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Sample records for additional cotton gin

  1. SOURCE ASSESSMENT: COTTON GINS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report describes a study of air pollutants from cotton gins. Cotton gins separate cotton fibers from cottonseed and trash. During the 1976 crop year, 2.6 x 10 to the 6th power metric tons of lint cotton were ginned. Particulates composed of cotton dust, cotton lint, fine-lea...

  2. Preliminary evaluation of feeder and lint slide moisture addition on ginning, fiber quality, and textile processing of western cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of moisture addition at the gin stand feeder conditioning hopper and/or the battery condenser slide on gin performance and Western cotton fiber quality and textile processing. The test treatments included no moisture addition, feeder hopper hum...

  3. FLAMMABILITY OF COTTON GIN TRASH/BURRS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed cotton is removed from the field by a harvester and taken to the cotton gin to finish the harvesting process by separating the incoming seed cotton into four products: cotton fiber/lint, cottonseed, motes and cotton gin trash. Disposal of the cotton gin trash/burrs can be accomplished by sprea...

  4. Trash particle distribution measurements in ginned cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A beltwide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality during the ginning process and throughout the ginning season. The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the USDA-ARS Southwester...

  5. RETROSPECTIVE VIEW OF COTTON GIN DRYERS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reviews gin dryer designs and compiles most of the significant research conducted on the drying of seed cotton at cotton gins since about 1928. it describes the operation of various types of dryers and gives a critical appraisal of dryer designs that may be useful at current cotton gins....

  6. Varietal Variability for Cotton Ginning Efficiency

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy consumption is one of the largest expenses of a cotton gin. In light of the rising cost of energy, all avenues should be exploited to optimize energy use in modern cotton gins. One option is to study genetic variability within the available germplasm to look for varieties that gin faster and ...

  7. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A ...

  8. Cotton gin electrical energy use trends and 2009 audit results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton gin energy costs have risen more than other operating costs. Energy audits were conducted in twenty US cotton gins representing a range of capacities in six states. The average participating saw gin used 39.5 kWh to process a bale. The average roller gin used 62.6 kWh. Gins have become la...

  9. Cotton gin total particulate matter emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  10. Electricity use patterns in cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy costs are the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins, with electricity accounting for 18% of variable costs. Energy use has typically not been a major consideration in gin design and previous studies of energy use have utilized instantaneous readings or aggregated season-lon...

  11. Relationship of ginning energy use ginning rate and fiber quality in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton genotypes that gin faster and with less energy presumably gin more gently with less stress on the fiber and less damage. The objective of this research was to determine if ginning energy and ginning rate affect the fiber qualities of Upland cotton genotypes. Thirty four conventional and twelv...

  12. The Cotton Ginning Industry: Past, Present, and Future

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton ginning industry has adopted many changes in cotton production, processing and marketing over the past years. Current trends show reduced cotton acreage, shifts in cotton production regions, and changes in cotton markets. To be competitive, gins must look for every opportunity to improv...

  13. Ginning efficiency in upland cotton - a value-added trait in cotton improvement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few years, there has been some consorted effort between cotton geneticists and ginning engineers to understand "ginning efficiency" in upland cotton. Ginning efficiency includes ginning rate (measured in gm lint sec -1) and net gin stand energy (measured in Wh kg -1 lint). Improved ginn...

  14. 2nd stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  15. 1st stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  16. Ginning Efficiency between Diverse Genetic Groups of Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The rising cost of energy in ginning cotton necessitates the evaluation of a diverse array of germplasm, currently available, for improving ginning efficiency. The objective was to study genetic variability for net ginning energy requirement and speed of ginning among five diverse groups of upland c...

  17. Mote cyclone robber system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  18. Combined mote system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  19. Cyclone robber system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  20. Unloading system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  1. Overflow system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  2. Combined mote system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  3. Overflow system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  4. 2nd stage lint cleaning system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  5. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. Battery condenser system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 17

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. Battery condenser system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study ...

  8. Master trash system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  9. Unloading system total particulate emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  10. Tracking Seed Coat Fragments in Cotton Ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    High seed coat fragment (SCF) content in cotton bales causes processing problems in textile plants. This experiment was designed to determine the origin of SCF by tracking their occurrence through a conventional sequence of gin machinery. After the lint cleaner, lint contained an average of 12.25 ...

  11. PARTICULATE EMISSION PROFILE OF A COTTON GIN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    PARTICULATE MATTER (PM) IS ONE OF SIX CRITERIA POLLUTANTS REGULATED BY THE ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (EPA) WITH NATIONAL AMBIENT AIR QUALITY STANDARDS (NAAQS). IN GENERAL, PM IS THE ONLY AIR POLLUTANT OF CONCERN EMITTED FROM COTTON GINS. THE EPA HAS NAAQS FOR PM10 (PARTICLES WITH AN AERODYNA...

  12. Development of a seed cotton reclaimer for roller gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    During the roller ginning process there is always a small percentage of seed cotton that is not or only ginned and passes through with the ginned cottonseed. The unginned seed cotton in the cottonseed stream is called carryover. The carryover is reclaimed from the cottonseed and returned to the se...

  13. Dictionary of cotton: Picking & ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  14. Characterization of cotton gin PM10 emissions based on EPA stack sampling methodologies and particle size distributions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A project to characterize cotton gin emissions in terms of stack sampling was conducted during the 2008 through 2011 ginning seasons. The impetus behind the project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. EPA AP-42 emission factors ar...

  15. Changes in cotton gin energy consumption apportioned by ten functions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The public is concerned about air quality and sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in cotton gin energy consumption trends. Changes in cotton gins’ energy consumption over the past fifty years, a period of ...

  16. Evaluation of cotton genotypes for ginning energy and ginning rate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Reducing ginning energy use through cultivar improvement could reduce ginning and energy cost. The objective of this study was to detect genetic variability for ginning energy and ginning rate. Thirty four conventional and twelve transgenic genotypes were evaluated in 2008 and 2009 for ginning energ...

  17. Ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The purpose of the cotton ginning process is to separate a field crop into its salable components. It is a necessary step between the farmer and the textile manufacturer. The original gin was a simple manually operated device that took hand harvested cotton and separated fiber from the cottonseed. T...

  18. Developing new emission factors for the Texas cotton ginning industry

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Texas Commission on Environmental Quality (TCEQ) is the regulatory authority that issues air quality permits in Texas. All cotton gins operating in Texas are required to obtain a permit from the TCEQ. The TCEQ is very experienced at permitting cotton gins, having rules in place requiring these p...

  19. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cottons

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing, but their fibers are not as long as white cottons. To determine the best ginning process two Upland (/G. hirsutim/) colors were roller and saw ginned following a complete block experimental design. ...

  20. Seed cotton cleaning in Mid-South gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of seed cotton cleaning equipment in commercial gins is not well documented. Most research reporting cleaning efficiencies of this machinery was performed in the laboratory under optimal conditions, while commercial gins must often process cotton with high moisture or foreign matter...

  1. Advances in cotton gin trash energy conversion

    SciTech Connect

    Rutherford, R.D.; Parnell, C.B.; Finch, S.F.; Siebold, W.J.

    1985-01-01

    The concept of using agricultural residues, especially cotton gin trash (CGT), as a fuel for a small cogeneration power plant based on fluidized bed gasification (FBG) requires that three problems be solved: (1) ash must be removed from the low calorific value (LCV) gas prior to combustion; (2) the high NO/sub x/ emissions associated with many biomass fuels must be significantly reduced; (3) a systems analyses of engineering/economic feasibility for potential applications must be developed. This paper addresses current research at TAMU pertaining to these problems.

  2. Second stage mote system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclone

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  3. Mote cleaner system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  4. Cyclone robber system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  5. First stage mote system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was f...

  6. Unloading system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. Master trash system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  8. Mote cyclone robber system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  9. Mote trash system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  10. Combined lint cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  11. Combined mote system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  12. Overflow system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  13. Battery condenser system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study ...

  14. Second stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  15. First stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  16. Third stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  17. Fiber properties of saw and roller ginned naturally colored cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Naturally colored cottons have economic and environmental appeal because they do not require dyeing. Naturally colored cottons do not have the same fiber length and strength as white cotton cultivars. To determine the optimal ginning process for colored fiber two Upland (G. hirsutim) colors were r...

  18. Removal of plastic sheet material with normal cotton ginning equipment

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US cotton is known to be relatively free of contamination but occasionally pieces of sheet plastic are found in cotton bales produced in the US. To better understand how ginning equipment handles pieces of sheet plastic 5 types of plastic commonly found in US seed cotton fields or used in handling ...

  19. Seed Cotton Moisture Restoration in a Commercial Gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous work has shown that ginning with the lint portion of seed cotton at higher moisture contents (mc) resulted in improved fiber length properties in a research gin. These results were independent of whether the increased mc was achieved with decreased drying or with moist air or atomized wate...

  20. The Effects of Three Module Types on Cotton Ginning and Fiber Quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Traditionally seed cotton has been stored in modules from the time it was harvested until it was ginned. These modules have been formed using additional equipment and operators. In an effort to improve the efficiency of cotton production by reducing the number of operators and equipment, two newer...

  1. Survey of seed-cotton and lint cleaning equipment in US roller gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pima cotton is roller ginned to minimize damage to the fiber. The US roller ginning industry has changed since 1989. The majority of gins have shifted from Arizona to California. The number of gins in the US has also fallen by nearly 50%, but those operating today have more gin stands and process...

  2. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... for Market § 780.807 Cotton must be ginned “for market.” As noted in § 780.804, it is ginning of seed... only where the cotton is actually ginned “for market.” (Wirtz v. Southern Pickery, Inc. (W.D....

  3. Evaluation of cotton gin byproducts as a ligno-cellulosic filler in polymer composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproduct produced as a result of ginning has created disposal problems across the cottonbelt of the United States for several decades. Research has evaluated numerous potential applications for utilizing cotton gin byproducts (CGB) more commonly referred to by ginners as "gin waste" or "gin tra...

  4. Comparison of high-speed roller and saw ginning on Texas high plains cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    New high-quality cotton cultivars have been adopted in the Southern High Plains recently and, as a result, interest has grown in finding harvest and ginning practices that better preserve fiber quality. Advancements in roller ginning technology have increased the ginning rate of some roller gins to ...

  5. First stage lint cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  6. Second stage lint cleaning system PM10 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A PM10 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind this project was the urgent need to collect additional cotton gin emissions data to address current regulatory issues. A key component of this study was...

  7. New seed-cotton reclaimer for high speed roller gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental laboratory prototype reclaimer is being developed by the USDA-ARS in cooperation with Lummus Corporation. The objective of the project is to develop a seed-cotton reclaimer for high speed roller ginning that has a higher operational capacity and reduced seed loss in comparison to cur...

  8. Ginning picker and stripper harvested high plains cotton - update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and High Volume Instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

  9. Boll weevil (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) survival through cotton gin trash fans.

    PubMed

    Sappington, Thomas W; Brashears, Alan D; Parajulee, Megha N; Carroll, Stanley C; Arnold, Mark D; Baker, Roy V

    2004-10-01

    There is concern that cotton gins may serve as loci for reintroduction of boll weevils, Anthonomus grandis grandis Boheman, to eradicated or suppressed zones when processing weevil-infested cotton from neighboring zones. Previous work has shown that virtually all weevils entering the gin in the seed cotton will be removed before they reach the gin stand. Those not killed by the seed cotton cleaning machinery will be shunted alive into the trash fraction, which passes through a centrifugal trash fan before exiting the gin. The objective of this study was to determine survival potential of boll weevils passed through a trash fan. Marked adult weevils were distributed in gin trash and fed through a 82.6-cm (32.5-in.) diameter centrifugal fan operated across a range of fan-tip speeds. A small number of boll weevils were recovered alive immediately after passage through the fan, but all were severely injured and did not survive 24 h. In another experiment, green bolls infested with both adult- and larval-stage weevils were fed through the fan. Several teneral adults survived 24 h, and there was no evidence that fan-tip speed affected either initial survival of weevils, or the number of unbroken boll locks that could harbor an infesting weevil. Thus, designating a minimum fan-tip speed for ensuring complete kill is not possible for the boll weevil. Experiments suggest that a device installed in a gin that partially crushes or cracks bolls open before entering a trash fan will increase mortality, possibly enough that further precautions would be unnecessary. PMID:15568350

  10. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  11. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  12. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  13. 29 CFR 780.807 - Cotton must be ginned “for market.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Cotton must be ginned âfor market.â 780.807 Section 780.807... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of...

  14. Physical processing and emission characteristics of cotton ginning byproducts based firelogs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of cotton ginning byproducts for manufacturing firelogs. Cotton burr with stem (CBS) a byproduct from cotton ginning operation was mixed with petroleum based paraffin wax to manufacture firelogs. The impact of varying the formulation of firelogs, an...

  15. Termite resistance and mechanical properties of biobased composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts and guayule bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production, also known as guayule bagasse (GB), is expected to increase as this in...

  16. Termite resistance and physical properties of biobased composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts and guayule bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this research was to determine the termite resistance property of experimental composition boards made from cotton gin byproducts (CGB) and guayule bagasse. Vast quantities of CGB, also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the U...

  17. CONSIDERATIONS OF ORGANIC COTTON PRODUCTION AND GINNING

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Approximately 5,000-8,000 bales of organic cotton are currently produced in the U.S. with approximately 115,000 bales being produced worldwide that are certified "organic." Although small compared to the overall crop (less than 0.1 percent), the production of organic cotton has been increasing rece...

  18. Using High-Speed Video to Examine Differential Roller Ginning of Upland Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A digital high-speed video camera was used to show what occurs as upland fiber is being pulled off of cottonseed at the ginning point on a roller gin stand. The study included a conventional ginning treatment, and a treatment that attempted to selectively remove only the longer fibers off of cotton...

  19. Textile processing improvements due to high speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. Processing capacities of new high-speed roller ginning technology approach that of saw ginning. Spinning mills are interested in mill performance data comparing new upland cultivars processed by both saw and roller ginning. Four dive...

  20. 29 CFR 780.803 - Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... cotton. 780.803 Section 780.803 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet... Section 13(b)(15) Introductory § 780.803 Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of...

  1. 29 CFR 780.803 - Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... cotton. 780.803 Section 780.803 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet... Section 13(b)(15) Introductory § 780.803 Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of...

  2. 29 CFR 780.803 - Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... cotton. 780.803 Section 780.803 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet... Section 13(b)(15) Introductory § 780.803 Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of...

  3. 29 CFR 780.803 - Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... cotton. 780.803 Section 780.803 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet... Section 13(b)(15) Introductory § 780.803 Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of...

  4. 29 CFR 780.803 - Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... cotton. 780.803 Section 780.803 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION... FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet... Section 13(b)(15) Introductory § 780.803 Basic conditions of exemption; first part, ginning of...

  5. Survey of seed cotton cleaning equipment in mid-south gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The performance of seed cotton cleaning equipment in commercial gins is not well documented. Most research reporting cleaning efficiencies of this machinery was performed in the laboratory under optimal conditions, while commercial gins must often process cotton with high moisture or foreign matter ...

  6. Evaluation of an experimental mass-flow sensor of cotton-lint at the gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a system to optimize the cotton ginning process, a custom built mass-flow sensor was evaluated at USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit at Stoneville, Mississippi. The mass-flow sensor was fabricated based on the principle of the senor patented by Thomasson and Sui (2004). The optical a...

  7. Changes in cotton gin energy use over the past 50 years

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The public is concerned about environmental quality and energy sustainability. Cotton producers, gin owners and plant managers are concerned about rising energy prices. Both have an interest in current cotton gin energy consumption, and may also be interested in how it has changed over time. Informa...

  8. Fiber and yarn properties from high-speed roller ginning of upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Selective breeding has improved upland cotton fiber properties. New high-speed roller ginning technology has advanced to the point that processing capacities have approached that of saw ginning. Producers seeking a better price for their upland cotton are interested in fiber property and textile m...

  9. CONVENTIONAL AND HIGH-SPEED ROLLER GINNING OF UPLAND COTTON IN COMMERCIAL GINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A conventional rotary-knife roller gin stand in a commercial ginning plant was converted to operate at high speed during the 2005 ginning season. Ginning rate on the high-speed stand was more three times higher than a conventional roller gin stand. The ginning roller on the high-speed stand operat...

  10. Calculation of pesticide degradation in decaying cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Crossan, Angus N; Kennedy, Ivan R

    2008-10-01

    Pesticide residues were measured in stockpiled cotton gin trash (CGT) over a 2-year period. Samples were analysed by GC/MS/MS and interpretation of the results was aided by the presence of DDE residues, remnant from prior DDT use. Fourteen pesticide residues from current agricultural practice were detected in CGT. Several of these, including indoxacarb, profenofos, chlorpyrifos, propargite, bifenthrin, ethion and cyhalothrin, were more persistent than expected on the basis of published data for soil dissipation. The results showed a complex pattern of pesticide residue decay over time because of the simultaneous decomposition of the CGT matrix. PMID:18651089

  11. Chapter 10: Cotton harvesting and ginning in the 21st century

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This book chapter briefly reviews the history of cotton harvest preparation, harvesting, and ginning in the U. S. up until the beginning of the 21st century. The review particularly focuses on the mechanization of the U. S. cotton industry and its defining characteristics in the latter portion of t...

  12. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - Final year of field work

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter (PM) with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5), the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt agreed that there is an urgent need to collect gin emission data. The primary issues surrounding PM re...

  13. Detection of plastic and oily contamination in seed cotton at the gin using infra-red

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plastic and oily foreign material in bales of cotton lint poses problems to spinning and textile mills in the form of decreased productivity and products with inferior quality. Detecting and removing this plastic and oily foreign material at the gin is a long term goal of the cotton industry. In t...

  14. Synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose from waste of cotton ginning industry.

    PubMed

    Haleem, Noor; Arshad, Muhammad; Shahid, Muhammad; Tahir, Muhammad Ashraf

    2014-11-26

    The aim of present work was to isolate cellulose from cotton gin waste (CGW) and synthesis of carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) from it. Scoured and bleached CGW was used to investigate the effects of temperature, reaction time, acid-base concentration on the physiology of the resultant cellulose polymer. The isolated cellulose from CGW was converted to CMC by etherification using sodium monochloroacetic acid and different sodium hydroxide (NaOH) concentrations (5-40 g/100mL) were tested to get high quality product. The optimum condition for carboxymethylation was found to be 20 g/100mL NaOH which provided the highest viscosity and degree of substitution (DS=0.874). Isolated cellulose and CMC were characterized using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). FT-IR analysis revealed that the produced cellulose was of very good quality. Furthermore, X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis spotlighted crystalline nature of cellulose. SEM images showed rough structure of cellulose while that of the CMC had a smooth surface. This optimized method will be tested at pilot scale in collaboration with local industry. PMID:25256482

  15. The accuracy of cotton bale moisture sensors used in a South Texas commercial gin with lint moisture restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper measurement of bale moisture content (mc) is crucial to proper management of a cotton gin. It is important to avoid producing wet cotton both for the benefit of the mills and because wet cotton is unacceptable for Commodity Credit Corporation Marketing Assistance Loan Program. Wet cotton is...

