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  1. Fermented dairy food and CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Tapsell, Linda C

    2015-04-01

    Fermented dairy foods such as yoghurt and cheese are commonly found in the Mediterranean diet. Recent landmark research has confirmed the effect of the Mediterranean diet on reducing the CVD risk, but the relative contributions of fermented dairy foods have not been fully articulated. The present study provides a review of the relationship between fermented dairy foods consumption and CVD risk in the context of the whole diet. Studies show that people who eat healthier diets may be more likely to consume yoghurt, so there is a challenge in attributing separate effects to yoghurt. Analyses from large population studies list yoghurt as the food most negatively associated with the risk of weight gain (a problem that may lead to CVD). There is some suggestion that fermented dairy foods consumption (yoghurt or cheese) may be associated with reduced inflammatory biomarkers associated with the development of CVD. Dietary trials suggest that cheese may not have the same effect on raising LDL-cholesterol levels as butter with the same saturated fat content. The same might be stated for yoghurt. The use of different probiotic cultures and other aspects of study design remain a problem for research. Nevertheless, population studies from a range of countries have shown that a reduced risk of CVD occurs with the consumption of fermented dairy foods. A combination of evidence is necessary, and more research is always valuable, but indications remain that fermented dairy foods such as cheese and yoghurt are integral to diets that are protective against CVD.

  2. Plasma lipoprotein (a), homocysteine, and other cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Nigerians with CVD.

    PubMed

    Ebesunun, M O; Agbedana, E O; Taylor, G O L; Oladapo, O O

    2008-04-01

    Elevated plasma lipoprotein (a) (Lp(a)) and total homocysteine (tHcy) concentrations, as well as fat distributions, are associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The purpose of this study was to evaluate plasma Lp(a), tHcy, percentage body fat, anthropometric indices, and blood pressure (BP) and their relationships with each other in well-defined, hospital-based, CVD patients in a Nigerian African community. One hundred seventy patients suffering from hypertensive heart disease, hypertension, ischaemic heart disease, and myocardial infraction with the mean age of 45.3 +/- 1.3 years and 58 apparently healthy volunteers with the mean age of 44.8 +/-1.2 years were selected. Anthropometric indices and BP were measured. Percentage body fat, body mass index, and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR) were calculated. Plasma Lp(a) and tHcy concentrations were determined. The results showed significant increases in BP, skinfold thickness (SFT) variables, and WHR in all of the CVD patients. Plasma Lp(a) was also significantly increased (p < 0.001), whereas the slight increase in the mean tHcy was not statistically significant. Positive significant correlations were found between systolic BP, triceps, SFT, and percentage body fat (p < 0.01), whereas significant correlations were found between some body composition variables, tHcy, and systolic BP (p < 0.05). Our findings provide supportive evidence for altered plasma Lp(a) concentration in addition to some other traditional CVD risk factors in Nigerians. The role of homocysteine is not well defined.

  3. SY 04-4 HOW TO IMPROVE CVD RISK PREDICTION IN A LOW-RISK POPULATION.

    PubMed

    Chia, Yook Chin

    2016-09-01

    : Many cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction tools have been developed in an attempt to identify those at highest risk in order for them to benefit from interventional treatment. The first CVD risk tool that was developed was the coronary heart disease risk tool by the Framingham Heart Study in 1998 (1). However the Framingham Risk Score could overestimate (or underestimate) risk in populations other than the US population. Hence several other risk engines have also been developed, primarily for a better fit in the communities in which the tools are to be used (2, 3). Having said that the Framingham Heart Study risk tool has been validated in several populations (4, 5) and found to work reasonably well after some recalibration.Most risk prediction tools predict short term risk ie over a period of 10 years but since more recently risk tools now attempt to predict life-time risk or at least risk over the next 30 years. (6-8). The practical use of these risk prediction tools is that it is able to separate those at high risk (ie > 20% risk of a CVD event fatal or non-fatal event in the next 10 years) from those with the lowest risk (< 10% risk over 10 years). It then helps practitioners to triage them to either receive preventive therapy (high risk group) or none at all (low risk group) respectively. However in those with medium risk ie between 10-20%, the decision to offer treatment or not is less clear. In such a situation, other CVD risk factors for example family history of premature coronary heart disease, other biomarkers like elevated hs-CRP, presence of chronic kidney disease or albuminuria can be employed to further stratify risk.It is known that risk prediction tools are very much age dependent and in a younger individual with mildly raised CVD risk factors, his global CVD risk may be grossly under-estimated. Here additional CVD risk factors beyond those traditionally used in risk engines should be sought in order to recalibrate that individual

  4. Changes in CVD risk factors in the activity counseling trial

    PubMed Central

    Baruth, Meghan; Wilcox, Sara; Sallis, James F; King, Abby C; Marcus, Bess H; Blair, Steven N

    2011-01-01

    Primary care facilities may be a natural setting for delivering interventions that focus on behaviors that improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. The purpose of this study was to examine the 24-month effects of the Activity Counseling Trial (ACT) on CVD risk factors, to examine whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status, and to examine whether changes in fitness were associated with changes in CVD risk factors. ACT was a 24-month multicenter randomized controlled trial to increase physical activity. Participants were 874 inactive men and women aged 35–74 years. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three arms that varied by level of counseling, intensity, and resource requirements. Because there were no significant differences in change over time between arms on any of the CVD risk factors examined, all arms were combined, and the effects of time, independent of arm, were examined separately for men and women. Time × Baseline risk factor status interactions examined whether changes in CVD risk factors differed according to baseline risk factor status. Significant improvements in total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, the ratio of total cholesterol to HDL-C, and triglycerides were seen in both men and women who had high (or low for HDL-C) baseline levels of risk factors, whereas significant improvements in diastolic blood pressure were seen only in those men with high baseline levels. There were no improvements in any risk factors among participants with normal baseline levels. Changes in fitness were associated with changes in a number of CVD risk factors. However, most relationships disappeared after controlling for changes in body weight. Improvements in lipids from the ACT interventions could reduce the risk of coronary heart disease in people with already high levels of lipids by 16%–26% in men and 11%–16% in women

  5. SY 04-1 CVD RISK PREDICTION IN HIGH-RISK VERSUS LOW-RISK POPULATIONS.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyeon Chang

    2016-09-01

    Disease risk prediction models have been developed to assess the impact of multiple risk factors and to estimate an individual's absolute disease risk. Accurate disease prediction is essential for personalized prevention, because the benefits, risks, and costs of alternative strategies must be weighed to choose the best preventive strategy for individual patients. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction is the earliest example of individual risk predictions. Since the Framingham study reported a CVD risk prediction method in 1976, an increasing number of risk assessment tools have been developed to CVD risk in various settings. The Framingham study results are fundamental evidence for the prediction of CVD risk. However, the clinical utility of a disease prediction model can be population-specific because the baseline disease risk, subtype distribution of the disease, and level of exposure to risk factors differ by region and ethnicity.It has been proved that CVD prediction models which were developed in high-risk populations, such as the Framingham Risk Score, overestimate an individual's disease risk when applied to a low-risk population without re-calibration. Thus countries of relatively low CVD risk are trying to re-calibrate the existing CVD prediction models or to develop a new prediction model analyzing their own population data. However, even the re-calibrated or newly-developed CVD prediction models are often of little clinical value in a low-risk population. A good example is the CVD prediction in the Korean population. Compared to Western populations, the Korean population has much lower incidence of coronary heart disease. Therefore, the vast majority of individuals fall into the low-risk group when their disease risk is assessed with a prediction model. Even a well-validated prediction model may not identify high-risk individuals who merit aggressive preventive treatment.A few alternative approaches have been suggested for CVD risk prediction in a low-risk

  6. Underestimating risk in women delays diagnosis of CVD.

    PubMed

    Keteepe-Arachi, Tracey; Sharma, Sanjay

    2016-03-01

    CVD remains the most common cause of mortality in women. In 2007, the annual mortality in women secondary to CAD was 4.7 times that of breast cancer. Around 2.8 million women are living with CVD in the UK. There has been an increase in the prevalence of MI in women aged 35 to 54, while a decline in prevalence was observed in age-matched men. Difficulty in evaluating symptoms of ischaemic heart disease in women is well documented and remains challenging because of their atypical nature. The main gender difference is that women tend to present less frequently with exertional symptoms of chest pain before an AMI. Although men and women share classic cardiovascular risk factors the relative importance of each risk factor may be gender specific. The impact of smoking is greater in women than men, especially in those under 50. Diabetes is a more potent risk factor for fatal CHD in women than men. Risk factors specific to women include postmenopausal status, hysterectomy and complications during pregnancy. Women who develop gestational diabetes mellitus or pre-eclampsia more than double their risk of CVD later in life. Transition to the menopause is associated with a worsening CHD risk profile. After the menopause women may experience an increase in weight, alteration in fat distribution and an increase in other CVD risk factors such as diabetes and a more adverse lipid profile. Pharmacological stress testing is preferred for diagnosing CAD in females with lower exercise capacity. Stress cardiomyopathy is triggered by intense, unexpected emotional or physical stress and is characterised by transient apical systolic dysfunction or ballooning of the left ventricle. The syndrome predominantly affects postmenopausal women. Women presenting with STEMI have worse outcomes compared with men. However, in those presenting with NSTEMI there were no differences in outcomes. PMID:27214974

  7. COMPARATIVE EVALUATION OF RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD) IN GENETICALLY PREDISPOSED RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rodent CVD models are increasingly used for understanding individual differences in susceptibility to environmental stressors such as air pollution. We characterized pathologies and a number of known human risk factors of CVD in genetically predisposed, male young adult Spontaneo...

  8. Oats and CVD risk markers: a systematic literature review.

    PubMed

    Thies, Frank; Masson, Lindsey F; Boffetta, Paolo; Kris-Etherton, Penny

    2014-10-01

    High consumption of whole-grain food such as oats is associated with a reduced risk of CVD and type 2 diabetes. The present study aimed to systematically review the literature describing long-term intervention studies that investigated the effects of oats or oat bran on CVD risk factors. The literature search was conducted using Embase, Medline and the Cochrane library, which identified 654 potential articles. Seventy-six articles describing sixty-nine studies met the inclusion criteria. Most studies lacked statistical power to detect a significant effect of oats on any of the risk factors considered: 59 % of studies had less than thirty subjects in the oat intervention group. Out of sixty-four studies that assessed systemic lipid markers, thirty-seven (58 %) and thirty-four (49 %) showed a significant reduction in total cholesterol (2-19 % reduction) and LDL-cholesterol (4-23 % reduction) respectively, mostly in hypercholesterolaemic subjects. Few studies (three and five, respectively) described significant effects on HDL-cholesterol and TAG concentrations. Only three out of twenty-five studies found a reduction in blood pressure after oat consumption. None of the few studies that measured markers of insulin sensitivity and inflammation found any effect after long-term oat consumption. Long-term dietary intake of oats or oat bran has a beneficial effect on blood cholesterol. However, there is no evidence that it favourably modulates insulin sensitivity. It is still unclear whether increased oat consumption significantly affects other risk markers for CVD risk, and comprehensive, adequately powered and controlled intervention trials are required to address this question.

  9. CVD risk factors and ethnicity--a homogeneous relationship?

    PubMed

    Forouhi, Nita G; Sattar, Naveed

    2006-04-01

    Current understanding of cardiovascular disease risk (CVD) is derived largely from studies of Caucasians of European origin. However, people of certain ethnic groups experience a disproportionately greater burden of CVD including coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Adoption of a Westernised lifestyle has different effects on metabolic and vascular dysfunction across populations, e.g. South Asians have a higher prevalence of coronary heart disease (CHD) and cardiovascular mortality compared with Europeans. African-Americans demonstrate higher rates of CHD and stroke while African/Caribbeans in the UK have lower CHD rates and higher stroke rates than British Europeans. Other non-European groups such as the Chinese and Japanese exhibit consistently high rates of stroke but not CHD, while Mexican Americans have a higher prevalence of both stroke and CHD, and North American native Indians also have high rates of CHD. While conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as smoking, blood pressure and total cholesterol predict risk within these ethnic groups, they do not fully account for the differences in risk between ethnic groups, suggesting that alternative explanations might exist. Ethnic groups show differences in levels of visceral adiposity, insulin resistance, and novel risk markers such as C-reactive protein (CRP), adiponectin and plasma homocysteine. The marked differences across racial and ethnic groups in disease risk are likely due in part to each of genetic, host susceptibility and environmental factors, and can provide valuable aetiological clues to differences in patterns of disease presentation, therapeutic needs and response to treatment. Ongoing studies should increase understanding of ethnicity as a potential independent risk factor, thus enabling better identification of treatment targets and selection of therapy in specific populations.

  10. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies

    PubMed Central

    Batacan, Romeo B.; Duncan, Mitch J.; Dalbo, Vincent J.; Tucker, Patrick S.; Fenning, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL) examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile) and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2) published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk. PMID:26543862

  11. Effects of Light Intensity Activity on CVD Risk Factors: A Systematic Review of Intervention Studies.

    PubMed

    Batacan, Romeo B; Duncan, Mitch J; Dalbo, Vincent J; Tucker, Patrick S; Fenning, Andrew S

    2015-01-01

    The effects of light intensity physical activity (LIPA) on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors remain to be established. This review summarizes the effects of LIPA on CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in adults. A systematic search of four electronic databases (PubMed, Academic Search Complete, SPORTDiscus, and CINAHL) examining LIPA and CVD risk factors (body composition, blood pressure, glucose, insulin, glycosylated hemoglobin, and lipid profile) and CVD-related markers (maximal oxygen uptake, heart rate, C-reactive protein, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and tumor necrosis factor receptors 1 and 2) published between 1970 and 2015 was performed on 15 March 2015. A total of 33 intervention studies examining the effect of LIPA on CVD risk factors and markers were included in this review. Results indicated that LIPA did not improve CVD risk factors and CVD-related markers in healthy individuals. LIPA was found to improve systolic and diastolic blood pressure in physically inactive populations with a medical condition. Reviewed studies show little support for the role of LIPA to reduce CVD risk factors. Many of the included studies were of low to fair study quality and used low doses of LIPA. Further studies are needed to establish the value of LIPA in reducing CVD risk. PMID:26543862

  12. Is the risk and nature of CVD the same in type 1 and type 2 diabetes?

    PubMed

    Duca, Lindsey; Sippl, Rachel; Snell-Bergeon, Janet K

    2013-06-01

    The incidence of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes is increasing globally, most likely explained by environmental changes, such as changing exposures to foods, viruses, and toxins, and by increasing obesity. While cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality has been declining recently, this global epidemic of diabetes threatens to stall this trend. CVD is the leading cause of death in both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, with at least a two- to fourfold increased risk in patients with diabetes. In this review, the risk factors for CVD are discussed in the context of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. While traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, hypertension, and obesity are greater in type 2 patients than in type 1 diabetes, they explain only about half of the increased CVD risk. The role for diabetes-specific risk factors, including hyperglycemia and kidney complications, is discussed in the context of new study findings. PMID:23519720

  13. Are your patients with risk of CVD getting the viscous soluble fiber they need?

    PubMed

    Shamliyan, Tatyana A; Jacobs, David R; Raatz, Susan K; Nordstrom, David L; Keenan, Joseph M

    2006-09-01

    A diet that includes 5 to 10 g/d of viscous soluble fiber reduces cardiovascular disease (CVD) events and death independent of baseline risk. Consuming foods rich in viscous soluble fiber reduces low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) blood levels 10% to 15% with expected reduction in CVD events by 10% to 15%. Routinely counsel adults at risk of CVD to promote a healthy diet: assess dietary fiber consumption; recommend specific foods rich in viscous soluble fiber; monitor LDL-C levels and encourage increased dietary fiber intake at follow-up visits; motivate patients to comply with recommendations.

  14. Applicability of the Existing CVD Risk Assessment Tools to Type II Diabetics in Oman: A Review.

    PubMed

    Al-Rawahi, Abdulhakeem; Lee, Patricia

    2015-09-01

    Patients with type II diabetes (T2DM) have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD), and it is considered to be a leading cause of morbidity and premature mortality in these patients. Many traditional risk factors such as age, male sex, hypertension, dyslipidemia, glycemic control, diabetes duration, renal dysfunction, obesity, and smoking have been studied and identified as independent factors for CVD. Quantifying the risk of CVD among diabetics using the common risk factors in order to plan the treatment and preventive measures is important in the management of these patients as recommended by many clinical guidelines. Therefore, several risk assessment tools have been developed in different parts of the world for this purpose. These include the tools that have been developed for general populations and considered T2DM as a risk factor, and the tools that have been developed for T2DM populations specifically. However, due to the differences in sociodemographic factors and lifestyle patterns, as well as the differences in the distribution of various CVD risk factors in different diabetic populations, the external applicability of these tools on different populations is questionable. This review aims to address the applicability of the existing CVD risk models to the Omani diabetic population.

  15. SY 04-2 LONG-TERM CVD RISK PREDICTION IN LOW-INCIDENCE EUROPEAN POPULATIONS.

    PubMed

    Veronesi, Giovanni

    2016-09-01

    In Italy, the European SCORE Project risk score is the recommended tool for cardiovascular disease risk stratification in the primary prevention setting. Among non-diabetic subjects aged 40 to 64, the model estimates the 10-year probability of death due to cardiovascular disease based on individual's age, total cholesterol, blood pressure and smoking status. A growing body of evidence suggests that in middle-aged adults this stratification may suffer from two major drawbacks. First, mortality risk severely underestimates the global burden of disease incidence. Second, younger individuals and women are likely to be classified in the "low 10-year risk" category despite the presence of risk factors.The latest European and American guidelines have eventually introduced the assessment of long-term risk of disease as additional tool to improve risk communication and increase risk awareness. Long-term risk scores were first developed in the US and in the UK, i.e. in high-risk populations. In low-incidence populations, these models may have poor calibration and discrimination ability, as shown for the Framingham equation. Therefore, our research team developed and validated a 20-year risk score for the Italian population. As part of a collaborative study with the Italian Health Institute, we pooled 7 population-based cohorts of middle-aged individuals recruited in Northern and in Central Italy in mid 1980 s and early 1990 s following a similar protocol with standardized MONICA procedures. Overall, more than 10500 men and women 35-69 years old and free of CVD at baseline, who developed 830 first major atherosclerotic events (coronary heart disease or ischemic strokes) during a median 17 years of follow-up. The score was based on traditional risk factors (age, blood lipids, systolic blood pressure and treatment, smoking and diabetes). In addition, social status and family history of coronary heart disease did improve risk prediction, at least in men. Finally we showed

  16. Lowering cortisol and CVD risk in postmenopausal women: a pilot study using the Transcendental Meditation program.

    PubMed

    Walton, Kenneth G; Fields, Jeremy Z; Levitsky, Debra K; Harris, Dwight A; Pugh, Nirmal D; Schneider, Robert H

    2004-12-01

    Unlike younger women, the risk of cardiovascular disease in older women matches or exceeds that of men. Excessive cortisol may play a role in this increased risk. Here we explore the possibility that the Transcendental Meditation (TM) program may reduce the cortisol response to a metabolic stressor as a way of reducing disease risk in older women. Data from 16 women who were long-term practitioners of transcendental meditation (mean = 23 y) were compared with data from 14 control women matched for age (mean = 75 y, range = 65-92 y). Data on demographics, disease symptoms, and psychological variables were collected, and cortisol response to a metabolic stressor (75 g of glucose, orally) was examined in saliva and urine. Pre-glucose levels of salivary cortisol were identical for the two groups. Post-glucose cortisol rose faster in the controls and was significantly higher than that in the TM women (P < 1 3 10(-4)). Urinary excretion of cortisol during this period was 3 times higher in controls than in the TM women (2.4 +/- 0.17 and 0.83 +/- 0.10 microg/h, respectively; P = 2 x 10(-4)). In addition, the number of months practicing transcendental meditation was inversely correlated with CVD risk factors. Lower cortisol response to metabolic challenge may reflect improved endocrine regulation relevant to the disease-preventing effects of transcendental meditation in older women.

  17. In cross-sectional observations, dietary quality is not associated with CVD risk in women; in men the positive association is accounted for by BMI.

    PubMed

    Frazier-Wood, Alexis C; Kim, Jihye; Davis, Jennifer S; Jung, Su Yon; Chang, Shine

    2015-04-28

    The role that BMI plays in the association between dietary quality and CVD risk is not known. We aimed to better understand this relationship using statistical methods which correct for sex-specific underreporting of dietary intake. Overall, dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Index (HEI) on data from 9797 non-pregnant adults (aged >20 years) who participated in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey from 2005 to 2010. CVD risk factors included blood pressure, fasting glucose and insulin, homeostatic models of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), HDL- and LDL-cholesterol (HDL-C and LDL-C), TAG and C-reactive protein (CRP). We controlled for demographic and lifestyle covariates, and we used the population ratio approach (which adjusts for the underreporting of intake) to compare mean HEI scores between the top and bottom quartiles of covariate-adjusted CVD risk factors. In women, the total HEI score was not associated with any CVD risk factors (all Q>0·11). In men, the total HEI score was associated with covariate-adjusted residuals for fasting insulin (Q<0.001), HOMA-IR (Q<0.001), HDL-C (Q=0.01) and CRP (Q<0.001). When we additionally adjusted for BMI, the association with total HEI score was not significant (all P>0.10). In the present analyses, dietary quality was associated with five CVD risk factors in a sex-specific manner. Moreover, the association of BMI with CVD risk attenuated the relationship between CVD risk and diet, which suggests that BMI is an important factor in heart disease prevention.

  18. Development of Health Parameter Model for Risk Prediction of CVD Using SVM.

    PubMed

    Unnikrishnan, P; Kumar, D K; Poosapadi Arjunan, S; Kumar, H; Mitchell, P; Kawasaki, R

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of cardiovascular risk assessment are performed using health factors which are often based on the Framingham study. However, these methods have significant limitations due to their poor sensitivity and specificity. We have compared the parameters from the Framingham equation with linear regression analysis to establish the effect of training of the model for the local database. Support vector machine was used to determine the effectiveness of machine learning approach with the Framingham health parameters for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The result shows that while linear model trained using local database was an improvement on Framingham model, SVM based risk assessment model had high sensitivity and specificity of prediction of CVD. This indicates that using the health parameters identified using Framingham study, machine learning approach overcomes the low sensitivity and specificity of Framingham model. PMID:27594895

  19. Development of Health Parameter Model for Risk Prediction of CVD Using SVM

    PubMed Central

    Unnikrishnan, P.; Kumar, H.; Mitchell, P.; Kawasaki, R.

    2016-01-01

    Current methods of cardiovascular risk assessment are performed using health factors which are often based on the Framingham study. However, these methods have significant limitations due to their poor sensitivity and specificity. We have compared the parameters from the Framingham equation with linear regression analysis to establish the effect of training of the model for the local database. Support vector machine was used to determine the effectiveness of machine learning approach with the Framingham health parameters for risk assessment of cardiovascular disease (CVD). The result shows that while linear model trained using local database was an improvement on Framingham model, SVM based risk assessment model had high sensitivity and specificity of prediction of CVD. This indicates that using the health parameters identified using Framingham study, machine learning approach overcomes the low sensitivity and specificity of Framingham model. PMID:27594895

  20. White Rice Consumption and CVD Risk Factors among Iranian Population

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi-Boroujeni, Hossein; Sarrafzadegan, Nizal; Mohammadifard, Noushin; Sajjadi, Firouzeh; Maghroun, Maryam; Asgari, Sedigheh; Rafieian-kopaei, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Association between white rice intake and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases remained uncertain. Most of the previous published studies have been done in western countries with different lifestyles, and scant data are available from the Middle East region, including Iran. This cross-sectional study was conducted in the structure of Isfahan Healthy Heart Program (IHHP) to assess the association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases. In the present study, 3,006 men were included from three counties of Isfahan, Najafabad, and Arak by multistage cluster random-sampling method. Dietary intake was assessed with a 49-item food frequency questionnaire (FFQ). Laboratory assessment was done in a standardized central laboratory. Outcome variables were fasting blood glucose, serum lipid levels, and anthropometric variables. Socioeconomic and demographic data, physical activity, and body mass index (BMI) were considered covariates and were adjusted in analysis. In this study, Student's t-test, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used for statistical analyses. Means of BMI among those subjects who consumed white rice less than 7 times per week and people who consumed 7-14 times per week were almost similar—24.8±4.3 vs 24.5±4.7 kg/m2. There was no significant association between white rice consumption and risk factors of cardiovascular diseases, such as fasting blood sugar and serum lipid profiles. Although whole grain consumption has undeniable effect on preventing cardiovascular disease risk, white rice consumption was not associated with cardiovascular risks among Iranian men in the present study. Further prospective studies with a semi-quantitative FFQ or dietary record questionnaire, representing type and portion-size of rice intake as well as cooking methods and other foods consumed with rice that affect glycaemic index (GI) of rice, are required to support our finding and to illustrate the probable mechanism. PMID

  1. Greater flavonoid intake is associated with improved CVD risk factors in US adults.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kijoon; Vance, Terrence M; Chun, Ock K

    2016-04-01

    Epidemiological studies have reported that diets high in flavonoids are associated with a reduced risk of CVD. However, evidence on the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors is still scarce. The present study aimed to investigate the association of dietary flavonoid intake with CVD risk factors among US adults in the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) 2007-2012. A total of 4042 US adults aged 19 years and older from the NHANES 2007-2012 participated in this cross-sectional, population-based study. Intakes of total and individual flavonoids were estimated from 2-d 24-h diet recall data by matching with the expanded US Department of Agriculture flavonoid, isoflavone and proanthocyanidin databases. After adjusting for covariates, increased HDL-cholesterol was associated with higher total flavonoid intake (0·54 % change). TAG and TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio were inversely associated with anthocyanidin (-1·25 % change for TAG; -1·60 % change for TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio) and total flavonoid intakes (-1·31 % change for TAG; -1·83 % change for TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio), respectively. Insulin and homoeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were inversely associated with flavone (for insulin, -3·18 % change; 95 % CI -5·85, -0·44; for HOMA-IR, -3·10 % change; 95 % CI -5·93, -0·19) and isoflavone intakes (for insulin, -3·11 % change; 95 % CI -5·46, -0·70; for HOMA-IR, -4·01 % change; 95 % CI -6·67, -1·27). BMI was negatively associated with anthocyanidin intake (-0·60 % change). This study showed that higher flavonoid intake was associated with improved CVD risk factors. Further research is warranted to confirm the findings from this study as these associations were moderate in strength. PMID:26931451

  2. Risk factors of CVD mortality among the elderly in Beijing, 1992 - 2009: an 18-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Li, Xia; Tang, Zhe; Xie, Changchun; Tao, Lixin; Pan, Lei; Huo, Da; Sun, Fei; Luo, Yanxia; Wang, Wei; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua

    2014-02-01

    Few researchers have examined the effects of multiple risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality simultaneously. This study was to determine the associations of combined lifestyle and other factors with CVD mortality among the elderly (n = 3,257), in Beijing, China, through data mining of the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). BLSA is a representative cohort study from 1992 to 2009, hosted by Xuan Wu Hospital. Competing risk survival analysis was conducted to explore the association between risk factors and CVD mortality. The factors focused mainly on lifestyle, physical condition, and the model was adjusted for age and gender. There were 273 of the 1,068 recorded deaths caused by CVD among the 2010 participants. Living in a suburban area (HR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.410-0.921) was associated with lower CVD mortality. Increasing age (66-75: HR = 1.511, 95% CI: 1.111-2.055; ≥ 76: HR = 1.847, 95% CI: 1.256-2.717), high blood pressure (HR = 1.407, 95% CI: 1.031-1.920), frequent consumption of meat (HR = 1.559, 95% CI: 1.079-2.254) and physical inactivity (p = 0.046) were associated with higher CVD mortality. The study provides an instructional foundation for the control and prevention of CVD in Beijing, China. PMID:24566047

  3. Risk factors of CVD mortality among the elderly in Beijing, 1992 - 2009: an 18-year cohort study.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Tao; Li, Xia; Tang, Zhe; Xie, Changchun; Tao, Lixin; Pan, Lei; Huo, Da; Sun, Fei; Luo, Yanxia; Wang, Wei; Yan, Aoshuang; Guo, Xiuhua

    2014-02-01

    Few researchers have examined the effects of multiple risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality simultaneously. This study was to determine the associations of combined lifestyle and other factors with CVD mortality among the elderly (n = 3,257), in Beijing, China, through data mining of the Beijing Longitudinal Study of Aging (BLSA). BLSA is a representative cohort study from 1992 to 2009, hosted by Xuan Wu Hospital. Competing risk survival analysis was conducted to explore the association between risk factors and CVD mortality. The factors focused mainly on lifestyle, physical condition, and the model was adjusted for age and gender. There were 273 of the 1,068 recorded deaths caused by CVD among the 2010 participants. Living in a suburban area (HR = 0.614, 95% CI: 0.410-0.921) was associated with lower CVD mortality. Increasing age (66-75: HR = 1.511, 95% CI: 1.111-2.055; ≥ 76: HR = 1.847, 95% CI: 1.256-2.717), high blood pressure (HR = 1.407, 95% CI: 1.031-1.920), frequent consumption of meat (HR = 1.559, 95% CI: 1.079-2.254) and physical inactivity (p = 0.046) were associated with higher CVD mortality. The study provides an instructional foundation for the control and prevention of CVD in Beijing, China.

  4. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup.

  5. Joint association of physical activity/screen time and diet on CVD risk factors in 10-year-old children.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Eisenmann, Joey C

    2012-12-01

    The increasing prevalence of childhood overweight and obesity has been associated with an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). While several studies examined the effect of single behaviors such as physical activity (PA), sedentary behavior or diet on CVD risk, there is a lack of research on combined associations, specifically in children. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the joint association of PA or screen time (ST) and diet on CVD risk factors in children. PA, STand diet were assessed via questionnaire in 210 fifth grade students (age: 10.6 ± 0.4 years). The healthy eating index (HEI) was subsequently calculated as indicator for diet quality. Height, weight, % body fat, and resting blood pressure were measured according to standard procedures and blood samples obtained via fingerprick were assayed for blood lipids. Total cholesterol HDL ratio (TC:HDL), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and % body fat were used as indicators of CVD risk. 55% of children did not meet current PA recommendations on at least 5 days/week and 70% exceeded current recommendations for ST. Further, only 2.5% possessed a "good" diet (HEI> 80). There was no significant association of PA or STand diet on CVD risk score. Neither TC:HDL, MAP, and % body fat nor the total CVD risk score was significantly correlated with diet, PA, or ST. Children in the high PA group, however, had significantly better diet scores. Despite the fact that self-reported PA, ST, or dietary intake were not directly related to CVD risk in this sample, higher activity levels were associated with a healthier diet and lower ST indicating an overall healthier lifestyle of this subgroup. PMID:23224418

  6. A systematic review and meta-analysis of nut consumption and incident risk of CVD and all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, Alexandra J; de Souza, Russell J; Meyre, David; Anand, Sonia S; Mente, Andrew

    2016-01-28

    Dietary patterns containing nuts are associated with a lower risk of CVD mortality, and increased nut consumption has been shown to have beneficial effects on CVD risk factors including serum lipid levels. Recent studies have reported on the relationship between nut intake and CVD outcomes and mortality. Our objective was to systematically review the literature and quantify associations between nut consumption and CVD outcomes and all-cause mortality. Five electronic databases (through July 2015), previous reviews and bibliographies of qualifying articles were searched. In the twenty included prospective cohort studies (n 467 389), nut consumption was significantly associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality (ten studies; risk ratio (RR) 0·81; 95 % CI 0·77, 0·85 for highest v. lowest quantile of intake, P het=0·04, I 2=43 %), CVD mortality (five studies; RR 0·73; 95 % CI 0·68, 0·78; P het=0·31, I 2=16 %), all CHD (three studies; RR 0·66; 95 % CI 0·48, 0·91; P het=0·0002, I 2=88 %) and CHD mortality (seven studies; RR 0·70; 95 % CI 0·64, 0·76; P het=0·65, I 2=0 %), as well as a statistically non-significant reduction in the risk of non-fatal CHD (three studies; RR 0·71; 95 % CI 0·49, 1·03; P het=0·03, I 2=72 %) and stroke mortality (three studies; RR 0·83; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·00; P het=0·54, I 2=0 %). No evidence of association was found for total stroke (two studies; RR 1·05; 95 % CI 0·69, 1·61; P het=0·04, I 2=77 %). Data on total CVD and sudden cardiac death were available from one cohort study, and they were significantly inversely associated with nut consumption. In conclusion, we found that higher nut consumption is associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality, total CVD, CVD mortality, total CHD, CHD mortality and sudden cardiac death.

  7. Multiple aberrations in shared inflammatory and oxidative & nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways explain the co-association of depression and cardiovascular disorder (CVD), and the increased risk for CVD and due mortality in depressed patients.

    PubMed

    Maes, Michael; Ruckoanich, Piyanuj; Chang, Young Seun; Mahanonda, Nithi; Berk, Michael

    2011-04-29

    There is evidence that there is a bidirectional relationship between major depression and cardiovascular disorder (CVD): depressed patients are a population at risk for increased cardiac morbidity and mortality, and depression is more frequent in patients who suffer from CVD. There is also evidence that inflammatory and oxidative and nitrosative stress (IO&NS) pathways underpin the common pathophysiology of both CVD and major depression. Activation of these pathways may increase risk for both disorders and contribute to shared risk. The shared IO&NS pathways that may contribute to CVD and depression comprise the following: increased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, like interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-2, IL-6, IL-8, IL-12, tumor necrosis factor-α, and interferon-γ; T cell activation; increased acute phase proteins, like C-reactive protein, haptoglobin, fibrinogen and α1-antitrypsin; complement factors; increased LPS load through bacterial translocation and subsequent gut-derived inflammation; induction of indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase with increased levels of tryptophan catabolites; decreased levels of antioxidants, like coenzyme Q10, zinc, vitamin E, glutathione and glutathione peroxidase; increased O&NS characterized by oxidative damage to low density lipoprotein (LDL) and phospholipid inositol, increased malondialdehyde, and damage to DNA and mitochondria; increased nitrosative stress; and decreased ω3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs). The complex interplay between the abovementioned IO&NS pathways in depression results in pro-atherogenic effects and should be regarded as a risk factor to future clinical CVD and due mortality. We suggest that major depression should be added as a risk factor to the Charlson "comorbidity" index. It is advised that patients with (sub)chronic or recurrent major depression should routinely be assessed by serology tests to predict if they have an increased risk to cardiovascular disorders.

  8. In cross-sectional observations, dietary quality is not associated with CVD risk in women; in men the positive association is accounted for by BMI

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The role that BMI plays in the association between dietary quality and CVD risk is not known. We aimed to better understand this relationship using statistical methods which correct for sex-specific underreporting of dietary intake. Overall, dietary quality was assessed using the Healthy Eating Inde...

  9. A community assessment to inform a multi-level intervention to reduce CVD risk and risk disparities in a rural community

    PubMed Central

    Vu, Maihan B.; Garcia, Beverly A.; McGuirt, Jared T.; Braxton, Danielle; Hengel, Constance E.; Huff, Joey V.; Keyserling, Thomas C.; Ammerman, Alice S.

    2014-01-01

    In order to complete a formative evaluation to identify community-level assets and barriers to healthy lifestyle choices, we conducted qualitative interviews, community audits, and secondary data analyses. We solicited local leaders’ perspectives regarding ‘win-ability’ of obesity prevention policy options. Participants noted that many resources were available, yet a barrier was high cost. There were more parks per capita in low-income areas, but they were of lower quality. The most winnable obesity prevention policy was incentives for use of food from local farms. Results are being used to inform an intervention to reduce CVD risk in a rural eastern North Carolina. PMID:23455684

  10. Examining associations between dietary patterns and metabolic CVD risk factors: a novel use of structural equation modelling.

    PubMed

    Castro, Michelle Alessandra; Baltar, Valéria Troncoso; Marchioni, Dirce Maria; Fisberg, Regina Mara

    2016-05-01

    The association between dietary patterns and metabolic cardiovascular risk factors has long been addressed but there is a lack of evidence towards the effects of the overall diet on the complex net of biological inter-relationships between risk factors. This study aimed to derive dietary patterns and examine their associations with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors following a theoretic model for the relationship between them. Participants included 417 adults of both sexes, enrolled to the cross-sectional population-based study performed in Brazil. Body weight, waist circumference, high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, blood pressure, total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio, fasting plasma glucose and serum leptin were evaluated. Food consumption was assessed by two non-consecutive 24-h dietary recalls adjusted for the within-person variation of intake. A total of three dietary patterns were derived by exploratory structural equation modelling: 'Traditional', 'Prudent' and 'Modern'. The 'Traditional' pattern had a negative and direct effect on obesity indicators (serum LEP, body weight and waist circumference) and negative indirect effects on total cholesterol:HDL-cholesterol ratio, TAG:HDL-cholesterol ratio and fasting plasma glucose. The 'Prudent' pattern had a negative and direct effect on systolic blood pressure. No association was observed for the 'Modern' pattern and metabolic risk factors. In conclusion, the 'Traditional' and 'Prudent' dietary patterns were negatively associated with metabolic cardiovascular risk factors among Brazilian adults. Their apparent protective effects against obesity and high blood pressure may be important non-pharmacological strategies for the prevention and control of obesity-related metabolic disorders and CVD. PMID:26931638

  11. Prevalence of obesity and hypertension among University students’ and their knowledge and attitude towards risk factors of Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia

    PubMed Central

    Baig, Mukhtiar; Gazzaz, Zohair J; Gari, Mamdooh A; Al-Attallah, Haidar G; Al-Jedaani, Khaled S; Mesawa, Amjad TA; Al-Hazmi, Abdulrahman A

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To investigate the prevalence of obesity and hypertension among University students’ and their knowledge and attitude towards risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Jeddah,: Saudi Arabia. Methods: A total of 610 male students were selected for present cross sectional study and their blood pressure (BP) and body mass index (BMI) was determined, other data was gathered through a questionnaire, and SPSS-16 was used for analyzing data. Results: Out of 610 students, 7.5% were hypertensive (systolic 2.6% and diastolic 6.3%) while the BMI of 51.6% was in the normal range, 29.8% were overweight and 10.7% were moderately obese and 7.9% were severely obese. Majority of the participants considered that smoking, increased fatty food intake, obesity, high BP, and increased LDL-cholesterol level, are the main causes of the CVD. Most of the participants agreed that one should know his BP, blood sugar, serum cholesterol and one should maintain normal body weight and should do regular exercise. They were also aware that healthy lifestyle could prevent CVD. However, majority of the participants were not practicing healthy lifestyle. Conclusion: A huge gap exists in the knowledge, attitude and practice regarding risk factors of CVD among the university students. PMID:26430410

  12. Effect of RAAS blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high CVD risk subjects with atrial fibrillation

    PubMed Central

    Chaugai, Sandip; Sherpa, Lhamo Yanchang; Sepehry, Amir A.; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial fibrillation significantly increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects. Application of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone system blockers for prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation and adverse clinical outcomes in subjects with atrial fibrillation is a theoretically appealing concept. However, results of clinical trials evaluating the effect of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation remain inconclusive. A pooled study of 6 randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of renin–angiotensin–aldosterone blockers on subjects with atrial fibrillation was performed. A total of 6 randomized controlled trials enrolled a total of 53,510 patients followed for 1 to 5 years. RAAS blockade therapy was associated with 14% reduction in the incidence of heart failure (OR: 0.86, [95%CI: 0.76– 0.97], P=0.018) and 17% reduction in the incidence of CVE (OR: 0.83, [95%CI: 0.70–0.99], P = 0.038). The corresponding decline in absolute risk against heart failure (ARR: 1.4%, [95%CI: 0.2–2.6%], P = 0.018) and CVE (ARR: 3.5%, [95%CI: 0.0–6.9%], P = 0.045) in the AF group was much higher than the non-AF group for heart failure (ARR: 0.4%, [95%CI: 0.0–0.7%], P = 0.057) and CVE (ARR: 1.6%, [95%CI: –0.1% to 3.3%], P = 0.071). No significant effect was noted on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction. This study suggests that RAAS blockade offers protection against heart failure and cardiovascular events in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27368043

  13. Behavioral Counseling to Promote a Healthful Diet and Physical Activity for CVD Prevention in Adults with Risk Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... Task Force learned about the potential benefits and harms of behavioral counseling to prevent CVD in overweight ... the end of this document). Potential Benefits and Harms of Behavioral Counseling to Prevent Cardiovascular Disease The ...

  14. Cereal fibre intake and risk of mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer and inflammatory diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Hajishafiee, Maryam; Saneei, Parvane; Benisi-Kohansal, Sanaz; Esmaillzadeh, Ahmad

    2016-07-01

    Dietary fibre intake has been associated with a lower risk of mortality; however, findings on the association of different sources of dietary fibre with mortality are conflicting. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis of the prospective cohort studies to assess the relation between cereal fibre intake and cause-specific mortality. Medline/PubMed, SCOPUS, EMBASE, ISI web of Science and Google scholar were searched up to April 2015. Eligible prospective cohort studies were included if they provided hazard ratios (HR) or relative risks (RR) and corresponding 95 % CI for the association of cereal fibre intake and mortality from all causes, CVD, cancer and inflammatory diseases. The study-specific HR were pooled by using the random-effects model. In total, fourteen prospective studies that examined the association of cereal fibre intake with mortality from all causes (n 48 052 death), CVD (n 16 882 death), cancer (n 19 489 death) and inflammatory diseases (n 1092 death) were included. The pooled adjusted HR of all-cause mortality for the highest v. the lowest category of cereal fibre intake was 0·81 (95 % CI 0·79, 0·83). Consumption of cereal fibre intake was associated with an 18 % lower risk of CVD mortality (RR 0·82; 95 % CI 0·78, 0·86). Moreover, an inverse significant association was observed between cereal fibre intake and risk of death from cancer (RR 0·85; 95 % CI 0·81, 0·89). However, no significant association was seen between cereal fibre intake and inflammation-related mortality. This meta-analysis provides further evidence that cereal fibre intake was protectively associated with mortality from all causes, CVD and cancer. PMID:27193606

  15. Health Benefits of Reducing Sugar-Sweetened Beverage Intake in High Risk Populations of California: Results from the Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) Policy Model

    PubMed Central

    Mekonnen, Tekeshe A.; Odden, Michelle C.; Coxson, Pamela G.; Guzman, David; Lightwood, James; Wang, Y. Claire; Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten

    2013-01-01

    Background Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) has risen over the past two decades, with over 10 million Californians drinking one or more SSB per day. High SSB intake is associated with risk of type 2 diabetes, obesity, hypertension, and coronary heart disease (CHD). Reduction of SSB intake and the potential impact on health outcomes in California and among racial, ethnic, and low-income sub-groups has not been quantified. Methods We projected the impact of reduced SSB consumption on health outcomes among all Californians and California subpopulations from 2013 to 2022. We used the CVD Policy Model – CA, an established computer simulation of diabetes and heart disease adapted to California. We modeled a reduction in SSB intake by 10–20% as has been projected to result from proposed penny-per-ounce excise tax on SSB and modeled varying effects of this reduction on health parameters including body mass index, blood pressure, and diabetes risk. We projected avoided cases of diabetes and CHD, and associated health care cost savings in 2012 US dollars. Results Over the next decade, a 10–20% SSB consumption reduction is projected to result in a 1.8–3.4% decline in the new cases of diabetes and an additional drop of 0.5–1% in incident CHD cases and 0.5–0.9% in total myocardial infarctions. The greatest reductions are expected in African Americans, Mexican Americans, and those with limited income regardless of race and ethnicity. This reduction in SSB consumption is projected to yield $320–620 million in medical cost savings associated with diabetes cases averted and an additional savings of $14–27 million in diabetes-related CHD costs avoided. Conclusions A reduction of SSB consumption could yield substantial population health benefits and cost savings for California. In particular, racial, ethnic, and low-income subgroups of California could reap the greatest health benefits. PMID:24349119

  16. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  17. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  18. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  19. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  20. 46 CFR 308.104 - Additional war risk insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk insurance. 308.104 Section 308.104 Shipping MARITIME ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION EMERGENCY OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Hull and Disbursements Insurance § 308.104 Additional war risk insurance. Owners or charterers...

  1. Dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish reduces CVD risk markers in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian; Wang, Chunrong; Li, Lixiang; Man, Qingqing; Meng, Liping; Song, Pengkun; Frøyland, Livar; Du, Zhen-Yu

    2012-10-28

    Dietary intervention studies to assess the cardioprotective effects of oily fish are scarce in China. The present study aimed to examine the effects of the oily fish, Norwegian salmon, herring and local farmed pompano (Trachinotus ovatus) on CVD risk markers when included in the Chinese diet. In this 8-week, parallel-arm, randomised intervention study, 126 Chinese women with hypertriacylglycerolaemia, aged 35-70 years, were assigned to four groups to consume an experimental lunch containing 80 g fillets of either one of three oily fish or a mix of commonly eaten meats (pork/chicken/beef/lean fish) for 5 d/week. The results showed that inclusion of the three oily fish significantly increased the intake of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) while decreasing the dietary n-6:n-3 PUFA ratio. Compared to the control group, significant increases of DHA, EPA+DHA and total n-3 PUFA in plasma choline phosphoglyceride were observed in the three oily fish groups. Plasma TAG levels were significantly reduced only in the salmon and herring groups. When compared to the baseline level, the three oily fish diets significantly decreased serum concentrations of TAG, apoB, apoCII and apoCIII, but only the salmon and herring diets significantly lowered TNF-α and raised adiponectin levels in serum. The salmon diet additionally decreased the serum concentration of IL-6. To conclude, dietary inclusion of salmon, herring and pompano as oily fish can effectively increase serum n-3 LC-PUFA content and are associated with favourable biochemical changes in dyslipidaemic middle-aged and elderly Chinese women, and these beneficial effects are mainly associated with n-3 LC-PUFA contents.

  2. Treatment with DPP-4I Anagliptin or α-GI Miglitol Reduces IGT Development and the Expression of CVD Risk Factors in OLETF Rats.

    PubMed

    Imai, Chihiro; Harazaki, Tomomi; Inoue, Seiya; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2015-01-01

    It has been reported that postprandial hyperglycemia from the pre-diabetic stage, especially from the impaired glucose tolerance (IGT) stage, is positively associated with subsequent incidences of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type 2 diabetes. In this study, we aimed to investigate whether treatment with a dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (DPP-4I) or an α-glucosidase inhibitor (α-GI), either of which suppresses postprandial hyperglycemia, reduces the expression of CVD risk factors in an IGT animal model. A DPP-4I, anagliptin (1,200 ppm), or an α-GI, miglitol (600 ppm), in the diet was administered for 47 wk to Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, a model for spontaneously-developed type 2 diabetes, at the IGT stage. We examined whether each treatment reduced the expression of CVD risk factors such as inflammatory cytokines/cytokine-like factors in peripheral leukocytes and adhesion molecules in the aortic tissues and circulation. Treatment with either drug reduced IGT development and repressed expression of the interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, S100a9, and S100a11 genes in peripheral leukocytes in the fasting state at weeks 25 and 39. The mRNA levels of E-selectin in aortic tissues and protein levels of the soluble forms of E-selectin and ICAM-1 in arterial blood were significantly lower in the anagliptin and miglitol groups than in the control group. Our results suggest that long-term treatment with anagliptin or miglitol in OLETF rats at the IGT stage suppresses the expression of inflammatory cytokines in peripheral leukocytes and adhesion molecules in aortic tissues. PMID:26440638

  3. Association of Serum Cholesterol, Triglyceride, High and Low Density Lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) Levels in Chronic Periodontitis Subjects with Risk for Cardiovascular Disease (CVD): A Cross Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Sandi, R.M.; Pol, K.G.; Basavaraj, P.; Khuller, Nitin; Singh, Shilpi

    2014-01-01

    Purpose: To assess serum cholesterol, triglycerides, high and low density lipoprotein (HDL and LDL) levels (serum lipid profile) in subjects with chronic periodontitis and the possible association for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Materials and Methods: Total of 80 participants (42 males and 38 females) who were in the age range of 30-65 years were divided into test group (group I- 40 subjects with chronic periodontitis) and control group (group II- 40 subjects with healthy periodontium), based on their periodontal disease statuses. Three ml of venous blood samples were taken for measurement of parameters of lipid metabolism [serum cholesterol (chol); triglycerides (Tg); HDL and LDL. Results: Significant increase in serum cholesterol and LDL (P<0.05) were observed in test group (group I), whereas serum triglycerides and HDL (P>0.66) showed no significant increase in test group (group I) as compared to their values in the control group (group II). A P-value of < 0.05 was considered for statistical significance. Conclusions: Subjects with chronic periodontitis showed increased serum cholesterol and LDL levels. This may suggest that these subjects are potentially at a risk of getting CVD. PMID:24596778

  4. Nuts and CVD.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as l-arginine, fibre, healthful minerals, vitamin E, phytosterols and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially affect cardiovascular health. Epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of CHD in both sexes and of diabetes in women, but not in men. Feeding trials have clearly demonstrated that consumption of all kinds of nuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets. There is increasing evidence that nut consumption has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Contrary to expectations, epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is not associated with undue weight gain. Recently, the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea randomised clinical trial of long-term nutrition intervention in subjects at high cardiovascular risk provided first-class evidence that regular nut consumption is associated with a 50 % reduction in incident diabetes and, more importantly, a 30 % reduction in CVD. Of note, incident stroke was reduced by nearly 50 % in participants allocated to a Mediterranean diet enriched with a daily serving of mixed nuts (15 g walnuts, 7.5 g almonds and 7.5 g hazelnuts). Thus, it is clear that frequent nut consumption has a beneficial effect on CVD risk that is likely to be mediated by salutary effects on intermediate risk factors. PMID:26148914

  5. Nuts and CVD.

    PubMed

    Ros, Emilio

    2015-04-01

    Nuts are nutrient-dense foods with complex matrices rich in unsaturated fatty acids and other bioactive compounds, such as l-arginine, fibre, healthful minerals, vitamin E, phytosterols and polyphenols. By virtue of their unique composition, nuts are likely to beneficially affect cardiovascular health. Epidemiological studies have associated nut consumption with a reduced incidence of CHD in both sexes and of diabetes in women, but not in men. Feeding trials have clearly demonstrated that consumption of all kinds of nuts has a cholesterol-lowering effect, even in the context of healthy diets. There is increasing evidence that nut consumption has a beneficial effect on oxidative stress, inflammation and vascular reactivity. Blood pressure, visceral adiposity and the metabolic syndrome also appear to be positively influenced by nut consumption. Contrary to expectations, epidemiological studies and clinical trials suggest that regular nut consumption is not associated with undue weight gain. Recently, the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea randomised clinical trial of long-term nutrition intervention in subjects at high cardiovascular risk provided first-class evidence that regular nut consumption is associated with a 50 % reduction in incident diabetes and, more importantly, a 30 % reduction in CVD. Of note, incident stroke was reduced by nearly 50 % in participants allocated to a Mediterranean diet enriched with a daily serving of mixed nuts (15 g walnuts, 7.5 g almonds and 7.5 g hazelnuts). Thus, it is clear that frequent nut consumption has a beneficial effect on CVD risk that is likely to be mediated by salutary effects on intermediate risk factors.

  6. Associations between dairy protein intake and body weight and risk markers of diabetes and CVD during weight maintenance.

    PubMed

    Bendtsen, Line Q; Lorenzen, Janne K; Larsen, Thomas M; van Baak, Marleen; Papadaki, Angeliki; Martinez, J Alfredo; Handjieva-Darlenska, Teodora; Jebb, Susan A; Kunešová, Marie; Pfeiffer, Andreas F H; Saris, Wim H M; Astrup, Arne; Raben, Anne

    2014-03-14

    Dairy products have previously been reported to be associated with beneficial effects on body weight and metabolic risk markers. Moreover, primary data from the Diet, Obesity and Genes (DiOGenes) study indicate a weight-maintaining effect of a high-protein-low-glycaemic index diet. The objective of the present study was to examine putative associations between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers after weight loss in obese and overweight adults. Results were based on secondary analyses of data obtained from overweight and obese adults who completed the DiOGenes study. The study consisted of an 8-week weight-loss phase and a 6-month weight-maintenance (WM) phase, where the subjects were given five different diets varying in protein content and glycaemic index. In the present study, data obtained from all the subjects were pooled. Dairy protein intake was estimated from 3 d dietary records at two time points (week 4 and week 26) during the WM phase. Body weight and metabolic risk markers were determined at baseline (week -9 to -11) and before and at the end of the WM phase (week 0 and week 26). Overall, no significant associations were found between consumption of dairy proteins and changes in body weight and metabolic risk markers. However, dairy protein intake tended to be negatively associated with body weight gain (P=0·08; β=-0·17), but this was not persistent when controlled for total protein intake, which indicates that dairy protein adds no additional effect to the effect of total protein. Therefore, the present study does not report that dairy proteins are more favourable than other proteins for body weight regulation.

  7. Association between dietary fibre intake and fruit, vegetable or whole-grain consumption and the risk of CVD: results from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Toledo, Estefania; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Zazpe, Itziar; Farràs, Marta; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Diez-Espino, Javier; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Marti, Amelia; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Moñino, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Babio, Nancy; Gonzalez, Jose I; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d. PMID:27264785

  8. Association between dietary fibre intake and fruit, vegetable or whole-grain consumption and the risk of CVD: results from the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea (PREDIMED) trial.

    PubMed

    Buil-Cosiales, Pilar; Toledo, Estefania; Salas-Salvadó, Jordi; Zazpe, Itziar; Farràs, Marta; Basterra-Gortari, Francisco Javier; Diez-Espino, Javier; Estruch, Ramon; Corella, Dolores; Ros, Emilio; Marti, Amelia; Gómez-Gracia, Enrique; Ortega-Calvo, Manuel; Arós, Fernando; Moñino, Manuel; Serra-Majem, Lluis; Pintó, Xavier; Lamuela-Raventós, Rosa Maria; Babio, Nancy; Gonzalez, Jose I; Fitó, Montserrat; Martínez-González, Miguel A

    2016-08-01

    Prospective studies assessing the association between fibre intake or fibre-rich food consumption and the risk of CVD have often been limited by baseline assessment of diet. Thus far, no study has used yearly repeated measurements of dietary changes during follow-up. Moreover, previous studies included healthy and selected participants who did not represent subjects at high cardiovascular risk. We used yearly repeated measurements of diet to investigate the association between fibre intake and CVD in a Mediterranean cohort of elderly adults at high cardiovascular risk. We followed-up 7216 men (55-80 years) and women (60-80 years) initially free of CVD for up to 7 years in the PREvención con DIeta MEDiterránea study (registered as ISRCTN35739639). A 137-item validated FFQ was repeated yearly to assess diet. The primary end point, confirmed by a blinded ad hoc Event Adjudication Committee, was a composite of cardiovascular death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Time-dependent Cox's regression models were used to estimate the risk of CVD according to baseline dietary exposures and to their yearly updated changes. We found a significant inverse association for fibre (P for trend=0·020) and fruits (P for trend=0·024) in age-sex adjusted models, but the statistical significance was lost in fully adjusted models. However, we found a significant inverse association with CVD incidence for the sum of fruit and vegetable consumption. Participants who consumed in total nine or more servings/d of fruits plus vegetables had a hazard ratio 0·60 (95 % CI 0·40, 0·96) of CVD in comparison with those consuming <5 servings/d.

