  10. Finance: ERIC Trends, 1999-2000.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kezar, Adrianna J.

    Financial issues remain a concern in the higher education literature. From the early to mid-1990s, cost containment was viewed as the primary solution to strapped finances. Several factors altered the higher education landscape in the latter part of the 1990s as the stronger economy benefited many campuses. This economic upswing cannot last…

  11. SPECIAL PROBLEMS IN FINANCING RURAL EDUCATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    HORNBOSTEL, VICTOR O.

    SPARSITY OF POPULATION, A MIGRATORY POPULATION, AND AN ETHNIC POPULATION INFLUENCE THE RISING COSTS OF RURAL EDUCATION. AN IMPORTANT GOAL IN FINANCING RURAL EDUCATION IS TO PROVIDE LOCAL SCHOOL BOARDS WITH THE FLEXIBILITY NECESSARY TO MEET ANY FINANCIAL NEEDS THAT ARISE. LOCAL SCHOOL SUPPORT COMES MAINLY FROM PROPERTY TAX, STATE SCHOOL SUPPORT…

  12. Energy Projections: Implications for School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hansen, Shirley J.

    1984-01-01

    School energy costs will increase dramatically in coming decades, according to a new Department of Energy report. In the year 2000, most schools will spend nearly $900 per student for energy. Moreover, energy inflation will divert funds from conservation measures. One solution may be private financing. (MCG)

  13. Achieving Educational Adequacy through School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reschovsky, Andrew; Imazeki, Jennifer

    2001-01-01

    Argues that state school-finance reform efforts are focused on equalizing property-tax bases and per-pupil expenditures rather than on improving student performance to meet educational adequacy standards. Uses data from Wisconsin and Texas to measure cost differences, frequently substantial, among school districts. Demonstrates use of…

  14. Commentary: How Should Higher Education Be Financed?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bowen, William G.

    This paper is a criticism of "Finance and the Aims of American Higher Education" by Howard R. Bowen (HE001412). Veering toward "free education" is inconsistent with ordinary notions of equity because: (1) the purely private benefits of higher education accruing directly to the individual are substantially greater than all costs incurred, and (2)…

  15. Finance and supply management project execution plan

    SciTech Connect

    BENNION, S.I.

    1999-02-10

    As a subproject of the HANDI 2000 project, the Finance and Supply Management system is intended to serve FDH and Project Hanford major subcontractor with financial processes including general ledger, project costing, budgeting, and accounts payable, and supply management process including purchasing, inventory and contracts management. Currently these functions are performed with numerous legacy information systems and suboptimized processes.

  16. Report of the School Finance Study Group.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wisconsin State Dept. of Public Instruction, Madison.

    This document reports the findings of a study assessing the status of school finance in Wisconsin and recommending preferred methods for funding the public schools. Seventy-nine topics were considered in five areas: state support, general aid, categorical aid, factors affecting school costs, and other topics. The study's recommendations regarding…

  17. Hardship financing of healthcare among rural poor in Orissa, India

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background This study examines health-related "hardship financing" in order to get better insights on how poor households finance their out-of-pocket healthcare costs. We define hardship financing as having to borrow money with interest or to sell assets to pay out-of-pocket healthcare costs. Methods Using survey data of 5,383 low-income households in Orissa, one of the poorest states of India, we investigate factors influencing the risk of hardship financing with the use of a logistic regression. Results Overall, about 25% of the households (that had any healthcare cost) reported hardship financing during the year preceding the survey. Among households that experienced a hospitalization, this percentage was nearly 40%, but even among households with outpatient or maternity-related care around 25% experienced hardship financing. Hardship financing is explained not merely by the wealth of the household (measured by assets) or how much is spent out-of-pocket on healthcare costs, but also by when the payment occurs, its frequency and its duration (e.g. more severe in cases of chronic illnesses). The location where a household resides remains a major predictor of the likelihood to have hardship financing despite all other household features included in the model. Conclusions Rural poor households are subjected to considerable and protracted financial hardship due to the indirect and longer-term deleterious effects of how they cope with out-of-pocket healthcare costs. The social network that households can access influences exposure to hardship financing. Our findings point to the need to develop a policy solution that would limit that exposure both in quantum and in time. We therefore conclude that policy interventions aiming to ensure health-related financial protection would have to demonstrate that they have reduced the frequency and the volume of hardship financing. PMID:22284934

  18. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  19. Risk Financing for Schools: The Capital Markets Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rudolph, Richard G.

    1988-01-01

    The capital markets approach is an alternative means of risk financing whereby a school system establishes and controls its own insurance company and makes systematic contributions to pay for expected and anticipated losses and their associated costs. (MLF)

  20. Transforming Higher Education: Implications for State Higher Education Finance Policy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Matthews, Dewayne

    1998-01-01

    Examines how information technology is transforming higher education (asynchronous learning, distance education, customized program structure, customized delivery, outcome-based programs, collaboration, and competition) and discusses implications for state higher education finance policy (competition, student costs, collaboration, and…

  1. Innovations in the financing of geothermal energy for direct-use applications

    SciTech Connect

    Kwass, P.

    1981-10-01

    The applications of direct use geothermal energy, its advantages, and its relative costs are examined. The following are discussed: capital needs for direct-use geothermal development, sources of geothermal financing, barriers to geothermal financing, and selected case studies of curent financing alternatives.

  2. 78 FR 41804 - NASA Advisory Council; Audit, Finance and Analysis Committee; Meeting.

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-11

    ... SPACE ADMINISTRATION NASA Advisory Council; Audit, Finance and Analysis Committee; Meeting. AGENCY... Administration announces a meeting of the Audit, Finance and Analysis Committee of the NASA Advisory Council (NAC...: Finance Update Strategy, Performance, Budget Update Conference Cost Reporting Update FY 2013...

  3. Long-term care financing: options for the future.

    PubMed

    Mulvey, Janemarie; Li, Annelise

    2002-01-01

    The aging of the baby boomers will have an enormous impact on the future of long-term care costs. This article projects the magnitude of that impact, discusses sources of financing, and considers the cost and feasibility of three options for financing future long-term care services. The authors investigate the alternatives of increasing personal savings, raising payroll taxes and expanding employer-sponsored private long-term care insurance coverage, respectively. PMID:12004582

  4. Exploring Higher Education Financing Options

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nkrumah-Young, Kofi K.; Powell, Philip

    2011-01-01

    Higher education can be financed privately, financed by governments, or shared. Given that the benefits of education accrue to the individual and the state, many governments opt for shared financing. This article examines the underpinnings of different options for financing higher education and develops a model to compare conditions to choices and…

  5. Economics and Financing of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawton, Stephen B.

    Educational economics and finance is a complex issue that the author has approached from three different areas: (1) a review of recent literature, (2) the state of the art of financing education, and (3) the state of research on the economics and financing of education. The author points to a revolution in education finance in Canada. The…

  6. Financing investments in renewable energy: The role of policy design and restructuring

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, R.; Pickle, S.

    1997-03-01

    The costs of electric power projects utilizing renewable energy technologies are highly sensitive to financing terms. Consequently, as the electricity industry is restructured and new renewables policies are created, it is important for policymakers to consider the impacts of renewables policy design on project financing. This report describes the power plant financing process and provides insights to policymakers on the important nexus between renewables policy design and finance. A cash-flow model is used to estimate the impact of various financing variables on renewable energy costs. Past and current renewable energy policies are then evaluated to demonstrate the influence of policy design on the financing process and on financing costs. The possible impacts of electricity restructuring on power plant financing are discussed and key design issues are identified for three specific renewable energy programs being considered in the restructuring process: (1) surcharge-funded policies; (2) renewables portfolio standards; and (3) green marketing programs. Finally, several policies that are intended to directly reduce financing costs and barriers are analyzed. The authors find that one of the key reasons that renewables policies are not more effective is that project development and financing processes are frequently ignored or misunderstood when designing and implementing renewable energy incentives. A policy that is carefully designed can reduce renewable energy costs dramatically by providing revenue certainty that will, in turn, reduce financing risk premiums.

  7. Computing for Finance

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    to joining investment banking, Adam spent a number of years lecturing in IT and mathematics at a UK University and maintains links with academia through lectures, research and through validation and steering of postgraduate courses. He is a chartered mathematician and was the conference chair of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications first conference in computational Finance.4. From Monte Carlo to Wall Street Daniel Egloff, Head of Financial Engineering Computing Unit, Zürich Cantonal Bank High performance computing techniques provide new means to solve computationally hard problems in the financial service industry. First I consider Monte Carlo simulation and illustrate how it can be used to implement a sophisticated credit risk management and economic capital framework. From a HPC perspective, basic Monte Carlo simulation is embarrassingly parallel and can be implemented efficiently on distributed memory clusters. Additional difficulties arise for adaptive variance reduction schemes, if the information content in a sample is very small, and if the amount of simulated date becomes huge such that incremental processing algorithms are indispensable. We discuss the business value of an advanced credit risk quantification which is particularly compelling in these days. While Monte Carlo simulation is a very versatile tool it is not always the preferred solution for the pricing of complex products like multi asset options, structured products, or credit derivatives. As a second application I show how operator methods can be used to develop a pricing framework. The scalability of operator methods relies heavily on optimized dense matrix-matrix multiplications and requires specialized BLAS level-3 implementations provided by specialized FPGA or GPU boards. Speaker Bio: Daniel Egloff studied mathematics, theoretical physics, and computer science at the University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich. He holds a PhD in Mathematics from University of Fribourg, Switzerland

  8. Computing for Finance

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-24

    to joining investment banking, Adam spent a number of years lecturing in IT and mathematics at a UK University and maintains links with academia through lectures, research and through validation and steering of postgraduate courses. He is a chartered mathematician and was the conference chair of the Institute of Mathematics and its Applications first conference in computational Finance.4. From Monte Carlo to Wall Street Daniel Egloff, Head of Financial Engineering Computing Unit, Zürich Cantonal Bank High performance computing techniques provide new means to solve computationally hard problems in the financial service industry. First I consider Monte Carlo simulation and illustrate how it can be used to implement a sophisticated credit risk management and economic capital framework. From a HPC perspective, basic Monte Carlo simulation is embarrassingly parallel and can be implemented efficiently on distributed memory clusters. Additional difficulties arise for adaptive variance reduction schemes, if the information content in a sample is very small, and if the amount of simulated date becomes huge such that incremental processing algorithms are indispensable. We discuss the business value of an advanced credit risk quantification which is particularly compelling in these days. While Monte Carlo simulation is a very versatile tool it is not always the preferred solution for the pricing of complex products like multi asset options, structured products, or credit derivatives. As a second application I show how operator methods can be used to develop a pricing framework. The scalability of operator methods relies heavily on optimized dense matrix-matrix multiplications and requires specialized BLAS level-3 implementations provided by specialized FPGA or GPU boards. Speaker Bio: Daniel Egloff studied mathematics, theoretical physics, and computer science at the University of Zurich and the ETH Zurich. He holds a PhD in Mathematics from University of Fribourg, Switzerland

  9. Yeast hydrolysate as a low-cost additive to serum-free medium for the production of human thrombopoietin in suspension cultures of Chinese hamster ovary cells.

    PubMed

    Sung, Y H; Lim, S W; Chung, J Y; Lee, G M

    2004-02-01

    To enhance the performance of a serum-free medium (SFM) for human thrombopoietin (hTPO) production in suspension cultures of recombinant Chinese hamster ovary (rCHO) cells, several low-cost hydrolysates such as yeast hydrolysate (YH), soy hydrolysate, wheat gluten hydrolysate and rice hydrolysate were tested as medium additives. Among various hydrolysates tested, the positive effect of YH on hTPO production was most significant. When 5 g l(-1) YH was added to SFM, the maximum hTPO concentration in batch culture was 40.41 microg ml(-1), which is 11.5 times higher than that in SFM without YH supplementation. This enhanced hTPO production in YH-supplemented SFM was obtained by the combined effect of enhanced q(hTPO) (the specific rate of hTPO production). The supplementation of YH in SFM increased q(hTPO) by 294% and extended culture longevity by >2 days if the culture was terminated at a cell viability of 50%. Furthermore, cell viability throughout the culture using YH-supplemented SFM was higher than that using any other hydrolysate-supplemented SFM tested, thereby minimizing degradation of hTPO susceptible to proteolytic degradation. In addition, YH supplementation did not affect in vivo biological activity of hTPO. Taken together, the results obtained demonstrate the potential of YH as a medium additive for hTPO production in serum-free suspension cultures of rCHO cells. PMID:12856163

  10. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management,...

  11. 28 CFR 100.15 - Disallowed costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... Judicial Administration DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE (CONTINUED) COST RECOVERY REGULATIONS, COMMUNICATIONS...) costs are disallowed. G&A costs include, but are not limited to, any management, financial, and other... limited to: (1) Accounting and Finance, External Relations, Human Resources, Information Management,...

  12. Issues in energy finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokher, Zeigham Islam

    As opposed to the well developed and understood equity markets, the energy markets are still in their infancy. The explosion of contracts, of both the primary and derivative types, are testament both to the existing size and the untapped growth potential of this exciting industry. However, because of its relative youth many basic issues in the energy markets remain unresolved. This thesis introduces some interesting questions and provides insights into these issues. Thematically, the chapters of this thesis are linked by an emphasis on valuation and risk management decisions. A contribution of this thesis is to show that subtle differences between the endogenous price process in our general equilibrium setting and the exogenous processes considered in earlier papers can generate significant differences in both financial and real option values. In addition to these valuation concerns there has been much debate about the corporate risk management function. Finance theory suggests that a value maximizing corporation should either be indifferent to hedging or, in the presence of certain imperfections, it should completely hedge all exposures. Both these extremes contradict empirical evidence. We show that existing corporate hedging behaviour is best explained in light of both physical market imperfections and directional predictions on future prices. While these speculative motives may arise from corporate hubris or genuine informational advantages, we argue that it would be difficult to implement private information in the absence of noise traders. Related to the risk management decision is the existence of futures risk premia. These premia have been thought to be cause by covariance with priced factors or due to the hedging demands of consumers and producers. This thesis argues that inventories serve as a signal of available quantity, which coupled with consumers fears regarding stockouts can induce a positive relationship between premia and inventories. In

  13. Modelling of nuclear power plant decommissioning financing.

    PubMed

    Bemš, J; Knápek, J; Králík, T; Hejhal, M; Kubančák, J; Vašíček, J

    2015-06-01

    Costs related to the decommissioning of nuclear power plants create a significant financial burden for nuclear power plant operators. This article discusses the various methodologies employed by selected European countries for financing of the liabilities related to the nuclear power plant decommissioning. The article also presents methodology of allocation of future decommissioning costs to the running costs of nuclear power plant in the form of fee imposed on each megawatt hour generated. The application of the methodology is presented in the form of a case study on a new nuclear power plant with installed capacity 1000 MW. PMID:25979740

  14. Q&A: The Basics of California's School Finance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    EdSource, 2006

    2006-01-01

    In a state as large and complex as California, education financing can become as complicated as rocket science. This two-page Q&A provides a brief, easy-to-understand explanation of California's school finance system and introduces the issues of its adequacy and equity. A list of resources providing additional information is provided.

  15. Financing Higher Education in 1980's and Beyond.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weinberg, Ira

    This analysis of higher education financing examines the need for the provision of additional funds to higher educational institutions and the availability of adequate aid funds to parents and students. It is concluded that there is no single solution to the problems associated with higher education finance that is suitable for all colleges and…

  16. Guidebook to Geothermal Finance

    SciTech Connect

    Salmon, J. P.; Meurice, J.; Wobus, N.; Stern, F.; Duaime, M.

    2011-03-01

    This guidebook is intended to facilitate further investment in conventional geothermal projects in the United States. It includes a brief primer on geothermal technology and the most relevant policies related to geothermal project development. The trends in geothermal project finance are the focus of this tool, relying heavily on interviews with leaders in the field of geothermal project finance. Using the information provided, developers and investors may innovate in new ways, developing partnerships that match investors' risk tolerance with the capital requirements of geothermal projects in this dynamic and evolving marketplace.

  17. Market and behavioral barriers to energy efficiency: A preliminary evaluation of the case for tariff financing in California

    SciTech Connect

    Fujita, K. Sydny

    2011-06-23

    of outdated appliances, in California rental housing. Appliances in rental housing are on average older than those in owner occupied housing. More importantly, a substantial proportion of very old appliances are in rental housing. Having established that a very old stock of appliances exists in California rental housing, I discuss tariff financing as a policy option to reduce the impact of the remaining market and behavioral barriers. In a tariff financing program, the utility pays the initial cost of an appliance, and is repaid through subsequent utility bills. By eliminating upfront costs, tying repayment to the gas or electric meter, requiring a detailed energy audit, and relying upon utility bill payment history rather than credit score in determining participant eligibility, tariff financing largely overcomes many barriers to energy efficiency. Using California as a case study, I evaluate the feasibility of implementing tariff financing. For water heaters in particular, this appears to be a cost-effective strategy. Tariff financing from utilities is particularly valuable because it improves the ability of low-income renters to lower their utility bills, without burdening landlords with unrecoverable capital costs. To implement tariff financing country-wide, regulations in many states defining private loan-making institutions or the allowable use of public benefit funds may need to be modified. Tariff financing is relatively new and in most locations is only available as a pilot program or has only recently exited pilot phase. This preliminary evaluation suggests that tariff financing is a valuable future addition to the toolkit of policymakers who aim to increase the diffusion of efficient appliances. While regulatory approval is necessary in states that wish to pursue tariff financing, at this point, the major barrier to further implementation appears to be the newness of the financing mechanism.

  18. Developing country finance in a post-2020 global climate agreement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hannam, Phillip M.; Liao, Zhenliang; Davis, Steven J.; Oppenheimer, Michael

    2015-11-01

    A central task for negotiators of the post-2020 global climate agreement is to construct a finance regime that supports low-carbon development in developing economies. As power sector investments between developing countries grow, the climate finance regime should incentivize the decarbonization of these major sources of finance by integrating them as a complement to the commitments of developed nations. The emergence of the Asian Infrastructure Investment Bank, South-South Cooperation Fund and other nascent institutions reveal the fissures that exist in rules and norms surrounding international finance in the power sector. Structuring the climate agreement in Paris to credit qualified finance from the developing world could have several advantages, including: (1) encouraging low-carbon cooperation between developing countries; (2) incentivizing emerging investors to prefer low-carbon investments; and (3) enabling more cost-effective attainment of national and global climate objectives. Failure to coordinate on standards now could hinder low-carbon development in the decades to come.