  16. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  17. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin third stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  18. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage seed-cotton cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  19. Ginning efficiency - research progress

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the past few years, there has been a consorted effort between cotton geneticists/breeders, ginning engineers and molecular scientists to understand ‘ginning efficiency’ in upland cotton. Ginning efficiency includes ginning rate (measured in g lint sec-1) and net gin stand energy (measured in Wh k...

  20. Development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA’s AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. All current PM10 cotton gin emission factors received quality ratings of D or lower. In an effort to improve these ratin...

  1. Development of cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors for EPA’S AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. AP-42 currently contains no PM2.5 cotton gin emission factors. In an effort to develop science-based data for regulating...

  2. Update on the development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA's AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to update the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) to include PM10 emission factors. This study develops emission factors from the PM10 emission factor data collected from ...

  3. COST OF EXTRUSION PROCESSING OF COTTON GIN BY-PRODUCTS AS LIVESTOCK FEED

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Extrusion processing can be used on cotton gin by-product (CGB)to produce livestock feed (roughage) products. Using the economic-engineering approach, estimates of unit processing cost for CGB livestock feed products were developed, indicating economies of size, with average per-ton cost as low as $...

  4. Combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  5. Influence of seed cotton extractors and cleaning rate on gin turnout and fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Texas High Plains cotton has improved over the last ten years with regard to yield and high volume instrument (HVI) fiber quality. Harvesting and ginning practices are needed which preserve fiber quality and maximize return to the producer. The objective of this work is to investigate the influence ...

  6. Mote cyclone robber system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  7. Master trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  8. Mote cleaner system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  9. 100 Years of Cotton Production, Harvesting and Ginning Systems Engineering: 1907 - 2007

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers (ASABE) celebrated its centennial year during 2007. As part of the ASABE centennial, the authors were asked to describe agricultural engineering accomplishments in U.S. cotton production, harvesting and ginning over the past 100 years. ...

  10. Determining Seed Cotton Mass Flow Rate by Pressure Drop Across a Blowbox: Gin Testing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Accurate measurement of the mass flow rate of seed cotton is needed for control and monitoring purposes in gins. A system was developed that accurately predicted mass flow rate based on the static pressure drop measured across the blowbox and the air velocity and temperature entering the blowbox. Ho...

  11. First stage lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2006, Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin first stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Mote trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  14. Combined mote system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  15. Overflow system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than...

  16. Combined lint cleaning system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  17. Master trash system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or ...

  18. Biobased composition boards made from cotton gin and guayule wates: Select physical and mechanical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB) are being produced annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production (guayule bagasse) is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of these waste materials into value-added products can help the economics of the crops,...

  19. Biobased composition boards made from cotton gin and guayule watse: Select physical and mechanical properties

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vast quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB) are being produced annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production (guayule bagasse) is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of these waste materials into value-added products can help the economics of the crops,...

  20. Battery condenser system particulate emission factors for cotton gins: Particle size distribution characteristics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or e...

  1. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin battery condenser system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  2. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  3. [Research on the trash content measurement and classification of ginned cotton by using NIR spectroscopy technique].

    PubMed

    Guo, Jun-Xian; Rao, Xiu-Qin; Cheng, Fang; Ying, Yi-Bin; Kang, Yu-Guo; Li, Fu-Tang

    2010-03-01

    Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was investigated to predict trash content and classify types of ginned cotton by using a fiberoptic in diffuse reflectance mode. Different spectra preprocessing methods were compared, and partial least-squares (PLS) regression was established to predict the trash content of ginned cotton. Discriminant analysis (DA) was used to classify various types of lint and content level of trash. The correlation coefficient r was 0.906 for optimal PLS model using three factors based on first-order derivative spectra, and RMSEC and RMSEP was 0.440 and 0.823 respectively. To classify ginned cotton with and without plant trash, the accuracy rate reached 95.4% using 15 principal components (PCs) via DA, whereas the prediction accuracy rate was only 80.9% for the classification of sample types due to containing foreign fiber, and the classification result for the content level of trash in lint was not good for the samples without any preprocessing. The result indicated that the NIR spectra of sample can be used to predict trash content in ginned cotton, which is often disturbed by type, content and distribution of foreign matters, and the accuracy of some prediction model is unsatisfactory. In order to improve the prediction accuracy, some methods would be applied in future research, such as pretreatment according to acquisition request of solid sample, or using transmission mode. PMID:20496679

  4. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin unloading system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  5. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  6. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  7. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin overflow system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  8. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  9. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cyclone robber system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  10. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin master trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  11. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin second stage mote system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  12. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote trash system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  13. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin mote cleaner system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  14. Particle size distribution characteristics of cotton gin combined lint cleaning system total particulate emissions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of total particulate stack sampling and particle size analyses. In 2013, EPA published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created a...

  15. 2nd stage mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  16. The accuracy and calibration of three cotton bale moisture sensors used in a commercial gin with lint moisture restoration

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper measurement of bale moisture content (mc) is crucial to proper management of a cotton gin. It is important to avoid producing wet cotton, unacceptable for Commodity Credit Corporation Marketing Assistance Loan Program, which is defined to be a bale of cotton which is at or above 7.5% wet bas...

  17. Genetics of ginning efficiency and its genotypic and phenotypic correlations with agronomic and fiber traits in upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Information regarding genetic variability and correlations of desirable traits provide a reliable basis for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) improvement. The objective of this research was to study the genetics of ginning efficiency and estimate genotypic correlations of ginning energy requirements an...

  18. Influence of defoliation date and gin-drying temperature on oven moisture and KFT water within cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Water measured in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration was compared to moisture content measured by standard oven-drying in two cultivars. The cultivars had been defoliated at different times and ginned at two possible temperatures. Ginned lint was further processed to produce mechanically cleaned,...

  19. Second stage lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additional cotton gi...

  20. Ecological study of the larger black flour beetle in cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Nansen, Christian; James, Jacob; Bowling, David; Parajulee, Megha N; Porter, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    The larger black flour beetle Cynaeus angustus (Leconte) thrives in cotton gin trash piles on the Southern High Plains of Texas and sometimes becomes a nuisance after invading public and private structures. For better understanding of the basic larger black flour beetle ecology in gin trash piles, we conducted a series of laboratory and semirealistic field trials. We showed (1) in naturally infested gin trash piles, that similar trap captures were obtained in three cardinal directions; (2) in a laboratory study, late-instar larvae stayed longer in larval stage in moist soil compared with drier soil; (3) in both horizontal and vertical choice experiments, late instars preferred soil with low moisture content; and (4) specifically larger black flour beetle adults, but most larvae as well, responded negatively to high moisture content in gin trash. The results presented are consistent with reports of larger black flour beetle living in decaying yucca palms in deserts and suggest that maintaining gin trash piles with high moisture content may be an important component in an integrated control strategy. PMID:19161678

  1. CHARACTERIZATION OF COTTON GIN PARTICULATE MATTER EMISSIONS – FIRST YEAR

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Due to EPA’s implementation of more stringent standards for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns, the cotton ginners’ associations across the cotton belt, including the National, Texas, Southern, Southeastern, and California associations, agreed that there is an urgent...

  2. Measuring leaf material in ginned cotton from surface images

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taylor, Robert A.

    1995-01-01

    Digitized images from black and white video cameras are being used to measure the area and numbers of leaf particles in cotton after lint cleaning. The method is now used to provide trash grades for 16 - 18 million bales of cotton prepared for market each year. Small samples are compressed against a glass window and illuminated with two small incandescent lamps for imaging. Leaf area readings are automatically adjusted for differences in lint greyness. The accuracy of this method compares well with gravimetric measurements of non-lint content.

  3. Laboratory ginning and blending impacts on cotton fiber micronaire measurements

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire, a critical cotton quality parameter, is normally measured in a conditioned laboratory, but increasing interest has been shown in new technologies that can measure micronaire both in and outside of the laboratory. Near Infrared (NIR) technology has demonstrated its ability to measure cot...

  4. Development of cotton gin PM10 emission factors for EPA’s AP-42-DUPLICATE DO NOT USE

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) emission factors are assigned ratings, from A (Excellent) to E (Poor), based on the quality of data used to develop them. All current PM10 cotton gin emission factors received quality ratings of D or lower. In an effort to improve these ratin...

  5. Update on the development of cotton gin PM2.5 emission factors for EPA's AP-42

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A cotton ginning industry-supported project was initiated in 2008 to update the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42) to include PM2.5 emission factors. This study develops emission factors from the PM2.5 emission factor data collected fro...

  6. Eli Whitney's Patent for the Cotton Gin. The Constitution Community: Revolution and the New Nation (1754-1820s).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schur, Joan Brodsky

    This lesson focuses on the power of the U.S. Congress to pass laws related to issuing patents. Using Eli Whitney's 1812 Congressional petition to extend the patent on his cotton gin as an example, the lesson correlates to the National History Standards and the National Standards for Civics and Government. It contains two primary source documents,…

  7. BELTWIDE GIN SAMPLING - FIRST SEASON

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season. This report discusses preliminary analysis of the first year data. In...

  8. Predicting Fiber Quality After Commercial Ginning Based on Fiber Obtained with Laboratory-Scale Gin Stands

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    It is often useful, especially in research, to measure properties of cotton lint ginned from small seed cotton samples with small laboratory scale gin stands and use the results to estimate properties of lint after commercial ginning, but these gin stands differ from commercial gins which brings int...

  9. Dust cyclone technology for gins – A literature review

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dust cyclone research leading to more efficient designs has helped the cotton ginning industry to comply with increasingly stringent air quality regulations governing fine particulate emissions. Future changes in regulations may require additional improvements in dust cyclone efficacy. This inter-...

  10. Use of cotton gin trash to enhance denitrification in restored forested wetlands

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ullah, S.; Faulkner, S.P.

    2006-01-01

    Lower Mississippi Valley (LMV) has lost about 80% bottomland hardwood forests, mainly to agriculture. This landscape scale alteration of the LMV resulted in the loss of nitrate (NO3) removal capacity of the valley, contributing to nitrogen (N)-enhanced eutrophication and potentially hypoxia in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Restoration of hardwood forests in the LMV is a highly recommended practice to reduce NO3 load of the Mississippi River. However, restored bottomland forests take decades to develop characteristic ecological functions including denitrifier activity. One way to enhance denitrifier activity in restored wetland forests is to amend the soils with an available carbon (C) source. This research investigated the effects of cotton gin trash (CGT) amendment on denitrification rate and N2O:N2 emission ratio from a restored bottomland forest soils and compared it to those from an adjacent unamended natural forest soils. CGT amendment increased denitrification rates in the restored forest soils to the level of the natural forest soils. N2O:N2 emission ratios from the restored and natural forest soils were highly variable and were not significantly different from each other. These findings suggest that restoration of bottomland hardwood forests in the LMV will require organic carbon amendment to achieve enhanced denitrifier activity for NO3 removal while the restored forest is developing into a mature state over time. ?? 2006 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Evaluation of ligninolytic enzymes, ultrasonication and liquid hot water as pretreatments for bioethanol production from cotton gin trash.

    PubMed

    Plácido, Jersson; Imam, Tahmina; Capareda, Sergio

    2013-07-01

    Cotton gin trash (CGT) is a ubiquitous cotton-production-waste resource which can be used for ethanol production. In this research, seven combinations of three pretreatments; ultrasonication, liquid hot water and ligninolytic enzymes were evaluated on CGT to select the best pretreatments combination that increased the cellulose conversion and the ethanol yield in the saccharification and fermentation processes, respectively. The structural changes in the cellulose, hemicellulose and lignin from CGT were followed using FT-IR after each pretreatment. All the pretreatment combinations modified the CGT's structure and composition compared with the unpretreated CGT, and the majority of them improved release of sugars originally present in the CGT. The best results were achieved by the sequential combination of ultrasonication, hot water, and ligninolytic enzymes with an improvement of 10% in the ethanol yield and cellulose conversion compared to the other pretreatments. These results are a contribution to develop a feasible bioethanol production from CGT. PMID:23665215

  12. High-speed roller ginning in commercial gin plants in 2005 and 2006

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Numerous conventional roller gin stands were modified to run at high speed in commercial ginning plants in 2005 and 2006. The high-speed stands ginned both Pima and upland cotton. Results from a field test at a commercial ginning plant that compared roller ginning (including one high-speed stand) ...

  13. Combined lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  14. Cyclone robber system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  15. Mote cyclone robber system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  16. Unloading system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  17. Master trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  18. Combined mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  19. Overflow system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This c...

  20. First stage mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions using stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent n...

  1. Mote cleaner system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  2. Battery condenser system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  3. Mote trash system PM2.5 emission factors and rate for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This cr...

  4. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  5. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  6. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  7. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  8. 7 CFR 27.25 - Additional samples of cotton; drawing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional samples of cotton; drawing. 27.25 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Inspection and Samples § 27.25 Additional samples of cotton; drawing. In addition to the samples hereinbefore...

  9. Energy monitoring in gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy costs are the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins, accounting for 27% of variable costs. Energy use has typically not been a major consideration in gin design, and previous studies of energy use have utilized instantaneous readings or aggregated season-long values. In this...

  10. PNEUMATIC FRACTIONATOR FOR CLEANING GINNED LINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. Spawned from discussions at a Cotton Incorporated Lint Cleaning Summit and building on 1970s research at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory, an e...

  11. First stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  12. Second stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  13. Third stage seed-cotton cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack and ambient sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2....

  14. 7 CFR 1205.530 - Gin reports and reporting schedule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Gin reports and reporting schedule. 1205.530 Section... RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Reports and Records § 1205.530 Gin reports and reporting schedule. (a) Gin reports. Each year each cotton gin in the United States shall submit reports...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.525 - Entry of gin code number.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Cotton Board Rules and Regulations Warehouse Receipts § 1205.525 Entry of gin code number. The warehouse that first receives a bale for storage after ginning shall enter the gin code number of the gin at... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Entry of gin code number. 1205.525 Section...

  16. Development of a prototype sensor to detect plastic contamination in seed cotton at the gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    US cotton is considered to have some of the lowest levels of contamination in the world. That reputation is expected by foreign and domestic mills. Despite this reputation, U.S. spinners have recently experienced some serious contamination issues with US cotton. Of particular concern are plastic con...

  17. BELTWIDE COTTON QUALITY STUDY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A two year, belt-wide commercial cotton gin sampling project was initiated in 2005 for the 2005-06 and 2006-07 ginning seasons to assess the changes in upland cotton quality throughout the ginning process and the ginning season with the ultimate goal of identifying areas where improvements can be ma...

  18. Ethanol production of semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation from mixture of cotton gin waste and recycled paper sludge

    PubMed Central

    Agblevor, Foster A.

    2010-01-01

    Ethanol production from the steam-exploded mixture of 75% cotton gin waste and 25% recycled paper sludge in various conditions was investigated by semi-simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSSF) consisting of a pre-hydrolysis and a simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF). Four cases were studied: 24-h pre-hydrolysis + 48-h SSF (SSSF 24), 12-h pre-hydrolysis + 60-h SSF (SSSF 12), 72-h SSF, and 48-h hydrolysis + 24-h fermentation (SHF). The ethanol concentration, yield, and productivity of SSSF 24 were higher than those of the other operations. A model of SSF was used to simulate the data for four components in SSF. The analysis of the reaction rates of cellobiose, glucose, cell, and ethanol using the model and the parameters from the experiments showed that there was a transition point of the rate-controlling step at which the cell growth control in the initial 2 h was changed to the cellobiose reaction control in later period during ethanol production of SSF from the mixture. PMID:20559849

  19. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ..., PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the agricultural commodity in its natural state for whose first processing the exemption was provided. (See...

  20. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the agricultural commodity in its natural state for whose first processing the exemption was provided. (See...

  1. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the agricultural commodity in its natural state for whose first processing the exemption was provided. (See...

  2. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the agricultural commodity in its natural state for whose first processing the exemption was provided. (See...

  3. 29 CFR 780.805 - Ginning of “cotton.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ..., PROCESSING OF AGRICULTURAL COMMODITIES, AND RELATED SUBJECTS UNDER THE FAIR LABOR STANDARDS ACT Employment in... cotton waste resulting from spinning or oil mill operations is not included, since such waste is not the agricultural commodity in its natural state for whose first processing the exemption was provided. (See...

  4. Preliminary assestment of lint cotton water content in gin-drying temperature studies

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Prior studies to measure total water (free and bound) in lint cotton by Karl Fischer Titration showed the method is more accurate and precise than moisture content by standard oven drying. The objective of the current study was to compare the moisture and total water contents from five cultivars de...

  5. Energy Monitoring in Gins - 2012 Preliminary Results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity and fuel are the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins, after labor. Few studies of gin energy use have been conducted recently and none have monitored energy use continuously throughout the ginning season. More detailed information is needed to identify management st...

  6. Energy Monitoring in Gins - 2013 Update

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy, comprised of electricity and fuel, is the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins, after labor. Few studies of gin energy use have been conducted recently and none have monitored energy use continuously throughout the ginning season. More detailed information is needed to ide...

  7. Energy monitoring in gins - 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy costs are the second largest source of variable costs for cotton gins. Previous studies of gin energy use have only considered a single, instantaneous reading of energy use or examined monthly utility bills. More detailed information is needed to identify management strategies and system de...

  8. VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    VIEW WEST, 1ST FLOOR, EAST ROOM, HYDRAULIC COTTON PRESS, DETAIL, CONTINENTAL GIN COMPANY HYDRAULIC TANK - Magnolia Plantation, Cotton Gins & Presses, LA Route 119, Natchitoches, Natchitoches Parish, LA

  9. Laboratory and outside the laboratory measurements of ginned and ot ginned cotton for fiber micronaire and maturity by portable Near Infrared (NIR) Instruments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Micronaire is a key cotton quality assessment property, impacting downstream fiber processing and dye consistency. A component of micronaire is fiber maturity (degree of secondary wall development). Historically, micronaire and maturity are measured in a laboratory under tight environmental condit...

  10. Quality Effects from the Addition of Moisture to Seed Cotton with Two Surfactants

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture restoration to seed cotton using an atomizing spray nozzle was shown to correlate with improved fiber length properties as measured by the Advanced Fiber Information System (AFIS). A total of 54 bales were ginned with moisture restoration using an atomizing spray of water and water with tw...

  11. Second-stage mote system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, the Environmental Protection Agencey (EPA) finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This c...

  12. First stage lint cleaning system PM2.5 emission factors and rates for cotton gins: Method 201A combination PM10 and PM2.5 sizing cyclones

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This report is part of a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. In 2006, EPA finalized and published a more stringent standard for particulate matter with nominal diameter less than or equal to 2.5 µm (PM2.5). This created an urgent need to collect additi...