  9. Association between fish and shellfish, and omega-3 PUFAs intake and CVD risk factors in middle-aged female patients with type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyesook; Park, Seokyung; Yang, Hyesu; Choi, Young Ju; Huh, Kap Bum

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES This study was performed to investigate the association between the dietary intake of fish and shellfish, and omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in the middle-aged Korean female patients with Type 2 diabetes (T2D). SUBJECTS/METHODS A cross-sectional analysis was performed with 356 female patients (means age: 55.5 years), who were recruited from the Huh's Diabetes Clinic in Seoul, Korea between 2005 and 2011. The dietary intake was assessed by a validated semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire and analyzed using the Computer Aided Nutritional Analysis program (CAN-Pro) version 4.0 software. RESULTS In a multiple regression analysis after the adjustment for confounding factors such as age, BMI, duration of diagnosed T2D, alcohol consumption, fiber intake, sodium intake, and total energy intake, fish and shellfish intake of the subjects was negatively associated with triglyceride and pulse wave velocity (PWV). Omega-3 PUFAs intake was negatively associated with triglyceride, systolic blood pressures, diastolic blood pressures, and PWV. The multiple logistic regression analysis with the covariates showed a significant inverse relationship between the omega-3 PUFAs consumption and prevalence of hypertriglyceridemia [OR (95% CI) for greater than the median compared to less than the median: 0.395 (0.207-0.753)]. CONCLUSIONS These results suggest that the consumption of fish and shellfish, good sources of omega-3 PUFAs, may reduce the risk factors for CVD in the middle-aged female patients with T2D. PMID:26425279

  10. Using an Electronic Medical Records Database to Identify Non-Traditional Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Kartoun, Uri; Zheng, Hui; Chung, Raymond T.; Shaw, Stanley Y.

    2016-01-01

    Among adults with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), 25% of deaths are attributable to cardiovascular disease (CVD). CVD risk reduction in NAFLD requires not only modification of traditional CVD risk factors but identification of risk factors unique to NAFLD. In a NAFLD cohort, we sought to identify non-traditional risk factors associated with CVD. NAFLD was determined by a previously described algorithm and a multivariate logistic regression model determined predictors of CVD. Of the 8,409 individuals with NAFLD, 3,243 had CVD and 5,166 did not. On multivariable analysis, CVD among NAFLD patients was associated with traditional CVD risk factors including family history of CVD (OR 4.25, P=0.0007), hypertension (OR 2.54, P=0.0017), renal failure (OR 1.59, P=0.04), and age (OR 1.05, P<0.0001). Several non-traditional CVD risk factors including albumin, sodium, and Model for End-Stage Liver Disease (MELD) score were associated with CVD. On multivariable analysis, an increased MELD score (OR 1.10, P<0.0001) was associated with an increased risk of CVD. Albumin (OR 0.52, P<0.0001) and sodium (OR 0.96, P=0.037) were inversely associated with CVD. In addition, CVD was more common among those with a NAFLD fibrosis score >0.676 than those with a score ≤0.676 (39 vs. 20%, P<0.0001). CVD in NAFLD is associated with traditional CVD risk factors, as well as higher MELD scores and lower albumin and sodium levels. Individuals with evidence of advanced fibrosis were more likely to have CVD. These findings suggest that the drivers of NAFLD may also promote CVD development and progression. PMID:26925881

  11. Chemical Mixture Risk Assessment Additivity-Based Approaches

    EPA Science Inventory

    Powerpoint presentation includes additivity-based chemical mixture risk assessment methods. Basic concepts, theory and example calculations are included. Several slides discuss the use of "common adverse outcomes" in analyzing phthalate mixtures.

  12. Racial/ethnic heterogeneity in the socioeconomic patterning of CVD risk factors: in the United States: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Boykin, Shawn; Diez-Roux, Ana V; Carnethon, Mercedes; Shrager, Sandi; Ni, Hanyu; Whitt-Glover, Melicia

    2011-02-01

    Many studies document racial variation, gender differences, and socioeconomic status (SES) patterning in cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors but few studies have investigated heterogeneity in SES differences by race/ethnicity or gender. Using data from the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (N=6,814) and stratified regression models, we investigated race/ethnic differences in the SES patterning of diabetes, hypertension, smoking, and body mass index (BMI). Inverse socioeconomic gradients in hypertension, diabetes, smoking, and BMI were observed in White and Black women but associations were weaker or absent in Hispanic and Chinese women (except in the case of diabetes for Hispanic women). Even greater heterogeneity in social patterning of risk factors was observed in men. In White men all four risk factors were inversely associated with socioeconomic position, although often associations were only present or were stronger for education than for income. The inverse socioeconomic patterning was much less consistent in men of other races/ethnic groups, and higher SES was associated with higher BMI in non-White men. These findings have implications for understanding the causes of social patterning, for the analysis of SES adjusted race/ethnic differences, and for the targeting of interventions.

  13. Primary prevention of CVD: diet

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Diet is important in the cause of many chronic diseases. Individual change in dietary behaviour has the potential to decrease the burden of chronic disease, particularly cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods and outcomes We conducted a systematic review and aimed to answer the following clinical question: What are the effects of dietary advice in generally healthy adults without existing CVD or increased CVD risk factors to improve cardiovascular outcomes (mortality, cardiovascular events, and cardiovascular risk factors)? We searched: Medline, Embase, The Cochrane Library, and other important databases up to March 2014 (Clinical Evidence reviews are updated periodically; please check our website for the most up-to-date version of this review). We included harms alerts from relevant organisations such as the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the UK Medicines and Healthcare products Regulatory Agency (MHRA). Results We found 14 studies that met our inclusion criteria. We performed a GRADE evaluation of the quality of evidence for interventions. Conclusions In this systematic review, we present information relating to the effectiveness and safety of the following interventions: advice to increase fibre intake alone, advice to increase fruit and vegetable intake alone, advice to reduce and/or modify fat intake alone, and advice to reduce sodium intake alone. PMID:25268279

  14. Validation of biomarkers of CVD risk from dried blood spots in community-based research: Methodologies and study-specific serum equivalencies

    PubMed Central

    Samuelsson, Laura B.; Hall, Martica H.; McLean, Shakir; Porter, James H.; Berkman, Lisa; Marino, Miguel; Sembajwe, Grace; McDade, Thomas W.; Buxton, Orfeu M.

    2016-01-01

    Objective Dried blood spot (DBS) methodology offers significant advantages over venipuncture in vulnerable populations or large-scale studies, including reduced participant burden and higher response rates. Uncertainty about validity of cardiovascular risk biomarkers remains a barrier to wide-scale use. We determined the validity of DBS-derived biomarkers of CVD risk versus gold-standard assessments, and study-specific, serum-equivalency values for clinical relevance of DBS-derived values. Methods Concurrent venipuncture serum and DBS samples (n=150 adults) were assayed in CLIA-certified and DBS laboratories, respectively. Time controls of DBS standard samples were assayed single-blind along with test samples. Linear regression analyses evaluated DBS-to-serum equivalency values; agreement and bias were assessed via Bland-Altman plots. Results Linear regressions of venipuncture values on DBS-to-serum equivalencies provided R2 values for TC, HDL-C, CRP of 0.484, 0.118, 0.666, respectively. Bland-Altman plots revealed minimal systematic bias between DBS-to-serum and venipuncture values; precision worsened at higher mean values of CRP. Time controls reveal little degradation or change in analyte values for HDL-C and CRP over 30 weeks. Conclusions DBS-assessed biomarkers represent a valid alternative to venipuncture assessments. Large studies using DBS should include study-specific serum-equivalency determinations to optimize individual-level sensitivity, viability of detecting intervention effects, and generalizability in community-level, primary prevention interventions. PMID:26652683

  15. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds in BABAR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Edwards, A. J.; Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Petersen, B. A.; Pulliam, T.

    2005-10-01

    The BABAR experiment has been using two polycrystalline chemical-vapor-deposition (pCVD) diamonds for radiation monitoring for nearly 2 years. In July 2005, an additional 12 diamond based radiation sensors will be installed inside the BABAR detector. These diamonds will take over the function of 12 silicon PIN-diodes that are currently used in the radiation protection and monitoring system. We describe our highly successful experience with using pCVD diamond radiation sensors in a high energy physics experiment. We also detail our findings of persistent signal currents and magnetically suppressed erratic dark currents in pCVD diamond based radiation sensors.

  16. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan.

  17. Childhood obesity: the impact on long-term risk of metabolic and CVD is not necessarily inevitable.

    PubMed

    McMullen, Sarah

    2014-08-01

    The worldwide prevalence of overweight and obesity in the adult population is estimated to be 35%. These trends are reflected in childhood obesity prevalence, and the potential impact of early-onset obesity is of great concern. The aim of this review was to investigate the long-term implications of childhood obesity for metabolic and cardiovascular health, focusing on the independent contribution of childhood obesity to adult disease risk, as distinct from associations mediated by tracking of obesity across the lifespan. The data systematically reviewed provide little evidence to suggest that childhood overweight and obesity are independent risk factors for metabolic and cardiovascular risk during adulthood. Instead, the data demonstrate that the relationships observed are dependent on tracking of BMI between childhood and adulthood, alongside persistence of dietary patterns and physical activity. Adjustment for adult BMI uncovers unexpected negative associations between childhood BMI and adult disease, suggesting a protective effect of childhood obesity at any given level of adult BMI. Further work is required to explain these findings, both in terms of pathways and statistical artefacts. To conclude, it must be stressed that it is not suggested that childhood obesity is without negative consequence. Childhood obesity is clearly associated with a range of adverse physical and psychological outcomes. However, the data are important in supporting a positive message that the long-term consequences of childhood obesity are avoidable; and that there remains opportunity for intervention across the lifespan. This nuance in understanding long-term risk is important when considering the effectiveness of interventions at different stages of the lifespan. PMID:25027289

  18. Fracture Characteristics of Monolayer CVD-Graphene

    PubMed Central

    Hwangbo, Yun; Lee, Choong-Kwang; Kim, Sang-Min; Kim, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Kwang-Seop; Jang, Bongkyun; Lee, Hak-Joo; Lee, Seoung-Ki; Kim, Seong-Su; Ahn, Jong-Hyun; Lee, Seung-Mo

    2014-01-01

    We have observed and analyzed the fracture characteristics of the monolayer CVD-graphene using pressure bulge testing setup. The monolayer CVD-graphene has appeared to undergo environmentally assisted subcritical crack growth in room condition, i.e. stress corrosion cracking arising from the adsorption of water vapor on the graphene and the subsequent chemical reactions. The crack propagation in graphene has appeared to be able to be reasonably tamed by adjusting applied humidity and stress. The fracture toughness, describing the ability of a material containing inherent flaws to resist catastrophic failure, of the CVD-graphene has turned out to be exceptionally high, as compared to other carbon based 3D materials. These results imply that the CVD-graphene could be an ideal candidate as a structural material notwithstanding environmental susceptibility. In addition, the measurements reported here suggest that specific non-continuum fracture behaviors occurring in 2D monoatomic structures can be macroscopically well visualized and characterized. PMID:24657996

  19. Applying Health Locus of Control and Latent Class Modelling to food and physical activity choices affecting CVD risk.

    PubMed

    Grisolía, José M; Longo, Alberto; Hutchinson, George; Kee, Frank

    2015-05-01

    Health Locus of Control (HLC) classifies our beliefs about the connection between our actions and health outcomes (Skinner, 1996) into three categories: "internal control", corresponding to health being the result of an individual's effort and habits; "control by powerful others", whereby health depends on others, such as doctors; and "chance control", according to which health depends on fate and chance. Using Choice Experiments we investigate the relationship between HLC and willingness to change lifestyle, in terms of eating habits, physical activity and associated cardiovascular disease risk, in a 384 person sample representative of the 40-65 aged population of Northern Ireland administered between February and July 2011. Using latent class analysis we identify three discrete classes of people based on their HLC: the first class is sceptical about their capacity to control their health and certain unhealthy habits. Despite being unsatisfied with their situation, they are reluctant to accept behaviour changes. The second is a group of individuals unhappy with their current situation but willing to change through exercise and diet. Finally, a group of healthy optimists is identified, who are satisfied with their current situation but happy to take more physical activity and improve their diet. Our findings show that any policy designed to modify people's health related behaviour should consider the needs of this sceptical class which represents a considerable proportion of the population in the region.

  20. Perceived and actual risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Boo, Sunjoo; Froelicher, Erika S.; Yun, Ju-Hui; Kim, Ye-Won; Jung, Ju-Yang; Suh, Chang-Hee

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purposes of this study were to compare the perceived and actual 10-year risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and to evaluate the influence of cardiovascular risk factors on perceived CVD risk in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in Korea. Additionally, the attainment of CVD prevention guideline goals by 3 levels of CVD risk (low, moderate, and high) was presented. For this cross-sectional study, data were collected from 208 patients with RA. Actual CVD risk was estimated with the Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE), and goal attainment was assessed based on the European League Against Rheumatism guidelines. Actual CVD risk and perceived risk were compared with cross-tabulation. Chi-square tests were used to evaluate differences in cardiovascular risk factors by perceived risk. Levels of goal attainment were presented in percentages. Among patients with RA, 13.9% were identified as being at high risk for CVD, whereas 39.9% were at moderate risk, and 46.2% were at low risk. The majority of those at high risk (96.6%) underestimated their risk for CVD. The use of antihypertensive or lipid-lowering medications and having a parental history of CVD significantly increased the likelihood that subjects with RA would perceive themselves as being at high risk for CVD. Diabetes, smoking, physical inactivity, and obesity did not affect perceived risk. A substantial proportion of the subjects with RA did not meet the prevention guideline goals. Patients with RA who are at increased risk of developing CVD must be managed as soon as possible to attain the guideline goals and, accordingly, lower their risk of future CVD. PMID:27749595

  1. The effect of dietary changes on distinct components of the metabolic syndrome in a young Sri Lankan population at high risk of CVD.

    PubMed

    Guess, Nicola; Wijesuriya, Mahen; Vasantharajah, Laksha; Gulliford, Martin; Viberti, Giancarlo; Gnudi, Luigi; Karalliedde, Janaka

    2016-08-01

    South Asian populations are predisposed to early onset of the metabolic syndrome. Lifestyle intervention programmes have demonstrated a reduction in the metabolic syndrome and CVD risk; however, the most effective components of the multi-faceted lifestyle interventions are unknown. We studied 2637 Sri Lankan males (n 1237) and females (n 1380), with a mean BMI of 23·9 (sd 4·2) kg/m2, aged 22·5 (sd 10·0) years, who had participated in a 5-year lifestyle-modification programme to examine the effect of dietary changes on distinct components of the metabolic syndrome. The dietary intervention comprised advice to replace polished starches with unpolished starches, high-fat meat and dairy products with low-fat products and high-sugar beverages and snacks with low-sugar varieties. For the purposes of this analysis, data from the control and intensive lifestyle groups were combined. Anthropometric and biochemical data were recorded, and a FFQ was completed annually. Multiple regression was used to determine the effect of the dietary changes on distinct components of the metabolic syndrome. The ratio unpolished:polished rice was inversely related to change in fasting glucose (β=-0·084, P=0·007) and TAG (β=-0·084, P=0·005) and positively associated with change in HDL-cholesterol (β=0·066, P=0·031) at the 5-year follow-up after controlling for relevant confounders. Red meat intake was positively associated with fasting glucose concentrations (β=0·05, P=0·017), whereas low-fat (β=-0·046, P=0·018) but not high-fat dairy products (β=0·003, P=0·853) was inversely related to glucose tolerance at the follow-up visit. Replacement of polished with unpolished rice may be a particularly effective dietary advice in this and similar populations. PMID:27358019

  2. Dietary flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence in the Framingham Offspring Cohort.

    PubMed

    Jacques, Paul F; Cassidy, Aedin; Rogers, Gail; Peterson, Julia J; Dwyer, Johanna T

    2015-11-14

    This study examines the relationship between long-term intake of six flavonoid classes and incidence of CVD and CHD, using a comprehensive flavonoid database and repeated measures of intake, while accounting for possible confounding by components of a healthy dietary pattern. Flavonoid intakes were assessed using a FFQ among the Framingham Offspring Cohort at baseline and three times during follow-up. Cox proportional hazards regression was used to characterise prospective associations between the natural logarithms of flavonoid intakes and CVD incidence using a time-dependent approach, in which intake data were updated at each examination to represent average intakes from previous examinations. Mean baseline age was 54 years, and 45 % of the population was male. Over an average 14·9 years of follow-up among 2880 participants, there were 518 CVD events and 261 CHD events. After multivariable adjustment, only flavonol intake was significantly associated with lower risk of CVD incidence (hazard ratios (HR) per 2·5-fold flavonol increase=0·86, P trend=0·05). Additional adjustment for total fruit and vegetable intake and overall diet quality attenuated this observation (HR=0·89, P trend=0·20 and HR=0·92, P trend=0·33, respectively). There were no significant associations between flavonoids and CHD incidence after multivariable adjustment. Our findings suggest that the observed association between flavonol intake and CVD risk may be a consequence of better overall diet. However, the strength of this non-significant association was also consistent with relative risks observed in previous meta-analyses, and therefore a modest benefit of flavonol intake on CVD risk cannot be ruled out.

  3. Risk analysis of sulfites used as food additives in China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian Bo; Zhang, Hong; Wang, Hua Li; Zhang, Ji Yue; Luo, Peng Jie; Zhu, Lei; Wang, Zhu Tian

    2014-02-01

    This study was to analyze the risk of sulfites in food consumed by the Chinese people and assess the health protection capability of maximum-permitted level (MPL) of sulfites in GB 2760-2011. Sulfites as food additives are overused or abused in many food categories. When the MPL in GB 2760-2011 was used as sulfites content in food, the intake of sulfites in most surveyed populations was lower than the acceptable daily intake (ADI). Excess intake of sulfites was found in all the surveyed groups when a high percentile of sulfites in food was in taken. Moreover, children aged 1-6 years are at a high risk to intake excess sulfites. The primary cause for the excess intake of sulfites in Chinese people is the overuse and abuse of sulfites by the food industry. The current MPL of sulfites in GB 2760-2011 protects the health of most populations.

  4. Epigenetic modifications and human pathologies: cancer and CVD.

    PubMed

    Duthie, Susan J

    2011-02-01

    Epigenetic changes are inherited alterations in DNA that affect gene expression and function without altering the DNA sequence. DNA methylation is one epigenetic process implicated in human disease that is influenced by diet. DNA methylation involves addition of a 1-C moiety to cytosine groups in DNA. Methylated genes are not transcribed or are transcribed at a reduced rate. Global under-methylation (hypomethylation) and site-specific over-methylation (hypermethylation) are common features of human tumours. DNA hypomethylation, leading to increased expression of specific proto-oncogenes (e.g. genes involved in proliferation or metastasis) can increase the risk of cancer as can hypermethylation and reduced expression of tumour suppressor (TS) genes (e.g. DNA repair genes). DNA methyltransferases (DNMT), together with the methyl donor S-adenosylmethionine (SAM), facilitate DNA methylation. Abnormal DNA methylation is implicated not only in the development of human cancer but also in CVD. Polyphenols, a group of phytochemicals consumed in significant amounts in the human diet, effect risk of cancer. Flavonoids from tea, soft fruits and soya are potent inhibitors of DNMT in vitro, capable of reversing hypermethylation and reactivating TS genes. Folates, a group of water-soluble B vitamins found in high concentration in green leafy vegetables, regulate DNA methylation through their ability to generate SAM. People who habitually consume the lowest level of folate or with the lowest blood folate concentrations have a significantly increased risk of developing several cancers and CVD. This review describes how flavonoids and folates in the human diet alter DNA methylation and may modify the risk of human colon cancer and CVD.

  5. Integrating Biomarkers and Imaging for Cardiovascular Disease Risk Assessment in Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Tehrani, David M; Wong, Nathan D

    2016-11-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk assessment has changed substantially in recent years. While older guidelines considered diabetes a coronary disease risk equivalent, more recent guidelines recommend risk stratification on the basis of global risk scoring to target intensity of therapy. While patients with diabetes as a whole are at greater risk for CVD events, these patients may also benefit from risk stratification based on circulating biomarkers like high-sensitivity C-reactive protein, high-sensitivity cardiac troponin T, and N-terminal pro-B-type natriuretic peptide, as well as newer imaging modalities (coronary artery calcium, carotid intima-media thickness, and myocardial perfusion imaging). The addition of these CVD risk assessment modalities could play an important role for deciding how aggressive a physician should be with pharmacological therapy. Here, we discuss many of the current recommendations of CVD risk assessment in patients with diabetes including newer modalities for CVD risk assessment. PMID:27612474

  6. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in native Americans: a literature review.

    PubMed

    Ellis, J L; Campos-Outcalt, D

    1994-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become the leading cause of death for Native Americans and Alaska Natives. CVD risk factors (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, hypercholesterolemia, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle) have been studied in a number of Native American tribes, and such studies are increasing as the CVD mortality rate rises. This article reviews the literature between 1980 and 1991 concerning the prevalence of CVD risk factors in this population. In addition to summarizing the data, we describe limitations inherent in comparison and address the need for standardization of methodology in future studies. PMID:7848673

  7. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    qualitatively from the known successes. They do not tackle the initial cause, namely the carbon-dioxide inputs that are too high. This is their additional specific risk. 'The acceptability of geoengineering will be determined as much by social, legal and political issues as by scientific and technical factors', conclude Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon (2010) when reviewing social and ethical implications of geoengineering the climate. It is to debate in that context that most geoengineering technologies are 'end of the pipe technologies', what involves an additional specific risk. Should these technologies be part of the toolbox to tackle anthropogenic climate change? Adam Corner and Nick Pidgeon 2010, Geoengineering the climate: The social and ethical implications, Environment Vol. 52.

  8. Cardiovascular Disease Prevalence and Risk Factors of Persons with Mental Retardation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Draheim, Christopher C.

    2006-01-01

    This paper reviews the recent literature on cardiovascular disease (CVD) prevalence, CVD-related mortality, physiological CVD risk factors, and behavioral CVD risk factors in adults with mental retardation (MR). The literature on the potential influences of modifiable behavioral CVD risk factors and the physiological CVD risk factors are also…

  9. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  10. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  11. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  12. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  13. 46 CFR 308.204 - Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance... OPERATIONS WAR RISK INSURANCE War Risk Protection and Indemnity Insurance § 308.204 Additional war risk protection and indemnity insurance. Owners or charterers may obtain, on an excess basis, additional war...

  14. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye & Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events

    PubMed Central

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30–300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  15. Joint Effect of Early Microvascular Damage in the Eye &Kidney on Risk of Cardiovascular Events.

    PubMed

    Yip, Wanfen; Sabanayagam, Charumathi; Ong, Peng Guan; Patel, Uptal D; Chow, Khuan Yew; Tai, E Shyong; Ling, Lieng H; Wong, Tien Yin; Cheung, Carol Yim-Lui

    2016-01-01

    Microalbuminuria is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), but not all individuals require treatment. Retinal microvascular abnormalities and microalbuminuria reflect early systemic microvascular changes. We examined the joint effect of retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on CVD risk in an Asian cohort. We conducted a prospective, population-based study. Retinal abnormalities were defined as presence of retinopathy and/or retinal venular widening. Microalbuminuria was defined as urinary albumin: creatinine ratio between 30-300 mg/g. Incident CVD was defined as newly diagnosed clinical stroke, acute myocardial infarction or CVD death. Cox regression models were performed to determine the associations between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria with risk of CVD, while controlling for established risk factors. 3,496 participants (aged ≥ 40) were free of prevalent CVD. During the follow-up (5.8 years), 126 (3.60%) participants developed CVD. Persons presenting with both retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria were 6.71 times (95% CI, 2.68, 16.79) as likely to have incident CVD compared with those without either abnormalities. There was a significant interaction effect between retinal abnormalities and microalbuminuria on incident CVD. Assessment of retinal abnormalities in patients with microalbuminuria may provide additional value in identifying persons at risk of developing CVD. PMID:27273133

  16. Homocysteine, B-vitamins and CVD.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Pentieva, Kristina; Hoey, Leane; Ward, Mary

    2008-05-01

    There is considerable interest in plasma homocysteine (tHcy) as a CVD risk factor. Although the secondary prevention trials published to date have been inconclusive in confirming a benefit of tHcy-lowering treatment with B-vitamins on CVD events generally, such studies are widely recognised to have been insufficiently powered to detect a significant effect for the predicted magnitude of association between tHcy and heart disease risk, and therefore cannot be interpreted as evidence that no relationship exists. In fact, a recent meta-analysis of clinical trials has confirmed that folic acid supplementation reduces the risk of stroke, particularly in individuals without a history of stroke. Evidence supporting a causal relationship between elevated tHcy and heart disease also comes from genetic studies. The most important genetic determinant of tHcy in the general population is the common C677T variant in methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) that results in higher tHcy. Individuals with the homozygous mutant (TT) genotype have a significantly higher (14-21%) risk of heart disease. Plasma tHcy is very responsive to intervention with the B-vitamins required for its metabolism, in particular folic acid, and to a lesser extent vitamins B12 and B6. Thus, although primarily aimed at reducing neural-tube defects, folic acid fortification may have an important role in the primary prevention of CVD via tHcy lowering. Besides folate, riboflavin is required as a cofactor for MTHFR and enhanced riboflavin status results in a marked lowering in tHcy specifically in individuals with the TT genotype, presumably by neutralising the variant form of the enzyme. About 10% of the UK and Irish populations have the TT genotype. In the present paper the potential role of folate and related B-vitamins in the primary prevention of CVD and the implications for nutrition policy are explored. PMID:18412997

  17. Body Composition Indices and Single and Clustered Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Adolescents: Providing Clinical-Based Cut-Points.

    PubMed

    Gracia-Marco, Luis; Moreno, Luis A; Ruiz, Jonatan R; Ortega, Francisco B; de Moraes, Augusto César Ferreira; Gottrand, Frederic; Roccaldo, Romana; Marcos, Ascensión; Gómez-Martínez, Sonia; Dallongeville, Jean; Kafatos, Anthony; Molnar, Denes; Bueno, Gloria; de Henauw, Stefaan; Widhalm, Kurt; Wells, Jonathan C

    2016-01-01

    The aims of the present study in adolescents were 1) to examine how various body composition-screening tests relate to single and clustered cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, 2) to examine how lean mass and body fatness (independently of each other) relate to clustered CVD risk factors, and 3) to calculate specific thresholds for body composition indices associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk. We measured 1089 European adolescents (46.7% boys, 12.5-17.49years) in 2006-2007. CVD risk factors included: systolic blood pressure, maximum oxygen uptake, homeostasis model assessment, C-reactive protein (n=748), total cholesterol/high density lipoprotein cholesterol and triglycerides. Body composition indices included: height, body mass index (BMI), lean mass, the sum of four skinfolds, central/peripheral skinfolds, waist circumference (WC), waist-to-height ratio (WHtR) and waist-to-hip ratio (WHR). Most body composition indices are associated with single CVD risk factors. The sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are strong and positively associated with clustered CVD risk. Interestingly, lean mass is positively associated with clustered CVD risk independently of body fatness in girls. Moderate and highly accurate thresholds for the sum of four skinfolds, WHtR, BMI, WC and lean mass are associated with an unhealthier clustered CVD risk (all AUC>0.773). In conclusion, our results support an association between most of the assessed body composition indices and single and clustered CVD risk factors. In addition, lean mass (independent of body fatness) is positively associated with clustered CVD risk in girls, which is a novel finding that helps to understand why an index such as BMI is a good index of CVD risk but a bad index of adiposity. Moderate to highly accurate thresholds for body composition indices associated with a healthier clustered CVD risk were found. Further studies with a longitudinal design are needed to confirm these findings

  18. Analysis of the prevalence of cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors for European-American and African-American populations in the state of Pennsylvania 2005-2009.

    PubMed

    Long, Yong; Gracely, Edward J; Newschaffer, Craig J; Liu, Longjian

    2013-01-01

    We examined the burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its associated risk factors using statewide representative data from the Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System. The data from 35,576 subjects aged ≥ 18 years participating in the Pennsylvania Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System in 2005, 2007, and 2009 were analyzed. The age-adjusted prevalence rates of CVD were computed. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine associations between the risk factors and CVD prevalence, with adjustment for confounding variables. The results showed that no significant changes in the prevalence of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke were observed in either European Americans or African Americans from 2005 to 2009 (p >0.05). African Americans had significantly greater CVD rates than European Americans. Although smoking rates significantly decreased, several other CVD risk factors (i.e., obesity, hypertension, and hypercholesterolemia) significantly increased from 2005 to 2009 in European Americans. Similar changes were observed in African Americans, although these changes did not reach statistical significance. Logistic regression analysis indicated that African Americans had a 35% greater risk of CVD. Education level less than high school, smoking, obesity, hypertension, and diabetes were significantly and positively associated with CVD. In conclusion, no significant achievements in CVD control and risk factor reduction were observed from 2005 to 2009 in Pennsylvania. Additional aggressive control of hypertension, obesity, and diabetes for both European and African Americans must be made to reduce the burden of CVD.

  19. Towards a general growth model for graphene CVD on transition metal catalysts† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr06873h Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Cabrero-Vilatela, Andrea; Braeuninger-Weimer, Philipp; Caneva, Sabina; Hofmann, Stephan

    2016-01-01

    The chemical vapour deposition (CVD) of graphene on three polycrystalline transition metal catalysts, Co, Ni and Cu, is systematically compared and a first-order growth model is proposed which can serve as a reference to optimize graphene growth on any elemental or alloy catalyst system. Simple thermodynamic considerations of carbon solubility are insufficient to capture even basic growth behaviour on these most commonly used catalyst materials, and it is shown that kinetic aspects such as carbon permeation have to be taken into account. Key CVD process parameters are discussed in this context and the results are anticipated to be highly useful for the design of future strategies for integrated graphene manufacture. PMID:26730836

  20. Shared Risk Factors in Cardiovascular Disease and Cancer.

    PubMed

    Koene, Ryan J; Prizment, Anna E; Blaes, Anne; Konety, Suma H

    2016-03-15

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cancer are the 2 leading causes of death worldwide. Although commonly thought of as 2 separate disease entities, CVD and cancer possess various similarities and possible interactions, including a number of similar risk factors (eg, obesity, diabetes mellitus), suggesting a shared biology for which there is emerging evidence. Although chronic inflammation is an indispensable feature of the pathogenesis and progression of both CVD and cancer, additional mechanisms can be found at their intersection. Therapeutic advances, despite improving longevity, have increased the overlap between these diseases, with millions of cancer survivors now at risk of developing CVD. Cardiac risk factors have a major impact on subsequent treatment-related cardiotoxicity. In this review, we explore the risk factors common to both CVD and cancer, highlighting the major epidemiological studies and potential biological mechanisms that account for them. PMID:26976915

  1. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  2. Change in cardiovascular risk factors following early diagnosis of type 2 diabetes: a cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, James A; Sharp, Stephen J; Wareham, Nicholas J; Sandbæk, Annelli; Rutten, Guy EHM; Lauritzen, Torsten; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J; Borch-Johnsen, Knut; Griffin, Simon J; Simmons, Rebecca K

    2014-01-01

    Background There is little evidence to inform the targeted treatment of individuals found early in the diabetes disease trajectory. Aim To describe cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk profiles and treatment of individual CVD risk factors by modelled CVD risk at diagnosis; changes in treatment, modelled CVD risk, and CVD risk factors in the 5 years following diagnosis; and how these are patterned by socioeconomic status. Design and setting Cohort analysis of a cluster-randomised trial (ADDITION-Europe) in general practices in Denmark, England, and the Netherlands. Method A total of 2418 individuals with screen-detected diabetes were divided into quartiles of modelled 10-year CVD risk at diagnosis. Changes in treatment, modelled CVD risk, and CVD risk factors were assessed at 5 years. Results The largest reductions in risk factors and modelled CVD risk were seen in participants who were in the highest quartile of modelled risk at baseline, suggesting that treatment was offered appropriately. Participants in the lowest quartile of risk at baseline had very similar levels of modelled CVD risk at 5 years and showed the least variation in change in modelled risk. No association was found between socioeconomic status and changes in CVD risk factors, suggesting that treatment was equitable. Conclusion Diabetes management requires setting of individualised attainable targets. This analysis provides a reference point for patients, clinicians, and policymakers when considering goals for changes in risk factors early in the course of the disease that account for the diverse cardiometabolic profile present in individuals who are newly diagnosed with type 2 diabetes. PMID:24686885

  3. Dairy consumption and CVD: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Alexander, Dominik D; Bylsma, Lauren C; Vargas, Ashley J; Cohen, Sarah S; Doucette, Abigail; Mohamed, Muhima; Irvin, Sarah R; Miller, Paula E; Watson, Heather; Fryzek, Jon P

    2016-02-28

    Inverse associations between dairy consumption and CVD have been reported in several epidemiological studies. Our objective was to conduct a meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies of dairy intake and CVD. A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify studies that reported risk estimates for total dairy intake, individual dairy products, low/full-fat dairy intake, Ca from dairy sources and CVD, CHD and stroke. Random-effects meta-analyses were used to generate summary relative risk estimates (SRRE) for high v. low intake and stratified intake dose-response analyses. Additional dose-response analyses were performed. Heterogeneity was examined in sub-group and sensitivity analyses. In total, thirty-one unique cohort studies were identified and included in the meta-analysis. Several statistically significant SRRE below 1.0 were observed, namely for total dairy intake and stroke (SRRE=0·91; 95% CI 0·83, 0·99), cheese intake and CHD (SRRE=0·82; 95% CI 0·72, 0·93) and stroke (SRRE=0·87; 95% CI 0·77, 0·99), and Ca from dairy sources and stroke (SRRE=0·69; 95% CI 0·60, 0·81). However, there was little evidence for inverse dose-response relationships between the dairy variables and CHD and stroke after adjusting for within-study covariance. The results of this meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies have shown that dairy consumption may be associated with reduced risks of CVD, although additional data are needed to more comprehensively examine potential dose-response patterns.

  4. Insulin resistance: an additional risk factor in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Patel, Tushar P; Rawal, Komal; Bagchi, Ashim K; Akolkar, Gauri; Bernardes, Nathalia; Dias, Danielle da Silva; Gupta, Sarita; Singal, Pawan K

    2016-01-01

    Sedentary life style and high calorie dietary habits are prominent leading cause of metabolic syndrome in modern world. Obesity plays a central role in occurrence of various diseases like hyperinsulinemia, hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, which lead to insulin resistance and metabolic derangements like cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mediated by oxidative stress. The mortality rate due to CVDs is on the rise in developing countries. Insulin resistance (IR) leads to micro or macro angiopathy, peripheral arterial dysfunction, hampered blood flow, hypertension, as well as the cardiomyocyte and the endothelial cell dysfunctions, thus increasing risk factors for coronary artery blockage, stroke and heart failure suggesting that there is a strong association between IR and CVDs. The plausible linkages between these two pathophysiological conditions are altered levels of insulin signaling proteins such as IR-β, IRS-1, PI3K, Akt, Glut4 and PGC-1α that hamper insulin-mediated glucose uptake as well as other functions of insulin in the cardiomyocytes and the endothelial cells of the heart. Reduced AMPK, PFK-2 and elevated levels of NADP(H)-dependent oxidases produced by activated M1 macrophages of the adipose tissue and elevated levels of circulating angiotensin are also cause of CVD in diabetes mellitus condition. Insulin sensitizers, angiotensin blockers, superoxide scavengers are used as therapeutics in the amelioration of CVD. It evidently becomes important to unravel the mechanisms of the association between IR and CVDs in order to formulate novel efficient drugs to treat patients suffering from insulin resistance-mediated cardiovascular diseases. The possible associations between insulin resistance and cardiovascular diseases are reviewed here. PMID:26542377

  5. C(1) metabolism and CVD outcomes in older adults.

    PubMed

    McNulty, Helene; Strain, J J; Pentieva, Kristina; Ward, Mary

    2012-05-01

    CVD is the most common cause of death in people over 65 years. This review considers the latest evidence for a potential protective effect of C(1) donors (folate and the metabolically related B-vitamins) in CVD. Such an effect may or may not be mediated via the role of these nutrients in maintaining plasma homocysteine concentrations within a desirable range. Despite predictions from epidemiological studies that lowering plasma homocysteine would reduce cardiovascular risk, several secondary prevention trials in at-risk patients published since 2004 have failed to demonstrate a benefit of homocysteine-lowering therapy with B-vitamins on CVD events generally. All these trials were performed in CVD patients with advanced disease; thus current evidence suggests that intervention with high-dose folic acid is of no benefit in preventing another event, at least in the case of heart disease. The evidence at this time, however, is stronger for stroke, with meta-analyses of randomised trials showing that folic acid reduces the risk of stroke, particularly in people with no history of stroke. Genetic studies provide convincing evidence to support a causal relationship between sub-optimal B-vitamin status and CVD. People homozygous for the common C677T variant in the gene encoding the folate-metabolising enzyme, methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR), typically have a 14-21% higher risk of CVD. Apart from folate, riboflavin is required as a co-factor for MTHFR. New evidence shows that riboflavin intervention results in marked lowering of blood pressure, specifically in patients with the MTHFR 677TT genotype. This novel gene-nutrient interaction may provide insights as to the mechanism that links C(1) metabolism with CVD outcomes. PMID:22152927

  6. Additional safety risk to exceptionally approved drugs in Europe?

    PubMed Central

    Arnardottir, Arna H; Haaijer-Ruskamp, Flora M; Straus, Sabine M J; Eichler, Hans-Georg; de Graeff, Pieter A; Mol, Peter G M

    2011-01-01

    AIMS Regulatory requirements for new drugs have increased. Special approval procedures with priority assessment are possible for drugs with clear ‘unmet medical need’. We question whether these Exceptional Circumstances (EC) or Conditional Approval (CA) procedures have led to a higher probability of serious safety issues. METHODS A retrospective cohort study was performed of new drugs approved in Europe between 1999 and 2009. The determinant was EC/CA vs. standard procedure approval. Outcome variables were frequency and timing of a first Direct Healthcare Professional Communication (DHPC). An association between approval procedure and the time from market approval to DHPC was assessed using Kaplan-Meyer survival analysis and Cox-regression to correct for covariates. RESULTS In total 289 new drugs were approved. Forty-six (16.4%) were approved under EC or CA, of which seven received a DHPC (15%). This was similar to the standard approval drugs (243), of which 33 received one or more DHPC (14%, P = 0.77). The probability of acquiring a DHPC for standard approval drugs vs. EC/CA drugs during 11-year follow-up is 22% (95% CI 14%, 29%) and 26% (95% CI 8%, 44%), respectively (log-rank P = 0.726). This difference remained not significant in the Cox-regression model: hazard ratio 0.94 (95% CI 0.40, 2.20). Only drug type was identified as a confounding covariate. CONCLUSION The EC/CA procedure is not associated with a higher probability of DHPCs despite limited clinical development data. These data do not support the view that early drug approval increases the risk of serious safety issues emerging after market approval. PMID:21501215

  7. Incidence and risk factors for cardiovascular disease in African Americans with diabetes: the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study.

    PubMed Central

    Adeniyi, Ayokanmi; Folsom, Aaron R.; Brancati, Frederick L.; Desvorieux, Moise; Pankow, James S.; Taylor, Herman

    2002-01-01

    To determine the incidence rate of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and its association with conventional and less well-established risk factors in African Americans with diabetes, we studied 741 African Americans aged 45 to 64 years with diabetes, in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) study. Risk factors were measured from 1987 to 1989, and incident CVD (n = 143 coronary heart disease (CHD) or stroke events) was ascertained through 1998. The crude incidence rate (per 1000 person-years) of CVD was 22.5 (11.9 for CHD and 12.0 for stroke). After multivariate adjustments, total cholesterol, prevalent hypertension and current smoking were significantly and positively associated with incident CVD among these African Americans with diabetes. Among the non-conventional risk factors, serum creatinine, factor VIII, von Willebrand factor, and white blood cell count were positively and serum albumin negatively and independently associated with CVD incidence. Adjusted relative risks for highest versus lowest tertiles of these risk factors ranged from 1.77 to 2.13. This study confirms that the major risk factors (hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking) are important determinants of CVD in African Americans with diabetes. In addition, several blood markers of hemostasis or inflammatory response and elevated serum creatinine also proved to be CVD risk factors in African Americans with diabetes. PMID:12510702

  8. Adverse Pregnancy Outcomes and Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Puja K.; Minissian, Margo; Merz, C. Noel Bairey

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to established risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman’s risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1 year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  9. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors. PMID:26159741

  10. Adverse pregnancy outcomes and cardiovascular risk factor management.

    PubMed

    Mehta, Puja K; Minissian, Margo; Bairey Merz, C Noel

    2015-06-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading health threat to American women. In addition to establish risk factors for hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, smoking, and obesity, adverse pregnancy outcomes (APOs) including pre-eclampsia, eclampsia, and gestational diabetes are now recognized as factors that increase a woman's risk for future CVD. CVD risk factor burden is disproportionately higher in those of low socioeconomic status and in ethnic/racial minority women. Since younger women often use their obstetrician/gynecologist as their primary health provider, this is an opportune time to diagnose and treat CVD risk factors early. Embedding preventive care providers such as nurse practitioners or physician assistants within OB/GYN practices can be considered, with referral to family medicine or internist for ongoing risk assessment and management. The American Heart Association (AHA)/American Stroke Association (ASA) stroke prevention guidelines tailored to women recommend that women with a history of pre-eclampsia can be evaluated for hypertension and other CVD risk factors within 6 months to 1-year post-partum. Given the burden and impact of CVD on women in our society, the entire medical community must work to establish feasible practice and referral patterns for assessment and treatment of CVD risk factors.

  11. CVD Diamond Dielectric Accelerating Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Schoessow, P.; Kanareykin, A.; Gat, R.

    2009-01-22

    The electrical and mechanical properties of diamond make it an ideal candidate material for use in dielectric accelerating structures: high RF breakdown field, extremely low dielectric losses and the highest available thermoconductive coefficient. Using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) cylindrical diamond structures have been manufactured with dimensions corresponding to fundamental TM{sub 01} mode frequencies in the GHz to THz range. Surface treatments are being developed to reduce the secondary electron emission (SEE) coefficient below unity to reduce the possibility of multipactor. The diamond CVD cylindrical waveguide technology developed here can be applied to a variety of other high frequency, large-signal applications.

  12. Effect of RAAS blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high CVD risk subjects with atrial fibrillation: A meta-analysis and systematic review of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Chaugai, Sandip; Sherpa, Lhamo Yanchang; Sepehry, Amir A; Arima, Hisatomi; Wang, Dao Wen

    2016-06-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that atrial fibrillation significantly increases the risk of adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects. Application of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system blockers for prevention of recurrence of atrial fibrillation and adverse clinical outcomes in subjects with atrial fibrillation is a theoretically appealing concept. However, results of clinical trials evaluating the effect of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers on adverse clinical outcomes in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation remain inconclusive.A pooled study of 6 randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy of renin-angiotensin-aldosterone blockers on subjects with atrial fibrillation was performed.A total of 6 randomized controlled trials enrolled a total of 53,510 patients followed for 1 to 5 years. RAAS blockade therapy was associated with 14% reduction in the incidence of heart failure (OR: 0.86, [95%CI: 0.76- 0.97], P=0.018) and 17% reduction in the incidence of CVE (OR: 0.83, [95%CI: 0.70-0.99], P = 0.038). The corresponding decline in absolute risk against heart failure (ARR: 1.4%, [95%CI: 0.2-2.6%], P = 0.018) and CVE (ARR: 3.5%, [95%CI: 0.0-6.9%], P = 0.045) in the AF group was much higher than the non-AF group for heart failure (ARR: 0.4%, [95%CI: 0.0-0.7%], P = 0.057) and CVE (ARR: 1.6%, [95%CI: -0.1% to 3.3%], P = 0.071). No significant effect was noted on all-cause or cardiovascular mortality, stroke, or myocardial infarction.This study suggests that RAAS blockade offers protection against heart failure and cardiovascular events in high cardiovascular disease risk subjects with atrial fibrillation. PMID:27368043

  13. Exploring the Life Expectancy Increase in Poland in the Context of CVD Mortality Fall: The Risk Assessment Bottom-Up Approach, From Health Outcome to Policies.

    PubMed

    Kobza, Joanna; Geremek, Mariusz

    2015-01-01

    Life expectancy at birth is considered the best mortality-based summary indicator of the health status of the population and is useful for measuring long-term health changes. The objective of this article was to present the concept of the bottom-up policy risk assessment approach, developed to identify challenges involved in analyzing risk factor reduction policies and in assessing how the related health indicators have changed over time. This article focuses on the reasons of the significant life expectancy prolongation in Poland over the past 2 decades, thus includes policy context. The methodology details a bottom-up risk assessment approach, a chain of relations between the health outcome, risk factors, and health policy, based on Risk Assessment From Policy to Impact Dimension project guidance. A decline in cardiovascular disease mortality was a key factor that followed life expectancy prolongation. Among basic factors, tobacco and alcohol consumption, diet, physical activity, and new treatment technologies were identified. Poor health outcomes of the Polish population at the beginning of 1990s highlighted the need of the implementation of various health promotion programs, legal acts, and more effective public health policies. Evidence-based public health policy needs translating scientific research into policy and practice. The bottom-up case study template can be one of the focal tools in this process. Accountability for the health impact of policies and programs and legitimization of the decisions of policy makers has become one of the key questions nowadays in European countries' decision-making process and in EU public health strategy.

  14. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government. PMID:23831014

  15. Public risk perception of food additives and food scares. The case in Suzhou, China.

    PubMed

    Wu, Linhai; Zhong, Yingqi; Shan, Lijie; Qin, Wei

    2013-11-01

    This study examined the factors affecting public risk perception of food additive safety and possible resulting food scares using a survey conducted in Suzhou, Jiangsu Province, China. The model was proposed based on literature relating to the role of risk perception and information perception of public purchase intention under food scares. Structural equation modeling (SEM) was used for data analysis. The results showed that attitude towards behavior, subjective norm and information perception exerted moderate to high effect on food scares, and the effects were also mediated by risk perceptions of additive safety. Significant covariance was observed between attitudes toward behavior, subjective norm and information perception. Establishing an effective mechanism of food safety risk communication, releasing information of government supervision on food safety in a timely manner, curbing misleading media reports on public food safety risk, and enhancing public knowledge of the food additives are key to the development and implementation of food safety risk management policies by the Chinese government.

  16. Towards internationally acceptable standards for food additives and contaminants based on the use of risk analysis.

    PubMed

    Huggett, A; Petersen, B J; Walker, R; Fisher, C E; Notermans, S H; Rombouts, F M; Abbott, P; Debackere, M; Hathaway, S C; Hecker, E F; Knaap, A G; Kuznesof, P M; Meyland, I; Moy, G; Narbonne, J F; Paakkanen, J; Smith, M R; Tennant, D; Wagstaffe, P; Wargo, J; Würtzen, G

    1998-06-01

    Internationally acceptable norms need to incorporate sound science and consistent risk management principles in an open and transparent manner, as set out in the Agreement on the Application of Sanitary and Phytosanitary Measures (the SPS Agreement). The process of risk analysis provides a procedure to reach these goals. The interaction between risk assessors and risk managers is considered vital to this procedure. This paper reports the outcome of a meeting of risk assessors and risk managers on specific aspects of risk analysis and its application to international standard setting for food additives and contaminants. Case studies on aflatoxins and aspartame were used to identify the key steps of the interaction process which ensure scientific justification for risk management decisions. A series of recommendations were proposed in order to enhance the scientific transparency in these critical phases of the standard setting procedure.

  17. Extracting additional risk managers information from a risk assessment of Listeria monocytogenes in deli meats.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Rodríguez, F; van Asselt, E D; Garcia-Gimeno, R M; Zurera, G; Zwietering, M H

    2007-05-01

    The risk assessment study of Listeria monocytogenes in ready-to-eat foods conducted by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration is an example of an extensive quantitative microbiological risk assessment that could be used by risk analysts and other scientists to obtain information and by managers and stakeholders to make decisions on food safety management. The present study was conducted to investigate how detailed sensitivity analysis can be used by assessors to extract more information on risk factors and how results can be communicated to managers and stakeholders in an understandable way. The extended sensitivity analysis revealed that the extremes at the right side of the dose distribution (at consumption, 9 to 11.5 log CFU per serving) were responsible for most of the cases of listeriosis simulated. For concentration at retail, values below the detection limit of 0.04 CFU/g and the often used limit for L. monocytogenes of 100 CFU/g (also at retail) were associated with a high number of annual cases of listeriosis (about 29 and 82%, respectively). This association can be explained by growth of L. monocytogenes at both average and extreme values of temperature and time, indicating that a wide distribution can lead to high risk levels. Another finding is the importance of the maximal population density (i.e., the maximum concentration of L. monocytogenes assumed at a certain temperature) for accurately estimating the risk of infection by opportunistic pathogens such as L. monocytogenes. According to the obtained results, mainly concentrations corresponding to the highest maximal population densities caused risk in the simulation. However, sensitivity analysis applied to the uncertainty parameters revealed that prevalence at retail was the most important source of uncertainty in the model.

  18. Effects of probiotics consumption on lowering lipids and CVD risk factors: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

    PubMed

    Sun, Jing; Buys, Nicholas

    2015-01-01

    This meta-analysis examined the effect of probiotics on the reduction of lipid components and coexisting risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease. All randomized controlled trials published in English on PubMed and Scopus from 2000 to 2014 were systematically searched. Using the PEDro scale to assess the quality of studies, a total of 15 studies with 788 subjects were selected for inclusion in the analysis. The mean difference and effect size with a 95% confidence interval (CI) were extracted from individual studies. Statistically significant pooled effects of probiotics were found on reduction of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein (LDL), body mass index (BMI), waist circumference, and inflammatory markers. Subgroup analysis revealed statistically significant effects of probiotics on total cholesterol and LDL when the medium was fermented milk or yogurt (P < 0.001) compared to capsule form, consumption was at least 8 weeks in duration (P < 0.001), and the probiotics consisted of multiple strains (P < 0.001) rather than a single strain. A significant reduction was found in LDL in trials which contained Lactobacillus Acidophilus strain (P < 0.001) compared to other types of strains. Our findings suggest that probiotic supplementation use is effective in lowering the lipid level and coexisting factors associated with cardiovascular disease.

  19. Are major behavioral and sociodemographic risk factors for mortality additive or multiplicative in their effects?

    PubMed

    Mehta, Neil; Preston, Samuel

    2016-04-01

    All individuals are subject to multiple risk factors for mortality. In this paper, we consider the nature of interactions between certain major sociodemographic and behavioral risk factors associated with all-cause mortality in the United States. We develop the formal logic pertaining to two forms of interaction between risk factors, additive and multiplicative relations. We then consider the general circumstances in which additive or multiplicative relations might be expected. We argue that expectations about interactions among socio-demographic variables, and their relation to behavioral variables, have been stated in terms of additivity. However, the statistical models typically used to estimate the relation between risk factors and mortality assume that risk factors act multiplicatively. We examine empirically the nature of interactions among five major risk factors associated with all-cause mortality: smoking, obesity, race, sex, and educational attainment. Data were drawn from the cross-sectional NHANES III (1988-1994) and NHANES 1999-2010 surveys, linked to death records through December 31, 2011. Our analytic sample comprised 35,604 respondents and 5369 deaths. We find that obesity is additive with each of the remaining four variables. We speculate that its additivity is a reflection of the fact that obese status is generally achieved later in life. For all pairings of socio-demographic variables, risks are multiplicative. For survival chances, it is much more dangerous to be poorly educated if you are black or if you are male. And it is much riskier to be a male if you are black. These traits, established at birth or during childhood, literally result in deadly combinations. We conclude that the identification of interactions among risk factors can cast valuable light on the nature of the process being studied. It also has public health implications by identifying especially vulnerable groups and by properly identifying the proportion of deaths

  20. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers. PMID:25951078

  1. "The Dose Makes the Poison": Informing Consumers About the Scientific Risk Assessment of Food Additives.

    PubMed

    Bearth, Angela; Cousin, Marie-Eve; Siegrist, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Intensive risk assessment is required before the approval of food additives. During this process, based on the toxicological principle of "the dose makes the poison,ˮ maximum usage doses are assessed. However, most consumers are not aware of these efforts to ensure the safety of food additives and are therefore sceptical, even though food additives bring certain benefits to consumers. This study investigated the effect of a short video, which explains the scientific risk assessment and regulation of food additives, on consumers' perceptions and acceptance of food additives. The primary goal of this study was to inform consumers and enable them to construct their own risk-benefit assessment and make informed decisions about food additives. The secondary goal was to investigate whether people have different perceptions of food additives of artificial (i.e., aspartame) or natural origin (i.e., steviolglycoside). To attain these research goals, an online experiment was conducted on 185 Swiss consumers. Participants were randomly assigned to either the experimental group, which was shown a video about the scientific risk assessment of food additives, or the control group, which was shown a video about a topic irrelevant to the study. After watching the video, the respondents knew significantly more, expressed more positive thoughts and feelings, had less risk perception, and more acceptance than prior to watching the video. Thus, it appears that informing consumers about complex food safety topics, such as the scientific risk assessment of food additives, is possible, and using a carefully developed information video is a successful strategy for informing consumers.

  2. CVD boron on calcium chromate powder

    SciTech Connect

    Coonen, R.M.