  19. FEMP (Federal Energy Management Program) presents alternative financing guidance memoranda

    SciTech Connect

    1998-06-01

    Utility financing of energy efficient measures becomes easier to accomplish with the two new alternative financing guidance memoranda, released April 17, 1998, that address the use of utility incentives for Federal facilities. The memoranda have been approved by the Alternative Financing Guidance Committee on the Interagency Energy Management Task Force. The memoranda include: (1) Policy Statement No. 001: Authority to Sole Source Utility Service Contracts as Referenced in Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992; and (2) Policy Statement No. 002: Congressional Notification for Utility Projects Under the Authority of Section 152 of the Energy Policy Act (EPACT) of 1992. The purpose for developing the financing memoranda was to address specific issues within current Federal procurement regulations that require clarification or guidance. This new guidance will allow for increased use of utility incentives as a means of financing energy efficient and life cycle cost-effective projects in Federal facilities.

  20. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Florida

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wright, Rebecca

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Florida. The state of Florida has 67 regular school districts as well as additional special districts comprised of developmental research schools and other schools that serve special populations. In 1973, the Florida Legislature adopted the Florida Education Finance…

  1. Equity Financing: Real Estate.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Richard; Davies, Jonathan

    1987-01-01

    Many small, private colleges are examining aggressive ways of economically developing their land and other physical assets by strategies ranging from direct ownership of tangible property to joint and participating ownership arrangements consisting of leases, financing, and partnerships. In all cases, however, potential tax consequences should be…

  2. Campaign Finance: Reporter Guide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieder, Ben

    2014-01-01

    Campaign finance might seem like the exclusive province of political reporters, but there are many good reasons why authors should be paying attention--both in races for education positions and in other key races at the local, state, and federal levels with implications for education. Basic math is a necessary skill and familiarity with a…

  3. Personal Finance Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Board of Education, Salem.

    The guide was developed to aid teachers in planning and developing programs in personal finance education which will prepare students to function as intelligent consumers. Three case studies illustrating common consumer problems are followed by the body of the guide, focusing on five major topics and incorporating economic, social, and physical…

  4. Personal Finance Education Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oregon State Dept. of Education, Salem.

    This guide is intended to assist curriculum planners and classroom teachers in designing and implementing personal finance instruction to meet a variety of student needs, interests, and abilities. It is organized under five concept areas: employment and income, money management, credit, purchase of goods and services, and rights and…

  5. Financing Human Capital.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juffras, Jason; Sawhill, Isabel V.

    This paper examines the government's role in financing human capital investments. It first examines why private investments in education, training, and other forms of human capital are likely to fall short of socially desirable levels. It then reviews past trends in public support for human resource investments. Finally, it discusses current…

  6. Financing Education: Thematic Bibliography.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vanandruel, Colette; Lestrade, Sophie

    The third publication of this themic bibliography lists some of the publications on the financing of education included in the archives of EURYDICE's (Education Information Network in the European Community's) European Unit, and is intended to accompany "Key Topics in Education, Volume 1" (June 1999) which covers financial support for students in…

  7. Financing of Adult Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Archer, David

    2007-01-01

    The 2008 EFA Global Monitoring Report recognises adult literacy as the most neglected of the EFA goals. It is neglected most obviously in respect of the financial allocations made by governments and donors. This shortage of financing creates a dangerous situation in which adult educators seek to convince politicians to invest, based on false…

  8. Financing Public Library Construction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rohlf, Robert H.; Stoffel, Lester L.

    1987-01-01

    Reviews financing options available to Illinois public libraries for construction or expansion, including general obligation bonds, mortgage funds, building reserve funds, building fund levies, lease back arrangements, sale of air or ground development rights, interest on special funds, gift funds and grants, Library Service and Construction Act…

  9. Innovations in Wind and Solar PV Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Coughlin, J.; Jenkin, T.; Pater, J.; Swezey, B.

    2008-02-01

    There is growing national interest in renewable energy development based on the economic, environmental, and security benefits that these resources provide. Historically, greater development of our domestic renewable energy resources has faced a number of hurdles, primarily related to cost, regulation, and financing. With the recent sustained increase in the costs and associated volatility of fossil fuels, the economics of renewable energy technologies have become increasingly attractive to investors, both large and small. As a result, new entrants are investing in renewable energy and new business models are emerging. This study surveys some of the current issues related to wind and solar photovoltaic (PV) energy project financing in the electric power industry, and identifies both barriers to and opportunities for increased investment.

  10. Financing renewable energy: Obstacles and solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, M.H.

    1994-06-01

    The majority of renewable energy technology projects now being developed use long term project financing to raise capital. The financial community scrutinizes renewables more closely than some conventionally fueled electric generation facilities because it perceives renewables as risky and expensive. Renewables pay for this perceived risk through higher interest charges and other more restrictive loan covenants. Risks that are not eliminated in the power sales agreement or through some other means generally result in higher project costs during financing. In part, this situation is a product of the private placement market and project finance process in which renewable energy facilities must function. The project finance process attracts banks and institutional lenders as well as equity investors (often pension funds) who do not want to place their capital at great risk. Energy project finance exists on the basis of a secure revenue stream and a thorough understanding of electric generation technology. Renewables, like all energy projects, operating in uncertain regulatory environments are often difficult to finance. In the uncertain regulatory environment in which renewables now operate, investors and lenders are nervous about challenges to existing contracts between independent power producers and utilities. Challenges to existing contracts could foretell challenges to contracts in the future. Investors and lenders now look to state regulatory environments as an indicator of project risk. Renewable energy technology evolves quickly. Yet, often the information about technological evolution is not available to those who invest in the energy projects. Or, those who have invested in new renewable energy technology in the past have lost money and are nervous about doing so in the future - even though technology may have improved. Inadequate or unfavorable information is a barrier to the development of renewables.

  11. Emerging trends in health care finance.

    PubMed

    Sterns, J B

    1994-01-01

    Access to capital will become more difficult. Capital access is dependent on ability to repay debt, which, in turn, is dependent on internally generated cash flows. Under any health care reform proposal, revenue inflows will be slowed. The use of corporate finance techniques to limit financial risk and lower cost will be a permanent response to fundamental changes to the health care system. These changes will result in greater balance sheet management, centralized capital allocation, and alternative sources of capital. PMID:7614219

  12. Cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes: analysis of the ADDITION-UK cluster-randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    Tao, L; Wilson, E C F; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2015-01-01

    Aims To examine the short- and long-term cost-effectiveness of intensive multifactorial treatment compared with routine care among people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Cost–utility analysis in ADDITION-UK, a cluster-randomized controlled trial of early intensive treatment in people with screen-detected diabetes in 69 UK general practices. Unit treatment costs and utility decrement data were taken from published literature. Accumulated costs and quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) were calculated using ADDITION-UK data from 1 to 5 years (short-term analysis, n = 1024); trial data were extrapolated to 30 years using the UKPDS outcomes model (version 1.3) (long-term analysis; n = 999). All costs were transformed to the UK 2009/10 price level. Results Adjusted incremental costs to the NHS were £285, £935, £1190 and £1745 over a 1-, 5-, 10- and 30-year time horizon, respectively (discounted at 3.5%). Adjusted incremental QALYs were 0.0000, – 0.0040, 0.0140 and 0.0465 over the same time horizons. Point estimate incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs) suggested that the intervention was not cost-effective although the ratio improved over time: the ICER over 10 years was £82 250, falling to £37 500 over 30 years. The ICER fell below £30 000 only when the intervention cost was below £631 per patient: we estimated the cost at £981. Conclusion Given conventional thresholds of cost-effectiveness, the intensive treatment delivered in ADDITION was not cost-effective compared with routine care for individuals with screen-detected diabetes in the UK. The intervention may be cost-effective if it can be delivered at reduced cost. PMID:25661661

  13. Community College Finance Plan, 1981.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    A plan for community college finance in 1981 is presented, based on an examination of socioeconomic factors likely to affect the California community colleges between 1981 and 1985. The report first outlines 11 assumptions concerning trends in community college finance and mission and, then, presents a general approach to financing the California…

  14. Financing the School Plant. Draft.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Dave; Kimbrough, Ted

    Thirteen methods of financing school buildings in California are described in this document. A brief introduction reviews recent changes in California school financing, following passage of Proposition 13, and explains the need for new financing methods. For each method, the document provides a description (which also points out limitations),…

  15. Rethinking Higher Education Capital Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, George A.

    1988-01-01

    Capital finance in institutions of higher education is analyzed in light of changes in the Tax Reform Act of 1986 affecting the ability of institutions to finance capital projects and the likelihood of changes in the government's view of tax-exempt financing. The options for colleges and universities are analyzed in the following areas: (1)…

  16. Production cost methods and data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jeffe, R. E.; Fujita, T.

    1975-01-01

    The general gas cost equation for utility financing is presented. Modifications and assumptions made in order to apply the cost equation to hydrogen production are described. Cost data are given for various methods of hydrogen production. The cost matrix procedure is briefly discussed.

  17. 31 CFR 901.10 - Analysis of costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Analysis of costs. 901.10 Section 901.10 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FEDERAL CLAIMS... COLLECTION OF CLAIMS § 901.10 Analysis of costs. Agency collection procedures should provide for...

  18. 48 CFR 32.102 - Description of contract financing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    .... 2307. In accordance with 5 CFR 1315.4(k), agencies must pay for partial delivery of supplies or partial... payments based on costs are made on the basis of costs incurred by the contractor as work progresses under... deliveries generally are treated as a method of payment and not as a method of contract financing,...

  19. Financing Higher Education Worldwide: Who Pays? Who Should Pay?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnstone, D. Bruce; Marcucci, Pamela N.

    2010-01-01

    No issue in higher education is as salient, or as controversial, as finance. As demand for higher education around the world grows, so do the costs associated with it, especially as governments shoulder less of the burden. Tuition fees rise and student loan debt grows. Who pays for these surging costs? Who "should" pay? D. Bruce Johnstone and…

  20. Analyzing Bilingual Education Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bernal, Joe J.

    This paper examines the particular problems involved in analyzing the costs of bilingual education and suggests that cost analysis of bilingual education requires a fundamentally different approach than that followed in other recent school finance studies. Focus of the discussion is the Intercultural Development Research Association's (IDRA)…

  1. National health financing policy in Eritrea: a survey of preliminary considerations

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    ; over 68.8% indicated cost-sharing, taxation and social health insurance as preferred revenue collection mechanisms; and 68.75% indicated their preferred provider payment mechanism to be a global (lump sum) budget. Conclusion This study succeeded in gathering the preliminary views of senior staff of selected Eritrean ministries and agencies regarding the likely elements of the NHFP, i.e. the vision, objectives, components, provider payment mechanisms, and health financing agency and its governance. In addition to stakeholder surveys, it would be helpful to inform the development of the NHFP with other pieces of evidence, including cost-effectiveness analysis of health services and interventions, financial feasibility analysis of financing options, a survey of the political and professional acceptability of financing options, national health accounts, and equity analyses. PMID:22929308

  2. Financing the response to AIDS: some fiscal and macroeconomic considerations.

    PubMed

    Haacker, Markus

    2008-07-01

    This article examines the international response to AIDS from a fiscal perspective: first the financing of the international response to AIDS, especially the role of external financing, and second, a more comprehensive perspective on the costs of the national response to AIDS relevant for fiscal policy. The second half of the article focuses on the effectiveness of the response to AIDS. We find that there is little basis for concerns about macroeconomic constraints to scaling up, in light of the moderate scale of AIDS-related aid flows relative to overall aid. Regarding sectoral constraints, the picture is more differentiated. Many countries with high prevalence rates have also achieved high rates of access to treatment, but most of these are middle-income countries. Our econometric analysis credits external aid as a key factor that has enabled higher-prevalence countries to cope with the additional demands for health services. At the same time, gross domestic product per capita and health sector capacities are important determinants of access to treatment. PMID:18664949

  3. 50 CFR 80.67 - May an agency finance an activity from more than one annual apportionment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false May an agency finance an activity from... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.67 May an agency finance an activity... one annual apportionment to finance high-cost projects, such as construction or acquisition of...

  4. 50 CFR 80.67 - May an agency finance an activity from more than one annual apportionment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false May an agency finance an activity from... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.67 May an agency finance an activity... one annual apportionment to finance high-cost projects, such as construction or acquisition of...

  5. 50 CFR 80.67 - May an agency finance an activity from more than one annual apportionment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false May an agency finance an activity from... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.67 May an agency finance an activity... one annual apportionment to finance high-cost projects, such as construction or acquisition of...

  6. 50 CFR 80.67 - May an agency finance an activity from more than one annual apportionment?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false May an agency finance an activity from... SPORT FISH RESTORATION ACTS Allocation of Funds by an Agency § 80.67 May an agency finance an activity... one annual apportionment to finance high-cost projects, such as construction or acquisition of...

  7. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects,...

  8. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects,...

  9. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects,...

  10. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects,...

  11. 25 CFR 170.300 - May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR... Financing § 170.300 May tribes use flexible financing to finance IRR transportation projects? Yes. Tribes may use flexible financing in the same manner as States to finance IRR transportation projects,...

  12. Strategies for financing energy projects in East Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Fortino, S.E.

    1995-12-01

    This paper discusses financing options available for energy (power/steam) projects in East Central Europe. It is intended to be an overview and practical guide to such options in today`s environment. A survey is made of the principal multilateral and other financial institutions providing funding and/or credit support in the region. These include the European Bank for Reconstruction and Development, the World Bank, the International Finance Corporation, the export credit agencies, and the commercial banks. Specific guarantee and other support mechanisms which some of these institutions provide are covered, including the latest developments. In addition to loan financing, potential sources of equity financing are discussed. Next, a description of the credit rating process by such institutions as Standard and Poor`s, and an example of a successful rating effort in the Czech Republic, lead into a discussion of accessing foreign and domestic bond markets to finance energy projects in the region.

  13. School Finance in Transition. Proceedings of the National Conference on School Finance (16th, Atlanta, Georgia, April 1-3, 1973.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Educational Finance Project, Gainsville, FL.

    This document contains the proceedings of the 16th annual National Conference on School Finance. The Conference participants included representatives of State education agencies, professional associations, and State legislatures, as well as professors of school finance. Topics discussed include fiscal neutrality, cost differentials and cost…

  14. The effect of capitated financing on mental health services for children and youth: the Colorado experience.

    PubMed Central

    Catalano, R; Libby, A; Snowden, L; Cuellar, A E

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: This study tested 2 propositions concerning the effect of capitated financing on mental health services for Medicaid-eligible children and youth in Colorado. The first is that capitation reduces costs. The second is that shifting providers from fee-for-service to capitated financing will increase their efforts to prevent illness. METHODS: Interrupted time-series designs were applied to a naturally occurring quasi experiment occasioned by the state of Colorado's reorganization of mental health services financing. RESULTS: The cost of services was significantly lower in counties with capitated services compared with counties with fee-for-service financing. Findings also suggested that economic incentives may lead to greater efforts at secondary and tertiary prevention. CONCLUSIONS: Policymakers and the public can expect that capitation will reduce the costs of children's mental health services below those likely with fee-for-service financing. Capitation per se, however, may not increase prevention as surely or swiftly as it lowers costs. PMID:11111257

  15. Innovative financing for HIV response in sub–Saharan Africa

    PubMed Central

    Atun, Rifat; Silva, Sachin; Ncube, Mthuli; Vassall, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Background In 2015 around 15 million people living with HIV were receiving antiretroviral treatment (ART) in sub–Saharan Africa. Sustained provision of ART, though both prudent and necessary, creates substantial long–term fiscal obligations for countries affected by HIV/AIDS. As donor assistance for health remains constrained, novel financing mechanisms are needed to augment funding domestic sources. We explore how Innovative Financing has been used to co–finance domestic HIV/AIDS responses. Based on analysis of non–health sectors, we identify innovative financing instruments that could be used in the HIV response. Methods We undertook a systematic review to identify innovative financing instruments used for (1) domestic HIV/AIDS financing in sub–Saharan Africa (2) international health financing and (3) financing in non–health sectors. We analyzed peer–reviewed and grey literature published between 2002 and 2014. We examined the nature and volume of funds mobilized with innovative financing, then in consultation with leading experts, identified instruments that held potential for financing the HIV response. Results Our analysis revealed three innovative financing instruments in use: Zimbabwe’s AIDS Trust Fund (a tax/levy–based instrument), Botswana’s National HIV/AIDS Prevention Support (BNAPS) International Bank for Reconstruction and Development (IBRD) Buy–Down (a debt conversion instrument), and Côte d'Ivoire's Debt2Health Debt Swap Agreement (a debt conversion instrument). Zimbabwe’s AIDS Trust Fund generated US$ 52.7 million between 2008 and 2011, Botswana’s IBRD Buy–Down generated US$ 20 million, and Côte d’Ivoire’s Debt2Health Debt Swap Agreement generated US$ 27 million, at least half of which was to be invested in HIV/AIDS programs. Four additional categories of innovative financing instruments met our criteria for future use: (1) remittances and diaspora bonds (2) social and development impact bonds (3) sovereign wealth

  16. Financing drug discovery for orphan diseases.

    PubMed

    Fagnan, David E; Gromatzky, Austin A; Stein, Roger M; Fernandez, Jose-Maria; Lo, Andrew W

    2014-05-01

    Recently proposed 'megafund' financing methods for funding translational medicine and drug development require billions of dollars in capital per megafund to de-risk the drug discovery process enough to issue long-term bonds. Here, we demonstrate that the same financing methods can be applied to orphan drug development but, because of the unique nature of orphan diseases and therapeutics (lower development costs, faster FDA approval times, lower failure rates and lower correlation of failures among disease targets) the amount of capital needed to de-risk such portfolios is much lower in this field. Numerical simulations suggest that an orphan disease megafund of only US$575 million can yield double-digit expected rates of return with only 10-20 projects in the portfolio. PMID:24269746

  17. Solar Photovoltaic Financing: Residential Sector Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Coughlin, J.; Cory, K.

    2009-03-01

    This report presents the information that homeowners and policy makers need to facilitate PV financing at the residential level. The full range of cash payments, bill savings, and tax incentives is covered, as well as potentially available solar attribute payments. Traditional financing is also compared to innovative solutions, many of which are borrowed from the commercial sector. Together, these mechanisms are critical for making the economic case for a residential PV installation, given its high upfront costs. Unfortunately, these programs are presently limited to select locations around the country. By calling attention to these innovative initiatives, this report aims to help policy makers consider greater adoption of these models to benefit homeowners interested installing a residential PV system.