  13. Conservation tillage, irrigation and variety selection impacts on cotton quality premiums, discounts and profitability: evidence from the gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fluctuating market prices, increasing production costs, and shifting mill demand, has made cotton markets more uncertain, making cotton quality a more important aspect of the profitability of cotton. The purpose of this research project is to examine the effect conservation tillage systems and varie...

  14. Biological control agent of larger black flour beetles (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae): A nuisance pest developing in cotton gin trash piles.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Larger black flour beetles (LBFB), Cynaeus angustus, feed on saprophytic fungi found in gin trash piles, and become nuisance pests in homes and businesses. We examined the dose-response of three entomopathogenic nematode species (Steinernema carpocapsae, S. feltiae, and Heterorhabditis bacteriophora...

  15. The impact of high speed roller ginning on yarn quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Recent advance in cotton ginning technology have resulted in increases in the speed, throughput, and overall economics of roller ginning to make it competitive with conventional saw ginning. The present study was aimed at determining if the improvements in fiber quality, i.e. longer fibers with high...

  16. Bioinspiration and Biomimicry: Possibilities for Cotton Byproducts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The byproducts from cotton gins have commonly been referred to as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste primarily because the lint and seed were the main focus of the operation and the byproducts were a financial liability that did not have a consistent market. Even though the byproducts were called ...

  17. 29 CFR 780.810 - Employees not “engaged in” ginning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... F. 2d 941; Heaburg v. Independent Oil Mill, Inc., 46 F. Supp. 751; Abram v. San Joaquin Cotton Oil... “engaged in ginning of cotton”: (a) Transporting seed cotton from farms or other points to the gin. (b...) “Watching” duties. (e) Working in the seed house. (f) Transporting seed, hulls, and ginned bales away...

  18. 29 CFR 780.810 - Employees not “engaged in” ginning.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... F. 2d 941; Heaburg v. Independent Oil Mill, Inc., 46 F. Supp. 751; Abram v. San Joaquin Cotton Oil... “engaged in ginning of cotton”: (a) Transporting seed cotton from farms or other points to the gin. (b...) “Watching” duties. (e) Working in the seed house. (f) Transporting seed, hulls, and ginned bales away...

  19. Impact of experimental gins on fiber quality parameters

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Stripper harvested cotton usually contains approximately 6 to 8 times higher levels of trash than machine picked cotton. Ginning in stripper areas should be made more efficient at removing the trash particles while preserving fiber quality. Fiber breakage is a concern at two junctures: the saw gins ...

  20. Upland fiber changes due to ginning and lint cleaning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was done to determine how upland cotton fiber length distribution was affected during ginning and how possible length changes might affect subsequent textile processing. The full range of ginning treatments currently commercially available in the U. S. cotton industry were utilized. These ...

  1. Miniature spinning as a tool for ginning research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton gin must balance efficient processing and cleaning with adversely affecting the quality of lint through damage and/or failure to remove sufficient material. Substantial research is conducted on all aspects of the cotton gin; however it is difficult to gauge the effect on fiber quality wi...

  2. Evaluation of a mass flow sensor at a gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    As part of a system to optimize the cotton ginning process, a custom-built mass flow sensor was evaluated at USDA-ARS Cotton Ginning Research Unit at Stoneville, Mississippi. The mass flow sensor was fabricated based on the principle of the sensor patented by Thomasson and Sui. The optical and ele...

  3. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study

    PubMed Central

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C.; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  4. Effects of Pyrolysis Temperature on Product Yields and Energy Recovery from Co-Feeding of Cotton Gin Trash, Cow Manure, and Microalgae: A Simulation Study.

    PubMed

    Hanif, Muhammad Usman; Capareda, Sergio C; Iqbal, Hamid; Arazo, Renato Ortiz; Baig, Muhammad Anwar

    2016-01-01

    The intensive search of new and cleaner energy catches interest in recent years due to huge consumption of fossil fuels coupled with the challenge of energy and environmental sustainability. Production of renewable and environmentally benign energy from locally available raw materials is coming in the frontline. In this work, conversion of the combined biomass (cotton gin trash, cow manure, and Microalgae [Nannochloropsis oculata]) through batch pyrolysis has been investigated. The effect of temperature to the production of energy fuels such as bio-oil, char, and biogas have been simulated considering the yield and energy content as responses. Result of the investigation generally revealed that the proportions of the different biomass did not significantly affect the product yield and energy recovery. Significant effect of temperature is evident in the simulation result of energy recovery whereby maximum conversion was achieved at 400°C for char (91 wt%), 600°C for syngas (22 wt%), and 551°C for bio-oil (48 wt%). Overall energy conversion efficiency of 75.5% was obtained at 589°C in which 15.6 MJ/kg of mixed biomass will be elevated to pyrolysis products. PMID:27043929

  5. Some physical and mechanical properties of bio-based composition boards made from cotton gin and guayule wastes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Vast quantities of cotton wastes are being produced annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of these waste materials into value-added products can help the economics of the crops, and importantly, aid in allevia...

  6. Possibilities for measuring cotton in the field and outside the laboratory: for breeding, production, ginning, the warehouse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is often classified using high volume instrumentation. Although accurate, these laboratory systems require strict laboratory conditions, well trained operators, and are expensive. Much interest has been shown in non-laboratory measurements in situations not related to classing or commercial...

  7. Impacts of Ginning Treatments on Spinning Preparation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Throughout the production and manufacturing chain, cotton fibers undergo a succession of mechanical processing stages with varying degrees of aggressiveness. Some of the processes that are most decisive to the cotton's ultimate use-value and processing performance start at the gin and continue throu...

  8. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  9. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  10. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor... Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap into Sugar or Syrup; Exemption From Overtime Pay Requirements Under Section 13(b)(15) Ginning of Cotton...

  11. Termite resistance of biobased composition boards made from cotton byproducts and guayule bagasse

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Large quantities of cotton gin byproducts (CGB), also known as cotton gin trash or cotton gin waste, are being produced across the cotton belt of the United States annually. Similarly, guayule wastes after rubber latex production is expected to increase as this industry begins to expand. Use of thes...

  12. Comparison of Selected Bale Moisture Measurements in a Commercial Gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper measurement of bale moisture content (mc) is crucial to proper management of a cotton gin. One issue would be to avoid producing wet cotton, unacceptable for Commodity Credit Corporation Marketing Assistance Loan Program, which is defined to be a bale of cotton which is at or above 7.5% wet ...

  13. Lubbock Gin Lab - Current Research and Leaf Grade Issues

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This presentation was given to a group of cotton gin managers and allied industry reps. Approximately 100 attendees were in the audience. A discussion of the current research conducted at the USDA ARS CPPRU Ginning Laboratory in Lubbock, TX was given along with a discussion of leaf grade issues and ...

  14. The Gin Builder: Examining the Skills Needed for the New Industrial Age.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kosty, Carlita; Lubar, Steven; Rhar, Bill

    2000-01-01

    Presents a lesson plan in which students explore the impact of industrialization on agriculture, the experience of William Ellison, a free black cotton gin mechanic, and the skills that Ellison needed. Students discuss handwritten documents, diagrams, and census information related to the cotton gin. Includes a bibliography and four handouts. (CMK)

  15. Five Tips for a Smooth Ginning Season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton ginners need to be nearly finished with the preparation of their ginning plant for the coming season but there are a few things they can do now in other aspects of the business. They should have a program to record down time during the coming season so they can make plans to address problems...

  16. Evaluating a pneumatic fractionator for cleaning ginned lint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The pneumatic fractionator has long been used to determine foreign matter content of seed cotton at the USDA Cotton Ginning Laboratories. An experiment was conducted to evaluate the pneumatic fractionator as a lint cleaning device. No modifications were made to the standard device, except that air p...

  17. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of the industry’s variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significant...

  18. Pneumatic Conveying of Seed Cotton: Minimum Velocity and Pressure Drop

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Electricity is a major cost for cotton gins, representing approximately 20% of variable costs. Fans used for pneumatic conveying consume the majority of electricity at cotton gins. Development of control systems to reduce the air velocity used for conveying seed cotton could significantly decrease e...

  19. Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a woody, perennial, indeterminate plant with the C3 photosynthesis pathway, that is grown in warm and some temperate climates for fiber, but also for its seed from which oil and protein are important products. Of the four cultivated forms of cotton, the dominant species in production is Go...

  20. Predicting seed cotton moisture content from changes in drying air temperature

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Having an accurate measurement of seed-cotton moisture content in a cotton gin would help ginners determine how much heat to use to dry the cotton. A mathematical model was used to predict seed cotton moisture content in the overhead section of a gin. The model took into account the temperature, mas...

  1. An assessment of surface properties and moisture uptake of nonwoven fabrics from ginning by-products

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Greige (raw) cotton by-products resulting from cotton ginning and mill processes have long been bleached for using them in absorbent nonwoven products. Other than that, the greige cotton by-products mostly had limited material applications, and used as an alternative feedstock for biomass and as a ...

  2. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will be authorized under the same conditions as are applicable to waste under this subpart. (b) Gin trash may...

  3. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  4. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  5. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  6. 7 CFR 319.8-9 - Hull fiber and gin trash.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 5 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Hull fiber and gin trash. 319.8-9 Section 319.8-9 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... Importation and Entry of Cotton and Covers § 319.8-9 Hull fiber and gin trash. (a) Entry of hull fiber will...

  7. Application of cotton burr/stem in thermoplastic composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton gin waste (CGW) is a waste stream from a ginning operation that is rich in ligno-cellulosic fibers. Currently, there are no major commercial-scale applications for this material except for a small fraction that goes into either composting or is land applied. For a majority of gins across the ...

  8. Seed-cotton Cleaning Effects on Seed Coat Fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing problems in textile mills have been linked to seed coat fragments (SCF), so cotton ginning facilities should take steps to prevent them from forming. The objective of this experiment was to determine if the use of seed-cotton cleaners prior to the extractor-feeder/gin stand caused increa...

  9. New cotton-processing system saves energy, cuts pollution

    SciTech Connect

    Senft, D.

    1986-08-01

    This paper announces the invention of a machine which saves energy and reduces cotton dust pollution while it removes cotton lint from cottonseeds. The machine takes in seed cotton and puts out clean cotton lint which is ready for baling. It eliminates the need for three separate machines and massive air ducts to move the cotton between these machines. The elimination of the air-handling system, reduces electric power consumption and aeration of the cotton dust. The use of this prototype gin/cleaner will depend on the growth and modernization of existing cotton ginning operations.

  10. Moisture Management at the Gin for Quality Preservation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Proper control of the lint moisture content (mc) in the cotton gin is crucial to maintaining the fiber quality. If the mc is too high the fiber will be damaged by microbial action and will result in poor color as well as poor spinning properties. At lower mc, but still higher than desirable, the ...

  11. Impact of gin saw tooth design on textile processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toothed gin saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been done. It is not k...

  12. Feeding cotton products to cattle.

    PubMed

    Rogers, Glenn M; Poore, Matthew H; Paschal, Joe C

    2002-07-01

    Despite the potential for gossypol toxicosis (particularly in pre-ruminants) and risk factors associated with impaired fertility in bulls, cottonseed products offer a safe alternative feed for cattle producers when fed at recommended levels. Beef producers seeking to lower production costs should consider using cotton byproducts in their feeding programs. If carefully incorporated, cotton byproduct feeds can reduce feed costs while maintaining or increasing the level of cattle performance. Cottonseed meal will remain a standard protein supplement for beef cattle throughout the country. Whole cottonseed has much potential for Southern producers near cotton gins if it is purchased in a timely fashion and fed according to recommendations. Cotton gin trash, cottonseed hulls, and cotton textile mill waste also have potential economic benefits, especially to producers located near cotton and cottonseed processing facilities. PMID:12235661

  13. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS AND DISTRIBUTIONS OF COTTON FIBER AND YARN

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in ...

  14. Commercial cotton variety spinning study descriptive statistics and distributions of cotton fiber and yarn.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Quality Research Station (CQRS) of the USDA-ARS, located in Clemson, SC, has completed a comprehensive study of the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. The five year study, began in 2001, utilized commercial variety cotton grown, harvested and ginned in e...

  15. Determining seed cotton mass flow rate by pressure drop across a blowbox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed cotton mass flow rate sensor would offer useful feedback for gin managers and provide a critical input for advanced process control systems. Several designs of seed cotton mass flow rate sensors have been evaluated in the laboratory, but none have found acceptance in commercial gins. The obje...

  16. The Effects of Seed-Cotton Cleaning on Seed Coat Fragments

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Processing problems in textile mills have been linked to seed coat fragments (SCF), so preventing SCF from forming is one important goal of cotton ginning research. The primary objective of this experiment was to determine if seed-cotton cleaners used prior to the extractor-feeder/gin stand change ...

  17. Determining seed cotton mass flow rate by pressure drop across a blowbox

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A seed cotton mass flow rate sensor would offer useful feedback for gin managers and provide a critical input for advanced process control systems. Several designs of seed cotton mass flow rate sensors have been evaluated in the laboratory, but none have found acceptance in commercial gins. The ob...

  18. Gin saw wear test

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most current gin saw manufacturers use a 1074 steel or similar as a basis to manufacture their saw blades. The saw teeth are individually punched on the edges of the blades and then the blade goes through a heat treating process prior to use. There are indications from other industries with similar ...

  19. CATEGORIZATION OF EXTRANEOUS MATTER IN COTTON USING MACHINE VISION SYSTEMS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) was developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory to identify and categorize extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneous matter calls assigned ...

  20. Categorization of extraneous matter in cotton using machine vision systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory was evaluated for identification and categorization of extraneous matter in cotton. The CTIS bark/grass categorization was evaluated with USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service (AMS) extraneou...

  1. USING CYCLONES EFFECTIVELY AT COTTON GINS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cyclones are the most common type of emissions control device used in agricultural processing operations. Cyclones are efficient, reliable, low-cost, and require little maintenance. When used properly, cyclones effectively separate particulate matter from air streams, allowing compliance with state ...

  2. Optimizing Spindle Speed for Cotton Pickers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Field tests were conducted for the 2006, 2007, 2008 and 2009 crop years by the USDA, Agricultural Research Service, Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory in Mesilla Park, New Mexico. Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and harvested w...

  3. Spectroscopic discernment of seed cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Detection and identification of foreign material in harvested seed cotton is required for efficient removal by ginning. Trash particles remaining within the cotton fibers can detrimentally impact the quality of resulting textile products. Luminescence has been investigated as a potential tool for su...

  4. Removal of plastic materials using adjustments and revisions to standard seed cotton clean equipment: Progress Report

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S. cotton is known to be relatively free of contamination but occasionally pieces of sheet plastic are found in cotton bales produced in the U.S. A previous study showed that current cotton ginning equipment is not very efficient in removing plastic included in the seed cotton. The purpose of this...

  5. Evaluation and implementation of a machine vision system to categorize extraneous matter in cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Cotton Trash Identification System (CTIS) developed at the Southwestern Cotton Ginning Research Laboratory was evaluated for identification and categorization of extraneous matter (EM) in cotton. The system’s categorization of trash objects in cotton images was evaluated against Agricultural Mar...

  6. LONG-TERM STORAGE EFFECTS ON FIBER AND TEXTILE QUALITY OF POLYETHYLENE WRAPPED COTTON BALES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  7. Use of Electronic Technologies to Manage Seed Cotton Modules

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Most U.S. farmers and ginners still use paper tags to identify cotton modules along with a large number painted on the side of traditional modules. The gin typically assigns tags for the modules. When the gin gets the module, the paper tag is removed and the information is manually entered into a s...

  8. USE OF A ROTOR SPRAY SYSTEM FOR MOISTURE ADDITION TO COTTON LINT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Tests were conducted using a rotor spray system to apply moisture in the form of fine water droplets to cotton lint at the lint slide just before bale packaging. Initial cotton moisture content ranged from 5.0 to 5.5%, dry basis. Two studies were conducted, one in which bales were stored for six m...

  9. Effect of urea additive on the thermal decomposition of greige cotton nonwoven fabric treated with diammonium phosphate

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study showed that greige cotton nonwoven fabric can effectively be flame retardant by applying the phosphorus of diammonium phosphate (DAP) in concentrations as low as 0.8% with the addition of urea. At such a low concentration of phosphorus, the char length and limiting oxygen index (LOI) valu...

  10. Identification of cotton and cotton trash components by fourier-transform near-infrared spectropscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The high demand for cotton production worldwide has demonstrated the need for its standardized classification. Cotton trash can become comingled with lint during the ginning and harvesting processes. The conventional instrumental method presently used in the United States and other countries to de...

  11. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  12. Energy Monitoring in Gins - 2011

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Energy costs are the second largest source of variable costs for gins, accounting for 27% of variable costs. Energy use has typically not been a major consideration in gin design and previous studies of energy use have utilized instantaneous readings or aggregated season-long values. Electricity u...

  13. 29 CFR 516.18 - Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane....18 Employees employed in certain tobacco, cotton, sugar cane or sugar beet services, who are... cigar leaf tobacco, cotton, cottonseed, cotton ginning, sugar cane, sugar processing or sugar beets...

  14. Long-term storage of polyethylene film wrapped cotton bales and effects on fiber and textile quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton bales are stored for various lengths of time after ginning in any given year depending on crop size as well as market demand. Storage of cotton bales in covered warehouses is the general industry practice for most of the U.S. cotton belt. However, some cotton bales are stored in outside hol...

  15. Mote cleaner system PM2.5 emission factors and rate for cotto gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This manuscript is part of a series of manuscripts that detail a project to characterize cotton gin emissions from the standpoint of stack sampling. The impetus behind the project was the 2006 EPA implementation of a more stringent standard for particulate matter less than or equal to 2.5 micrometer...

  16. Impact of gin saw tooth design on fiber and textile processing quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toothed gin saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been done. It is not k...

  17. Predicting seed cotton moisture content from changes in drying air temperature - second year

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A mathematical model was used to predict seed cotton moisture content in the overhead section of a cotton gin. The model took into account the temperature, mass flow, and specific heat of both the air and seed cotton. Air temperatures and mass flows were measured for a second year at a commercial g...

  18. Development of a high-capacity extractor cleaner for cotton strippers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers have used extractor type cleaners for many years to remove large foreign material from harvested seed cotton. These machines are commonly referred to as "field cleaners" and are similar in design and operation to stick machines used in gins. The field cleaners used on modern cotton ...

  19. FOURIER-TRANSFORM INFRARED SPECTROSCOPY ANALYSIS ON MODIFIED COTTON TRASH

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The size of botanical cotton trash (e.g., leaves, hulls, bracts, stems, and seeds) decreases throughout the ginning process. This physical change causes small trash to remain entangled within the cotton fibers, and also creates problems in identifying the type of trash. As further processing occur...