    1984-09-01

    This study was an experimental effort to improve the compositional homogeneity of a pyrotechnic mixture of boron and calcium chromate (CaCrO/sub 4/). Boron was deposited onto calcium chromate powders at 350/sup 0/C from a diborane and hydrogen gas mixture at a pressure of 40 torr by Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). The B:CaCrO/sub 4/ ratio of the coated powders was analyzed by inductively-coupled plasma spectroscopy and the distribution of the two phases was observed by electron microprobe analysis. The pyrotechnic activity was determined by differential thermal analysis. In addition to varying the composition of the mixture, an attempt was made to vary the boron distribution by coating both sized and unsized CaCrO/sub 4/ powders. Boron was deposited for 2 h onto sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder, which resulted in a higher weight percentage of boron in comparison to the unsized powder. CVD coated CaCrO/sub 4/ powders began their pyrotechnic activity at an auto ignition temperature that was lower than the auto ignition temperature observed for mechanically blended mixtures. The coating of sized CaCrO/sub 4/ powder improved the uniformity of boron deposition of CaCrO/sub 4/, but it also decreased the pyrotechnic activity.

  3. CVD and obesity in transitional Syria: a perspective from the Middle East

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, Hani; Barakat, Hanniya; Baaj, Mohamad K

    2012-01-01

    Purpose Syria is caught in the middle of a disruptive nutritional transition. Its healthcare system is distracted by challenges and successes in other areas while neglecting to address the onslaught of Syria’s cardiovascular disease (CVD) epidemic. Despite the official viewpoint touting improvement in health indicators, current trends jeopardize population health, and several surveys in the Syrian population signal the epidemic spreading far and wide. The goal is to counteract the indifference towards obesity as a threat to Syrian’s health, as the country is slowly becoming a leader in CVD mortality globally. Methods PubMed, World Health Organization, and official government websites were searched for primary surveys in Syria related to CVD morbidity, mortality, and risk factors. Inclusion criteria ensured that results maximized relevance while producing comparable studies. Statistical analysis was applied to detect the most common risk factor and significant differences in risk factor prevalence and CVD rates. Results Obesity remained the prevailing CVD risk factor except in older Syrian men, where smoking and hypertension were more common. CVD mortality was more common in males due to coronary disease, while stroke dominated female mortality. The young workforce is especially impacted, with 50% of CVD mortality occurring before age 65 years and an 81% prevalence of obesity in women over 45 years. Conclusion Syria can overcome its slow response to the CVD epidemic and curb further deterioration by reducing obesity and, thus, inheritance and clustering of risk factors. This can be achieved via multilayered awareness and intensive parental and familial involvement. Extinguishing the CVD epidemic is readily achievable as demonstrated in other countries. PMID:22454558

  4. Do Health Professionals Need Additional Competencies for Stratified Cancer Prevention Based on Genetic Risk Profiling?

    PubMed Central

    Chowdhury, Susmita; Henneman, Lidewij; Dent, Tom; Hall, Alison; Burton, Alice; Pharoah, Paul; Pashayan, Nora; Burton, Hilary

    2015-01-01

    There is growing evidence that inclusion of genetic information about known common susceptibility variants may enable population risk-stratification and personalized prevention for common diseases including cancer. This would require the inclusion of genetic testing as an integral part of individual risk assessment of an asymptomatic individual. Front line health professionals would be expected to interact with and assist asymptomatic individuals through the risk stratification process. In that case, additional knowledge and skills may be needed. Current guidelines and frameworks for genetic competencies of non-specialist health professionals place an emphasis on rare inherited genetic diseases. For common diseases, health professionals do use risk assessment tools but such tools currently do not assess genetic susceptibility of individuals. In this article, we compare the skills and knowledge needed by non-genetic health professionals, if risk-stratified prevention is implemented, with existing competence recommendations from the UK, USA and Europe, in order to assess the gaps in current competences. We found that health professionals would benefit from understanding the contribution of common genetic variations in disease risk, the rationale for a risk-stratified prevention pathway, and the implications of using genomic information in risk-assessment and risk management of asymptomatic individuals for common disease prevention. PMID:26068647

  5. Disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs are associated with a reduced risk for cardiovascular disease in patients with rheumatoid arthritis: a case control study.

    PubMed

    van Halm, Vokko P; Nurmohamed, Michael T; Twisk, Jos W R; Dijkmans, Ben A C; Voskuyl, Alexandre E

    2006-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is characterized by inflammation and an increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study investigates possible associations between CVD and the use of conventional disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs) in RA. Using a case control design, 613 RA patients (5,649 patient-years) were studied, 72 with CVD and 541 without CVD. Data on RA, CVD and drug treatment were evaluated from time of RA diagnosis up to the first cardiovascular event or the end of the follow-up period. The dataset was categorized according to DMARD use: sulfasalazine (SSZ), hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) or methotrexate (MTX). Odds ratios (ORs) for CVD, corrected for age, gender, smoking and RA duration, were calculated per DMARD group. Patients who never used SSZ, HCQ or MTX were used as a reference group. MTX treatment was associated with a significant CVD risk reduction, with ORs (95% CI): 'MTX only', 0.16 (0.04 to 0.66); 'MTX and SSZ ever', 0.20 (0.08 to 0.51); and 'MTX, SSZ and HCQ ever', 0.20 (0.08 to 0.54). The risk reductions remained significant after additional correction for the presence of rheumatoid factor and erosions. After correction for hypertension, diabetes and hypercholesterolemia, 'MTX or SSZ ever' and 'MTX, SSZ and HCQ ever' showed significant CVD risk reduction. Rheumatoid factor positivity and erosions both increased CVD risk, with ORs of 2.04 (1.02 to 4.07) and 2.36 (0.92 to 6.08), respectively. MTX and, to a lesser extent, SSZ were associated with significantly lower CVD risk compared to RA patients who never used SSZ, HCQ or MTX. We hypothesize that DMARD use, in particular MTX use, results in powerful suppression of inflammation, thereby reducing the development of atherosclerosis and subsequently clinically overt CVD. PMID:16984661

  6. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases.

    PubMed

    Lenz, Tobias L; Deutsch, Aaron J; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W J; Abecasis, Gonçalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P; Nöthen, Markus M; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E; Tsoi, Lam C; van Heel, David A; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T; Gregersen, Peter K; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R; de Bakker, Paul I W; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-09-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer substantial risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen-binding repertoires between a heterozygote's two expressed HLA variants might result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested the non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (ncases = 5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D; ncases = 5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (ncases = 3,089), idiopathic achalasia (ncases = 727) and celiac disease (ncases = 11,115). In four of the five diseases, we observed highly significant, non-additive dominance effects (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 2.5 × 10(-12); T1D, P = 2.4 × 10(-10); psoriasis, P = 5.9 × 10(-6); celiac disease, P = 1.2 × 10(-87)). In three of these diseases, the non-additive dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (rheumatoid arthritis, P = 1.8 × 10(-3); T1D, P = 8.6 × 10(-27); celiac disease, P = 6.0 × 10(-100)). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (rheumatoid arthritis, 1.4%; T1D, 4.0%; celiac disease, 4.1%) beyond a simple additive model. PMID:26258845

  7. Widespread non-additive and interaction effects within HLA loci modulate the risk of autoimmune diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lenz, Tobias L.; Deutsch, Aaron J.; Han, Buhm; Hu, Xinli; Okada, Yukinori; Eyre, Stephen; Knapp, Michael; Zhernakova, Alexandra; Huizinga, Tom W.J.; Abecasis, Goncalo; Becker, Jessica; Boeckxstaens, Guy E.; Chen, Wei-Min; Franke, Andre; Gladman, Dafna D.; Gockel, Ines; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; Martin, Javier; Nair, Rajan P.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Onengut-Gumuscu, Suna; Rahman, Proton; Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Solbritt; Stuart, Philip E.; Tsoi, Lam C.; Van Heel, David A.; Worthington, Jane; Wouters, Mira M.; Klareskog, Lars; Elder, James T.; Gregersen, Peter K.; Schumacher, Johannes; Rich, Stephen S.; Wijmenga, Cisca; Sunyaev, Shamil R.; de Bakker, Paul I.W.; Raychaudhuri, Soumya

    2015-01-01

    Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) genes confer strong risk for autoimmune diseases on a log-additive scale. Here we speculated that differences in autoantigen binding repertoires between a heterozygote’s two expressed HLA variants may result in additional non-additive risk effects. We tested non-additive disease contributions of classical HLA alleles in patients and matched controls for five common autoimmune diseases: rheumatoid arthritis (RA, Ncases=5,337), type 1 diabetes (T1D, Ncases=5,567), psoriasis vulgaris (Ncases=3,089), idiopathic achalasia (Ncases=727), and celiac disease (Ncases=11,115). In four out of five diseases, we observed highly significant non-additive dominance effects (RA: P=2.5×1012; T1D: P=2.4×10−10; psoriasis: P=5.9×10−6; celiac disease: P=1.2×10−87). In three of these diseases, the dominance effects were explained by interactions between specific classical HLA alleles (RA: P=1.8×10−3; T1D: P=8.6×1027; celiac disease: P=6.0×10−100). These interactions generally increased disease risk and explained moderate but significant fractions of phenotypic variance (RA: 1.4%, T1D: 4.0%, and celiac disease: 4.1%, beyond a simple additive model). PMID:26258845

  8. Evidence relating sodium intake to blood pressure and CVD.

    PubMed

    O'Donnell, Martin; Mente, Andrew; Yusuf, Salim

    2014-01-01

    Sodium is an essential nutrient, mostly ingested as salt (sodium chloride). Average sodium intake ranges from 3 to 6 g per day (7.5-15 g/day of salt) in most countries, with regional variations. Increasing levels of sodium intake have a positive association with higher blood pressure. Randomized controlled trials report a reduction in blood pressure with reducing sodium intake from moderate to low levels, which is the evidence that forms the basis for international guidelines recommending all people consume less than 2.0 g of sodium per day. However, no randomized trials have demonstrated that reducing sodium leads to a reduction in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In their absence, the next option is to examine the association between sodium consumption and CVD in prospective cohort studies. Several recent prospective cohort studies have indicated that while high intake of sodium (>6 g/d) is associated with higher risk of CVD compared to those with moderate intake (3 to 5 g/d), lower intake (<3 g/day) is also associated with a higher risk (despite lower blood pressure levels). However, most of these studies were conducted in populations at increased risk of cardiovascular disease. Current epidemiologic evidence supports that an optimal level of sodium intake is in the range of about 3-5 g/day, as this range is associated with lowest risk of CVD in prospective cohort studies. Randomized controlled trials, comparing the effect of low sodium intake to moderate intake on incidence of cardiovascular events and mortality, are required to truly define optimal intake range.

  9. Approach to diabetes management in patients with CVD.

    PubMed

    Lathief, Sanam; Inzucchi, Silvio E

    2016-02-01

    Epidemiologic analyses have established a clear association between diabetes and macrovascular disease. Vascular dysfunction caused by metabolic abnormalities in patients with diabetes is associated with accelerated atherosclerosis and increased risk of myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and peripheral arterial disease. Patients with diabetes are at two to four fold higher CV risk as compared to non-diabetic individuals, and CVD remains the leading cause of mortality in patients with this condition. One strategy to reduce CVD burden in patients with diabetes has been to focus on controlling the major metabolic abnormality in this condition, namely hyperglycemia. However, this has not been unequivocally demonstrated to reduced CV events, in contrast to controlling other CVD risk factors linked to hyperglycemia, such as blood pressure, dyslipidemia, and platelet dysfunction. However, In contradistinction, accrued data from a number of large, randomized clinical trials in both type 1 (T1DM) and type 2 diabetes (T2DM) over the past 3 decades have proven that more intensive glycemic control retards the onset and progression of microvascular disease. In this review, we will summarize the key glucose-lowering CV outcomes trials in diabetes, provide an overview of the different drugs and their impact on the CV system, and describe our approach to management of the frequently encountered patient with T2DM and coronary artery disease (CAD) and/or heart failure (HF).

  10. Improving coeliac disease risk prediction by testing non-HLA variants additional to HLA variants

    PubMed Central

    Romanos, Jihane; Rosén, Anna; Kumar, Vinod; Trynka, Gosia; Franke, Lude; Szperl, Agata; Gutierrez-Achury, Javier; van Diemen, Cleo C; Kanninga, Roan; Jankipersadsing, Soesma A; Steck, Andrea; Eisenbarth, Georges; van Heel, David A; Cukrowska, Bozena; Bruno, Valentina; Mazzilli, Maria Cristina; Núñez, Concepcion; Bilbao, Jose Ramon; Mearin, M Luisa; Barisani, Donatella; Rewers, Marian; Norris, Jill M; Ivarsson, Anneli; Boezen, H Marieke; Liu, Edwin; Wijmenga, Cisca

    2014-01-01

    Background The majority of coeliac disease (CD) patients are not being properly diagnosed and therefore remain untreated, leading to a greater risk of developing CD-associated complications. The major genetic risk heterodimer, HLA-DQ2 and DQ8, is already used clinically to help exclude disease. However, approximately 40% of the population carry these alleles and the majority never develop CD. Objective We explored whether CD risk prediction can be improved by adding non-HLA-susceptible variants to common HLA testing. Design We developed an average weighted genetic risk score with 10, 26 and 57 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) in 2675 cases and 2815 controls and assessed the improvement in risk prediction provided by the non-HLA SNP. Moreover, we assessed the transferability of the genetic risk model with 26 non-HLA variants to a nested case–control population (n=1709) and a prospective cohort (n=1245) and then tested how well this model predicted CD outcome for 985 independent individuals. Results Adding 57 non-HLA variants to HLA testing showed a statistically significant improvement compared to scores from models based on HLA only, HLA plus 10 SNP and HLA plus 26 SNP. With 57 non-HLA variants, the area under the receiver operator characteristic curve reached 0.854 compared to 0.823 for HLA only, and 11.1% of individuals were reclassified to a more accurate risk group. We show that the risk model with HLA plus 26 SNP is useful in independent populations. Conclusions Predicting risk with 57 additional non-HLA variants improved the identification of potential CD patients. This demonstrates a possible role for combined HLA and non-HLA genetic testing in diagnostic work for CD. PMID:23704318

  11. Possible effects of protracted exposure on the additivity of risks from space radiations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Curtis, S. B.

    1996-01-01

    Conventional radiation risk assessments are presently based on the additivity assumption. This assumption states that risks from individual components of a complex radiation field involving many different types of radiation can be added to yield the total risk of the complex radiation field. If the assumption is not correct, the summations and integrations performed to obtain the presently quoted risk estimates are not appropriate. This problem is particularly important in the area of space radiation risk evaluation because of the many different types of high- and low-LET radiation present in the galactic cosmic ray environment. For both low- and high-LET radiations at low enough dose rates, the present convention is that the addivity assumption holds. Mathematically, the total risk, Rtot is assumed to be Rtot = summation (i) Ri where the summation runs over the different types of radiation present. If the total dose (or fluence) from each component is such that the interaction between biological lesions caused by separate single track traversals is negligible within a given cell, it is presently considered to be reasonable to accept the additivity assumption. However, when the exposure is protracted over many cell doubling times (as will be the case for extended missions to the moon or Mars), the possibility exists that radiation effects that depend on multiple cellular events over a long time period, such as is probably the case in radiation-induced carcinogenesis, may not be additive in the above sense and the exposure interval may have to be included in the evaluation procedure. It is shown, however, that "inverse" dose-rate effects are not expected from intermediate LET radiations arising from the galactic cosmic ray environment due to the "sensitive-window-in-the-cell-cycle" hypothesis.

  12. Impurities and Growth Morphology in Diamond CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koidl, Peter

    1996-03-01

    This paper reports on recent investigations of the structural evolution and morphogical control in the low-pressure deposition of diamond. It will be shown that minor gas contaminations may drastically influence the film structure and morphology. Gas additions that are substitutionally incorporated like nitrogen and boron are of special importance. Nitrogen at concentrations on the ppm level has been found to promote <100> textured growth and thus assists in forming smooth films with coplanar 100 facets.(R. Locher, C. Wild, N. Herres, D. Behr, P. Koidl, Appl. Phys. Lett. 65), 34 (1994) Boron - on the other hand - is shown to have an opposite effect: it destabilizes the 100 surface.(R. Locher, J. Wagner, F. Fuchs, M. Maier, P. Gonon, P. Koidl, Diamond Relat. Mater. 4), 678 (1995) In addition, both types of gas contaminations do influence the twin formation. The structure and morphology of CVD diamond films are strongly affected by competitive growth between 100- and 111-growth sectors as determined by the relative growth rate parameter α = √3 v_100/v_111.(C. Wild, R. Kohl, N. Herres, W. Müller-Sebert, P. Koidl, Diamond Relat. Mater. 3), 373 (1994) Using in-situ interferometry, it has been shown that nitrogen selectively increases the growth rate of 100 faces, while additional boron reduces it. The structural implications of nitrogen and boron additions are discussed as a result of their growth sector dependent reaction and incorporation and the resulting change of α.

  13. Assessing the additive risks of PSII herbicide exposure to the Great Barrier Reef.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Stephen E; Schaffelke, Britta; Shaw, Melanie; Bainbridge, Zoë T; Rohde, Ken W; Kennedy, Karen; Davis, Aaron M; Masters, Bronwyn L; Devlin, Michelle J; Mueller, Jochen F; Brodie, Jon E

    2012-01-01

    Herbicide residues have been measured in the Great Barrier Reef lagoon at concentrations which have the potential to harm marine plant communities. Monitoring on the Great Barrier Reef lagoon following wet season discharge show that 80% of the time when herbicides are detected, more than one are present. These herbicides have been shown to act in an additive manner with regards to photosystem-II inhibition. In this study, the area of the Great Barrier Reef considered to be at risk from herbicides is compared when exposures are considered for each herbicide individually and also for herbicide mixtures. Two normalisation indices for herbicide mixtures were calculated based on current guidelines and PSII inhibition thresholds. The results show that the area of risk for most regions is greatly increased under the proposed additive PSII inhibition threshold and that the resilience of this important ecosystem could be reduced by exposure to these herbicides.

  14. Risk assessment of combined photogenotoxic effects of sunlight and food additives.

    PubMed

    Salih, Fadhil M

    2006-06-01

    The presence of flavored colorants (peach and raspberry), flavors (caramel, citric acid and vanilla) and food preservatives (sodium nitrite, sodium nitrate, sodium benzoate, benzoic acid, potassium sorbate and sodium chloride) in Escherichia coli suspension during exposure to sunlight did not change the extent of cell survival. No effect on viability and mutation induction (kanamycin resistant) was also seen when cells were kept in contact with any of the additives for 80 min in the dark. However, when the relevant additive was present in cell suspension during sunlight exposure the number of induced mutations was increased to varying extents over that seen with sunlight alone. Raspberry and peach increased the number of mutations in a dose dependent manner, while vanilla produced mutations in an additive fashion. Nitrite, nitrate, benzoate, sorbate and benzoic acid increased mutation somewhat additively over that of sunlight. Sodium chloride and citric acid were not effective. The impact of this investigation reflects the significance of combination of sunlight and chemical food additives as potential risk, which requires special attention and necessitates further investigations to evaluate the risk.

  15. Estimation of radiation risk in presence of classical additive and Berkson multiplicative errors in exposure doses.

    PubMed

    Masiuk, S V; Shklyar, S V; Kukush, A G; Carroll, R J; Kovgan, L N; Likhtarov, I A

    2016-07-01

    In this paper, the influence of measurement errors in exposure doses in a regression model with binary response is studied. Recently, it has been recognized that uncertainty in exposure dose is characterized by errors of two types: classical additive errors and Berkson multiplicative errors. The combination of classical additive and Berkson multiplicative errors has not been considered in the literature previously. In a simulation study based on data from radio-epidemiological research of thyroid cancer in Ukraine caused by the Chornobyl accident, it is shown that ignoring measurement errors in doses leads to overestimation of background prevalence and underestimation of excess relative risk. In the work, several methods to reduce these biases are proposed. They are new regression calibration, an additive version of efficient SIMEX, and novel corrected score methods.

  16. Multiwalled carbon nanotube CVD synthesis, modification, and composite applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian, Dali

    Well-aligned carbon multiwall nanotube (MWNT) arrays have been continuously synthesized by a floating catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method involving the pyrolysis of xylene-ferrocene mixtures. The CVD parameters have been studied to selectively synthesize nanotubes with required dimensions. A mixed tip-root growth model has been proposed for the floating catalytic CVD synthesis. Coarsening of the catalyst particle at the root end promoted MWNT wall coarsening (addition of new concentric graphene shells), while the smaller catalyst particle at the tip contributed to MWNT elongation. A two-step process in which ferrocene was fed for only five minutes to nucleate the DTs was developed to understand if a continuous supply of catalyst was necessary for continued growth. The results show that the ferrocene was only necessary for initial nucleation. To simplify the CVD process further, another two-step synthesis method was developed in which the ferrocene was pre-decomposed so that the nanotube nucleation could be isolated from the growth, enabling quantification of growth mechanisms and kinetics. Mass spectra and hydrocarbon analyses of the CVD reactor tail gas were performed to understand the pyrolysis chemistry. Well-aligned N-doped and Ru-doped MWNT arrays have been produced by pyrolysis of pyridine ferrocene mixtures and xylene-ferrocene-ruthenocene mixtures, respectively. Various material characterization techniques were used to measure the dopant distributions and correlate the catalyst phase with the novel nanotube structures. High-temperature annealing has been shown to be a viable means to remove both the catalyst particles and certain microstructural defects within the CVD-derived DTs. The phase transformation of catalyst during annealing has also been studied. Homogeneous distribution of MWNTs in polystyrene matrices was achieved by an ultrasonic assisted solution-evaporation method. Addition of only 1 wt % DTs to polystyrene increased the polymer

  17. Cardiovascular risk stratification and management in pre-diabetes.

    PubMed

    Færch, Kristine; Vistisen, Dorte; Johansen, Nanna Borup; Jørgensen, Marit Eika

    2014-06-01

    Prediabetes, covering individuals with impaired fasting glycemia, impaired glucose tolerance, or high-risk HbA1c levels, is associated with a ∼20 % increased risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with normoglycemic individuals. It is well-known that lifestyle or pharmacologic interventions can prevent diabetes in prediabetic people; however, the evidence is less clear regarding prevention of CVD. Most diabetes prevention trials have failed to show beneficial effects on CVD morbidity and mortality despite significant improvements of CVD risk factors in individuals with prediabetes. Another challenge is how to estimate CVD risk in prediabetic people. In general, prediction models for CVD do not take glucose levels or prediabetes status into account, thereby underestimating CVD risk in these high-risk individuals. More evidence within risk stratification and management of CVD risk in prediabetes is needed in order to recommend useful and effective strategies for early prevention of CVD.

  18. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  19. Additive Genetic Risk from Five Serotonin System Polymorphisms Interacts with Interpersonal Stress to Predict Depression

    PubMed Central

    Vrshek-Schallhorn, Suzanne; Stroud, Catherine B.; Mineka, Susan; Zinbarg, Richard E.; Adam, Emma K.; Redei, Eva E.; Hammen, Constance; Craske, Michelle G.

    2016-01-01

    Behavioral genetic research supports polygenic models of depression in which many genetic variations each contribute a small amount of risk, and prevailing diathesis-stress models suggest gene-environment interactions (GxE). Multilocus profile scores of additive risk offer an approach that is consistent with polygenic models of depression risk. In a first demonstration of this approach in a GxE predicting depression, we created an additive multilocus profile score from five serotonin system polymorphisms (one each in the genes HTR1A, HTR2A, HTR2C, and two in TPH2). Analyses focused on two forms of interpersonal stress as environmental risk factors. Using five years of longitudinal diagnostic and life stress interviews from 387 emerging young adults in the Youth Emotion Project, survival analyses show that this multilocus profile score interacts with major interpersonal stressful life events to predict major depressive episode onsets (HR = 1.815, p = .007). Simultaneously, there was a significant protective effect of the profile score without a recent event (HR = 0.83, p = .030). The GxE effect with interpersonal chronic stress was not significant (HR = 1.15, p = .165). Finally, effect sizes for genetic factors examined ignoring stress suggested such an approach could lead to overlooking or misinterpreting genetic effects. Both the GxE effect and the protective simple main effect were replicated in a sample of early adolescent girls (N = 105). We discuss potential benefits of the multilocus genetic profile score approach and caveats for future research. PMID:26595467

  20. Effects of early-life environment and epigenetics on cardiovascular disease risk in children: highlighting the role of twin studies.

    PubMed

    Sun, Cong; Burgner, David P; Ponsonby, Anne-Louise; Saffery, Richard; Huang, Rae-Chi; Vuillermin, Peter J; Cheung, Michael; Craig, Jeffrey M

    2013-04-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide and originates in early life. The exact mechanisms of this early-life origin are unclear, but a likely mediator at the molecular level is epigenetic dysregulation of gene expression. Epigenetic factors have thus been posited as the likely drivers of early-life programming of adult-onset diseases. This review summarizes recent advances in epidemiology and epigenetic research of CVD risk in children, with a particular focus on twin studies. Classic twin studies enable partitioning of phenotypic variance within a population into additive genetic, shared, and nonshared environmental variances, and are invaluable in research in this area. Longitudinal cohort twin studies, in particular, may provide important insights into the role of epigenetics in the pathogenesis of CVD. We describe candidate gene and epigenome-wide association studies (EWASs) and transgenerational epigenetic inheritance of CVD, and discuss the potential for evidence-based interventions. Identifying epigenetic changes associated with CVD-risk biomarkers in children will provide new opportunities to unravel the underlying biological mechanism of the origins of CVD and enable identification of those at risk for early-life interventions to alter the risk trajectory and potentially reduce CVD incidence later in life.

  1. Low Serum Testosterone Increases Mortality Risk among Male Dialysis Patients

    PubMed Central

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-01-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease. PMID:19144759

  2. Low serum testosterone increases mortality risk among male dialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Carrero, Juan Jesús; Qureshi, Abdul Rashid; Parini, Paolo; Arver, Stefan; Lindholm, Bengt; Bárány, Peter; Heimbürger, Olof; Stenvinkel, Peter

    2009-03-01

    Men treated with hemodialysis (HD) have a very poor prognosis and an elevated risk of premature cardiovascular disease (CVD). In the general population, associations between low testosterone concentrations and cardiovascular risk have been suggested. We performed a prospective observational study involving a well characterized cohort of 126 men treated with HD to examine the relationship between testosterone concentration and subsequent mortality during a mean follow-up period of 41 mo. Independent of age, serum creatinine, and sexual hormone binding globulin (SHBG), testosterone levels inversely and strongly associated with the inflammatory markers IL-6 and CRP. Patients with a clinical history of CVD had significantly lower testosterone levels. During follow up, 65 deaths occurred, 58% of which were a result of CVD. Men with testosterone values in the lowest tertile had increased all-cause and CVD mortality (crude hazard ratios [HRs] 2.03 [95% CI 1.24 to 3.31] and 3.19 [1.49 to 6.83], respectively), which persisted after adjustment for age, SHBG, previous CVD, diabetes, ACEi/ARB treatment, albumin, and inflammatory markers, but was lost after adjustment for creatinine. In summary, among men treated with HD, testosterone concentrations inversely correlate with all-cause and CVD-related mortality, as well as with markers of inflammation. Hypogonadism may be an additional treatable risk factor for patients with chronic kidney disease.

  3. Relative Importance and Additive Effects of Maternal and Infant Risk Factors on Childhood Asthma

    PubMed Central

    Rosas-Salazar, Christian; James, Kristina; Escobar, Gabriel; Gebretsadik, Tebeb; Li, Sherian Xu; Carroll, Kecia N.; Walsh, Eileen; Mitchel, Edward; Das, Suman; Kumar, Rajesh; Yu, Chang; Dupont, William D.; Hartert, Tina V.

    2016-01-01

    Background Environmental exposures that occur in utero and during early life may contribute to the development of childhood asthma through alteration of the human microbiome. The objectives of this study were to estimate the cumulative effect and relative importance of environmental exposures on the risk of childhood asthma. Methods We conducted a population-based birth cohort study of mother-child dyads who were born between 1995 and 2003 and were continuously enrolled in the PRIMA (Prevention of RSV: Impact on Morbidity and Asthma) cohort. The individual and cumulative impact of maternal urinary tract infections (UTI) during pregnancy, maternal colonization with group B streptococcus (GBS), mode of delivery, infant antibiotic use, and older siblings at home, on the risk of childhood asthma were estimated using logistic regression. Dose-response effect on childhood asthma risk was assessed for continuous risk factors: number of maternal UTIs during pregnancy, courses of infant antibiotics, and number of older siblings at home. We further assessed and compared the relative importance of these exposures on the asthma risk. In a subgroup of children for whom maternal antibiotic use during pregnancy information was available, the effect of maternal antibiotic use on the risk of childhood asthma was estimated. Results Among 136,098 singleton birth infants, 13.29% developed asthma. In both univariate and adjusted analyses, maternal UTI during pregnancy (odds ratio [OR] 1.2, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.18, 1.25; adjusted OR [AOR] 1.04, 95%CI 1.02, 1.07 for every additional UTI) and infant antibiotic use (OR 1.21, 95%CI 1.20, 1.22; AOR 1.16, 95%CI 1.15, 1.17 for every additional course) were associated with an increased risk of childhood asthma, while having older siblings at home (OR 0.92, 95%CI 0.91, 0.93; AOR 0.85, 95%CI 0.84, 0.87 for each additional sibling) was associated with a decreased risk of childhood asthma, in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with vaginal

  4. Variations in Prevalent Cardiovascular Disease and Future Risk by Metabolic Syndrome Classification in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) Study

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Todd M.; Voeks, Jenifer H.; Bittner, Vera; Safford, Monika M.

    2010-01-01

    Background The International Diabetes Federation (IDF) and Adult Treatment Panel (ATP) III define metabolic syndrome (MetSyn) differently, with unclear implications for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Methods We examined 22,719 participants in the REasons for Geographic And Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. We classified participants as: no MetSyn, MetSyn by ATP-III and IDF criteria, MetSyn by ATP-only, or MetSyn by IDF-only. To assess current CVD, we determined the odds of self-reported CVD by MetSyn category using multivariable logistic regression, controlling for socio-demographic and behavioral factors. To estimate future coronary heart disease (CHD) risk, we calculated Framingham risk scores (FRS). Results Overall, 10,785 individuals (47%) had MetSyn. Of these, 79% had MetSyn by both definitions, 6% by ATP-only, and 14% by IDF-only. Compared to those without MetSyn, ATP-only individuals had the highest odds of current CVD and of having a FRS >20%. Also compared to those without MetSyn, IDF-only individuals had 43% higher odds of current CVD and two-fold increased odds of having a FRS >20%. Conclusions Consistent with previous reports, ATP-III MetSyn criteria identified individuals with increased odds of CVD and elevated future CHD risk. However, the IDF definition identified a clinically important number of additional individuals at excess CVD risk. PMID:20211299

  5. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in relation to smoking behaviour and history: a population-based cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Keto, Jaana; Ventola, Hanna; Jokelainen, Jari; Linden, Kari; Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi, Sirkka; Timonen, Markku; Ylisaukko-oja, Tero; Auvinen, Juha

    2016-01-01

    Objective To investigate how individual risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) (blood pressure, lipid levels, body mass index, waist and hip circumference, use of antihypertensive or hypolipidemic medication, and diagnosed diabetes) differ in people aged 46 years with different smoking behaviour and history. Methods This population-based cohort study is based on longitudinal data from the Northern Finland Birth Cohort 1966 project. Data were collected at the 31-year and 46-year follow-ups, when a total of 5038 and 5974 individuals participated in clinical examinations and questionnaires. Data from both follow-ups were available for 3548 participants. In addition to individual CVD risk factors, Framingham and Systematic Coronary Risk Evaluation (SCORE) algorithms were used to assess the absolute risk of a CVD event within the next decade. Results The differences in individual risk factors for CVD reached statistical significance for some groups, but the differences were not consistent or clinically significant. There were no clinically significant differences in CVD risk as measured by Framingham or SCORE algorithms between never smokers, recent quitters and former smokers (7.5%, 7.4%, 8.1% for men; 3.3%, 3.0%, 3.2% for women; p<0.001). Conclusions The effect of past or present smoking on individual CVD risk parameters such as blood pressure and cholesterol seems to be of clinically minor significance in people aged 46 years. In other words, smoking seems to be above all an independent risk factor for CVD in the working-age population. Quitting smoking in working age may thus reduce calculated CVD risk nearly to the same level with people who have never smoked. PMID:27493759

  6. THE COMBINED CARCINOGENIC RISK FOR EXPOSURE TO MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combined Carcinogenic Risk for Exposure to Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products May be Less Than Additive

    Risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume...

  7. Vascular Risks and Management of Obesity in Children and Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Jolliffe, Courtney J; Janssen, Ian

    2006-01-01

    Childhood obesity has reached epidemic proportions in many countries. Pediatric obesity is associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV) risk factors including type 2 diabetes, hypertension, dyslipidemia, and the metabolic syndrome. It is also associated with an increased risk of CV disease (CVD) in adulthood. Moreover, obesity and CVD risk factors in obese youth tend to track into adulthood, further increasing the risk of adult CVD. Consequently, the treatment and prevention of childhood overweight and obesity has become a public health priority. Proper nutrition and increased physical activity are the main focus of these efforts; however, few studies have shown positive results. Treatment options for obesity in youth also include pharmacotherapy and surgery. While pharmacotherapy appears promising, additional evidence is needed, especially with respect to the long-term impact, before it becomes a widespread treatment option in the pediatric population. PMID:17319462

  8. Risk assessment of nitrate and oxytetracycline addition on coastal ecosystem functions.

    PubMed

    Feng-Jiao, Liu; Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo; Teng-Xiu, Tu; Xue-Qing, Wu

    2014-01-01

    Diatoms dominate phytoplankton communities in the well-mixed coastal and upwelling regions. Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both aquaculture pollution and eutrophication. But how these exposures influence on coastal ecosystem functions are unknown. To examine these influences, a coastal centric diatom, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or oxytetracycline (OTC). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively. When N addition was combined with OTC pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 56-73%; algal density, SOD activities, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA varied between 73 and 121%, 19 and 397%, 52 and 693%, 19 and 875%, and 66 and 2733% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. According to P-value analysis, the influence of OTC on algal density and SOD activity was not significant, but the effect on cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, and MDA were significant (P<0.05). The influence of N addition with simultaneous OTC pollution on the above six end points was significant. Algal biomass, lifetime, nutrition, antioxidant capacity, lipid peroxidation, photosynthesis, and respiration were all affected by the addition of OTC and N. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely affected by N and OTC additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Nrisk assessment of aquaculture pollution on coastal ecosystem functions.

  9. CVD silicon carbide characterization. Final report, August 1992-October 1993

    SciTech Connect

    Graves, G.A.; Iden, D.

    1994-08-01

    Chemically vapor deposited (CVD) silicon carbide is a candidate material for high quality ground and space-based mirror substrates and high quality reflective optics. Statistically valid material property data has not been available, however, to make durability and lifetime predictions for such optics. The primary purpose of this study was to determine the Weibull and slow crack growth parameters for CVD silicon carbide. Specimens were cut from various locations in a 25 mm thick, 50 cm diameter piece of SiC to analyze bulk material property homogeneity. Flexural strength was measured using a four-point bend technique. In addition to mechanical testing for strength, hardness, and fracture toughness, the material crystallography and microstructure were studied. Thermal expansion, thermal diffusivity, specific heat, optical absorption, and infrared reflectivity measurements were also conducted. Raman spectroscopy was used to check for any residual stress. Test results show this CVD silicon carbide is a high-purity, homogeneous, fine-grained substrate material with very good mechanical, optical, and thermal properties.

  10. A Global View of the Relationships between the Main Behavioural and Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the GAZEL Prospective Cohort

    PubMed Central

    Meneton, Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Herquelot, Eléonore; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Larson, Martin G.; Vasan, Ramachandran S.; Ménard, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for a long time that the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is determined by many risk factors and despite the common use of algorithms incorporating several of these factors to predict the overall risk, there has yet been no global description of the complex way in which CVD risk factors interact with each other. This is the aim of the present study which investigated all existing relationships between the main CVD risk factors in a well-characterized occupational cohort. Prospective associations between 12 behavioural and clinical risk factors (gender, age, parental history of CVD, non-moderate alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression) were systematically tested using Cox regression in 10,736 middle-aged individuals free of CVD at baseline and followed over 20 years. In addition to independently predicting CVD risk (HRs from 1.18 to 1.97 in multivariable models), these factors form a vast network of associations where each factor predicts, and/or is predicted by, several other factors (n = 47 with p<0.05, n = 37 with p<0.01, n = 28 with p<0.001, n = 22 with p<0.0001). Both the number of factors associated with a given factor (1 to 9) and the strength of the associations (HRs from 1.10 to 6.12 in multivariable models) are very variable, suggesting that all the factors do not have the same influence within this network. These results show that there is a remarkably extensive network of relationships between the main CVD risk factors which may have not been sufficiently taken into account, notably in preventive strategies aiming to lower CVD risk. PMID:27598908

  11. A Global View of the Relationships between the Main Behavioural and Clinical Cardiovascular Risk Factors in the GAZEL Prospective Cohort.

    PubMed

    Meneton, Pierre; Lemogne, Cédric; Herquelot, Eléonore; Bonenfant, Sébastien; Larson, Martin G; Vasan, Ramachandran S; Ménard, Joël; Goldberg, Marcel; Zins, Marie

    2016-01-01

    Although it has been recognized for a long time that the predisposition to cardiovascular diseases (CVD) is determined by many risk factors and despite the common use of algorithms incorporating several of these factors to predict the overall risk, there has yet been no global description of the complex way in which CVD risk factors interact with each other. This is the aim of the present study which investigated all existing relationships between the main CVD risk factors in a well-characterized occupational cohort. Prospective associations between 12 behavioural and clinical risk factors (gender, age, parental history of CVD, non-moderate alcohol consumption, smoking, physical inactivity, obesity, hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes, sleep disorder, depression) were systematically tested using Cox regression in 10,736 middle-aged individuals free of CVD at baseline and followed over 20 years. In addition to independently predicting CVD risk (HRs from 1.18 to 1.97 in multivariable models), these factors form a vast network of associations where each factor predicts, and/or is predicted by, several other factors (n = 47 with p<0.05, n = 37 with p<0.01, n = 28 with p<0.001, n = 22 with p<0.0001). Both the number of factors associated with a given factor (1 to 9) and the strength of the associations (HRs from 1.10 to 6.12 in multivariable models) are very variable, suggesting that all the factors do not have the same influence within this network. These results show that there is a remarkably extensive network of relationships between the main CVD risk factors which may have not been sufficiently taken into account, notably in preventive strategies aiming to lower CVD risk. PMID:27598908

  12. Movers and stayers: The geography of residential mobility and CVD hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand.

    PubMed

    Exeter, Daniel J; Sabel, Clive E; Hanham, Grant; Lee, Arier C; Wells, Susan

    2015-05-01

    The association between area-level disadvantage and health and social outcomes is unequivocal. However, less is known about the health impact of residential mobility, particularly at intra-urban scales. We used an encrypted National Health Index (eNHI) number to link individual-level data recorded in routine national health databases to construct a cohort of 641,532 participants aged 30+ years to investigate the association between moving and CVD hospitalisations in Auckland, New Zealand. Residential mobility was measured for participants according to changes in the census Meshblock of usual residence, obtained from the Primary Health Organisation (PHO) database for every calendar quarter between 1/1/2006 and 31/12/2012. The NZDep2006 area deprivation score at the start and end of a participant's inclusion in the study was used to measure deprivation mobility. We investigated the relative risk of movers being hospitalised for CVD relative to stayers using multi-variable binomial regression models, controlling for age, gender, deprivation and ethnicity. Considered together, movers were 1.22 (1.19-1.26) times more likely than stayers to be hospitalised for CVD. Using the 5×5 deprivation origin-destination matrix to model a patient's risk of CVD based on upward, downward or sideways deprivation mobility, movers within the least deprived (NZDep2006 Quintile 1) areas were 10% less likely than stayers to be hospitalised for CVD, while movers within the most deprived (NZDep2006 Q5) areas were 45% more likely than stayers to have had their first CVD hospitalisation in 2006-2012 (RR: 1.45 [1.35-1.55]). Participants who moved upward also had higher relative risks of having a CVD event, although their risk was less than those observed for participants experiencing downward deprivation mobility. This research suggests that residential mobility is an important determinant of CVD in Auckland. Further investigation is required to determine the impact moving has on the risk of

  13. Electroluminescent and photosensitive films prepared by DTC-CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zavyalova, Ludmila V.; Svechnikov, George S.

    1997-08-01

    The original chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method used in fabrication A2B6 films, photodetectors and electro- luminescent emitters based on these films have been reported. The basic idea behind this method is thermal decomposition of dithiocarbamates (DTC). The proposed method does not require expensive materials and vacuum equipment. Moreover, the DTC-CVD method differs from the known CVD methods in source material delivery method, a low deposition temperature and a non-sealed reactor geometry. Both CdS and CdS1-xSex were obtained at temperature of 240- 280 degrees C and were activated directly in the grown process by Cu and In, or by annealing in mixture CdS: Cu, Cl. Photodetectors with absorption maxima at 500-750 nm have dark conductivity (sigma) D EQ 10-9 divided by 10-8 (Omega) -1 cm-1 and photoconductivity (sigma) ph equals 10-2 divided by 10-1 (Omega) -1 cm-1 at 200 lux. CdS films with thickness of 6 divided by 12 micrometers have been used as sandwich-type photoconductor detectors. Electroluminescence ZnS:Mn films prepared by DTC-CVD method at the substrate temperature of 200 DIV 300 degrees C without additional annealing have high luminance and luminous efficiency. Deposition at a law temperature makes it possible to use flexible polymer films or low cost glasses as substrates. Because the technique is rather simple and can be applied to obtain all types of thin film electroluminescence structure layers, we expect a low price of light sources based on these films.

  14. CVD 908, CVD 908-htrA, and CVD 909 live oral typhoid vaccines: a logical progression.

    PubMed

    Tacket, Carol O; Levine, Myron M

    2007-07-15

    Typhoid fever remains an important public health problem in many parts of the world. Despite the availability of oral Ty21a (Vivotif; Berna Biotech) and parenteral Vi polysaccharide vaccine (Typhim Vi; Aventis Pasteur), improved typhoid fever vaccines have been sought. These include a series of vaccine candidates developed at the Center for Vaccine Development, University of Maryland, based on attenuation of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi by deletions in the aroC, aroD, and htrA genes. These vaccine candidates, designated "CVD 908," "CVD 908-htrA," and "CVD 909," have been developed and tested in volunteers with variable success. This review summarizes the clinical data that directed the logical progression of this vaccine development strategy.

  15. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, J. T.; Kazaroff, J. M.; Appel, M. A.

    1989-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the melting temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  16. Iridium-coated rhenium thrusters by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harding, John T.; Kazaroff, John M.; Appel, Marshall A.

    1988-01-01

    Operation of spacecraft thrusters at increased temperature reduces propellant requirements. Inasmuch as propellant comprises the bulk of a satellite's mass, even a small percentage reduction makes possible a significant enhancement of the mission in terms of increased payload. Because of its excellent high temperature strength, rhenium is often the structural material of choice. It can be fabricated into free-standing shapes by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) onto an expendable mandrel. What rhenium lacks is oxidation resistance, but this can be provided by a coating of iridium, also by CVD. This paper describes the process used by Ultramet to fabricate 22-N (5-lbf) and, more recently, 445-N (100-lbf) Ir/Re thrusters; characterizes the CVD-deposited materials; and summarizes the materials effects of firing these thrusters. Optimal propellant mixture ratios can be employed because the materials withstand an oxidizing environment up to the meltimg temperature of iridium, 2400 C (4350 F).

  17. The research on endothelial function in women and men at risk for cardiovascular disease (REWARD) study: methodology

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Endothelial function has been shown to be a highly sensitive marker for the overall cardiovascular risk of an individual. Furthermore, there is evidence of important sex differences in endothelial function that may underlie the differential presentation of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in women relative to men. As such, measuring endothelial function may have sex-specific prognostic value for the prediction of CVD events, thus improving risk stratification for the overall prediction of CVD in both men and women. The primary objective of this study is to assess the clinical utility of the forearm hyperaemic reactivity (FHR) test (a proxy measure of endothelial function) for the prediction of CVD events in men vs. women using a novel, noninvasive nuclear medicine -based approach. It is hypothesised that: 1) endothelial dysfunction will be a significant predictor of 5-year CVD events independent of baseline stress test results, clinical, demographic, and psychological variables in both men and women; and 2) endothelial dysfunction will be a better predictor of 5-year CVD events in women compared to men. Methods/Design A total of 1972 patients (812 men and 1160 women) undergoing a dipyridamole stress testing were recruited. Medical history, CVD risk factors, health behaviours, psychological status, and gender identity were assessed via structured interview or self-report questionnaires at baseline. In addition, FHR was assessed, as well as levels of sex hormones via blood draw. Patients will be followed for 5 years to assess major CVD events (cardiac mortality, non-fatal MI, revascularization procedures, and cerebrovascular events). Discussion This is the first study to determine the extent and nature of any sex differences in the ability of endothelial function to predict CVD events. We believe the results of this study will provide data that will better inform the choice of diagnostic tests in men and women and bring the quality of risk stratification in

  18. Recent results on CVD diamond radiation sensors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weilhammer, P.; Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; v. d. Eijk, R.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fish, D.; Fried, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Kass, R.; Knopfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Manfredi, P. F.; Meier, D.; LeNormand; Pan, L. S.; Pernegger, H.; Pernicka, M.; Plano, R.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff; Rudge, A.; Schieber, M.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Thomson, G. B.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Turchetta, R.; RD 42 Collaboration

    1998-02-01

    CVD diamond radiation sensors are being developed for possible use in trackers in the LHC experiments. The diamond promises to be radiation hard well beyond particle fluences that can be tolerated by Si sensors. Recent results from the RD 42 collaboration on charge collection distance and on radiation hardness of CVD diamond samples will be reported. Measurements with diamond tracking devices, both strip detectors and pixel detectors, will be discussed. Results from beam tests using a diamond strip detector which was read out with fast, 25 ns shaping time, radiation-hard pipeline electronics will be presented.

  19. Evaluation of Cardiovascular Risk Scores Applied to NASA's Astronant Corps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jain, I.; Charvat, J. M.; VanBaalen, M.; Lee, L.; Wear, M. L.

    2014-01-01

    In an effort to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk prediction, this analysis evaluates and compares the applicability of multiple CVD risk scores to the NASA Astronaut Corps which is extremely healthy at selection.

  20. START or SMART? Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Cardiovascular Risk for People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection

    PubMed Central

    Siedner, Mark J.

    2016-01-01

    The Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection (START) study has reinforced the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a notable secondary finding from that study was that immediate initiation of ART did not prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (0.17 vs 0.20 events/1000 person-years, P = .65). This result appears to contradict a body of evidence, most notably from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, which reported a 70% increased hazard of cardiovascular events for those deferring or interrupting treatment. Thus, an important unresolved question is whether the timing of ART impacts CVD risk. In this review, published data on relationships between timing of ART and CVD risk are reviewed. The data support a role for ART in mitigating CVD risk at lower CD4 counts, but data also suggests that, among those initiating therapy early, ART alone appears to suboptimally mitigate CVD risk. Additional interventions to address CVD risk among human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations are likely to be needed. PMID:26989755

  1. START or SMART? Timing of Antiretroviral Therapy Initiation and Cardiovascular Risk for People With Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection.

    PubMed

    Siedner, Mark J

    2016-01-01

    The Initiation of Antiretroviral Therapy in Early Asymptomatic HIV Infection (START) study has reinforced the benefits of early initiation of antiretroviral therapy (ART). However, a notable secondary finding from that study was that immediate initiation of ART did not prevent cardiovascular disease (CVD) events (0.17 vs 0.20 events/1000 person-years, P = .65). This result appears to contradict a body of evidence, most notably from the Strategies for Management of Antiretroviral Therapy (SMART) study, which reported a 70% increased hazard of cardiovascular events for those deferring or interrupting treatment. Thus, an important unresolved question is whether the timing of ART impacts CVD risk. In this review, published data on relationships between timing of ART and CVD risk are reviewed. The data support a role for ART in mitigating CVD risk at lower CD4 counts, but data also suggests that, among those initiating therapy early, ART alone appears to suboptimally mitigate CVD risk. Additional interventions to address CVD risk among human immunodeficiency virus-infected populations are likely to be needed. PMID:26989755

  2. The addition of whole soy flour to cafeteria diet reduces metabolic risk markers in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Soybean is termed a functional food because it contains bioactive compounds. However, its effects are not well known under unbalanced diet conditions. This work is aimed at evaluating the effect of adding whole soy flour to a cafeteria diet on intestinal histomorphometry, metabolic risk and toxicity markers in rats. Methods In this study, 30 male adult Wistar rats were used, distributed among three groups (n = 10): AIN-93 M diet, cafeteria diet (CAF) and cafeteria diet with soy flour (CAFS), for 56 days. The following parameters were measured: food intake; weight gain; serum concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, HDL-c, glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c), aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferases and Thiobarbituric Acid Reactive Substances (TBARS); humidity and lipid fecal content; weight and fat of the liver. The villous height, the crypt depth and the thickness of the duodenal and ileal circular and longitudinal muscle layers of the animals were also measured. Results There was a significant reduction in the food intake in the CAF group. The CAFS showed lower serum concentrations of triglycerides and serum TBARS and a lower percentage of hepatic fat, with a corresponding increase in thickness of the intestinal muscle layers. In the CAF group, an increase in the HbA1c, ALT, lipid excretion, liver TBARS and crypt depth, was observed associated with lower HDL-c and villous height. The addition of soy did not promote any change in these parameters. Conclusions The inclusion of whole soy flour in a high-fat diet may be helpful in reducing some markers of metabolic risk; however, more studies are required to clarify its effects on unbalanced diets. PMID:24119309

  3. Goodness-of-fit tests for the additive risk model with (p > 2)-dimensional time-invariant covariates.

    PubMed

    Kim, J; Song, M S; Lee, S

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents methods for checking the goodness-of-fit of the additive risk model with p(> 2)-dimensional time-invariant covariates. The procedures are an extension of Kim and Lee (1996) who developed a test to assess the additive risk assumption for two-sample censored data. We apply the proposed tests to survival data from South Wales nikel refinery workers. Simulation studies are carried out to investigate the performance of the proposed tests for practical sample sizes. PMID:9880997

  4. The apolipoprotein epsilon4 allele confers additional risk in children with familial hypercholesterolemia.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Albert; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Rodenburg, Jessica; Defesche, Joep C; de Jongh, Saskia; Bakker, Henk D; Kastelein, John J P

    2003-06-01

    Children with familial hypercholesterolemia (FH) exhibit substantial variance of LDL cholesterol. In previous studies, family members of children with FH were included, which may have influenced results. To avoid such bias, we studied phenotype in 450 unrelated children with FH and in 154 affected sib-pairs. In known families with classical FH, diagnosis was based on plasma LDL cholesterol above the age- and gender-specific 95th percentile. Girls had 0.47 +/- 0.15 mmol/L higher LDL cholesterol, compared with boys (p = 0.002). Also in girls, HDL cholesterol increased by 0.07 +/- 0.03 mmol/L per 5 y (pfor trend = 0.005); this age effect was not observed in boys. The distribution of apolipoprotein (apo) E genotypes was not significantly different between probands, their paired affected siblings, or a Dutch control population. Carriers with or without one epsilon4 allele had similar LDL and HDL cholesterol levels. Within the affected sib-pairs, the epsilon4 allele explained 72.4% of the variance of HDL cholesterol levels (-0.15 mmol/L, 95% confidence interval -0.24 to -0.05, p = 0.003). The effect of apoE4 on HDL cholesterol differed with an analysis based on probands or on affected sib-pairs. The affected sib-pair model used adjustment for shared environment, type of LDL receptor gene mutation, and a proportion of additional genetic factors and may, therefore, be more accurate in estimating effects of risk factors on complex traits. We conclude that the epsilon4 allele was associated with lower HDL cholesterol levels in an affected sib-pair analysis, which strongly suggests that apoE4 influences HDL cholesterol levels in FH children. Moreover, the strong association suggests that apoE4 carries an additional disadvantage for FH children. PMID:12646733

  5. Thin CVD Coating Protects Titanium Aluminide Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Clark, Ronald; Wallace, Terryl; Cunnington, George; Robinson, John

    1994-01-01

    Feasibility of using very thin CVD coatings to provide both protection against oxidation and surfaces of low catalytic activity for thin metallic heat-shield materials demonstrated. Use of aluminum in compositions increases emittances of coatings and reduces transport of oxygen through coatings to substrates. Coatings light in weight and applied to foil-gauge materials with minimum weight penalties.

  6. Selected Topics in CVD Diamond Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koizumi, Satoshi; Nebel, Christoph E.; Nesladek, Milos

    2006-10-01

    Since the discovery of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond growth in 1976, the steady scientific progress often resulted in surprising new discoveries and breakthroughs. This brought us to the idea to publish the special issue Selected Topics in CVD Diamond Research in physica status solidi (a), reflecting such advancements and interesting results at the leading edge of diamond research.The present issue summarizes this progress in the CVD diamond field by selecting contributions from several areas such as superconductivity, super-excitonic radiation, quantum computing, bio-functionalization, surface electronic properties, the nature of phosphorus doping, transport properties in high energy detectors, CVD growth and properties of nanocrystalline diamond. In all these directions CVD diamond appears to be very competitive in comparison with other semiconducting materials.As Editors of this special issue, we must admit that the selection is biased by our opinion. Nonetheless, we are sure that each contribution introduces new ideas and results which will improve the understanding of the current level of physics and chemistry of this attractive wide-bandgap semiconductor and which will help to bring it closer to applications.All submissions were invited based on the contributions of the authors to their specific research field. The Feature Articles have the format of topical reviews to give the reader a comprehensive summary. Partially, however, they are written in research paper style to report new results of ongoing research.We hope that this issue will attract the attention of a broad community of scientists and engineers, and that it will facilitate the utilization of diamond in electronic applications and technologies of the future.

  7. The risk of stillbirth and infant death by each additional week of expectant management stratified by maternal age

    PubMed Central

    Page, Jessica M.; Snowden, Jonathan M.; Cheng, Yvonne W.; Doss, Amy; Rosenstein, Melissa G.; Caughey, Aaron B.