  18. Financing Universal Coverage in Malaysia: a case study

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    preventive care, in better managing escalating healthcare costs associated with the increasing trend of non-communicable diseases. In tandem, health financing policies need to infuse the element of cost-effectiveness to better manage the purchasing of new medical supplies and equipment. Ultimately, good governance and leadership are needed to ensure adequate public spending on health and maintain the focus on the attainment of universal coverage, as well as making healthcare financing more accountable to the public, particularly in regards to inefficiencies and better utilisation of public funds and resources. PMID:22992444

  19. Financing universal coverage in Malaysia: a case study.

    PubMed

    Chua, Hong Teck; Cheah, Julius Chee Ho

    2012-01-01

    care, in better managing escalating healthcare costs associated with the increasing trend of non-communicable diseases. In tandem, health financing policies need to infuse the element of cost-effectiveness to better manage the purchasing of new medical supplies and equipment. Ultimately, good governance and leadership are needed to ensure adequate public spending on health and maintain the focus on the attainment of universal coverage, as well as making healthcare financing more accountable to the public, particularly in regards to inefficiencies and better utilisation of public funds and resources. PMID:22992444

  20. 10 proven strategies for reducing equipment costs.

    PubMed

    Henley, Richard J; Zimmerman, Martin A

    2005-05-01

    It is essential to consider your organization's equipment acquisitions in light of your business strategy. In negotiating the financing, share your business objectives with a preferred list of financing sources that can be counted on to recommend alternatives in addition to quoting on the specified financing. PMID:15938353

  1. The Cost of Higher Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hartle, Terry W.

    1998-01-01

    A discussion of the current cost and financing of higher education looks at how higher education has been treated in federal policy in recent years, its status in public policy in the near future, including some salient uncertainties, and college cost and student debt. Emphasis is given to trends in the cost of professional education. (MSE)

  2. Analysis of shared savings vs. direct financing of energy retrofits in federal buildings. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-05-01

    This study examines the merits of using shared savings contracts with the private sector to foster energy conservation retrofits in federally-owned buildings. Shared savings is a generic term used to refer to a contractual arrangement between a building owner and a private organization which specializes in energy retrofits. For the purposes of this analysis, the Federal Government and a shared savings company enter into an agreement wherein the company makes capital improvements and/or operating changes to improve the energy efficiency of a federally owned facility at no out-of-pocket cost to the government. The resulting savings in reduced (or less rapidly increasing) energy bills are shared by the two parties according to a predetermined formula for a finite period of time. This study sought to evaluate from the Federal Government's perspective the desirability of shared savings as compared with direct federal financing, under which the Federal Government uses conventional financing methods to undertake the same retrofits. Both options were compared with the status quo, in which retrofits are financed and performed by individual agencies, but where financial resources are lacking to undertake a comprehensive retrofit program on the scale made possible by shared savings. Using a simple cash flow model, shared savings and direct federal financing approaches were each applied to the retrofit of three hypothetical federally owned structures: a hospital, commissary, and a large office building. Federal Government (or agency) cash in-flows and out-flows were calculated for each scenario, and the net cost or savings to the Federal Government estimated. In addition to the quantitative analysis, interviews with members of the energy retrofit contracting industry and government officials were conducted.

  3. Productivity in Education: Measuring and Financing. Proceedings of NEA Committee on Educational Finance National Conference on School Finance (14th, Milwaukee, Wisconsin, March 28-30, 1971.)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC. Committee on Educational Finance.

    This report consists of 19 conference papers, most of which focus on the current problems, issues, and trends in educational finance; while several deal with cost effectiveness and levels of productivity. Since the concept of productivity focuses on outputs, other papers are concerned with the output-oriented concepts of accountability and…

  4. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  5. The cumulative cost of additional wakefulness: dose-response effects on neurobehavioral functions and sleep physiology from chronic sleep restriction and total sleep deprivation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Dongen, Hans P A.; Maislin, Greg; Mullington, Janet M.; Dinges, David F.

    2003-01-01

    were near-linearly related to the cumulative duration of wakefulness in excess of 15.84 h (s.e. 0.73 h). CONCLUSIONS: Since chronic restriction of sleep to 6 h or less per night produced cognitive performance deficits equivalent to up to 2 nights of total sleep deprivation, it appears that even relatively moderate sleep restriction can seriously impair waking neurobehavioral functions in healthy adults. Sleepiness ratings suggest that subjects were largely unaware of these increasing cognitive deficits, which may explain why the impact of chronic sleep restriction on waking cognitive functions is often assumed to be benign. Physiological sleep responses to chronic restriction did not mirror waking neurobehavioral responses, but cumulative wakefulness in excess of a 15.84 h predicted performance lapses across all four experimental conditions. This suggests that sleep debt is perhaps best understood as resulting in additional wakefulness that has a neurobiological "cost" which accumulates over time.

  6. Public Finance Administration. Second Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, B. J.; Swain, John W.

    This book is intended for the nonexpert in finance who has a public administration background. It opens with a broad introduction to public finance administration and how this job is related to public budgeting, the practice of public-sector accounting, and the economic concepts of money and value. Issues surrounding public revenue, its sources,…

  7. The Possibilities of Strategic Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chaffee, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    Strategic finance is aligning financial decisions--regarding revenues, creating and maintaining institutional assets, and using those assets--with the institution's mission and strategic plan. The concept known as "strategic finance" increasingly is being seen as a useful perspective for helping boards and presidents develop a sustainable…

  8. Soft-leadership competencies for today's healthcare finance executives.

    PubMed

    Madden, Mark

    2015-05-01

    With the healthcare industry changing rapidly, organizations seek finance leaders who have skills that go beyond traditional expertise in revenue and expenses. These additional competencies fall under the heading of soft-leadership skills and include the ability to be strategy-oriented, agile, passionate, inspirational, influential, communicative, dependable, driven, integrative, and engaged. Networking, participation in a mentoring program, and continuing education provide avenues for finance leaders to develop these sorts of skills. PMID:26415481

  9. Developing financeable projects in Central Europe

    SciTech Connect

    Chelberg, R.; Prerad, V.

    1995-12-01

    POWER`s engineering and development experience in the Czech Republic creating financeable projects within the power generation industry will be presented. POWER has been involved in the Czech Republic`s privatization process, environmental legislation as well as formation of the regulatory environment. Strategic methods for accomplishing the development of financeable projects often include ownership and financial restructuring of the projects. This is done by utilizing internal cash flows, external debt and equity placement (provided by international financial institutions) by restructuring the facility`s contractual relationships and operations (providing as least cost solution to engineering) and possibly using existing governmental guarantees. In order to make any recommendations on how to come into compliance with the country`s environmental legislation, it is necessary to begin with an analysis of the existing facility. This involves preparation of technical and economic feasibility study, evaluation of technology and preliminary engineering solutions. It further involves restructuring of power sales agreements, heat sales agreements, and fuel supply agreements. The goal is to provide suitable security for the equity and debt financing participants by mitigating risk and creating a single purpose business unit with predictable life and economics.

  10. Hospital financing in Norway.

    PubMed

    Carlsen, F

    1994-05-01

    The Norwegian block grant reform of 1980 replaced state reimbursements to hospitals by block grants allocated to counties according to objective criteria. The reform was accompanied by a general decentralization of budget authority to local level. The reform aimed to promote primary care, equalize the supply of health care across regions and give counties incentives to improve hospital efficiency. A decade later, the reform was reversed. The government has imposed restrictions which reduce the budget discretion of the counties and part of the block grant has been made dependent on the performance of the hospitals in the counties. The government has also issued a 'waiting-list guarantee' which states that patients who suffer from a serious disease are entitled to medical treatment within six months. This paper provides an overview of hospital financing in Norway during the last two decades and discusses why the block grant system did not fulfil the expectations of its architects. PMID:10136059

  11. Does literacy improve finance?

    PubMed

    Poon, Martha; Olen, Helaine

    2015-04-01

    When economists ask questions about basic financial principles, most ordinary people answer incorrectly. Economic experts call this condition "financial illiteracy," which suggests that poor financial outcomes are due to a personal deficit of reading-related skills. The analogy to reading is compelling because it suggests that we can teach our way out of population-wide financial failure. In this comment, we explain why the idea of literacy appeals to policy makers in the advanced industrial nations. But we also show that the narrow skill set laid out by economists does not satisfy the politically inclusive definition of literacy that literacy studies fought for. We identify several channels through which people engage with ideas about finance and demonstrate that not all forms of literacy will lead people to the educational content prescribed by academic economists. We argue that truly financial literate people can defy the demands of financial theory and financial institutions. PMID:25838274

  12. Models for financing the regulation of pharmaceutical promotion.

    PubMed

    Lexchin, Joel

    2012-01-01

    Pharmaceutical companies spend huge sums promoting their products whereas regulation of promotional activities is typically underfinanced. Any option for financing the monitoring and regulation of promotion should adhere to three basic principles: stability, predictability and lack of (perverse) ties between the level of financing and performance. This paper explores the strengths and weaknesses of six different models. All these six models considered here have positive and negative features and none may necessarily be ideal in any particular country. Different countries may choose to utilize a combination of two or more of these models in order to raise sufficient revenue. Financing of regulation of drug promotion should more than pay for itself through the prevention of unnecessary drug costs and the avoidance of adverse health effects due to inappropriate prescribing. However, it involves an initial outlay of money that is currently not being spent and many national governments, in both rich and poor countries, are unwilling to incur extra costs. PMID:22784944

  13. 78 FR 33755 - Project Financing Loans

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ...; ] DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE Rural Utilities Service 7 CFR Part 1710 Project Financing Loans AGENCY: Rural... changes related to ``project financing'' requirements to advance the agency's rural development mission and improve its ability to finance electric infrastructure projects, including those that...

  14. Debt relief and financing climate change action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fenton, Adrian; Wright, Helena; Afionis, Stavros; Paavola, Jouni; Huq, Saleemul

    2014-08-01

    Slow progress in scaling-up climate finance has emerged as a major bottleneck in international negotiations. Debt relief for climate finance swaps could provide an alternative source for financing mitigation and adaptation action in developing countries.

  15. Educational Financing and Budgeting in Cambodia. Financial Management of Education Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pheng, Duy; Sovonn, Hang; Soly, Yos

    This book contains a detailed description of the challenges faced by educational finance and budgeting in Cambodia. Until recently, educational financing took the form of emergency budgets and was limited to government planning for teacher salaries and costs of examinations. There has been a general lack of coordination between provinces and the…

  16. Improving "Adequacy" Concepts in Education Finance: A Heuristic Examination of the Professional Judgment Research Protocol

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wood, R. Craig; Rolle, R. Anthony

    2007-01-01

    State and private agencies have attempted to determine the costs of providing an "adequate" education for public elementary and secondary students. In order to identify adequacy target expenditures, four education finance models currently are found within the education finance research literature: (1) Professional Judgment Model; (2) Statistical…

  17. 24 CFR 242.51 - Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. 242.51 Section 242.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. (a) Where the estimated cost...

  18. 24 CFR 242.51 - Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. 242.51 Section 242.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. (a) Where the estimated cost...

  19. Financing Projects That Use Clean-Energy Technologies. An Overview of Barriers and Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Goldman, D. P.; McKenna, J. J.; Murphy, L. M.

    2005-10-01

    This technical paper describes the importance of project financing for clean-energy technology deployment. It describes the key challenges in financing clean-energy technology projects, including technical risks, credit worthiness risk, revenue security risk, market competition, scale and related cost, as well as first-steps to overcome those barriers.

  20. 24 CFR 242.51 - Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. 242.51 Section 242.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. (a) Where the estimated cost...

  1. 24 CFR 242.51 - Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. 242.51 Section 242.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. (a) Where the estimated cost...

  2. 24 CFR 242.51 - Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. 242.51 Section 242.51 Housing and Urban Development Regulations... Funds and finances: Insured advances and assurance of completion. (a) Where the estimated cost...

  3. The Financing of United States Community Colleges: National, State, and Local Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de la Garza, Leonardo

    This paper explores the ways in which community colleges in the United States are financed. It offers a historical overview of community college financing in the U.S., arguing that from their inception, they have operated on the premise of providing wide access to higher education through public funding at little or no cost to students. The paper…

  4. 78 FR 76187 - Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program; Agency Information...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-16

    ...-day Federal Register notice was published on September 27, 2013, 2013 (78 FR 59751). Since the... Office of the Secretary Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) Program... Transportation Infrastructure Financing and Innovation Act (TIFIA) program to pay the subsidy cost of...

  5. 31 CFR 101.5 - Payment of smelting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Payment of smelting costs. 101.5 Section 101.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.5 Payment of...

  6. 31 CFR 101.5 - Payment of smelting costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance: Treasury 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Payment of smelting costs. 101.5 Section 101.5 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance MONETARY OFFICES, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY MITIGATION OF FORFEITURE OF COUNTERFEIT GOLD COINS § 101.5 Payment of...

  7. Real world financing opportunities for energy conservation projects

    SciTech Connect

    Tramonte, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Do you have the resources, dollars, people expertise and general know-how to do all the energy conservation measures. If you have the funds, do it yourself. Historically you would save more if you hired a private concern because that is the only job the contractor does for you. You have other hats to wear and fires to put out. Using third-party financing can be a good decision based on your specific needs. Procrastination is not the answer - the cost of delay is extensive. Financing energy conservation measures is no different from financing your automobile or home. If the benefits outweigh the negatives, the answer is obvious. Remember, in any case of using private sector financing, your are joining a partnership arrangement. The only way to succeed is to be honest with each other on the front end. There need not be any surprises. Any reputable company will gladly have your attorney evaluate all agreements, amortization schedules, and attachments. Real world financing alternatives will continue to change as the market matures. It's not too good to be true. It is no more than a vehicle to make the efforts of capital improvements streamlined. The money or financing is the catalyst to the project and makes the other areas meld.

  8. To Own or Lease Solar: Understanding Commercial Retailers' Decisions to Use Alternative Financing Models

    SciTech Connect

    Feldman, D.; Margolis, R.

    2014-12-01

    This report examines the tradeoffs among financing methods for businesses installing onsite photovoltaics (PV). We present case studies of PV financing strategies used by two large commercial retailers that have deployed substantial U.S. PV capacity: IKEA, which owns its PV, and Staples, which purchases power generated from onsite PV systems through power purchase agreements (PPAs). We also analyze the financial considerations that influence any company's choice of PV financing strategy. Our goal in this report is to clarify the financial and institutional costs and benefits of financing strategies and to inform other companies that are considering launching or expanding similar PV programs.

  9. Health financing reform in sub-Saharan Africa: major constraints, goals, and strategies.

    PubMed

    Sekwat, Alex

    2003-01-01

    Health financing reform became a critical element of public sector reform in sub-Saharan Africa during the past decade. Within the framework of health sector reform, this article reviews the major constraints, goals, and strategies for health financing reform in sub-Saharan Africa. It identifies shrinking budgetary resources, increasing demand for health services, and rising health care costs as the primary factors driving the sub-region's health financing reform agenda. In light of these constraints, the article defines the major goals and the strategies for health care financing reform employed by many sub-Saharan African countries. PMID:12635996

  10. A 50-State Strategy to Achieve School Finance Adequacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan R.; Picus, Lawrence O.; Goetz, Michael E.

    2010-01-01

    This article estimates the costs of school finance adequacy in each of the 50 states and Washington, D.C. by applying the recommendations from an evidence-based model to the student characteristics of each individual state. Using two different prices, (a) the national average teacher salaries adjusted by a comparable wage index and (b) individual…

  11. 78 FR 33757 - Rural Determination and Financing Percentage

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-05

    ... and Activities Excluded from Executive Order 12372'' (50 FR 47034) advising that RUS loans and loan... the percentage of total project costs the Agency will finance where the project supplies electricity... amending 7 CFR part 1710. The properties of electricity are such that once a project is interconnected to...

  12. Getting beyond the Facts: Reforming California School Finance. Issue Brief

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bersin, Alan; Kirst, Michael W.; Liu, Goodwin

    2008-01-01

    California's school finance system is long overdue for reform. The authors propose a new system that is more rational, more equitable, and, they believe, politically feasible. At its core, their proposal aims to link district revenue to student needs and regional costs while ensuring that all districts are held harmless at current funding levels.…

  13. Financing Education in a Climate of Change. Third Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrup, Percy E.; Brimley, Vern, Jr.

    Education is declared to be an investment in human capital. Reform in school finance systems is long overdue in many states, but much progress has been made, and will yet be made, due to far-reaching decisions in a number of relevant court cases in the 1970s. To provide practical guidelines and cost-effective decision-making techniques for…

  14. Seven Things a Principal Should Know about School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sharp, William L.

    1994-01-01

    Secondary school principals should understand school finance basics, including property tax components (tax base, assessment practice, and tax rate); allowable tax reductions and exemptions; common arguments against the property tax; cost and valuation per pupil formulas; educational equity arguments; state foundation programs; and various types…

  15. Financing Education in a Climate of Change. Sixth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burrup, Percy E.; Brimley, Vern, Jr.; Garfield, Rulon R.

    As the United States prepares for the 21st century, questions regarding the high cost of education have increased in volume. Many of these questions and issues are addressed in this textbook. The text is intended for a beginning course in school finance, but school administrators, teachers, school board members, legislators, and others interested…

  16. 48 CFR 232.007 - Contract financing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... paragraphs of the respective payment clauses. For interim payments on cost-reimbursement contracts for services, see 232.906(a)(i). (b) The contracting officer should coordinate contract financing payment terms with offices that will be involved in the payment process to ensure that specified terms can be...

  17. 48 CFR 232.007 - Contract financing payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... paragraphs of the respective payment clauses. For interim payments on cost-reimbursement contracts for services, see 232.906(a)(i). (b) The contracting officer should coordinate contract financing payment terms with offices that will be involved in the payment process to ensure that specified terms can be...

  18. Financing Higher Education: Federal Income-Tax Consequences.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Marci

    1991-01-01

    The current income tax law's effects on common elements of education financing are discussed, including scholarships, loans, employment, and related issues. In light of recent tax changes that increase the after-tax cost of education, information for maximizing remaining tax advantages is offered. (MSE)

  19. 48 CFR 932.102 - Description of contract financing methods.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Description of contract financing methods. (e)(2) Progress payments based on a percentage or stage of... progress payments based on costs cannot be practically employed and that there are adequate safeguards provided for the administration of progress payments based on a percentage or stage of completion....

  20. Finance Formula. Abstract II: Research & Resources on Special Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    ERIC Clearinghouse on Handicapped and Gifted Children, Reston, VA.