  20. Fourier transform infrared macro-imaging of botanical cotton trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The marketability of cotton fiber is directly tied to the trash comingled with it. Trash can contaminate cotton during harvesting, ginning, and processing. Thus, the removal of trash is important from field to fabric. An ideal prerequisite to removing trash from lint is identifying what trash types...

  1. Optimal Substitution of Cotton Burr and Linters in Thermoplastic Composites

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted to evaluate various substitutions of cotton burr and linters fractions of cotton gin waste (CGW) as a natural fiber source in ligno-cellulosic polymer composites (LCPC.) Samples were fabricated with approximately 50% natural fiber, 40% of high-density polyethylene (HDPE) powder...

  2. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) Prediction of Cotton Trash

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Since cotton trash adversely affects the "quality" and market grade of cotton, the spinning efficiency in mill, and the resulting manufactured fabric passed on to consumers, ginning and textile processing are performed in a manner that removes as much of the contamination as possible. However, the ...

  3. Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning machinery

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fiber and seed loss from seed cotton cleaning equipment in cotton gins occurs, but the quantity of material lost, factors affecting fiber and seed loss, and the mechanisms that cause material loss are not well understood. Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effects of different factors on...

  4. Quantitative Analysis of Cotton Lint Trash by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The presence of cotton plant botanical components, or trash, embedded in lint subsequent to harvesting and ginning is an important criterion in the classification of baled cotton by the USDA-Agricultural Marketing Service. The trash particles may be reduced in size to the point that specific trash ...

  5. 10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. Photocopy of photograph showing the three Walker sisters ginning cotton. Misses Hettie, Martha and Louisa are from left to right. The original photograph was taken on May 21, 1936 by Edouard E. Exline and is one of five photographs in the album, 'A Sketch of Mountain Life: Great Smoky Mountains National Park', compiled by Edouard E. Exline and C.S. Grossman. The album is on file at the Great Smoky Mountains National Park; the photograph number is III-A-HSE-9642. - Walker Family Farm (General views), Gatlinburg, Sevier County, TN

  6. Biochemical profile of gin women laborers in Tirupur

    PubMed Central

    Jannet, J. V.; Jeyanthi, G. P.

    2007-01-01

    Ginning factories discharge large amounts of cotton dusts that lead to decreased pulmonary function in the exposed subjects. An attempt was made to study the biochemical profile of women laborers employed in ginning factory located in Tirupur, a textile based city in Coimbatore district of Tamilnadu, India. The blood parameters that were analyzed were hemoglobin, total and differential count of leucocytes, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), total proteins, immunoglobulins, total and isozymic content of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and histamine. Student's ‘t’ test was carried out to compare the results with the control women. Correlation analysis was done between/within the biochemical parameters and also between the pulmonary function parameters results reported earlier by Jannet and Jeyanthi. Significant changes in the levels of hemoglobin, ESR, immunoglobins and histamine were reported in this study. Correlation studies between the pulmonary function parameters and biochemical parameters revealed significant negative correlation of FVC, FEV1 and PEF with ESR (P <0.05). There was also positive correlation between immunoglobin G and histamine. A significant negative correlation was observed between LDH1 and LDH3 and between albumin and γ globulin. The study suggested that the ginning factory women laborers exhibited significant changes in the levels of certain biochemical parameters apart from the pulmonary functional changes. PMID:21938218

  7. Moisture study on botanical cotton trash.

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy was utilized in identifying different types of botanical cotton trash as each was subjected to simulations of ginning and textile processing. Changes in the hydroxyl region observed after heat treatment indicated the need to further...

  8. Comparisons of minicard ratings to ion chromatography sugar profiles in cotton fiber water extract and minicard sticky spot material

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Specific levels and ratios of the carbohydrates melezitose and trehalulose deposited on the surface of cotton fibers are indicators of whitefly or aphid contamination. These deposits could cause stickiness problems during cotton ginning and textile processing. The concept of cotton stickiness is hi...

  9. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  10. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  11. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  12. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  13. 29 CFR 780.813 - “County where cotton is grown.”

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âCounty where cotton is grown.â 780.813 Section 780.813... Employment in Ginning of Cotton and Processing of Sugar Beets, Sugar-Beet Molasses, Sugarcane, or Maple Sap... Cotton Is Grown in Commercial Quantities § 780.813 “County where cotton is grown.” For the exemption...

  14. EFFECTS OF HARVESTING AND SEED-COTTON CLEANING ON A COTTON WITH A FRAGILE SEED COAT

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seed coat fragments that remain in lint after the ginning process decrease spinning efficiency at the textile mill, and ultimately reduce the quality of finished goods. An experiment was conducted to determine the interactions between harvest and seed-cotton cleaning treatments using an upland cult...

  15. A preliminary study on gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their endotoxins in a gin house in India.

    PubMed

    Doctor, P B; Bhagia, L J; Derasari, A Y; Vyas, J B; Amin, R J; Ghosh, S K

    2006-12-01

    The presence of byssinosis, an occupational disease found among cotton mill workers, has been well documented in different parts of the world. The disease develops due to exposure to environmental cotton dust. Evidence suggests that the causative agent for the disease is gram-negative bacteria (GNB) and their endotoxins present on the cotton fibers. An investigation was carried out in a gin house in western India. Environmental dust samples were collected by vertical elutriator (VE). Airborne dust concentrations were very high in the working environment: 2.11 mg/m3 in ginning and 0.95 mg/m3 in the press department (p < 0.05), which was higher than the threshold limit value collected by VE (0.2 mg/m3), and higher than the permissible exposure limit for respirable dust (0.5 mg/m3 for nontextile industries using cotton). In the office control site, the dust concentration was 0.31 mg/m3. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration's cotton dust standard permissible exposure limit for respirable dust is 0.2 mg/m3 in yarn manufacturing, 0.75 mg/m3 in slashing and weaving, and 0.5 mg/m3 in nontextile industries using cotton. These samples also showed high concentrations of airborne endotoxin (p < 0.001) in ginning and pressing (2.77 and 1.52 micro g/m3) compared with the office control site (0.009 micro g/m3 measured by Limulus amoebocyte lysate technique). Total enumeration of airborne GNB was carried out qualitatively by the petri plate exposure method and quantitatively by an Andersen 6-stage viable sampler and VE. GNB were recovered in quite high numbers. Among all the GNB, Enterobacter agglomerans were the dominant bacterial flora. Results indicate that gin workers are occupationally exposed to airborne GNB and endotoxins, and require masks. PMID:17133691

  16. Commercial-scale evaluation of two agricultural waste products, cotton burr/stem and module wraps in thermoplastic composites and comparison with laboratory-scale results

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Laboratory-scale research had shown the potential of using cotton burr/stem (CBS) as a fiber filler in thermoplastic composites. This study evaluates the potential of using waste materials from cotton harvesting/ginning operations, CBS, and cotton module wraps (CMW) as a filler and substrate in ther...

  17. Preliminary evidence of oxidation in standard oven drying of cotton: attenuated total reflectance/ Fourier transform spectroscopy, colorimetry, and particulate matter formation

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is paramount to cotton fiber properties dictating harvesting, ginning, storage and spinning as well as others. Currently, oven drying in air is often utilized to generate the percentage of moisture in cotton fibers. Karl Fischer Titration another method for cotton moisture, has been compa...

  18. Properties of thermoplastic composites with cotton and guayule biomass residues as fiber fillers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted to evaluate the suitability of using residual plant fibers from agricultural waste streams as reinforcement in thermoplastic composites. Three groups of plant fibers evaluated included cotton burrs, sticks, and linters from cotton gin waste (CGW), guayule whole plant, and gu...

  19. Development of eco-safe and sustainable cotton-based nonwoven fabrics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The research conducted at Southern Regional Research Center, Agricultural Research Service, USDA, New Orleans, Louisiana, has identified a viable source of greige (raw) cotton that is mechanically pre-cleaned at a gin and involves no chemical, wet, or thermal treatment. The applicable cotton qualit...

  20. POPULATION DYNAMICS OF COTTON RATS ACROSS A LANDSCAPE MANIPULATED BY NITROGEN ADDITIONS AND ENCLOSURE FENCING

    EPA Science Inventory

    Nitrogen additions in grasslands have produced qualitative and quantitative changes in vegetation resulting in an increase in biomass and decrease in plant species diversity. As with plants, we theorize that animal communities will decrease in species richness and become dominat...

  1. Fiber and yarn properties from high-speed roller ginning

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study compared fiber and yarn properties from a high-speed roller gin stand, a conventional roller gin stand, and a conventional saw gin stand. The ginning treatments included three levels of lint cleaning. Four cultivars were used in the test. Emphasis will be placed on fiber length, uniformit...

  2. Cryogenically treated gin saw wear test-Second season

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This is the second year of comparative testing of crygenically treated gin saws versus standard gin saws. Paired sets of standard and experimental saws were installed in Lummus saw gin stands that were operated side by side during the 2015/2016 ginning season. Test criteria will include saw wear e...

  3. Air temperature variation across the seed cotton dryer mixpoint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Eighteen tests were conducted in six gins in the fall of 2008 to measure air temperature variation within various heated air seed cotton drying systems with the purpose of: checking validation of recommendations by a professional engineering society and measuring air temperature variation across the...

  4. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO...

  5. 29 CFR 780.804 - “Ginning” of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false âGinningâ of cotton. 780.804 Section 780.804 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued) WAGE AND HOUR DIVISION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY OR INTERPRETATION NOT DIRECTLY RELATED TO REGULATIONS EXEMPTIONS APPLICABLE TO...

  6. Effect of processing rate on seed cotton cleaning equipment performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing rate per unit width of seed cotton cleaning equipment– cylinder cleaners and stick machines– recommended by manufacturers is 4.8-8.2 bales hr-1 m-1 (1.5-2.5 bales hr-1 ft-1). Survey data has indicated that many gins exceed this processing rate. Previous research with picker-harvested ...

  7. MOISTURE IN COTTON BY THE KARL FISCHER TITRATION REFERENCE METHOD

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Moisture is a critical parameter that influences many aspects of cotton fiber from harvesting and ginning to various fiber properties. Because of their importance, reference moisture methods that are more accurate than the existing oven-drying techniques and relatively easy to generate results are ...

  8. Effect of Mechanical Actions on Cotton Fiber Quality and Foreign-Matter Particle Attachment to Cotton Fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The effects of various machine-fiber interactions during harvesting and ginning on fiber quality and attachment between foreign-matter particles and fibers were studied to develop new and less damaging methods for removing foreign-matter particles from cotton fiber. In total, the study involved 75 s...

  9. Activation of the MCM helicase from the thermophilic archaeon, Thermoplasma acidophilum by interactions with GINS and Cdc6-2.

    PubMed

    Ogino, Hiromi; Ishino, Sonoko; Haugland, Gyri Teien; Birkeland, Nils-Kåre; Kohda, Daisuke; Ishino, Yoshizumi

    2014-09-01

    In DNA replication studies, the mechanism for regulation of the various steps from initiation to elongation is a crucial subject to understand cell cycle control. The eukaryotic minichromosome maintenance (MCM) protein complex is recruited to the replication origin by Cdc6 and Cdt1 to form the pre-replication complex, and participates in forming the CMG complex formation with Cdc45 and GINS to work as the active helicase. Intriguingly, Thermoplasma acidophilum, as well as many other archaea, has only one Gins protein homolog, contrary to the heterotetramer of the eukaryotic GINS made of four different proteins. The Gins51 protein reportedly forms a homotetramer (TaGINS) and physically interacts with TaMCM. In addition, TaCdc6-2, one of the two Cdc6/Orc1 homologs in T. acidophilum reportedly stimulates the ATPase and helicase activities of TaMCM in vitro. Here, we found a reaction condition, in which TaGINS stimulated the ATPase and helicase activities of TaMCM in a concentration dependent manner. Furthermore, the stimulation of the TaMCM helicase activity by TaGINS was enhanced by the addition of TaCdc6-2. A gel retardation assay revealed that TaMCM, TaGINS, and TaCdc6-2 form a complex on ssDNA. However, glutaraldehyde-crosslinking was necessary to detect the shifted band, indicating that the ternary complex of TaMCM-TaGINS-TaCdc6-2 is not stable in vitro. Immunoprecipitation experiment supported a weak interaction of these three proteins in vivo. Activation of the replicative helicase by a mechanism including a Cdc6-like protein suggests the divergent evolution after the division into Archaea and Eukarya. PMID:25107272

  10. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions – project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation timeline for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District, has pro...

  11. Characterization of cotton gin particulate matter emissions - project plan

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In 2006, EPA implemented a more stringent standard for particulate matter with an effective diameter less than 2.5 microns (PM2.5). The implementation time line for this standard will vary by state/district regulatory agency. For example, the San Joaquin Valley Air Pollution Control District has pro...

  12. The gin epidemic: much ado about what?

    PubMed

    Abel, E L

    2001-01-01

    While there is no doubt that the era of the 'gin epidemic' was associated with poverty and social unrest, the surge in gin drinking was localized to London and was a concomitant, not the cause, of these problems. The two main underlying social problems were widespread overcrowding and poverty. The former was related to an unprecedented migration of people from the country to London. The latter stemmed from an economic ideology called 'poverty theory', whose basic premise was that, by keeping the 'inferior order' in poverty, English goods would be competitive and would remain that way since workers would be completely dependent on their employers. Widespread overcrowding and poverty led to societal unrest which manifested itself in increased drunkenness when cheap gin became available after Parliament did away with former distilling monopolies that had kept prices high. Reformers ignored the social causes of this unrest and, instead, focused on gin drinking by the poor which they feared was endangering England's wealth and security by enfeebling its labour force, and reducing its manpower by decreasing its population. Part of this hostility was also related to gin itself. While drunkenness was often spoken of affectionately when it was induced by beer, England's national drink, gin was considered a foreign drink, and therefore less acceptable. These concerns were voiced less often after the passage of the Tippling Act of 1751, which resulted in an increase in gin prices and decreased consumption. However, the second half of the century was also a period in which England's military victory over the French gave it new wealth and power, which dispelled upper-class fears about an enfeebled and dissolute working class. It was also an era when new public health measures, such as mass inoculation against smallpox, and a decrease in the marrying age, led to a population increase that dispelled reformist fears about manpower shortages. The conclusion is that, while the lower

  13. EVALUATING A FIBERGLASS ROLLER COVERING ON A ROLLER GIN STAND

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental roller covering, made from woven fiberglass, was tested on a roller gin stand to evaluate its ginning performance and effect on fiber quality. The experimental roller covering was much more aggressive than the standard covering; it ginned at twice the rate (2.4 vs. 1.2 bales per hour...

  14. Yield and fiber quality of five pairs of near-isogenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) lines expressing the fuzzless/linted and fuzzy/linted seed phenotypes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fuzzless cotton often has traits desirable to the cotton industry, including longer fibers, reduced short fiber content, fewer neps, and improved ginning efficiency. This two-year field study described yield and fiber properties of five pairs of fuzzy and fuzzless near-isogenic lines, developed from...

  15. Combining ability for neps seed coat fragments and motes in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Minimizing neppiness, i.e., neps, seed coat fragments, and motes, in ginned cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fibers is one of the keys to keep U.S. fibers competitive in global market. Forty-eight F2 hybrids derived from crosses between 12 exotic germplasm lines (male parents), i.e., 6 Species Polycr...

  16. Preliminary study of NIR model transfer in the determination of cotton trash components

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To assess the potential of a rapid and low-cost method that can be used, away from the laboratory, in places such as ginning sites, near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy has been applied to perform the qualitative classification and quantitative prediction of various cotton quality indices, including cot...

  17. Evaluation of seed cotton cleaning equipment performance at various processing rates

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The processing rate per unit width of seed cotton cleaning equipment– cylinder cleaners and stick machines– recommended by manufacturers is 4.9-8.2 bales hr-1 m-1 (1.5-2.5 bales hr-1 ft-1). Survey data has indicated that many gins exceed this processing rate. Little research has been conducted wit...

  18. Fourier-Transform Infrared Spectroscopy Analysis of Modified Cotton Trash Extracts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In a previous study, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) was utilized in identifying different types of botanical cotton trash as each was subjected to simulations of ginning and textile processing. Changes in the infrared spectra that occurred after heat treatment indicated that the nee...

  19. Superoleophobic cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Leng, Boxun; Shao, Zhengzhong; de With, Gijsbertus; Ming, Weihua

    2009-02-17

    Common cotton textiles are hydrophilic and oleophilic in nature. Superhydrophobic cotton textiles have the potential to be used as self-cleaning fabrics, but they typically are not super oil-repellent. Poor oil repellency may easily compromise the self-cleaning property of these fabrics. Here, we report on the preparation of superoleophobic cotton textiles based on a multilength-scale structure, as demonstrated by a high hexadecane contact angle (153 degrees for 5 microL droplets) and low roll-off angle (9 degrees for 20 microL droplets). The multilength-scale roughness was based on the woven structure, with additional two layers of silica particles (microparticles and nanoparticles, respectively) covalently bonded to the fiber. Superoleophobicity was successfully obtained by incorporating perfluoroalkyl groups onto the surface of the modified cotton. It proved to be essential to add the nanoparticle layer in achieving superoleophobicity, especially in terms of low roll-off angles for hexadecane. PMID:19199744

  20. Byssinosis in ginning factories of rural Sindh.

    PubMed

    Aziz, S; Lodi, T Z; Alam, S E

    1992-10-01

    Frequency of byssinosis in 276 workers from 5 ginning factories of rural Sindh are described. Twenty-four (9%) had byssinosis, 178 were asymptomatic and the remaining 74 had other respiratory symptoms. Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease was present both in symptomatic and asymptomatic workers and was equally distributed amongst smokers and non-smokers. A possible involvement of some factors other than cigarette smoking is discussed. PMID:1469765

  1. Status of the global cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cultivated Gossypium spp. (cotton) represents the single most important, natural fiber crop in the world. In addition to its fiber, the oil and protein portion of the cottonseed also represents significant economic value. To protect the world-wide economic value of cotton fiber and cotton byprod...

  2. Fundamental research on spiking, recovery and understanding seed coat nep counts in AFIS analysis of pre-opened cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Understanding seed coat fragment (SCF) spiking results in Advanced Fiber Information Systems (AFIS) analysis of seed coat neps (SCN) in ginned cottons was confounded by side processes in the system such as particle crushing that results in inflated recoveries. A high degree of machine (AFIS)-fiber ...

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. GINS: a multi-GNSS software to track small geodetic signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perosanz, F.; Loyer, S.; Marty, J.; Fund, F.; Portier, L.; Bracher, G.; Mercier, F.; Capdeville, H.; Lemoine, J.; Biancale, R.