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE The objective of the study was to examine fetal/infant mortality by gestational age at term stratified by maternal age. STUDY DESIGN A retrospective cohort study was conducted using 2005 US national birth certificate data. For each week of term gestation, the risk of mortality associated with delivery was compared with composite mortality risk of expectant management. The expectant management measure included stillbirth and infant death. This expectant management risk was calculated to estimate the composite mortality risk with remaining pregnant an additional week by combining the risk of stillbirth during the additional week of pregnancy and infant death risk following delivery at the next week. Maternal age was stratified by 35 years or more compared with women younger than 35 years as well as subgroup analyses of younger than 20, 20–34, 35–39, or 40 years old or older. RESULTS The fetal/infant mortality risk of expectant management is greater than the risk of infant death at 39 weeks’ gestation in women 35 years old or older (15.2 vs 10.9 of 10,000, P < .05). In women younger than 35 years old, the risk of expectant management also exceeded that of infant death at 39 weeks (21.3 vs 18.8 of 10,000, P < .05). For women younger than 35 years old, the overall expectant management risk is influenced by higher infant death risk and does not rise significantly until 41 weeks compared with women 35 years old or older in which it increased at 40 weeks. CONCLUSION Risk varies by maternal age, and delivery at 39 weeks minimizes fetal/infant mortality for both groups, although the magnitude of the risk reduction is greater in older women. PMID:23707677

  8. AB006. Erectile dysfunction (ED) as a marker for cardiovascular diseases (CVD)

    PubMed Central

    Torres, Luiz Otavio

    2015-01-01

    In 1973 V. Michal, a vascular surgeon said “Erectile dysfunction (ED) is related to diseases of the vascular bed”. And this makes sense since ED and cardiovascular diseases (CVD) share many risk factors like aging, obesity, inactivity, smoking, depression, dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetes/insuline resistance. These conditions may lead to an oxidative stress which ultimately can promote vasoconstriction, thrombosis, atherosclerosis and finally ED and CVD. One of the most accepted Idea is that small vessels plug earlier, it means, small arteries when have for example 50% of obstruction will probably have a clinical manifestation before bigger arteries!

  9. Association between plasma omega-3 fatty acids and cardiovascular disease risk factors.

    PubMed

    Garneau, Véronique; Rudkowska, Iwona; Paradis, Ann-Marie; Godin, Gaston; Julien, Pierre; Pérusse, Louis; Vohl, Marie-Claude

    2013-03-01

    The consumption of omega-3 (n-3) fatty acids (FA), namely eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), have been linked to reduced cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. The objective of this study was to examine the relation between n-3 FA in plasma phospholipid (PL) levels and CVD risk factors. n-3 FA levels in plasma PL were determined using gas chromatography in 100 obese (body mass index (BMI), ≥30 kg·m(-2)) and 100 nonobese selected individuals from the Quebec City metropolitan area. The CVD risk factors analysed were BMI, blood pressure, plasma lipids levels, and fasting plasma glucose. Significantly higher levels of alpha-linolenic acid (ALA) and docosapentaenoic acid (DPA) were observed in obese subjects, whereas significantly higher levels of DHA were observed in nonobese subjects. For CVD risk factors, ALA levels were positively correlated with plasma triglyceride concentrations and negatively associated with diastolic blood pressure. None of the CVD risk factors studied was linked to EPA levels. In addition, DPA was negatively related to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) and positively correlated with the total cholesterol/HDL-C ratio. DHA levels were negatively correlated with BMI, waist circumference, and plasma triglyceride levels, whereas a positive association was observed with HDL-C levels. Total n-3 FA percentages were negatively correlated with BMI. In conclusion, higher DHA percentages in plasma PL are associated with a more favourable CVD risk profile, whereas higher DPA percentages in plasma PL are associated with a more deteriorated CVD risk profile.

  10. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  11. Microbiota and the nitrogen cycle: Implications in the development and progression of CVD and CKD.

    PubMed

    Briskey, David; Tucker, Patrick S; Johnson, David W; Coombes, Jeff S

    2016-07-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is associated with an increased risk of death from cardiovascular disease (CVD). One factor involved in CVD development is nitric oxide (NO), which acts as a powerful vasodilator. NO is produced via the nitrogen cycle, through the reduction of nitrate to nitrite with the process mainly occurring in the mouth by commensal microbiota. People with CKD have compromised microbiota (dysbiosis) with an increased abundance of potentially pathogenic and pro-inflammatory bacteria capable of producing uremic toxins that contribute to CKD development and reduce enzymatic NO production. However, to date, few studies have comprehensively documented the gut or saliva microbiota in the CKD population or investigated the role of NO in people with CKD. This review will discuss NO pathways that are linked to the progression of CKD and CVD and therapeutic options for targeting these pathways. PMID:27164294

  12. Single-crystal CVD diamonds as small-angle X-ray scattering windows for high-pressure research

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suntao; Meng, Yu-fei; Ando, Nozomi; Tate, Mark; Krasnicki, Szczesny; Yan, Chih-shiue; Liang, Qi; Lai, Joseph; Mao, Ho-kwang; Gruner, Sol M.; Hemley, Russell J.

    2012-01-01

    Small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) was performed on single-crystal chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamonds with low nitrogen concentrations, which were fabricated by microwave plasma-assisted chemical vapor deposition at high growth rates. High optical quality undoped 500 µm-thick single-crystal CVD diamonds grown without intentional nitrogen addition proved to be excellent as windows on SAXS cells, yielding parasitic scattering no more intense than a 7.5 µm-thick Kapton film. A single-crystal CVD diamond window was successfully used in a high-pressure SAXS cell. PMID:22675230

  13. Environmental and societal influences acting on cardiovascular risk factors and disease at a population level: a review

    PubMed Central

    Chow, Clara Kayei; Lock, Karen; Teo, Koon; Subramanian, SV; McKee, Martin; Yusuf, Salim

    2009-01-01

    It has long been known that cardiovascular disease (CVD) rates vary considerably among populations, across space and through time. It is now apparent that most of the attributable risk for myocardial infarction ‘within’ populations from across the world can be ascribed to the varying levels of a limited number of risk factors among individuals in a population. Individual risk factors (e.g. blood pressure) can be modified with resulting health gains. Yet, the persistence of large international variations in cardiovascular risk factors and resulting CVD incidence and mortality indicates that there are additional factors that apply to ‘populations’ that are important to understand as part of a comprehensive approach to CVD control. This article reviews the evidence on why certain populations are more at risk than others. PMID:19261658

  14. An overview of cardiovascular risk factor burden in sub-Saharan African countries: a socio-cultural perspective

    PubMed Central

    BeLue, Rhonda; Okoror, Titilayo A; Iwelunmor, Juliet; Taylor, Kelly D; Degboe, Arnold N; Agyemang, Charles; Ogedegbe, Gbenga

    2009-01-01

    Background Sub-Saharan African (SSA) countries are currently experiencing one of the most rapid epidemiological transitions characterized by increasing urbanization and changing lifestyle factors. This has resulted in an increase in the incidence of non-communicable diseases, especially cardiovascular disease (CVD). This double burden of communicable and chronic non-communicable diseases has long-term public health impact as it undermines healthcare systems. Purpose The purpose of this paper is to explore the socio-cultural context of CVD risk prevention and treatment in sub-Saharan Africa. We discuss risk factors specific to the SSA context, including poverty, urbanization, developing healthcare systems, traditional healing, lifestyle and socio-cultural factors. Methodology We conducted a search on African Journals On-Line, Medline, PubMed, and PsycINFO databases using combinations of the key country/geographic terms, disease and risk factor specific terms such as "diabetes and Congo" and "hypertension and Nigeria". Research articles on clinical trials were excluded from this overview. Contrarily, articles that reported prevalence and incidence data on CVD risk and/or articles that report on CVD risk-related beliefs and behaviors were included. Both qualitative and quantitative articles were included. Results The epidemic of CVD in SSA is driven by multiple factors working collectively. Lifestyle factors such as diet, exercise and smoking contribute to the increasing rates of CVD in SSA. Some lifestyle factors are considered gendered in that some are salient for women and others for men. For instance, obesity is a predominant risk factor for women compared to men, but smoking still remains mostly a risk factor for men. Additionally, structural and system level issues such as lack of infrastructure for healthcare, urbanization, poverty and lack of government programs also drive this epidemic and hampers proper prevention, surveillance and treatment efforts

  15. Recent Results with CVD Diamond Trackers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adam, W.; Bauer, C.; Berdermann, E.; Bergonzo, P.; Bogani, F.; Borchi, E.; Brambilla, A.; Bruzzi, M.; Colledani, C.; Conway, J.; Dabrowski, W.; Delpierre, P.; Deneuville, A.; Dulinski, W.; van Eijk, B.; Fallou, A.; Fizzotti, F.; Foulon, F.; Friedl, M.; Gan, K. K.; Gheeraert, E.; Grigoriev, E.; Hallewell, G.; Hall-Wilton, R.; Han, S.; Hartjes, F.; Hrubec, J.; Husson, D.; Kagan, H.; Kania, D.; Kaplon, J.; Karl, C.; Kass, R.; Knöpfle, K. T.; Krammer, M.; Logiudice, A.; Lu, R.; Manfredi, P. F.; Manfredotti, C.; Marshall, R. D.; Meier, D.; Mishina, M.; Oh, A.; Pan, L. S.; Palmieri, V. G.; Pernicka, M.; Peitz, A.; Pirollo, S.; Polesello, P.; Pretzl, K.; Procario, M.; Re, V.; Riester, J. L.; Roe, S.; Roff, D.; Rudge, A.; Runolfsson, O.; Russ, J.; Schnetzer, S.; Sciortino, S.; Speziali, V.; Stelzer, H.; Stone, R.; Suter, B.; Tapper, R. J.; Tesarek, R.; Trawick, M.; Trischuk, W.; Vittone, E.; Walsh, A. M.; Wedenig, R.; Weilhammer, P.; White, C.; Ziock, H.; Zoeller, M.; RD42 Collaboration

    1999-08-01

    We present recent results on the use of Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) diamond microstrip detectors for charged particle tracking. A series of detectors was fabricated using 1 x 1 cm 2 diamonds. Good signal-to-noise ratios were observed using both slow and fast readout electronics. For slow readout electronics, 2 μs shaping time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 50 to 1. For fast readout electronics, 25 ns peaking time, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 7 to 1. Using the first 2 x 4 cm 2 diamond from a production CVD reactor with slow readout electronics, the most probable signal-to-noise ratio was 23 to 1. The spatial resolution achieved for the detectors was consistent with the digital resolution expected from the detector pitch.

  16. CVD-Enabled Graphene Manufacture and Technology

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Integrated manufacturing is arguably the most challenging task in the development of technology based on graphene and other 2D materials, particularly with regard to the industrial demand for “electronic-grade” large-area films. In order to control the structure and properties of these materials at the monolayer level, their nucleation, growth and interfacing needs to be understood to a level of unprecedented detail compared to existing thin film or bulk materials. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) has emerged as the most versatile and promising technique to develop graphene and 2D material films into industrial device materials and this Perspective outlines recent progress, trends, and emerging CVD processing pathways. A key focus is the emerging understanding of the underlying growth mechanisms, in particular on the role of the required catalytic growth substrate, which brings together the latest progress in the fields of heterogeneous catalysis and classic crystal/thin-film growth. PMID:26240694

  17. CVD diamond substrate for microelectronics. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Burden, J.; Gat, R.

    1996-11-01

    Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) of diamond films has evolved dramatically in recent years, and commercial opportunities for diamond substrates in thermal management applications are promising. The objective of this technology transfer initiative (TTI) is for Applied Science and Technology, Inc. (ASTEX) and AlliedSignal Federal Manufacturing and Technologies (FM&T) to jointly develop and document the manufacturing processes and procedures required for the fabrication of multichip module circuits using CVD diamond substrates, with the major emphasis of the project concentrating on lapping/polishing prior to metallization. ASTEX would provide diamond films for the study, and FM&T would use its experience in lapping, polishing, and substrate metallization to perform secondary processing on the parts. The primary goal of the project was to establish manufacturing processes that lower the manufacturing cost sufficiently to enable broad commercialization of the technology.

  18. Scrolling of Suspended CVD Graphene Sheets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martynov, Oleg; Yeom, Sinchul; Bockrath, Marc; UC: Riverside Team

    Carbon Nanoscrolls, one dimensional spiral forms of graphitic carbon, have attracted recent interest due to their novel proposed properties. Although various production methods and studies of carbon nanoscrolls have been performed, low yield and poor controllability of their synthesis have slowed progress in this field. Suspended graphene membranes and carbon nanotubes have been predicted as promising systems for the formation of graphene scrolls. We have suspended chemical vapor deposition (CVD)-grown graphene over large holes in a Si/SiO2 substrate to make suspended membranes upon which nanotubes are placed. Initial experiments have been performed showing that tears or cuts of the suspended sheet can initiate scrolling. Our latest progress towards carbon nanotube initiated formation of graphene scrolls and suspended CVD graphene scrolling, along with measurements of these novel structures will be presented.

  19. Relationship of dietary phosphate intake with risk of end stage renal disease and mortality in chronic kidney disease stage 3-5: A Modification of Diet in Renal Disease study

    PubMed Central

    Selamet, Umut; Tighiouart, Hocine; Sarnak, Mark J.; Beck, Gerald; Levey, Andrew S.; Block, Geoffrey; Ix, Joachim H.

    2015-01-01

    KDIGO guidelines recommend dietary phosphate restriction to lower serum phosphate levels in CKD stage 3-5. Recent studies suggest that dietary phosphate intake is only weakly linked to its serum concentration, and the relationship of phosphate intake with adverse outcomes is uncertain. To further evaluate this, we used Cox proportional hazards models to assess associations of baseline 24 hour urine phosphate excretion with risk of end stage renal disease (ESRD), all-cause mortality, and mortality subtypes (cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD) using the Modification of Diet in Renal Disease data. Models were adjusted for demographics, CVD risk factors, iothalamate GFR, and urine protein and nitrogen excretion. Phosphate excretion was modestly inversely correlated with serum phosphate concentrations. There was no association of 24 hour urinary phosphate excretion with risk of ESRD, CVD-, non-CVD- or all-cause mortality. For comparison, higher serum phosphate concentrations were associated with all-cause mortality (hazard ratio per 0.7 mg/dL higher, 1.15 [95% CI 1.01, 1.30]). Thus, phosphate intake is not tightly linked with serum phosphate concentrations in CKD stage 3-5, and there was no evidence that greater phosphate intake, assessed by 24 hour phosphate excretion, is associated with ESRD, CVD-, non CVD-, or all-cause mortality in CKD stage 3-5. Hence, factors other than dietary intake may be key determinants of serum phosphate concentrations and require additional investigation. PMID:26422502

  20. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma. PMID:27173908

  1. [Risk hidden in the small print? : Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergic reactions].

    PubMed

    Zuberbier, Torsten; Hengstenberg, Claudine

    2016-06-01

    Some food additives may trigger pseudoallergenic reactions. However, the prevalence of such an overreaction is - despite the increasing number of food additives - rather low in the general population. The most common triggers of pseudoallergic reactions to food are naturally occurring ingredients. However, symptoms in patients with chronic urticaria should improve significantly on a pseudoallergen-free diet. In addition, some studies indicate that certain food additives may also have an impact on the symptoms of patients with neurodermatitis and asthma.

  2. Enhanced cold wall CVD reactor growth of horizontally aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Wei; Kwak, Eun-Hye; Chen, Bingan; Huang, Shirong; Edwards, Michael; Fu, Yifeng; Jeppson, Kjell; Teo, Kenneth; Jeong, Goo-Hwan; Liu, Johan

    2016-05-01

    HASynthesis of horizontally-aligned single-walled carbon nanotubes (HA-SWCNTs) by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) directly on quartz seems very promising for the fabrication of future nanoelectronic devices. In comparison to hot-wall CVD, synthesis of HA-SWCNTs in a cold-wall CVD chamber not only means shorter heating, cooling and growth periods, but also prevents contamination of the chamber. However, since most synthesis of HA-SWCNTs is performed in hot-wall reactors, adapting this well-established process to a cold-wall chamber becomes extremely crucial. Here, in order to transfer the CVD growth technology from a hot-wall to a cold-wall chamber, a systematic investigation has been conducted to determine the influence of process parameters on the HA-SWCNT's growth. For two reasons, the cold-wall CVD chamber was upgraded with a top heater to complement the bottom substrate heater; the first reason to maintain a more uniform temperature profile during HA-SWCNTs growth, and the second reason to preheat the precursor gas flow before projecting it onto the catalyst. Our results show that the addition of a top heater had a significant effect on the synthesis. Characterization of the CNTs shows that the average density of HA-SWCNTs is around 1 - 2 tubes/ μm with high growth quality as shown by Raman analysis. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  3. [A case of malignant pheochromocytoma treated with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine and CVD regimen].

    PubMed

    Ukimura, O; Kojima, M; Hosoi, S; Itoh, H; Watanabe, H; Minamikawa, T

    1994-05-01

    A 44-year-old male had multiple metastasis to the lung, liver, kidney and paraaortic lymph node from primary adrenal malignant pheochromocytoma. Radiation therapy with 131I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (131I-MIBG), was first performed, which was followed by chemotherapy with cyclophosphamide, vincristine and dacarbazine (CVD). A total amount of 4810 MBq of 131I-MIBG was administered then 7 cycles of CVD regimen were added. He was survived for sixteen months with tumor response in primary tumor, paraaortic lymph node and liver metastasis tumors, in addition to hormonal response. It was considered that the survival was prolonged in spite of advanced case with inoperative primary tumor.

  4. Cold Vacuum Dryer (CVD) Facility Fire Protection System Design Description (SYS 24)

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    2000-10-17

    This system design description (SDD) addresses the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility fire protection system (FPS). The primary features of the FPS for the CVD are a fire alarm and detection system, automatic sprinklers, and fire hydrants. The FPS also includes fire extinguishers located throughout the facility and fire hydrants to assist in manual firefighting efforts. In addition, a fire barrier separates the operations support (administrative) area from the process bays and process bay support areas. Administrative controls to limit combustible materials have been established and are a part of the overall fire protection program. The FPS is augmented by assistance from the Hanford Fire Department (HED) and by interface systems including service water, electrical power, drains, instrumentation and controls. This SDD, when used in conjunction with the other elements of the definitive design package, provides a complete picture of the FPS for the CVD Facility.

  5. Influence of dairy product and milk fat consumption on cardiovascular disease risk: a review of the evidence.

    PubMed

    Huth, Peter J; Park, Keigan M

    2012-05-01

    Although evidence has linked the consumption of saturated fat (SF) to increased LDL levels and an increased risk of the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD), recent findings have indicated that the link between CVD and SF may be less straightforward than originally thought. This may be due to the fact that some food sources high in SF contain an array of saturated and unsaturated fatty acids, each of which may differentially affect lipoprotein metabolism, as well as contribute significant amounts of other nutrients, which may alter CVD risk. The purpose of this review is to examine the published research on the relationship between milk fat containing dairy foods and cardiovascular health. The findings indicate that the majority of observational studies have failed to find an association between the intake of dairy products and increased risk of CVD, coronary heart disease, and stroke, regardless of milk fat levels. Results from short-term intervention studies on CVD biomarkers have indicated that a diet higher in SF from whole milk and butter increases LDL cholesterol when substituted for carbohydrates or unsaturated fatty acids; however, they may also increase HDL and therefore might not affect or even lower the total cholesterol:HDL cholesterol ratio. The results from the review also indicate that cheese intake lowers LDL cholesterol compared with butter of equal milk fat content. In addition, the review highlights some significant gaps in the research surrounding the effects of full-fat dairy on CVD outcomes, pointing to the need for long-term intervention studies.

  6. Additive composite ABCG2, SLC2A9 and SLC22A12 scores of high-risk alleles with alcohol use modulate gout risk.

    PubMed

    Tu, Hung-Pin; Chung, Chia-Min; Min-Shan Ko, Albert; Lee, Su-Shin; Lai, Han-Ming; Lee, Chien-Hung; Huang, Chung-Ming; Liu, Chiu-Shong; Ko, Ying-Chin

    2016-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the contribution of urate transporter genes and alcohol use to the risk of gout/tophi. Eight variants of ABCG2, SLC2A9, SLC22A12, SLC22A11 and SLC17A3 were genotyped in male individuals in a case-control study with 157 gout (33% tophi), 106 asymptomatic hyperuricaemia and 295 control subjects from Taiwan. The multilocus profiles of the genetic risk scores for urate gene variants were used to evaluate the risk of asymptomatic hyperuricaemia, gout and tophi. ABCG2 Q141K (T), SLC2A9 rs1014290 (A) and SLC22A12 rs475688 (C) under an additive model and alcohol use independently predicted the risk of gout (respective odds ratio for each factor=2.48, 2.03, 1.95 and 2.48). The additive composite Q141K, rs1014290 and rs475688 scores of high-risk alleles were associated with gout risk (P<0.0001). We observed the supramultiplicative interaction effect of genetic urate scores and alcohol use on gout and tophi risk (P for interaction=0.0452, 0.0033). The synergistic effect of genetic urate score 5-6 and alcohol use indicates that these combined factors correlate with gout and tophi occurrence.

  7. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: what are the risks to human health?

    PubMed

    Lagriffoul, A; Boudenne, J L; Absi, R; Ballet, J J; Berjeaud, J M; Chevalier, S; Creppy, E E; Gilli, E; Gadonna, J P; Gadonna-Widehem, P; Morris, C E; Zini, S

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow.

  8. Bacterial-based additives for the production of artificial snow: what are the risks to human health?

    PubMed

    Lagriffoul, A; Boudenne, J L; Absi, R; Ballet, J J; Berjeaud, J M; Chevalier, S; Creppy, E E; Gilli, E; Gadonna, J P; Gadonna-Widehem, P; Morris, C E; Zini, S

    2010-03-01

    For around two decades, artificial snow has been used by numerous winter sports resorts to ensure good snow cover at low altitude areas or more generally, to lengthen the skiing season. Biological additives derived from certain bacteria are regularly used to make artificial snow. However, the use of these additives has raised doubts concerning the potential impact on human health and the environment. In this context, the French health authorities have requested the French Agency for Environmental and Occupational Health Safety (Afsset) to assess the health risks resulting from the use of such additives. The health risk assessment was based on a review of the scientific literature, supplemented by professional consultations and expertise. Biological or chemical hazards from additives derived from the ice nucleation active bacterium Pseudomonas syringae were characterised. Potential health hazards to humans were considered in terms of infectious, toxic and allergenic capacities with respect to human populations liable to be exposed and the means of possible exposure. Taking into account these data, a qualitative risk assessment was carried out, according to four exposure scenarios, involving the different populations exposed, and the conditions and routes of exposure. It was concluded that certain health risks can exist for specific categories of professional workers (mainly snowmakers during additive mixing and dilution tank cleaning steps, with risks estimated to be negligible to low if workers comply with safety precautions). P. syringae does not present any pathogenic capacity to humans and that the level of its endotoxins found in artificial snow do not represent a danger beyond that of exposure to P. syringae endotoxins naturally present in snow. However, the risk of possible allergy in some particularly sensitive individuals cannot be excluded. Another important conclusion of this study concerns use of poor microbiological water quality to make artificial snow

  9. Crystallographic anisotropy of growth and etch rates of CVD diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Wolfer, M; Biener, J; El-dasher, B S; Biener, M M; Hamza, A V; Kriele, A; Wild, C

    2008-08-05

    The investigation of orientation dependent crystal growth and etch processes can provide deep insights into the underlying mechanisms and thus helps to validate theoretical models. Here, we report on homoepitaxial diamond growth and oxygen etch experiments on polished, polycrystalline CVD diamond wafers by use of electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) and white-light interferometry (WLI). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) was applied to provide additional atomic scale surface morphology information. The main advantage of using polycrystalline diamond substrates with almost random grain orientation is that it allows determining the orientation dependent growth (etch) rate for different orientations within one experiment. Specifically, we studied the effect of methane concentration on the diamond growth rate, using a microwave plasma CVD process. At 1 % methane concentration a maximum of the growth rate near <100> and a minimum near <111> is detected. Increasing the methane concentration up to 5 % shifts the maximum towards <110> while the minimum stays at <111>. Etch rate measurements in a microwave powered oxygen plasma reveal a pronounced maximum at <111>. We also made a first attempt to interpret our experimental data in terms of local micro-faceting of high-indexed planes.

  10. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: decision analysis comes through.

    PubMed

    Baker, Stuart G; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W; Pencina, Michael J; Vickers, Andrew; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G M; Mol, Ben W J; Lindeman, Karen S

    2014-09-28

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example, a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model.

  11. How to interpret a small increase in AUC with an additional risk prediction marker: Decision analysis comes through

    PubMed Central

    Baker, Stuart G.; Schuit, Ewoud; Steyerberg, Ewout W.; Pencina, Michael J.; Vickers, Andew; Moons, Karel G. M.; Mol, Ben W.J.; Lindeman, Karen S.

    2014-01-01

    An important question in the evaluation of an additional risk prediction marker is how to interpret a small increase in the area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC). Many researchers believe that a change in AUC is a poor metric because it increases only slightly with the addition of a marker with a large odds ratio. Because it is not possible on purely statistical grounds to choose between the odds ratio and AUC, we invoke decision analysis, which incorporates costs and benefits. For example a timely estimate of the risk of later non-elective operative delivery can help a woman in labor decide if she wants an early elective cesarean section to avoid greater complications from possible later non-elective operative delivery. A basic risk prediction model for later non-elective operative delivery involves only antepartum markers. Because adding intrapartum markers to this risk prediction model increases AUC by 0.02, we questioned whether this small improvement is worthwhile. A key decision-analytic quantity is the risk threshold, here the risk of later non-elective operative delivery at which a patient would be indifferent between an early elective cesarean section and usual care. For a range of risk thresholds, we found that an increase in the net benefit of risk prediction requires collecting intrapartum marker data on 68 to 124 women for every correct prediction of later non-elective operative delivery. Because data collection is non-invasive, this test tradeoff of 68 to 124 is clinically acceptable, indicating the value of adding intrapartum markers to the risk prediction model. PMID:24825728

  12. Polymorphism FXII 46C>T and cardiovascular risk: additional data from Spanish and Tunisian patients

    PubMed Central

    Athanasiadis, Georgios; Esteban, Esther; Vidal, Magdanela Gayà; Torres, Robert Carreras; Bahri, Raoudha; Moral, Pedro

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous studies showed an association between Coagulation Factor XII 46C>T polymorphism and variation in FXII plasma levels, as 46C>T seems to affect the translation efficiency. Case-control studies in Spanish samples indicated that genotype T/T is an independent risk factor for venous thrombosis, ischemic stroke and acute coronary artery disease. In this study, we tried to reaffirm the importance of 46C>T in two samples from Spain and Tunisia. Findings A Transmission Disequilibrium Test (TDT) based on 101 family trios from Barcelona with one offspring affected by ischemic heart disease and a classical case-control study based on 76 patients with IHD and 118 healthy individuals from North and Centre-South Tunisia were conducted. Subjects were genotyped for 46C>T and data were analyzed accordingly, revealing no association in any of the two samples (TDT: P = 0.16, relative risk 1.17; case-control study: P = 0.59, odds ratio 1.36). Conclusion The results suggest that 46C>T is not a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in any of the two analyzed samples and therefore the polymorphism seems not to be a universal risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. PMID:19646235

  13. USING DOSE ADDITION TO ESTIMATE CUMULATIVE RISKS FROM EXPOSURES TO MULTIPLE CHEMICALS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Food Quality Protection Act (FQPA) of 1996 requires the EPA to consider the cumulative risk from exposure to multiple chemicals that have a common mechanism of toxicity. Three methods, hazard index (HI), point-of-departure index (PODI), and toxicity equivalence factor (TEF), ...

  14. Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts

    PubMed Central

    Rücker, Viktoria; Keil, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Malzahn, Uwe; Prugger, Christof; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of absolute risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably with population-specific risk charts, has become a cornerstone of CVD primary prevention. Regular recalibration of risk charts may be necessary due to decreasing CVD rates and CVD risk factor levels. The SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment were first calibrated for Germany with 1998 risk factor level data and 1999 mortality statistics. We present an update of these risk charts based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008–11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012. Competing risks methods were applied and estimates were independently validated. Updated risk charts were calculated based on cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure risk factor levels, sex and 5-year age-groups. The absolute 10-year risk estimates of fatal CVD were lower according to the updated risk charts compared to the first calibration for Germany. In a nationwide sample of 3062 adults aged 40–65 years free of major CVD from DEGS1, the mean 10-year risk of fatal CVD estimated by the updated charts was lower by 29% and the estimated proportion of high risk people (10-year risk > = 5%) by 50% compared to the older risk charts. This recalibration shows a need for regular updates of risk charts according to changes in mortality and risk factor levels in order to sustain the identification of people with a high CVD risk. PMID:27612145

  15. Predicting 10-Year Risk of Fatal Cardiovascular Disease in Germany: An Update Based on the SCORE-Deutschland Risk Charts.

    PubMed

    Rücker, Viktoria; Keil, Ulrich; Fitzgerald, Anthony P; Malzahn, Uwe; Prugger, Christof; Ertl, Georg; Heuschmann, Peter U; Neuhauser, Hannelore

    2016-01-01

    Estimation of absolute risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD), preferably with population-specific risk charts, has become a cornerstone of CVD primary prevention. Regular recalibration of risk charts may be necessary due to decreasing CVD rates and CVD risk factor levels. The SCORE risk charts for fatal CVD risk assessment were first calibrated for Germany with 1998 risk factor level data and 1999 mortality statistics. We present an update of these risk charts based on the SCORE methodology including estimates of relative risks from SCORE, risk factor levels from the German Health Interview and Examination Survey for Adults 2008-11 (DEGS1) and official mortality statistics from 2012. Competing risks methods were applied and estimates were independently validated. Updated risk charts were calculated based on cholesterol, smoking, systolic blood pressure risk factor levels, sex and 5-year age-groups. The absolute 10-year risk estimates of fatal CVD were lower according to the updated risk charts compared to the first calibration for Germany. In a nationwide sample of 3062 adults aged 40-65 years free of major CVD from DEGS1, the mean 10-year risk of fatal CVD estimated by the updated charts was lower by 29% and the estimated proportion of high risk people (10-year risk > = 5%) by 50% compared to the older risk charts. This recalibration shows a need for regular updates of risk charts according to changes in mortality and risk factor levels in order to sustain the identification of people with a high CVD risk. PMID:27612145

  16. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  17. [Food additives and genetically modified food--a risk for allergic patients?].

    PubMed

    Wüthrich, B

    1999-04-01

    Adverse reactions to food and food additives must be classified according to pathogenic criteria. It is necessary to strictly differentiate between an allergy, triggered by a substance-specific immunological mechanism, and an intolerance, in which no specific immune reaction can be established. In contrast to views expressed in the media, by laymen and patients, adverse reactions to additives are less frequent than is believed. Due to frequently "alternative" methods of examination, an allergy to food additives is often wrongly blamed as the cause of a wide variety of symptoms and illness. Diagnosing an allergy or intolerance to additives normally involves carrying out double-blind, placebo-controlled oral provocation tests with food additives. Allergic reactions to food additives occur particularly against additives which are organic in origin. In principle, it is possible that during the manufacture of genetically modified plants and food, proteins are transferred which potentially create allergies. However, legislation exists both in the USA (Federal Drug Administration, FDA) and in Switzerland (Ordinance on the approval process for GM food, GM food additives and GM accessory agents for processing) which require a careful analysis before a genetically modified product is launched, particularly where foreign genes are introduced. Products containing genetically modified organisms (GMO) as additives must be declared. In addition, the source of the foreign protein must be identified. The "Round-up ready" (RR) soya flour introduced in Switzerland is no different from natural soya flour in terms of its allergenic potential. Genetically modified food can be a blessing for allergic individuals if gene technology were to succeed in removing the allergen (e.g. such possibilities exist for rice). The same caution shown towards genetically modified food might also be advisable for foreign food in our diet. Luckily, the immune system of the digestive tract in healthy people

  18. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Emerging Adults in College

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abshire, Demetrius Alexander

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this dissertation was to examine factors associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among emerging adults in college aged 18-25 years. CVD risks that develop during this period often persist into adulthood making it an ideal time to target CVD prevention. The specific aims of this dissertation were to 1) explore perceptions…

  19. Raman spectroscopic investigation of polycrystalline structures of CVD-grown graphene by isotope labeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shengnan; Suzuki, Satoru; Hibino, Hiroki

    2014-10-01

    way to investigate multiple grain structures in CVD graphene with a simple spectroscopic technique. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1, experimental scheme; Fig. S2-3, scanning electron microscopy analysis and optical images; Fig. S4-5, additional LEEM analysis of labeled graphene and hydrogen-etched graphene; Fig. S6-10, additional Raman spectra of labeled graphene. See DOI: 10.1039/c4nr03824j

  20. Observation of twinning in diamond CVD films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marciniak, W.; Fabisiak, K.; Orzeszko, S.; Rozploch, F.

    1992-10-01

    Diamond particles prepared by dc-glow-discharge enhanced HF-CVD hybrid method, from a mixture of acetone vapor and hydrogen gas have been examined by TEM, RHEED and dark field method of observation. Results suggest the presence of twinned diamond particles, which can be reconstructed by a sequence of twinning operations. Contrary to the 'stick model' of the lattice, very common five-fold symmetry of diamond microcrystals may be obtained by applying a number of edge dislocations rather than the continuous deformation of many tetrahedral C-C bonds.

  1. Postprandial hyperlipidemia, endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk: focus on incretins

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is only partially reduced by intensive glycemic control. Diabetic dyslipidemia is suggested to be an additional important contributor to CVD risk in T2DM. Multiple lipid lowering medications effectively reduce fasting LDL cholesterol and triglycerides concentrations and several of them routinely reduce CVD risk. However, in contemporary Western societies the vasculature is commonly exposed to prolonged postprandial hyperlipidemia. Metabolism of these postprandial carbohydrates and lipids yields multiple proatherogenic products. Even a transient increase in these factors may worsen vascular function and induces impaired endothelial dependent vasodilatation, a predictor of atherosclerosis and future cardiovascular events. There is a recent increased appreciation for the role of gut-derived incretin hormones in controlling the postprandial metabolic milieu. Incretin-based medications have been developed and are now used to control postprandial hyperglycemia in T2DM. Recent data indicate that these medications may also have profound effects on postprandial lipid metabolism and may favorably influence several cardiovascular functions. This review discusses (1) the postprandial state with special emphasis on postprandial lipid metabolism and its role in endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular risk, (2) the ability of incretins to modulate postprandial hyperlipidemia and (3) the potential of incretin-based therapeutic strategies to improve vascular function and reduce CVD risk. PMID:21736746

  2. Cheese and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: A Review of the Evidence and Discussion of Possible Mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Hjerpsted, Julie; Tholstrup, Tine

    2016-06-10

    Currently, the effect of dairy products on cardiovascular risk is a topic much debated and with conflicting results. The purpose of this review is to give an overview of the existing literature regarding the effect of cheese intake and risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies included reporting the intake of cheese and risk of CVD or risk markers of CVD represent four human intervention studies, nine prospective studies, one prospective case-cohort study, one prospective nested case-control study, five case-control studies, five cross-sectional studies and three correlation studies. The possible mechanisms that may be of importance include calcium, protein, fermentation and the fatty acid composition of cheese. Results from four prospective studies reported no association between cheese intake and CVD risk, whereas one reported an increased risk, two reported a decreased risk and one reported no association in men but a decreased risk in women. In addition, results from four intervention studies indicated no harmful effect on cholesterol concentrations when comparing fat intake from cheese with fat from butter. The underlying mechanisms for these findings still need to be elucidated.

  3. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  4. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians.

  5. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2006-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by quality-control failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen expressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:16910351

  6. Benefits and concerns associated with biotechnology-derived foods: can additional research reduce children health risks?

    PubMed

    Cantani, A

    2009-01-01

    The development of techniques devised for the genetic manipulation of foods poses new risks for children with food allergy (FA). The introduction of foreign allergenic proteins from different foods into previously tolerated foods may trigger allergic reactions, often complicating with anaphylactic shock in a subset of allergic babies. Children with FA, even if subjected to preventative diets, always challenge the risk of developing allergic manifestations after unintentional intake of a non tolerated food in restaurant settings, with relatives or schoolmates, etc, where product labelling is necessarily lacking. The introduction of potentially allergenic proteins into foods generally considered safe for allergic children can be done deliberately, by either substantially altering the food ingredients, or by genetic manipulation which change the composition or transfer allergens, or unintentionally by qualitycontrol failures, due to contaminations in the production process, or to genetic mismanipulation. There is a controversy between multinationals often favored by governments and consumer association resistance, thus an equidistant analysis poses some unprecedented impediments. The importance of FA and the potential of transgenic plants to bring food allergens into the food supply should not be disregarded. The expression in soybeans of a Brazil nut protein resulted in a food allergen ex-pressed in widely used infant formulas, so paving the way to an often reported multinational debacle. Genetic engineering poses innovative ethical and social concerns, as well as serious challenges to the environment, human health, animal welfare, and the future of agriculture. In this paper will be emphasized practical concepts more crucial for pediatricians. PMID:19364084

  7. Changes in diet, cardiovascular risk factors and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Savory, L A; Griffin, S J; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims To describe change in self-reported diet and plasma vitamin C, and to examine associations between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk in the year following diagnosis of Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent assessment of self-reported diet, plasma vitamin C, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multivariable linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in diet and cardiovascular disease risk at 1 year, adjusting for change in physical activity and cardio-protective medication. Results Participants reported significant reductions in energy, fat and sodium intake, and increases in fruit, vegetable and fibre intake over 1 year. The reduction in energy was equivalent to an average-sized chocolate bar; the increase in fruit was equal to one plum per day. There was a small increase in plasma vitamin C levels. Increases in fruit intake and plasma vitamin C were associated with small reductions in anthropometric and metabolic risk factors. Increased vegetable intake was associated with an increase in BMI and waist circumference. Reductions in fat, energy and sodium intake were associated with reduction in HbA1c, waist circumference and total cholesterol/modelled cardiovascular disease risk, respectively. Conclusions Improvements in dietary behaviour in this screen-detected population were associated with small reductions in cardiovascular disease risk, independently of change in cardio-protective medication and physical activity. Dietary change may have a role to play in the reduction of cardiovascular disease risk following diagnosis of diabetes. PMID:24102972

  8. Comparative evaluation of CVD diamond technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, T.R.

    1993-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of diamonds occurs from hydrogen-hydrocarbon gas mixtures in the presence of atomic hydrogen at subatmospheric pressures. Most CVD methods are based on different means of generating and transporting atomic hydrogen in a particular system. Evaluation of these different techniques involves their capital costs, material costs, energy costs, labor costs and the type and quality of diamond that they produce. Currently, there is no universal agreement on which is the best technique and technique selection has been largely driven by the professional background of the user as well as the particular application of interest. This article discusses the criteria for evaluating a process for low-pressure deposition of diamond. Next, a brief history of low-pressure diamond synthesis is reviewed. Several specific processes are addressed, including the hot filament process, hot filament electron-assisted chemical vapor deposition, and plasma generation of atomic hydrogen by glow discharge, microwave discharge, low pressure radio frequency discharge, high pressure DC discharge, high pressure microwave discharge jets, high pressure RF discharge, and high and low pressure flames. Other types of diamond deposition methods are also evaluated. 101 refs., 15 figs.

  9. Synthesis of Carbon Nanotubes Array by CVD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C.; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) are superior in many devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been involved in synthesizing particular structural or dimensional MWCNT. Uniform aligned MWCNT array is one of the prototype structures for devices such as filed emission device and microelectromechanical systems in which a large length to diameter ratio may also be required. Most aligned MWCNT recently synthesized by plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (CVD) have cone shaped structures. This presentation will illustrate aligned MWCNT array synthesized on silicon substrates using thermal CVD that could produce MWCNT with uniform diameter. An array of nickel particles was used as catalyst for MWCNT growth. A thin Ti or Au buffer layer was coated on the substrate prior to depositing nickel particles. Because the MWCNT size depends on the catalyst particle size, the nickel particle size annealed at various temperatures was investigated. MWCNT were grown on the substrate in the temperature range of 700 C - 1000 C and the pressure range of 1 to 300 torr. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 1 - 10 % were used for the MWCNT synthesis. Morphology, length and diameter of MWCNT were determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of synthesis and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  10. Economic efficiency of primary care for CVD prevention and treatment in Eastern European countries

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the main cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, but it also is highly preventable. The prevention rate mainly depends on the patients’ readiness to follow recommendations and the state’s capacity to support patients. Our study aims to show that proper primary care can decrease the CVD-related morbidity rate and increase the economic efficiency of the healthcare system. Since their admission to the European Union (EU), the Eastern European countries have been in a quest to achieve the Western European standards of living. As a representative Eastern European country, Romania implemented the same strategies as the rest of Eastern Europe, reflected in the health status and lifestyle of its inhabitants. Thus, a valid health policy implemented in Romania should be valid for the rest of the Eastern European countries. Methods Based on the data collected during the EUROASPIRE III Romania Follow Up study, the potential costs of healthcare were estimated for various cases over a 10-year time period. The total costs were split into patient-supported costs and state-supported costs. The state-supported costs were used to deduce the rate of patients with severe CVD that can be treated yearly. A statistical model for the evolution of this rate was computed based on the readiness of the patients to comply with proper primary care treatment. Results We demonstrate that for patients ignoring the risks, a severe CVD has disadvantageous economic consequences, leading to increased healthcare expenses and even poverty. In contrast, performing appropriate prevention activities result in a decrease of the expenses allocated to a (eventual) CVD. In the long-term, the number of patients with severe CVD that can be treated increases as the number of patients receiving proper primary care increases. Conclusions Proper primary care can not only decrease the risk of major CVD but also decrease the healthcare costs and increase the number of

  11. The relationship between calcium intake, obesity, and cardiovascular disease risk factors: the jackson heart study

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major health risk in the United States. Major indicators of CVD risk include obesity, blood lipids, and blood pressure. Modifiable risk factors associated with CVD include body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), serum lipids, and blood pressure. ...

  12. Concentration addition-based approach for aquatic risk assessment of realistic pesticide mixtures in Portuguese river basins.

    PubMed

    Silva, Emília; Cerejeira, Maria José

    2015-05-01

    A two-tiered outline for the predictive environmental risk assessment of chemical mixtures with effect assessments based on concentration addition (CA) approaches as first tier and consideration of independent action (IA) as the second tier was applied based on realistic pesticide mixtures measured in surface waters from 2002 to 2008 within three important Portuguese river basins ('Mondego', 'Sado' and 'Tejo'). The CA-based risk quotients, based on acute data and an assessment factor of 100, exceeded 1 in more than 39 % of the 281 samples, indicating a potential risk for the aquatic environment, namely to algae. Seven herbicide compounds and three insecticides were the most toxic compounds in the pesticide mixtures and provided at least 50 % of the mixture's toxicity in almost 100 % of the samples with risk quotients based on the sum of toxic units (RQSTU) above 1. In eight samples, the maximum cumulative ratio (MCR) and the Junghan's ratio values indicated that a chemical-by-chemical approach underestimated the toxicity of the pesticide mixtures, and CA predicted higher mixture toxicity than that of IA. From a risk management perspective, the results pointed out that, by deriving appropriate programmes of measures to a limited number of pesticides with the highest contribution to the total mixture toxicity, relevant benefits also on mixture impact could be produced. PMID:25424034

  13. Worldwide Exposures to Cardiovascular Risk Factors and Associated Health Effects: Current Knowledge and Data Gaps.

    PubMed

    Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Elliott, Paul; Kontis, Vasilis; Ezzati, Majid

    2016-06-01

    Information on exposure to, and health effects of, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors is needed to develop effective strategies to prevent CVD events and deaths. Here, we provide an overview of the data and evidence on worldwide exposures to CVD risk factors and the associated health effects. Global comparative risk assessment studies have estimated that hundreds of thousands or millions of CVD deaths are attributable to established CVD risk factors (high blood pressure and serum cholesterol, smoking, and high blood glucose), high body mass index, harmful alcohol use, some dietary and environmental exposures, and physical inactivity. The established risk factors plus body mass index are collectively responsible for ≈9.7 million annual CVD deaths, with high blood pressure accounting for more CVD deaths than any other risk factor. Age-standardized CVD death rates attributable to established risk factors plus high body mass index are lowest in high-income countries, followed by Latin America and the Caribbean; they are highest in the region of central and eastern Europe and central Asia. However, estimates of the health effects of CVD risk factors are highly uncertain because there are insufficient population-based data on exposure to most CVD risk factors and because the magnitudes of their effects on CVDs in observational studies are likely to be biased. We identify directions for research and surveillance to better estimate the effects of CVD risk factors and policy options for reducing CVD burden by modifying preventable risk factors. PMID:27267538

  14. Level of incongruence during cardiac rehabilitation and prediction of future CVD-related hospitalizations plus all-cause mortality.

    PubMed

    Meyer, Fiorenza A; Stauber, Stefanie; Wilhelm, Matthias; Znoj, Hansjörg; von Känel, Roland

    2015-01-01

    Independent of traditional risk factors, psychosocial risk factors increase the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Studies in the field of psychotherapy have shown that the construct of incongruence (meaning a discrepancy between desired and achieved goals) affects the outcome of therapy. We prospectively measured the impact of incongruence in patients after undergoing a cardiac rehabilitation program. We examined 198 CVD patients enrolled in a 8-12 week comprehensive cardiac rehabilitation program. Patients completed the German short version of the Incongruence Questionnaire and the SF-36 Health Questionnaire to measure quality of life (QoL) at discharge of rehabilitation. Endpoints at follow-up were CVD-related hospitalizations plus all-cause mortality. During a mean follow-up period of 54.3 months, 29 patients experienced a CVD-related hospitalization and 3 patients died. Incongruence at discharge of rehabilitation was independent of traditional risk factors a significant predictor for CVD-related hospitalizations plus all-cause mortality (HR 2.03, 95% CI 1.29-3.20, p = .002). We also found a significant interaction of incongruence with mental QoL (HR .96, 95% CI .92-.99, p = .027), i.e. incongruence predicted poor prognosis if QoL was low (p = .017), but not if QoL was high (p = .74). Incongruence at discharge predicted future CVD-related hospitalizations plus all-cause mortality and mental QoL moderated this relationship. Therefore, incongruence should be considered for effective treatment planning and outcome measurement.

  15. Investigation on Cardiovascular Risk Prediction Using Physiological Parameters

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wan-Hua; Zhang, Heye; Zhang, Yuan-Ting

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death worldwide. Early prediction of CVD is urgently important for timely prevention and treatment. Incorporation or modification of new risk factors that have an additional independent prognostic value of existing prediction models is widely used for improving the performance of the prediction models. This paper is to investigate the physiological parameters that are used as risk factors for the prediction of cardiovascular events, as well as summarizing the current status on the medical devices for physiological tests and discuss the potential implications for promoting CVD prevention and treatment in the future. The results show that measures extracted from blood pressure, electrocardiogram, arterial stiffness, ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), and blood glucose carry valuable information for the prediction of both long-term and near-term cardiovascular risk. However, the predictive values should be further validated by more comprehensive measures. Meanwhile, advancing unobtrusive technologies and wireless communication technologies allow on-site detection of the physiological information remotely in an out-of-hospital setting in real-time. In addition with computer modeling technologies and information fusion. It may allow for personalized, quantitative, and real-time assessment of sudden CVD events. PMID:24489599

  16. CVD fabrication of thermionic converter and heat pipe

    SciTech Connect

    Reagan, P.; Lieb, D.; Miskolczy, G.; Goodale, D.; Huffman, F.

    1983-07-01

    Thermionic converters and heat pipes fabricated by chemical-vapor deposition (CVD) have operated for extended periods of more than 12,500 hours in natural gas flames at temperatures more than 1700 K. These CVD-trilayer silicon carbide, graphite, and tungsten structures have survived thermal shock and thermal cycle tests.

  17. Probiotics as Additives on Therapy in Allergic Airway Diseases: A Systematic Review of Benefits and Risks

    PubMed Central

    Das, Rashmi Ranjan; Naik, Sushree Samiksha; Singh, Meenu

    2013-01-01

    Background. We conducted a systematic review to find out the role of probiotics in treatment of allergic airway diseases.  Methods. A comprehensive search of the major electronic databases was done till March 2013. Trials comparing the effect of probiotics versus placebo were included. A predefined set of outcome measures were assessed. Continuous data were expressed as standardized mean difference with 95% CI. Dichotomous data were expressed as odds ratio with 95% CI. P value < 0.05 was considered as significant. Results. A total of 12 studies were included. Probiotic intake was associated with a significantly improved quality of life score in patients with allergic rhinitis (SMD −1.9 (95% CI −3.62, −0.19); P = 0.03), though there was a high degree of heterogeneity. No improvement in quality of life score was noted in asthmatics. Probiotic intake also improved the following parameters: longer time free from episodes of asthma and rhinitis and decrease in the number of episodes of rhinitis per year. Adverse events were not significant. Conclusion. As the current evidence was generated from few trials with high degree of heterogeneity, routine use of probiotics as an additive on therapy in subjects with allergic airway diseases cannot be recommended. PMID:23956972

  18. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Set Point Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-01-12

    This document provides the calculations used to determine the error of safety class signals used for the CVD process These errors are used with the Parameter limits to arrive at the initial set point. The Safety Class Instrumentation and Control (SCIC) system provides active detection and response to process anomalies that, if unmitigated would result in a safety event. Specifically actuation of the SCIC system includes two portions. The portion which isolates the MCO and initiates the safety-class helium (SCHe) purge, and the portion which detects and stops excessive heat input to the MCO on high tempered water MCO inlet temperature. For the MCO isolation and purge the SCIC receives signals from MCO pressure (both positive pressure and vacuum) helium flow rate, bay high temperature switches, seismic trips and time under vacuum trips.

  19. Why simulations of colour for CVD observers might not be what they seem

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Green, Phil

    2015-01-01

    A common task in universal design is to create a 'simulation' of the appearance of a colour image as it appears to a CVD observer. Although such simulations are useful in illustrating the particular problems that a CVD observer has in discriminating between colours in an image, it may not be reasonable to assume that such a simulation accurately conveys the experience of the CVD observer to an observer with normal vision. Two problems with this assumption are discussed here. First, it risks confusing appearance with sensation. A colour appearance model can more or less accurately predict the change in appearance of a colour when it is viewed under different conditions, but does not define the actual sensation. Such a sensation cannot be directly communicated but merely located on a scale with other related sensations. In practice we avoid this epistemological problem by asking observers to judge colour matches, relations and differences, none of which requires examination of the sensation itself. Since we do not truly know what sensation a normal observer experiences, it seems unscientific to suppose that we can do so for CVD observers. Secondly, and following from the above, the relation between stimulus and corresponding sensation is established as part of neural development during infancy, and while we can determine the stimulus we cannot readily determine what sensation the stimulus is mapped to, or what the available range of sensations is for a given observer. It is suggested that a similar range of sensations could be available to CVD observers as to normal observers.

  20. Evidence for CVD 103-HgR as an effective single-dose oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah S; Chen, Wilbur H

    2015-01-01

    We propose the ideal oral cholera vaccine (OCV) should be an inexpensive, single, oral dose that rapidly confers immunity for a long duration, and is well tolerated by individuals vulnerable to cholera. Vaccine trials in industrialized countries of a single oral dose of 5 × 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) of the live, attenuated cholera strain CVD 103-HgR have shown 88-97% serum vibriocidal antibody seroconversion rates, a correlate of protection and documented vaccine efficacy of ≥80% using volunteer challenge studies with wild-type cholera. For individuals of developing countries, a 5 × 10(9) CFU dose of CVD 103-HgR is necessary to elicit similar antibody responses. Presently, a reformulation of CVD 103-HgR is in late-stage clinical development for prospective US FDA licensure; making a cholera vaccine for US travelers potentially accessible in 2016. The availability of CVD 103-HgR should be a welcome addition to the currently available OCVs.

  1. Evidence for CVD 103-HgR as an effective single-dose oral cholera vaccine.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Sarah S; Chen, Wilbur H

    2015-01-01

    We propose the ideal oral cholera vaccine (OCV) should be an inexpensive, single, oral dose that rapidly confers immunity for a long duration, and is well tolerated by individuals vulnerable to cholera. Vaccine trials in industrialized countries of a single oral dose of 5 × 10(8) colony forming units (CFU) of the live, attenuated cholera strain CVD 103-HgR have shown 88-97% serum vibriocidal antibody seroconversion rates, a correlate of protection and documented vaccine efficacy of ≥80% using volunteer challenge studies with wild-type cholera. For individuals of developing countries, a 5 × 10(9) CFU dose of CVD 103-HgR is necessary to elicit similar antibody responses. Presently, a reformulation of CVD 103-HgR is in late-stage clinical development for prospective US FDA licensure; making a cholera vaccine for US travelers potentially accessible in 2016. The availability of CVD 103-HgR should be a welcome addition to the currently available OCVs. PMID:26228388

  2. Advanced Synthesis of Spinnable MWCNT Forests by RF-Induction Heating Enhanced CVD Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zakhidov, Anvar; Holmes, William; UTD Solarno Team; Solarno UTD Team

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate here an advanced method to effectively grow tall multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) vertically oriented forests which are highly spinnable. Heating of the Fe catalyst is achieved extremely fast by RF induction heating using coils outside the quartz tube. This method and the new apparatus designed and presented in this paper allow separate control over the temperature of the substrate and the temperature of the incoming gases. In addition to temperature control, the fast T-ramping of the substrate preserves the catalyst nanoclusters from Ostwald ripening and other growth quenching effects such as carbon overgrowth of the catalyst. We show that the parametric sweet spot or bell curve of substrate spinnability can be increased significantly with this improved RF-CVD method. The catalyst nanoclusters also show a wide band of density arrangements that very positively effect spinnability and the drawing ratio. Drawing ratios can vary from 2 meters to 12 meters of sheets drawn from only 1cm of forest. RF-CVD method allows to grow fast (in several minuts) higher CNT forests at higher temperature of synthesis up to 800 K, and obtain dry-spinable CNTs, Characterization results of the samples created in the newRF-CVD system will be presented and compared to previous CNT sheet samples by conventional three-zone resistive heating CVD to measure the extent of property improvements of the CNT sheets and forests. Specifics of the experimental system will be addressed in detail and future property improvements and applications explored.