    This one-page abstract summarizes results of a final report of a federally funded project titled, "An Analysis of State Special Education Finance Formulas." Five major types of formulas were identified: flat grant, minimum foundation program, percentage equalizing, percentage matching, and full state funding of the excess cost of special…

  1. PFI redux? Assessing a new model for financing hospitals.

    PubMed

    Hellowell, Mark

    2013-11-01

    There is a growing need for investments in hospital facilities to improve the efficiency and quality of health services. In recent years, publicly financed hospital organisations in many countries have utilised private finance arrangements, variously called private finance initiatives (PFIs), public-private partnerships (PPPs) or P3s, to address their capital requirements. However, such projects have become more difficult to implement since the onset of the global financial crisis, which has led to a reduction in the supply of debt capital and an increase in its price. In December 2012, the government of the United Kingdom outlined a comprehensive set of reforms to the private finance model in order to revive this important source of capital for hospital investments. This article provides a critical assessment of the 'Private Finance 2' reforms, focusing on their likely impact on the supply and cost of capital. It concludes that constraints in supply are likely to continue, in part due to regulatory constraints facing both commercial banks and institutional investors, while the cost of capital is likely to increase, at least in the short term. PMID:24138730

  2. Financing health care for all: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Kumar, A K Shiva; Chen, Lincoln C; Choudhury, Mita; Ganju, Shiban; Mahajan, Vijay; Sinha, Amarjeet; Sen, Abhijit

    2011-02-19

    India's health financing system is a cause of and an exacerbating factor in the challenges of health inequity, inadequate availability and reach, unequal access, and poor-quality and costly health-care services. Low per person spending on health and insufficient public expenditure result in one of the highest proportions of private out-of-pocket expenses in the world. Citizens receive low value for money in the public and the private sectors. Financial protection against medical expenditures is far from universal with only 10% of the population having medical insurance. The Government of India has made a commitment to increase public spending on health from less than 1% to 3% of the gross domestic product during the next few years. Increased public funding combined with flexibility of financial transfers from centre to state can greatly improve the performance of state-operated public systems. Enhanced public spending can be used to introduce universal medical insurance that can help to substantially reduce the burden of private out-of-pocket expenditures on health. Increased public spending can also contribute to quality assurance in the public and private sectors through effective regulation and oversight. In addition to an increase in public expenditures on health, the Government of India will, however, need to introduce specific methods to contain costs, improve the efficiency of spending, increase accountability, and monitor the effect of expenditures on health. PMID:21227490

  3. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  4. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an...

  5. Exposing the true risks of capitation financed healthcare.

    PubMed

    Cox, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Many healthcare finance mechanisms involve transferring uncertain costs to healthcare providers in lieu of fixed payments or global capitation. Global capitation violates basic principles of risk management through insurance. Risk-theoretic analysis of capitation shows that risk disaggregation forces efficient providers to become inefficient insurers. Risk-assuming providers face lower profitability and increased exposure to operating losses, and must reduce patient benefits. Global capitation causes inefficiency, increases healthcare costs, and threatens patient-provider relationships. PMID:21506200

  6. Financing Health Care: Businesses, Households, and Governments, 1987-2003

    PubMed Central

    Cowan, Cathy A.; Hartman, Micah B.

    2005-01-01

    This article provides estimates of health care expenditures by businesses, households, and governments for 1987-2003. Sponsors that finance public and private health insurance programs and other payers face increasing challenges as health care cost rise. Their capacity to support rising costs was particularly strained during the recent economic recession, with the Federal Government's burden measured against revenue available for this purpose growing faster than for other sponsors. PMID:25372083

  7. Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model – A User’s Guide

    SciTech Connect

    Morrow, William R.; Shehabi, Arman; Smith, Sarah Josephine

    2015-08-01

    The Manufacturing Cost Levelization Model is a cost-performance techno-economic model that estimates total large-scale manufacturing costs for necessary to produce a given product. It is designed to provide production cost estimates for technology researchers to help guide technology research and development towards an eventual cost-effective product. The model presented in this user’s guide is generic and can be tailored to the manufacturing of any product, including the generation of electricity (as a product). This flexibility, however, requires the user to develop the processes and process efficiencies that represents a full-scale manufacturing facility. The generic model is comprised of several modules that estimate variable costs (material, labor, and operating), fixed costs (capital & maintenance), financing structures (debt and equity financing), and tax implications (taxable income after equipment and building depreciation, debt interest payments, and expenses) of a notional manufacturing plant. A cash-flow method is used to estimate a selling price necessary for the manufacturing plant to recover its total cost of production. A levelized unit sales price ($ per unit of product) is determined by dividing the net-present value of the manufacturing plant’s expenses ($) by the net present value of its product output. A user defined production schedule drives the cash-flow method that determines the levelized unit price. In addition, an analyst can increase the levelized unit price to include a gross profit margin to estimate a product sales price. This model allows an analyst to understand the effect that any input variables could have on the cost of manufacturing a product. In addition, the tool is able to perform sensitivity analysis, which can be used to identify the key variables and assumptions that have the greatest influence on the levelized costs. This component is intended to help technology researchers focus their research attention on tasks

  8. Philanthropy and hospital financing.

    PubMed Central

    Smith, D G; Clement, J P; Wheeler, J R

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE. This study explores the relationships among donations to not-for-profit hospitals, the returns provided by these hospitals, and fund-raising efforts. It tests a model of hospital behavior and addresses an earlier debate regarding the supply price of donations. DATA SOURCES. The main data source is the California Office of Statewide Health Planning data tapes of hospital financial disclosure reports for fiscal years 1980/1981 through 1986/1987. Complete data were available for 160 hospitals. STUDY DESIGN. Three structural equations (donations, returns, and fund-raising) are estimated as a system using a fixed-effects, pooled cross-section, time-series least squares regression. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS. Estimation results reveal the expected positive relation between donations and returns. The reverse relation between returns and donations is insignificant. The estimated effect of fund-raising on donations is insignificantly different from zero, and the effect of donations on fund-raising is negative. Fund-raising and returns are negatively associated with one another. CONCLUSION. The empirical results presented here suggest a positive donations-returns relations and are consistent with a positive supply price for donations. Hospitals appear to view a trade-off between providing returns and soliciting donations, but donors do not respond equally to these two activities. Attempts to increase free cash flow through expansion of community returns or fund-raising activity, at least in the short run, are not likely to be highly successful financing strategies for many hospitals. PMID:8537223

  9. Financing vaccinations - the South African experience.

    PubMed

    Blecher, Mark S; Meheus, Filip; Kollipara, Aparna; Hecht, Robert; Cameron, Neil A; Pillay, Yogan; Hanna, Luisa

    2012-09-01

    South Africa provides a useful country case study for financing vaccinations. It has been an early adopter of new vaccinations and has financed these almost exclusively from domestic resources, largely through general taxation. National vaccination policy is determined by the Department of Health, based on advice from a national advisory group on immunisation. Standard health economic criteria of effectiveness, cost-effectiveness, affordability and burden of disease are used to assess whether new vaccinations should be introduced. Global guidelines and the advice of local and international experts are also helpful in making the determination to introduce new vaccines. In terms of recent decisions to introduce new vaccines against pneumococcal disease and rotavirus diarrhoea in children, the evidence has proved unequivocal. Universal rollout has been implemented even though this has led to a fivefold increase in national spending on vaccines. The total cost to government remains below 1-1.5% of public expenditures for health, which is viewed by the South African authorities as affordable and necessary given the number of lives saved and morbidity averted. To manage the rapid increase in domestic spending, efforts have been made to scale up coverage over several years, give greater attention to negotiating price reductions and, in some cases, obtain initial donations or frontloaded deliveries to facilitate earlier universal rollout. There has been strong support from a wide range of stakeholders for the early introduction of new generation vaccines. PMID:22939027

  10. Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2006-04-06

    The ?Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing? project substantially added to the understanding of geothermal resources, technology, and small business development by both the general public as well as those in the geothermal community.

  11. Social Ferment and School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hack, Walter G.

    1972-01-01

    Describes the nature of contemporary society in terms of gross or general changes observed during the past twenty years in order to consider possible breakthroughs of school finance as products of social ferment. (Author/AN)

  12. Major Issues in School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McLure, William P.

    1969-01-01

    Interprets the contemporary issues in school finance as functions of three phenomena: (1) Educational needs of individuals and society, (2) governance, and (3) ecological characteristics of the population. (DE)

  13. Are we ready? Trends in European flood risk and financing resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jongman, Brenden; Bouwer, Laurens; Hochrainer-Stigler, Stefan; Feyen, Luc; Botzen, Wouter; Aerts, Jeroen; Ward, Philip

    2013-04-01

    River flooding is the most frequent and damaging natural hazard currently affecting European countries, with losses in excess of 7 billion USD reported in 2010 alone. The upward trend in damages that is reported over the past three decades in some parts of Europe is expected to continue in the future, as a result of changes in hazard, and increases in exposure and vulnerability. Several mechanisms are in place to distribute and compensate these losses on both country and European Union levels, such as government guarantees, private insurance programmes and the EU Solidarity Fund. In addition, separate funds at national and EU level are available to assist in the prevention of future losses. The chosen mechanism of flood risk financing affects the efficiency of the system, its distributional effects and the incentives for private involvement in adaptation, and is thus an important policy issue. In this paper we (1) present trends and projections in flood losses for different parts of Europe using loss data and risk modeling approaches; (2) analyse the public and private mechanisms in place for financing flood recovery and adaptation; (3) assess the expected required and available funds for the period 2010 - 2050; and (4) propose policy on flood risk financing going forward. Results show that increasing economic exposure and climate change induced flood pattern changes increase the chance that annual flood losses exceed insurance and EU Solidarity Fund resources on a European scale. The results are important for researchers, policy makers and (re-)insurance firms that are concerned with natural disaster costs and financing mechanisms.

  14. SABER-School Finance: Data Collection Instrument

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, Elizabeth; Patrinos, Harry; Rogers, Halsey

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the SABER-school finance initiative is to collect, analyze and disseminate comparable data about education finance systems across countries. SABER-school finance assesses education finance systems along six policy goals: (i) ensuring basic conditions for learning; (ii) monitoring learning conditions and outcomes; (iii) overseeing…

  15. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is... transaction. (1) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by...

  16. 12 CFR 226.4 - Finance charge.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Finance charge. 226.4 Section 226.4 Banks and...) TRUTH IN LENDING (REGULATION Z) General § 226.4 Finance charge. (a) Definition. The finance charge is... transaction. (1) Charges by third parties. The finance charge includes fees and amounts charged by...

  17. Financing Residency Training Redesign

    PubMed Central

    Carney, Patricia A.; Waller, Elaine; Green, Larry A.; Crane, Steven; Garvin, Roger D.; Pugno, Perry A.; Kozakowski, Stanley M.; Douglass, Alan B.; Jones, Samuel; Eiff, M. Patrice

    2014-01-01

    Background Redesign in the health care delivery system creates a need to reorganize resident education. How residency programs fund these redesign efforts is not known. Methods Family medicine residency program directors participating in the Preparing Personal Physicians for Practice (P4) project were surveyed between 2006 and 2011 on revenues and expenses associated with training redesign. Results A total of 6 university-based programs in the study collectively received $5,240,516 over the entire study period, compared with $4,718,943 received by 8 community-based programs. Most of the funding for both settings came from grants, which accounted for 57.8% and 86.9% of funding for each setting, respectively. Department revenue represented 3.4% of university-based support and 13.1% of community-based support. The total average revenue (all years combined) per program for university-based programs was just under $875,000, and the average was nearly $590,000 for community programs. The vast majority of funds were dedicated to salary support (64.8% in university settings versus 79.3% in community-based settings). Based on the estimated ratio of new funding relative to the annual costs of training using national data for a 3-year program with 7 residents per year, training redesign added 3% to budgets for university-based programs and about 2% to budgets for community-based programs. Conclusions Residencies undergoing training redesign used a variety of approaches to fund these changes. The costs of innovations marginally increased the estimated costs of training. Federal and local funding sources were most common, and costs were primarily salary related. More research is needed on the costs of transforming residency training. PMID:26140119

  18. What Determines Bond Costs. Municipal Bonds Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Young, Douglas; And Others

    Public officials in small towns who participate infrequently in the bond market need information about bond financing. This publication, one in a series of booklets published by the Western Rural Development Center using research gathered between 1967-77, discusses factors influencing the marketability and cost of bond financing for towns and…

  19. Financing strategies for lunar energy enterprises: The helium-3 initiative

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmitt, Harrison H.

    1995-01-01

    Governments presently have little individual or collective interest in financing large scale lunar enterprises, either for science or potential resource utilization. For example, preliminary technical and economic considerations of the return of lunar helium-3 (3He) for terrestrial fusion power plants suggest positive economic and enviromental returns, however, no significant governmental activity has been focused on this or other space related energy options. General analysis of both short and long term returns on investment for a lunar helium-3 enterprise, including considerations of future launch costs, strongly suggests that private financing may be attracted to this endeavor. A privately organized ``catalytic financing'' approach to providing start-up capital for a lunar helium-3 enterprise appears to be worth consideration.

  20. Financing dengue vaccine introduction in the Americas: challenges and opportunities.

    PubMed

    Constenla, Dagna; Clark, Samantha

    2016-01-01

    Dengue has escalated in the region of the Americas unabated despite major investments in integrated vector control and prevention strategies. An effective and affordable dengue vaccine can play a critical role in reducing the human and economic costs of the disease by preventing millions around the world from getting sick. However, there are considerable challenges on the path towards vaccine introduction. These include lack of sufficient financing tools, absence of capacity within national level decision-making bodies, and demands that new vaccines place on stressed health systems. Various financing models can be used to overcome these challenges including setting up procurement mechanisms, integrating regional and domestic taxes, and setting up low interest multilateral loans. In this paper we review these challenges and opportunities of financing dengue vaccine introduction in the Americas. PMID:26690087

  1. Medicare finances: findings of the 2006 trustees report.

    PubMed

    Van de Water, Paul N; Lavery, Joni

    2006-05-01

    Medicare helps pay medical expenses for 37 million Americans age 65 and older and 6 million persons with disabilities. The benefits are financed primarily by dedicated taxes on wages and self-employment income, premiums paid by beneficiaries, and payments from general revenues. According to the 2006 report of Medicare's trustees, Medicare's Hospital Insurance (HI) program is not adequately financed. The HI trust fund is projected to start drawing down its reserves in 2010. Its reserves will be depleted in 2018, at which time scheduled income will cover 80 percent of estimated expenditures. The Supplementary Medical Insurance program is adequately financed but will require continuing increases in both premiums and general revenue contributions. Medicare spending is growing rapidly because of increases in the cost and use of medical services. Total Medicare expenditures are projected to grow from 2.7 percent of gross domestic product (GDP) in 2005 to 9.0 percent of GDP in 2050. PMID:16685781

  2. Financing health care in the United Arab Emirates.

    PubMed

    Taha, Nabila Fahed; Sharif, Amer Ahmad; Blair, Iain

    2013-01-01

    Newcomers to the United Arab Emirates (UAE) health care system often enquire about the way in which UAE health services are financed particularly when funding issues affect eligibility for treatment. The UAE ranks alongside many western counties on measures of life expectancy and child mortality but because of the unique population structure spends less of its national income on health. In the past as a wealthy country the UAE had no difficulty ensuring universal access to a comprehensive range of services but the health needs of the UAE population are becoming more complex and like many countries the UAE health system is facing the twin challenges of quality and cost. To meet these challenges new models of health care financing are being introduced. In this brief article we will describe the evolution of UAE health financing, its current state and likely future developments. PMID:24228347

  3. Start-up and operating costs for artisan cheese companies.

    PubMed

    Bouma, Andrea; Durham, Catherine A; Meunier-Goddik, Lisbeth

    2014-01-01

    Lack of valid economic data for artisan cheese making is a serious impediment to developing a realistic business plan and obtaining financing. The objective of this study was to determine approximate start-up and operating costs for an artisan cheese company. In addition, values are provided for the required size of processing and aging facilities associated with specific production volumes. Following in-depth interviews with existing artisan cheese makers, an economic model was developed to predict costs based on input variables such as production volume, production frequency, cheese types, milk types and cost, labor expenses, and financing. Estimated values for start-up cost for processing and aging facility ranged from $267,248 to $623,874 for annual production volumes of 3,402 kg (7,500 lb) and 27,216 kg (60,000 lb), respectively. First-year production costs ranged from $65,245 to $620,094 for the above-mentioned production volumes. It is likely that high start-up and operating costs remain a significant entry barrier for artisan cheese entrepreneurs. PMID:24746129

  4. Airport Financing and User Charge Systems in the USA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bartle, John R.

    1998-01-01

    This paper examines the financing of U.S. public airports in a turbulent era of change, and projects toward the future. It begins by briefly outlining historical patterns that have changed the industry, and airport facilities in particular. It then develops basic principles of public finance as applied to public infrastructure, followed by the applicable principles of management. Following that, the current airport financing system is analyzed and contrasted with a socially optimal financing system. A concluding section suggests policy reforms and their likely benefits. The principles of finance and management discussed here are elementary. However, their implications are radical for U.S. airport policy. There is a great deal of room to improve the allocation of aviation infrastructure resources. The application of these basic principles makes it evident that in many cases, current practice is wasteful, environmentally unsound, overly costly, and inequitable. Future investments in public aviation capital will continue to be wasteful until more efficient pricing systems are instituted. Thus, problem in the U.S. is not one of insufficient investment in airport infrastructure, but investment in the wrong types of infrastructure. In the U.S., the vast majority of publically-owned airports are owned by local governments. Thus, while the federal government bad a great deal of influence in financing airports, ultimately these are local decisions. The same is true with many other public infrastructure issues. Katz and Herman (1997) report that in 1995, U.S. net public capital stock equaled almost $4.6 trillion, 72% of which ($3.9 trillion) was owned by state and local governments, most of it in buildings, highways, Streets, sewer systems, and water supply facilities. Thus, public infrastructure finance is fundamentally a local government issue, with implications for federal and state governments in the design of their aid programs.

  5. Solar PV Project Financing: Regulatory and Legislative Challenges for Third-Party PPA System Owners

    SciTech Connect

    Kollins, K.; Speer, B.; Cory, K.

    2009-11-01

    Residential and commercial end users of electricity who want to generate electricity using on-site solar photovoltaic (PV) systems face challenging initial and O&M costs. The third-party ownership power purchase agreement (PPA) finance model addresses these and other challenges. It allows developers to build and own PV systems on customers? properties and sell power back to customers. However, third-party electricity sales commonly face five regulatory challenges. The first three challenges involve legislative or regulatory definitions of electric utilities, power generation equipment, and providers of electric services. These definitions may compel third-party owners of solar PV systems to comply with regulations that may be cost prohibitive. Third-party owners face an additional challenge if they may not net meter, a practice that provides significant financial incentive to owning solar PV systems. Finally, municipalities and cooperatives worry about the regulatory implications of allowing an entity to sell electricity within their service territories. This paper summarizes these challenges, when they occur, and how they have been addressed in five states. This paper also presents alternative to the third-party ownership PPA finance model, including solar leases, contractual intermediaries, standardized contract language, federal investment tax credits, clean renewable energy bonds, and waived monopoly powers.