    2011-12-01

    GINS is a scientific tool which is being developed by the Centre National d'Etudes Spatiales (CNES) and Groupe de Recherches de Géodésie Spatiale (GRGS) for more than 40 years for geodetic applications like global gravity field modeling and reference frame realization. Most recent developments include zero-difference GPS phase ambiguity resolution capability which offers the unique opportunity to track an isolated GNSS receiver using a "Precise Point Positioning" (PPP) approach with a centimeter level accuracy. In addition and in preparation to the Galileo system deployment, the capability to process GIOVE data has been implemented. GINS is also daily operated by CNES and Collecte Localisation Satellite (CLS) to deliver precise GPS and GLONASS orbit and clock products to the International GNSS Service (IGS) as an Analysis Center. The GINS multi-GNSS capabilities will be illustrated through various high accuracy applications like GPS, GIOVE and GLONASS satellites orbit determination and multi-GNSS high-rate PPP for loading or tectonic displacements detection.

  5. Continued research on gin saw tooth design

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Toothed saws have been used to separate cotton fiber from the seed for over 200 years. There have been many saw tooth designs developed over the years. Most of these designs were developed by trial and error. A complete and scientific analysis of tooth design has never been published. It is not know...

  6. Stimulation of DNA inversion by FIS: evidence for enhancer-independent contacts with the Gin-gix complex.

    PubMed Central

    Deufel, A; Hermann, T; Kahmann, R; Muskhelishvili, G

    1997-01-01

    Efficient DNA inversion catalysed by the invertase Gin requires the cis-acting recombinational enhancer and the Escherichia coliFIS protein. Binding of FIS bends the enhancer DNA and, on a negatively supercoiled DNA inversion substrate, facilitates the formation of a synaptic complex with specific topology. Previous studies have indicated that FIS-independent Gin mutants can be isolated which have lost the topological constraints imposed on the inversion reaction yet remain sensitive to the stimulatory effect of FIS. Whether the effect of FIS is purely architectural, or whether in addition direct protein contacts between Gin and FIS are required for efficient catalysis has remained an unresolved question. Here we show that FIS mutants impaired in DNA binding are capable of either positively or negatively affecting the inversion reaction both in vivo and in vitro. We further demonstrate that the mutant protein FIS K25E/V66A/M67T dramatically enhances the cleavage of recombination sites by FIS-independent Gin in an enhancer-independent manner. Our observations suggest that FIS plays a dual role in the inversion reaction and stimulates both the assembly of the synaptic complex as well as DNA strand cleavage. PMID:9380505

  7. Cotton Harvesting

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting is performed in the US using either a spindle picker or brush-roll stripper. This presentation discusses the environmental, economic, geographic, and cultivar specific reasons behind a grower's choice to use either machine. The development of each machine system was discussed. A...

  8. Survival of variola virus in raw cotton

    PubMed Central

    MacCallum, F. O.; McDonald, J. R.

    1957-01-01

    An investigation was carried out to establish the survival period of variola virus in relation to its importation into Great Britain in raw cotton. Under the conditions of the experiments described here, variola virus in scabs from a single patient survived for a maximum of three to four months at a relative humidity of 58, and for only two to four months at 30°C and humidities of 73 and 84. Exposed virus in the form of vesicle fluid in capillaries did not survive for three months at this temperature in any of these humidities. These results suggest that variola virus in scabs or seeds in tropical climates—i.e., at temperatures of from 30°C to 40°C or higher—is unlikely to survive for as long as six months. Thus, if the period of storage of cotton were at least six months after ginning and before shipment from cotton-producing countries in the tropics where smallpox is endemic, the chances of importation of viable variola virus on raw cotton into areas free from infection would be very small. However, if cotton can become contaminated with smallpox scabs in temperate climates (20°-25°C) or is already contaminated when imported at this temperature, the experiments indicate that a few particles of virus may survive for as long as 18 months. The virus can, of course, survive for many years, ten or more, at from 4°C to 5°C in closed tubes or bottles, with little decrease in titre. PMID:13426756

  9. Integrative functional genomics analysis of sustained polyploidy phenotypes in breast cancer cells identifies an oncogenic profile for GINS2.

    PubMed

    Rantala, Juha K; Edgren, Henrik; Lehtinen, Laura; Wolf, Maija; Kleivi, Kristine; Vollan, Hans Kristian Moen; Aaltola, Anna-Riina; Laasola, Petra; Kilpinen, Sami; Saviranta, Petri; Iljin, Kristiina; Kallioniemi, Olli

    2010-11-01

    Aneuploidy is among the most obvious differences between normal and cancer cells. However, mechanisms contributing to development and maintenance of aneuploid cell growth are diverse and incompletely understood. Functional genomics analyses have shown that aneuploidy in cancer cells is correlated with diffuse gene expression signatures and aneuploidy can arise by a variety of mechanisms, including cytokinesis failures, DNA endoreplication, and possibly through polyploid intermediate states. To identify molecular processes contributing to development of aneuploidy, we used a cell spot microarray technique to identify genes inducing polyploidy and/or allowing maintenance of polyploid cell growth in breast cancer cells. Of 5760 human genes screened, 177 were found to induce severe DNA content alterations on prolonged transient silencing. Association with response to DNA damage stimulus and DNA repair was found to be the most enriched cellular processes among the candidate genes. Functional validation analysis of these genes highlighted GINS2 as the highest ranking candidate inducing polyploidy, accumulation of endogenous DNA damage, and impairing cell proliferation on inhibition. The cell growth inhibition and induction of polyploidy by suppression of GINS2 was verified in a panel of breast cancer cell lines. Bioinformatic analysis of published gene expression and DNA copy number studies of clinical breast tumors suggested GINS2 to be associated with the aggressive characteristics of a subgroup of breast cancers in vivo. In addition, nuclear GINS2 protein levels distinguished actively proliferating cancer cells suggesting potential use of GINS2 staining as a biomarker of cell proliferation as well as a potential therapeutic target. PMID:21082043

  10. DESIGN OF EXPERIMENTS OPTIMIZATION STUDY ON THE POWERED ROLL GIN STAND - REPORT II

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The powered roll gin stand has been evaluated in numerous studies in regards to increases in lint turnout and ginning rate without adversely affecting fiber quality properties. In some cases, improvements in fiber quality over conventional gin stands were noted. However, the question remained as to ...

  11. 29 CFR 780.806 - Exempt ginning limited to first processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Exempt ginning limited to first processing. 780.806 Section... for Market § 780.806 Exempt ginning limited to first processing. As indicated in § 780.804, the ginning for which the exemption is intended is the first processing of the agricultural commodity,...

  12. 29 CFR 780.806 - Exempt ginning limited to first processing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exempt ginning limited to first processing. 780.806 Section... for Market § 780.806 Exempt ginning limited to first processing. As indicated in § 780.804, the ginning for which the exemption is intended is the first processing of the agricultural commodity,...

  13. CottonDB: Cotton Genome Database

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) is the first and most comprehensive source of cotton genome information. CottonDB is maintained at the Southern Plains Agricultural Research Center in College Station, TX. The project includes a website and database creating a repository of information for over 355,000 ...

  14. Genetic Diversity of Natural Crossing in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    We have shown previously genetic diversity in mature cotton pollen sensitivity to low humidity. This study investigated the impact of pollen sensitivity to low humidity on the amount of outcrossing to neighboring plants. We utilized “red” and “green” pigmented cotton, in addition to gossypol glan...

  15. Dictionary of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is an essential commodity for textiles and has long been an important item of trade in the world’s economy. Cotton is currently grown in over 100 countries by an estimated 100 producers. The basic unit of the cotton trade is the cotton bale which consists of approximately 500 pounds of raw c...

  16. Effecting Affection: The Corporeal Ethics of Gins and Arakawa

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bearn, Gordon C. F.

    2010-01-01

    This paper argues for the educational relevance of the apparently unbelievable project of the architects Arakawa and Gins to design houses that would grant their inhabitants immortality. First, the author demonstrates that, broadly conceived, this is a familiar philosophical project, perhaps "the" philosophical project. He then produces a reading…

  17. Byssinosis in the Cotton Industry of Egypt

    PubMed Central

    Batawi, Mostafa A. El

    1962-01-01

    An epidemiological investigation in 11 ginneries representing the ginning industry in Egypt demonstrated the existence of byssinosis among 38·4% of the workers. Studies of two pressing plants and two card-rooms in Alexandria showed a prevalence of byssinosis of 52·6% and 26·6% respectively. The ages of those exposed and the duration of exposure were considered in relation to the prevalence of byssinosis, and it appears that a short duration of exposure in ginning may result in early manifestations of byssinosis at a relatively young age. The interruption of exposure due to seasonal activity in ginning and partially in pressing resulted in a higher proportion of workers with the early stages of the disease. This contrasted with results in carding where exposure is continuous, and a higher proportion of workers have later stages of the disease. This suggests a delay in the progress of the disease due to periodic interruption of exposure. The comparison between the prevalence of byssinosis and that of chronic bronchitis has shown that these diseases are not necessarily associated, although additional stress due to dust exposure in chronic bronchitis is not denied. PMID:13875361

  18. Evaluation of mechanical prototype machines for continuous separation of respirable cotton dust fractions.

    PubMed Central

    DeLuca, L B

    1986-01-01

    The original cotton particulates analyzer used stationary screens to separate aerodynamically the coarse and fine dust fractions from small samples of cotton. By replacing stationary with rotary screens that were continuously cleaned, larger supplies of respirable dust were obtained without interruption. A ginned and a waste cotton were used to test two methods of separation: a rotating 38-micron screen and a tandem rotating 710- or 38- micron screen and cyclone. The fine dust fractions from both systems were captured on filters and examined gravimetrically, by Coulter counter, and scanning electron microscope. The dust passing 38 micron stationary or rotary screens contained particles of 15 micron maximum diameter whereas dust from the 710-gmm rotary screen and tandem cyclone exhibited particles of 10 micron maximum diameter and lint fragments. Dust fractions with particles less than 10 micron diameter and free of lint were obtained with a 38-micron rotary screen and tandem cyclone. Images FIGURE 4. a FIGURE 4. b PMID:3709481

  19. Smart textiles: Tough cotton

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avila, Alba G.; Hinestroza, Juan P.

    2008-08-01

    Cotton is an important raw material for producing soft textiles and clothing. Recent discoveries in functionalizing cotton fibres with nanotubes may offer a new line of tough, wearable, smart and interactive garments.

  20. Nematode Management in Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The five most important cotton-producing countries are China, United States, India, Pakistan, and Brazil. There are many other important cotton producing regions in Asia, Australia, Africa, and the Americas. Cotton is grown entirely in tropical, subtropical, and warm-temperature climates, and the ...

  1. Dictionary of Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The Dictionary of Cotton has over 2,000 terms and definitions that were compiled by 33 researchers. It reflects the ongoing commitment of the International Cotton Advisory Committee, through its Technical Information Section, to the spread of knowledge about cotton to all those who have an interest ...

  2. CottonDB enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (www.cottondb.org) was initiated in 1995. It is a database that contains genomic, genetic, and taxonomic information for cotton (Gossypium spp.). It serves both as an archival database and as a dynamic database, which incorporates new data and user resources. CottonDB is maintained at th...

  3. Recovering tag fiber from cottonseed using the power roll gin

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the mid-1990s, Cotton Incorporated and the USDA-ARS Cotton Production and Processing Research Unit developed a process that became known as EasiFlo™ cottonseed (Patent #5,750,466; Issued May 12, 1998). This process involves the application of gelatinized starch to the surface of fuzzy cottonseed,...

  4. Evaluating EPA’s AP-42 development methodology using a cotton gin total PM dataset

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In August 2013, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency’s (EPA) published their new methodology for updating the Compilation of Air Pollution Emission Factors (AP-42). The “Recommended Procedures for Development of Emissions Factors and Use of the WebFIRE Database” has yet to be widely used. These ...

  5. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    .... Ground driven components are components which are powered by the turning motion of a wheel as the... specified, each guard and its supports shall be capable of withstanding the force that a 250 pound... section if any employee may be exposed to them while the drives are in motion. (3) Functional...

  6. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    .... Ground driven components are components which are powered by the turning motion of a wheel as the... specified, each guard and its supports shall be capable of withstanding the force that a 250 pound... section if any employee may be exposed to them while the drives are in motion. (3) Functional...

  7. A novel filler for natural fiber polymer composites from cotton gin waste

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The natural fiber polymer composites market has significantly grown in the last decade. The majority of these composites are manufactured using wood flour as a principal component. The price and availability of quality wood flour is uncertain in several markets, therefore there is a great potential ...

  8. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... leading edge of the rotating member of the gathering mechanism. The guard shall be parallel to, and extend... the power. (ii) All circuit protection devices, including those which are an integral part of a...

  9. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... leading edge of the rotating member of the gathering mechanism. The guard shall be parallel to, and extend... the power. (ii) All circuit protection devices, including those which are an integral part of a...

  10. 29 CFR 1928.57 - Guarding of farm field equipment, farmstead equipment, and cotton gins.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... leading edge of the rotating member of the gathering mechanism. The guard shall be parallel to, and extend... the power. (ii) All circuit protection devices, including those which are an integral part of a...

  11. Evaluating cotton stripper field performance

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton strippers are used primarily in the Southern High Plains due to the specific cotton varieties grown. Typically, cotton strippers cost about two-thirds the price of a cotton picker and range from one-half to one-fourth the horsepower. A cotton stripper also has a higher field and harvesting ef...

  12. Effect of GINS2 on Proliferation and Apoptosis in Leukemic Cell Line

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xi; Zhong, Liang; Liu, Bei-Zhong; Gao, Yan-Jun; Gao, Yuan-Mei; Hu, Xiu-Xiu

    2013-01-01

    Although previous researches have demonstrated that GINS2 express abundantly and abnormally in many malignant solid tumors, such as breast cancer, melanoma and hepatic carcinoma. However, the role and precise molecular mechanism in acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL) are rarely reported. In this current study, we investigated the possible effect and particular mechanism of GINS2 in occurrence and development of APL. We synthesized interference plasmid targeted GINS2 successfully in vitro and also constructed recombinant adenovirus vector carrying GINS2 gene in order to down-regulate or up-regulate GINS2 expression from two aspects of positive and negative in APL. After siRNA were transfected into HL60 cells, both GINS2 expression level of mRNA and protein in interfering group were down-regulated when compared with control groups. Together, MTT and flow cytometry technology showed that cell growth was significantly inhibited. Moreover, the expression lever of Bax was distinctly increased whereas Bcl2 was dramatically decreased in transfected group. Further experiments revealed that down-regulation of GINS2 expression inhibited DNA replication and had a G2/M phase block in HL60 cells. What's more, ATM, CHK2, and P53 gene could involve in the pathogenic signaling pathways of HL60 cells when GINS2 gene was down-regulated. On the contrary, after HL60 cells were infected by recombinant adenovirus vector which contained GINS2 gene, we observed that over-expression of GINS2 could promote HL-60 cell proliferation. What's more, GINS2 might implicate a potential target for leukemia gene therapy. PMID:24273454

  13. Heterotic effects in topcrosses of modern and obsolete cotton cultivars

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, re-selection, pedigree, and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). As a result, modern cotton cultivars should have accumulated additive genetic effects over time, while also possessing fewer non-additive g...

  14. 7 CFR 28.907 - Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses. 28.907 Section 28.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.907 Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses....

  15. 7 CFR 28.907 - Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses. 28.907 Section 28.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.907 Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses....

  16. 7 CFR 28.907 - Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses. 28.907 Section 28.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.907 Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses....

  17. 7 CFR 28.907 - Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses. 28.907 Section 28.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.907 Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses....

  18. 7 CFR 28.907 - Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses. 28.907 Section 28.907 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture AGRICULTURAL MARKETING... News Service for Producers Sampling § 28.907 Responsibilities of licensed gins or warehouses....

  19. Ecoinformatics Reveals Effects of Crop Rotational Histories on Cotton Yield

    PubMed Central

    Meisner, Matthew H.; Rosenheim, Jay A.

    2014-01-01

    Crop rotation has been practiced for centuries in an effort to improve agricultural yield. However, the directions, magnitudes, and mechanisms of the yield effects of various crop rotations remain poorly understood in many systems. In order to better understand how crop rotation influences cotton yield, we used hierarchical Bayesian models to analyze a large ecoinformatics database consisting of records of commercial cotton crops grown in California's San Joaquin Valley. We identified several crops that, when grown in a field the year before a cotton crop, were associated with increased or decreased cotton yield. Furthermore, there was a negative association between the effect of the prior year's crop on June densities of the pest Lygus hesperus and the effect of the prior year's crop on cotton yield. This suggested that some crops may enhance L. hesperus densities in the surrounding agricultural landscape, because residual L. hesperus populations from the previous year cannot continuously inhabit a focal field and attack a subsequent cotton crop. In addition, we found that cotton yield declined approximately 2.4% for each additional year in which cotton was grown consecutively in a field prior to the focal cotton crop. Because L. hesperus is quite mobile, the effects of crop rotation on L. hesperus would likely not be revealed by small plot experimentation. These results provide an example of how ecoinformatics datasets, which capture the true spatial scale of commercial agriculture, can be used to enhance agricultural productivity. PMID:24465657

  20. 5. Interior of second floor of Dixie Cotton Mill, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Interior of second floor of Dixie Cotton Mill, view facing east. Again note the change in column type and roof structure from the 1913 addition (foreground) to a portion of the original 1895 structure (background). - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  1. Quantification and characterization of cotton crop biomass residue

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton crop residual biomass remaining in the field after mechanical seed cotton harvest is not typically harvested and utilized off-site thereby generating additional revenue for producers. Recently, interest has increased in utilizing biomass materials as feedstock for the production of fuel and ...

  2. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inte...

  3. Cotton-based nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This article is an abbreviated description of a new cotton-based nonwovens research program at the Southern Regional Research Center, which is one of the four regional research centers of the Agricultural Research Service, U.S. Department of Agriculture. Since cotton is a significant cash crop inter...

  4. CottonDB Enhancement

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The cotton genome database, CottonDB, was developed under a United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Agricultural Research Service (ARS) project as part of a national program to develop plant genome databases for all agricultural commodities. This first and most extensively used database for ...

  5. Agrometeorology and cotton production

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is a deciduous, indeterminate perennial plant that is cultivated as an annual in modern production systems. While the amount of time that the ambient air temperature remains within an optimum range (approximately 15.5 to 32.2 degrees C) is a principal factor determining the pace of cotton gr...

  6. COTTON TRASH CONSTITUENTS

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A series of cotton plant trash samples were sequentially extracted using toluene, methanol, propanol, and water to detect botanical differences. The United States currently produces around 20 million bales of cotton that is subsequently classed (length, strength, fineness, color, and trash) for mar...