  3. Nanoelectronic biosensors based on CVD grown graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Yinxi; Dong, Xiaochen; Shi, Yumeng; Li, Chang Ming; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Peng

    2010-08-01

    Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors.Graphene, a single-atom-thick and two-dimensional carbon material, has attracted great attention recently. Because of its unique electrical, physical, and optical properties, graphene has great potential to be a novel alternative to carbon nanotubes in biosensing. We demonstrate the use of large-sized CVD grown graphene films configured as field-effect transistors for real-time biomolecular sensing. Glucose or glutamate molecules were detected by the conductance change of the graphene transistor as the molecules are oxidized by the specific redox enzyme (glucose oxidase or glutamic dehydrogenase) functionalized onto the graphene film. This study indicates that graphene is a promising candidate for the development of real-time nanoelectronic biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: AFM images of graphene film before and after functionalization, transfer curves of graphene after every step, SEM image of CNT-net, and detection results using CNT-net devices. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00142b

  4. Posttraumatic stress disorder, alone or additively with early life adversity, is associated with obesity and cardiometabolic risk

    PubMed Central

    Farr, Olivia M.; Ko, Byung-Joon; Joung, Kyoung Eun; Zaichenko, Lesya; Usher, Nicole; Tsoukas, Michael; Thakkar, Bindiya; Davis, Cynthia R.; Crowell, Judith A.; Mantzoros, Christos S.

    2015-01-01

    Background and Aims There is some evidence that posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and early life adversity may influence metabolic outcomes such as obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease. However, whether and how these interact is not clear. Methods We analyzed data from a cross-sectional and a longitudinal study to determine how PTSD severity influences obesity, insulin sensitivity, and key measures and biomarkers of cardiovascular risk. We then looked at how PTSD and early life adversity may interact to impact these same outcomes. Results PTSD severity is associated with increasing risk of obesity, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease, with higher symptoms correlating with higher values of BMI, leptin, fibrinogen, and blood pressure, and lower values of insulin sensitivity. PTSD and early life adversity have an additive effect on these metabolic outcomes. The longitudinal study confirmed findings from the cross sectional study and showed that fat mass, leptin, CRP, ICAM, and TNFRII were significantly increased with higher PTSD severity during a 2.5 year follow-up period. Conclusions Individuals with early life adversity and PTSD are at high risk and should be monitored carefully for obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiometabolic risk. PMID:25770759

  5. Sodium Excretion and the Risk of Cardiovascular Disease in Patients With Chronic Kidney Disease

    PubMed Central

    Mills, Katherine T.; Chen, Jing; Yang, Wei; Appel, Lawrence J.; Kusek, John W.; Alper, Arnold; Delafontaine, Patrice; Keane, Martin G.; Mohler, Emile; Ojo, Akinlolu; Rahman, Mahboob; Ricardo, Ana C.; Soliman, Elsayed Z.; Steigerwalt, Susan; Townsend, Raymond; He, Jiang

    2016-01-01

    IMPORTANCE Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) are at an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) compared with the general population. Prior studies have produced contradictory results on the association of dietary sodium intake with risk of CVD, and this relationship has not been investigated in patients with CKD. OBJECTIVE To evaluate the association between urinary sodium excretion and clinical CVD events among patients with CKD. DESIGN, SETTING, AND PARTICIPANTS A prospective cohort study of patients with CKD from 7 locations in the United States enrolled in the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort Study and followed up from May 2003 to March 2013. EXPOSURES The cumulative mean of urinary sodium excretion from three 24-hour urinary measurements and calibrated to sex-specific mean 24-hour urinary creatinine excretion. MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES A composite of CVD events defined as congestive heart failure, stroke, ormyocardial infarction. Events were reported every 6 months and confirmed by medical record adjudication. RESULTS Among 3757 participants (mean age, 58 years; 45% women), 804 composite CVD events (575 heart failure, 305 myocardial infarction, and 148 stroke) occurred during a median 6.8 years of follow-up. From lowest (<2894 mg/24 hours) to highest (≥4548 mg/24 hours) quartile of calibrated sodium excretion, 174, 159, 198, and 273 composite CVD events occurred, and the cumulative incidence was 18.4%, 16.5%, 20.6%, and 29.8% at median follow-up. In addition, the cumulative incidence of CVD events in the highest quartile of calibrated sodium excretion compared with the lowest was 23.2% vs 13.3% for heart failure, 10.9% vs 7.8% for myocardial infarction, and 6.4% vs 2.7% for stroke at median follow-up. Hazard ratios of the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile were 1.36 (95% CI, 1.09–1.70; P = .007) for composite CVD events, 1.34 (95% CI, 1.03–1.74; P = .03) for heart failure, and 1.81 (95% CI, 1.08–3.02; P = .02) for

  6. Addition of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors to sulphonylureas and risk of hypoglycaemia: systematic review and meta-analysis

    PubMed Central

    Moore, Nicholas; Arnaud, Mickael; Robinson, Philip; Raschi, Emanuel; De Ponti, Fabrizio; Bégaud, Bernard; Pariente, Antoine

    2016-01-01

    Objective To quantify the risk of hypoglycaemia associated with the concomitant use of dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitors and sulphonylureas compared with placebo and sulphonylureas. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis. Data sources Medline, ISI Web of Science, SCOPUS, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, and clinicaltrial.gov were searched without any language restriction. Study selection Placebo controlled randomised trials comprising at least 50 participants with type 2 diabetes treated with DPP-4 inhibitors and sulphonylureas. Review methods Risk of bias in each trial was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia with 95% confidence intervals was computed for each study and then pooled using fixed effect models (Mantel Haenszel method) or random effect models, when appropriate. Subgroup analyses were also performed (eg, dose of DPP-4 inhibitors). The number needed to harm (NNH) was estimated according to treatment duration. Results 10 studies were included, representing a total of 6546 participants (4020 received DPP-4 inhibitors plus sulphonylureas, 2526 placebo plus sulphonylureas). The risk ratio of hypoglycaemia was 1.52 (95% confidence interval 1.29 to 1.80). The NNH was 17 (95% confidence interval 11 to 30) for a treatment duration of six months or less, 15 (9 to 26) for 6.1 to 12 months, and 8 (5 to 15) for more than one year. In subgroup analysis, no difference was found between full and low doses of DPP-4 inhibitors: the risk ratio related to full dose DPP-4 inhibitors was 1.66 (1.34 to 2.06), whereas the increased risk ratio related to low dose DPP-4 inhibitors did not reach statistical significance (1.33, 0.92 to 1.94). Conclusions Addition of DPP-4 inhibitors to sulphonylurea to treat people with type 2 diabetes is associated with a 50% increased risk of hypoglycaemia and to one excess case of hypoglycaemia for every 17 patients in the first six months of treatment. This

  7. Risk assessment of nitrate and petroleum-derived hydrocarbon addition on Contricriba weissflogii biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value.

    PubMed

    Shun-Xing, Li; Feng-Jiao, Liu; Feng-Ying, Zheng; Xu-Guang, Huang; Yue-Gang, Zuo

    2014-03-15

    Coastal diatoms are often exposed to both petroleum-derived hydrocarbon pollution and eutrophication. How these exposures influence on algal biomass, lifetime, and nutritional value are unknown. To examine a more accurate risk assessment of the pollutants on the role of diatoms in coastal ecosystem functions, Conticribra weissflogii was maintained at different concentrations of nitrate (N) and/or water-soluble fractions of No.0 diesel oil (WSF). Algal density, cell growth cycle, protein, chlorophyll a, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, and malonaldehyde (MDA) were determined for the assessment of algal biomass, lifetime, nutritional value, photosynthesis and respiration, antioxidant capacity, and lipid peroxidation, respectively.When N addition was combined with WSF pollution, the cell growth cycles were shortened by 27-44%; SOD activities were decreased by 1-64%; algal density, the concentrations of chlorophyll a, protein, and MDA were varied between 38 and 310%, 62 and 712%, 4 and 124%, and 19 and 233% of the values observed in N addition experiments, respectively. Coastal ecosystem functions were severely weakened by N and WSF additions, and the influence was increased in the order: Nrisk assessment of petroleum-derived hydrocarbon on coastal ecosystem functions.

  8. Association between Dietary Patterns and Cardiovascular Risk Factors among Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults in Taiwan: A Population-Based Study from 2003 to 2012

    PubMed Central

    Muga, Miriam Adoyo; Owili, Patrick Opiyo; Hsu, Chien-Yeh; Rau, Hsiao-Hsien; Chao, Jane C-J

    2016-01-01

    Background Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality and loss of disability-adjusted life years in developed countries. This study derived a dietary pattern using an a priori method and additionally derived dietary patterns using a posteriori methods, and assessed the relationship with CVD risk factors in Taiwanese middle-aged and elderly adults. Methods Cross-sectional analyses of 62,965 subjects aged 40 years and above from the Mei Jau (MJ) database collected between 2003 and 2012 in Taiwan. Diet was assessed using a 22 item semi-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. Using this information, three dietary patterns were generated. The a priori diet was labeled the Taiwanese dietary pattern and was derived using hypothesized effect of 22 food groups, while two a posteriori dietary patterns, “vegi-fruits” and “meat-processed”, were derived using principal component analysis. The association between dietary patterns and a range of CVD risk factors (i.e. blood lipids, blood glucose and C-reactive protein) was evaluated using linear regression. Results The results showed that high intake (Q5, quintile 5) of Taiwanese diet was negatively associated with CVD risk factors at (p < 0.001, model 3), but not with triacylglycerol. In addition, high intake of vegi-fruit dietary pattern (Q5) was negatively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but not with high-density lipoprotein, while high consumption of meat-processed dietary pattern (Q5) was positively associated with CVD risk factors (p < 0.001), but negatively related with triacylglycerol in Q3 level and no association with C-reactive protein. Conclusion A negative association was observed between Taiwanese or vegi-fruit dietary patterns and CVD risk factors, while a positive association was found between meat-processed dietary pattern and CVD risk factors. The findings suggested that a diet rich in vegetables and fruits has a beneficial effect in the management of CVD risk

  9. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C. Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31–2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38–9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8–13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26–1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63–1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00–1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31–0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits. PMID:26274395

  10. Additive Synergism between Asbestos and Smoking in Lung Cancer Risk: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

    PubMed

    Ngamwong, Yuwadee; Tangamornsuksan, Wimonchat; Lohitnavy, Ornrat; Chaiyakunapruk, Nathorn; Scholfield, C Norman; Reisfeld, Brad; Lohitnavy, Manupat

    2015-01-01

    Smoking and asbestos exposure are important risks for lung cancer. Several epidemiological studies have linked asbestos exposure and smoking to lung cancer. To reconcile and unify these results, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to provide a quantitative estimate of the increased risk of lung cancer associated with asbestos exposure and cigarette smoking and to classify their interaction. Five electronic databases were searched from inception to May, 2015 for observational studies on lung cancer. All case-control (N = 10) and cohort (N = 7) studies were included in the analysis. We calculated pooled odds ratios (ORs), relative risks (RRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) using a random-effects model for the association of asbestos exposure and smoking with lung cancer. Lung cancer patients who were not exposed to asbestos and non-smoking (A-S-) were compared with; (i) asbestos-exposed and non-smoking (A+S-), (ii) non-exposure to asbestos and smoking (A-S+), and (iii) asbestos-exposed and smoking (A+S+). Our meta-analysis showed a significant difference in risk of developing lung cancer among asbestos exposed and/or smoking workers compared to controls (A-S-), odds ratios for the disease (95% CI) were (i) 1.70 (A+S-, 1.31-2.21), (ii) 5.65; (A-S+, 3.38-9.42), (iii) 8.70 (A+S+, 5.8-13.10). The additive interaction index of synergy was 1.44 (95% CI = 1.26-1.77) and the multiplicative index = 0.91 (95% CI = 0.63-1.30). Corresponding values for cohort studies were 1.11 (95% CI = 1.00-1.28) and 0.51 (95% CI = 0.31-0.85). Our results point to an additive synergism for lung cancer with co-exposure of asbestos and cigarette smoking. Assessments of industrial health risks should take smoking and other airborne health risks when setting occupational asbestos exposure limits.

  11. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  12. Cardiovascular risk profiles of adults with type-2 diabetes treated at urban hospitals in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia.

    PubMed

    Al Slail, Fatima Y; Abid, Omer; Assiri, Abdullah M; Memish, Ziad A; Ali, Mohammed K

    2016-03-01

    Diabetes mellitus substantially increases cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Among Saudi Arabian citizens with diabetes, little is known about the prevalence and control of other CVD risk factors. We extracted data from medical records of a random selection of 422 patients seen between 2008 and 2012 at two diabetic clinics in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. We calculated the proportion of patients who had additional CVD risk factors: obesity (body mass index ⩾ 30 kg/m(2)), hypertension (BP ⩾ 140/90 mmHg), elevated cholesterol fractions, and multiple risk factors). Further, we calculated the proportion of patients meeting the American Diabetes Association's recommended care targets for each risk factor. Of 422 patients (mean age, 52 years), half were women, 56% were obese, 45% had hypertension, and 77% had elevated LDL concentrations. In addition to diabetes, 70% had two or more CVD risk factors. Although 9% met both target HbA1c and BP values, only 3.5% had optimum HbA1c, BP, and lipid values. In Saudi Arabia's best diabetes clinics, most patients have poor control of their disease. This huge disease burden and related care gaps have important health and financial implications for the country.

  13. Management of Dyslipidemia as a Cardiovascular Risk Factor in Individuals with Nonalcoholic Fatty Liver Disease

    PubMed Central

    Corey, Kathleen E.; Chalasani, Naga

    2013-01-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of liver disease in the United States and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CVD is one of the most common causes of death among individuals with NAFLD and management of NAFLD must extend beyond liver disease to include CVD risk modification. Clinicians should assess CVD risk with the Framingham Risk Score (FRS) and screen for CVD risk factors including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus (DM), hypertension, tobacco use and the metabolic syndrome (MetS). CVD risk factors, particularly dyslipidemia, require aggressive medical management to reduce the high risk of CVD events and death in individuals with NAFLD. PMID:23962548

  14. Management of dyslipidemia as a cardiovascular risk factor in individuals with nonalcoholic fatty liver disease.

    PubMed

    Corey, Kathleen E; Chalasani, Naga

    2014-07-01

    Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most frequent cause of liver disease in the United States and is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and cardiovascular (CV) mortality, independent of traditional cardiovascular risk factors. CVD is one of the most common causes of death among individuals with NAFLD and management of NAFLD must extend beyond liver disease to include CVD risk modification. Clinicians should assess CVD risk with the Framingham Risk Score and screen for CVD risk factors including dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, tobacco use, and the metabolic syndrome. CVD risk factors, particularly dyslipidemia, require aggressive medical management to reduce the high risk of CVD events and death in individuals with NAFLD.

  15. Telmisartan to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in Older HIV-Infected Adults: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Background HIV-infected persons are at increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, but traditional CVD therapies are understudied in this population. Telmisartan is an angiotensin receptor blocker and PPAR-γ agonist that improves endothelial function and cardiovascular mortality in HIV-uninfected populations. We assessed the effects of telmisartan on endothelial function in older HIV-infected persons at risk for CVD in a small pilot study. Methods HIV-infected individuals ≥50 years old on suppressive antiretroviral therapy (ART) with ≥1 traditional CVD risk factor received open label telmisartan 80 mg daily for six weeks. Brachial artery flow-mediated dilation (FMD) measured endothelial function. The primary endpoint was six-week change in maximum relative FMD. Results Seventeen participants enrolled; 16 completed all evaluations (88% men, 65% non-White, median age 60 years, CD4+ T lymphocyte count 625 cells/mm3). ART included 71% PI, 29% NNRTI, 29% integrase inhibitor, 65% tenofovir and 29% abacavir. CVD risk factor prevalence included 76% hyperlipidemia, 65% hypertension, 18% smoking and 12% diabetes mellitus. After six weeks, statistically significant blood pressure changes were observed (systolic −16.0 mmHg, diastolic −6.0 mmHg) without significant changes in FMD. In subset analyses, FMD increased more among abacavir-treated, PI-treated and non-smoking participants. Conclusions No significant FMD changes were observed after six weeks of telmisartan therapy; however, abacavir- and PI-treated participants and non-smokers showed greater FMD increases. Additional studies are needed to explore the effects of telmisartan on endothelial function among HIV-infected individuals with traditional CVD and/or ART-specific risk factors. PMID:26360501

  16. Frailty and cardiovascular risk in community-dwelling elderly: a population-based study

    PubMed Central

    Ricci, Natalia Aquaroni; Pessoa, Germane Silva; Ferriolli, Eduardo; Dias, Rosangela Correa; Perracini, Monica Rodrigues

    2014-01-01

    Background Evidence suggests a possible bidirectional connection between cardiovascular disease (CVD) and the frailty syndrome in older people. Purpose To verify the relationship between CVD risk factors and the frailty syndrome in community-dwelling elderly. Methods This population-based study used data from the Fragilidade em Idosos Brasileiros (FIBRA) Network Study, a cross-sectional study designed to investigate frailty profiles among Brazilian older adults. Frailty status was defined as the presence of three or more out of five of the following criteria: unintentional weight loss, weakness, self-reported fatigue, slow walking speed, and low physical activity level. The ascertained CVD risk factors were self-reported and/or directly measured hypertension, diabetes mellitus, obesity, waist circumference measurement, and smoking. Results Of the 761 participants, 9.7% were characterized as frail, 48.0% as pre-frail, and 42.3% as non-frail. The most prevalent CVD risk factor was hypertension (84.4%) and the lowest one was smoking (10.4%). It was observed that among those participants with four or five risk factors there was a higher proportion of frail and pre-frail compared with non-frail (Fisher’s exact test: P=0.005; P=0.021). Self-reported diabetes mellitus was more prevalent among frail and pre-frail participants when compared with non-frail participants (Fisher’s exact test: P≤0.001; P≤0.001). There was little agreement between self-reported hypertension and hypertension identified by blood pressure measurement. Conclusion Hypertension was highly prevalent among the total sample. In addition, frail and pre-frail older people corresponded to a substantial proportion of those with more CVD risk factors, especially diabetes mellitus, highlighting the need for preventive strategies in order to avoid the co-occurrence of CVD and frailty. PMID:25336932

  17. Genetic predisposition to coronary heart disease and stroke using an additive genetic risk score: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Objective: To determine the extent to which the risk for incident coronary heart disease (CHD) increases in relation to a genetic risk score (GRS) that additively integrates the influence of high-risk alleles in nine documented single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CHD, and to examine whether t...

  18. Beyond statins: lipid management to reduce cardiovascular risk.

    PubMed

    Schuck, Robert N; Mendys, Philip M; Simpson, Ross J

    2013-07-01

    The discovery that elevated total cholesterol levels and the subsequent understanding that low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels are associated with higher risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) has led to the development of lipid management strategies that seek to reduce the burden of CVD. Although substantive progress has been made in reducing death and cardiovascular events, questions remain regarding the optimal approach to further reduce CVD-associated death and disability. Based on current evidence, statins are the clear first-line agents for the management of hyperlipidemia in patients at high risk for cardiovascular events. However, due to the failure of recent clinical trials evaluating antihyperlipidemic drugs, the most appropriate lipid management strategy in patients who cannot tolerate statin therapy or who warrant antihyperlipidemic therapies in addition to statins is a major therapeutic controversy. In this review, we summarize the clinical trial evidence evaluating the efficacy of second-line antihyperlipidemic drug classes for reducing cardiovascular risk, provide recommendations for appropriate use of nonstatin lipid-altering drugs, and identify key areas of future research to support evidence-based lipid management. Given the complexity, magnitude, and burden of CVD, opportunities to improve processes of care and identify new therapeutic options clearly exist. PMID:23606278

  19. How Gene Networks Can Uncover Novel CVD Players

    PubMed Central

    Parnell, Laurence D; Casas-Agustench, Patricia; Iyer, Lakshmanan K; Ordovas, Jose M

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are complex, involving numerous biological entities from genes and small molecules to organ function. Placing these entities in networks where the functional relationships among the constituents are drawn can aid in our understanding of disease onset, progression and prevention. While networks, or interactomes, are often classified by a general term, say lipids or inflammation, it is a more encompassing class of network that is more informative in showing connections among the active entities and allowing better hypotheses of novel CVD players to be formulated. A range of networks will be presented whereby the potential to bring new objects into the CVD milieu will be exemplified. PMID:24683432

  20. Cardiovascular disease risk in young people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), despite modern advances in glycemic control and CVD risk factor modification. CVD risk identification is essential in this high-risk population, yet remains poorly understood. This review discusses the risk factors for CVD in young people with T1D, including hyperglycemia, traditional CVD risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, hypertension), as well as novel risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and hypoglycemia. We present evidence that adverse changes in cardiovascular function, arterial compliance, and atherosclerosis are present even during adolescence in people with T1D, highlighting the need for earlier intervention. The methods for investigating cardiovascular risk are discussed and reviewed. Finally, we discuss the observational studies and clinical trials which have thus far attempted to elucidate the best targets for early intervention in order to reduce the burden of CVD in people with T1D. PMID:22528676

  1. Cardiovascular disease risk in young people with type 1 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Snell-Bergeon, Janet K; Nadeau, Kristen

    2012-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the most frequent cause of death in people with type 1 diabetes (T1D), despite modern advances in glycemic control and CVD risk factor modification. CVD risk identification is essential in this high-risk population, yet remains poorly understood. This review discusses the risk factors for CVD in young people with T1D, including hyperglycemia, traditional CVD risk factors (dyslipidemia, smoking, physical activity, hypertension), as well as novel risk factors such as insulin resistance, inflammation, and hypoglycemia. We present evidence that adverse changes in cardiovascular function, arterial compliance, and atherosclerosis are present even during adolescence in people with T1D, highlighting the need for earlier intervention. The methods for investigating cardiovascular risk are discussed and reviewed. Finally, we discuss the observational studies and clinical trials which have thus far attempted to elucidate the best targets for early intervention in order to reduce the burden of CVD in people with T1D.

  2. CVD diamond detectors for radiation pulse characterisation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foulon, F.; Bergonzo, P.; Jany, C.; Gicquel, A.; Pochet, T.

    Polycrystalline diamond films deposited by microwave plasma-enhanced chemical vapour deposition (MPCVD) have been used for the fabrication of resistive photoconductors. Such detectors can be used to measure the intensity and the temporal shape of pulsed radiation such as IR, visible, UV and X-rays. The photodetector response times were characterised under fast Nd:Yag laser pulses ( λ = 266 nm, τL = 30 ps at FWHM). The detector sensitivities were measured under both pulsed UV laser and steady-state X-ray excitations (40 keV). The detector response time strongly depends on the CVD diamond film structural and physical properties, i.e., the film growth conditions. They exhibit a response signal presenting full widths at half maximum down to about 100 ps and decay times down to about 130 ps. The diamond detector responses are compared to the responses measured on typical ultrafast photoconductors made from gallium arsenide pre-irradiated at 3 × 10 15 neutrons/cm 2 as well as from natural type IIa bulk diamond.

  3. Increased bioclogging and corrosion risk by sulfate addition during iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant.

    PubMed

    Lim, Choon-Ping; Zhao, Dan; Takase, Yuta; Miyanaga, Kazuhiko; Watanabe, Tomoko; Tomoe, Yasuyoshi; Tanji, Yasunori

    2011-02-01

    Iodine recovery at a natural gas production plant in Japan involved the addition of sulfuric acid for pH adjustment, resulting in an additional about 200 mg/L of sulfate in the waste brine after iodine recovery. Bioclogging occurred at the waste brine injection well, causing a decrease in well injectivity. To examine the factors that contribute to bioclogging, an on-site experiment was conducted by amending 10 L of brine with different conditions and then incubating the brine for 5 months under open air. The control case was exposed to open air but did not receive additional chemicals. When sulfate addition was coupled with low iodine, there was a drastic increase in the total amount of accumulated biomass (and subsequently the risk of bioclogging) that was nearly six times higher than the control. The bioclogging-associated corrosion rate of carbon steel was 84.5 μm/year, which is four times higher than that observed under other conditions. Analysis of the microbial communities by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis revealed that the additional sulfate established a sulfur cycle and induced the growth of phototrophic bacteria, including cyanobacteria and purple bacteria. In the presence of sulfate and low iodine levels, cyanobacteria and purple bacteria bloomed, and the accumulation of abundant biomass may have created a more conducive environment for anaerobic sulfate-reducing bacteria. It is believed that the higher corrosion rate was caused by a differential aeration cell that was established by the heterogeneous distribution of the biomass that covered the surface of the test coupons. PMID:20922384

  4. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Information was collected by face to face interviews. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple logistic regression were used in this study. The prevalence of general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity were 0.3%, 36.1% and 14.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the compound obesity group were higher than those in other groups (compound obesity > central obesity > general obesity > non-obesity), while smoking rate in the non-obesity group was higher than those in other groups (non-obesity > general obesity > central obesity > compound obesity). People with obesity were more likely to have one or more CVD risk factor compared with non-obesity subjects (general obesity (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13–4.56), central obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.41–2.89), compound obesity (OR: 5.09, 95% CI: 4.38–5.90). The results were similar when the number of clustered CVD risk factors was ≥ 2 and ≥ 3. As a conclusion, more than half of the residents in Jilin Province have a problem of obesity, especially central obesity. Government and health department should take measures to improve people’s awareness of central obesity in Jilin Province of China. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are associated with obesity types. Compound obesity has a greater risk to cluster multiple CVD risk factors than central obesity and general obesity. Taking measures to control obesity will

  5. Types of Obesity and Its Association with the Clustering of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Jilin Province of China.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peng; Wang, Rui; Gao, Chunshi; Song, Yuanyuan; Lv, Xin; Jiang, Lingling; Yu, Yaqin; Wang, Yuhan; Li, Bo

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) has become a serious public health problem in recent years in China. Aggregation of CVD risk factors in one individual increases the risk of CVD and the risk increases substantially with each additional risk factor. This study aims to explore the relationship between the number of clustered CVD risk factors and different types of obesity. A multistage stratified random cluster sampling design was used in this population-based cross-sectional study in 2012. Information was collected by face to face interviews. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), chi-square test, Kruskal-Wallis test and multiple logistic regression were used in this study. The prevalence of general obesity, central obesity and compound obesity were 0.3%, 36.1% and 14.7%, respectively. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes in the compound obesity group were higher than those in other groups (compound obesity > central obesity > general obesity > non-obesity), while smoking rate in the non-obesity group was higher than those in other groups (non-obesity > general obesity > central obesity > compound obesity). People with obesity were more likely to have one or more CVD risk factor compared with non-obesity subjects (general obesity (OR: 2.27, 95% CI: 1.13-4.56), central obesity (OR: 2.64, 95% CI: 2.41-2.89), compound obesity (OR: 5.09, 95% CI: 4.38-5.90). The results were similar when the number of clustered CVD risk factors was ≥ 2 and ≥ 3. As a conclusion, more than half of the residents in Jilin Province have a problem of obesity, especially central obesity. Government and health department should take measures to improve people's awareness of central obesity in Jilin Province of China. The prevalence of hypertension, hyperlipidemia and diabetes are associated with obesity types. Compound obesity has a greater risk to cluster multiple CVD risk factors than central obesity and general obesity. Taking measures to control obesity will reduce the

  6. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition.

  7. Meat and bone meal and mineral feed additives may increase the risk of oral prion disease transmission

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, C.J.; McKenzie, D.; Pedersen, J.A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer-sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 ??m and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion-contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. Copyright ?? 2011 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

  8. MEAT AND BONE MEAL AND MINERAL FEED ADDITIVES MAY INCREASE THE RISK OF ORAL PRION DISEASE TRANSMISSION

    PubMed Central

    Johnson, Christopher J.; McKenzie, Debbie; Pedersen, Joel A.; Aiken, Judd M.

    2011-01-01

    Ingestion of prion-contaminated materials is postulated to be a primary route of prion disease transmission. Binding of prions to soil (micro)particles dramatically enhances peroral disease transmission relative to unbound prions, and it was hypothesized that micrometer–sized particles present in other consumed materials may affect prion disease transmission via the oral route of exposure. Small, insoluble particles are present in many substances, including soil, human foods, pharmaceuticals, and animal feeds. It is known that meat and bone meal (MBM), a feed additive believed responsible for the spread of bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE), contains particles smaller than 20 μm and that the pathogenic prion protein binds to MBM. The potentiation of disease transmission via the oral route by exposure to MBM or three micrometer-sized mineral feed additives was determined. Data showed that when the disease agent was bound to any of the tested materials, the penetrance of disease was increased compared to unbound prions. Our data suggest that in feed or other prion–contaminated substances consumed by animals or, potentially, humans, the addition of MBM or the presence of microparticles could heighten risks of prion disease acquisition. PMID:21218345

  9. CVD facility electrical system captor/dapper study

    SciTech Connect

    SINGH, G.

    1999-10-28

    Project W-441, CVD Facility Electrical System CAPTOWDAPPER Study validates Meier's hand calculations. This study includes Load flow, short circuit, voltage drop, protective device coordination, and transient motor starting (TMS) analyses.

  10. Meta-analysis identifies 29 additional ulcerative colitis risk loci, increasing the number of confirmed associations to 47

    PubMed Central

    Anderson, Carl A.; Boucher, Gabrielle; Lees, Charlie W.; Franke, Andre; D’Amato, Mauro; Taylor, Kent D.; Lee, James C.; Goyette, Philippe; Imielinski, Marcin; Latiano, Anna; Lagacé, Caroline; Scott, Regan; Amininejad, Leila; Bumpstead, Suzannah; Baidoo, Leonard; Baldassano, Robert N.; Barclay, Murray; Bayless, Theodore M.; Brand, Stephan; Büning, Carsten; Colombel, Jean-Frédéric; Denson, Lee A.; De Vos, Martine; Dubinsky, Marla; Edwards, Cathryn; Ellinghaus, David; Fehrmann, Rudolf S.N.; Floyd, James A.B.; Florin, Tim; Franchimont, Denis; Franke, Lude; Georges, Michel; Glas, Jürgen; Glazer, Nicole L.; Guthery, Stephen L.; Haritunians, Talin; Hayward, Nicholas K.; Hugot, Jean-Pierre; Jobin, Gilles; Laukens, Debby; Lawrance, Ian; Lémann, Marc; Levine, Arie; Libioulle, Cecile; Louis, Edouard; McGovern, Dermot P.; Milla, Monica; Montgomery, Grant W.; Morley, Katherine I.; Mowat, Craig; Ng, Aylwin; Newman, William; Ophoff, Roel A; Papi, Laura; Palmieri, Orazio; Peyrin-Biroulet, Laurent; Panés, Julián; Phillips, Anne; Prescott, Natalie J.; Proctor, Deborah D.; Roberts, Rebecca; Russell, Richard; Rutgeerts, Paul; Sanderson, Jeremy; Sans, Miquel; Schumm, Philip; Seibold, Frank; Sharma, Yashoda; Simms, Lisa; Seielstad, Mark; Steinhart, A. Hillary; Targan, Stephan R.; van den Berg, Leonard H.; Vatn, Morten; Verspaget, Hein; Walters, Thomas; Wijmenga, Cisca; Wilson, David C.; Westra, Harm-Jan; Xavier, Ramnik J.; Zhao, Zhen Z.; Ponsioen, Cyriel Y.; Andersen, Vibeke; Torkvist, Leif; Gazouli, Maria; Anagnou, Nicholas P.; Karlsen, Tom H.; Kupcinskas, Limas; Sventoraityte, Jurgita; Mansfield, John C.; Kugathasan, Subra; Silverberg, Mark S.; Halfvarson, Jonas; Rotter, Jerome I.; Mathew, Christopher G.; Griffiths, Anne M.; Gearry, Richard; Ahmad, Tariq; Brant, Steven R.; Chamaillard, Mathias; Satsangi, Jack; Cho, Judy H.; Schreiber, Stefan; Daly, Mark J.; Barrett, Jeffrey C.; Parkes, Miles; Annese, Vito; Hakonarson, Hakon; Radford-Smith, Graham; Duerr, Richard H.; Vermeire, Séverine; Weersma, Rinse K.; Rioux, John D.

    2011-01-01

    Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and candidate gene studies in ulcerative colitis (UC) have identified 18 susceptibility loci. We conducted a meta-analysis of 6 UC GWAS, comprising 6,687 cases and 19,718 controls, and followed-up the top association signals in 9,628 cases and 12,917 controls. We identified 29 additional risk loci (P<5×10-8), increasing the number of UC associated loci to 47. After annotating associated regions using GRAIL, eQTL data and correlations with non-synonymous SNPs, we identified many candidate genes providing potentially important insights into disease pathogenesis, including IL1R2, IL8RA/B, IL7R, IL12B, DAP, PRDM1, JAK2, IRF5, GNA12 and LSP1. The total number of confirmed inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) risk loci is now 99, including a minimum of 28 shared association signals between Crohn’s disease (CD) and UC. PMID:21297633

  11. Fruit and vegetable consumption and risk factors for cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Mirmiran, Parvin; Noori, Nazanin; Zavareh, Maryam Beheshti; Azizi, Fereidoun

    2009-04-01

    The international guidelines issued by the World Health Organization recommend reduction in dietary saturated fat and cholesterol intakes as means to prevent hypercholesterolemia and cardiovascular disease (CVD); however, only limited data are available on the benefits of fruit and vegetable consumption on CVD risk factors in a community-based population. The aim of this study was to examine whether, and to what extent, intake of fruits and vegetables is inversely associated with CVD risk factors in adults. In this population-based cross-sectional study, a representative sample of 840 Tehranian adults (male and female) aged 18 to 74 years was randomly selected in 1998. Multivariate logistic regression adjusted for lifestyle and nutritional confounders was used in 2 models. After adjusting for confounders, dietary fruit and vegetable were found to be significantly and inversely associated with CVD risk factors. Adjusted odds ratio for high low-density lipoprotein concentrations were 1.00, 0.88, 0.81, and 0.75 (P for trend < .01) in the first model, which was adjusted for age, sex, keys score, body mass index, energy intake, smoking status, dietary cholesterol, and history of diabetes mellitus and coronary artery disease, a trend which was not appreciably altered by additional adjustment for education, physical activity, and saturated, polyunsaturated, and total fat intakes. This association was observed across categories of smoking status, physical activity, and tertiles of the Keys score. Exclusion of subjects with prevalent diabetes mellitus or coronary artery disease did not alter these results significantly. Consumption of fruits and vegetables is associated with lower concentrations of total and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with the risk of CVD per se in a dose-response manner.

  12. Treatment of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Women.

    PubMed

    Gouni-Berthold, I; Berthold, H K

    2015-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death for both women and men. Common traditional risk factors for CVD, such as hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking have a high prevalence in women and in some cases a greater health impact compared with men. Nevertheless, risk factors are treated less often and less aggressively in women than in men, partly due to decreased awareness on the part of public health opinion makers, patients and physicians. About seventy five percent of all coronary heart disease deaths among women could be avoided if CVD risk factors like hypercholesterolemia, hypertension and smoking are adequately treated. This narrative review discusses the treatment of the 4 CVD risk factors, namely hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, smoking and diabetes. These risk factors were examined in the Framingham Heart study and years later they were found in the INTERHEART study to be the 4 most important risk factors for the development of CVD.

  13. Purification of carbon nanotubes grown by thermal CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Porro, S.; Musso, S.; Vinante, M.; Vanzetti, L.; Anderle, M.; Trotta, F.; Tagliaferro, A.

    2007-03-01

    We show the results of a set of purifications on carbon nanotubes (CNT) by acid and basic treatments. CNTs were obtained by thermal decomposition of camphor at 850 °C in a CVD growth system, by means of a growth process catalyzed by iron clusters originating from the addition of ferrocene in the precursors mixture. The purification procedures involved HNO 3, H 2SO 4, HSO 3Cl and NaOH for different process temperatures. As-grown CNTs showed a consistent presence of metal catalyst (about 6 wt%), evidenced by TGA. The purification treatments led to a certain amount of opening of the CNT tips, with a consequent loss of metal catalyst encapsulated in tips. This is also confirmed by BET analysis, which showed an increase of the surface area density of CNT after the purification. FT-IR and XPS revealed the presence of carboxylic groups on the CNT surface chemically modified by the harsh environment of the purification process. Among the various treatments that have been tested, the 1:3 solution of nitric and sulphuric acid was the most effective in modifying the CNT surface and inducing the formation of functional groups.

  14. Tea consumption and mortality of all cancers, CVD and all causes: a meta-analysis of eighteen prospective cohort studies.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Zheng, Ju-Sheng; Fang, Ling; Jin, Yongxin; Cai, Wenwen; Li, Duo

    2015-09-14

    Epidemiological studies have demonstrated inconsistent associations between tea consumption and mortality of all cancers, CVD and all causes. To obtain quantitative overall estimates, we conducted a dose-response meta-analysis of prospective cohort studies. A literature search in PubMed and Embase up to April 2015 was conducted for all relevant papers published. Random-effects models were used to calculate pooled relative risks (RR) with 95 % CI. In eighteen prospective studies, there were 12 221, 11 306 and 55 528 deaths from all cancers, CVD and all causes, respectively. For all cancer mortality, the summary RR for the highest v. lowest category of green tea and black tea consumption were 1·06 (95 % CI 0·98, 1·15) and 0·79 (95 % CI 0·65, 0·97), respectively. For CVD mortality, the summary RR for the highest v. lowest category of green tea and black tea consumption were 0·67 (95 % CI 0·46, 0·96) and 0·88 (95 % CI 0·77, 1·01), respectively. For all-cause mortality, the summary RR for the highest v. lowest category of green tea and black tea consumption were 0·80 (95 % CI 0·68, 0·93) and 0·90 (95 % CI 0·83, 0·98), respectively. The dose-response analysis indicated that one cup per d increment of green tea consumption was associated with 5 % lower risk of CVD mortality and with 4 % lower risk of all-cause mortality. Green tea consumption was significantly inversely associated with CVD and all-cause mortality, whereas black tea consumption was significantly inversely associated with all cancer and all-cause mortality.

  15. Shared Genetic Aetiology between Cognitive Ability and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors: Generation Scotland's Scottish Family Health Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Luciano, Michelle; Batty, G. David; McGilchrist, Mark; Linksted, Pamela; Fitzpatrick, Bridie; Jackson, Cathy; Pattie, Alison; Dominiczak, Anna F.; Morris, Andrew D.; Smith, Blair H.; Porteous, David; Deary, Ian J.

    2010-01-01

    People with higher general cognitive ability in early life have more favourable levels of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in adulthood and CVD itself. The mechanism of these associations is not known. Here we examine whether general cognitive ability and CVD risk factors share genetic and/or environmental aetiology. In this large,…

  16. Cardiovascular disease risk profile among young Saudi women of Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia: A cross-sectional study

    PubMed Central

    Kalaf, Hassan; AlMesned, Abdulrahman; Soomro, Tark; Lasheen, Wael; Ewid, Mohamed; Al-Mohaimeed, Abdulrahman A

    2016-01-01

    Study Objective The aim of the study was to assess the level of risk for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) among young Saudi women living in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia. Methods As part of “The Heart Protection Campaign” in the Al-Qassim region, data were collected from Saudi women using questionnaires as well as objective measurement of height, weight, blood pressure, and blood glucose. Data were analyzed using descriptive statistics. Results Only 15% of the sample were free of risk factors, the majority had either one (57.5%) or two (20.8%) risk factors. Additionally, 6.7% were considered to be at high-risk with three or more risk factors. The most common risk factors were physical inactivity (74%) and overweight/obesity, (25%/29%). There was a significant increase in the number of risk factors across age groups. Women over the age of 30 were more likely to have a higher number of risk factors than the younger women (20–24 years). Conclusions Young women in Al-Qassim, Saudi Arabia have an unusually high risk for CVD. Since the number of risk factors increases substantially between the ages of 20 and 35, there is a need to develop prevention programs to lower the CVD risk through diet and exercise. PMID:27004055

  17. From hyperglycemia to the risk of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Leiter, Lawrence A

    2006-01-01

    Blood glucose is a continuous, progressive risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD) throughout the dysglycemic range. There is also evidence that post-prandial hyperglycemia may be a better predictor of CVD risk than fasting plasma glucose or A1C. Targeting normoglycemia appears to reduce CVD events in diabetes mellitus (DM), although definitive studies in type 2 DM, as well as in prediabetes, are ongoing. Prediabetes has some, but not total, overlaps with the metabolic syndrome. Patients with the metabolic syndrome are at a significantly increased risk for both CVD and DM. Although the individual components of the syndrome predict risk for CVD to approximately equal degree, increased blood glucose, perhaps not surprisingly, is the best predictor of diabetes. Finally, there are multiple mechanisms by which hyperglycemia can increase the risk for CVD.

  18. Graphene CVD growth on copper and nickel: role of hydrogen in kinetics and structure.

    PubMed

    Losurdo, Maria; Giangregorio, Maria Michela; Capezzuto, Pio; Bruno, Giovanni

    2011-12-14

    Understanding the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) kinetics of graphene growth is important for advancing graphene processing and achieving better control of graphene thickness and properties. In the perspective of improving large area graphene quality, we have investigated in real-time the CVD kinetics using CH(4)-H(2) precursors on both polycrystalline copper and nickel. We highlighted the role of hydrogen in differentiating the growth kinetics and thickness of graphene on copper and nickel. Specifically, the growth kinetics and mechanism is framed in the competitive dissociative chemisorption of H(2) and dehydrogenating chemisorption of CH(4), and in the competition of the in-diffusion of carbon and hydrogen, being hydrogen in-diffusion faster in copper than nickel, while carbon diffusion is faster in nickel than copper. It is shown that hydrogen acts as an inhibitor for the CH(4) dehydrogenation on copper, contributing to suppress deposition onto the copper substrate, and degrades quality of graphene. Additionally, the evidence of the role of hydrogen in forming C-H out of plane defects in CVD graphene on Cu is also provided. Conversely, resurfacing recombination of hydrogen aids CH(4) decomposition in the case of Ni. Understanding better and providing other elements to the kinetics of graphene growth is helpful to define the optimal CH(4)/H(2) ratio, which ultimately can contribute to improve graphene layer thickness uniformity even on polycrystalline substrates. PMID:22006173

  19. Method for growth of CVD diamond on thin film refractory coatings and glass ceramic materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moran, Mark B.; Johnson, Linda F.; Klemm, Karl A.

    1994-09-01

    This paper describes a new method for significantly improving diamond film quality and growth rate on insulating substrates and thin films. The usual method of abrading the substrate surface with diamond particles yields good quality CVD diamond films at reasonable deposition rates on semiconducting materials like silicon. However, on insulating materials like fused silica and sapphire, the conventional method of diamond seeding and surface abrasion almost always results in slow growth rates and poor quality films. Current in-house diamond nucleation and growth studies have focused on depositing CVD diamond on substrates such as fused silica, sapphire, and glass ceramics. Diamond was grown successfully on these types of materials using a sacrificial metal layer method called metal induced nucleation of diamond (MIND). This technique offers a way to deposit diamond on glassy materials with improved adhesion and at lower deposition temperatures (less than 650 degree(s)C). In addition, the MIND technique can be used in combination with metal masking and conventional etching to deposit patterns of diamond. The MIND method was combined with another in-house developed technique called sputtered refractory interlayer nucleation technique (SPRINT). Diamond-crystallite size and orientation can be controlled with SPRINT to fabricate low-scatter diamond films. Both techniques are discussed. A reliable, efficient method for growing diamond on insulating materials significantly enhances the feasibility for practical applications of CVD diamond technology. For example, further development of the MIND technique may provide low-scatter, protective diamond films on sapphire and glass ceramics for visible-wavelength windows and missile domes. For electronic applications, reduction in the growth temperature makes CVD diamond more compatible with existing semiconductor processes. The lower growth temperature also helps to alleviate diffusion problems in metal alloys and facilitates

  20. Prediction models for cardiovascular disease risk in the general population: systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Hooft, Lotty; Schuit, Ewoud; Debray, Thomas P A; Collins, Gary S; Tzoulaki, Ioanna; Lassale, Camille M; Siontis, George C M; Chiocchia, Virginia; Roberts, Corran; Schlüssel, Michael Maia; Gerry, Stephen; Black, James A; Heus, Pauline; van der Schouw, Yvonne T; Peelen, Linda M; Moons, Karel G M

    2016-01-01

    Objective To provide an overview of prediction models for risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the general population. Design Systematic review. Data sources Medline and Embase until June 2013. Eligibility criteria for study selection Studies describing the development or external validation of a multivariable model for predicting CVD risk in the general population. Results 9965 references were screened, of which 212 articles were included in the review, describing the development of 363 prediction models and 473 external validations. Most models were developed in Europe (n=167, 46%), predicted risk of fatal or non-fatal coronary heart disease (n=118, 33%) over a 10 year period (n=209, 58%). The most common predictors were smoking (n=325, 90%) and age (n=321, 88%), and most models were sex specific (n=250, 69%). Substantial heterogeneity in predictor and outcome definitions was observed between models, and important clinical and methodological information were often missing. The prediction horizon was not specified for 49 models (13%), and for 92 (25%) crucial information was missing to enable the model to be used for individual risk prediction. Only 132 developed models (36%) were externally validated and only 70 (19%) by independent investigators. Model performance was heterogeneous and measures such as discrimination and calibration were reported for only 65% and 58% of the external validations, respectively. Conclusions There is an excess of models predicting incident CVD in the general population. The usefulness of most of the models remains unclear owing to methodological shortcomings, incomplete presentation, and lack of external validation and model impact studies. Rather than developing yet another similar CVD risk prediction model, in this era of large datasets, future research should focus on externally validating and comparing head-to-head promising CVD risk models that already exist, on tailoring or even combining these models to local

  1. Does cooking with vegetable oils increase the risk of chronic diseases?: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sayon-Orea, Carmen; Carlos, Silvia; Martínez-Gonzalez, Miguel A

    2015-04-01

    Overweight/obesity, CVD and type 2 diabetes are strongly associated with nutritional habits. High consumption of fried foods might increase the risk of these disorders. However, it is not clear whether the use of vegetables oils for cooking increases the risk of chronic diseases. We systematically searched for published studies that assessed the association between vegetable oil consumption including fried food consumption and the risk of overweight/obesity or weight gain, T2DM or the metabolic syndrome, and CVD or hypertension in the following databases: PubMed; Web of Science; Google Scholar. Keywords such as 'fried food' or 'vegetable oil' or 'frying' or 'frying oils' or 'dietary fats' and 'weight gain' or 'overweight' or 'obesity' or 'CHD' or 'CVD' or 'type 2 diabetes' or 'metabolic syndrome' were used in the primary search. Additional published reports were obtained through other sources. A total of twenty-three publications were included based on specific selection criteria. Based on the results of the studies included in the present systematic review, we conclude that (1) the myth that frying foods is generally associated with a higher risk of CVD is not supported by the available evidence; (2) virgin olive oil significantly reduces the risk of CVD clinical events, based on the results of a large randomised trial that included as part of the intervention the recommendation to use high amounts of virgin olive oil, also for frying foods; and (3) high consumption of fried foods is probably related to a higher risk of weight gain, though the type of oil may perhaps modify this association.

  2. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  3. Predicting contamination by the fuel additive cerium oxide engineered nanoparticles within the United Kingdom and the associated risks.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Andrew C; Park, Barry

    2012-11-01

    As a fuel additive, cerium oxide nanoparticles may become widely dispersed throughout the environment. Commercial information from the United Kingdom (UK) on the use of cerium oxide nanoparticles was used to perform a modeling and risk assessment exercise. Discharge from exhausts took into account the likely removal by filters fitted to these vehicles. For predicting current soil exposure, scenarios were examined, ranging from dispersion occurring across the entire UK landmass to only within the urban area to only 20 m on either side of road networks. For soils, the highest predicted contamination level was 0.016 mg/kg within 20 m of a road following seven years of continuous deposition. This value would represent 0.027% of reported natural background cerium. If usage were to double for five more years, levels would not be expected to exceed 0.04 mg/kg. River water contamination considered direct aerial deposition and indirect contamination via runoff in the water and entrained soil sediment, with the highest level of 0.02 ng/L predicted. The highest predicted water concentration of 300 ng/L was associated with water draining from a road surface, assuming a restricted deposition spread. These predictions are well below most toxicological levels of concern.

  4. Prediction and personalised treatment of atrial fibrillation-stroke prevention: consolidated position paper of CVD professionals.

    PubMed

    Helms, Thomas M; Duong, Giang; Zippel-Schultz, Bettina; Tilz, Roland Richard; Kuck, Karl-Heinz; Karle, Christoph A

    2014-01-01

    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is one of the major morbidity and health economic factors in Europe and often associated with several co-morbidities. This paper (1) underlines the importance of highly professional AF management utilising a multi-disciplinary expertise, especially considering the role of AF regarding the stroke risk and prevention, (2) demonstrates the consolidated position of CVD professionals and (3) emphasises those research aspects that could deepen the understanding of the emergence and the treatment of AF and therefore helps to provide a personalised preventive and more effective management of AF. Specialised calls are considered for that within the new European Programme 'Horizon 2020'.

  5. Awareness and Knowledge of Cardiovascular Risk through Blood Pressure and Cholesterol Testing in College Freshmen

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Melnyk, J. A.; Panza, G.; Zaleski, A.; Taylor, B.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of death in the United States, yet knowledge of CVD risk factors is surprisingly low in college students. Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effectiveness of an individualized blood pressure, cholesterol, and CVD education intervention on college freshmen. Methods:…

  6. Characterization of interfaces in mosaic CVD diamond crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Muchnikov, Anatoly B.; Radishev, Dmitry B.; Vikharev, Anatoly L.; Gorbachev, Alexei M.; Mitenkin, Anatoly V.; Drozdov, Mikhail N.; Drozdov, Yuri N.; Yunin, Pavel A.

    2016-05-01

    Detailed description of a way to accrete diamond single crystals in one plate using the CVD method is presented. It was found that each region of the mosaic CVD diamond crystal grown over a certain seed substrate "inherits" the crystallographic orientation of its substrate. No correlation was found between the value of misorientation of the accreted crystals and entrance of hydrogen to the boundary. It is shown that successful accretion of single crystal diamond plates in a single mosaic crystal occurs even in the case of great misorientation of crystals. The mechanical stresses appear during the fabrication of the mosaic CVD diamond crystal. Stresses accumulate during accretion of the regions, which grow over substrates with different orientations, in a common structure.

  7. Understanding the type 2 diabetes mellitus and cardiovascular disease risk paradox.

    PubMed

    Green, Jennifer B

    2014-05-01

    Patients with diabetes have approximately a 2-fold increase in the risk for coronary heart disease, stroke, and death from vascular causes compared with patients who do not have diabetes. Interventions targeted at modifiable risk factors, such as smoking cessation and management of hypertension and dyslipidemia, reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Paradoxically, large randomized studies have failed to conclusively show that intensively lowering glucose reduces CVD event rates in patients with T2DM, despite pathophysiologic and epidemiologic evidence suggesting that hyperglycemia contributes to CVD. Although initiation of intensive glycemic control early in the disease course may be associated with a reduction in the long-term risk of cardiovascular (CV) events, this approach in those with long-standing or complicated T2DM is not of clear benefit and may even be harmful in some. Failure to mitigate risk with antihyperglycemic therapy and the potential for some treatments to increase CVD risk underlies a treatment paradox. New glucose-lowering therapies are now subject to close scrutiny for CV safety before and after drug approval. Results from the first trials designed to meet the recent CV regulatory requirements have shown no increased risk of major adverse CV events but also no CV benefit from dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor therapy, as well as a potentially increased risk of hospitalization for heart failure. Conclusive evidence of CV risk reduction with glucose-lowering therapy is still lacking and scrutiny of additional agents is necessary. Type 2 diabetes mellitus is a heterogeneous disease, for which patient-centered, individualized care, and goal-setting is appropriate. Interventions that focus on the management of CV risk factors and glucose lowering with medications that are not cardiotoxic represent an optimal and attainable treatment approach.

  8. The extended growth of graphene oxide flakes using ethanol CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Jingfeng; Larisika, Melanie; Fam, W. H. Derrick; He, Qiyuan; Nimmo, Myra A.; Nowak, Christoph; Tok, I. Y. Alfred

    2013-03-01

    We report the extended growth of Graphene Oxide (GO) flakes using atmospheric pressure ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). GO was used to catalyze the deposition of carbon on a substrate in the ethanol CVD with Ar and H2 as carrier gases. Raman, SEM, XPS and AFM characterized the growth to be a reduced GO (RGO) of <5 layers. This newly grown RGO possesses lower defect density with larger and increased distribution of sp2 domains than chemically reduced RGO. Furthermore this method without optimization reduces the relative standard deviation of electrical conductivity between chips, from 80.5% to 16.5%, enabling RGO to be used in practical electronic devices.We report the extended growth of Graphene Oxide (GO) flakes using atmospheric pressure ethanol Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). GO was used to catalyze the deposition of carbon on a substrate in the ethanol CVD with Ar and H2 as carrier gases. Raman, SEM, XPS and AFM characterized the growth to be a reduced GO (RGO) of <5 layers. This newly grown RGO possesses lower defect density with larger and increased distribution of sp2 domains than chemically reduced RGO. Furthermore this method without optimization reduces the relative standard deviation of electrical conductivity between chips, from 80.5% to 16.5%, enabling RGO to be used in practical electronic devices. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: The ethanol CVD setup, TEM of CVD treated RGO, graphite 2D Raman spectra, GO synthesis, transfer and reduction methods and details of characterization techniques are described in the document. See DOI: 10.1039/c3nr33704a

  9. Advances in the Development of a WCl6 CVD System for Coating UO2 Powders with Tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mireles, Omar R.; Tieman, Alyssa; Broadway, Jeramie; Hickman, Robert

    2013-01-01

    W-UO2 CERMET fuels are under development to enable Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP) for deep space exploration. Research efforts with an emphasis on fuel fabrication, testing, and identification of potential risks is underway. One primary risk is fuel loss due to CTE mismatch between W and UO2 and the grain boundary structure of W particles resulting in higher thermal stresses. Mechanical failure can result in significant reduction of the UO2 by hot hydrogen. Fuel loss can be mitigated if the UO2 particles are coated with a layer of high density tungsten before the consolidation process. This paper discusses the work to date, results, and advances of a fluidized bed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) system that utilizes the H2-WCl6 reduction process. Keywords: Space, Nuclear, Thermal, Propulsion, Fuel, CERMET, CVD, Tungsten, Uranium

  10. Tractable Chemical Models for CVD of Silicon and Carbon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blanquet, E.; Gokoglu, S. A.

    1993-01-01

    Tractable chemical models are validated for the CVD of silicon and carbon. Dilute silane (SiH4) and methane (CH4) in hydrogen are chosen as gaseous precursors. The chemical mechanism for each systems Si and C is deliberately reduced to three reactions in the models: one in the gas phase and two at the surface. The axial-flow CVD reactor utilized in this study has well-characterized flow and thermal fields and provides variable deposition rates in the axial direction. Comparisons between the experimental and calculated deposition rates are made at different pressures and temperatures.