  6. Analysis of economics of a TV broadcasting satellite for additional nationwide TV programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D.; Mertens, G.; Rappold, A.; Seith, W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of a TV broadcasting satellite, transmitting four additional TV networks was analyzed. It is assumed that the cost of the satellite systems will be financed by the cable TV system operators. The additional TV programs increase income by attracting additional subscribers. Two economic models were established: (1) each local network is regarded as an independent economic unit with individual fees (cost price model) and (2) all networks are part of one public cable TV company with uniform fees (uniform price model). Assumptions are made for penetration as a function of subscription rates. Main results of the study are: the installation of a TV broadcasting satellite improves the economics of CTV-networks in both models; the overall coverage achievable by the uniform price model is significantly higher than that achievable by the cost price model.

  7. Idaho Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Idaho homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Idaho homeowners will save $4,057 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $285 for the 2012 IECC.

  8. Ohio Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Ohio homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Ohio homeowners will save $5,151 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $330 for the 2012 IECC.

  9. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  10. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  11. Estimated Financing Amount Needed for Essential Medicines in China, 2014

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Wei; Xu, Zheng-Yuan; Cai, Gong-Jie; Kuo, Chiao-Yun; Li, Jing; Huang, Yi-Syuan

    2016-01-01

    Background: At the present time, the government is considering to establish the independent financing system for essential medicines (EMs). However, it is still in the exploration phase. The objectives of this study were to calculate and estimate financing amount of EMs in China in 2014 and to provide data evidence for establishing financing mechanism of EMs. Methods: Two approaches were adopted in this study. First, we used a retrospective research to estimate the cost of EMs in China in 2014. We identified all the 520 drugs listed in the latest national EMs list (2012) and calculated the total sales amount of these drugs in 2014. The other approach included the steps that first selecting the 109 most common diseases in China, then identifying the EMs used to treat them, and finally estimating the total cost of these drugs. Results: The results of the two methods, which showed the estimated financing amounts of EMs in China in 2014, were 17,776.44 million USD and 19,094.09 million USD, respectively. Conclusions: Comparing these two results, we concluded that the annual budget needed to provide for the EMs in China would be about 20 billion USD. Our study also indicated that the irrational drug use continued to plague the health system with intravenous fluids and antibiotics being the typical examples, as observed in other studies. PMID:26960376

  12. Higher Education Financing in the Fifty States: Interstate Comparisons, Fiscal Year 1982. 4th Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCoy, Marilyn; Halstead, D. Kent

    Information on state-level financing of higher education and on institutional revenues and expenditures is presented for fiscal year (FY) 1982, with trend data back to FY 1978. In addition to a narrative analysis, nearly 200 tables show state rankings on 46 factors involved in higher education finance. The state rankings cover state and local…

  13. 12 CFR 1249.19 - Additional provisions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional provisions. 1249.19 Section 1249.19 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE AGENCY ENTERPRISES BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURES § 1249.19 Additional provisions. (a) Additional requirements. In any case or any class of cases arising under this part, an Enterprise may require such...

  14. Financing Your Small Business: A Workbook for Financing Small Business.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Compton, Clark W.

    Designed to assist established businesspeople with the development of a loan proposal, this workbook offers information on sources of financing and step-by-step guidance on applying for a loan. After chapter I discusses borrowers' and lenders' attitudes towards money, chapter II offers suggestions for determining financial needs. Chapter III lists…

  15. Cracking down on cost outliers.

    PubMed

    Sackman, Jill E; Citrin, Levi

    2014-03-01

    A systematic approach targeting both the patients and physicians whose costs are above the norm is a sustainable way to effectively reduce costs of care. Finance leaders should build teams of specialists who can provide data on outliers in real time, make changes as problems are identified, and track improvements. Using a care map analytic framework hospitals can identify problem areas while establishing mechanisms to better control and manage costs in the long term. PMID:24701845

  16. Scaling and long range dependence in option pricing, IV: Pricing European options with transaction costs under the multifractional Black-Scholes model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiao-Tian

    2010-02-01

    This paper deals with the problem of discrete time option pricing using the multifractional Black-Scholes model with transaction costs. Using a mean self-financing delta hedging argument in a discrete time setting, a European call option pricing formula is obtained. The minimal price of an option under transaction costs is obtained. In addition, we show that scaling and long range dependence have a significant impact on option pricing.

  17. Computing for Finance

    SciTech Connect

    2010-03-24

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing – from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A; panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. Registration is mandatory via www.rezonance.ch, including for CERN staff. 1. Overview of High Performance Computing in the Financial Industry Michael Yoo, Managing Director, Head of the Technical Council, UBS Presentation will describe the key business challenges driving the need for HPC solutions, describe the means in which those challenges are being addressed within UBS (such as GRID) as well as the limitations of some of these solutions, and assess some of the newer HPC technologies which may also play a role in the Financial Industry in the future. Speaker Bio: Michael originally joined the former Swiss Bank Corporation in 1994 in New York as a developer on a large data warehouse project. In 1996 he left SBC and took a role with Fidelity Investments in Boston. Unable to stay away for long, he returned to SBC in 1997 while working for Perot Systems in Singapore. Finally, in 1998 he formally returned to UBS in Stamford following the merger with SBC and has

  18. Computing for Finance

    ScienceCinema

    None

    2011-10-06

    The finance sector is one of the driving forces for the use of distributed or Grid computing for business purposes. The speakers will review the state-of-the-art of high performance computing in the financial sector, and provide insight into how different types of Grid computing ? from local clusters to global networks - are being applied to financial applications. They will also describe the use of software and techniques from physics, such as Monte Carlo simulations, in the financial world. There will be four talks of 20min each. The talk abstracts and speaker bios are listed below. This will be followed by a Q&A; panel session with the speakers. From 19:00 onwards there will be a networking cocktail for audience and speakers. This is an EGEE / CERN openlab event organized in collaboration with the regional business network rezonance.ch. A webcast of the event will be made available for subsequent viewing, along with powerpoint material presented by the speakers. Attendance is free and open to all. Registration is mandatory via www.rezonance.ch, including for CERN staff. 1. Overview of High Performance Computing in the Financial Industry Michael Yoo, Managing Director, Head of the Technical Council, UBS Presentation will describe the key business challenges driving the need for HPC solutions, describe the means in which those challenges are being addressed within UBS (such as GRID) as well as the limitations of some of these solutions, and assess some of the newer HPC technologies which may also play a role in the Financial Industry in the future. Speaker Bio: Michael originally joined the former Swiss Bank Corporation in 1994 in New York as a developer on a large data warehouse project. In 1996 he left SBC and took a role with Fidelity Investments in Boston. Unable to stay away for long, he returned to SBC in 1997 while working for Perot Systems in Singapore. Finally, in 1998 he formally returned to UBS in Stamford following the merger with SBC and has remained

  19. Community College Finance Resource Development. UCLA Community College Bibliography

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carducci, Rozana

    2006-01-01

    The references in this bibliography provide an overview of recent scholarship on community college finance and resource development. In addition to documents that present a national portrait and comparative analysis of community college funding models and resource management practices, this bibliography also includes recent publications that…

  20. Education Finance in Canada. Bibliographies in Education No. 62.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beslin, Ralph

    This bibliography lists materials on education finance published since the earlier bibliographies on this topic were issued in 1970 and 1974. In addition, some materials missed in the earlier bibliographies are included in this issue. Annotations are provided for some of the entries. Material held in the Canadian Teachers' Federation (CTF) Library…

  1. Financing Community Schools: Leveraging Resources to Support Student Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blank, Martin J.; Jacobson, Reuben; Melaville, Atelia; Pearson, Sarah S.

    2010-01-01

    Community schools are one of the most efficient and effective strategies to improve outcomes for students as well as families and communities. Community schools leverage public and private investments by generating additional financial resources from partners and other sources. This report looks at how community schools finance their work. It…

  2. Financing Education in a Climate of Change. Eighth Edition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brimley, Vern, Jr.; Garfield, Rulon R.

    Since the publication of the seventh edition of this textbook in 1999, there have been many new developments in the education finance arena. Those changes are discussed in this eighth edition. Additional new material includes Internet resources, new exercises for further "laboratory" work, updated figures and tables, and fresh information on court…

  3. Decentralized Management and School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    1994-01-01

    Student achievement needs to rise much faster than resources to attain high levels of cognitive achievement for all. The article discusses the nature of funding changes, changes in achievement, productivity problems, central notions of systemic reform (decentralized management), and the new type of school finance policy structure. (SM)

  4. Vital Topics in School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garber, Darrell H.

    A study to determine the topics considered vital by principals and members of the American Education Finance Association (AEFA) is described in this paper. Questionnaires mailed to two random samples of 61 AEFA members and 181 elementary/secondary principals respectively, yielded 35 returns, a 57 percent response rate, and 113 returns, a 62…

  5. Finance Project. Agenda Item 8.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McIntyre, Chuck

    Based on an examination of the socioeconomic factors likely to affect community college financing in California from 1980 to 1985, this report presents recommendations for community college fiscal legislation during the state's 1981-82 legislative session. The report first outlines 17 assumptions concerning future trends in community college…

  6. Financing Postsecondary Education in California.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California State Legislature, Sacramento. Joint Committee on the Master Plan for Higher Education.

    This document presents an overview of the financial aspects of postsecondary educational institutions in California and suggests some recommendations for the alleviation of financial problems. The study consisted of extensive research of the current literature on financing, gathering key data on the California system, reviewing the pertinent…

  7. Financing Educational Imperatives. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Canadian Teachers' Federation, Ottawa (Ontario).

    This document reports the proceedings of a conference held to discuss the availability of educational resources and the financing of education in Canada. The conference focused specifically on the financial implications of redesigning educational institutions to be capable of flexible response to students' needs, making educational benefits more…

  8. Financing Community Education. A Primer.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Knight, Philip H.

    This manual is divided into three modules designed for use in a self-teaching situation. The first module presents a philosophical discussion of financing community education. The traditional model, requiring subordination of community education goals to the goals of the funding agency, is contrasted with an alternative model that establishes…

  9. School Finance and Facilities Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kawakami, Alice J., Ed.

    1994-01-01

    This document presents findings of a Pacific Region Educational Laboratory (PREL) study on the status of school finance and facilities in the 10 entities of the Pacific region served by PREL--American Samoa, Commonwealth of the Northern Mariana Islands (CNMI), Federated States of Micronesia, Guam, Hawaii, Republic of the Marshall Islands, and the…

  10. Revamping California's Education Finance System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McFadden, Brett

    2003-01-01

    Describes reasons for California's budget deficits and their impact on school finance. Offers five possible solutions to the school funding crises: Restructure the state's tax and revenue system, restore school district revenue-sharing abilities, initiate a top-to-bottom mandate review, provide greater fiscal and program flexibility, and revamp…

  11. Managerial Finance. Unit Study Guides.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Billingham, Carol J.

    This self-instructional study guide is part of the materials for a college-level programmed course in managerial finance. The study guide is intended for use by students in conjunction with a separate student manual and a series of instructional tape casettes. The study guide contains seven major units that focus in turn on the goal of financial…

  12. Financing Public Libraries in Ohio.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stocker, Frederick D.

    This study is an outgrowth of the plans and programs set in motion by the study of professor Ralph Blasingame, Rutgers University Graduate School, in 1968, and the 1969 legislation setting up the Ohio Library Development Plan (OLDP). Its purposes are to describe the system of financing public libraries in Ohio, to identify problem areas, and to…

  13. Alternative Financing of Alternative Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    California Higher Education, 1982

    1982-01-01

    The University of San Francisco financed conversion of three dormitories to solar heat by having private investors purchase and install equipment through a limited partnership. A public utilities rebate and eventual donation of the equipment also resulted. Available from California Higher Education, P.O. Box 26541, Sacramento, CA 95826, $2.00.…

  14. Financing Higher Education in Canada.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Association of Universities and Colleges of Canada, Ottawa (Ontario).

    It is the purpose of the committee responsible for this document to study, report, and make recommendations on the financing of universities and colleges of Canada, with particular reference to the decade ending 1975, including: (1) prospective financial requirements of universities and colleges, for operation, research, physical facilities and…

  15. Educational Finance Reform in Wyoming.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Neely, Robert O.; Basom, Margaret R.

    This paper provides a history and analysis of educational finance in Wyoming. It offers a summary of the funding model that is currently in place and that has been challenged in court--the fourth such challenge in the past 30 years. The article focuses on the current litigation. It discusses the funding formula that was adopted by the state…

  16. Remarks on Financing Postsecondary Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnes, R. Kenneth

    Issues concerning the financing of higher education are considered with reference made to Maryland's status. It is suggested that money is a critical issue, that good management is needed to assure the best and wisest use of fiscal resources, and that the fiscal outlook for the future indicates that higher education planners must examine…

  17. Constitutional Reform of School Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, Kern, Ed.; Jordan, K. Forbis, Ed.

    This book contains conference papers by experts in educational administration, law, and economics. Six of the papers are devoted to a legal analysis of fiscal inequality among school attendance units, school districts, and States. These contributions are: (1) K. Forbis Jordan and Kern Alexander, "Constitutional Methods of Financing Public…

  18. Australian University International Student Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forbes-Mewett, Helen; Marginson, Simon; Nyland, Chris; Ramia, Gaby; Sawir, Erlenawati

    2009-01-01

    The omission of international students from the Australian Vice-Chancellor's Committee (AVCC) 2007 national study on student finances is indicative of a pattern of exclusion. The exclusion is unacceptable from a humane perspective and feeds the belief that Australians perceive international students primarily as "cash cows". This study partially…

  19. Madison Model for Personal Finance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Portland Public Schools, OR.

    A unit plan for a course in consumer education, required for graduation from the Portland, Oregon, public schools, is presented in the document. The course, called Personal Finance, covers two semesters and involves instructors in mathematics, social studies, and home economics. The course covers 10 subject areas: (1) money management; (2)…

  20. New Approaches to Debt Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levitz, Larry; And Others

    1987-01-01

    The use of tax-exempt and taxable bonds by colleges and universities to raise capital is discussed. Currently, the most common tax-exempt instrument issued by higher education institutions is the revenue bond. Until the early 1980s the most common form of tax-exempt financing was long-term fixed-rate debt. Variable or floating rate debt became…

  1. The Financing of Educational Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alexander, M. David; Wood, R. Craig

    1983-01-01

    After explaining briefly the history of educational funding in the United States, the authors discuss the current revenue sources and fiscal status of American public school facilities financing. Included are three tables with state-by-state information concerning bond referenda, public school bonded indebtedness, and debt loads. (JBM)

  2. Troubleshooting Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kornacki, Jeffrey L.

    Seventy-six million cases of foodborne disease occur each year in the United States alone. Medical and lost productivity costs of the most common pathogens are estimated to be 5.6-9.4 billion. Product recalls, whether from foodborne illness or spoilage, result in added costs to manufacturers in a variety of ways. These may include expenses associated with lawsuits from real or allegedly stricken individuals and lawsuits from shorted customers. Other costs include those associated with efforts involved in finding the source of the contamination and eliminating it and include time when lines are shut down and therefore non-productive, additional non-routine testing, consultant fees, time and personnel required to overhaul the entire food safety system, lost market share to competitors, and the cost associated with redesign of the factory and redesign or acquisition of more hygienic equipment. The cost associated with an effective quality assurance plan is well worth the effort to prevent the situations described.

  3. Solar PV Manufacturing Cost Model Group: Installed Solar PV System Prices (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, A. C.; Woodhouse, M.; James, T.

    2011-02-01

    EERE's Solar Energy Technologies Program is charged with leading the Secretary's SunShot Initiative to reduce the cost of electricity from solar by 75% to be cost competitive with conventional energy sources without subsidy by the end of the decade. As part of this Initiative, the program has funded the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) to develop module manufacturing and solar PV system installation cost models to ensure that the program's cost reduction targets are carefully aligned with current and near term industry costs. The NREL cost analysis team has leveraged the laboratories' extensive experience in the areas of project finance and deployment, as well as industry partnerships, to develop cost models that mirror the project cost analysis tools used by project managers at leading U.S. installers. The cost models are constructed through a "bottoms-up" assessment of each major cost element, beginning with the system's bill of materials, labor requirements (type and hours) by component, site-specific charges, and soft costs. In addition to the relevant engineering, procurement, and construction costs, the models also consider all relevant costs to an installer, including labor burdens and overhead rates, supply chain costs, and overhead and materials inventory costs, and assume market-specific profits.

  4. Financing Higher Education after Tax Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.; Meyerson, Joel W.

    1987-01-01

    Capital finance, once limited to financing physical plant, today includes all assets and aspects of institutional life. It now encompasses a wide range of approaches and techniques including pooled debt, capital leases, futures contracts, equity investments, and research partnerships. (MLW)

  5. Developing Viable Financing Models for Space Tourism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eilingsfeld, F.; Schaetzler, D.

    2002-01-01

    Increasing commercialization of space services and the impending release of government's control of space access promise to make space ventures more attractive. Still, many investors shy away from going into the space tourism market as long as they do not feel secure that their return expectations will be met. First and foremost, attracting investors from the capital markets requires qualifying financing models. Based on earlier research on the cost of capital for space tourism, this paper gives a brief run-through of commercial, technical and financial due diligence aspects. After that, a closer look is taken at different valuation techniques as well as alternative ways of streamlining financials. Experience from earlier ventures has shown that the high cost of capital represents a significant challenge. Thus, the sophistication and professionalism of business plans and financial models needs to be very high. Special emphasis is given to the optimization of the debt-to-equity ratio over time. The different roles of equity and debt over a venture's life cycle are explained. Based on the latter, guidelines for the design of an optimized loan structure are given. These are then applied to simulating the financial performance of a typical space tourism venture over time, including the calculation of Weighted Average Cost of Capital (WACC) and Net Present Value (NPV). Based on a concluding sensitivity analysis, the lessons learned are presented. If applied properly, these will help to make space tourism economically viable.