  7. Superhydrophobic antibacterial cotton textiles.

    PubMed

    Shateri Khalil-Abad, Mohammad; Yazdanshenas, Mohammad E

    2010-11-01

    We present a facile and effective method to prepare superhydrophobic cotton textiles. Silver particles were produced on cotton fibers by treatment with aqueous KOH and AgNO(3), followed by reduction treatment with ascorbic acid in the presence of a polymeric steric stabilizer to generate a dual-size surface roughness. Further modification of the particle-containing cotton textiles with octyltriethoxysilane led to hydrophobic surfaces. Surfaces prepared showed a sticky property, which exhibits a static water contact angle of 151 degrees for a 10 microL droplet that water drop did not slid off even when the sample was held upside down. The modified cotton has potent antibacterial activity toward both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The Ag particles were uniformly and stably distributed on the substrate surface and killed bacteria. These modified cotton textiles are potentially useful; as superhydrophobic antibacterial fabrics in a wide variety of biomedical and general use applications. PMID:20709327

  8. Cotton source/sink relationships

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Metabolite source/sink relationships govern assimilate partitioning, developmental rates and fruit abscission in cotton. This subject is, therefore, of primary importance in the improvement of cotton plant types and in cotton culture. Historically, cotton has been among the most valuable of agrono...

  9. Electrical insulated paper from cotton linter.

    PubMed

    El-Saied, Houssni; El-Meligy, Magda G; Mohamed, Samar H; El-Mongy, S Abd

    2012-09-01

    Insulated paper had been prepared from cotton linter containing certain additives. Strength properties had been studied for all paper prepared from cotton linter, before and after impregnating in the linseed oil. Also, the dielectric constant (έ) and AC electrical conductivity with frequencies over the range (100 kHz to 3 MHz) and at different temperatures were studied. Blended cotton linter with glass fiber or polyester fiber increased the dielectric constant. Since the glass fibers lowered the power factor from 0.63 to 0.28% and enhanced dielectric constant. The addition of hydrophilic fibers such as rayon or polyester fiber can be made paper of low porosity, low density and high dielectric resistance. Also, the addition of lead sulphate improved dielectric constant of paper since it has dielectric coefficient >20. The dielectric constant in sample which dipped in oil is higher than the sample without oil. PMID:24751023

  10. Effects of heterosis in Upland cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Historically, re-selection, pedigree, and mass selection breeding methods have been used to develop open-pollinated cultivars of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.). As a result, modern cultivars should have accumulated additive genetic effects over time, while also possessing fewer non-additive gene eff...

  11. Heliothis virescens and Bt cotton in the United States.

    PubMed

    Blanco, Carlos A

    2012-01-01

    The tobacco budworm (TBW), Heliothis virescens (F.), has been responsible for substantial economic losses, environmental pollution and a great challenge to the United States' economy, environment, researchers and cotton and tobacco producers during most of the past two hundred years. If a historical description of this pest problem should be written, it would necessarily be divided into two main events; the pre- and post-Bacillus thuringiensis-expressing (Bt)-cotton era. Before the advent of Bt-cotton, TBW had evolved resistance to most commercial insecticides, making cotton cultivation unfeasible at some point. Subsequently, a variety of clever control measures were developed in an effort to develop more sustainable integrated pest management programs. Without a doubt, Bt-cotton, transformed to produce insecticidal proteins from the soil borne bacterium, B. thuringiensis, is now one of the most important elements of TBW management in US cotton. This discussion could be quite short stating that Bt-cotton has produced an unprecedented level of control for TBW, but beyond this, it is important to note the additional impacts around the argument that Bt-cotton has likely reduced TBW populations over large areas-due to its high efficacy-to the low densities observed today. Cotton area suitable for TBW development has been reduced to ~40% of its pre Bt-cotton years and certainly may be another primary force behind this decline. However, the way we have detected this decline relies mostly on observations made in cotton fields, as well as males trapped in pheromone traps near cotton; these monitoring tools may not fully reflect TBW population levels at the landscape level. My argument supports what has been postulated before that TBW may be in the process of differentiating into "host races" and the cotton host race, once the most abundant in the environment, may be the one greatly affected by this habitat modification now dominated by Bt-cotton, while the other host races

  12. Production of cellulosic ethanol from cotton processing residues after pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide and enzymatic hydrolysis.

    PubMed

    Fockink, Douglas Henrique; Maceno, Marcelo Adriano Corrêa; Ramos, Luiz Pereira

    2015-01-01

    In this study, production of cellulosic ethanol from two cotton processing residues was investigated after pretreatment with dilute sodium hydroxide. Pretreatment performance was investigated using a 2(2) factorial design and the highest glucan conversion was achieved at the most severe alkaline conditions (0.4g NaOH g(-1) of dry biomass and 120°C), reaching 51.6% and 38.8% for cotton gin waste (CGW) and cotton gin dust (CGD), respectively. The susceptibility of pretreated substrates to enzymatic hydrolysis was also investigated and the best condition was achieved at the lowest total solids (5wt%) and the highest enzyme loading (85mg of Cellic CTec2 g(-1) of dry substrate). However, the highest concentration of fermentable sugars - 47.8 and 42.5gL(-1) for CGD and CGW, respectively - was obtained at 15wt% total solids using this same enzyme loading. Substrate hydrolysates had no inhibitory effects on the fermenting microorganism. PMID:25841187

  13. Cotton and its interaction with cotton morphology

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The morphological plasticity of the cotton plant enables it to be produced in a wide variety of agro-ecological regions (Oosterhuis and Jernstedt 1999). This plasticity essentially translates to the lengthening, shortening, or interruption of its effective flowering period in response to season leng...

  14. ALTERNATIVE COTTON HARVEST PREPARATION

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Organic production practices, urban encroachment and the presence of certain protected crops on adjacent fields presently restrict the use of defoliant chemicals in some cotton acreage. New legislation or stricter interpretation of existing environmental regulations may greatly increase the amount ...

  15. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  16. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.304 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.304 Section 1205.304 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.304 Cotton. Cotton means: (a) All Upland cotton...

  20. Cotton and Protein Interactions

    SciTech Connect

    Goheen, Steven C.; Edwards, J. V.; Rayburn, Alfred R.; Gaither, Kari A.; Castro, Nathan J.

    2006-06-30

    The adsorbent properties of important wound fluid proteins and cotton cellulose are reviewed. This review focuses on the adsorption of albumin to cotton-based wound dressings and some chemically modified derivatives targeted for chronic wounds. Adsorption of elastase in the presence of albumin was examined as a model to understand the interactive properties of these wound fluid components with cotton fibers. In the chronic non-healing wound, elastase appears to be over-expressed, and it digests tissue and growth factors, interfering with the normal healing process. Albumin is the most prevalent protein in wound fluid, and in highly to moderately exudative wounds, it may bind significantly to the fibers of wound dressings. Thus, the relative binding properties of both elastase and albumin to wound dressing fibers are of interest in the design of more effective wound dressings. The present work examines the binding of albumin to two different derivatives of cotton, and quantifies the elastase binding to the same derivatives following exposure of albumin to the fiber surface. An HPLC adsorption technique was employed coupled with a colorimetric enzyme assay to quantify the relative binding properties of albumin and elastase to cotton. The results of wound protein binding are discussed in relation to the porosity and surface chemistry interactions of cotton and wound proteins. Studies are directed to understanding the implications of protein adsorption phenomena in terms of fiber-protein models that have implications for rationally designing dressings for chronic wounds.

  1. Quantitative analysis of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) lint trash by fluorescence spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Gamble, Gary R; Foulk, Jonn A

    2007-06-27

    The presence of cotton plant botanical components, or trash, embedded in lint subsequent to harvesting and ginning is an important criterion in the classification of baled cotton by the U.S. Department of Agriculture Agricultural Marketing Service. The trash particles may be reduced in size to the point that specific trash types are not identifiable by image or gravimetric analysis, and it is desirable to quantify different trash types so that processing lines may be optimized for removal of the most problematic trash to enhance processing performance and cotton lint quality. Currently, there are no methods available to adequately quantify cotton lint trash based on botanical origin. The present work attempts to address this issue through the analysis by fluorescence spectroscopy of dimethyl sulfoxide extracts of mixtures of six botanical trash types. The fluorescence data are subsequently subjected to chemometric analysis. The resulting 6 partial least-squares calibration models obtained from 128 mixtures are demonstrated in the case of leaf and hull to be capable of predicting individual trash component concentrations with a high degree of confidence. PMID:17536818

  2. 43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    43. COTTON VACUUM, WHICH WAS USED TO MOVE COTTON INTO PICKER ROOM. 2nd FLOOR PICKER ROOM, MILL NO. 2. - Prattville Manufacturing Company, Number One, 242 South Court Street, Prattville, Autauga County, AL

  3. Temporal and spatial simulation of production-scale irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Site-specific management of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) cropping systems at the production-scale requires information regarding interactions between soil, plant, weather, and agronomic inputs. Management decisions regarding the spatially and temporally variable addition of agronomic inputs are most ...

  4. CottonDB: A database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB, established in 1995, was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. The goal of CottonDB is to serve both as an archival and a dynamic database that incorporates data from all major categories of genetic and genomic information created by the cotton research commu...

  5. CottonDB: A resource for cotton genome research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonDB (http://cottondb.org/) is a database and web resource for cotton genomic and genetic research. Created in 1995, CottonDB was among the first plant genome databases established by the USDA-ARS. Accessed through a website interface, the database aims to be a convenient, inclusive medium of ...

  6. Mining cotton germplasm resources to fight Cotton Leaf Curl Virus

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CLCuV (Cotton Leaf Curl Virus) is a major threat to cotton production in Pakistan and parts of India and has been reported in cotton producing countries in Africa, as well as China and Uzbekistan. Identifying sources of resistance to CLCuV helps not only countries such as Pakistan where the virus is...

  7. Genetic variation for agronomic and fiber quality traits in a population derived from high-quality cotton germplasm

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Genetic improvement of fiber quality is necessary to meet the requirements of processors and users of cotton fiber. To foster genetic improvement of cotton fiber quality, adequate genetic variation for the quantitatively inherited physical properties of cotton is required. Additionally, knowledge of...

  8. Cotton fields drive elephant habitat fragmentation in the Mid Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sibanda, Mbulisi; Murwira, Amon

    2012-10-01

    In this study we tested whether cotton fields contribute more than cereal fields to African elephant (Loxodonta africana) habitat loss through its effects on woodland fragmentation in the Mid-Zambezi Valley, Zimbabwe. In order to test this hypothesis, we first mapped cotton and cereal fields using MODIS remotely sensed data. Secondly, we analysed the effect of the area of cotton and cereal fields on woodland fragmentation using regression analysis. We then related the fragmentation indices, particularly edge density with elephant distribution data to test whether elephant distribution was significantly related with woodland fragmentation resulting from cotton fields. Our results showed that cotton fields contributed more to woodland fragmentation than cereal fields. In addition, results showed that the frequency of the African elephant increased where cotton fields were many and small relative to cereal fields. We concluded that cotton fields are the main driver of woodland fragmentation and therefore elephant habitat in the Mid-Zambezi Valley compared with cereal fields.

  9. Picking Cotton - and Nothing Else

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The picking of cotton by mechanical means includes the collection of extensive foreign matter that seriously affects the cotton grade and thus the price per bale. Rapid identification of the nature of the extraneous matter in cotton at each stage of cleaning and processing is necessary to permit act...

  10. Advancements in Cotton Harvesting Research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvesting research within USDA ARS is focused on improving harvest productivity, cotton quality, and producer profitability. In recent years, our work has encompassed efforts to improve both spindle picker and brush-roll stripper harvesting systems. Specifically, work with cotton pickers i...

  11. Cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Rathore, Keerti S; Campbell, LeAnne M; Sherwood, Shanna; Nunes, Eugenia

    2015-01-01

    Cotton continues to be a crop of great economic importance in many developing and some developed countries. Cotton plants expressing the Bt gene to deter some of the major pests have been enthusiastically and widely accepted by the farmers in three of the major producing countries, i.e., China, India, and the USA. Considering the constraints related to its production and the wide variety of products derived from the cotton plant, it offers several target traits that can be improved through genetic engineering. Thus, there is a great need to accelerate the application of biotechnological tools for cotton improvement. This requires a simple, yet robust gene delivery/transformant recovery system. Recently, a protocol, involving large-scale, mechanical isolation of embryonic axes from germinating cottonseeds followed by direct transformation of the meristematic cells has been developed by an industrial laboratory. However, complexity of the mechanical device and the patent restrictions are likely to keep this method out of reach of most academic laboratories. In this chapter, we describe the method developed in our laboratory that has undergone further refinements and involves Agrobacterium-mediated transformation of cotton cells, selection of stable transgenic callus lines, and recovery of plants via somatic embryogenesis. PMID:25416245

  12. Frequent Occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cotton Leaf Curl Disease Affected Cotton in Pakistan

    PubMed Central

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-e-Ali; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Brian E.; Scheffler, Jodi A.; Briddon, Rob W.; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major biotic constraint to cotton production on the Indian subcontinent, and is caused by monopartite begomoviruses accompanied by a specific DNA satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Since the breakdown of resistance against CLCuD in 2001/2002, only one virus, the “Burewala” strain of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV-Bur), and a recombinant form of CLCuMB have consistently been identified in cotton across the major cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Unusually a bipartite isolate of the begomovirus Tomato leaf curl virus was identified in CLCuD-affected cotton recently. In the study described here we isolated the bipartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from CLCuD-affected cotton. To assess the frequency and geographic occurrence of ToLCNDV in cotton, CLCuD-symptomatic cotton plants were collected from across the Punjab and Sindh provinces between 2013 and 2015. Analysis of the plants by diagnostic PCR showed the presence of CLCuKoV-Bur in all 31 plants examined and ToLCNDV in 20 of the samples. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the levels of the two viruses in co-infected plants suggests that coinfection of ToLCNDV with the CLCuKoV-Bur/CLCuMB complex leads to an increase in the levels of CLCuMB, which encodes the major pathogenicity (symptom) determinant of the complex. The significance of these results are discussed. PMID:27213535

  13. Frequent Occurrence of Tomato Leaf Curl New Delhi Virus in Cotton Leaf Curl Disease Affected Cotton in Pakistan.

    PubMed

    Zaidi, Syed Shan-E-Ali; Shafiq, Muhammad; Amin, Imran; Scheffler, Brian E; Scheffler, Jodi A; Briddon, Rob W; Mansoor, Shahid

    2016-01-01

    Cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) is the major biotic constraint to cotton production on the Indian subcontinent, and is caused by monopartite begomoviruses accompanied by a specific DNA satellite, Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMB). Since the breakdown of resistance against CLCuD in 2001/2002, only one virus, the "Burewala" strain of Cotton leaf curl Kokhran virus (CLCuKoV-Bur), and a recombinant form of CLCuMB have consistently been identified in cotton across the major cotton growing areas of Pakistan. Unusually a bipartite isolate of the begomovirus Tomato leaf curl virus was identified in CLCuD-affected cotton recently. In the study described here we isolated the bipartite begomovirus Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus (ToLCNDV) from CLCuD-affected cotton. To assess the frequency and geographic occurrence of ToLCNDV in cotton, CLCuD-symptomatic cotton plants were collected from across the Punjab and Sindh provinces between 2013 and 2015. Analysis of the plants by diagnostic PCR showed the presence of CLCuKoV-Bur in all 31 plants examined and ToLCNDV in 20 of the samples. Additionally, a quantitative real-time PCR analysis of the levels of the two viruses in co-infected plants suggests that coinfection of ToLCNDV with the CLCuKoV-Bur/CLCuMB complex leads to an increase in the levels of CLCuMB, which encodes the major pathogenicity (symptom) determinant of the complex. The significance of these results are discussed. PMID:27213535

  14. Gearing up for the Ginning Season: Things Ginners Need to do Before the Modules Arrive on the Yard

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Starting up a gin after the dormant season is always a difficult day or sometimes week before all the components start to work together in an efficient and productive fashion. There are several important things a ginner should remember when gearing up for the ginning season. First and foremost, all...

  15. Trophoblast Deportation to the Lungs of Cotton Rats (Sigmodon hispidus)

    PubMed Central

    Perle, Krista M D La; Green, M Gia; Niewiesk, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    Cotton rats (Sigmodon hispidus) have been used to study a variety of infectious agents, particularly human respiratory viral pathogens. During the course of comprehensive pathologic evaluations of aging breeders from our breeding colony, 6 of 22 (27%) female cotton rats had histologic evidence, limited to the lungs, of embolized cells that were confirmed to be trophoblastic in origin by HSD3B1 immunoreactivity. When pulmonary trophoblast emboli were numerous, they usually were associated with additional histologic findings in the lungs, including pulmonary edema and hemorrhage, endothelial hypertrophy, fibrinoid vascular necrosis, and abundant alveolar macrophages containing fresh fibrin and hemolyzing erythrocytes. Of the 6 cotton rats with pulmonary trophoblast emboli, 5 (83%) were at 8 to 18 d of the 27-d gestation period, with the greatest number of emboli per lung present between days 10 through 14. The remaining cotton rat had a focal pulmonary trophoblast embolus and was not pregnant but had delivered a litter 3 mo previously. Three other cotton rats in either the early or late stages of gestation showed no histologic evidence of pulmonary trophoblast deportation. This report is the first to document pulmonary trophoblast emboli in cotton rats. This finding suggests that cotton rats may be an alternative animal model for the study of normal and aberrant trophoblast deportation in routine pregnancies and gestational pathologic conditions in women. PMID:25527025

  16. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  17. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  18. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.308 - Cotton Board.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton Board. 1205.308 Section 1205.308 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.308 Cotton Board. Cotton Board means the...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.305 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.305 Section 1205.305 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.305 Upland cotton. Upland cotton means all...

  6. 4. Interior of second floor of Dixie Cotton Mill, view ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. Interior of second floor of Dixie Cotton Mill, view facing west. This area is now designated the upstairs yarn storage room. Note the change of column type and roof structure from the first to second column in foreground of photograph. The round columns were used in the 1913 addition to the original 1895 structure. - Dixie Cotton Mill, 710 Greenville Street, La Grange, Troup County, GA

  7. Metal analysis of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Seven varieties of cotton were investigated for 8 metal ions (K, Na, Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Zn, and Mn) using Inductively Coupled Plasma-Optical Emission Spectroscopy. All of the varieties were grown at the same location. Half of the samples were dry (rain fed only) and the other were well-watered (irrigat...

  8. Cotton Pickin' Good Time.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gentry, Carol

    2000-01-01

    Describes the creation and development of a project at Lake Mary High School in Seminole County, Florida, in which students grew cotton in order to help them experience the production of the art material from the seed to the finished product. (CMK)

  9. Cotton thermal defoliation economics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton harvest-aid chemical and application expenses are justified by increased quantity and value of harvested fiber, and decreased harvest costs. Chemical use may be restricted in certain production situations. Harvest preparation costs and producer returns were compared for thermal defoliation ...

  10. Cotton Arthropod IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton is the world’s most important natural source of fiber, accounting for almost 40% of total worldwide production. The crop is grown in more than 75 countries with a total production in 2006 of 25.4 billion kg. The U.S. produced 21.7 million bales in 2006 in a diversity of production environmen...