  11. CVD Growth of Carbon Nanotubes: Structure, Catalyst, and Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delzeit, Lance

    2003-01-01

    Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) exhibit extraordinary mechanical and unique electronic properties and hence have been receiving much attention in recent years for their potential in nanoelectronics, field emission devices, scanning probes, high strength composites and many more applications. Catalytic decomposition of hydrocarbon feedstock with the aid of supported transition metal catalysts - also known as chemical vapor deposition (CVD) - has become popular to produce single-walled and multi-walled nanotubes (SWNTs, MWNTs) and multiwalled nanofibers (MWNFs). The ability to grow CNTs on patterned substrates and in vertically aligned arrays, and the simplicity of the process, has made CVD growth of CNTs an attractive approach.

  12. Origin of residual particles on transferred graphene grown by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yasunishi, Tomohiro; Takabayashi, Yuya; Kishimoto, Shigeru; Kitaura, Ryo; Shinohara, Hisanori; Ohno, Yutaka

    2016-08-01

    Large-area single-layer graphene can be grown on Cu foil by CVD, but for device applications, the layer must to be transferred onto an insulating substrate. As residual particles are often observed on transferred graphene, we investigated their origin using scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDX). The results show that these residual particles are composed either of silicon or an alloy of a few metals, and hence, likely originate from the quartz tube of the CVD furnace and the impurities contained in the Cu foil.

  13. Actual cardiovascular disease risk and related factors: a cross-sectional study of Korean blue collar workers employed by small businesses.

    PubMed

    Won, Jong Uk; Hong, Oi Saeng; Hwang, Won Ju

    2013-04-01

    Actual cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and related factors among blue collar workers employed by small businesses were investigated. This cross-sectional study of 238 Korean blue collar workers used surveys, anthropometric and blood pressure measurements, and blood sampling for lipid and glucose levels to answer the research questions. Multiple regression techniques were used to analyze study data. The prevalence of actual CVD risk among blue collar workers was 32 cases per 100 workers. A multiple regression model showed that a combination of individual, psychosocial, and work-related factors explained 34% of the variance in actual CVD risk. The significant predictors of actual CVD risk included knowledge of CVD risk, risk perception, job stress, and waist-to-hip ratio. It is important for clinicians to consider all of these significant predictors of actual CVD risk when designing an intervention program to reduce CVD among Korean blue collar workers.

  14. Associations between pre-diabetes, by three different diagnostic criteria, and incident CVD differ in South Asians and Europeans

    PubMed Central

    Eastwood, Sophie V; Tillin, Therese; Sattar, Naveed; Forouhi, Nita G; Hughes, Alun D; Chaturvedi, Nish

    2016-01-01

    Objective We examined longitudinal associations between pre-diabetes and cardiovascular disease (CVD) (coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke) in Europeans and South Asians. Research design and methods UK cohort study of 1,336 Europeans and 1,139 South Asians, aged 40-69 years at baseline (1988-91). Assessment included blood pressure, blood tests, anthropometry and questionnaires. Pre-diabetes was determined by OGTT or HbA1c, using either International Expert Committee (IEC, HbA1c 6.0-6.5% (42-48 mmol/mol)) or American Diabetes Association (ADA, HbA1c 5.7-6.5% (39-48 mmol/mol)) cut-points. Incident CHD and stroke were established at 20 years from death certification, hospital admission, primary care record review and participant report. Results Compared to normoglycaemic individuals, IEC-defined pre-diabetes was related to both CHD and CVD risk in Europeans but not South Asians (sub-hazards ratio[95% CI]: CHD;1.68[1.19,2.37] vs. 0.99[0.74,1.33], ethnicity interaction p=0.008, CVD; 1.49[1.08,2.07] vs. 1.03[0.79,1.36], ethnicity interaction p=0.04). Conversely, IEC-defined pre-diabetes was associated with stroke risk in South Asians but not Europeans (1.75 [1.04,2.93] vs. 0.85[0.45,1.64], ethnicity interaction p=0.11). Risks were adjusted for age, sex, smoking, total/HDL-cholesterol ratio, waist/hip ratio, systolic blood pressure and anti-hypertensive use. . Associations were weaker for OGTT or ADA-defined pre-diabetes. Conversion from pre-diabetes to diabetes was greater in South Asians, but accounting for time to conversion did not account for these ethnic differences. Conclusions Associations between pre-diabetes and CVD differed by pre-diabetes diagnostic criterion, type of CVD and ethnicity, with associations being present for overall CVD in Europeans but not South Asians. Substantiation of these findings and investigation of potential explanations are required. PMID:26486189

  15. Preparation of Fe/Mo/molecular sieves by CVD

    SciTech Connect

    Yoo, Jin S.; Donohu, J.A.; Choi-Feng, C.

    1995-12-01

    A series of mixed metal oxide catalysts was prepared via the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique by using the silanol moiety existing on various zeolite matrices as an anchoring site for metals. The novel CVD Fe/Mo/DBH catalyst was made by depositing FeCl{sub 3} and then MoO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} on the partially deboronated borosilicate (DBH). The catalyst precursor was activated by calcining it at 650-690{degrees}C for prolonged period. Among the zeolite matrices such as borosilicate, silicalite, ZSM-5, {beta}-zeolite and {Upsilon}-zeolite, the DBH exhibited a unique papra-selective oxidation property for the gas-phase O{sub 2} oxidation of polymethylated benzenes. Terephthaldehyde was produced in the oxidation of p-xylene. The impregnated catalyst was also prepared by the incipient wetness method. The catalyst performance and the stability of the impregnated catalyst were compared with those of the CVD counterpart. The CVD catalyst was more active and showed better stability than the impregnated catalyst. These catalysts were characterized by ammonia TPD, Raman spectroscopy, and electron microscopy with an objective of explaining these findings.

  16. Oxidation Resistance of Turbine Blades Made of ŻS6K Superalloy after Aluminizing by Low-Activity CVD and VPA Methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zagula-Yavorska, M.; Kocurek, P.; Pytel, M.; Sieniawski, J.

    2016-05-01

    Two aluminide layers (additive and interdiffusion) were deposited on a turbine blade made of ŻS6K superalloy by means of VPA and CVD methods. The additive and interdiffusion layers obtained by the VPA method consist of the NiAl phase and some carbides, while the additive layer deposited by the CVD method consists of the NiAl phase only. The residual stresses in the aluminide coating at the lock, suction side, and pressure side of the blade were tensile. The aluminide coating deposited by the CVD method has an oxidation resistance about 7 times better than that deposited by the VPA method. Al2O3 + HfO2 + NiAl2O4 phases were revealed on the surface of the aluminide coating deposited by the VPA method after 240 h oxidation. Al2O3 + TiO2 oxides were found on the surface of the aluminide coating deposited by the CVD method after 240 h oxidation. Increasing the time of oxidation from 240 to 720 h led to the formation of the NiO oxide on the surface of the coating deposited by the VPA method. Al2O3 oxide is still visible on the surface of the coating deposited by the CVD method. The residual stresses in the aluminide coating after 30 cycles of oxidation at the lock, suction side and pressure side of the turbine blade are compressive.

  17. A first screening and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in waste water, sludge, recipient water and sediment from Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sandra; Remberger, Mikael; Kaj, Lennart; Schlabach, Martin; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Vester, Jette; Arnórsson, Mímir; Mortensen, Inge; Schwartson, Richard; Dam, Maria

    2016-08-15

    A screening of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products (PPCPs) in sub-arctic locations of the Faroe Islands (FO), Iceland (IS) and Greenland (GL) was conducted. In total 36 pharmaceuticals including some metabolites, and seven additives in personal care products were investigated in influent and effluent waters as well as sludge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and in water and sediment of recipients. Concentrations and distribution patterns for PPCPs discharged via sewage lines (SLs) to the marine environment were assessed. Of the 36 pharmaceuticals or metabolites analysed 33 were found close to or above the limit of detection (LOD) in all or a part of the samples. All of the seven investigated additives in personal care products were detected above the LOD. Some of the analysed PPCPs occurred in every or almost every sample. Among these were diclofenac, ibuprofen, lidocaine, naproxen, metformin, citalopram, venlafaxine, amiloride, furosemide, metoprolol, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cetrimonium salt (ATAC-C16). Additionally, the study encompasses ecotoxicological risk assessment of 2/3 of the analysed PPCPs in recipient and diluted effluent waters. For candesartan only a small margin to levels with inacceptable risks was observed in diluted effluent waters at two locations (FO). Chronical risks for aquatic organisms staying and/or living around WWTP effluent pipe-outlets were indicated for 17β-estradiol and estriol in the three countries. Additives in PCPs were found to pose the largest risk to the aquatic environment. The surfactants CAPB and ATAC-C16 were found in concentrations resulting in risk factors up to 375 for CAPB and 165 for ATAC-C16 in recipients for diluted effluents from Iggia, Nuuk (GL) and Torshavn (FO) respectively. These results demonstrates a potentially high ecological risk stemming from discharge of surfactants as used in household and industrial detergents as well as additives in personal care

  18. A first screening and risk assessment of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products in waste water, sludge, recipient water and sediment from Faroe Islands, Iceland and Greenland.

    PubMed

    Huber, Sandra; Remberger, Mikael; Kaj, Lennart; Schlabach, Martin; Jörundsdóttir, Hrönn Ó; Vester, Jette; Arnórsson, Mímir; Mortensen, Inge; Schwartson, Richard; Dam, Maria

    2016-08-15

    A screening of a broad range of pharmaceuticals and additives in personal care products (PPCPs) in sub-arctic locations of the Faroe Islands (FO), Iceland (IS) and Greenland (GL) was conducted. In total 36 pharmaceuticals including some metabolites, and seven additives in personal care products were investigated in influent and effluent waters as well as sludge of waste water treatment plants (WWTPs) and in water and sediment of recipients. Concentrations and distribution patterns for PPCPs discharged via sewage lines (SLs) to the marine environment were assessed. Of the 36 pharmaceuticals or metabolites analysed 33 were found close to or above the limit of detection (LOD) in all or a part of the samples. All of the seven investigated additives in personal care products were detected above the LOD. Some of the analysed PPCPs occurred in every or almost every sample. Among these were diclofenac, ibuprofen, lidocaine, naproxen, metformin, citalopram, venlafaxine, amiloride, furosemide, metoprolol, sodium dodecyl sulphate (SDS) and cetrimonium salt (ATAC-C16). Additionally, the study encompasses ecotoxicological risk assessment of 2/3 of the analysed PPCPs in recipient and diluted effluent waters. For candesartan only a small margin to levels with inacceptable risks was observed in diluted effluent waters at two locations (FO). Chronical risks for aquatic organisms staying and/or living around WWTP effluent pipe-outlets were indicated for 17β-estradiol and estriol in the three countries. Additives in PCPs were found to pose the largest risk to the aquatic environment. The surfactants CAPB and ATAC-C16 were found in concentrations resulting in risk factors up to 375 for CAPB and 165 for ATAC-C16 in recipients for diluted effluents from Iggia, Nuuk (GL) and Torshavn (FO) respectively. These results demonstrates a potentially high ecological risk stemming from discharge of surfactants as used in household and industrial detergents as well as additives in personal care

  19. Analysis of Air Toxics From NOAA WP-3 Aircraft Measurements During the TexAQS 2006 Campaign: Comparison With Emission Inventories and Additive Inhalation Risk Factors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Del Negro, L. A.; Warneke, C.; de Gouw, J. A.; Atlas, E.; Lueb, R.; Zhu, X.; Pope, L.; Schauffler, S.; Hendershot, R.; Washenfelder, R.; Fried, A.; Richter, D.; Walega, J. G.; Weibring, P.

    2007-12-01

    Benzene and nine other air toxics classified as human carcinogens by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) were measured from the NOAA WP-3 aircraft during the TexAQS 2006 campaign. In-situ measurements of benzene, measured with a PTR-MS instrument, are used to estimate emission fluxes for comparison with point source emission inventories developed by the Texas Commission on Environmental Quality. Mean and median mixing ratios for benzene, acetaldehyde, formaldehyde, 1,3-butadiene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, dibromoethane, dichloromethane, and vinyl chloride, encountered over the city of Houston during the campaign, are combined with inhalation unit risk factor values developed by the California Environmental Protection Agency and the United States Environmental Protection Agency to estimate the additive inhalation risk factor. This additive risk factor represents the risk associated with lifetime (70 year) exposure at the levels measured and should not be used as an absolute indicator of risk to individuals. However, the results are useful for assessments of changing relative risk over time, and for identifying dominant contributions to the overall air toxic risk.

  20. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN OZONE-INDUCED LUNG INJURY, ANTIOXIDANT COMPENSATION AND UNDERLYING CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE (CVD).

    EPA Science Inventory

    Increased levels of oxidants and compromised compensatory response are associated with CVD susceptibility. We hypothesized that rat strains demonstrating genetic CVD will have lower levels of antioxidants and greater ozone-induced pulmonary injury relative to healthy strains. Mal...

  1. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    PubMed Central

    Yiannakouris, Nikos; Katsoulis, Michail; Trichopoulou, Antonia; Ordovas, Jose M; Trichopoulos, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Objectives An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for several conventional cardiovascular risk factors (ConvRFs), including smoking, hypertension, type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), body mass index (BMI), physical activity and adherence to the Mediterranean diet. Design A case–control study. Setting The general Greek population of the EPIC study. Participants and outcome measures 477 patients with medically confirmed incident CHD and 1271 controls participated in this study. We estimated the ORs for CHD by dividing participants at higher or lower GRS and, alternatively, at higher or lower ConvRF, and calculated the relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI) as a measure of deviation from additivity. Results The joint presence of higher GRS and higher risk ConvRF was in all instances associated with an increased risk of CHD, compared with the joint presence of lower GRS and lower risk ConvRF. The OR (95% CI) was 1.7 (1.2 to 2.4) for smoking, 2.7 (1.9 to 3.8) for hypertension, 4.1 (2.8 to 6.1) for T2DM, 1.9 (1.4 to 2.5) for lower physical activity, 2.0 (1.3 to 3.2) for high BMI and 1.5 (1.1 to 2.1) for poor adherence to the Mediterranean diet. In all instances, RERI values were fairly small and not statistically significant, suggesting that the GRS and the ConvRFs do not have effects beyond additivity. Conclusions Genetic predisposition to CHD, operationalised through a multilocus GRS, and ConvRFs have essentially additive effects on CHD risk. PMID:24500614

  2. The benefits of an additional worker are task-dependent: assessing low-back injury risks during prefabricated (panelized) wall construction.

    PubMed

    Kim, Sunwook; Nussbaum, Maury A; Jia, Bochen

    2012-09-01

    Team manual material handling is a common practice in residential construction where prefabricated building components (e.g., wall panels) are increasingly used. As part of a larger effort to enable proactive control of ergonomic exposures among workers handling panels, this study explored the effects of additional workers on injury risks during team-based panel erection tasks, specifically by quantifying how injury risks are affected by increasing the number of workers (by one, above the nominal or most common number). Twenty-four participants completed panel erection tasks with and without an additional worker under different panel mass and size conditions. Four risk assessment methods were employed that emphasized the low back. Though including an additional worker generally reduced injury risk across several panel masses and sizes, the magnitude of these benefits varied depending on the specific task and exhibited somewhat high variability within a given task. These results suggest that a simple, generalizable recommendation regarding team-based panel erection tasks is not warranted. Rather, a more systems-level approach accounting for both injury risk and productivity (a strength of panelized wall systems) should be undertaken.

  3. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhiting; Chen, Songting; Zhang, Guanrong; Lin, Aihua

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD) interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (–1.05%, p = 0.096). However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047) for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was –2.83% (p = 0.001). In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (–5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (–6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001), total cholesterol (–0.36 vs. –0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005), fasting plasma glucose (–0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001), BMI (–0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m2; p < 0.001), and waist hip ratio (–0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001). Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China. PMID:26694436

  4. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiting; Chen, Songting; Zhang, Guanrong; Lin, Aihua

    2015-12-01

    With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD) interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (-1.05%, p = 0.096). However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047) for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was -2.83% (p = 0.001). In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (-5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001), total cholesterol (-0.36 vs. -0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005), fasting plasma glucose (-0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001), BMI (-0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m²; p < 0.001), and waist hip ratio (-0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001). Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China. PMID:26694436

  5. Mobile Phone-Based Lifestyle Intervention for Reducing Overall Cardiovascular Disease Risk in Guangzhou, China: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiting; Chen, Songting; Zhang, Guanrong; Lin, Aihua

    2015-12-17

    With the rapid and widespread adoption of mobile devices, mobile phones offer an opportunity to deliver cardiovascular disease (CVD) interventions. This study evaluated the efficacy of a mobile phone-based lifestyle intervention aimed at reducing the overall CVD risk at a health management center in Guangzhou, China. We recruited 589 workers from eight work units. Based on a group-randomized design, work units were randomly assigned either to receive the mobile phone-based lifestyle interventions or usual care. The reduction in 10-year CVD risk at 1-year follow-up for the intervention group was not statistically significant (-1.05%, p = 0.096). However, the mean risk increased significantly by 1.77% (p = 0.047) for the control group. The difference of the changes between treatment arms in CVD risk was -2.83% (p = 0.001). In addition, there were statistically significant changes for the intervention group relative to the controls, from baseline to year 1, in systolic blood pressure (-5.55 vs. 6.89 mmHg; p < 0.001), diastolic blood pressure (-6.61 vs. 5.62 mmHg; p < 0.001), total cholesterol (-0.36 vs. -0.10 mmol/L; p = 0.005), fasting plasma glucose (-0.31 vs. 0.02 mmol/L; p < 0.001), BMI (-0.57 vs. 0.29 kg/m²; p < 0.001), and waist hip ratio (-0.02 vs. 0.01; p < 0.001). Mobile phone-based intervention may therefore be a potential solution for reducing CVD risk in China.

  6. Cognitive Processes that Account for Mental Addition Fluency Differences between Children Typically Achieving in Arithmetic and Children At-Risk for Failure in Arithmetic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berg, Derek H.; Hutchinson, Nancy L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated whether processing speed, short-term memory, and working memory accounted for the differential mental addition fluency between children typically achieving in arithmetic (TA) and children at-risk for failure in arithmetic (AR). Further, we drew attention to fluency differences in simple (e.g., 5 + 3) and complex (e.g., 16 +…

  7. Additive influence of genetic predisposition and conventional risk factors in the incidence of coronary heart disease: a population-based study in Greece

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    An additive genetic risk score (GRS) for coronary heart disease (CHD) has previously been associated with incident CHD in the population-based Greek European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and nutrition (EPIC) cohort. In this study, we explore GRS-‘environment’ joint actions on CHD for severa...

  8. Development of CVD mullite coatings for Si-based ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Auger, Michael Lawrence

    1999-09-01

    To raise fuel efficiencies, the next generation of engines and fuel systems must be lighter and operate at higher temperatures. Ceramic-based materials, which are considerably lighter than metals and can withstand working temperatures of up to 1400sp°C, have been targeted to replace traditional metal-based components. The materials used in combustion environments must also be capable of withstanding erosion and corrosion caused by combustion gases, particulates, and deposit-forming corrodants. With these demanding criteria, silicon-based ceramics are the leading candidate materials for high temperature engine and heat exchanger structural components. However, these materials are limited in gaseous environments and in the presence of molten salts since they form liquid silicates on exposed surfaces at temperatures as low as 800sp°C. Protective coatings that can withstand higher operating temperatures and corrosive atmospheres must be developed for silicon-based ceramics. Mullite (3Alsb2Osb3{*}2SiOsb2) was targeted as a potential coating material due to its unique ability to resist corrosion, retain its strength, resist creep, and avoid thermal shock failure at elevated temperatures. Several attempts to deposit mullite coatings by various processing methods have met with limited success and usually resulted in coatings that have had pores, cracks, poor adherence, and required thermal post-treatments. To overcome these deficiencies, the direct formation of chemically vapor deposited (CVD) mullite coatings has been developed. CVD is a high temperature atomistic deposition technique that results in dense, adherent crystalline coatings. The object of this dissertation was to further the understanding of the CVD mullite deposition process and resultant coating. The kinetics of CVD mullite deposition were investigated as a function of the following process parameters: temperature, pressure, and the deposition reactor system. An empirical kinetic model was developed

  9. Xanthine Oxidase and Cardiovascular Risk in Obese Children

    PubMed Central

    Tam, Harrison K.; Kelly, Aaron S.; Metzig, Andrea M.; Steinberger, Julia

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Background: Pathological mechanisms of how childhood obesity leads to increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) are not fully characterized. Oxidative-stress–related enzymes, such as xanthine oxidase (XO), have been linked to obesity, endothelial dysfunction, and CVD in adults, but little is known about this pathway in children. The aim of this study was to determine whether differential XO activity is associated with endothelial dysfunction, CVD risk factors, or cytokine levels. Methods: Fasting plasma samples were obtained from obese (BMI ≥95th percentile; n=20) and age- and gender-matched healthy weight (BMI >5th and <85th percentile; n=22) children and adolescents (mean age, 12±3 years) to quantify XO activity. In addition, fasting cholesterol, insulin, glucose, blood pressure, endothelial function, and cytokine levels were assessed. Results: We observed a 3.8-fold increase in plasma XO activity in obese, compared to healthy weight, children (118±21 vs. 31±9 nU/mg of protein; p<0.001). Plasma XO activity was correlated with BMI z-score (r=0.41), waist circumference (r=0.41), high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (r=−0.32), oxidized low-density lipoprotein (r=0.57), adiponectin (r=−0.53), and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (r=−0.59). Conclusion: XO activity is highly elevated in obese children and correlates with CVD risk factors, suggesting that XO may play a role in increasing cardiovascular risk early in life in the context of obesity. PMID:24568669

  10. Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Wen; Sun, Luning; Gong, Yingyun; Zhou, Ying; Yang, Panpan; Ye, Zhengqin; Fu, Jinxiang; Huang, Aijie; Fu, Zhenzhen; Yu, Weinan; Zhao, Yang

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), metabolic syndrome (MS), and other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. 1302 subjects were enrolled from the Huai'an Diabetes Prevention Program. Results. BCAAs levels were positively correlated with MS, its components, and CV risk profile. The odds ratio (OR) for MS among subjects in the fourth quartile of BCAAs levels showed a 2.17-fold increase compared with those in the first quartile. BCAAs were independently associated with high Framingham risk score even after adjusting for MS and its components (P < 0.0001). Additionally, the OR for high CV risk was 3.20-fold (P < 0.0001) in participants in the fourth BCAAs quartile with MS compared with participants in the first BCAAs quartile without MS. Conclusions. Increased BCAAs levels are independent risk factors of MS and CVD in addition to the traditional factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The development of CVD in MS patients with high level BCAAs is accelerated. Intervention studies are needed to investigate whether the strategy of BCAAs reduction has impacts on endpoints in patients with higher CV risk. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005029. PMID:27528871

  11. Relationship between Branched-Chain Amino Acids, Metabolic Syndrome, and Cardiovascular Risk Profile in a Chinese Population: A Cross-Sectional Study.

    PubMed

    Hu, Wen; Sun, Luning; Gong, Yingyun; Zhou, Ying; Yang, Panpan; Ye, Zhengqin; Fu, Jinxiang; Huang, Aijie; Fu, Zhenzhen; Yu, Weinan; Zhao, Yang; Yang, Tao; Zhou, Hongwen

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs), metabolic syndrome (MS), and other cardiovascular (CV) risk factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population at high risk for the development of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Methods. 1302 subjects were enrolled from the Huai'an Diabetes Prevention Program. Results. BCAAs levels were positively correlated with MS, its components, and CV risk profile. The odds ratio (OR) for MS among subjects in the fourth quartile of BCAAs levels showed a 2.17-fold increase compared with those in the first quartile. BCAAs were independently associated with high Framingham risk score even after adjusting for MS and its components (P < 0.0001). Additionally, the OR for high CV risk was 3.20-fold (P < 0.0001) in participants in the fourth BCAAs quartile with MS compared with participants in the first BCAAs quartile without MS. Conclusions. Increased BCAAs levels are independent risk factors of MS and CVD in addition to the traditional factors in middle-aged and elderly Chinese population. The development of CVD in MS patients with high level BCAAs is accelerated. Intervention studies are needed to investigate whether the strategy of BCAAs reduction has impacts on endpoints in patients with higher CV risk. This study is registered with ChiCTR-TRC-14005029. PMID:27528871

  12. Does productivity influence priority setting? A case study from the field of CVD prevention.

    PubMed

    Lindholm, Lars; Löfroth, Emil; Rosén, Måns

    2008-01-01

    In this case study, different measures aimed at preventing cardiovascular diseases (CVD) in different target groups have been ranked based on cost per QALY from a health care sector perspective and from a societal perspective, respectively. The innovation in this study is to introduce a budget constraint and thereby show exactly which groups would be included or excluded in treatment or intervention programs based on the two perspectives. Approximately 90% of the groups are included in both perspectives. Mainly elderly women are excluded when the societal perspective is used and mainly middle-aged men are excluded when the health care sector perspective is used. Elderly women have a higher risk of CVD and generally lower income than middle-aged men. Thus the exclusion of older women in the societal perspective is not a trivial consequence since it is in conflict with the general interpretation of the "treatment according to need" rule, as well as societal goals regarding gender equality and fairness. On the other hand, the exclusion of working individuals in the health care perspective undermines a growth of public resources for future health care for the elderly. The extent and consequences of this conflict are unclear and empirical studies of this problem are rare.

  13. THERMAL DIFFUSIVITY/CONDUCTIVITY OF IRRADIATED MONOLITHIC CVD-SIC

    SciTech Connect

    Youngblood, Gerald E.; Senor, David J.; Jones, Russell H.

    2003-03-31

    Several thermal diffusivity disc samples of high purity CVD-SiC were neutron-irradiated to equivalent doses of about 5-8 dpa-SiC at temperatures from 252 up to 800 C. For this temperature range, the degradation in the thermal diffusivity ranged from about 95 percent down to 89 percent, respectively. The reciprocal thermal diffusivity method was used to estimate the phonon mean free paths and defect concentrations before and after the irradiations for these materials. Even though the CVD-SiC material is an excellent monitor of certain neutron irradiation effects, the degradation in the thermal diffusivity (conductivity) appears to be more than a factor of two greater than predicted by recent theoretical model simulations.

  14. CVD Diamonds in the BaBar Radiation Monitoring System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Edwards, A. J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Petersen, B. A.

    2006-01-01

    To prevent excessive radiation damage to its Silicon Vertex Tracker, the BaBar experiment at SLAC uses a radiation monitoring and protection system that triggers a beam abort whenever radiation levels are anomalously high. The existing system, which employs large area Si PIN diodes as radiation sensors, has become increasingly difficult to operate due to radiation damage. We have studied CVD diamond sensors as a potential alternative for these silicon sensors. Two diamond sensors have been routinely used since their installation in the Vertex Tracker in August 2002. The experience with these sensors and a variety of tests in the laboratory have shown CVD diamonds to be a viable solution for dosimetry in high radiation environments. However, our studies have also revealed surprising side-effects.

  15. Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) OCRWM Loop Error Determination

    SciTech Connect

    PHILIPP, B.L.

    2000-07-26

    Characterization is specifically identified by the Richland Operations Office (RL) for the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) of the US Department of Energy (DOE), as requiring application of the requirements in the Quality Assurance Requirements and Description (QARD) (RW-0333P DOE 1997a). Those analyses that provide information that is necessary for repository acceptance require application of the QARD. The cold vacuum drying (CVD) project identified the loops that measure, display, and record multi-canister overpack (MCO) vacuum pressure and Tempered Water (TW) temperature data as providing OCRWM data per Application of the Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management (OCRWM) Quality Assurance Requirements to the Hanford Spent Nuclear Fuel Project HNF-SD-SNF-RPT-007. Vacuum pressure transmitters (PT 1*08, 1*10) and TW temperature transmitters (TIT-3*05, 3*12) are used to verify drying and to determine the water content within the MCO after CVD.

  16. Catalytic CVD of SWCNTs at Low Temperatures and SWCNT Devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seidel, Robert; Liebau, Maik; Unger, Eugen; Graham, Andrew P.; Duesberg, Georg S.; Kreupl, Franz; Hoenlein, Wolfgang; Pompe, Wolfgang

    2004-09-01

    New results on the planar growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) at low temperatures will be reported. Optimizing catalyst, catalyst support, and growth parameters yields SWCNTs at temperatures as low as 600 °C. Growth at such low temperatures largely affects the diameter distribution since coalescence of the catalyst is suppressed. A phenomenological growth model will be suggested for CVD growth at low temperatures. The model takes into account surface diffusion and is an alternative to the bulk diffusion based vapor-liquid-solid (VLS) model. Furthermore, carbon nanotubes field effect transistors based on substrate grown SWCNTs will be presented. In these devices good contact resistances could be achieved by electroless metal deposition or metal evaporation of the contacts.

  17. Infrared absorption of fs-laser textured CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvani, P.; Bellucci, A.; Girolami, M.; Orlando, S.; Valentini, V.; Polini, R.; Mezzetti, A.; Di Fonzo, F.; Trucchi, D. M.

    2016-03-01

    Nanoscale periodic texturing on polycrystalline CVD diamond surface was performed to obtain a significant increase in optical absorptance to visible and near-infrared radiation. Surface texturing, obtained by the use of fs-laser ultrashort pulses, has been demonstrated to induce a controlled periodicity of ripples of about 170 nm and length of several µm, able to drastically increase the diamond capability of interacting with solar radiation from its intrinsic visible blindness. Ultraviolet and visible Raman spectroscopy has been used to confirm the absence of non-diamond phases resulting from the process for the fs-laser-textured sample. Moreover, here we investigate the optical properties in the range 200 nm-25 µm. Absorbance of fs-laser-textured CVD diamond is considerably higher than the untreated one at every wavelength, resulting in a remarkable increase in the emittance: It points out the need for an optimization of process parameters to enhance the selective absorption capability.

  18. Development of CVD diamond detectors for clinical dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piliero, M. A.; Hugtenburg, R. P.; Ryde, S. J. S.; Oliver, K.

    2014-11-01

    The use of chemical vapour deposition (CVD) methods for the manufacture of diamonds could lead to detectors for high-resolution radiotherapy dosimetry that are cheaper and more reproducible than detectors based on natural diamonds. In this work two prototype designs (Diamond Detectors Ltd, Poole) of CVD diamond detectors were considered. The detectors were encapsulated in a water-proof housing in a form-factor that would be suitable for dosimetry measurements in water, as well as solid material phantoms. Stability of the dosimeter over time, the dose-response, dose-rate response and angular-response were examined. The study demonstrated that the detector behaviour conformed with theory in terms of the dose-rate response and had acceptable properties for use in the clinic.

  19. Argan oil improves surrogate markers of CVD in humans.

    PubMed

    Sour, Souad; Belarbi, Meriem; Khaldi, Darine; Benmansour, Nassima; Sari, Nassima; Nani, Abdelhafid; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of CVD and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of CVD, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation.

  20. Argan oil improves surrogate markers of CVD in humans.

    PubMed

    Sour, Souad; Belarbi, Meriem; Khaldi, Darine; Benmansour, Nassima; Sari, Nassima; Nani, Abdelhafid; Chemat, Farid; Visioli, Francesco

    2012-06-01

    Limited - though increasing - evidence suggests that argan oil might be endowed with potential healthful properties, mostly in the areas of CVD and prostate cancer. We sought to comprehensively determine the effects of argan oil supplementation on the plasma lipid profile and antioxidant status of a group of healthy Algerian subjects, compared with matched controls. A total of twenty healthy subjects consumed 15 g/d of argan oil - with toasted bread - for breakfast, during 4 weeks (intervention group), whereas twenty matched controls followed their habitual diet, but did not consume argan oil. The study lasted 30 d. At the end of the study, argan oil-supplemented subjects exhibited higher plasma vitamin E concentrations, lower total and LDL-cholesterol, lower TAG and improved plasma and cellular antioxidant profile, when compared with controls. In conclusion, we showed that Algerian argan oil is able to positively modulate some surrogate markers of CVD, through mechanisms which warrant further investigation. PMID:22082585

  1. Addition of a dairy rich milk fat globule membrane to a high-saturated fat meal reduces the postprandial insulinaemic and inflammatory response in overweight and obese adults

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Background: Overweight, obesity, metabolic syndrome (MetS), and postprandial inflammation are all independent risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). To reduce CVD risk, palm oil has become a common substitute for both hydrogenated unsaturated fats, that contain trans fatty acids, and animal ...

  2. Additive Effects of the Risk Alleles of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 on Non-alcoholic Fatty Liver Disease (NAFLD) in a Chinese Population

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoliang; Liu, Zhipeng; Wang, Kai; Wang, Zhaowen; Sun, Xing; Zhong, Lin; Deng, Guilong; Song, Guohe; Sun, Baining; Peng, Zhihai; Liu, Wanqing

    2016-01-01

    Recent genome-wide association studies have identified that variants in or near PNPLA3, NCAN, GCKR, LYPLAL1, and TM6SF2 are significantly associated with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) in multiple ethnic groups. Studies on their impact on NAFLD in Han Chinese are still limited. In this study, we examined the relevance of these variants to NAFLD in a community-based Han Chinese population and further explored their potential joint effect on NAFLD. Six single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (PNPLA3 rs738409, rs2294918, NCAN rs2228603, GCKR rs780094, LYPLAL1 rs12137855, and TM6SF2 rs58542926) previously identified in genome-wide analyses, to be associated with NAFLD were genotyped in 384 NAFLD patients and 384 age- and gender-matched healthy controls. We found two out of the six polymorphisms, PNPLA3 rs738409 (OR = 1.52, 95%CI: 1.19–1.96; P = 0.00087) and TM6SF2 rs58542926 (OR = 2.11, 95%CI: 1.34–3.39; P = 0.0016) are independently associated with NAFLD after adjustment for the effects of age, gender, and BMI. Our analysis further demonstrated the strong additive effects of the risk alleles of PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 with an overall significance between the number of risk alleles and NAFLD (OR = 1.64, 95%CI: 1.34–2.01; P = 1.4 × 10-6). The OR for NAFLD increased in an additive manner, with an average increase in OR of 1.52 per additional risk allele. Our results confirmed that the PNPLA3 and TM6SF2 variants were the most significant risk alleles for NAFLD in Chinese population. Therefore, genotyping these two genetic risk factors may help identify individuals with the highest risk of NAFLD. PMID:27532011

  3. Investigation of the Millimeter-Wave Plasma Assisted CVD Reactor

    SciTech Connect

    Vikharev, A; Gorbachev, A; Kozlov, A; Litvak, A; Bykov, Y; Caplan, M

    2005-07-21

    A polycrystalline diamond grown by the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique is recognized as a unique material for high power electronic devices owing to unrivaled combination of properties such as ultra-low microwave absorption, high thermal conductivity, high mechanical strength and chemical stability. Microwave vacuum windows for modern high power sources and transmission lines operating at the megawatt power level require high quality diamond disks with a diameter of several centimeters and a thickness of a few millimeters. The microwave plasma-assisted CVD technique exploited today to produce such disks has low deposition rate, which limits the availability of large size diamond disk windows. High-electron-density plasma generated by the millimeter-wave power was suggested for enhanced-growth-rate CVD. In this paper a general description of the 30 GHz gyrotron-based facility is presented. The output radiation of the gyrotron is converted into four wave-beams. Free localized plasma in the shape of a disk with diameter much larger than the wavelength of the radiation is formed in the intersection area of the wave-beams. The results of investigation of the plasma parameters, as well as the first results of diamond film deposition are presented. The prospects for commercially producing vacuum window diamond disks for high power microwave devices at much lower costs and processing times than currently available are outlined.

  4. Deposition of moisture barrier films by catalytic CVD using hexamethyldisilazane

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohdaira, Keisuke; Matsumura, Hideki

    2014-01-01

    Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) is utilized to deposit moisture barrier films by catalytic chemical vapor deposition (Cat-CVD). An increase in the thickness of silicon oxynitride (SiOxNy) films leads to a better water-vapor transmission rate (WVTR), indicating that Cat-CVD SiOxNy films deposited using HMDS do not severely suffer from cracking. A WVTR on the order of 10-3 g m-2 day-1 can be realized by a Cat-CVD SiOxNy film formed using HMDS on a poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET) substrate without any stacking structures at a substrate temperature of as low as 60 °C. X-ray reflectivity (XRR) measurement reveals that a film density of >2.0 g/cm3 is necessary for SiOxNy films to demonstrate an effective moisture barrier ability. The use of HMDS will give us safer production of moisture barrier films because of its non-explosive and non-toxic nature.

  5. Controlled CVD growth of Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Jing; Yin, Zongyou; Sim, Daohao; Tay, Yee Yan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-08-01

    Sb based alloy nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their many promising applications, e.g. as battery electrodes, thermoelectric materials and magnetic semiconductors. In many cases, these applications require controlled growth of Sb based alloys with desired sizes and shapes to achieve enhanced performance. Here, we report a flexible catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to prepare Cu-Sb nanostructures with tunable shapes (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles) by transporting Sb vapor to react with copper foils, which also serve as the substrate. By simply controlling the substrate temperature and distance, various Sb-Cu alloy nanostructures, e.g. Cu11Sb3 nanowires (NWs), Cu2Sb nanoparticles (NPs), or pure Sb nanoplates, were obtained. We also found that the growth of Cu11Sb3 NWs in such a catalyst-free CVD process was dependent on the substrate surface roughness. For example, smooth Cu foils could not lead to the growth of Cu11Sb3 nanowires while roughening these smooth Cu foils with rough sand papers could result in the growth of Cu11Sb3 nanowires. The effects of gas flow rate on the size and morphology of the Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures were also investigated. Such a flexible growth strategy could be of practical interest as the growth of some Sb based alloy nanostructures by CVD may not be easy due to the large difference between the condensation temperature of Sb and the other element, e.g. Cu or Co.

  6. Audit of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Supported Adults with Intellectual Disability Attending an Ageing Clinic

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallace, Robyn A.; Schluter, Philip

    2008-01-01

    Background: Little is known about the cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor profile for older adults with intellectual disability (ID). As many CVD risk factors are treatable by lifestyle changes, confirmation of the risk factor profile for older adults with ID could substantially impact upon preventive health practices for this group. Method:…

  7. Gene-centric association signals for haemostasis and thrombosis traits identified with the HumanCVD BeadChip.

    PubMed

    Gaunt, T R; Zabaneh, D; Shah, S; Guyatt, A; Ladroue, C; Kumari, M; Drenos, F; Shah, T; Talmud, P J; Casas, J P; Lowe, G; Rumley, A; Lawlor, D A; Kivimaki, M; Whittaker, J; Hingorani, A D; Humphries, S E; Day, I N

    2013-11-01

    Coagulation phenotypes show strong intercorrelations, affect cardiovascular disease risk and are influenced by genetic variants. The objective of this study was to search for novel genetic variants influencing the following coagulation phenotypes: factor VII levels, fibrinogen levels, plasma viscosity and platelet count. We genotyped the British Women's Heart and Health Study (n=3,445) and the Whitehall II study (n=5,059) using the Illumina HumanCVD BeadArray to investigate genetic associations and pleiotropy. In addition to previously reported associations (SH2B3, F7/F10, PROCR, GCKR, FGA/FGB/FGG, IL5), we identified novel associations at GRK5 (rs10128498, p=1.30x10(-6)), GCKR (rs1260326, p=1.63x10(-6)), ZNF259-APOA5 (rs651821, p=7.17x10(-6)) with plasma viscosity; and at CSF1 (rs333948, p=8.88x10(-6)) with platelet count. A pleiotropic effect was identified in GCKR which associated with factor VII (p=2.16x10(-7)) and plasma viscosity (p=1.63x10(-6)), and, to a lesser extent, ZNF259-APOA5 which also associated with factor VII and fibrinogen (p<1.00x10-²) and plasma viscosity (p<1.00x10(-5)). Triglyceride associated variants were overrepresented in factor VII and plasma viscosity associations. Adjusting for triglyceride levels resulted in attenuation of associations at the GCKR and ZNF259-APOA5 loci. In addition to confirming previously reported associations, we identified four single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with plasma viscosity and platelet count and found evidence of pleiotropic effects with SNPs in GCKR and ZNF259-APOA5. These triglyceride-associated, pleiotropic SNPs suggest a possible causal role for triglycerides in coagulation.

  8. Retinopathy and the risk of cardiovascular disease in patients with chronic kidney disease (from the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort study).

    PubMed

    Grunwald, Juan E; Pistilli, Maxwell; Ying, Gui-Shuang; Maguire, Maureen; Daniel, Ebenezer; Whittock-Martin, Revell; Parker-Ostroff, Candace; Mohler, Emile; Lo, Joan C; Townsend, Raymond R; Gadegbeku, Crystal Ann; Lash, James Phillip; Fink, Jeffrey Craig; Rahman, Mahboob; Feldman, Harold; Kusek, John W; Xie, Dawei

    2015-11-15

    Patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD) experience other diseases such as cardiovascular disease (CVD) and retinopathy. The purpose of this study was to assess whether retinopathy predicts future CVD events in a subgroup of the participants of the Chronic Renal Insufficiency Cohort (CRIC) study. In this ancillary investigation, 2,605 participants of the CRIC study were invited to participate, and nonmydriatic fundus photographs were obtained in 1,936 subjects. Using standard protocols, presence and severity of retinopathy (diabetic, hypertensive, or other) and vessel diameter caliber were assessed at a central photograph reading center by trained graders masked to study participant's information. Patients with a self-reported history of cardiovascular disease were excluded. Incident CVD events were adjudicated using medical records. Kidney function measurements, traditional and nontraditional risk factors, for CVD were obtained. Presence and severity of retinopathy were associated with increased risk of development of any CVD in this population of CKD patients, and these associations persisted after adjustment for traditional risk factors for CVD. We also found a direct relation between increased venular diameter and risk of development of CVD; however, the relation was not statistically significant after adjustment for traditional risk factors. In conclusion, the presence of retinopathy was associated with future CVD events, suggesting that retinovascular pathology may be indicative of macrovascular disease even after adjustment for renal dysfunction and traditional CVD risk factors. Assessment of retinal morphology may be valuable in assessing risk of CVD in patients with CKD, both clinically and in research settings.

  9. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p <0.01). In conclusion, CCTA has incremental prognostic value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD.

  10. Prognostic Value of Coronary Computed Tomography Imaging in Patients at High Risk Without Symptoms of Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Dedic, Admir; Ten Kate, Gert-Jan R; Roos, Cornelis J; Neefjes, Lisan A; de Graaf, Michiel A; Spronk, Angela; Delgado, Victoria; van Lennep, Jeanine E Roeters; Moelker, Adriaan; Ouhlous, Mohamed; Scholte, Arthur J H A; Boersma, Eric; Sijbrands, Eric J G; Nieman, Koen; Bax, Jeroen J; de Feijter, Pim J

    2016-03-01

    At present, traditional risk factors are used to guide cardiovascular management of asymptomatic subjects. Intensified surveillance may be warranted in those identified as high risk of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). This study aims to determine the prognostic value of coronary computed tomography (CT) angiography (CCTA) next to the coronary artery calcium score (CACS) in patients at high CVD risk without symptoms suspect for coronary artery disease (CAD). A total of 665 patients at high risk (mean age 56 ± 9 years, 417 men), having at least one important CVD risk factor (diabetes mellitus, familial hypercholesterolemia, peripheral artery disease, or severe hypertension) or a calculated European systematic coronary risk evaluation of >10% were included from outpatient clinics at 2 academic centers. Follow-up was performed for the occurrence of adverse events including all-cause mortality, nonfatal myocardial infarction, unstable angina, or coronary revascularization. During a median follow-up of 3.0 (interquartile range 1.3 to 4.1) years, adverse events occurred in 40 subjects (6.0%). By multivariate analysis, adjusted for age, gender, and CACS, obstructive CAD on CCTA (≥50% luminal stenosis) was a significant predictor of adverse events (hazard ratio 5.9 [CI 1.3 to 26.1]). Addition of CCTA to age, gender, plus CACS, increased the C statistic from 0.81 to 0.84 and resulted in a total net reclassification index of 0.19 (p <0.01). In conclusion, CCTA has incremental prognostic value and risk reclassification benefit beyond CACS in patients without CAD symptoms but with high risk of developing CVD. PMID:26754124

  11. Risk factor burden in middle age and lifetime risks for cardiovascular and non-cardiovascular death (Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry).

    PubMed

    Lloyd-Jones, Donald M; Dyer, Alan R; Wang, Renwei; Daviglus, Martha L; Greenland, Philip

    2007-02-15

    Few data exist regarding the association of risk factor burden in middle age with lifetime risks for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and non-CVD death. In this study, participants in the Chicago Heart Association Detection Project in Industry aged 40 to 59 years in 1967 to 1973 were stratified into 5 groups on the basis of risk factor burden: favorable risk factor profile (untreated blood pressure or=1 unfavorable; or any 1, any 2, or >or=3 elevated (systolic >or=140 mm Hg or diastolic >or=90 mm Hg or treated hypertension; total cholesterol >or=240 mg/dl; current smoking; or body mass index >or=30 kg/m2). Remaining lifetime risks for CVD and non-CVD death were estimated through the age of 85 years. Eight thousand thirty-three men and 6,493 women were followed for 409,987 person-years; 2,582 died of CVD, and 3,955 died of non-CVD causes. A greater risk factor burden was associated with a higher incidence of CVD and non-CVD death. Compared with participants with >or=3 risk factors, those with favorable profiles had substantially lower lifetime risks for CVD death (20.5% vs 35.2% in men, 6.7% vs 31.9% in women) and markedly longer median Kaplan-Meier survival (>35 vs 26 years in men, >35 vs 28 years in women). In conclusion, having favorable risk factors in middle age is associated with a lower lifetime risk for CVD death and markedly longer survival. These results should encourage efforts aimed at preventing the development of risk factors in younger subjects to decrease CVD mortality and promote longevity.

  12. 2{eta} or not 2{eta}? Insights into the Cu CVD process using a Cu(I) precursor

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, R.; Maverick, A.W.; Fronczek, F.R.; Kim, A.J.; Butler, L.G.

    1993-12-31

    One of the first successful Cu(I) CVD precursors is (hfac)Cu{sup I}(COD), and this species continues to served as a model system. In the CVD process, a significant step is dissociation of the COD ligand. The energetics of this process have been estimated previously. However, it now appears that, in the solid state, (hfac)Cu{sup I}(COD) undergoes an exchange process that allows additional insight into the potential energy surface governing the Cu-COD interaction. The solid-state structure of (hfac)Cu{sup I}(COD) has been difficult to establish, but a combination of variable temperature X-ray and solid-state {sup 13}C NMR studies leads to the following picture. Cu{sup I} is three-coordinate, bound to the hfac ligand and bound preferentially to one olefin of the COD ligand. There is a small energy barrier associated with motion of the Cu into position for {eta}{sup 2}-binding to the other olefin; the COD and hfac ligands remain approximately stationary. Thus, there are two sites for Cu, now labeled {eta}{sup 2} and {eta}{sup 2}. This new interpretation of the solid-state structure differs from that of our 300 K data set and a previous report. In addition, the exchange process is intimately connected with the Cu-COD dissociation step in the CVD process.

  13. Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factor Profiles of 263,356 Older Australians According to Region of Birth and Acculturation, with a Focus on Migrants Born in Asia

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shuyu; Lucas, Robyn M.; Joshy, Grace; Banks, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity, are common in Australia, but the prevalence varies according to cultural background. We examined the relationship between region of birth, measures of acculturation, and CVD risk profiles in immigrant, compared to Australian-born, older Australians. Cross-sectional data from 263,356 participants aged 45 and over joining the population-based 45 and Up Study cohort from 2006–2008 were used. Prevalence ratios for CVD risk factors in Australian- versus overseas-born participants were calculated using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic factors and focusing on Asian migrants. The association between time resident in Australia and age at migration and CVD risk factors in Asian migrants was also examined. Migrants from Northeast (n = 3,213) and Southeast Asia (n = 3,942) had lower levels of overweight/obesity, physical activity and female smoking than Australian-born participants (n = 199,356), although differences in prevalence of overweight/obesity were sensitive to body-mass-index cut-offs used. Compared to Australian-born participants, migrants from Northeast Asia were 20–30% less likely, and from Southeast Asia 10–20% more likely, to report being treated for hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia; Southeast Asian migrants were 40–60% more likely to report diabetes. Northeast Asian-born individuals were less likely than Australian-born to have 3 or more CVD risk factors. Diabetes, treated hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia occurred at relatively low average body-mass-index in Southeast Asian migrants. The CVD risk factor profiles of migrants tended to approximate those of Australian-born with increasing acculturation, in both favourable (e.g., increased physical activity) and unfavourable directions (e.g., increased female smoking). Minimizing CVD risk in migrant populations may be achieved through efforts to

  14. Cardiovascular disease risk factor profiles of 263,356 older Australians according to region of birth and acculturation, with a focus on migrants born in Asia.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shuyu; Lucas, Robyn M; Joshy, Grace; Banks, Emily

    2015-01-01

    Risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as obesity, diabetes, hypertension and physical inactivity, are common in Australia, but the prevalence varies according to cultural background. We examined the relationship between region of birth, measures of acculturation, and CVD risk profiles in immigrant, compared to Australian-born, older Australians. Cross-sectional data from 263,356 participants aged 45 and over joining the population-based 45 and Up Study cohort from 2006-2008 were used. Prevalence ratios for CVD risk factors in Australian- versus overseas-born participants were calculated using modified Poisson regression, adjusting for age, sex and socioeconomic factors and focusing on Asian migrants. The association between time resident in Australia and age at migration and CVD risk factors in Asian migrants was also examined. Migrants from Northeast (n = 3,213) and Southeast Asia (n = 3,942) had lower levels of overweight/obesity, physical activity and female smoking than Australian-born participants (n = 199,356), although differences in prevalence of overweight/obesity were sensitive to body-mass-index cut-offs used. Compared to Australian-born participants, migrants from Northeast Asia were 20-30% less likely, and from Southeast Asia 10-20% more likely, to report being treated for hypertension and/or hypercholesterolaemia; Southeast Asian migrants were 40-60% more likely to report diabetes. Northeast Asian-born individuals were less likely than Australian-born to have 3 or more CVD risk factors. Diabetes, treated hypertension and hypercholesterolaemia occurred at relatively low average body-mass-index in Southeast Asian migrants. The CVD risk factor profiles of migrants tended to approximate those of Australian-born with increasing acculturation, in both favourable (e.g., increased physical activity) and unfavourable directions (e.g., increased female smoking). Minimizing CVD risk in migrant populations may be achieved through efforts to retain

  15. CVD-based, photolithographically patterned, highly-sensitive graphene Hall element on hexagonal BN

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Joonggyu; Joo, Min-Kyu; Park, Ji-Hoon; Nguyen, Van Luan; Kim, Ki Kang; Lee, Young Hee; Suh, Dongseok

    Graphene is known to have a high carrier mobility, and the carrier density can be minimized at the charge neutrality point (CNP). Because such features are suitable for Hall sensor measuring magnetic field, we examined the possibility of graphene Hall element (GHE) as a highly sensitive magnetic sensor. For the high-throughput production of GHE in the future, the material synthesized by a chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD) method and the fabrication processes based on photolithography were adopted to show its mass-production feasibility. Specifically, the CVD synthesized hexagonal BN (hBN) was tested as a protection layer of graphene from extrinsic doping driven by SiO2 substrate, which causes the shift of CNP. In addition, post annealing sequences were also included between each step, such as the hBN attachment on SiO2 and the graphene transfer on hBN/SiO2 substrate followed by the PMMA removal. From this work, we can get minimum magnetic resolution around 10 mG/Hz0.5 at 300 Hz.

  16. Experimental characterization of the role of hydrogen in CVD synthesis of CNTs

    SciTech Connect

    Wasel, Wahed; Kuwana, Kazunori; Reilly, Pete; Saito, Kozo

    2006-01-01

    An experimental study was conducted to examine the role of hydrogen in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) synthesis of multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) in a flow tube reactor using xylene as a carbon source and ferrocene as a catalyst. Ferrocene was introduced into the reactor by two methods. In a single step method, the catalyst was dissolved in xylene and the mixture was introduced using a syringe pump. A two step method was also used where the ferrocene powder was placed in the preheated zone for a certain time to deposit iron catalyst particles on the reactor wall prior to introducing the pure xylene into the reactor. CVD synthesis of carbon products was performed as a function of hydrogen input under constant flow conditions using both methods. SEM and TEM images of the carbon products were examined. The results revealed a competition between the formations of the different carbon products (soot, carbon fibers and CNTs) that altered by the addition of hydrogen. The role of hydrogen is suggested to reduce the rate of carbon production by dehydrogenation so that the more ordered and thermodynamically stable MWCNTs can be produced rather than less ordered and thermodynamically stable soot and carbon fibers.

  17. Far Ultraviolet and Visible Light Scatter Measurements for CVD Silicon Carbide Mirrors for SOHO

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Leviton, Douglas B.; Gardner, Larry D.

    1998-01-01

    Chemically-vapor-deposited (CVD) silicon carbide (SiC) has become a popular mirror material for spaceborne solar instrumentation for the vacuum ultraviolet wavelength range due to its appreciable broadband reflectance and favorable thermal and opto-mechanical properties. Scatter from surfaces of mirrors operating in this wavelength range can destroy otherwise good image contrast especially for extended targets such as the sun. While visible light scatter measurements are relatively easy to conduct, far ultraviolet (FUV) scatter measurements are not so easy. Visible light (633 nm) scatter measurements were performed on CVD SiC telescope mirrors (from the same vendor) for two instruments on the Solar and Heliospheric Observatory (SOHO) -- Ultraviolet Coronagraph Spectrometer (UVCS) and Solar Ultraviolet Measurement of Emitted Radiation (SUMER). Additionally, extensive FUV scatter measurements were made for SUMER telescope mirrors. We attempt to correlate the results for those visible light scatter measurements and to explore the usefulness of visible scatter measurements to predictions of FUV scatter for this important material.

  18. Creep and Rupture Strength of an Advanced CVD SiC Fiber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldsby, J. C.; Yun, H. M.; DiCarlo, J. A.