  6. An attributable cost model for a telecare system using advanced community alarms.

    PubMed

    Brownsell, S J; Bradley, D A; Bragg, R; Catling, P; Carlier, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an attributable cost model for a city-based telecare scheme involving 11,618 community alarm users. The equipment was assumed to cost 500 Pounds-1000 Pounds per installation, compared with 175 Pounds for the current system. Because of the significant additional capital cost of the proposed system, it would be necessary to borrow to finance it. For example, if the home equipment cost 500 Pounds per unit, an additional 2.2 million Pounds would be required. Nonetheless, it would be possible to achieve a return on the investment after 10 years. The principal savings would arise from reduced hospital bed costs and reduced residential care. The model suggests that the financial benefits of the proposed system would occur in the ratio of 4% to the local authority housing department, 43% to the National Health Service and 53% to the residential care provider. PMID:11331043

  7. 48 CFR 12.210 - Contract financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Contract financing. 12.210... ACQUISITION OF COMMERCIAL ITEMS Special Requirements for the Acquisition of Commercial Items 12.210 Contract financing. Customary market practice for some commercial items may include buyer contract financing....

  8. Minnesota School Finance: A Guide for Legislators.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Tim

    Following a brief introduction discussing Minnesota's educational finance system, recent finance litigation, and public education system, this report discusses basic school finance terms and concepts. The next two sections review the state's property tax system and its general education revenue program, including aid and levy calculations.…

  9. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Student Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Susan; Kyng, Tim; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.

    2015-01-01

    Finance threshold concepts are the essential conceptual knowledge that underpin well-developed financial capabilities and are central to the mastery of finance. In this paper we investigate threshold concepts in finance from the point of view of students, by establishing the extent to which students are aware of threshold concepts identified by…

  10. Financing Education in Ontario: Issues and Choices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Richard M.

    A study of the history of public financing of elementary and secondary education in Ontario and the issues and choices presently facing the province's finance system suggest that proposals for radical change must be considered. Current pressures on the mixed provincial-local system of finance come from the slow rate of economic expansion generally…

  11. Private Placement Debt Financing for Public Entities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holman, Lance S.

    2010-01-01

    Private placement financing is a debt or capital lease obligation arranged between a municipality or a 501(c) (3) not-for-profit organization and a single sophisticated institutional investor. The investor can be a bank, insurance company, finance company, hedge fund, or high-net worth individual. Private placement financing is similar to…

  12. Capital Financing for Independent Private Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quinn, Kevin G.; Doherty, Robert F.; Wienk, Christopher O.

    This document contains summary materials from a presentation by Wye River Capital, Inc. of Annapolis, Maryland, on capital financing for independent private schools. The main sections of the presentation address: (1) overview of the capital financing process; (2) tax law considerations for tax-exempt financings by private schools; and (3) key…

  13. Current Litigation Involving School Finance Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparkman, William E.

    This paper contains an overview of selected school finance cases litigated in local, state, and federal courts. The first section contains a review of state school finance cases. Constitutional challenges to states' school finance systems were affirmed by the Connecticut Supreme Court, defeated by the Michigan Court of Appeals, and returned to a…

  14. 75 FR 38158 - Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-01

    ... COMMISSION Korea Finance Corporation; Notice of Application June 25, 2010. AGENCY: Securities and Exchange... Finance Corporation (``Applicant''). SUMMARY: Summary of Application: Applicant, a policy finance...-owned policy finance institution established by the Korean Government on October 28, 2009, pursuant...

  15. Local cost sharing in Bamako Initiative systems in Benin and Guinea: assuring the financial viability of primary health care.

    PubMed

    Soucat, A; Levy-Bruhl, D; Gbedonou, P; Drame, K; Lamarque, J P; Diallo, S; Osseni, R; Adovohekpe, P; Ortiz, C; Debeugny, C; Knippenberg, R

    1997-06-01

    The fourth in a series of five, this article presents and analyses data on cost recovery and community cost-sharing, two key aspects of the Bamako Initiative which have been implemented in Benin and Guinea since 1986. The data come from approximately 400 health centres and result from the six-monthly monitoring sessions conducted from 1989 to 1993. Community involvement in the financing of local operating costs in the two national scale programmes is also described. In Benin and Guinea, a user fee system generates the community financed revenue with the aim of covering local operating costs including drugs. Health worker salaries remain the responsibility of the government and donor funding covers vaccine and investment costs. Village health committees manage and control resources and revenue. The community is also involved in decision making, strategy definition and quality control. In Benin in 1993, community financing revenue amounted to about US$0.6 per capita per year and generally covered all local recurrent non salary costs except vaccines and left a surplus. Although total costs and revenues were slightly lower in Guinea for the same period, over-all user fee revenue (around US$0.3 per capita per year) covered local recurrent costs (not including salaries or vaccines). A comparison of costs and revenue between regions and individual health centres revealed important differences in cost recovery ratios. In Benin, some centres recovered more than twice the local costs targeted for community financing. Twenty-five per cent of centres in Guinea did not manage to cover their designated local recurrent costs. The longitudinal analysis showed that the level of cost recovery remained stable over time even as preventive care (and especially EPI) coverage rose significantly. To better understand the most important characteristics affecting cost recovery levels, best performing health centres in terms of cost-recovery levels in 1993 were compared to worst performing

  16. Cost Implications of the FIDCR: The Derivation of the Estimates in the Report to the Congress Entitled "The Appropriateness of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements..." and an Analysis of Alternative Assumptions. Technical Paper 3.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conly, Sonia Rempel

    This volume contains the technical paper prepared by DHEW to give additional data and a more detailed analysis of materials used to study the cost implications of the Federal Interagency Day Care Requirements (FIDCR). This study was part of a larger project to investigate two questions: is the Federal regulation of day care financed under Title XX…

  17. 31 CFR 1021.410 - Additional records to be made and retained by casinos.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Additional records to be made and retained by casinos. 1021.410 Section 1021.410 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FINANCIAL CRIMES ENFORCEMENT NETWORK, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY RULES FOR CASINOS AND CARD CLUBS Records Required To...

  18. Assessment of Energy Efficiency Project Financing Alternatives for Brookhaven National Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.; Hail, John C.; Sullivan, Gregory P.

    2000-02-14

    This document provides findings and recommendations that resulted from an assessment of the Brookhaven National Laboratory by a team from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory to assess the site's potential for various alternative financing options as a means to implement energy-efficiency improvements. The assessment looked for life-cycle cost-effective energy-efficiency improvement opportunities, and through a series of staff interviews, evaluated the various methods by which these opportunities may be financed, while considering availability of funds, staff, and available financing options. This report summarizes the findings of the visit and the resulting recommendations.

  19. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  20. The International Finance Corporation and financing of sustainable energy

    SciTech Connect

    1997-12-01

    The International Finance Corporation (IFC), a member of the World Bank Group, is the largest multilateral source of loan and equity financing for private sector projects in the developing world. IFC participates in an investment only when it can make a special contribution that complements the role of market operators. Since its founding 40 years ago, IFC has provided more than $18.8 billion in financing for 1,706 companies in developing countries. Its share capital is provided by its 170 member countries, which collectively determine its policies and activities. Strong shareholder support and a substantial paid-in capital base have allowed IFC to raise funds for its lending activities through its triple-A rated bond issues in international financial markets. IFC created an Infrastructure Department in 1992 in response to the growing demand for its services in this area. During fiscal 1996 IFC approved 33 projects for new investments of $715 million of which 27% were in the power sector. In recognition of the continuing demand growth for private power investments an expanded Power Department has been formed to handle IFC`s investments in electric power generation projects using renewable resources such as: run-of-the-river hydro, geothermal, biomass cogeneration, wind energy, and solar (photovoltaic, solar thermal, etc.), as well as conventional thermal generation projects, transmission and distribution projects, and energy efficiency investments.

  1. Incorporating financial protection into decision rules for publicly financed healthcare treatments.

    PubMed

    Smith, Peter C

    2013-02-01

    Almost all health systems seek to offer some form of publicly financed healthcare insurance, and governments must therefore choose the size of the benefit package and the types of treatments to cover. Conventionally, the usual approach of economists has been to recommend choices on the basis of cost effectiveness of treatments, using metrics such as the 'cost per quality adjusted life year'. However, this approach is based on the assumption of health maximization subject to a budget constraint and ignores the potential impact of any additional concern with protecting individuals from the financial consequences of a health shock. Furthermore, it does not take account of the possible availability of complementary privately funded health care. This paper develops a model in which risk-averse individuals care about health but also place a value on protection from the financial consequences of rare but costly events. The paper shows how conventional cost-effectiveness analysis can readily be augmented to take account of financial protection objectives. The results depend on whether or not there exists a market in complementary privately funded health care. They have important implications for the methodology adopted by health technology assessment agencies and for the broader design of publicly funded health systems. PMID:22241688

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Geothermal Money Book [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2004-02-01

    Small business lending is big business and growing. Loans under $1 million totaled $460 billion in June 2001, up $23 billion from 2000. The number of loans under $100,000 continued to grow at a rapid rate, growing by 10.1%. The dollar value of loans under $100,000 increased 4.4%; those of $100,000-$250,000 by 4.1%; and those between $250,000 and $1 million by 6.4%. But getting a loan can be difficult if a business owner does not know how to find small business-friendly lenders, how to best approach them, and the specific criteria they use to evaluate a loan application. This is where the Geothermal Money Book comes in. Once a business and financing plan and financial proposal are written, the Geothermal Money Book takes the next step, helping small geothermal businesses locate and obtain financing. The Geothermal Money Book will: Explain the specific criteria potential financing sources use to evaluate a proposal for debt financing; Describe the Small Business Administration's (SBA) programs to promote lending to small businesses; List specific small-business friendly lenders for small geothermal businesses, including those which participate in SBA programs; Identify federal and state incentives which are relevant to direct use and small-scale (< 1 megawatt) power generation geothermal projects; and Provide an extensive state directory of financing sources and state financial incentives for the 19 states involved in the GeoPowering the West (GPW). GPW is a U.S. Department of Energy-sponsored activity to dramatically increase the use of geothermal energy in the western United States by promoting environmentally compatible heat and power, along with industrial growth and economic development. The Geothermal Money Book will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing

  4. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Finance Board § 908.71 Practice before the Finance Board. Practice before the Finance Board for...

  5. 12 CFR 985.4 - Finance Board oversight.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Finance Board oversight. 985.4 Section 985.4 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE THE OFFICE OF FINANCE § 985.4 Finance Board oversight. (a) Oversight and enforcement actions. The Finance Board shall have the same...

  6. 12 CFR 908.71 - Practice before the Finance Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Practice before the Finance Board. 908.71 Section 908.71 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD ORGANIZATION... Finance Board § 908.71 Practice before the Finance Board. Practice before the Finance Board for...

  7. 12 CFR 980.7 - Examinations; requests for additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Examinations; requests for additional information. 980.7 Section 980.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NEW FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANK... cooperative nature of the Bank System; and (v) Finance Board review of any contracts or agreements between...

  8. FY 1996 cost savings by program

    SciTech Connect

    Andrews-Smith, K.L.

    1997-08-15

    In September 1994 the DOE Richland Operations Office (RL) approved the FY 1995 multi-year baseline that included a cost estimate of $1.9 billion for FY 1996. However, Congress only appropriated $1.3 billion for that year. The shortfall of $600 million resulted in a significant challenge to accomplish the required workscope. Therefore, RL initiated an aggressive cost savings program to eliminate the shortfall by deleting workscope that was unnecessary and performing the remaining workscope more efficiently. RL initiated baseline planning actions (including deletions, deferrals, transfers, and additions) during the FY 1996 multi-year baseline development process to match workscope and anticipated funding and identified $205 million of workscope deletions. CFR (Contract Finance and Review Division) then reviewed over 200 cost baseline change requests during FY 1996 and documented an additional $95 million of FY 1996 cost savings. This included $73 million of workscope deletions and $22 million of efficiencies. Total savings as a result of FY 1996 initiatives, including baseline planning actions and current year initiatives, were $300 million. This report contains tables which enumerate the savings realized within each program at Hanford.

  9. Energy-management financing for state facilities and public schools

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1988-12-01

    The Department of Natural Resources (DNR) has committed to facilitate comprehensive energy management for state facilities, schools, hospitals, local governments, and other nonprofit organizations. The goal is to install all cost effective improvements, those with an aggregate payback of 6 years or less, by using private sector financing. To meet this goal, several programs were developed under Iowa's Building Energy Management Program. The DNR established a nonprofit corporation, the State of Iowa Facilities Improvement Corporation. The corporation finances, installs, and leases improvements to state agencies. The savings from improvements are used to make the lease payment. The Iowa School Energy Bank was established to serve Iowa public schools and community colleges. Six-month interest-free loans are offered to the schools for engineering analyses. Lease financing is offered for improvements under a master lease agreement with a regional bank at a group municipal financing rate. The publication documents the development of both the State of Iowa Facilities Improvement Corporation and the Iowa School Energy Bank Program.

  10. The health financing transition: a conceptual framework and empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Fan, Victoria Y; Savedoff, William D

    2014-03-01

    Almost every country exhibits two important health financing trends: health spending per person rises and the share of out-of-pocket spending on health services declines. We describe these trends as a "health financing transition" to provide a conceptual framework for understanding health markets and public policy. Using data over 1995-2009 from 126 countries, we examine the various explanations for changes in health spending and its composition with regressions in levels and first differences. We estimate that the income elasticity of health spending is about 0.7, consistent with recent comparable studies. Our analysis also shows a significant trend in health spending - rising about 1 per cent annually - which is associated with a combination of changing technology and medical practices, cost pressures and institutions that finance and manage healthcare. The out-of-pocket share of total health spending is not related to income, but is influenced by a country's capacity to raise general revenues. These results support the existence of a health financing transition and characterize how public policy influences these trends. PMID:24524906

  11. The Study on Stage Financing Model of IT Project Investment

    PubMed Central

    Xu, Sheng-hua; Xiong, Neal N.

    2014-01-01

    Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. PMID:25147845

  12. The study on stage financing model of IT project investment.

    PubMed

    Chen, Si-hua; Xu, Sheng-hua; Lee, Changhoon; Xiong, Neal N; He, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Stage financing is the basic operation of venture capital investment. In investment, usually venture capitalists use different strategies to obtain the maximum returns. Due to its advantages to reduce the information asymmetry and agency cost, stage financing is widely used by venture capitalists. Although considerable attentions are devoted to stage financing, very little is known about the risk aversion strategies of IT projects. This paper mainly addresses the problem of risk aversion of venture capital investment in IT projects. Based on the analysis of characteristics of venture capital investment of IT projects, this paper introduces a real option pricing model to measure the value brought by the stage financing strategy and design a risk aversion model for IT projects. Because real option pricing method regards investment activity as contingent decision, it helps to make judgment on the management flexibility of IT projects and then make a more reasonable evaluation about the IT programs. Lastly by being applied to a real case, it further illustrates the effectiveness and feasibility of the model. PMID:25147845

  13. Michigan Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the Michigan Uniform Energy Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Michigan homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the Michigan Uniform Energy Code is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Michigan homeowners will save $10,081 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $604 for the 2012 IECC.

  14. 77 FR 42831 - Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF TREASURY Office of Domestic Finance; Small Business, Community Development and Affordable Housing Policy; Small... INFORMATION CONTACT: Requests for additional information should be directed to the Office of Domestic...

  15. Scenarios for Motivating the Learning of Variability: An Example in Finances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordani, Lisbeth K.

    2013-01-01

    This article explores an example in finances in order to motivate the random variable learning to the very beginners in statistics. In addition, it offers a relationship between standard deviation and range in a very specific situation.

  16. 48 CFR 32.110 - Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... under cost-reimbursement prime contracts. 32.110 Section 32.110 Federal Acquisition Regulations System... Purchase Financing 32.110 Payment of subcontractors under cost-reimbursement prime contracts. If the contractor makes financing payments to a subcontractor under a cost-reimbursement prime contract,...

  17. Oklahoma Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Oklahoma homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Oklahoma homeowners will save $5,786 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $408 for the 2012 IECC.

  18. Iowa Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Iowa homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Iowa homeowners will save $7,573 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $454 for the 2012 IECC.

  19. Rhode Island Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Rhode Island homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Rhode Island homeowners will save $11,011 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $629 for the 2012 IECC.

  20. Delaware Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Delaware homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Delaware homeowners will save $10,409 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $616 for the 2012 IECC.

  1. Massachusetts Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Massachusetts homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Massachusetts homeowners will save $10,848 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $621 for the 2012 IECC.

  2. Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

  3. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  4. 12 CFR 987.2 - Law governing rights and obligations of Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks; rights of any Person against Banks, Finance Board, Office of Finance, United States and Federal Reserve Banks. 987.2 Section 987.2 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD OFFICE OF FINANCE BOOK-ENTRY PROCEDURE FOR...

  5. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  6. Unintended Consequences of Cost Recovery

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Piercey, David

    2010-01-01

    An Alberta school district that used a cost-recovery model to finance school services for 20 years is finding that the model produces unintended negative results. Some schools didn't spend this money on services but used it for other school operations. Some spent the money on external consultants. Professional relationships were damaged, and…

  7. Social health maintenance organizations' service use and costs, 1985-89

    PubMed Central

    Harrington, Charlene; Newcomer, Robert J.

    1991-01-01

    Presented in this article are aggregate utilization and financial data from the four social health maintenance organization (SIHMO) demonstrations that were collected and analyzed as a part of the national evaluation of the SIHMO demonstration project conducted for the Health Care Financing Administration. The S/HMOs, in offering a $6,500 to $12,000 chronic care benefit in addition to the basic HMO benefit package, had higher startup costs and financial losses over the first 5 years than expected, and controlling costs continues to be a challenge to the sites and their sponsors. PMID:10113612

  8. Sovereign cat bonds and infrastructure project financing.

    PubMed

    Croson, David; Richter, Andreas

    2003-06-01

    We examine the opportunities for using catastrophe-linked securities (or equivalent forms of nondebt contingent capital) to reduce the total costs of funding infrastructure projects in emerging economies. Our objective is to elaborate on methods to reduce the necessity for unanticipated (emergency) project funding immediately after a natural disaster. We also place the existing explanations of sovereign-level contingent capital into a catastrophic risk management framework. In doing so, we address the following questions. (1) Why might catastrophe-linked securities be useful to a sovereign nation, over and above their usefulness for insurers and reinsurers? (2) Why are such financial instruments ideally suited for protecting infrastructure projects in emerging economies, under third-party sponsorship, from low-probability, high-consequence events that occur as a result of natural disasters? (3) How can the willingness to pay of a sovereign government in an emerging economy (or its external project sponsor), who values timely completion of infrastructure projects, for such instruments be calculated? To supplement our treatment of these questions, we use a multilayer spreadsheet-based model (in Microsoft Excel format) to calculate the overall cost reductions possible through the judicious use of catastrophe-based financial tools. We also report on numerical comparative statics on the value of contingent-capital financing to avoid project disruption based on varying costs of capital, probability and consequences of disasters, the feasibility of strategies for mid-stage project abandonment, and the timing of capital commitments to the infrastructure investment. We use these results to identify high-priority applications of catastrophe-linked securities so that maximal protection can be realized if the total number of catastrophe instruments is initially limited. The article concludes with potential extensions to our model and opportunities for future research. PMID

  9. ESTIMATING IRRIGATION COSTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having accurate estimates of the cost of irrigation is important when making irrigation decisions. Estimates of fixed costs are critical for investment decisions. Operating cost estimates can assist in decisions regarding additional irrigations. This fact sheet examines the costs associated with ...