  11. Nanosilica-Chitosan Composite Coating on Cotton Fabrics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maharani, Dina Kartika; Kartini, Indriana; Aprilita, Nurul Hidayat

    2010-10-01

    Nanosilica-chitosan composite coating on cotton fabrics has been prepared by sol-gel method. The sol-gel procedure allows coating of material on nanometer scale, which several commonly used coating procedure cannot achieve. In addition, sol-gel coating technique can be applied to system without disruption of their structure functionaly. The coating were produced via hidrolysis and condensation of TEOS and GPTMS and then mixed with chitosan. The composite coating on cotton fabrics were characterized with X-Ray Diffraction and Scanning Electron microscopy (SEM) method. The result showed that the coating not changed or disrupted the cotton stucture. The coating result in a clear transparent thin layer on cotton surface. The nanocomposite coating has new applications in daily used materials, especially those with low heat resistance, such as textiles and plastics, and as an environmentally friendly water-repellent substitute for fluorine compounds.

  12. Environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textiles finished with siloxane sulfopropylbetaine.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiguo; Chen, Shaojun; Jiang, Song; Xiong, Meiling; Luo, Junxuan; Tang, Jiaoning; Ge, Zaochuan

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports a novel environmentally friendly antibacterial cotton textile finished with reactive siloxane sulfopropylbetaine(SSPB). The results show that SSPB can be covalently bound onto the cotton textile surface, imparting perdurable antibacterial activity. The textiles finished with SSPB have been investigated systematically from the mechanical properties, thermal stability, hydrophilic properties and antibacterial properties. It is found that the hydrophilicity and breaking strength are improved greatly after the cotton textiles are finished with SSPB. Additionally, the cotton textiles finished with SSPB exhibit good antibacterial activities against gram-positive bacteria Staphylococcus aureus (S.aureus, ATCC 6538), gram-negative bacteria Escherichia coli (E.coli, 8099) and fungi Candida albicans (C.albicans, ATCC 10231). Moreover, SSPB is nonleachable from the textiles, and it does not induce skin stimulation and is nontoxic to animals. Thus, SSPB is ideal candidate for environmentally friendly antibacterial textile applications. PMID:21417413

  13. The Nim1 kinase Gin4 has distinct domains crucial for septin assembly, phospholipid binding and mitotic exit.

    PubMed

    Au Yong, Jie Ying; Wang, Yan-Ming; Wang, Yue

    2016-07-15

    In fungi, the Nim1 protein kinases, such as Gin4, are important regulators of multiple cell cycle events, including the G2-M transition, septin assembly, polarized growth and cytokinesis. Compelling evidence has linked some key functions of Gin4 with the large C-terminal non-kinase region which, however, is poorly defined. By systematically dissecting and functionally characterizing the non-kinase region of Gin4 in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, we report the identification of three new domains with distinct functions: a lipid-binding domain (LBD), a septin-binding domain (SBD) and a nucleolus-associating domain (NAD). The LBD and SBD are indispensable for the function of Gin4, and they alone could sufficiently restore septin ring assembly in GIN4-null mutants. The NAD localizes to the periphery of the nucleolus and physically associates with Cdc14, the ultimate effector of the mitotic exit network. Gin4 mutants that lack the NAD are defective in spindle orientation and exit mitosis prematurely. Furthermore, we show that Gin4 is a substrate of Cdc14. These findings provide novel insights into the roles and mechanisms of Nim1 kinases in the regulation of some crucial cell cycle events. PMID:27231094

  14. The Nim1 kinase Gin4 has distinct domains crucial for septin assembly, phospholipid binding and mitotic exit

    PubMed Central

    Au Yong, Jie Ying; Wang, Yue

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT In fungi, the Nim1 protein kinases, such as Gin4, are important regulators of multiple cell cycle events, including the G2–M transition, septin assembly, polarized growth and cytokinesis. Compelling evidence has linked some key functions of Gin4 with the large C-terminal non-kinase region which, however, is poorly defined. By systematically dissecting and functionally characterizing the non-kinase region of Gin4 in the human fungal pathogen Candida albicans, we report the identification of three new domains with distinct functions: a lipid-binding domain (LBD), a septin-binding domain (SBD) and a nucleolus-associating domain (NAD). The LBD and SBD are indispensable for the function of Gin4, and they alone could sufficiently restore septin ring assembly in GIN4-null mutants. The NAD localizes to the periphery of the nucleolus and physically associates with Cdc14, the ultimate effector of the mitotic exit network. Gin4 mutants that lack the NAD are defective in spindle orientation and exit mitosis prematurely. Furthermore, we show that Gin4 is a substrate of Cdc14. These findings provide novel insights into the roles and mechanisms of Nim1 kinases in the regulation of some crucial cell cycle events. PMID:27231094

  15. 78 FR 73816 - Submission for OMB Review; Comment Request

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-09

    ... that could seriously affect transportation costs and marketing strategies. Description of Respondents...: Cotton Ginning Survey. OMB Control Number: 0535-0220. Summary of Collection: Primary function of the... environmental statistics. The Cotton Ginning Survey provides statistics concerning cotton ginning for...

  16. Cotton 2K-Management tools for irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of simulation models to manage crops was a concept introduced in the 1980’s. For example, the cotton simulation model known as GOSSYM was made available in 1989 and was used by both producers and consultants to manage cotton in real time. More recently, Dr. Avi Marani, Professor Emeritus, Sc...

  17. Cotton-Harvester-Flow Simulator for Testing Cotton Yield Monitor

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An experimental system was developed to simulate the pneumatic flow arrangement found in picker-type cotton harvesters. The simulation system was designed and constructed for testing a prototype cotton yield monitor developed at Mississippi State University. The simulation system was constructed to ...

  18. Cotton and Sustainability: Impacting Student Learning through Sustainable Cotton Summit

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ha-Brookshire, Jung; Norum, Pamela

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to examine the effect of intensive extra-curricular learning opportunities on students' knowledge, skills, and attitudes regarding cotton and sustainability. Design/methodology/approach: A three-phase extra-curricular learning opportunity was designed to include a Sustainable Cotton Summit; pre-summit and…

  19. Activated Carbons from Flax Shive and Cotton Gin Waste as Environmental Adsorbents for the Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Trichloroethylene

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Agricultural by-products represent a considerable quantity of harvested commodity crops. The use of by-products as a starting material for the production of widely used adsorbents, such as activated carbons, may impart a value-added component of the overall biomass harvested. Our objective in this...

  20. Estimating FRM PM10 sampler performance characteristics using particle size analysis and collocated TSP and PM10 samplers: Cotton gins

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In the US, regional air quality compliance with national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) for particulate matter (PM) is based on concentration measurements taken by federal reference method (FRM) samplers. The EPA specifies the performance criteria for the FRM samplers. These criteria for the ...

  1. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  2. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  5. 7 CFR 27.43 - Validity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Validity of cotton class certificates. 27.43 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.43 Validity of cotton class certificates. Each cotton class certificate for cotton...

  6. CottonGen: a genomics, genetics and breeding database for cotton research

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    CottonGen (http://www.cottongen.org) is a curated and integrated web-based relational database providing access to publicly available genomic, genetic and breeding data for cotton. CottonGen supercedes CottonDB and the Cotton Marker Database, with enhanced tools for easier data sharing, mining, vis...

  7. Southern root-knot nematode affects common cocklebur (Xanthium strumarium) interference with cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Southern root-knot nematode and common cocklebur will both interfere with cotton growth and yield. A greater understanding of the interaction of these pests on cotton growth and yield is needed for effective IPM (integrated pest management). An additive design was used in outdoor micro-plots with fi...

  8. Chemical imaging of cotton fibers using an infrared microscope and a focal-plane array detector

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In this presentation, the chemical imaging of cotton fibers with an infrared microscope and a Focal-Plane Array (FPA) detector will be discussed. Infrared spectroscopy can provide us with information on the structure and quality of cotton fibers. In addition, FPA detectors allow for simultaneous spe...

  9. Insect population dynamics in different tillage systems of dryland and irrigated cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This study was conducted during 2000 - 2005 in the Lower Rio Grande Valley (LRGV) at experimental plots of the USDA-ARS-KSARC (North and South Farms). Also, privately-owned cotton fields (Brownsville, Hargill, and Santa Rosa, Texas) were used as additional sites. Cotton producers are incorporating...

  10. The present and future role of insect-resistant GM cotton in IPM

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Transgenic cottons producing Cry toxins from Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) control lepidopteran pests and were first commercially grown in Australia, Mexico and the USA in 1996. As of 2007, six additional countries (Argentina, Brazil, China, Colombia, India, and South Africa) now grow Bt cotton on a t...

  11. The mechanism of action of piperazine-phosphonates derivatives in cotton fabric

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Piperazine-phosphonates additives are known to be very effective flame retardants on different polymeric systems, especially cotton cellulose. In order to understand their mechanism of action, we carried out the investigation of their thermal behavior on cotton fabric by, first, employing the attenu...

  12. Analysis of fiber quality traits in a seven-parent upland cotton diallel

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    In addition to raising yields, improving the quality of cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) fiber has become an increasingly important component of the value of cotton, especially for marketing in the international trade. The objectives of this study were to identify sources of variation for fiber quali...

  13. Exploring biomedical applications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent ...

  14. COTTON FIBER CHEMISTRY AND TECHNOLOGY

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Annual cotton production exceeds 25 million metric tons and accounts for more than 40 percent of the textile fiber consumed worldwide. A key textile fiber for over 5000 years, this complex carbohydrate is also one of the leading crops to benefit from genetic engineering. Cotton Fiber Chemistry and...

  15. Natural cotton and flax fibers

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The origins of cotton (Gossypium barbadense L. or Gossypium hirsutum L.) and flax (Linum usitatissimum L.) are somewhat of a mystery. Cotton currently maintains a 65 % share of the consumer textile market while flax maintains about 2-3 %. Cellulose is a major component in these crops ranging from ...

  16. Exploring biomedical ppplications of cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The use of cotton as a biomaterial for design of improved wound dressings, and other non-implantable medical textiles will be considered. The research and development of cotton-based wound dressings, which possess a mechanism-based mode of action, has entered a new level of understanding in recent y...

  17. The Spindle Type Cotton Harvester

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The spindle type cotton picker was commercialized during the mid 1900’s and is currently produced by two US agricultural equipment manufacturers, John Deere and CaseIH. Picking is the predominate machine harvest method used throughout the US and world. Harvesting efficiency of a spindle type cotton ...

  18. Microwave drying of seed cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A small lab dryer was designed for use in drying seed cotton with components of a microwave generator mounted thereon. The magnetron emitted radiation directly into the seed cotton and a fan directed air cross-flow to the radiation direction. The microwave components were a 1.1 kW magnetron, trans...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  1. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  3. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  5. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.12 - Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton. 1205.12 Section 1205.12 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.12 Cotton. The term cotton means all...

  8. 7 CFR 1205.13 - Upland cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Upland cotton. 1205.13 Section 1205.13 Agriculture... AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Procedures for Conduct of Sign-up Period Definitions § 1205.13 Upland cotton. The term Upland cotton...

  9. COMMERCIAL COTTON VARIETY SPINNING STUDY QUALITY INDICES

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The USDA-ARS Cotton Quality Research Station has completed a comprehensive study studying the relationship of cotton fiber properties to the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was spun into yarn at the CQRS laboratory by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex and rotor spinning). Cotton in this st...

  10. Cotton Quality Indices of Spun Yarn

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton was spun into yarn at the Cotton Quality Research Station by each of three spinning methods (ring, vortex, and open end spinning) to determine if a relationship exits between cotton fiber properties and the quality of spun yarn. Cotton was grown and harvested in 2001-2005 from three of the l...

  11. Molecular analysis of proanthocyanidins related to pigmentation in brown cotton fibre (Gossypium hirsutum L.).

    PubMed

    Feng, Hongjie; Li, Yanjun; Wang, Shaofang; Zhang, Liangliang; Liu, Yongchuang; Xue, Fei; Sun, Yuqiang; Wang, Yongmei; Sun, Jie

    2014-11-01

    The structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were identified by nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) analyses. Proanthocyanidins in brown and white cotton fibres were found to contain mainly procyanidin (PC) and prodelphidin (PD) units with 2, 3-cis form (epigallocatechin and epicatechin). However, part of the proanthocyanidins in the white cotton fibres were modified by acylation and were constitutively different from the proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres. The relative amount of PD was similar to that of PC in white cotton fibres, while proanthocyanidins in brown cotton fibres consisted mainly of PD units with a relative ratio of 9:1. In brown cotton fibres, the proanthocyanidin monomeric composition was consistent with the expression profiles of proanthocyanidin synthase genes, suggesting that anthocyanidin reductase represented the major flow of the proanthocyanidin biosynthesis pathway. In addition, the structural characteristics and component differences of proanthocanidins in brown and white cotton fibres suggested that quinones, the oxidation products of proanthocyanidins, were the direct contributors to colour development in brown cotton fibre. This was demonstrated by vanillin-HCl staining and Borntrager's test. Collectively, these data demonstrated that the biosynthesis of proanthocyanidins is a crucial pigmentation process in brown cotton fibre, and that quinones may represent the main pigments contributing to formation of the the brown colour. This study revealed the molecular basis of pigmentation in brown cotton fibres, and provided important insights for genetic manipulation of pigment production in cotton fibres. PMID:25086591

  12. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Double-stranded RNAs Target HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR) Gene Inhibits the Growth, Development and Survival of Cotton Bollworms

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Geng; Cheng, Linlin; Qi, Xuewei; Ge, Zonghe; Niu, Changying; Zhang, Xianlong; Jin, Shuangxia

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a powerful technique in the research of functional genomics as well as plant pest control. In this report, double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene, which catalyze a rate-limiting enzymatic reaction in the mevalonate pathway of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in cotton bollworm, was expressed in cotton plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Sothern analysis revealed the integration of HMGR gene into cotton genome. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR confirmed the high transcription level of dsHMGR in transgenic cotton lines. The HMGR expression both in transcription and translation level was significantly downregulated in cotton bollworms (helicoverpa armigera) larvae after feeding on the leaves of HMGR transgenic plants. The transcription level of HMGR gene in larvae reared on transgenic cotton leaves was as much as 80.68% lower than that of wild type. In addition, the relative expression level of vitellogenin (Vg, crucial source of nourishment for offspring embryo development) gene was also reduced by 76.86% when the insect larvae were fed with transgenic leaves. The result of insect bioassays showed that the transgenic plant harboring dsHMGR not only inhibited net weight gain but also delayed the growth of cotton bollworm larvae. Taken together, transgenic cotton plant expressing dsRNAs successfully downregulated HMGR gene and impaired the development and survival of target insect, which provided more option for plant pest control. PMID:26435695

  13. Transgenic Cotton Plants Expressing Double-stranded RNAs Target HMG-CoA Reductase (HMGR) Gene Inhibits the Growth, Development and Survival of Cotton Bollworms.

    PubMed

    Tian, Geng; Cheng, Linlin; Qi, Xuewei; Ge, Zonghe; Niu, Changying; Zhang, Xianlong; Jin, Shuangxia

    2015-01-01

    RNA interference (RNAi) has been developed as a powerful technique in the research of functional genomics as well as plant pest control. In this report, double-stranded RNAs (dsRNA) targeting 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl coenzyme A reductase (HMGR) gene, which catalyze a rate-limiting enzymatic reaction in the mevalonate pathway of juvenile hormone (JH) synthesis in cotton bollworm, was expressed in cotton plants via Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated transformation. PCR and Sothern analysis revealed the integration of HMGR gene into cotton genome. RT-PCR and qRT-PCR confirmed the high transcription level of dsHMGR in transgenic cotton lines. The HMGR expression both in transcription and translation level was significantly downregulated in cotton bollworms (helicoverpa armigera) larvae after feeding on the leaves of HMGR transgenic plants. The transcription level of HMGR gene in larvae reared on transgenic cotton leaves was as much as 80.68% lower than that of wild type. In addition, the relative expression level of vitellogenin (Vg, crucial source of nourishment for offspring embryo development) gene was also reduced by 76.86% when the insect larvae were fed with transgenic leaves. The result of insect bioassays showed that the transgenic plant harboring dsHMGR not only inhibited net weight gain but also delayed the growth of cotton bollworm larvae. Taken together, transgenic cotton plant expressing dsRNAs successfully downregulated HMGR gene and impaired the development and survival of target insect, which provided more option for plant pest control. PMID:26435695

  14. A cotton dust study unmasked.

    PubMed

    Levine, C

    1984-08-01

    The Dan River Company, citing news reports damaging to its image, has abandoned a proposed study to test a theory that byssinosis (brown lung disease) is caused by a bacterium growing in cotton rather than by inhalation of cotton dust. With state approval to exceed federal standards on cotton dust exposure, the company submitted the study to the Occupational Safety and Health Administration as a "variance," not as human subjects research. Levine contends that the proposal violated all major criteria of the federal regulations for protection of research subjects--scientific objectivity, balanced risks and benefits, and voluntary and informed consent. PMID:6480334

  15. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis

    PubMed Central

    Merchant, James A.; Lumsden, John C.; Kilburn, Kaye H.; Germino, Victor H.; Hamilton, John D.; Lynn, William S.; Byrd, H.; Baucom, D.

    1973-01-01

    Merchant, J. A., Lumsden, J. C., Kilburn, K. H., Germino, V. H., Hamilton, J. D., Lynn, W. S., Byrd, H., and Baucom, D. (1973).British Journal of Industrial Medicine,30, 237-247. Preprocessing cotton to prevent byssinosis. A fundamental approach of cleaning or deactivating cotton prior to manufacturing has long been advocated to prevent byssinosis, but no trial had been conducted to test the feasibility of such an approach. In the study described, it was possible to be directed by both biological observations and the results of manufacturing trials. An exposure chamber was built in a cotton textile mill which had been previously studied as part of a large cross-sectional survey. The chamber was provided with an independent air conditioning system and a carding machine which served as a dust generator. Sixteen subjects, who had shown reductions in expiratory flow rate with exposure to cotton dust, were chosen to form a panel for exposure to raw cottons and cottons which had been preprocessed by heating, washing, and steaming. Indicators of effects were symptoms of chest tightness and/or dyspnoea, change in FEV1·0, and fine dust levels over 6 hours of exposure. Exposure of the panel to no cotton dust resulted in no change in FEV1·0 and served as the control for subsequent trials. Exposure to strict middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 22%, a significant decrement in FEV1·0 of 2·9%, and a fine dust level of 0·26 mg/m3. Exposure to strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 79%, a decrement in FEV1·0 of 8·5%, and a fine dust level of 0·89 mg/m3. Oven heating strict low middling cotton resulted in a byssinosis symptom prevalence of 56% and a relatively greater drop in FEV1·0 of 8·3% for 0·48 mg/m3 of fine dust. Washing the strict low grade cotton eliminated detectable biological effects with a symptom prevalence of 8%, an increase of 1·4% in FEV1·, and a dust level of 0·16 mg/m3, but the cotton

  16. Cotton Production Practices Change Soil Properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blaise, D.; Singh, J. V.