    1997-01-01

    In the as-produced condition the room temperature strength (approx. 6 GPa) of Textron Specialty Materials' 50 microns CVD SiC fiber represents the highest value thus far obtained for commercially produced polycrystalline SiC fibers. To understand whether this strength can be maintained after composite processing conditions, high temperature studies were performed on the effects of time, stress, and environment on 1400 deg. C tensile creep strain and stress rupture on as-produced, chemically vapor deposited SiC fibers. Creep strain results were consistent, allowing an evaluation of time and stress effects. Test environment had no influence on creep strain but I hour annealing at 1600 deg. C in argon gas significantly reduced the total creep strain and increased the stress dependence. This is attributed to changes in the free carbon morphology and its distribution within the CVD SiC fiber. For the as-produced and annealed fibers, strength at 1400 deg. C was found to decrease from a fast fracture value of 2 GPa to a 100-hr rupture strength value of 0. 8 GPa. In addition a loss of fast fracture strength from 6 GPa is attributed to thermally induced changes in the outer carbon coating and microstructure. Scatter in rupture times made a definitive analysis of environmental and annealing effects on creep strength difficult.

  19. Interarm differences in systolic blood pressure and mortality among US army veterans: aetiological associations and risk prediction in the Vietnam experience study

    PubMed Central

    Mortensen, Laust H; Kivimäki, Mika; Gale, Catharine R; Batty, G David

    2014-01-01

    Background Differences between the arms in systolic blood pressure (SBP) of ≥10 mmHg have been associated with an increased risk of mortality in patients with hypertensive and chronic renal disease. For the first time, we examined these relationships in a non-clinical population. Design Cohort study. Methods Participants were 4419 men (mean age 38.37 years) from the Vietnam Experience Study. Bilateral SBP and diastolic BP (DBP), serum lipids, fasting glucose, erythrocyte sedimentation rate, metabolic syndrome, and ankle brachial index were assessed in 1986. Results Ten per cent of men had an interarm difference of ≥10 and 2.4% of ≥15 mmHg. A 15-year follow-up period gave rise to 246 deaths (64 from cardiovascular disease, CVD). Interarm differences of ≥10 mmHg were associated with an elevated risk of all-cause mortality (hazard ratio, HR, 1.49, 95% confidence interval, CI, 1.04–2.14) and CVD mortality (HR 1.93, 95% CI 1.01–3.69). After adjusting for SBP, DBP, lipids, fasting glucose, and erythrocyte sedimentation rate, associations between interarm differences of ≥10 mmHg and all-cause mortality (HR 1.35, 95% CI 0.94–1.95) and CVD mortality (1.62, 95% CI 0.84–3.14) were significantly attenuated. Conclusions In this non-clinical cohort study, interarm differences in SBP were not associated with mortality after accounting for traditional CVD risk factors. Interarm differences might not be valuable as an additional risk factor for mortality in populations with a low risk of CVD. PMID:23818287

  20. Comparison of the Combined Obesity Indices to Predict Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors and Metabolic Syndrome in Northeast China

    PubMed Central

    Tao, Yuchun; Yu, Jianxing; Tao, Yuhui; Pang, Hui; Yu, Yang; Yu, Yaqin; Jin, Lina

    2016-01-01

    Background: Obesity is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors (hypertension, dyslipidemia and diabetes) and metabolic syndrome (MetS), and it may be flawed that most studies only use one obesity index to predict these risk factors. Therefore, our study aims to compare the various combined obesity indices systematically, and to find the optimal combined obesity indices to predict CVD risk factors and MetS. Methods: A total of 16,766 participants aged 18–79 years old were recruited in Jilin Province in 2012. Receiver operating characteristic curve (ROC) curves and multiple logistic regressions were used to evaluate the predictive capacity of the combined obesity indices for CVD risk factors and MetS. Results: The adjusted area under receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) with two combined obesity indices had been improved up to 19.45%, compared with one single obesity index. In addition, body mass index (BMI) and waist circumference (WC) were the optimal combinations, where the AUROC (95% confidence interval (CI)) for hypertension, dyslipidemia, diabetes and MetS in males were 0.730 (0.718, 0.740), 0.694 (0.682, 0.706), 0.725 (0.709, 0.742) and 0.820 (0.810, 0.830), and in females were 0.790 (0.780, 0.799), 0.727 (0.717, 0.738), 0.746 (0.731, 0.761) and 0.828 (0.820, 0.837), respectively. Conclusions: The more abnormal obesity indices that one has the higher the risk for CVD risk factors and MetS, especially in males. In addition, the combined obesity indices have better predictions than one obesity index, where BMI and WC are the optimal combinations. PMID:27517940

  1. Changes in physical activity and modelled cardiovascular risk following diagnosis of diabetes: 1-year results from the ADDITION-Cambridge trial cohort

    PubMed Central

    Barakat, A; Williams, K M; Prevost, A T; Kinmonth, A-L; Wareham, N J; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2013-01-01

    Aims To describe change in physical activity over 1 year and associations with change in cardiovascular disease risk factors in a population with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes. Methods Eight hundred and sixty-seven individuals with screen-detected diabetes underwent measurement of self-reported physical activity, cardiovascular disease risk factors and modelled cardiovascular disease risk at baseline and 1 year (n = 736) in the ADDITION-Cambridge trial. Multiple linear regression was used to quantify the association between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors at 1 year. Results There was no change in self-reported physical activity over 12 months. Even relatively large changes in physical activity were associated with relatively small changes in cardiovascular disease risk factors after allowing for changes in self-reported medication and diet. For every 30 metabolic equivalent-h increase in recreational activity (equivalent to 10 h/brisk walking/week), there was an average reduction of 0.1% in HbA1c in men (95% CI −0.15 to −0.01, P = 0.021) and an average reduction of 2 mmHg in systolic blood pressure in women (95% CI −4.0 to −0.05, P = 0.045). Conclusions Few associations were observed between change in different physical activity domains and cardiovascular disease risk factors in this trial cohort. Cardiovascular disease risk reduction appeared to be driven largely by factors other than changes in self-reported physical activity in the first year following diagnosis. PMID:22913463

  2. PGD for cystic fibrosis patients and couples at risk of an additional genetic disorder combined with 24-chromosome aneuploidy testing.

    PubMed

    Rechitsky, Svetlana; Verlinsky, Oleg; Kuliev, Anver

    2013-05-01

    Preimplantation genetic diagnosis (PGD) for inherited disorders is presently applied for more than 300 different conditions. The most frequent PGD indication is cystic fibrosis (CF), the largest series of which is reviewed here, totalling 404 PGD cycles. This involved testing for 52 different CFTR mutations with almost half of the cases (195/404 cycles) performed for ΔF508 mutation, one-quarter (103/404 cycles) for six other frequent mutations and only a few for the remaining 45 CFTR mutations. There were 44 PGD cycles performed for 25 CF-affected homozygous or double-heterozygous CF patients (18 male and seven female partners), which involved testing simultaneously for three mutations, resulting in birth of 13 healthy CF-free children and no misdiagnosis. PGD was also performed for six couples at a combined risk of producing offspring with CF and another genetic disorder. Concomitant testing for CFTR and other mutations resulted in birth of six healthy children, free of both CF and another genetic disorder in all but one cycle. A total of 96 PGD cycles for CF were performed with simultaneous aneuploidy testing, including microarray-based 24-chromosome analysis, as a comprehensive PGD for two or more conditions in the same biopsy material.

  3. Cardiovascular Risk Profile at the Onset of Psoriatic Arthritis: a Population-based, Cohort Study

    PubMed Central

    Ernste, F.C.; Sánchez-Menéndez, M.; Wilton, K. M.; Crowson, C.S.; Matteson, E.L.; Kremers, H. Maradit

    2015-01-01

    Objective The role of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in psoriatic arthritis (PsA) is poorly understood. We examined the prevalence of CVD risk factors at initial onset of PsA and compared the observed incidence of CVD events with that predicted by the Framingham risk score (FRS) to determine its applicability in this patient population. Methods A population-based incidence cohort of 158 patients with PsA who fulfilled ClASsification of Psoriatic ARthritis (CASPAR) criteria for PsA in 1989–2008 was assembled. Medical records were reviewed to ascertain CVD risk factors and CVD events. Future risk of CVD disease was estimated using the FRS algorithm. Results Mean age was 43.4 years (range: 19–74 years), 61% were men and 44% were obese (body mass index ≥30kg/m2). Fifty-four (34%) patients presented with ≥2 CVD risk factors at PsA incidence. Among 126 patients aged ≥ 30 years at PsA incidence with no prior history of CVD, 33% had FRS ≥10% with 11% having FRS ≥ 20% and 18 experienced a CVD event in the first 10 years of disease duration. The 10 year cumulative incidence of CVD events was 17% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 10–24%), almost twice as high as the predicted incidence based on the FRS (Standardized incidence ratio: 1.80; 95% CI: 1.14–2.86; p=0.012). Conclusion The majority of newly diagnosed PsA patients have a >10% risk of CVD disease within 10 years of PsA incidence. The CVD risk in these patients is higher than expected and underestimated by the FRS. PMID:25581120

  4. Additional cytosine inside mitochondrial C-tract D-loop as a progression risk factor in oral precancer cases

    PubMed Central

    Pandey, Rahul; Mehrotra, Divya; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Sarin, Rajiv; Kowtal, Pradnya

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Alterations inside Polycytosine tract (C-tract) of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been described in many different tumor types. The Poly-Cytosine region is located within the mtDNA D-loop region which acts as point of mitochondrial replication origin. A suggested pathogenesis is that it interferes with the replication process of mtDNA which in turn affects the mitochondrial functioning and generates disease. Methodology 100 premalignant cases (50 leukoplakia & 50 oral submucous fibrosis) were selected and the mitochondrial DNA were isolated from the lesion tissues and from the blood samples. Polycytosine tract in mtDNA was sequenced by direct capillary sequencing. Results 40 (25 leukoplakia & 15 oral submucous fibrosis) patients harbored lesions that displayed one additional cytosine after nucleotide thymidine (7CT6C) at nt position 316 in C-tract of mtDNA which were absent in corresponding mtDNA derived from blood samples. Conclusion Our results show an additional cytosine in the mtDNA at polycytosine site in oral precancer cases. It is postulated that any increase/decrease in the number of cytosine residues in the Poly-Cytosine region may affect the rate of mtDNA replication by impairing the binding of polymerase and other transacting factors. By promoting mitochondrial genomic instability, it may have a central role in the dysregulation of mtDNA functioning, for example alterations in energy metabolism that may promote tumor development. We, therefore, report and propose that this alteration may represent the early development of oral cancer. Further studies with large number of samples are needed in to confirm the role of such mutation in carcinogenesis. PMID:25737911

  5. Challenges and Opportunities in the Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Lifestyle and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima-media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described.

  6. Challenges and Opportunities in the Management of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in Youth With Type 1 Diabetes: Lifestyle and Beyond.

    PubMed

    Katz, Michelle; Giani, Elisa; Laffel, Lori

    2015-12-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of morbidity and mortality in persons with type 1 diabetes (T1D). Specific risk factors associated with diabetes, such as hyperglycemia and kidney disease, have been demonstrated to increase the incidence and progression of CVD. Nevertheless, few data exist on the effects of traditional risk factors such as dyslipidemia, obesity, and hypertension on CVD risk in youth with T1D. Improvements in understanding and approaches to the evaluation and management of CVD risk factors, specifically for young persons with T1D, are desirable. Recent advances in noninvasive techniques to detect early vascular damage, such as the evaluation of endothelial dysfunction and aortic or carotid intima-media thickness, provide new tools to evaluate the progression of CVD in childhood. In the present review, current CVD risk factor management, challenges, and potential therapeutic interventions in youth with T1D are described. PMID:26520142

  7. Controlled CVD growth of Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jing; Yin, Zongyou; Sim, Daohao; Tay, Yee Yan; Zhang, Hua; Ma, Jan; Hng, Huey Hoon; Yan, Qingyu

    2011-08-12

    Sb based alloy nanostructures have attracted much attention due to their many promising applications, e.g. as battery electrodes, thermoelectric materials and magnetic semiconductors. In many cases, these applications require controlled growth of Sb based alloys with desired sizes and shapes to achieve enhanced performance. Here, we report a flexible catalyst-free chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process to prepare Cu-Sb nanostructures with tunable shapes (e.g. nanowires and nanoparticles) by transporting Sb vapor to react with copper foils, which also serve as the substrate. By simply controlling the substrate temperature and distance, various Sb-Cu alloy nanostructures, e.g. Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires (NWs), Cu(2)Sb nanoparticles (NPs), or pure Sb nanoplates, were obtained. We also found that the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) NWs in such a catalyst-free CVD process was dependent on the substrate surface roughness. For example, smooth Cu foils could not lead to the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires while roughening these smooth Cu foils with rough sand papers could result in the growth of Cu(11)Sb(3) nanowires. The effects of gas flow rate on the size and morphology of the Cu-Sb alloy nanostructures were also investigated. Such a flexible growth strategy could be of practical interest as the growth of some Sb based alloy nanostructures by CVD may not be easy due to the large difference between the condensation temperature of Sb and the other element, e.g. Cu or Co. PMID:21757793

  8. The Treatment of cardiovascular Risk in Primary care using Electronic Decision suppOrt (TORPEDO) study: intervention development and protocol for a cluster randomised, controlled trial of an electronic decision support and quality improvement intervention in Australian primary healthcare

    PubMed Central

    Peiris, David; Usherwood, Tim; Panaretto, Katie; Harris, Mark; Hunt, Jenny; Patel, Bindu; Zwar, Nicholas; Redfern, Julie; MacMahon, Stephen; Colagiuri, Stephen; Hayman, Noel; Patel, Anushka

    2012-01-01

    Background Large gaps exist in the implementation of guideline recommendations for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk management. Electronic decision support (EDS) systems are promising interventions to close these gaps but few have undergone clinical trial evaluation in Australia. We have developed HealthTracker, a multifaceted EDS and quality improvement intervention to improve the management of CVD risk. Methods/design It is hypothesised that the use of HealthTracker over a 12-month period will result in: (1) an increased proportion of patients receiving guideline-indicated measurements of CVD risk factors and (2) an increased proportion of patients at high risk will receive guideline-indicated prescriptions for lowering their CVD risk. Sixty health services (40 general practices and 20 Aboriginal Community Controlled Health Services (ACCHSs) will be randomised in a 1:1 allocation to receive either the intervention package or continue with usual care, stratified by service type, size and participation in existing quality improvement initiatives. The intervention consists of point-of-care decision support; a risk communication interface; a clinical audit tool to assess performance on CVD-related indicators; a quality improvement component comprising peer-ranked data feedback and support to develop strategies to improve performance. The control arm will continue with usual care without access to these intervention components. Quantitative data will be derived from cross-sectional samples at baseline and end of study via automated data extraction. Detailed process and economic evaluations will also be conducted. Ethics and dissemination The general practice component of the study is approved by the University of Sydney Human Research Ethics Committee (HREC) and the ACCHS component is approved by the Aboriginal Health and Medical Research Council HREC. Formal agreements with each of the participating sites have been signed. In addition to the usual scientific forums

  9. Relationship Between Forced Vital Capacity and Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score Beyond the Presence of Metabolic Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lim, Seong Yong

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Impaired lung function is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. However, it has not been well established whether FVC reduction even within normal range is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether reduced FVC is an independent relationship of CVD irrespective of metabolic syndrome. Thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between FVC and CV-event risk using the FRS beyond the presence of metabolic syndrome or abdominal obesity in a representative Korean population based on data from the nationwide Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV). The study population included 9688 subjects ≥ 30 years of age with no previous diagnosis of CVD and obstructive lung disease. Using a logistic regression model and area under the curve (AUC) analysis, we evaluated the relationship between FVC quintiles and CV-event risk using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS; ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). In addition, we examined the effect of FVC on CV-event risk based on the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abdominal obesity. After adjusting for covariates, comparison of subjects in the lowest FVC (% pred) quintile (Q1) with those in the highest quintile (Q5) yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.91–2.71) for intermediate and high risk, and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31–3.61) for high risk. The ORs for cardiovascular risk using FRS also increased irrespective of the presence of abdominal obesity and MetS without significant interaction. Furthermore, the addition of FVC status to MetS status and abdominal obesity status significantly increased the AUC of the model predicting CV-event risk (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001). Our study demonstrates that FVC is inversely associated with 10-year CV-event risk, irrespective of MetS and abdominal obesity in the general population without obstructive lung disease. Furthermore, the addition of FVC to MetS or abdominal obesity increased prediction of CVD event risks, implying a potential

  10. Strain Relaxation in CVD Graphene: Wrinkling with Shear Lag.

    PubMed

    Bronsgeest, Merijntje S; Bendiab, Nedjma; Mathur, Shashank; Kimouche, Amina; Johnson, Harley T; Coraux, Johann; Pochet, Pascal

    2015-08-12

    We measure uniaxial strain fields in the vicinity of edges and wrinkles in graphene prepared by chemical vapor deposition (CVD), by combining microscopy techniques and local vibrational characterization. These strain fields have magnitudes of several tenths of a percent and extend across micrometer distances. The nonlinear shear-lag model remarkably captures these strain fields in terms of the graphene-substrate interaction and provides a complete understanding of strain-relieving wrinkles in graphene for any level of graphene-substrate coherency. PMID:26171667

  11. Ultratough CVD single crystal diamond and three dimensional growth thereof

    DOEpatents

    Hemley, Russell J.; Mao, Ho-kwang; Yan, Chih-shiue

    2009-09-29

    The invention relates to a single-crystal diamond grown by microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition that has a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention also relates to a method of producing a single-crystal diamond with a toughness of at least about 30 MPa m.sup.1/2. The invention further relates to a process for producing a single crystal CVD diamond in three dimensions on a single crystal diamond substrate.

  12. Development of CVD Mullite Coatings for SiC Fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Sarin, V.K.; Varadarajan, S.

    2000-03-15

    A process for depositing CVD mullite coatings on SiC fibers for enhanced oxidation and corrosion, and/or act as an interfacial protective barrier has been developed. Process optimization via systematic investigation of system parameters yielded uniform crystalline mullite coatings on SiC fibers. Structural characterization has allowed for tailoring of coating structure and therefore properties. High temperature oxidation/corrosion testing of the optimized coatings has shown that the coatings remain adherent and protective for extended periods. However, preliminary tests of coated fibers showed considerable degradation in tensile strength.

  13. Paralinear Oxidation of CVD SiC in Water Vapor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Hann, Raiford E., Jr.

    1997-01-01

    The oxidation kinetics of CVD SiC were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in a 50% H2O/50% O2 gas mixture flowing at 4.4 cm/s for temperatures between 1200 and 1400 C. Paralinear weight change kinetics were observed as the water vapor oxidized the SiC and simultaneously volatilized the silica scale. The long-term degradation rate of SiC is determined by the volatility of the silica scale. Rapid SiC surface recession rates were estimated from these data for actual aircraft engine combustor conditions.

  14. Selective, pulsed CVD of platinum on microfilament gas sensors

    SciTech Connect

    Manginell, R.P.; Smith, J.H.; Ricco, A.J.; Moreno, D.J.; Hughes, R.C.; Huber, R.J.; Senturia, S.D.

    1996-05-01

    A post-processing, selective micro-chemical vapor deposition (``micro-CVD``) technology for the deposition of catalytic films on surface-micromachined, nitride-passivated polysilicon filaments has been investigated. Atmospheric pressure deposition of Pt on microfilaments was accomplished by thermal decomposition of Pt acetylacetonate; deposition occurs selectively only on those filaments which are electrically heated. Catalyst morphology, characterized by SEM, can be controlled by altering deposition time, filament temperature, and through the use of pulsed heating of the filament during deposition. Morphology plays an important role in determining the sensitivity of these devices when used as combustible gas sensors.

  15. Spray CVD for Making Solar-Cell Absorber Layers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Banger, Kulbinder K.; Harris, Jerry; Jin, Michael H.; Hepp, Aloysius

    2007-01-01

    Spray chemical vapor deposition (spray CVD) processes of a special type have been investigated for use in making CuInS2 absorber layers of thin-film solar photovoltaic cells from either of two subclasses of precursor compounds: [(PBu3) 2Cu(SEt)2In(SEt)2] or [(PPh3)2Cu(SEt)2 In(SEt)2]. The CuInS2 films produced in the experiments have been characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, and four-point-probe electrical tests.

  16. The Oxidation of CVD Silicon Carbide in Carbon Dioxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Nguyen, QuynchGiao N.

    1997-01-01

    Chemically-vapor-deposited silicon carbide (CVD SiC) was oxidized in carbon dioxide (CO2) at temperatures of 1200-1400 C for times between 100 and 500 hours at several gas flow rates. Oxidation weight gains were monitored by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and were found to be very small and independent of temperature. Possible rate limiting kinetic laws are discussed. Oxidation of SiC by CO2 is negligible compared to the rates measured for other oxidants typically found in combustion environments: oxygen and water vapor.

  17. Transient current electric field profiling of single crystal CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isberg, J.; Gabrysch, M.; Tajani, A.; Twitchen, D. J.

    2006-08-01

    The transient current technique (TCT) has been adapted for profiling of the electric field distribution in intrinsic single crystal CVD diamond. It was found that successive hole transits do not appreciably affect the electric field distribution within the sample. Transits of holes can therefore be used to probe the electric field distribution and also the distribution of trapped charge. Electron transits, on the other hand, cause an accumulation of negative charge in the sample. Illumination with blue or green light was shown to lead to accumulation of positive charge. Low concentrations of trapped charge can be detected in diamond using TCT, corresponding to an ionized impurity concentration below N = 1010 cm-3.

  18. Direct growth of single- and few-layer MoS2 on h-BN by CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Aiming; Velasco, Jairo, Jr.; Kahn, Salman; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Wang, Feng; Crommie, Michael; Zettl, Alex

    As a promising candidate for the next-generation electronics, large-scale single- and few-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by CVD method is an important advancement towards technological implementation of this material. However, the choice of substrate can significantly affect the performance of MoS2 based devices. An attractive insulating substrate or mate for MoS2 (and related materials such as graphene) is hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN). Stacked heterostructures of MoS2 and h-BN have been produced by manual transfer methods, but a more efficient and scalable assembly method is needed. Here we demonstrate the direct growth of single- and few-layer MoS2 on h-BN by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method. The growth mechanisms for single- and few-layer samples are found to be distinct, and for single-layer samples low relative rotation angles (<5°) between the MoS2 and h-BN lattices prevail. In addition, MoS2 directly grown on h-BN maintains its intrinsic 1.89 eV bandgap. Our CVD synthesis method presents a viable path towards high-quality MoS2 based field effect transistors in a controllable and scalable fashion. Acknowledgement: the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC02-05CH11231; NSF Grant DMR-1206512.

  19. Aerosol-assisted delivery of precursors for chemical vapour deposition: expanding the scope of CVD for materials fabrication.

    PubMed

    Marchand, Peter; Hassan, Iman A; Parkin, Ivan P; Carmalt, Claire J

    2013-07-14

    The production of thin films of materials has become the attention of a great deal of research throughout academia and industry worldwide owing to the array of applications which utilise them, including electronic devices, gas sensors, solar cells, window coatings and catalytic systems. Whilst a number of deposition techniques are in common use, chemical vapour deposition (CVD) is an attractive process for the production of a wide range of materials due to the control it offers over film composition, coverage and uniformity, even on large scales. Conventional CVD processes can be limited, however, by the need for suitably volatile precursors. Aerosol-assisted (AA)CVD is a solution-based process which relies on the solubility of the precursor, rather than its volatility and thus vastly extends the range of potentially applicable precursors. In addition, AACVD offers extra means to control film morphology and concurrently the properties of the deposited materials. In this perspective we discuss the AACVD process, the influence of deposition conditions on film characteristics and a number of materials and applications to which AACVD has been found beneficial. PMID:23629474

  20. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  1. Prediction of cardiovascular disease risk among low-income urban dwellers in metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Bulgiba, Awang; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers.

  2. Prediction of Cardiovascular Disease Risk among Low-Income Urban Dwellers in Metropolitan Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Su, Tin Tin; Amiri, Mohammadreza; Mohd Hairi, Farizah; Thangiah, Nithiah; Majid, Hazreen Abdul

    2015-01-01

    We aimed to predict the ten-year cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among low-income urban dwellers of metropolitan Malaysia. Participants were selected from a cross-sectional survey conducted in Kuala Lumpur. To assess the 10-year CVD risk, we employed the Framingham risk scoring (FRS) models. Significant determinants of the ten-year CVD risk were identified using General Linear Model (GLM). Altogether 882 adults (≥30 years old with no CVD history) were randomly selected. The classic FRS model (figures in parentheses are from the modified model) revealed that 20.5% (21.8%) and 38.46% (38.9%) of respondents were at high and moderate risk of CVD. The GLM models identified the importance of education, occupation, and marital status in predicting the future CVD risk. Our study indicated that one out of five low-income urban dwellers has high chance of having CVD within ten years. Health care expenditure, other illness related costs and loss of productivity due to CVD would worsen the current situation of low-income urban population. As such, the public health professionals and policy makers should establish substantial effort to formulate the public health policy and community-based intervention to minimize the upcoming possible high mortality and morbidity due to CVD among the low-income urban dwellers. PMID:25821810

  3. Polymorphisms associated with the risk of lung cancer in a healthy Mexican Mestizo population: Application of the additive model for cancer

    PubMed Central

    Pérez-Morales, Rebeca; Méndez-Ramírez, Ignacio; Castro-Hernández, Clementina; Martínez-Ramírez, Ollin C.; Gonsebatt, María Eugenia; Rubio, Julieta

    2011-01-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer mortality in Mexico and worldwide. In the past decade, there has been an increase in the number of lung cancer cases in young people, which suggests an important role for genetic background in the etiology of this disease. In this study, we genetically characterized 16 polymorphisms in 12 low penetrance genes (AhR, CYP1A1, CYP2E1, EPHX1, GSTM1, GSTT1, GSTPI, XRCC1, ERCC2, MGMT, CCND1 and TP53) in 382 healthy Mexican Mestizos as the first step in elucidating the genetic structure of this population and identifying high risk individuals. All of the genotypes analyzed were in Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium, but different degrees of linkage were observed for polymorphisms in the CYP1A1 and EPHX1 genes. The genetic variability of this population was distributed in six clusters that were defined based on their genetic characteristics. The use of a polygenic model to assess the additive effect of low penetrance risk alleles identified combinations of risk genotypes that could be useful in predicting a predisposition to lung cancer. Estimation of the level of genetic susceptibility showed that the individual calculated risk value (iCRV) ranged from 1 to 16, with a higher iCRV indicating a greater genetic susceptibility to lung cancer. PMID:22215955

  4. Improving nutrient management practices in agriculture: The role of risk-based beliefs in understanding farmers' attitudes toward taking additional action

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, Robyn S.; Howard, Gregory; Burnett, Elizabeth A.

    2014-08-01

    A recent increase in the amount of dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP) entering the western Lake Erie basin is likely due to increased spring storm events in combination with issues related to fertilizer application and timing. These factors in combination with warmer lake temperatures have amplified the spread of toxic algal blooms. We assessed the attitudes of farmers in northwest Ohio toward taking at least one additional action to reduce nutrient loss on their farm. Specifically, we (1) identified to what extent farm and farmer characteristics (e.g., age, gross farm sales) as well as risk-based beliefs (e.g., efficacy, risk perception) influenced attitudes, and (2) assessed how these characteristics and beliefs differ in their predictive ability based on unobservable latent classes of farmers. Risk perception, or a belief that negative impacts to profit and water quality from nutrient loss were likely, was the most consistent predictor of farmer attitudes. Response efficacy, or a belief that taking action on one's farm made a difference, was found to significantly influence attitudes, although this belief was particularly salient for the minority class of farmers who were older and more motivated by profit. Communication efforts should focus on the negative impacts of nutrient loss to both the farm (i.e., profit) and the natural environment (i.e., water quality) to raise individual perceived risk among the majority, while the minority need higher perceived efficacy or more specific information about the economic effectiveness of particular recommended practices.

  5. Consequences of Obstructive Sleep Apnea: Cardiovascular Risk of Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Whether Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Reduces that Risk.

    PubMed

    Khayat, Rami; Pleister, Adam

    2016-09-01

    Obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) is present in up to 25% of otherwise healthy individuals. OSA is associated with intermittent hypoxia, oxidative stress, sympathetic activation, and an inflammatory response. These perturbations mediate the role of OSA as an independent and modifiable risk factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD). OSA can induce CVD or accelerate the progression of CVD into an end-stage disorder, including heart failure and stroke. Current clinical recommendations are based on existing clinical trial data and the clinical experience of our program; current and future clinical trials will help to optimize management of OSA in the setting of CVD. PMID:27542874

  6. Predictive Value of Class III D Cytological Diagnosis (Munich II, Low and Moderate Dysplasia) and Additional High-risk HPV Testing.

    PubMed

    Ziemke, P

    2012-07-01

    The validity of cytological diagnostic procedures for the detection of pre- and early cervical cancer stages is limited due to biological conditions, the uncertainty of cell sampling, and the subjective nature of microscopic assessment. Particularly in class III D cases (Munich II) this can lead to a stigmatization of patients and uncertainty with regard to further clinical follow-up and therapy. Prior to carrying out additional investigations such as high-risk HPV testing or the examination of biomarkers, the positive predictive values of patients with a class III D cytological diagnosis need to be assessed in routine practice. To this end, all relevant data from patients from our practice classed as class III D (pap smears) between 2002 and 2008 (n = 1190; 38.2 % histological diagnosis = therapeutic endpoint) and their current HPV status were recorded. Cytology, histology, persistence, age and follow-up were recorded. The database was used for comparative statistical analysis. Overall, the positive predictive value of conventional pap smear for CIN 2+ was calculated to be 32.3 % (mean follow-up: 39.7 months). The following values were calculated for high-risk HPV testing: sensitivity 94.8 %, specificity 39 %, positive predictive value 42.8 %, negative predictive value 94 %. The additional information obtained from high-risk HPV testing resulted in a significantly better positive predictive value only in patients older than 40 years. However, there was no evidence for an individual risk stratification approach which would reduce uncertainty in the management of III D patients.

  7. Oxide Dispersion Strengthened Iron Aluminide by CVD Coated Powders

    SciTech Connect

    Asit Biswas Andrew J. Sherman

    2006-09-25

    This I &I Category2 program developed chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron, aluminum and aluminum oxide coated iron powders and the availability of high temperature oxidation, corrosion and erosion resistant coating for future power generation equipment and can be used for retrofitting existing fossil-fired power plant equipment. This coating will provide enhanced life and performance of Coal-Fired Boilers components such as fire side corrosion on the outer diameter (OD) of the water wall and superheater tubing as well as on the inner diameter (ID) and OD of larger diameter headers. The program also developed a manufacturing route for readily available thermal spray powders for iron aluminide coating and fabrication of net shape component by powder metallurgy route using this CVD coated powders. This coating can also be applid on jet engine compressor blade and housing, industrial heat treating furnace fixtures, magnetic electronic parts, heating element, piping and tubing for fossil energy application and automotive application, chemical processing equipment , heat exchanger, and structural member of aircraft. The program also resulted in developing a new fabrication route of thermal spray coating and oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) iron aluminide composites enabling more precise control over material microstructures.

  8. VOx effectively doping CVD-graphene for transparent conductive films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Qinghua; Shi, Liangjing; Zhang, Qinghong; Wang, Weiqi; Zheng, Huifeng; Zhang, Yuzhi; Liu, Yangqiao; Sun, Jing

    2016-11-01

    Chemical vapor deposition(CVD)-synthesized graphene is potentially an alternative for tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) transparent conductive films (TCFs), however its sheet resistance is still too high to meet many demands. Vanadium oxide has been widely applied as smart window materials, however, no study has been reported to use it as dopant to improve the conductivity of graphene TCFs. In this study, we firstly reported that VOx doping can effectively lower the sheet resistance of CVD-graphene films while keeping its good optical properties, whose transmittance is as high as 86-90%. The optimized VOx-doped graphene exhibits a sheet resistance as low as 176 Ω/□, which decreases by 56% compared to the undoped graphene films. The doping process is convenient, stable, economical and easy to operate. What is more, VOx can effectively increase the work function(WF) of the film, making it more appropriate for use in solar cells. The evolution of the VOx species annealed at different temperatures below 400 °C has been detailed studied for the first time, based on which the doping mechanism is proposed. The prepared VOx doped graphene is expected to be a promising candidate for transparent conductive film purposes.

  9. Dopant Incorporation Efficiency in CVD Silicon Carbide Epilayers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Larkin, D. J.

    1996-01-01

    In order to ensure reproducible and reliable SiC semiconductor device characteristics, controlled dopant incorporation must be accomplished. Some of the many factors which greatly influence dopant incorporation are the site-competition effect, SiC(0001) substrate polarity, substrate temperature, and the dopant-source reactor concentration. In this paper, dopant incorporation is considered and compared for various dopants in the context of dopant incorporation efficiency. By using secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS), the relative dopant incorporation efficiencies were calculated by dividing the SIMS determined dopant concentration in the resulting epitaxial layer by the intentional gas phase dopant concentration used during the SiC CVD. Specifically, the relative magnitudes of dopant incorporation efficiencies for nitrogen, phosphorus, and boron in 6H-SiC (0001) Si-face epitaxial layers are compared as a function of the site-competition effect and the dopant-source reactor concentrations. This serves as a first approximation for comparison of the relative 'doping potencies' of some common dopants used in SiC CVD epitaxial growth.

  10. Thermoluminescence in CVD diamond films: application to actinometric dosimetry.

    PubMed

    Barboza-Flores, M; Meléndrez, R; Chernov, V; Castañeda, B; Pedroza-Montero, M; Gan, B; Ahn, J; Zhang, Q; Yoon, S F

    2002-01-01

    Diamond is considered a tissue-equivalent material since its atomic number (Z =6) is close to the effective atomic number of biological tissue (Z =7.42). Such a situation makes it suitable for radiation detection purposes in medical applications. In the present work the analysis is reported of the thermoluminescence (TL) and dosimetric features of chemically vapour deposited (CVD) diamond film samples subjected to ultraviolet (UV) irradiation in the actinometric region. The TL glow curve shows peaks at 120, 220), 320 and 370 degrees C. The 120 and 370 degrees C peaks are too weak and the first one fades away in a few seconds after exposure. The overall room temperature fading shows a 50% TL decay 30 min after exposure. The 320 degrees C glow peak is considered to be the most adequate for dosimetric applications due to its low fading and linear TL behaviour as a function of UV dose in the 180-260 nm range. The TL excitation spectrum presents a broad band with at least two overlapped components around 205 and 220 nm. The results indicate that the TL behaviour of CVD diamond film can be a good alternative to the currently available dosemeter and detector in the actinometric region as well as in clinical and medical applications. PMID:12382917

  11. CVD Rhenium Engines for Solar-Thermal Propulsion Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Brian E.; Fortini, Arthur J.; Tuffias, Robert H.; Duffy, Andrew J.; Tucker, Stephen P.

    1999-01-01

    Solar-thermal upper-stage propulsion systems have the potential to provide specific impulse approaching 900 seconds, with 760 seconds already demonstrated in ground testing. Such performance levels offer a 100% increase in payload capability compared to state-of-the-art chemical upper-stage systems, at lower cost. Although alternatives such as electric propulsion offer even greater performance, the 6- to 18- month orbital transfer time is a far greater deviation from the state of the art than the one to two months required for solar propulsion. Rhenium metal is the only material that is capable of withstanding the predicted thermal, mechanical, and chemical environment of a solar-thermal propulsion device. Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is the most well-established and cost-effective process for the fabrication of complex rhenium structures. CVD rhenium engines have been successfully constructed for the Air Force ISUS program (bimodal thrust/electricity) and the NASA Shooting Star program (thrust only), as well as under an Air Force SBIR project (thrust only). The bimodal engine represents a more long-term and versatile approach to solar-thermal propulsion, while the thrust-only engines provide a potentially lower weight/lower cost and more near-term replacement for current upper-stage propulsion systems.

  12. Graphene growth on Ge(100)/Si(100) substrates by CVD method

    PubMed Central

    Pasternak, Iwona; Wesolowski, Marek; Jozwik, Iwona; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Lupina, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Pawel; Baranowski, Jacek M.; Strupinski, Wlodek

    2016-01-01

    The successful integration of graphene into microelectronic devices is strongly dependent on the availability of direct deposition processes, which can provide uniform, large area and high quality graphene on nonmetallic substrates. As of today the dominant technology is based on Si and obtaining graphene with Si is treated as the most advantageous solution. However, the formation of carbide during the growth process makes manufacturing graphene on Si wafers extremely challenging. To overcome these difficulties and reach the set goals, we proposed growth of high quality graphene layers by the CVD method on Ge(100)/Si(100) wafers. In addition, a stochastic model was applied in order to describe the graphene growth process on the Ge(100)/Si(100) substrate and to determine the direction of further processes. As a result, high quality graphene was grown, which was proved by Raman spectroscopy results, showing uniform monolayer films with FWHM of the 2D band of 32 cm−1. PMID:26899732

  13. Carbon-coated hexagonal magnetite nanoflakes production by spray CVD of alcohols in mixture with water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes-Reyes, Marisol; Hernández-Arriaga, Daniel; López-Sandoval, Román

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we report a successful technique for synthesizing magnetite hexagonal nanoflakes coated with carbon layers using spray thermal decomposition, which is a reproducible method that is easy to scale up. We investigated the effects of mixing different volumes of deionized (DI) water with alcohol on the population and quality of single-crystalline Fe3O4 hexagonal nanoflakes. Methanol and ethanol were used as the carbon and oxygen source, while ferrocene was mainly used as the Fe source. To obtain a large quantity of hexagonal structures, a strongly oxidative atmosphere was required. The DI water was used to enhance the oxidative environment during the reaction and was an important component for obtaining well-shaped hexagonal magnetite crystalline nanoflakes. The use of alcohols, water and the spray chemical vapor deposition (CVD) method make this procedure easy to use. In addition, this method provides a one-step process for synthesizing carbon-coated hexagonal Fe3O4 nanocrystals.

  14. Graphene growth on Ge(100)/Si(100) substrates by CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pasternak, Iwona; Wesolowski, Marek; Jozwik, Iwona; Lukosius, Mindaugas; Lupina, Grzegorz; Dabrowski, Pawel; Baranowski, Jacek M.; Strupinski, Wlodek

    2016-02-01

    The successful integration of graphene into microelectronic devices is strongly dependent on the availability of direct deposition processes, which can provide uniform, large area and high quality graphene on nonmetallic substrates. As of today the dominant technology is based on Si and obtaining graphene with Si is treated as the most advantageous solution. However, the formation of carbide during the growth process makes manufacturing graphene on Si wafers extremely challenging. To overcome these difficulties and reach the set goals, we proposed growth of high quality graphene layers by the CVD method on Ge(100)/Si(100) wafers. In addition, a stochastic model was applied in order to describe the graphene growth process on the Ge(100)/Si(100) substrate and to determine the direction of further processes. As a result, high quality graphene was grown, which was proved by Raman spectroscopy results, showing uniform monolayer films with FWHM of the 2D band of 32 cm-1.

  15. Integration of Different Risk Assessment Tools to Improve Stratification of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S; Rocha, T; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Morais, J; Ferreira, J

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes unaffordable social and health costs that tend to increase as the European population ages. In this context, clinical guidelines recommend the use of risk scores to predict the risk of a cardiovascular disease event. Some useful tools have been developed to predict the risk of occurrence of a cardiovascular disease event (e.g. hospitalization or death). However, these tools present some drawbacks. These problems are addressed through two methodologies: (i) combination of risk assessment tools: fusion of naïve Bayes classifiers complemented with a genetic optimization algorithm and (ii) personalization of risk assessment: subtractive clustering applied to a reduced-dimensional space to create groups of patients. Validation was performed based on two ACS-NSTEMI patient data sets. This work improved the performance in relation to current risk assessment tools, achieving maximum values of sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean of, respectively, 79.8, 83.8, and 80.9 %. Additionally, it assured clinical interpretability, ability to incorporate of new risk factors, higher capability to deal with missing risk factors and avoiding the selection of a standard CVD risk assessment tool to be applied in the clinical practice. PMID:26215518

  16. Integration of Different Risk Assessment Tools to Improve Stratification of Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    PubMed

    Paredes, S; Rocha, T; de Carvalho, P; Henriques, J; Morais, J; Ferreira, J

    2015-10-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) causes unaffordable social and health costs that tend to increase as the European population ages. In this context, clinical guidelines recommend the use of risk scores to predict the risk of a cardiovascular disease event. Some useful tools have been developed to predict the risk of occurrence of a cardiovascular disease event (e.g. hospitalization or death). However, these tools present some drawbacks. These problems are addressed through two methodologies: (i) combination of risk assessment tools: fusion of naïve Bayes classifiers complemented with a genetic optimization algorithm and (ii) personalization of risk assessment: subtractive clustering applied to a reduced-dimensional space to create groups of patients. Validation was performed based on two ACS-NSTEMI patient data sets. This work improved the performance in relation to current risk assessment tools, achieving maximum values of sensitivity, specificity, and geometric mean of, respectively, 79.8, 83.8, and 80.9 %. Additionally, it assured clinical interpretability, ability to incorporate of new risk factors, higher capability to deal with missing risk factors and avoiding the selection of a standard CVD risk assessment tool to be applied in the clinical practice.

  17. Lack of Benefit for the Addition of Androgen Deprivation Therapy to Dose-Escalated Radiotherapy in the Treatment of Intermediate- and High-Risk Prostate Cancer

    SciTech Connect

    Krauss, Daniel; Kestin, Larry; Ye, Hong; Brabbins, Donald; Ghilezan, Michel; Gustafson, Gary; Vicini, Frank; Martinez, Alvaro

    2011-07-15

    Purpose: Assessment of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) benefits for prostate cancer treated with dose-escalated radiotherapy (RT). Methods and Materials: From 1991 to 2004, 1,044 patients with intermediate- (n = 782) or high-risk (n = 262) prostate cancer were treated with dose-escalated RT at William Beaumont Hospital. Patients received external-beam RT (EBRT) alone, brachytherapy (high or low dose rate), or high dose rate brachytherapy plus pelvic EBRT. Intermediate-risk patients had Gleason score 7, prostate-specific antigen (PSA) 10.0-19.9 ng/mL, or Stage T2b-T2c. High-risk patients had Gleason score 8-10, PSA {>=}20, or Stage T3. Patients were additionally divided specifically by Gleason score, presence of palpable disease, and PSA level to further define subgroups benefitting from ADT. Results: Median follow-up was 5 years; 420 patients received ADT + dose-escalated RT, and 624 received dose-escalated RT alone. For all patients, no advantages in any clinical endpoints at 8 years were associated with ADT administration. No differences in any endpoints were associated with ADT administration based on intermediate- vs. high-risk group or RT modality when analyzed separately. Patients with palpable disease plus Gleason {>=}8 demonstrated improved clinical failure rates and a trend toward improved survival with ADT. Intermediate-risk patients treated with brachytherapy alone had improved biochemical control when ADT was given. Conclusion: Benefits of ADT in the setting of dose-escalated RT remain poorly defined. This question must continue to be addressed in prospective study.

  18. Fatty acids linked to cardiovascular mortality are associated with risk factors

    PubMed Central

    Ebbesson, Sven O. E.; Voruganti, Venkata S.; Higgins, Paul B.; Fabsitz, Richard R.; Ebbesson, Lars O.; Laston, Sandra; Harris, William S.; Kennish, John; Umans, Benjamin D.; Wang, Hong; Devereux, Richard B.; Okin, Peter M.; Weissman, Neil J.; MacCluer, Jean W.; Umans, Jason G.; Howard, Barbara V.

    2015-01-01

    Background Although saturated fatty acids (FAs) have been linked to cardiovascular mortality, it is not clear whether this outcome is attributable solely to their effects on low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) or whether other risk factors are also associated with FAs. The Western Alaskan Native population, with its rapidly changing lifestyles, shift in diet from unsaturated to saturated fatty acids and dramatic increase in cardiovascular disease (CVD), presents an opportunity to elucidate any associations between specific FAs and known CVD risk factors. Objective We tested the hypothesis that the specific FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality are also associated with individual CVD risk factors. Methods In this community-based, cross-sectional study, relative proportions of FAs in plasma and red blood cell membranes were compared with CVD risk factors in a sample of 758 men and women aged ≥35 years. Linear regression analyses were used to analyze relations between specific FAs and CVD risk factors (LDL-C, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides, C-reactive protein, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, heart rate, body mass index, fasting glucose and fasting insulin, 2-hour glucose and 2-hour insulin). Results The specific saturated FAs previously identified as related to CVD mortality, the palmitic and myristic acids, were adversely associated with most CVD risk factors, whereas unsaturated linoleic acid (18:2n-6) and the marine n-3 FAs were not associated or were beneficially associated with CVD risk factors. Conclusions The results suggest that CVD risk factors are more extensively affected by individual FAs than hitherto recognized, and that risk for CVD, MI and stroke can be reduced by reducing the intake of palmitate, myristic acid and simple carbohydrates and improved by greater intake of linoleic acid and marine n-3 FAs. PMID:26274054

  19. CVD-associated non-coding RNA, ANRIL, modulates expression of atherogenic pathways in VSMC

    SciTech Connect

    Congrains, Ada; Kamide, Kei; Katsuya, Tomohiro; Yasuda, Osamu; Oguro, Ryousuke; Yamamoto, Koichi; Ohishi, Mitsuru; Rakugi, Hiromi

    2012-03-23

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL maps in the strongest susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Silencing of ANRIL leads to altered expression of tissue remodeling-related genes. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The effects of ANRIL on gene expression are splicing variant specific. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer ANRIL affects progression of cardiovascular disease by regulating proliferation and apoptosis pathways. -- Abstract: ANRIL is a newly discovered non-coding RNA lying on the strongest genetic susceptibility locus for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the chromosome 9p21 region. Genome-wide association studies have been linking polymorphisms in this locus with CVD and several other major diseases such as diabetes and cancer. The role of this non-coding RNA in atherosclerosis progression is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated the implication of ANRIL in the modulation of gene sets directly involved in atherosclerosis. We designed and tested siRNA sequences to selectively target two exons (exon 1 and exon 19) of the transcript and successfully knocked down expression of ANRIL in human aortic vascular smooth muscle cells (HuAoVSMC). We used a pathway-focused RT-PCR array to profile gene expression changes caused by ANRIL knock down. Notably, the genes affected by each of the siRNAs were different, suggesting that different splicing variants of ANRIL might have distinct roles in cell physiology. Our results suggest that ANRIL splicing variants play a role in coordinating tissue remodeling, by modulating the expression of genes involved in cell proliferation, apoptosis, extra-cellular matrix remodeling and inflammatory response to finally impact in the risk of cardiovascular disease and other pathologies.

  20. Prevalence of cardiovascular disease risk factors among older Puerto Rican adults living in Massachusetts

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    There remains limited research on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in Puerto Rican adults. We compared lifestyle and CVD risk factors in Puerto Rican men and women with normal fasting glucose (NFG), impaired fasting glucose (IFG), or type 2 diabetes (T2D), and investigated achievement of Am...

  1. Plant Protein and Animal Proteins: Do They Differentially Affect Cardiovascular Disease Risk?12

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-01-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat. PMID:26567196

  2. Plant protein and animal proteins: do they differentially affect cardiovascular disease risk?

    PubMed

    Richter, Chesney K; Skulas-Ray, Ann C; Champagne, Catherine M; Kris-Etherton, Penny M

    2015-11-01

    Proteins from plant-based compared with animal-based food sources may have different effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors. Numerous epidemiologic and intervention studies have evaluated their respective health benefits; however, it is difficult to isolate the role of plant or animal protein on CVD risk. This review evaluates the current evidence from observational and intervention studies, focusing on the specific protein-providing foods and populations studied. Dietary protein is derived from many food sources, and each provides a different composite of nonprotein compounds that can also affect CVD risk factors. Increasing the consumption of protein-rich foods also typically results in lower intakes of other nutrients, which may simultaneously influence outcomes. Given these complexities, blanket statements about plant or animal protein may be too general, and greater consideration of the specific protein food sources and the background diet is required. The potential mechanisms responsible for any specific effects of plant and animal protein are similarly multifaceted and include the amino acid content of particular foods, contributions from other nonprotein compounds provided concomitantly by the whole food, and interactions with the gut microbiome. Evidence to date is inconclusive, and additional studies are needed to further advance our understanding of the complexity of plant protein vs. animal protein comparisons. Nonetheless, current evidence supports the idea that CVD risk can be reduced by a dietary pattern that provides more plant sources of protein compared with the typical American diet and also includes animal-based protein foods that are unprocessed and low in saturated fat.

  3. Circulating Apolipoprotein E Concentration and Cardiovascular Disease Risk: Meta-analysis of Results from Three Studies

    PubMed Central

    Sofat, Reecha; Cooper, Jackie A.; Kumari, Meena; Casas, Juan P.; Acharya, Jayshree; Thom, Simon; Humphries, Steve E.; Hingorani, Aroon D.

    2016-01-01

    Background The association of APOE genotype with circulating apolipoprotein E (ApoE) concentration and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is well established. However, the relationship of circulating ApoE concentration and CVD has received little attention. Methods and Findings To address this, we measured circulating ApoE concentration in 9,587 individuals (with 1,413 CVD events) from three studies with incident CVD events: two population-based studies, the English Longitudinal Study of Ageing (ELSA) and the men-only Northwick Park Heart Study II (NPHSII), and a nested sub-study of the Anglo-Scandinavian Cardiac Outcomes Trial (ASCOT). We examined the association of circulating ApoE with cardiovascular risk factors in the two population-based studies (ELSA and NPHSII) and the relationship between ApoE concentration and coronary heart disease and stroke in all three studies. Analyses were carried out within study, and, where appropriate, pooled effect estimates were derived using meta-analysis. In the population-based samples, circulating ApoE was associated with systolic blood pressure (correlation coefficient 0.08, p < 0.001, in both ELSA and NPHSII), total cholesterol (correlation coefficient 0.46 and 0.34 in ELSA and NPHSII, respectively; both p < 0.001), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (correlation coefficient 0.30 and 0.14, respectively; both p < 0.001), high-density lipoprotein (correlation coefficient 0.16 and −0.14, respectively; both p < 0.001), and triglycerides (correlation coefficient 0.43 and 0.46, respectivly; both p < 0.001). In NPHSII, ApoE concentration was additionally associated with apolipoprotein B (correlation coefficient 0.13, p = 0.001) and lipoprotein(a) (correlation coefficient −0.11, p < 0.001). In the pooled analysis of ASCOT, ELSA, and NPHSII, there was no association of ApoE with CVD events; the odds ratio (OR) for CVD events per 1-standard-deviation higher ApoE concentration was 1.02 (95% CI 0.96, 1.09). After adjustment for

  4. Rheumatoid Arthritis, Anti-CCP Positivity, and Cardiovascular Disease Risk in the Women’s Health Initiative

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Rachel H.; Kuller, Lewis H.; Deane, Kevin D.; Walitt, Brian T.; Chang, Yuefang F.; Holers, V. Michael; Robinson, William H.; Tracy, Russell P.; Hlatky, Mark A.; Eaton, Charles; Liu, Simin; Freiberg, Matthew S.; Talabi, Mehret Birru; Schelbert, Erik B.; Moreland, Larry W.

    2015-01-01

    Objective This report evaluates incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) morbidity and mortality over 10 years among the >160,000 postmenopausal women in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI) in relation to self-reported RA, disease modifying anti-rheumatic drugs (DMARD) use, anti-CCP+, RF+, CVD risk factors, joint pain, and inflammation (white blood cell (WBC) count and IL-6.) Methods Anti-CCP and RF were measured on a sample (n=9,988) of WHI participants with self-reported RA. RA was classified as self-reported RA plus anti-CCP+ positivity and/or use of DMARDs. Self-reported RA that was both anti-CCP− and DMARD− was classified as “unverified RA.” Results Age-adjusted rates of coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke, CVD, fatal CVD and total mortality were higher for women with RA vs. no RA, with multivariable-adjusted HR(95%CI) of 1.46(1.17, 1.83) for CHD, and 2.55(1.86, 3.51) for fatal CVD. Within RA, anti-CCP+ and RF+ were not significantly associated with higher risk of any outcomes, despite slightly higher risk of fatal CVD and death for anti-CCP+ vs. anti-CCP− RA. Joint pain severity and CVD risk factors were strongly associated with CVD risk, even for women with no RA. CVD incidence was increased for RA vs. no RA at almost all risk factor levels, except low levels of joint pain or inflammation. Within RA, inflammation was more strongly associated with fatal CVD and total mortality than CHD or CVD. Conclusion Among postmenopausal women, RA was associated with 1.5-2.5 higher CVD risk, strongly associated with CV risk factors, joint pain severity, and inflammation, but similar for anti-CCP+ and RF+. Clinical Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov identifier: NCT00000611 PMID:25988241

  5. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  6. A Risk Score with Additional Four Independent Factors to Predict the Incidence and Recovery from Metabolic Syndrome: Development and Validation in Large Japanese Cohorts

    PubMed Central

    Obokata, Masaru; Negishi, Kazuaki; Ohyama, Yoshiaki; Okada, Haruka; Imai, Kunihiko; Kurabayashi, Masahiko

    2015-01-01

    Background Although many risk factors for Metabolic syndrome (MetS) have been reported, there is no clinical score that predicts its incidence. The purposes of this study were to create and validate a risk score for predicting both incidence and recovery from MetS in a large cohort. Methods Subjects without MetS at enrollment (n = 13,634) were randomly divided into 2 groups and followed to record incidence of MetS. We also examined recovery from it in rest 2,743 individuals with prevalent MetS. Results During median follow-up of 3.0 years, 878 subjects in the derivation and 757 in validation cohorts developed MetS. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified 12 independent variables from the derivation cohort and initial score for subsequent MetS was created, which showed good discrimination both in the derivation (c-statistics 0.82) and validation cohorts (0.83). The predictability of the initial score for recovery from MetS was tested in the 2,743 MetS population (906 subjects recovered from MetS), where nine variables (including age, sex, γ-glutamyl transpeptidase, uric acid and five MetS diagnostic criteria constituents.) remained significant. Then, the final score was created using the nine variables. This score significantly predicted both the recovery from MetS (c-statistics 0.70, p<0.001, 78% sensitivity and 54% specificity) and incident MetS (c-statistics 0.80) with an incremental discriminative ability over the model derived from five factors used in the diagnosis of MetS (continuous net reclassification improvement: 0.35, p < 0.001 and integrated discrimination improvement: 0.01, p<0.001). Conclusions We identified four additional independent risk factors associated with subsequent MetS, developed and validated a risk score to predict both incident and recovery from MetS. PMID:26230621

  7. Cardiovascular disease risk factors in the Hispanic/Latino population: lessons from the Hispanic Community Health Study/Study of Latinos (HCHS/SOL).