  10. Geothermal Small Business Workbook [Geothermal Outreach and Project Financing

    SciTech Connect

    Elizabeth Battocletti

    2003-05-01

    project developer--step-by-step through the process needed to structure a business and financing plan for a small geothermal project; and Help you develop a financing plan that can be adapted and taken to potential financing sources. The Workbook will not: Substitute for financial advice; Overcome the high exploration, development, and financing costs associated with smaller geothermal projects; Remedy the lack of financing for the exploration stage of a geothermal project; or Solve financing problems that are not related to the economic soundness of your project or are caused by things outside of your control.

  11. [Capitation contract financing of primary health care: a possible alternative to traditional payment for service--part 1].

    PubMed

    Roland, M

    1998-12-01

    Worldwide health systems are faced with additive and complex problems: a cost containment willingness, growing expenses for the health care budgets particularly in relation with the new technologies, questioning about true quality of provided care from results indicators. Health care financing is one of the major determinants of the nature and the comprehensive quality of the system: its aim to promote suitable processes and behaviors, to dissuade inadequate ones, in a context of efficiency (efficacy with minimal cost), as for politic decidors, as for the patients, as for the providers, as for the insurers/funders. A comparative and critical approach of the international scientific literature shows that partial fixed capitation payment is an interesting alternative for the total fee for service. Taking into account many experiences, a proposal for a cumulated financing for the practices is made: a structural part, a fixed capitation payment (the most important), a fee for service one, a target payment one, and a patient personal participation. PMID:9916495

  12. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  13. Three essays in mathematical finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Ruming

    This dissertation uses mathematical techniques to solve three problems in mathematical finance. The first two problems are on model-independent pricing and hedging of financial derivatives. We use asymptotic expansions to express derivative prices and implied volatilities. Then just by using the first few terms in the expansions, we get simple and accurate formulas, which can also help us find connections between different products. The last problem is on optimal trading strategies in a limit order book. Under a very general setup, we solve explicitly for a dynamic decision problem involving choosing between limit order and market order.

  14. Making finance work for you.

    PubMed

    Marchwinski, Jay

    2002-01-01

    Every organization has a process for reviewing requests against their own guidelines, which are not always well defined. Normally, all requests must be able to demonstrate an adequate financial return on any investment of dollars and/or resources. Quality and service improvement benefits sometimes are accepted, but often must be translated into documentable dollars and cents. In this article, the author shows how understanding the basic concepts of revenue and expense is a good first step toward improving your chances of gaining approval. Forming an effective two-way partnership with the staff in your finance department will improve your chances even more. PMID:12046266

  15. Financing the Air Transportation Industry

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lloyd-Jones, D. J.

    1972-01-01

    The basic characteristics of the air transportation industry are outlined and it is shown how they affect financing requirements and patterns of production. The choice of financial timing is imperative in order to get the best interest rates available and to insure a fair return to investors. The fact that the industry cannot store its products has a fairly major effect on the amount of equipment to purchase, the amount of capital investment required, and the amount of return required to offset industry depriciation.

  16. An introduction to statistical finance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaud, Jean-Philippe

    2002-10-01

    We summarize recent research in a rapid growing field, that of statistical finance, also called ‘econophysics’. There are three main themes in this activity: (i) empirical studies and the discovery of interesting universal features in the statistical texture of financial time series, (ii) the use of these empirical results to devise better models of risk and derivative pricing, of direct interest for the financial industry, and (iii) the study of ‘agent-based models’ in order to unveil the basic mechanisms that are responsible for the statistical ‘anomalies’ observed in financial time series. We give a brief overview of some of the results in these three directions.

  17. Linking Education Finance to Education Reform: Selected Proceedings of the Education Finance Workshop (3rd, Atlanta, Georgia, May 18-19, 1994).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Education Association, Washington, DC.

    This document contains selected proceedings from an Education Finance Workshop. The workshop addressed various perspectives about the appropriateness and cost of some currently popular reform approaches. Two introductory papers are: (1) "Our Task: Building the Links," by Ron Henderson; and (2) "Is Public Education Necessary to a Democratic…

  18. Biobank Finances: A Socio-Economic Analysis and Review.

    PubMed

    Gee, Sally; Oliver, Rob; Corfield, Julie; Georghiou, Luke; Yuille, Martin

    2015-12-01

    This socio-economic study is based on the widely held view that there is an inadequate supply of human biological samples that is hampering biomedical research development and innovation (RDI). The potential value of samples and the associated data are thus not being realized. We aimed to examine whether the financing of biobanks contributes to this problem and then to propose a national solution. We combined three methods: a qualitative case study; literature analysis; and informal consultations with experts. The case study enabled an examination of the complex institutional arrangements for biobanks, with a particular focus on cost models. For the purposes of comparison, a typology for biobanks was developed using the three methods. We found that it is not possible to apply a standard cost model across the diversity of biobanks, and there is a deficit in coordination and sustainability and an excess of complexity. We propose that coordination across this diversity requires dedicated resources for a national biobanking distributed research infrastructure. A coordination center would establish and improve standards and support a national portal for access. This should be financed centrally by public funds, possibly supplemented by industrial funding. We propose that: a) sample acquisition continues to be costed into projects and project proposals to ensure biobanking is driven by research needs; b) core biobanking activities and facilities be supported by central public funds distributed directly to host public institutions; and c) marginal costs for access be paid for by the user. PMID:26697914

  19. A Financing Model to Solve Financial Barriers for Implementing Green Building Projects

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Baekrae; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Jaejun

    2013-01-01

    Along with the growing interest in greenhouse gas reduction, the effect of greenhouse gas energy reduction from implementing green buildings is gaining attention. The government of the Republic of Korea has set green growth as its paradigm for national development, and there is a growing interest in energy saving for green buildings. However, green buildings may have financial barriers that have high initial construction costs and uncertainties about future project value. Under the circumstances, governmental support to attract private funding is necessary to implement green building projects. The objective of this study is to suggest a financing model for facilitating green building projects with a governmental guarantee based on Certified Emission Reduction (CER). In this model, the government provides a guarantee for the increased costs of a green building project in return for CER. And this study presents the validation of the model as well as feasibility for implementing green building project. In addition, the suggested model assumed governmental guarantees for the increased cost, but private guarantees seem to be feasible as well because of the promising value of the guarantee from CER. To do this, certification of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) for green buildings must be obtained. PMID:24376379

  20. A financing model to solve financial barriers for implementing green building projects.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sanghyo; Lee, Baekrae; Kim, Juhyung; Kim, Jaejun

    2013-01-01

    Along with the growing interest in greenhouse gas reduction, the effect of greenhouse gas energy reduction from implementing green buildings is gaining attention. The government of the Republic of Korea has set green growth as its paradigm for national development, and there is a growing interest in energy saving for green buildings. However, green buildings may have financial barriers that have high initial construction costs and uncertainties about future project value. Under the circumstances, governmental support to attract private funding is necessary to implement green building projects. The objective of this study is to suggest a financing model for facilitating green building projects with a governmental guarantee based on Certified Emission Reduction (CER). In this model, the government provides a guarantee for the increased costs of a green building project in return for CER. And this study presents the validation of the model as well as feasibility for implementing green building project. In addition, the suggested model assumed governmental guarantees for the increased cost, but private guarantees seem to be feasible as well because of the promising value of the guarantee from CER. To do this, certification of Clean Development Mechanisms (CDMs) for green buildings must be obtained. PMID:24376379

  1. A Review of Wind Project Financing Structures in the USA

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Harper, John; Karcher, Matthew

    2008-09-24

    The rapid pace of wind power development in the U.S. over the last decade has outstripped the ability of most project developers to provide adequate equity capital and make efficient use of project-related tax benefits. In response, the sector has created novel project financing structures that feature varying combinations of equity capital from project developers and third-party tax-oriented investors, and in some cases commercial debt. While their origins stem from variations in the financial capacity and business objectives of wind project developers, as well as the risk tolerances and objectives of equity and debt providers, each structure is, at its core, designed to manage project risk and allocate federal tax incentives to those entities that can use them most efficiently. This article surveys the six principal financing structures through which most new utility-scale wind projects (excluding utility-owned projects) in the U.S. have been financed from 1999 to the present. These structures include simple balance-sheet finance, several varieties of all-equity special allocation partnership 'flip' structures, and two leveraged structures. In addition to describing each structure's mechanics, the article also discusses its rationale for use, the types of investors that find it appealing and why, and its relative frequency of use in the market. The article concludes with a generalized summary of how a developer might choose one structure over another.

  2. A Cost Estimation Tool for Charter Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hayes, Cheryl D.; Keller, Eric

    2009-01-01

    To align their financing strategies and fundraising efforts with their fiscal needs, charter school leaders need to know how much funding they need and what that funding will support. This cost estimation tool offers a simple set of worksheets to help start-up charter school operators identify and estimate the range of costs and timing of…

  3. The Unaddressed Costs of Changing Student Demographics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kaplan, Leslie S.; Owings, William A.

    2013-01-01

    This article discusses the impact of changing student demographics on financing education and on our national wellbeing. We begin by examining the research of current student demographics and their relationship to learning and education costs. We then calculate a 1% cost factor from the average per-pupil expenditure based on the 2011 "Digest…

  4. [Financing problems of capital goods: part 1: leasing as a solution?].

    PubMed

    Clausen, C C; Bauer, M; Saleh, A; Picker, O

    2008-06-01

    The provision of financial support of hospitals by States for buying capital goods is becoming increasingly more limited. In order to still make investments, alternative forms of financing such as leasing must be considered in hospitals. However, the change from the classical form of dual financing and the decision to opt for a leasing model involves much more than just a question of costs. Leasing results in easily manageable expenditure, flexibility and adaptability for the choice of model but the leasing installments must be directly financed by the turnover from diagnosis-related groups and so lead to a reduction in the annual profit. In this article the authors try to give the reader an overview of the complex and sometimes counter-productive effect of financial instruments for investments in hospitals using leasing financing as an example. In the follow-up article the decision-making procedure using dynamic investment calculations will be demonstrated using a concrete example. PMID:18516573

  5. Mixing Appropriations and Private Financing to Meet Federal Energy Management Goals

    SciTech Connect

    Shonder, John A

    2012-06-01

    This report compares several strategies for mixing appropriations and private financing in a typical federal agency that has identified $100 million in required energy conservation measures (ECMs) at its facilities. The analysis shows that in order to maximize savings and minimize overall life-cycle cost, the best strategy for the agency is to use private financing to fund as many of the ECMs as possible within the statutory maximum 25-year project term, beginning with the ECMs with the shortest paybacks. Available appropriations should either be applied to a privately financed project as a one-time payment from savings (i.e., as a buydown ) or used to directly fund longer-payback ECMs that cannot be included in the privately financed project.

  6. Redistributive effects in public health care financing.

    PubMed

    Honekamp, Ivonne; Possenriede, Daniel

    2008-11-01

    This article focuses on the redistributive effects of different measures to finance public health insurance. We analyse the implications of different financing options for public health insurance on the redistribution of income from good to bad health risks and from high-income to low-income individuals. The financing options considered are either income-related (namely income taxes, payroll taxes, and indirect taxes), health-related (co-insurance, deductibles, and no-claim), or neither (flat fee). We show that governments who treat access to health care as a basic right for everyone should consider redistributive effects when reforming health care financing. PMID:18347823

  7. An alternative role for economic instruments: Sustainable finance for environmental management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feitelson, Eran

    1992-05-01

    Economic instruments, such as effluent fees and tradable discharge permits (TDP), have often been suggested by economists as efficient or cost-effective means to control pollution. In recent years such instruments have received increasing attention due to their growing political acceptability. Still, their use in practice has been tentative. The interest in possible application of such instruments has led to a set of studies regarding their practical potential. These studies indicate that economic instruments require substantial government involvement, entailing high administration cost; require restrictions so as to prevent significant deterioration in receptor areas; and have ambivalent effects on innovation adoption. Consequently, the efficiency gains from such instruments may be smaller than potential gains identified in earlier studies. In addition, the distributional impacts of such instruments and their possible adverse effect on market contestability reduce their attractiveness in some cases. These findings raise the question: what is the desired role of economic instruments in addressing environmental concerns? In recent years the demand for environmental services has increased dramatically. Current legislation and studies indicate that desired environmental expenditures are likely to increase. At the same time environmental programs face increasing competition from other programs for a declining pool of general revenues. One outcome of these processes has been the search for alternative sources of funds for environmental programs. Furthermore, as the competition for general revenue funds increases, the allocation of such funds for environmental programs becomes less predictable. This may endanger many long-term environmental programs that require stable funding. This article suggests that economic instruments may prove one source of dedicated funds for many environmental goals. Consequently, studies of environmental-program financing as well as studies of

  8. Got Risk? Using Risk Transfers to Control Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bambino, Robert

    2010-01-01

    For public school districts, risk financing is the financial outlay associated with litigation, such as settlements, verdicts, and the cost of legal defense. Even when districts purchase insurance to finance risk, a viable risk transfer program can still benefit districts in different ways: (1) Liability policies are generally experience-rated;…

  9. Health care entrepreneurship: financing innovation.

    PubMed

    Grazier, Kyle L; Metzler, Bridget

    2006-01-01

    Entrepreneurship is often described as the ability to create new ventures from new or existing concepts, ideas and visions. There has been significant entrepreneurial response to the changes in the scientific and social underpinnings of health care services delivery. However, a growing portion of the economic development driving health care industry expansion is threatened further by longstanding use of financing models that are suboptimal for health care ventures. The delayed pace of entrepreneurial activity in this industry is in part a response to the general economy and markets, but also due to the lack of capital for new health care ventures. The recent dearth of entrepreneurial activities in the health services sector may also due to failure to consider new approaches to partnerships and strategic ventures, despite their mutually beneficial organizational and financing potential. As capital becomes more scarce for innovators, it is imperative that those with new and creative ideas for health and health care improvement consider techniques for capital acquisition that have been successful in other industries and at similar stages of development. The capital and added expertise can allow entrepreneurs to leverage resources, dampen business fluctuations, and strengthen long term prospects. PMID:16583848

  10. Finance organizations, decisions and emotions.

    PubMed

    Pixley, Jocelyn

    2002-03-01

    Analyses of global financial markets are dominated by atomized models of decision-making and behavioural psychology ('exuberance' or 'panic'). In contrast, this paper argues that overwhelmingly, finance organizations rather than 'individuals' make decisions, and routinely use emotions in formulating expectations. Keynes introduced emotion (business confidence and animal spirits) but in economics, emotion remains individualistic and irrational. Luhmann's system theory lies at the other extreme, where emotions like trust and confidence are central variables, functional in the reduction of complexity in sub-systems like the economy. The gap between irrational emotions aggregated to 'herd' behaviour in economics, and 'system trust' applied to finance and money as a 'medium of communication' in sociology, remains largely unfilled. This paper argues that while organizations cannot be said to 'think' or 'feel', they are rational and emotional, because impersonal trust, confidence and their contrary emotions are unavoidable in decision-making due to fundamental uncertainty. These future-oriented emotions are prevalent within and between organizations in the financial sector, primarily in generating expectations. The dynamic of corporate activities of tense and ruthless struggle is a more plausible level of analysis than either financial 'manias' in aggregate or 'system trust'. PMID:11958678

  11. Economic Factors Affecting the Financing of Education. National Educational Finance Project, Volume 2.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johns, Roe L., Ed.; And Others

    Eleven articles on various aspects of educational finance comprise this document, volume two of the NEFP series. Volume one of this series deals with educational needs, volume three with educational planning and finance, and volume four with the impact of educational finance programs. In general, the material in this volume treats education as a…

  12. Educational Finance. Briefing Paper: Texas Public School Finance and Related Issues.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clark, Catherine P.; England, Claire

    This document explores various issues that affect Texas public school finance. It opens with an overview of the Texas public school system, which comprises 1,043 independent school districts, with an average of 6.4 campuses per district. The federal role in financing schools is examined, along with education finance and the state budget. Four…

  13. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  14. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  15. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  16. 12 CFR 995.9 - Reports to the Finance Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 8 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Reports to the Finance Board. 995.9 Section 995.9 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD NON-BANK SYSTEM ENTITIES FINANCING CORPORATION OPERATIONS § 995.9 Reports to the Finance Board. The Financing Corporation shall file such reports as...

  17. 7 CFR 4290.840 - Maximum term of Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Financing of Enterprises by RBICs Structuring Rbic Financing of Eligible Enterprises-Types of Financings § 4290.840 Maximum term of Financing. The maximum term of any Debt Security must be no longer than 20... 7 Agriculture 15 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum term of Financing. 4290.840 Section...

  18. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  19. Space Projects: Improvements Needed in Selecting Future Projects for Private Financing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    The Office of Management and Budget (OMB) and NASA jointly selected seven projects for commercialization to reduce NASA's fiscal year 1990 budget request and to help achieve the goal of increasing private sector involvement in space. However, the efforts to privately finance these seven projects did not increase the commercial sector's involvement in space to the extent desired. The General Accounting Office (GAO) determined that the projects selected were not a fair test of the potential of increasing commercial investment in space at an acceptable cost to the government, primarily because the projects were not properly screened. That is, neither their suitability for commercialization nor the economic consequences of seeking private financing for them were adequately evaluated before selection. Evaluations and market tests done after selection showed that most of the projects were not viable candidates for private financing. GAO concluded that projects should not be removed from NASA's budget for commercial development until after careful screening has been done to determine whether adequate commercial demand exists, development risks are commercially acceptable and private financing is found or judged to be highly likely, and the cost effectiveness of such a decision is acceptable. Premature removal of projects from NASA's budget ultimately can cause project delays and increased costs when unsuccessful commercialization candidates must be returned to the budget. NASA also needs to ensure appropriate comparisons of government and private financing options for future commercialization projects.