    2012-04-01

    Historically, indigenous Asiatic cottons (Gossypium arboreum) were cultivated with minimal inputs in India. The introduction of the Upland cottons (G. hirsutum) and later the hybrid (H-4) triggered a whole set of intensified agronomic management with reliance on high doses of fertilisers and pesticide usage. In 2002, the transgenic Bt cotton hybrids were introduced and released for commercial cultivation. Presently, more than 95% of the nearly 12.2 million hectares of cotton area is under the Bt transgenic hybrids. These hybrids are not only high yielding but have reduced the dependence on pesticide because of an effective control of the lepidopteran pests. Thus, a change in the management practices is evident over the years. In this paper, we discuss the impact of two major agronomic management practices namely, nutrient management and tillage besides organic cotton cultivation in the rainfed cotton growing regions of central India characterized by sub-humid to semi-arid climate and dominated by Vertisols. Long-term studies at Nagpur, Maharashtra indicated the importance of integrated nutrient management (INM) wherein a part of the nutrient needs through fertiliser was substituted with organic manures such as farmyard manure (FYM). With the application of mineral fertilisers alone, soils became deficient in micronutrients. This was not observed with the FYM amended plots. Further, the manure amended plots had a better soil physical properties and the water holding capacity of the soil improved due to improvements in soil organic matter (SOM). Similarly, in a separate experiment, an improvement in SOM was observed in the organically managed fields because of continuous addition of organic residues. Further, it resulted in greater biological activity compared to the conventionally managed fields. Conservation tillage systems such as reduced tillage (RT) are a means to improve soil health and crop productivity. Long-term studies on tillage practices such as

  17. Semiochemicals from herbivory induced cotton plants enhance the foraging behavior of the cotton boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis.

    PubMed

    Magalhães, D M; Borges, M; Laumann, R A; Sujii, E R; Mayon, P; Caulfield, J C; Midega, C A O; Khan, Z R; Pickett, J A; Birkett, M A; Blassioli-Moraes, M C

    2012-12-01

    The boll weevil, Anthonomus grandis, has been monitored through deployment of traps baited with aggregation pheromone components. However, field studies have shown that the number of insects caught in these traps is significantly reduced during cotton squaring, suggesting that volatiles produced by plants at this phenological stage may be involved in attraction. Here, we evaluated the chemical profile of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted by undamaged or damaged cotton plants at different phenological stages, under different infestation conditions, and determined the attractiveness of these VOCs to adults of A. grandis. In addition, we investigated whether or not VOCs released by cotton plants enhanced the attractiveness of the aggregation pheromone emitted by male boll weevils. Behavioral responses of A. grandis to VOCs from conspecific-damaged, heterospecific-damaged (Spodoptera frugiperda and Euschistus heros) and undamaged cotton plants, at different phenological stages, were assessed in Y-tube olfactometers. The results showed that volatiles emitted from reproductive cotton plants damaged by conspecifics were attractive to adults boll weevils, whereas volatiles induced by heterospecific herbivores were not as attractive. Additionally, addition of boll weevil-induced volatiles from reproductive cotton plants to aggregation pheromone gave increased attraction, relative to the pheromone alone. The VOC profiles of undamaged and mechanically damaged cotton plants, in both phenological stages, were not different. Chemical analysis showed that cotton plants produced qualitatively similar volatile profiles regardless of damage type, but the quantities produced differed according to the plant's phenological stage and the herbivore species. Notably, vegetative cotton plants released higher amounts of VOCs compared to reproductive plants. At both stages, the highest rate of VOC release was observed in A. grandis-damaged plants. Results show that A. grandis uses

  18. Can legislation prevent debauchery? Mother gin and public health in 18th-century England.

    PubMed Central

    Warner, J; Her, M; Gmel, G; Rehm, J

    2001-01-01

    The "gin epidemic" of 1720 to 1751 in England was the first time that government intervened in a systematic fashion to regulate and control sales of alcohol. The epidemic therefore provides an opportunity to gauge the effects of multiple legislative interventions over time. Toward that end, we employed time series analysis in conjunction with qualitative methodologies to test the interplay of multiple independent variables, including real wages and taxes, on the consumption of distilled spirits from 1700 through 1771. The results showed that each of the 3 major gin acts was successful in the short term only, consistent with the state's limited resources for enforcement at the local level, and that in each instance consumption actually increased shortly thereafter. This was true even of the Gin Act of 1751, which, contrary to the assumptions of contemporaries and many historians, succeeded by accident rather than by design. The results also suggest that the epidemic followed the inverse U-shaped trajectory of more recent drug scares and that consumption declined only after the more deleterious effects of distilled spirits had been experienced by large numbers of people. PMID:11236401

  19. Effects of leaf and bract trichomes on trash content and quality of ginned lint

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Spinning efficiency and yarn quality is improved for bales with reduced trash content. Some cotton varieties have been characterized as having smoother leaves (low trichome density) and fewer bract trichomes, and it has been shown that cotton harvested from these varieties are picked with lower tra...

  20. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  1. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  3. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  5. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  6. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  7. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  8. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  9. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.341 - Certification of cotton producer organization.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton producer organization. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.341 Certification of cotton producer organization. Any cotton producer organization...

  11. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  12. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  13. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  14. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Transfers of Cotton § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled for...

  15. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  16. 7 CFR 27.44 - Invalidity of cotton class certificates.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Invalidity of cotton class certificates. 27.44 Section... CONTAINER REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.44 Invalidity of cotton class certificates. Any cotton class certificate shall become...

  17. 7 CFR 28.471 - Below Leaf Grade Cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Below Leaf Grade Cotton. 28.471 Section 28.471... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Standards Below Leaf Grade Cotton § 28.471 Below Leaf Grade Cotton. Below leaf grade cotton is American Upland cotton which is lower in leaf grade than...

  18. Determination of geographic provenance of cotton fibres using multi-isotope profiles and multivariate statistical analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Daeid, N. Nic; Meier-Augenstein, W.; Kemp, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The analysis of cotton fibres can be particularly challenging within a forensic science context where discrimination of one fibre from another is of importance. Normally cotton fibre analysis examines the morphological structure of the recovered material and compares this with that of a known fibre from a particular source of interest. However, the conventional microscopic and chemical analysis of fibres and any associated dyes is generally unsuccessful because of the similar morphology of the fibres. Analysis of the dyes which may have been applied to the cotton fibre can also be undertaken though this can be difficult and unproductive in terms of discriminating one fibre from another. In the study presented here we have explored the potential for Isotope Ratio Mass Spectrometry (IRMS) to be utilised as an additional tool for cotton fibre analysis in an attempt to reveal further discriminatory information. This work has concentrated on un-dyed cotton fibres of known origin in order to expose the potential of the analytical technique. We report the results of a pilot study aimed at testing the hypothesis that multi-element stable isotope analysis of cotton fibres in conjunction with multivariate statistical analysis of the resulting isotopic abundance data using well established chemometric techniques permits sample provenancing based on the determination of where the cotton was grown and as such will facilitate sample discrimination. To date there is no recorded literature of this type of application of IRMS to cotton samples, which may be of forensic science relevance.

  19. Alkaline treatment effect on the properties of in-situ synthesised ZnO nanoparticles on cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Barani, Hossein; Boroumand, Majid Nasiri

    2016-06-01

    In this study, an in-situ approach was used to synthesise zinc oxide nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fabric. The effect of alkaline pre- and after-treatment and Zn(2+) concentration was studied on the morphological, structural, thermal, photocatalytic, and antibacterial properties of loaded cotton fabrics. Scanning electron microscopy, energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy, X-ray diffractometer, thermogravimetric analysis, and attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared spectrometer were used to characterise the properties of loaded cotton fabrics. Alkaline after-treatment of cotton fabric presented more dispersed zinc oxide nanoparticles, and an increase in Zn(2+) concentration led to form agglomerated nanoparticles on the surface of cotton fibres. The loaded cotton fabrics with zinc oxide nanoparticles presented an inhibition zone against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. In addition, the stain of methylene blue on the surface of loaded samples was degraded after irradiated under visible light. PMID:27256898

  20. Crop Sensors for Variable-Rate Nitrogen Application to Cotton

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton yield can be very responsive to nitrogen fertilizer. However, over-application of N can result in excess vegetative growth, which can delay maturity and increase the need for growth regulator, defoliant, and insecticide, in addition to wasting money on fertilizer that does not produce a retu...

  1. Agrobacterium rhizogenes-induced cotton hairy root culture as an alternative tool for cotton functional genomics

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Although well-accepted as the ultimate method for cotton functional genomics, Agrobacterium tumefaciens-mediated cotton transformation is not widely used for functional analyses of cotton genes and their promoters since regeneration of cotton in tissue culture is lengthy and labor intensive. In cer...

  2. Perspectives of the International Cotton Genome Initiative

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp.), an immensely important crop worldwide, has lacked representation by an international research organization that could facilitate global collaboration and coordination, and it has lagged behind other major crops in genome research. For these reasons, the International Cotton...

  3. Spindle speed effects on cotton fiber quality

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Three cotton varieties were grown under furrow-irrigated conditions in southern New Mexico and hand-harvested in a way that kept individual bolls intact. The cotton bolls were conditioned in a controlled atmosphere and then subjected to a single cotton picker spindle operating at a speed of 1000 to...

  4. Toward cotton molecular breeding: challenges and opportunities

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cotton (Gossypium spp) is the leading natural fiber in the global textile market, but progress in the development and applications of molecular tools to improve cotton lags behind other major crop plants. The slow progress is in part due to cotton's large complex allotetraploid genome of 26 partial...

  5. Greige cotton comber noils for sustainable nonwovens

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To increase utilization of cotton in value-added nonwoven products, a study was conducted to examine the feasibility of utilizing cotton textile processing/combing bye-product known as griege cotton comber noils. The study was conducted on a commercial-grade, textile-cum-nonwovens pilot plant and ha...

  6. Global view of cotton germplasm resources

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    This paper reports the status of several large cotton germplasm collections present across the world. Cotton germplasm collections discussed include those from the US, India, France, China, Australia, Uzbekistan, and Brazil. These collections represent a large portion of the curated cotton germpla...

  7. 3D Model of the McGinness Hills Geothermal Area

    DOE Data Explorer

    Faulds, James E.

    2013-12-31

    The McGinness Hills geothermal system lies in a ~8.5 km wide, north-northeast trending accommodation zone defined by east-dipping normal faults bounding the Toiyabe Range to the west and west-dipping normal faults bounding the Simpson Park Mountains to the east. Within this broad accommodation zone lies a fault step-over defined by north-northeast striking, west-dipping normal faults which step to the left at roughly the latitude of the McGinness Hills geothermal system. The McGinness Hills 3D model consists of 9 geologic units and 41 faults. The basal geologic units are metasediments of the Ordovician Valmy and Vininni Formations (undifferentiated in the model) which are intruded by Jurassic granitic rocks. Unconformably overlying is a ~100s m-thick section of Tertiary andesitic lava flows and four Oligocene-to-Miocene ash-flow tuffs: The Rattlesnake Canyon Tuff, tuff of Sutcliffe, the Cambell Creek Tuff and the Nine Hill tuff. Overlying are sequences of pre-to-syn-extensional Quaternary alluvium and post-extensional Quaternary alluvium. 10-15º eastward dip of the Tertiary stratigraphy is controlled by the predominant west-dipping fault set. Geothermal production comes from two west dipping normal faults in the northern limb of the step over. Injection is into west dipping faults in the southern limb of the step over. Production and injection sites are in hydrologic communication, but at a deep level, as the northwest striking fault that links the southern and northern limbs of the step-over has no permeability.

  8. The use of Landsat data to inventory cotton and soybean acreage in North Alabama

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downs, S. W., Jr.; Faust, N. L.

    1980-01-01

    This study was performed to determine if Landsat data could be used to improve the accuracy of the estimation of cotton acreage. A linear classification algorithm and a maximum likelihood algorithm were used for computer classification of the area, and the classification was compared with ground truth. The classification accuracy for some fields was greater than 90 percent; however, the overall accuracy was 71 percent for cotton and 56 percent for soybeans. The results of this research indicate that computer analysis of Landsat data has potential for improving upon the methods presently being used to determine cotton acreage; however, additional experiments and refinements are needed before the method can be used operationally.

  9. Development of simple algorithm for direct and rapid determination of cotton maturity from FT-IR spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yongliang; Thibodeaux, Devron; Gamble, Gary R.

    2011-06-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra of seed and lint cottons were collected to explore the potential for the discrimination of immature cottons from mature ones and also for the determination of actual cotton maturity. Spectral features of immature and mature cottons revealed large differences in the 1200-900 cm-1 region, and such spectral distinctions formed the basis on which to develop simple three-band ratio algorithm for classification analysis. Next, an additional formula was created to assess the degree of cotton fiber maturity by converting the three-band ratios into an appropriate FT-IR maturity (MIR) index. Furthermore, the MIR index was compared with parameters derived from traditional image analysis (IA) and advanced fiber information system (AFIS) measurements. Results indicated strong correlations (R2 > 0.89) between MIR and MAFIS and between MIR and MIA among either International Cotton Calibration (ICC) standards or selected cotton maturity references. On the other hand, low correlations between the pairs were observed among regular cotton fibers, which likely resulted from the heterogeneous distribution of structural, physical, and chemical characteristics in cotton fibers and subsequent different sampling specimens for individual and independent measurement.

  10. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5'-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5'-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5'-RACE). Here, we provide the first report on vsi

  11. Cotton Leaf Curl Multan Virus-Derived Viral Small RNAs Can Target Cotton Genes to Promote Viral Infection

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jinyan; Tang, Yafei; Yang, Yuwen; Ma, Na; Ling, Xitie; Kan, Jialiang; He, Zifu; Zhang, Baolong

    2016-01-01

    RNA silencing is a conserved mechanism in plants that targets viruses. Viral small RNAs (vsiRNAs) can be generated from viral double-stranded RNA replicative intermediates within the infected host, or from host RNA-dependent RNA polymerases activity on viral templates. The abundance and profile of vsiRNAs in viral infections have been reported previously. However, the involvement of vsiRNAs during infection of the Geminiviridae family member cotton leaf curl virus (CLCuD), which causes significant economic losses in cotton growing regions, remains largely uncharacterized. Cotton leaf curl Multan virus (CLCuMuV) associated with a betasatellite called Cotton leaf curl Multan betasatellite (CLCuMuB) is a major constraint to cotton production in South Asia and is now established in Southern China. In this study, we obtained the profiles of vsiRNAs from CLCuMV and CLCuMB in infected upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) plants by deep sequencing. Our data showed that vsiRNA that were derived almost equally from sense and antisense CLCuD DNA strands accumulated preferentially as 21- and 22-nucleotide (nt) small RNA population and had a cytosine bias at the 5′-terminus. Polarity distribution revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously present along the CLCuD genome and hotspots of sense and antisense strands were mainly distributed in the Rep proteins region of CLCuMuV and in the C1 protein of CLCuMuB. In addition, hundreds of host transcripts targeted by vsiRNAs were predicted, many of which encode transcription factors associated with biotic and abiotic stresses. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of selected potential vsiRNA targets showed that some targets were significantly down-regulated in CLCuD-infected cotton plants. We also verified the potential function of vsiRNA targets that may be involved in CLCuD infection by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and 5′-rapid amplification of cDNA end (5′-RACE). Here, we provide the first report

  12. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  13. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  15. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  17. 7 CFR 27.46 - Cotton withdrawn from storage.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton withdrawn from storage. 27.46 Section 27.46... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Cotton Class Certificates § 27.46 Cotton withdrawn from storage. The exchange inspection agency under the supervision or control...

  18. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  19. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton-producing State. 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State. Cotton-producing...

  20. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  1. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  2. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  3. 7 CFR 28.105 - Practical forms of cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Practical forms of cotton standards. 28.105 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.105 Practical forms of cotton standards. (a) Practical forms of...

  4. 7 CFR 1205.314 - Cotton-producing State

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Cotton-producing State 1205.314 Section 1205.314... AGREEMENTS AND ORDERS; MISCELLANEOUS COMMODITIES), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Definitions § 1205.314 Cotton-producing State Cotton-producing...

  5. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  6. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  7. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...

  8. 7 CFR 28.39 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 28.39 Section 28.39... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.39 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  9. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  10. 7 CFR 1205.402 - Determination of Cotton Board membership.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of Cotton Board membership. 1205.402... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Members of Cotton Board § 1205.402 Determination of Cotton Board membership. (a) In determining whether any cotton-producing state is entitled to be represented by more than...

  11. 7 CFR 1427.174 - Maturity of seed cotton loans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Maturity of seed cotton loans. 1427.174 Section 1427..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.174 Maturity of seed cotton loans. Seed cotton loans mature on demand by CCC but no later than May 31...

  12. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  13. 7 CFR 28.178 - Submission of cotton samples.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Submission of cotton samples. 28.178 Section 28.178... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Classification for Foreign Growth Cotton § 28.178 Submission of cotton samples. Samples of cotton submitted to a Classing Office for classification...

  14. 7 CFR 1205.342 - Certification of cotton importer organizations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Certification of cotton importer organizations. 1205... COTTON RESEARCH AND PROMOTION Cotton Research and Promotion Order Certification of Cotton Producer Organization § 1205.342 Certification of cotton importer organizations. Any importer organization may...

  15. 7 CFR 28.106 - Universal cotton standards.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Universal cotton standards. 28.106 Section 28.106... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Practical Forms of Cotton Standards § 28.106 Universal cotton standards. Whenever any of the official...

  16. 7 CFR 1427.9 - Classification of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Classification of cotton. 1427.9 Section 1427.9... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Nonrecourse Cotton Loan and Loan Deficiency Payments § 1427.9 Classification of cotton. (a) All cotton tendered for loan and loan...

  17. 7 CFR 1427.165 - Eligible seed cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 10 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Eligible seed cotton. 1427.165 Section 1427.165... OF AGRICULTURE LOANS, PURCHASES, AND OTHER OPERATIONS COTTON Recourse Seed Cotton Loans § 1427.165 Eligible seed cotton. (a) Seed cotton pledged as collateral for a loan must be tendered to CCC by...

  18. 7 CFR 27.37 - Cotton reduced in grade.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Cotton reduced in grade. 27.37 Section 27.37... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Classification and Micronaire Determinations § 27.37 Cotton reduced in grade. If cotton be reduced in grade, by reason of the presence...

  19. 7 CFR 27.73 - Supervision of transfers of cotton.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Supervision of transfers of cotton. 27.73 Section 27... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSIFICATION UNDER COTTON FUTURES LEGISLATION Regulations Postponed Classification § 27.73 Supervision of transfers of cotton. Whenever the owner of any cotton inspected and sampled...

  20. 7 CFR 28.40 - Terms defined; cotton classification.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Terms defined; cotton classification. 28.40 Section 28... REGULATIONS COTTON CLASSING, TESTING, AND STANDARDS Regulations Under the United States Cotton Standards Act Classification § 28.40 Terms defined; cotton classification. For the purposes of classification of any cotton...