  20. The external costs of a sedentary life-style.

    PubMed Central

    Keeler, E B; Manning, W G; Newhouse, J P; Sloss, E M; Wasserman, J

    1989-01-01

    Using data from the National Health Interview Survey and the RAND Health Insurance Experiment, we estimated the external costs (costs borne by others) of a sedentary life-style. External costs stem from additional payments received by sedentary individuals from collectively financed programs such as health insurance, sick-leave coverage, disability insurance, and group life insurance. Those with sedentary life-styles incur higher medical costs, but their life expectancy at age 20 is 10 months less so they collect less public and private pensions. The pension costs come late in life, as do some of the medical costs, and so the estimate of the external cost is sensitive to the discount rate used. At a 5 percent rate of discount, the lifetime subsidy from others to those with a sedentary life style is $1,900. Our estimate of the subsidy is also sensitive to the assumed effect of exercise on mortality. The subsidy is a rationale for public support of recreational facilities such as parks and swimming pools and employer support of programs to increase exercise. PMID:2502036

  1. Long-term financing needs for HIV control in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015–2050: a modelling study

    PubMed Central

    Atun, Rifat; Chang, Angela Y; Ogbuoji, Osondu; Silva, Sachin; Resch, Stephen; Hontelez, Jan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2016-01-01

    Objectives To estimate the present value of current and future funding needed for HIV treatment and prevention in 9 sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries that account for 70% of HIV burden in Africa under different scenarios of intervention scale-up. To analyse the gaps between current expenditures and funding obligation, and discuss the policy implications of future financing needs. Design We used the Goals module from Spectrum, and applied the most up-to-date cost and coverage data to provide a range of estimates for future financing obligations. The four different scale-up scenarios vary by treatment initiation threshold and service coverage level. We compared the model projections to current domestic and international financial sources available in selected SSA countries. Results In the 9 SSA countries, the estimated resources required for HIV prevention and treatment in 2015–2050 range from US$98 billion to maintain current coverage levels for treatment and prevention with eligibility for treatment initiation at CD4 count of <500/mm3 to US$261 billion if treatment were to be extended to all HIV-positive individuals and prevention scaled up. With the addition of new funding obligations for HIV—which arise implicitly through commitment to achieve higher than current treatment coverage levels—overall financial obligations (sum of debt levels and the present value of the stock of future HIV funding obligations) would rise substantially. Conclusions Investing upfront in scale-up of HIV services to achieve high coverage levels will reduce HIV incidence, prevention and future treatment expenditures by realising long-term preventive effects of ART to reduce HIV transmission. Future obligations are too substantial for most SSA countries to be met from domestic sources alone. New sources of funding, in addition to domestic sources, include innovative financing. Debt sustainability for sustained HIV response is an urgent imperative for affected countries and donors

  2. 11 CFR 9007.4 - Additional audits.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... FINANCING EXAMINATIONS AND AUDITS; REPAYMENTS § 9007.4 Additional audits. In accordance with 11 CFR 104.16(c), the Commission, pursuant to 11 CFR 111.10, may upon affirmative vote of four members conduct an audit and field investigation of any committee in any case in which the Commission finds reason to...

  3. Containing Health Care Costs

    PubMed Central

    Derzon, Robert A.

    1980-01-01

    As the federal government shifted from its traditional roles in health to the payment for personal health care, the relationship between public and private sectors has deteriorated. Today federal and state revenue funds and trusts are the largest purchasers of services from a predominantly private health system. This financing or “gap-filling” role is essential; so too is the purchaser's concern for the costs and prices it must meet. The cost per person for personal health care in 1980 is expected to average $950, triple for the aged. Hospital costs vary considerably and inexplicably among states; California residents, for example, spend 50 percent more per year for hospital care than do state of Washington residents. The failure of each sector to understand the other is potentially damaging to the parties and to patients. First, and most important, differences can and must be moderated through definite changes in the attitudes of the protagonists. PMID:6770551

  4. (Duplicate Work Item) Finances of County Governments: 2002. Census of Governments. Vol. 4, No. 3, Government Finances.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Commerce, 2005

    2005-01-01

    "Government Finances, Volume 4", contains six parts that encompass the entire range of state and local government financial activity in fiscal year 2001-02. They are: (1)Finances of Public School Systems; (2) Finances of Special Districts; (3) Finances of County Governments; (4) Finances of Municipal and Township Governments; (5) Compendium of…

  5. Financing geriatric programs in community health centers.

    PubMed Central

    Yeatts, D E; Ray, S; List, N; Duggar, B

    1991-01-01

    There are approximately 600 Community and Migrant Health Centers (C/MHCs) providing preventive and primary health care services principally to medically underserved rural and urban areas across the United States. The need to develop geriatric programs within C/MHCs is clear. Less clear is how and under what circumstances a comprehensive geriatric program can be adequately financed. The Health Resources and Services Administration of the Public Health Service contracted with La Jolla Management Corporation and Duke University Center on Aging to identify successful techniques for obtaining funding by examining 10 "good practice" C/MHC geriatric programs. The results from this study indicated that effective techniques included using a variety of funding sources, maintaining accurate cost-per-user information, developing a marketing strategy and user incentives, collaborating with the area agency on aging and other community organizations, and developing special services for the elderly. Developing cost-per-user information allowed for identifying appropriate "drawing card" services, negotiating sound reimbursement rates and contracts with other providers, and assessing the financial impact of changing service mixes. A marketing strategy was used to enhance the ability of the centers to provide a comprehensive package of services. Collaboration with the area agency on aging and other community organizations and volunteers in the aging network was found to help establish referral networks and subsequently increase the number of elderly patients served. Finally, development of special services for the elderly, such as adult day care, case management, and health education, was found to increase program visibility, opportunities to work with the network of services for the aging, and clinical utilization. PMID:1908588

  6. The Courts and School Finance Reform.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCarthy, Martha M.

    1994-01-01

    The article reviews school finance litigation since the early 1970s, focusing on federal litigation and state litigation (equal protection claims, state education clauses, and recent litigation). Observations regarding trends and issues as well as the judicial role in school finance reform during the remainder of the 1990s are presented. (SM)

  7. 50 CFR 253.27 - IFQ financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 11 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false IFQ financing. 253.27 Section 253.27 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program § 253.27...

  8. 50 CFR 253.27 - IFQ financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false IFQ financing. 253.27 Section 253.27 Wildlife and Fisheries NATIONAL MARINE FISHERIES SERVICE, NATIONAL OCEANIC AND ATMOSPHERIC ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE AID TO FISHERIES FISHERIES ASSISTANCE PROGRAMS Fisheries Finance Program § 253.27...

  9. 7 CFR 3560.71 - Construction financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... relevant provisions of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A will be used to monitor the construction. (3) The loan... the conditions of the interim financing letter have been met. (3) The applicable provisions of 7 CFR... completed in accordance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G, prior to issuance of the interim financing...

  10. 7 CFR 3560.71 - Construction financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... relevant provisions of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A will be used to monitor the construction. (3) The loan... the conditions of the interim financing letter have been met. (3) The applicable provisions of 7 CFR... completed in accordance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G, prior to issuance of the interim financing...

  11. Litigation and School Finance: A Cautionary Tale

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Russo, Charles J.

    2010-01-01

    Beginning in the early 1970s, plaintiffs initiated a veritable tidal wave of litigation over financing public education in states with unequal funding for students in poor school systems. In the only case on school finance to reach the United States Supreme Court, "San Antonio Independent School District v. Rodriguez" (1973), the justices rejected…

  12. Thinking Broadly: Financing Strategies for Youth Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deich, Sharon G.; Hayes, Cheryl D.

    2007-01-01

    This publication is part of a series of tools and resources on financing and sustaining youth programming. These tools and resources are intended to help policymakers, program developers, and community leaders develop innovative strategies for implementing, financing, and sustaining effective programs and policies. This strategy brief presents a…

  13. State Education Finance and Governance Profile: Mississippi

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Poulin, Nicole S.

    2010-01-01

    This article presents the state education finance and governance profile of Mississippi. Mississippians compose 0.95% of the total U.S. population, and the average density of the state is 60.7 people per square mile. In terms of education finance, the property tax is the sole form of local revenue for public education in Mississippi. In 1997, the…

  14. Alternatives for Financing Higher Education Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leslie, Larry L.; Felix, Frank J.

    1980-01-01

    How state governments should finance public college and university facilities is discussed. A framework for analyzing the capital financing alternatives available to state governments is described. Several alternatives in Arizona--including state appropriations, leasing, and revenue bonding--are considered as an illustration. (Author/MLW)

  15. Selected Papers in School Finance, 1996.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr., Ed.

    The National Center for Education Statistics (NCES) surveys the changing landscape in education finance by commissioning papers from members of the school finance research community. Papers that address the questions of the current and future financial condition for school districts are presented here. The papers, which are intended to promote the…

  16. What Should We Know about School Finance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fowler, William J., Jr.

    After a decade of dormancy there is suddenly a great interest among educators and policy-makers in public school finance, spawned by: successful court decisions in several states overturning existing state public school finance formulas; a popular book alleging more severe educational segregation than in 1954; congressional proposals for school…

  17. Threshold Concepts in Finance: Conceptualizing the Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Susan; Tickle, Leonie; Wood, Leigh N.; Kyng, Tim

    2015-01-01

    Graduates with well-developed capabilities in finance are invaluable to our society and in increasing demand. Universities face the challenge of designing finance programmes to develop these capabilities and the essential knowledge that underpins them. Our research responds to this challenge by identifying threshold concepts that are central to…

  18. 24 CFR 2700.210 - Finance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Finance charges. 2700.210 Section 2700.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Emergency Assistance § 2700.210 Finance charges. The maximum permissible...

  19. Applying Threshold Concepts to Finance Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoadley, Susan; Wood, Leigh N.; Tickle, Leonie; Kyng, Tim

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to investigate and identify threshold concepts that are the essential conceptual content of finance programmes. Design/Methodology/Approach: Conducted in three stages with finance academics and students, the study uses threshold concepts as both a theoretical framework and a research methodology. Findings: The…

  20. Moving toward a Coherent School Finance System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Heather

    2013-01-01

    California's current school finance system is a tangled web of funding programs, restrictions, inequities and confusion. Building a stronger finance system to benefit from resources is an important step in strengthening California's K-12 education system and better meeting the needs of its students. Gov. Brown has recently proposed the Local…

  1. 41 CFR 101-39.003 - Financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... fleet management system, the financing and accounting methods shall be developed by GSA in cooperation... Section 101-39.003 Public Contracts and Property Management Federal Property Management Regulations System... MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS 39.0-General Provisions § 101-39.003 Financing. (a) Section 211(d) of the Federal...

  2. Who's Reading What in Education Finance?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quay, Richard H.

    1981-01-01

    Responses from 18 of 68 college professors who are members of the editorial boards of the "Economics of Education Review" and the "Journal of Education Finance" list the books and journals they consider essential reading for students of educational finance and give the two research issues they consider most important. (MLF)

  3. Alternatives for Financing School Energy Savings Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Esteves, Rich

    1983-01-01

    This report compares shared-savings programs with financing through the use of internal funds, loans, leases, and lease purchase plans for financing energy conservation in nonprofit buildings. The shared savings option was found to offer the greatest benefits to the customer. (MLF)

  4. Organization and Financing of Washington Public Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Washington Office of the State Superintendent of Public Instruction, Olympia.

    This document is a handbook on school organization and finance in Washington State. It encompasses legislation passed during the 1990 and 1991 legislative sessions and school district fiscal data through the 1990-91 school year. The guide attempts to simplify the complex subject of school finance for use by educators, policy makers, and the…

  5. National Conference on Catholic School Finance, 1977.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Glenzinski, Mary, Ed.

    This book is a summary of papers presented at the Third National Conference on Catholic School Finance held in March, 1977. The topics discussed include the board's repsonsibility for finance, current trends, long-range planning, school reorganization, expansion and building of new schools, marketing, foundations, educational development, funding,…

  6. 7 CFR 3560.71 - Construction financing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... relevant provisions of 7 CFR part 1924, subpart A will be used to monitor the construction. (3) The loan... the conditions of the interim financing letter have been met. (3) The applicable provisions of 7 CFR... completed in accordance with 7 CFR part 1940, subpart G, prior to issuance of the interim financing...

  7. Financing Higher Education in the Nordic Countries.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strom, Geir

    1996-01-01

    The higher education systems and financing mechanisms in Norway, Denmark, Sweden, and Finland are described. In each, enrollment and productivity, in terms of student flow, are important financing factors. A new budget model developed for Norway is outlined, and efforts to create a cooperative community for higher education in the Nordic countries…

  8. 24 CFR 2700.210 - Finance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Finance charges. 2700.210 Section 2700.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Emergency Assistance § 2700.210 Finance charges. The maximum permissible...

  9. 24 CFR 2700.210 - Finance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Finance charges. 2700.210 Section 2700.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Emergency Assistance § 2700.210 Finance charges. The maximum permissible...

  10. 24 CFR 2700.210 - Finance charges.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Finance charges. 2700.210 Section 2700.210 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued... HOMEOWNERS' LOAN PROGRAM Emergency Assistance § 2700.210 Finance charges. The maximum permissible...

  11. Finding Answers to Questions about School Finance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Leadership, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This article describes the California School Finance (CASF) Web site, which explains the complexities of school funding in California. The Web site, www.californiaschoolfinance.org, was developed by EdSource, an organization that has been trusted in California for 30 years to explain school finance in simple, jargon-free language. The CASF site…

  12. Financing Higher Education in a Global Economy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Richard E.; Meyerson, Joel W.

    This book presents papers from a national symposium conducted by the Forum for College Financing, offering a perspective on how higher education institutions will finance their operations in the future and the challenges that lay ahead. A paper by Richard Anderson and Joe Meyerson, "A Changing National Environment," introduces the other papers in…

  13. New Regulations Affect School Debt Financing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, Carol Duane

    1993-01-01

    Provides an overview of changes in Treasury Regulations as they affect school debt financing, including bond and note construction and acquisition issues, other types of equipment and property financing, as well as tax and revenue anticipation notes for working capital needs. (MLF)

  14. Virginia Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 Virginia Construction Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Virginia homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the current Virginia Construction Code is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Virginia homeowners will save $5,836 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $388 for the 2012 IECC.

  15. Private Financing Options for Long-term Care

    PubMed Central

    Brody, Barbara L.; Simon, Harold J.; Smallwood, Dennis E.

    1987-01-01

    Private financing for long-term care now comes almost exclusively from out-of-pocket payments. Long-term-care costs quickly impoverish most elderly, resulting in Medicaid dependency. The consequences are profound for the western Sun Belt with its rapidly growing elderly population. Key private financing options are long-term-care individual retirement accounts (LTC/IRAs), home equity conversion, social-health maintenance organizations and long-term-care insurance. Study of data from the past half century suggests that the LTC/IRA approach would prove unsatisfactory for the purpose despite the intuitive appeal of this mechanism. Experience with home equity conversions is still very limited, and unresolved questions limit this approach to the role of a reserve option for now. While promising, social-health maintenance organizations are still in the experimental stages and not yet commercially available. Long-term-care insurance is currently sold on a thin market and emphasizes nursing home coverage. New approaches to private financing through long-term-care insurance seem to offer the best approach for immediate implementation. PMID:3118576

  16. Market turbulence creates financing opportunity.

    PubMed

    Cooper, James H

    2012-03-01

    The flight to high-quality assets resulting from Standard & Poor's downgrade of the U.S. government's credit rating has dropped the yield on U.S. Treasury securities as investors have sought refuge amid uncertain market conditions. Consequently, hospitals can now obtain mortgage insurance from the U.S. government to finance expansions and refinance their debt with GNMA securities at taxable interest rates that are often more favorable than tax-exempt bond fixed rates. Because GNMA certificates can be sold in a forward purchase transaction that locks in a fixed interest rate while avoiding payment of interest until construction funds are disbursed, they can help avoid the effects of negative arbitrage. PMID:22420136

  17. NYSERDA's Green Jobs-Green New York Program: Extending Energy Efficiency Financing To Underserved Households

    SciTech Connect

    Zimring, Mark; Fuller, Merrian

    2011-01-24

    The New York legislature passed the Green Jobs-Green New York (GJGNY) Act in 2009. Administered by the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (NYSERDA), GJGNY programs provide New Yorkers with access to free or low-cost energy assessments,1 energy upgrade services,2 low-cost financing, and training for various 'green-collar' careers. Launched in November 2010, GJGNY's residential initiative is notable for its use of novel underwriting criteria to expand access to energy efficiency financing for households seeking to participate in New York's Home Performance with Energy Star (HPwES) program.3 The GJGNY financing program is a valuable test of whether alternatives to credit scores can be used to responsibly expand credit opportunities for households that do not qualify for traditional lending products and, in doing so, enable more households to make energy efficiency upgrades.

  18. 31 CFR 358.9 - Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 31 Money and Finance:Treasury 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Who is responsible for the cost and risks associated with the shipment of securities? 358.9 Section 358.9 Money and Finance: Treasury Regulations Relating to Money and Finance (Continued) FISCAL SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY BUREAU OF THE PUBLIC DEBT REGULATIONS...

  19. Property Tax Assessments as a Finance Vehicle for Residential PV Installations: Opportunities and Potential Limitations

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark A; Bolinger, Mark

    2008-02-01

    Readily accessible credit has often been cited as a necessary ingredient to open up the market for residential photovoltaic (PV) systems. Though financing does not reduce the high up-front cost of PV, by spreading that cost over some portion of the system's life, financing can certainly make PV systems more affordable. As a result, a number of states have, in the past, set up special residential loan programs targeting the installation of renewable energy systems and/or energy efficiency improvements, and often featuring low interest rates, longer terms, and no-hassle application requirements. Historically, these loan programs have met with mixed success (particularly for PV), for a variety of reasons, including: (1) historical lack of homeowner interest in PV, (2) lack of program awareness, (3) reduced appeal in a low-interest-rate environment, and (4) a tendency for early PV adopters to be wealthy, and not in need of financing. Although some of these barriers have begun to fade--most notably, homeowner interest in PV has grown in some states, particularly those that offer solar rebates--the passage of the Energy Policy Act of 2005 (EPAct 2005) introduced one additional roadblock to the success of low-interest PV loan programs: a residential solar investment tax credit (ITC), subject to the Federal government's 'anti-double-dipping' rules. Specifically, the residential solar ITC--equal to 30% of the system's tax basis, capped at $2000--will be reduced or offset if the system also benefits from what is known as 'subsidized energy financing', which is likely to include most government-sponsored low-interest loan programs. Within this context, it has been interesting to note the recent flurry of announcements from several U.S cities concerning a new type of PV financing program. Led by the City of Berkeley, California, these cities propose to offer their residents the ability to finance the installation of a PV system using increased property tax assessments, rather

  20. 7 CFR 1488.6 - Amendments to financing agreement.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Export Credit Sales Program (GSM-5) Financing Export Sales § 1488.6 Amendments to financing agreement. The financing agreement may be amended provided such amendment is in conformity with GSM-5 at the...