    PubMed

    Daviglus, Martha L; Pirzada, Amber; Talavera, Gregory A

    2014-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is one of the leading causes of mortality among Hispanics/Latinos residing in the United States (US), yet despite the rapid growth of this diverse population, there has been a dearth of objective, comprehensive data on prevalence of risk factors for CVD and other chronic diseases. The Hispanic Community Health Study/SOL) is the largest and most comprehensive cohort study to date/SOL) was initiated to address this gap in knowledge. This article reviews existing research on CVD risk factors among Hispanic/Latino adults of diverse background residing in the US, compares findings from HCHS/SOL with other representative samples on prevalence of major CVD risk factors in this population, and discusses the lessons learned thus far from HCHS/SOL. Baseline findings from this study demonstrate that sizeable burdens in CVD risk exist among all major Hispanic/Latino background groups in the US. At the same time, there are marked variations in rates of individual risk factors by Hispanic/Latino background groups. Comprehensive public health policies to lower CVD risk among those who have adverse levels of one or more risk factors, and to prevent development of CVD risk factors in the small proportion free of CVD risk are urgently needed to lower the future burden of CVD among the US Hispanic/Latino population.

  8. Combined single-crystalline and polycrystalline CVD diamond substrates for diamond electronics

    SciTech Connect

    Vikharev, A. L. Gorbachev, A. M.; Dukhnovsky, M. P.; Muchnikov, A. B.; Ratnikova, A. K.; Fedorov, Yu. Yu.

    2012-02-15

    The fabrication of diamond substrates in which single-crystalline and polycrystalline CVD diamond form a single wafer, and the epitaxial growth of diamond films on such combined substrates containing polycrystalline and (100) single-crystalline CVD diamond regions are studied.

  9. CVD synthesis of graphene nanoplates on MgO support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jugade, Ravin M.; Sharma, Shalini; Gokhale, Suresh

    2014-06-01

    Synthesis of graphene directly on MgO has been carried out and the structural properties of the obtained material have been investigated. Few-layered graphene was produced by simple thermal decomposition of methane over MgO powder at 950 °C in a CVD reactor. The samples were purified by 10 N HNO3 treatment, and studied by TEM, Raman spectroscopy, EDAX and SEM. TEM clearly indicated the formation of graphene. EDAX showed that the purified sample contained only carbon and no traces of MgO. The characteristic Raman features of graphene were also seen as D-band at 1316 cm-1, G-band at 1602 cm-1, and a small 2D-band at 2700 cm-1 in the Raman spectra. The strong D-band suggests that the graphene possess large number of boundary defects. The small 2D-band indicates the formation of few-layered graphene.

  10. Leakage current measurements of a pixelated polycrystalline CVD diamond detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zain, R. M.; Maneuski, D.; O'Shea, V.; Bates, R.; Blue, A.; Cunnigham, L.; Stehl, C.; Berderman, E.; Rahim, R. A.

    2013-01-01

    Diamond has several desirable features when used as a material for radiation detection. With the invention of synthetic growth techniques, it has become feasible to look at developing diamond radiation detectors with reasonable surface areas. Polycrystalline diamond has been grown using a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) technique by the University of Augsburg and detector structures fabricated at the James Watt Nanofabrication Centre (JWNC) in the University of Glasgow in order to produce pixelated detector arrays. The anode and cathode contacts are realised by depositing gold to produce ohmic contacts. Measurements of I-V characteristics were performed to study the material uniformity. The bias voltage is stepped from -1000V to 1000V to investigate the variation of leakage current from pixel to pixel. Bulk leakage current is measured to be less than 1nA.

  11. Low temperature CVD of TaB/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Randich, E.

    1980-01-01

    Crystalline TaB/sub 2/ has been deposited using the CVD reaction of TaCl/sub 5/ and B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ in the temperature range of 773-1200/sup 0/K. Thermodynamic calculations have been made which compare the use of both B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ and BCl/sub 3/ as B source gases. The deposits obtained with B/sub 2/H/sub 6/ exhibited extremely small crystal size and contained amorphous B when the deposition temperature was below approx. 873/sup 0/K but were substoichiometric in B above this temperature. Carbon analysis indicated that C may substitute for B and thereby stabilize the diboride structure at high deposition temperatures. Microhardness of the coatings decreased with increasing B/Ta ratio and decreasing crystal size.

  12. Application of HOPG and CVD graphene as ion beam detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kozubek, Roland; Ochedowski, Oliver; Zagoranskiy, Igor; Karlušić, Marko; Schleberger, Marika

    2014-12-01

    Highly ordered pyrolytic graphite and graphene created via chemical vapor deposition have been irradiated with high energetic I6+ ions. By Raman mapping an increase of the ID /IG ratio could be identified which arises from the ion induced defects. This ratio grows with increasing fluence. Using this as a tool, HOPG and graphene can be utilized to determine the ion beam spot size and its homogeneity. Both systems seem to be suitable for size determination of the spot. But due to the much higher sensitivity of graphene to ion irradiation, more detailed information regarding the homogeneity of the beam can only be derived using this 2D system. By comparison of both systems we conclude, that CVD graphene is more suitable as an ion beam detector, while HOPG is sufficient for a rough spot size analysis.

  13. Study of magnetotransport across the neutrality point in CVD graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mani, Ramesh G.

    Hall effect compensation and a residual resistivity ρxx ~ h / 4e2 are experimentally examined over the p <-->n transition about the nominal Dirac point in CVD graphene. The observed characteristics are reproduced in a model with a parabolic distribution f (VN) of neutrality potentials, VN, and simultaneous electron- and hole- conduction. The results suggest that, broadly about the gate-induced n <--> p transition, charge transport is characterized by domain confined ambipolar currents, which leads to compensation in the global Hall effect and the observed residual resistivity. DOE-BES, Mat'l. Sci. & Eng. Div., DE-SC0001762; ARO W911NF-14-2-0076; ARO W911NF-15-1-0433.

  14. Dimensionless Numbers Expressed in Terms of Common CVD Process Parameters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuczmarski, Maria A.

    1999-01-01

    A variety of dimensionless numbers related to momentum and heat transfer are useful in Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD) analysis. These numbers are not traditionally calculated by directly using reactor operating parameters, such as temperature and pressure. In this paper, these numbers have been expressed in a form that explicitly shows their dependence upon the carrier gas, reactor geometry, and reactor operation conditions. These expressions were derived for both monatomic and diatomic gases using estimation techniques for viscosity, thermal conductivity, and heat capacity. Values calculated from these expressions compared well to previously published values. These expressions provide a relatively quick method for predicting changes in the flow patterns resulting from changes in the reactor operating conditions.

  15. Tip-based patterning of HOPG and CVD graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hicks, Bryan T.; Yoshimizu, Norimasa; O'Connell, Christopher; Lal, Amit; Pollock, Clifford R.

    2011-06-01

    Nanometer-scale patterning of graphite and graphene has been accomplished through local anodic oxidation using an AFM tip. The underlying mechanism is explained. To date, protrusions, holes, trenches, and even words have been patterned in HOPG over scales ranging from 1nm2 to 1mm2 and depths ranging from sub nm to as deep as 200nm with less than 5 nm variation on the feature size and placement. This same method has also been applied to CVD-grown graphene providing a resist-free process for patterning graphene at the single nanometer scale. This capability could provide a method to rival e-beam lithography resolution but without any pre- or post-processing.

  16. A controlled atmosphere tube furnace was designed for thermal CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rashid, M.; Bhatti, J. A.; Hussain, F.; Imran, M.; Khawaja, I. U.; Chaudhary, K. A.; Ahmad, S. A.

    2013-06-01

    High quality materials were used for the fabrication of hi-tech tube furnace. The furnace was especially suitable for thermal Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD). High density alumina tube was used for the fabrication of furnace. The tube furnace was found to have three different temperature zones with maximum temperature at central zone was found to be 650°C. The flexible heating tape with capacity of 760°C was wrapped on the tube. To minimize the heat losses, asbestos and glass wool were used on heating tape. The temperature of the tube furnace was controlled by a digital temperature controller had accuracy of ±1°C. Methanol was taken as the representative of hydrocarbon sources, to give thin film of carbon. The a-C: H structure was investigated by conventional techniques using optical microscopy, FT-IR and SEM.

  17. CVD diamond Brewster window: feasibility study by FEM analyses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aiello, G.; Grossetti, G.; Meier, A.; Scherer, T.; Schreck, S.; Spaeh, P.; Strauss, D.; Vaccaro, A.

    2012-09-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond windows are a crucial component in heating and current drive (H&CD) applications. In order to minimize the amount of reflected power from the diamond disc, its thickness must match the desired beam wavelength, thus proper targeting of the plasma requires movable beam reflectors. This is the case, for instance, of the ITER electron cyclotron H&CD system. However, looking at DEMO, the higher heat loads and neutron fluxes could make the use of movable parts close to the plasma difficult. The issue might be solved by using gyrotrons able to tune the beam frequency to the desired resonance, but this concept requires transmission windows that work in a given frequency range, such as the Brewster window. It consists of a CVD diamond disc brazed to two copper cuffs at the Brewster angle. The brazing process is carried out at about 800°C and then the temperature is decreased down to room temperature. Diamond and copper have very different thermal expansion coefficients, therefore high stresses build up during the cool down phase that might lead to failure of the disc. Considering also the complex geometry of the window with the skewed position of the disc, analyses are required in the first place to check its feasibility. The cool down phase was simulated by FEM structural analyses for several geometric and constraint configurations of the window. A study of indirect cooling of the window by water was also performed considering a HE11 mode beam. The results are here reported.

  18. Transfer printing of CVD graphene FETs on patterned substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abhilash, T. S.; de Alba, R.; Zhelev, N.; Craighead, H. G.; Parpia, J. M.

    2015-08-01

    We describe a simple and scalable method for the transfer of CVD graphene for the fabrication of field effect transistors. This is a dry process that uses a modified RCA-cleaning step to improve the surface quality. In contrast to conventional fabrication routes where lithographic steps are performed after the transfer, here graphene is transferred to a pre-patterned substrate. The resulting FET devices display nearly zero Dirac voltage, and the contact resistance between the graphene and metal contacts is on the order of 910 +/- 340 Ω μm. This approach enables formation of conducting graphene channel lengths up to one millimeter. The resist-free transfer process provides a clean graphene surface that is promising for use in high sensitivity graphene FET biosensors.We describe a simple and scalable method for the transfer of CVD graphene for the fabrication of field effect transistors. This is a dry process that uses a modified RCA-cleaning step to improve the surface quality. In contrast to conventional fabrication routes where lithographic steps are performed after the transfer, here graphene is transferred to a pre-patterned substrate. The resulting FET devices display nearly zero Dirac voltage, and the contact resistance between the graphene and metal contacts is on the order of 910 +/- 340 Ω μm. This approach enables formation of conducting graphene channel lengths up to one millimeter. The resist-free transfer process provides a clean graphene surface that is promising for use in high sensitivity graphene FET biosensors. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr03501e

  19. Incident diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease risk in exercising hypercholesterolemic patients.

    PubMed

    Williams, Paul T; Franklin, Barry A

    2015-11-15

    Exercise may be an important treatment for hypercholesterolemic patients, particularly in statin users who are at increased diabetes risk. We therefore used Cox proportional hazard analyses to compare running and walking dose (metabolic equivalent hours/day [MET-h/d]) to diabetes, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in hypercholesterolemic patients. There were 60 diabetic- and 373 CVD-related deaths during a 10.1-year mortality surveillance of 6,688 hypercholesterolemic patients. In addition, there were 177 incident nonfatal diabetes, 815 incident nonfatal hypertensions, and 323 incident nonfatal CVD events during a 6.4-year follow-up of 6,971 hypercholesterolemic patients who supplied follow-up questionnaires. Fatal and nonfatal diabetes risk decreased 26% (p = 0.002) and 19% (p ≤0.0001) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to <1.07 MET-h/d decreased 35% (p = 0.19) and 55% (p ≤0.0001), respectively, for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d and 73% (p = 0.02) and 71% (p ≤0.0001), respectively, for ≥3.6 MET-h/d. Fatal and nonfatal CVD risk decreased 8% (p = 0.008) and 3% (p = 0.22) per MET-h/d, respectively, and relative to <1.07 MET-h/d decreased 10% (p = 0.45) and 36% (p = 0.008) for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d, respectively, and 37% (p = 0.009) and 26% (p = 0.10), respectively, for ≥3.6 MET-h/d. Incident hypertension risk decreased 4% (p = 0.01) per MET-h/d, and relative to <1.07 MET-h/d decreased 29% (p = 0.002) for 1.8 to 3.6 MET-h/d and 31% (p = 0.001) for ≥3.6 MET-h/d. In conclusion, running and walking for exercise lowers diabetes, hypertension, and CVD risk in hypercholesterolemic patients and should more than compensate for the purported 9% increase in diabetes risk from statin use. By preventing morbidity and mortality for a specific existing medical condition, some exercise expenses may qualify for flexible spending account expenditures in hypercholesterolemic patients when prescribed by a physician.

  20. Thirty-year risk of cardiovascular disease in senior medical students – based on the StudHeart study

    PubMed Central

    Morawiec, Robert; Janikowski, Kamil

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Long-term risk functions highlight the need of prophylaxis in youth before the first symptoms of cardiovascular disease (CVD) occur. Aim On the basis of data obtained in the StudHeart study, the aim of this report was to evaluate the 30-year risk of CVD based on the risk scale developed by the Framingham Heart Study (FHS). Material and methods Seven hundred and one students aged 22–27 (mean age: 24 ±1.42) from the 5th and 6th year of the medical faculties of the Medical University of Lodz were included in the study. The StudHeart study was based on an anonymous survey comprising 12 questions. Based on the answers the authors evaluated the 30-year risk of CVD in each respondent using an on-line calculator that allows one to evaluate: general CVD risk including coronary death, myocardial infarction, coronary insufficiency, angina, ischemic stroke, hemorrhagic stroke, transient ischemic attack, peripheral artery disease, heart failure and hard CVD risk including coronary death, myocardial infarction and stroke. Results Elevated general 30-year CVD risk occurred in 23.18% of students, while hard CVD risk was elevated in 16.91% of respondents. In both cases elevated risk occurred more often in men (general CVD risk: 43.46% male vs. 8.93% female, p < 0.001 and hard CVD risk: 29.33% male vs. 8.19% female, p < 0.001). Elevation of the risk was mainly caused by overweight, obesity and smoking cigarettes. Conclusions Based on FHS 30-Year CVD risk, elevated risk occurred in almost one-fourth of students. Prophylactic actions should be performed, especially in men. PMID:27516798

  1. Biosafety aspects of the recombinant live oral Vibrio cholerae vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Viret, Jean-François; Dietrich, Guido; Favre, Didier

    2004-06-23

    The development of live attenuated vaccines, allowing for the safe and effective immunisation at mucosal surfaces, is a strategy of great interest for vaccinologists. The main advantage of this approach over conventional parenteral vaccines is the induction of strong mucosal immune responses, allowing targeting of the pathogen at the initial point of contact with the host. Further advantages include the ease of administration, high acceptance by vaccines, and relatively low production costs. Finally, well-characterised, safe and immunogenic vaccine strains are well suited as vectors for the mucosal delivery of foreign vaccine antigens and of DNA vaccines. However, such vaccines, when based on or containing genetically modified organisms (GMOs), are facing new and specific regulatory hurdles, particularly regarding the potential risks for humans and the environment. In this contribution we address selected aspects of the risk assessment of live attenuated bacterial vaccines covered in the course of the registration of vaccine strain CVD 103-HgR as a recombinant live oral vaccine against cholera.

  2. Effect of Collaborative Care for Depression on Risk of Cardiovascular Events: Data from the IMPACT Randomized Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, Jesse C.; Perkins, Anthony J.; Callahan, Christopher M.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Although depression is a risk and prognostic factor for cardiovascular disease (CVD), depression trials involving cardiac patients have not observed the anticipated cardiovascular benefits. To test our hypothesis that depression treatment delivered before clinical CVD onset reduces risk of CVD events, we conducted an 8-year follow-up study of the Indiana sites of the Improving Mood-Promoting Access to Collaborative Treatment (IMPACT) randomized controlled trial. Methods Participants were 235 primary care patients aged ≥60 years with major depression or dysthymia who were randomized to a 12-month collaborative care program involving antidepressants and psychotherapy (85 without and 35 with baseline CVD) or usual care (83 without and 32 with baseline CVD). Hard CVD events (fatal/nonfatal) were identified using electronic medical record and Medicare/Medicaid data. Results 119 patients (51%) had a hard CVD event. As hypothesized, the Treatment x Baseline CVD interaction was significant (p = .021). IMPACT patients without baseline CVD had a 48% lower risk of an event than Usual Care patients (28% vs. 47%, HR = 0.52, 95% CI: 0.31–0.86). The number needed to treat to prevent one event over five years was 6.1. The likelihood of an event did not differ between IMPACT and Usual Care patients with baseline CVD (86% vs. 81%, HR = 1.19, 95% CI: 0.70–2.03). Conclusions Collaborative depression care delivered before CVD onset halved the excess risk of hard CVD events among older, depressed patients. Our findings raise the possibility that the IMPACT intervention could be used as a CVD primary prevention strategy. Trial Registration clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT01561105 (http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT01561105) PMID:24367124

  3. An insidious risk factor for cardiovascular disease: benign prostatic hyperplasia.

    PubMed

    Karatas, Omer Faruk; Bayrak, Omer; Cimentepe, Ersin; Unal, Dogan

    2010-10-29

    Patients with benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) and lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTSs) have a considerably higher prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) than the general population in old age. Many hypotheses have been created to explain traditional clinical risk factors of CVD, including age, male gender, cigarette smoking, inheritance, high blood pressure (BP), obesity, elevated fasting plasma glucose, diabetes mellitus, dyslipidemia, decreased physical activity and metabolic syndrome; or nontraditional risk factors such as oxidative stress, inflammation, vascular calcification, malnutrition, homocysteine and genetic variation. Although these risk factors are important in CVD pathophysiology and clinical presentation, there is still no single theory sufficient to provide an adequate explanation for all the properties of CVD. We speculate that by causing nocturia-induced sleep disturbances, BP variability, increased sympathetic activity, non-dipping BP variations; BPH may be an insidious risk factor for CVD. Benign prostate hyperplasia may be related to increased BP, coronary ischemic hearth disease or other cardiovascular pathologic conditions. This attention on BPH may produce a new approach to the diagnosis and treatment of CVD. Although the underlying mechanisms are still exactly unclear, further prospective randomized controlled studies are needed to identify if patients with BPH/LUTS is higher risk for CVD. PMID:19359054

  4. Improvement of Short-Term Outcomes for High-Risk Bleeding Peptic Ulcers With Addition of Argon Plasma Coagulation Following Endoscopic Injection Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Huay-Min; Tsai, Wei-Lun; Yu, Hsien-Chung; Chan, Hoi-Hung; Chen, Wen-Chi; Lin, Kung-Hung; Tsai, Tzung-Jiun; Kao, Sung-Shuo; Sun, Wei-Chih; Hsu, Ping-I.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract A second endoscopic method together with injection therapy is recommended to treat high-risk bleeding peptic ulcers. This study investigated whether additional argon plasma coagulation (APC) treatment could influence hemostatic efficacy following endoscopic injection therapy to treat high-risk bleeding ulcers. From October 2010 to January 2012, eligible patients with high-risk bleeding ulcers were admitted to our hospital. They prospectively randomly underwent either APC therapy along with distilled water injection or distilled water injection alone. Episodes of rebleeding were retreated with endoscopic combination therapy. Patients in whom retreatment was ineffective underwent emergency surgery or transarterial embolization (TAE). A total of 116 enrolled patients were analyzed. The hemostatic efficacy in 58 patients treated with APC along with distilled water injection was compared with that in 58 patients treated with distilled water injection alone. The 2 treatment groups were similar with respect to all baseline characteristics. Initial hemostasis was accomplished in 56 patients treated with combined therapy, and 55 patients treated with distilled water injection therapy (97% vs 95%, P = 0.648). Bleeding recurred in 2 patients treated with combined therapy, and 9 patients treated with distilled water injection (3.6% vs 16%, P = 0.029). Treatment method was the only independent prognostic factor for recurrent bleeding (odds ratio 0.17; 95% confidence interval 0.03–0.84; P = 0.029). The 2 groups did not differ significantly in hospital stay, TAE, surgery, and mortality. Endoscopic therapy with APC following distilled water injection is more effective than distilled water injection alone for preventing rebleeding of peptic ulcer. PMID:26266385

  5. Low absolute lymphocyte count and addition of rituximab confer high risk for interstitial pneumonia in patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Huang, Yu-Chung; Liu, Chia-Jen; Liu, Chun-Yu; Pai, Jih-Tung; Hong, Ying-Chung; Teng, Hao-Wei; Hsiao, Liang-Tsai; Chao, Ta-Chung; Gau, Jyh-Pyng; Liu, Jin-Hwang; Hsu, Hui-Chi; Chiou, Tzeon-Jye; Chen, Po-Min; Yu, Yuan-Bin; Tzeng, Cheng-Hwai

    2011-10-01

    Several small-scale studies have reported pulmonary toxicity among patients with diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL) receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy, though whether the use of rituximab predisposes to interstitial pneumonia (IP) remains unclear. This retrospective study was intended to identify the characteristics and risk factors of IP in patients with DLBCL. Between 2000 and 2009, 529 consecutive patients with DLBCL receiving first-line tri-weekly COP- or CHOP-based chemotherapy with or without rituximab were enrolled as subjects. IP was defined as diffuse pulmonary interstitial infiltrates found on computed tomography scans in conjunction with respiratory symptoms. IP was observed in 26 patients (4.9%), six of whom were confirmed with Pneumocystis jirovecii pneumonia. The median number of chemotherapy courses before IP was four cycles. Using multivariate analysis, absolute lymphocyte count less than 1×10(9)/l at diagnosis [odds ratio (OR) 2.75, p=0.014] and the addition of rituximab to chemotherapy (OR 4.56, p=0.003) were identified as independent risk factors for IP. In conclusion, the incidence of IP is increased in patients with DLBCL receiving rituximab-containing chemotherapy. Specific subgroups with lymphopenia at diagnosis may justify close scrutiny to detect pulmonary complications. PMID:21647583

  6. Testing the Effects of the Addition of Videos to a Website Promoting Environmental Breast Cancer Risk Reduction Practices: Are Videos Worth It?

    PubMed Central

    Perrault, Evan K.; Silk, Kami J.

    2013-01-01

    Searching for ways to reach wider audiences in more comprehensible ways, health promotion agencies might add videos to their current web offerings. While potentially costly and time consuming to create, the effect of these videos on websites has not received much attention. This study translated research about the potential breast cancer risk for young girls associated with the household chemical PFOA into two websites mothers with young daughters were randomly assigned to view (website with videos vs. website without videos). Results revealed participants in the video condition found the advocated risk protective behaviors easier to perform and stated they were more likely to perform them than those in the non-video condition. Approximately 15 days after exposure, those in the video condition performed on average one more protective behavior than those in the non-video condition. Results also suggest that agencies’ efforts should focus on creating one quality video to place on a homepage, as video views declined the deeper people navigated into the site. Behaviors advocated should also be ones that can have lasting impacts with one-time actions, as effects wore away over time. Additional strategies are discussed for health promoters seeking to create videos to add to their current websites. PMID:25143661

  7. An Update on the Utility of Coronary Artery Calcium Scoring for Coronary Heart Disease and Cardiovascular Disease Risk Prediction.

    PubMed

    Kianoush, Sina; Al Rifai, Mahmoud; Cainzos-Achirica, Miguel; Umapathi, Priya; Graham, Garth; Blumenthal, Roger S; Nasir, Khurram; Blaha, Michael J

    2016-03-01

    Estimating cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk is necessary for determining the potential net benefit of primary prevention pharmacotherapy. Risk estimation relying exclusively on traditional CVD risk factors may misclassify risk, resulting in both undertreatment and overtreatment. Coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring personalizes risk prediction through direct visualization of calcified coronary atherosclerotic plaques and provides improved accuracy for coronary heart disease (CHD) or CVD risk estimation. In this review, we discuss the most recent studies on CAC, which unlike historical studies, focus sharply on clinical application. We describe the MESA CHD risk calculator, a recently developed CAC-based 10-year CHD risk estimator, which can help guide preventive therapy allocation by better identifying both high- and low-risk individuals. In closing, we discuss calcium density, regional distribution of CAC, and extra-coronary calcification, which represent the future of CAC and CVD risk assessment research and may lead to further improvements in risk prediction.

  8. Both Low and High Serum IGF-1 Levels Associate With Increased Risk of Cardiovascular Events in Elderly Men

    PubMed Central

    Carlzon, Daniel; Svensson, Johan; Petzold, Max; Karlsson, Magnus K.; Ljunggren, Östen; Tivesten, Åsa; Mellström, Dan

    2014-01-01

    Context: Most previous prospective studies suggest that low serum IGF-1 associates with increased risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) events whereas other studies suggest that high serum IGF-1 associates with increased risk of CVD events. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that not only low, but also high serum IGF-1 levels associate with increased risk of CVD events in elderly men. Setting and Design: Serum IGF-1 levels were measured in 2901 elderly men (age 69–81 years) included in the Swedish cohort of the prospective, population-based Osteoporotic Fractures in Men Study (MrOS), Sweden cohort. Data for CVD events were obtained from national Swedish registers with no loss of followup. Results: During followup (median, 5.1 y) 589 participants experienced a CVD event. The association between serum IGF-1 and risk of CVD events was nonlinear, and restricted cubic spline Cox regression analysis revealed a U-shaped association between serum IGF-1 levels and CVD events (P < .01 for nonlinearity). Low as well as high serum IGF-1 (quintile 1 or 5 vs quintiles 2–4) significantly associated with increased risk for CVD events (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.25, 95% confidence interval, [CI], 1.02–1.54; and HR = 1.35, 95% CI 1.10–1.66, respectively). These associations remained after adjustment for prevalent CVD and multiple risk factors. High serum IGF-1 associated with increased risk of coronary heart disease (CHD) events but not with risk of cerebrovascular events. Conclusions: Both low and high serum IGF-1 levels are risk markers for CVD events in elderly men. The association between high serum IGF-1 and CVD events is mainly driven by CHD events. PMID:25057875

  9. Second Malignancies After Adjuvant Radiation Therapy for Early Stage Breast Cancer: Is There Increased Risk With Addition of Regional Radiation to Local Radiation?

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, Sarah Nicole; Tyldesley, Scott; Li, Dongdong; Olson, Robert; McBride, Mary

    2015-04-01

    Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine whether there was an increased risk of second malignancies (SM), particularly lung cancer, in early stage breast cancer patients treated with the addition of nodal fields to breast and/or chest wall radiation therapy (RT). Materials and Methods: Subjects were stage I/II female breast cancer patients 20 to 79 years of age, diagnosed between 1989 and 2005 and treated with adjuvant RT at our institution. Patients were included if they survived and did not have SM within 3 years of diagnosis. Standardized incidence ratios (SIR) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated to compare SM incidence to cancer incidence in the general sex- and age-matched populations. Secondary malignancy risks in patients treated with local RT (LRT) to the breast/chest wall were compared to those in patients treated with locoregional RT (LRRT) to the breast/chest wall and regional nodes, using multivariate regression analysis (MVA) to account for covariates. Results: The cohort included 12,836 patients with a median follow-up of 8.4 years. LRRT was used in 18% of patients. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRT to the general population was 1.29 (CI: 1.21-1.38). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.04; CI: 0.87-1.23) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.06; CI: 0.88-1.26) was detected. The SIR comparing patients treated with LRRT to the general population was 1.39 (CI: 1.17-1.64). No statistically significant increased incidence of in-field malignancies (SIR, 1.26; CI: 0.77-1.94) and lung cancers (SIR, 1.27; CI: 0.76-1.98) was detected. On MVA comparing LRRT to LRT, the adjusted hazard ratio was 1.20 for in-field malignancies (CI: 0.68-2.16) and 1.26 for lung cancer (CI: 0.67-2.36). The excess attributable risk (EAR) to regional RT was 3.1 per 10,000 person years (CI: −8.7 to 9.9). Conclusions: No statistically significant increased risk of second malignancy was detected after LRRT relative to

  10. A Path Analysis of a Randomized "Promotora de Salud" Cardiovascular Disease-Prevention Trial among At-Risk Hispanic Adults

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Heer, Hendrik Dirk; Balcazar, Hector G.; Castro, Felipe; Schulz, Leslie

    2012-01-01

    This study assessed effectiveness of an educational community intervention taught by "promotoras de salud" in reducing cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk among Hispanics using a structural equation modeling (SEM) approach. Model development was guided by a social ecological framework proposing CVD risk reduction through improvement of protective…

  11. Association between Cardiorespiratory Fitness and Health-Related Quality of Life among Patients at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease in Uruguay

    PubMed Central

    Payne, Jonathan P. W.; Rienzi, Edgardo G.; Lavie, Carl J.; Blair, Steven N.; Pate, Russell R.

    2015-01-01

    To date, few studies have examined the relationship between cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) in populations at high risk for developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Purpose To examine the association between objectively measured CRF and physical and mental components of HRQoL in a Uruguayan cohort at risk for developing CVD. Methods Patient data records from 2002–2012 at the Calidad de Vida Center were examined. To assess CRF, participants performed a submaximal exercise test. During the evaluation, participants also completed the SF-36, a HRQoL measure comprised of eight dimensions that are summarized by physical and mental component scores (PCS and MCS, respectively). ANCOVA was used to examine the relationship between HRQoL dimensions and CRF. Logistic regression was then used to compare the odds of having a HRQoL component score above the norm across CRF. All analyses were performed separately for males and females with additional stratified analyses across age and BMI conducted among significant trends. Results A total of 2,302 subjects were included in the analysis. Among females, a significant relationship was observed between CRF and vitality, physical functioning, physical role, bodily pain, and general health dimensions. However, for males the only dimension found to be significantly associated with CRF was physical health. After adjusting for potential confounders, a significant linear trend (p<0.001) for PCS scores above the norm across CRF levels was observed for females only. Conclusion Among females with one or more risk factors for developing CVD, higher levels of CRF were positively associated with the vitality and physical dimensions of HRQoL, as well as the overall PCS. However, among males the only dimension associated with CRF was physical functioning. Future studies should examine this relationship among populations at risk for developing CVD in more detail and over time. PMID:25901358

  12. Development of Micro and Nano Crystalline CVD Diamond TL/OSL Radiation Detectors for Clinical Applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barboza-Flores, Marcelino

    2015-03-01

    Modern radiotherapy methods requires the use of high photon radiation doses delivered in a fraction to small volumes of cancer tumors. An accurate dose assessment for highly energetic small x-ray beams in small areas, as in stereotactic radiotherapy, is necessary to avoid damage to healthy tissue surrounding the tumor. Recent advances on the controlled synthesis of CVD diamond have demonstrated the possibility of using high quality micro and nano crystalline CVD as an efficient detector and dosimeter suitable for high energy photons and energetic particle beams. CVD diamond is a very attractive material for applications in ionizing radiation dosimetry, particularly in the biomedical field since the radiation absorption by a CVD diamond is very close to that of soft tissue. Furthermore, diamond is stable, non-toxic and radiation hard. In the present work we discuss the CVD diamond properties and dosimeter performance and discuss its relevance and advantages of various dosimetry methods, including thermally stimulated luminescence (TL) as well as optically stimulated luminescence (OSL). The recent CVD improved method of growth allows introducing precisely controlled impurities into diamond to provide it with high dosimetry sensitivity. For clinical dosimetry applications, high accuracy of dose measurements, low fading, high sensitivity, good reproducibility and linear dose response characteristics are very important parameters which all are found in CVD diamonds specimens. In some cases, dose linearity and reproducibility in CVD diamond have been found to be higher than standard commercial TLD materials like LiF. In the present work, we discuss the state-of-the art developments in dosimetry applications using CVD diamond. The financial support from Conacyt (Mexico) is greatly acknowledged

  13. Risk Stratification for Primary Prevention of Coronary Artery Disease: Roles of C-Reactive Protein and Coronary Artery Calcium.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Rana, Jamal S; Yeboah, Joseph; Bin Nasir, Usama; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2015-12-01

    Risk stratification of individuals at risk for atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) plays an important role in primary prevention of cardiovascular disease. In addition to risk scores derived from conventional cardiovascular risk factors, high sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) and coronary artery calcium (CAC) have emerged as two of the widely accepted non traditional risk factors for atherosclerotic disease that have shown incremental prognostic value in predicting cardiovascular events. This review systematically assesses the role of hs-CRP and CAC in various studies and demonstrates meta-analyses of the incremental prognostic value of hs-CRP and CAC in identifying patients at risk of future CVD events. Compared with this, CAC showed better incremental prognostic value and might be a better indicator of ASCVD risk in asymptomatic adults.

  14. Radiation monitoring with CVD diamonds and PIN diodes at BaBar

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Curry, S.; Edwards, A. J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Majewski, S.; Petersen, B. A.

    2007-12-01

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  15. Controlled incorporation of mid-to-high Z transition metals in CVD diamond

    SciTech Connect

    Biener, M M; Biener, J; Kucheyev, S O; Wang, Y M; El-Dasher, B; Teslich, N E; Hamza, A V; Obloh, H; Mueller-Sebert, W; Wolfer, M; Fuchs, T; Grimm, M; Kriele, A; Wild, C

    2010-01-08

    We report on a general method to fabricate transition metal related defects in diamond. Controlled incorporation of Mo and W in synthetic CVD diamond was achieved by adding volatile metal precursors to the diamond chemical vapor deposition (CVD) growth process. Effects of deposition temperature, grain structure and precursor exposure on the doping level were systematically studied, and doping levels of up to 0.25 at.% have been achieved. The metal atoms are uniformly distributed throughout the diamond grains without any indication of inclusion formation. These results are discussed in context of the kinetically controlled growth process of CVD diamond.

  16. CVD graphene vs. highly ordered pyrolytic graphite for use in electroanalytical sensing.

    PubMed

    Brownson, Dale A C; Gorbachev, Roman V; Haigh, Sarah J; Banks, Craig E

    2012-02-21

    We explore and contrast the electroanalytical performance of a commercially available CVD grown graphene electrode with that of edge- and basal-plane pyrolytic graphite electrodes constructed from highly ordered pyrolytic graphite for the sensing of biologically important analytes, namely β-nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and uric acid (UA). We demonstrate that for the analytes studied here, in the best case, the electroanalytical performance of the CVD-graphene mimics that of edge plane pyrolytic graphite, suggesting no significant advantage of utilising CVD-graphene in this context.

  17. Radiation monitoring with CVD Diamonds and PIN Diodes at BaBar

    SciTech Connect

    Bruinsma, M.; Burchat, P.; Curry, S.; Edwards, A.J.; Kagan, H.; Kass, R.; Kirkby, D.; Majewski, S.; Petersen, B.A.; /UC, Irvine /SLAC /Ohio State U.

    2008-02-13

    The BaBar experiment at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center has been using two polycrystalline chemical vapor deposition (pCVD) diamonds and 12 silicon PIN diodes for radiation monitoring and protection of the Silicon Vertex Tracker (SVT). We have used the pCVD diamonds for more than 3 years, and the PIN diodes for 7 years. We will describe the SVT and SVT radiation monitoring system as well as the operational difficulties and radiation damage effects on the PIN diodes and pCVD diamonds in a high-energy physics environment.

  18. AN INCREASE IN RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA: A COMPARISON OF TWO CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEYS.

    PubMed

    Dewi, F S T; Stenlund, H; Hakimi, M; Weinehall, L

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to describe changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a five year period in urban Indonesia. In 2004 (n = 3,205) and 2009 (n = 2,467) we conducted cross-sectional surveys of residents in Yogjakarta City, Indonesia evaluating risk factors for CVD. Smoking habits, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, blood pressure, weight, and height were recorded. The results of these 2 surveys conducted 5 years apart were then compared. The risk for having a CVD event was also calculated. Behavioral CVD risk factors were more common among men. The predicted risk of having a CVD event increased from 8.4% to 11.3% among men between 2004 and 2009. Effective measures need to be taken to change these behaviors among men in Yogyakarta, Indonesia. PMID:26867398

  19. AN INCREASE IN RISK FACTORS FOR CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN YOGYAKARTA, INDONESIA: A COMPARISON OF TWO CROSS-SECTIONAL SURVEYS.

    PubMed

    Dewi, F S T; Stenlund, H; Hakimi, M; Weinehall, L

    2015-07-01

    This paper aims to describe changes in risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) over a five year period in urban Indonesia. In 2004 (n = 3,205) and 2009 (n = 2,467) we conducted cross-sectional surveys of residents in Yogjakarta City, Indonesia evaluating risk factors for CVD. Smoking habits, fruit and vegetable intake, physical activity, blood pressure, weight, and height were recorded. The results of these 2 surveys conducted 5 years apart were then compared. The risk for having a CVD event was also calculated. Behavioral CVD risk factors were more common among men. The predicted risk of having a CVD event increased from 8.4% to 11.3% among men between 2004 and 2009. Effective measures need to be taken to change these behaviors among men in Yogyakarta, Indonesia.

  20. Non-HDL Cholesterol and Evaluation of Cardiovascular Disease Risk

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD), such as coronary heart disease (CHD), is the most frequent cause of death worldwide, especially in developed countries. The latest recommendations of European and American Cardiological Associations emphasize the role of non-HDL cholesterol (non-HDL-C) in evaluating the risk of CVD. Although this parameter has a lot of advantages, it is rarely used by general practitioners in lipid profile assessment. The aim of this article is to present the recent informations on the usage of non-HDL-C in the primary prevention of cardiovascular disease and to compare its diagnostic value to traditional and new CVD risk factors.

  1. Relationship Between Forced Vital Capacity and Framingham Cardiovascular Risk Score Beyond the Presence of Metabolic Syndrome: The Fourth Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

    PubMed

    Kang, Hyung Koo; Park, Hye Yun; Jeong, Byeong-Ho; Koh, Won-Jung; Lim, Seong Yong

    2015-11-01

    Impaired lung function is a risk factor for cardiovascular (CV) events. However, it has not been well established whether FVC reduction even within normal range is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and whether reduced FVC is an independent relationship of CVD irrespective of metabolic syndrome. Thus, we aimed to explore the relationship between FVC and CV-event risk using the FRS beyond the presence of metabolic syndrome or abdominal obesity in a representative Korean population based on data from the nationwide Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES IV).The study population included 9688 subjects ≥ 30 years of age with no previous diagnosis of CVD and obstructive lung disease. Using a logistic regression model and area under the curve (AUC) analysis, we evaluated the relationship between FVC quintiles and CV-event risk using the Framingham Risk Score (FRS; ≥ 10% or ≥ 20%). In addition, we examined the effect of FVC on CV-event risk based on the presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) and abdominal obesity.After adjusting for covariates, comparison of subjects in the lowest FVC (% pred) quintile (Q1) with those in the highest quintile (Q5) yielded an odds ratio (OR) of 2.27 (95% CI, 1.91-2.71) for intermediate and high risk, and 2.89 (95% CI, 2.31-3.61) for high risk. The ORs for cardiovascular risk using FRS also increased irrespective of the presence of abdominal obesity and MetS without significant interaction. Furthermore, the addition of FVC status to MetS status and abdominal obesity status significantly increased the AUC of the model predicting CV-event risk (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001).Our study demonstrates that FVC is inversely associated with 10-year CV-event risk, irrespective of MetS and abdominal obesity in the general population without obstructive lung disease. Furthermore, the addition of FVC to MetS or abdominal obesity increased prediction of CVD event risks, implying a potential role of FVC to predict CV

  2. Carbon Nanotubes Growth by CVD on Graphite Fibers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, Shen; Su, Ching-Hua; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Curreri, Peter A. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Due to the superior electrical and mechanical properties of carbon nanotubes (CNT), synthesizing CNT on various substances for electronics devices and reinforced composites have been engaged in many efforts for applications. This presentation will illustrate CNT synthesized on graphite fibers by thermal CVD. On the fiber surface, iron nanoparticles as catalysts for CNT growth are coated. The growth temperature ranges from 600 to 1000 C and the pressure ranges from 100 Torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis. At high growth temperatures (greater than or equal to 900 C), the rapid inter-diffusion of the transition metal iron on the graphite surface results in the rough fiber surface without any CNT grown on it. When the growth temperature is relative low (650-800 C), CNT with catalytic particles on the nanotube top ends are fabricated on the graphite surface. (Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the CNT synthesis.) (By measuring the samples) Using micro Raman spectroscopy in the breath mode region, single-walled or multi-walled CNT (MWCNT), depending on growth concentrations, are found. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  3. Recovery of CVD Diamond Detectors using Laser Double Pulses

    SciTech Connect

    Dauffy, L S; Lerche, R A; Schmid, G J; Koch, J A; Silbenagel, C

    2005-09-27

    A 5 x 0.25 mm Chemical Vapor Deposited (CVD) diamond detector, with a voltage bias of + 250V, was excited by a 400 nm laser (3.1 eV photons) in order to study the saturation of the wafer and its associated electronics. In a first experiment, the laser beam energy was increased from a few tens of a pJ to about 100 {micro}J, and the signal from the diamond was recorded until full saturation of the detection system was achieved. Clear saturation of the detection system was observed at about 40 V, which corresponds with the expected saturation at 10% of the applied bias (250V). The results indicate that the interaction mechanism of the 3.1 eV photons in the diamond (E{sub bandgap} = 5.45 eV) is not a multi-photon process but is linked to the impurities and defects of the crystal. In a second experiment, the detector was irradiated by a saturating first laser pulse and then by a delayed laser pulse of equal or smaller amplitude with delays of 5, 10, and 20 ns. The results suggest that the diamond and associated electronics recover within 10 to 20 ns after a strong saturating pulse.

  4. Contact resistance study of various metal electrodes with CVD graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahoi, Amit; Wagner, Stefan; Bablich, Andreas; Kataria, Satender; Passi, Vikram; Lemme, Max C.

    2016-11-01

    In this study, the contact resistance of various metals to chemical vapor deposited (CVD) monolayer graphene is investigated. Transfer length method (TLM) structures with varying channel widths and separation between contacts have been fabricated and electrically characterized in ambient air and vacuum condition. Electrical contacts are made with five metals: gold, nickel, nickel/gold, palladium and platinum/gold. The lowest value of 92 Ω μm is observed for the contact resistance between graphene and gold, extracted from back-gated devices at an applied back-gate bias of -40 V. Measurements carried out under vacuum show larger contact resistance values when compared with measurements carried out in ambient conditions. Post processing annealing at 450 °C for 1 h in argon-95%/hydrogen-5% atmosphere results in lowering the contact resistance value which is attributed to the enhancement of the adhesion between metal and graphene. The results presented in this work provide an overview for potential contact engineering for high performance graphene-based electronic devices.

  5. High Efficiency CVD Graphene-lead (Pb) Cooper Pair Splitter

    PubMed Central

    Borzenets, I. V.; Shimazaki, Y.; Jones, G. F.; Craciun, M. F.; Russo, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.

    2016-01-01

    Generation and manipulation of quantum entangled electrons is an important concept in quantum mechanics, and necessary for advances in quantum information processing; but not yet established in solid state systems. A promising device is a superconductor-two quantum dots Cooper pair splitter. Early nanowire based devices, while efficient, are limited in scalability and further electron manipulation. We demonstrate an optimized, high efficiency, CVD grown graphene-based Cooper pair splitter. Our device is designed to induce superconductivity in graphene via the proximity effect, resulting in both a large superconducting gap Δ = 0.5 meV, and coherence length ξ = 200 nm. The flat nature of the device lowers parasitic capacitance, increasing charging energy EC. Our design also eases geometric restrictions and minimizes output channel separation. As a result we measure a visibility of up to 86% and a splitting efficiency of up to 62%. This will pave the way towards near unity efficiencies, long distance splitting, and post-splitting electron manipulation. PMID:26971450

  6. High Efficiency CVD Graphene-lead (Pb) Cooper Pair Splitter.

    PubMed

    Borzenets, I V; Shimazaki, Y; Jones, G F; Craciun, M F; Russo, S; Yamamoto, M; Tarucha, S

    2016-01-01

    Generation and manipulation of quantum entangled electrons is an important concept in quantum mechanics, and necessary for advances in quantum information processing; but not yet established in solid state systems. A promising device is a superconductor-two quantum dots Cooper pair splitter. Early nanowire based devices, while efficient, are limited in scalability and further electron manipulation. We demonstrate an optimized, high efficiency, CVD grown graphene-based Cooper pair splitter. Our device is designed to induce superconductivity in graphene via the proximity effect, resulting in both a large superconducting gap Δ = 0.5 meV, and coherence length ξ = 200 nm. The flat nature of the device lowers parasitic capacitance, increasing charging energy EC. Our design also eases geometric restrictions and minimizes output channel separation. As a result we measure a visibility of up to 86% and a splitting efficiency of up to 62%. This will pave the way towards near unity efficiencies, long distance splitting, and post-splitting electron manipulation. PMID:26971450

  7. Atomistic modelling of CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, James A.; Shibuta, Yasushi; Amara, Hakim; Bichara, Christophe; Neyts, Erik C.

    2013-07-01

    We discuss the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) and plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD), summarising the state-of-the-art understanding of mechanisms controlling their growth rate, chiral angle, number of layers (walls), diameter, length and quality (defects), before presenting a new model for 2D nucleation of a graphene sheet from amorphous carbon on a nickel surface. Although many groups have modelled this process using a variety of techniques, we ask whether there are any complementary ideas emerging from the different proposed growth mechanisms, and whether different modelling techniques can give the same answers for a given mechanism. Subsequently, by comparing the results of tight-binding, semi-empirical molecular orbital theory and reactive bond order force field calculations, we demonstrate that graphene on crystalline Ni(111) is thermodynamically stable with respect to the corresponding amorphous metal and carbon structures. Finally, we show in principle how a complementary heterogeneous nucleation step may play a key role in the transformation from amorphous carbon to graphene on the metal surface. We conclude that achieving the conditions under which this complementary crystallisation process can occur may be a promising method to gain better control over the growth processes of both graphene from flat metal surfaces and CNTs from catalyst nanoparticles.

  8. Fabrication of graphene-based films using remote plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hiramatsu, Mineo; Tsukada, Ryosuke; Kashima, Yohei; Naito, Masateru; Kondo, Hiroki; Hori, Masaru

    2012-10-01

    Plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD) employing methane/hydrogen gases has been used to grow diamond, diamond-like carbon, and carbon nanotubes. In the case of microwave PECVD with methane/hydrogen system without catalyst nanoparticles at temperatures of 700--850 ^oC, where the substrate is exposed to the plasma, vertical nano-graphenes and carbon nanoflakes have been easily grown even on Cu substrate due to the ion bombardment and local electric field forces. In this work, we demonstrate the synthesis of planar few-layer graphene-based film using PECVD with remote plasma configuration. In the case using microwave plasma of cylindrical resonant cavity type, by simply installing grounded grid over the substrate plate for obtaining remote plasma configuration, we have successfully fabricated graphene-based films on Cu substrate, which was confirmed by the Raman spectrum and SEM image of deposit. Similar method will be applied to other plasmas such as low-pressure inductively coupled plasma, in order to verify the effectiveness of remote plasma configuration for the growth of planar graphene using PECVD technique. We will discuss the planar graphene growth mechanism in terms of precursors and their surface reaction.

  9. Atomistic modelling of CVD synthesis of carbon nanotubes and graphene.

    PubMed

    Elliott, James A; Shibuta, Yasushi; Amara, Hakim; Bichara, Christophe; Neyts, Erik C

    2013-08-01

    We discuss the synthesis of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and graphene by catalytic chemical vapour deposition (CCVD) and plasma-enhanced CVD (PECVD), summarising the state-of-the-art understanding of mechanisms controlling their growth rate, chiral angle, number of layers (walls), diameter, length and quality (defects), before presenting a new model for 2D nucleation of a graphene sheet from amorphous carbon on a nickel surface. Although many groups have modelled this process using a variety of techniques, we ask whether there are any complementary ideas emerging from the different proposed growth mechanisms, and whether different modelling techniques can give the same answers for a given mechanism. Subsequently, by comparing the results of tight-binding, semi-empirical molecular orbital theory and reactive bond order force field calculations, we demonstrate that graphene on crystalline Ni(111) is thermodynamically stable with respect to the corresponding amorphous metal and carbon structures. Finally, we show in principle how a complementary heterogeneous nucleation step may play a key role in the transformation from amorphous carbon to graphene on the metal surface. We conclude that achieving the conditions under which this complementary crystallisation process can occur may be a promising method to gain better control over the growth processes of both graphene from flat metal surfaces and CNTs from catalyst nanoparticles. PMID:23774798

  10. The evaluation of radiation damage parameter for CVD diamond

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grilj, V.; Skukan, N.; Jakšić, M.; Pomorski, M.; Kada, W.; Kamiya, T.; Ohshima, T.

    2016-04-01

    There are a few different phenomenological approaches that aim to track the dependence of signal height in irradiated solid state detectors on the fluence of damaging particles. However, none of them are capable to provide a unique radiation hardness parameter that would reflect solely the material capability to withstand high radiation environment. To extract such a parameter for chemical vapor deposited (CVD) diamond, two different diamond detectors were irradiated with proton beams in MeV energy range and subjected afterwards to ion beam induced charge (IBIC) analysis. The change in charge collection efficiency (CCE) due to defects produced was investigated in context of a theoretical model that was developed on the basis of the adjoint method for linearization of the continuity equations of electrons and holes. Detailed modeling of measured data resulted with the first known value of the kσ product for diamond, where k represents the number of charge carriers' traps created per one simulated primary lattice vacancy and σ represents the charge carriers' capture cross section. As discussed in the text, this product could be considered as a true radiation damage parameter.

  11. High Efficiency CVD Graphene-lead (Pb) Cooper Pair Splitter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Borzenets, I. V.; Shimazaki, Y.; Jones, G. F.; Craciun, M. F.; Russo, S.; Yamamoto, M.; Tarucha, S.

    2016-03-01

    Generation and manipulation of quantum entangled electrons is an important concept in quantum mechanics, and necessary for advances in quantum information processing; but not yet established in solid state systems. A promising device is a superconductor-two quantum dots Cooper pair splitter. Early nanowire based devices, while efficient, are limited in scalability and further electron manipulation. We demonstrate an optimized, high efficiency, CVD grown graphene-based Cooper pair splitter. Our device is designed to induce superconductivity in graphene via the proximity effect, resulting in both a large superconducting gap Δ = 0.5 meV, and coherence length ξ = 200 nm. The flat nature of the device lowers parasitic capacitance, increasing charging energy EC. Our design also eases geometric restrictions and minimizes output channel separation. As a result we measure a visibility of up to 86% and a splitting efficiency of up to 62%. This will pave the way towards near unity efficiencies, long distance splitting, and post-splitting electron manipulation.

  12. Carbon Nanotubes Grown By CVD in Various Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C.; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky. S. L.; Muntele, I.; Ila, D.; Rose, M. Franklin (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the superior properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) could be used in numerous devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been engaged in synthesizing particular structural or dimensional MWCNT. This presentation will illustrate MWCNT synthesized on silicon substrates by thermal CVD. On the substrate, an array of catalysts is coated using sputtering deposition. A thin Ti buffer layer is also coated on some Si substrates prior to depositing catalyst particles. Nickel, cobalt or iron transition metals are used as catalysts for the MWCNT growth. Since the diameter of MWCNT depends on the size of catalyst particles, the catalyst particle size is investigated after annealed at various temperatures. MWCNT are grown on the substrate in the temperature range of 700 to 1000 C and the pressure range of 100 torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the MWCNT synthesis. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  13. Carbon Nanotubes Growth by CVD in Various Conditions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhu, S.; Su, C. H.; Cochrane, J. C.; Lehoczky, S. L.; Gorti, S.; Muntele, I.; Whitaker, Ann F. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Since the superior properties of multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT could be used in numerous devices such as electronics and sensors, many efforts have been engaged in synthesizing particular structural or dimensional MWCNT. This presentation will illustrate MWCNT synthesized on silicon substrates by thermal CVD. On the substrate, an array of catalysts is coated using sputtering deposition. A thin Ti buffer layer is also coated on some Si substrates prior to depositing catalyst particles. Nickel, cobalt or iron transition metals are used as catalysts for the MWCNT growth. Since the diameter of MWCNT depends on the size of catalyst particles, the catalyst particle size is investigated after annealed at various temperatures. MWCNT are grown on the substrate in the temperature range of 700 to 1000 C and the pressure range of 100 torr to one atmosphere. Methane and hydrogen gases with methane content of 10% to 100% are used for the MWCNT synthesis. Morphology, length and diameter of these MWCNT are determined by scanning electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The detailed results of syntheses and characterizations will be discussed in the presentation.

  14. Risk.

    PubMed

    Cole, Stephen R; Hudgens, Michael G; Brookhart, M Alan; Westreich, Daniel

    2015-02-15

    The epidemiologist primarily studies transitions between states of health and disease. The purpose of the present article is to define a foundational parameter for such studies, namely risk. We begin simply and build to the setting in which there is more than 1 event type (i.e., competing risks or competing events), as well as more than 1 treatment or exposure level of interest. In the presence of competing events, the risks are a set of counterfactual cumulative incidence functions for each treatment. These risks can be depicted visually and summarized numerically. We use an example from the study of human immunodeficiency virus to illustrate concepts. PMID:25660080

  15. Prehypertension--prevalence, health risks, and management strategies.

    PubMed

    Egan, Brent M; Stevens-Fabry, Sean

    2015-05-01

    Prehypertension (blood pressure 120-139/80-89 mmHg) affects ~25-50% of adults worldwide, and increases the risk of incident hypertension. The relative risk of incident hypertension declines by ~20% with intensive lifestyle intervention, and by 34-66% with single antihypertensive medications. To prevent one case of incident hypertension in adults with prehypertension and a 50% 5-year risk of hypertension, 10 individuals would need to receive intensive lifestyle intervention, and four to six patients would need to be treated with antihypertensive medication. The relative risk of incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) is greater with 'stage 2' (130-139/85-89 mmHg) than 'stage 1' (120-129/80-84 mmHg) prehypertension; only stage 2 prehypertension increases cardiovascular mortality. Among individuals with prehypertension, the 10-year absolute CVD risk for middle-aged adults without diabetes mellitus or CVD is ~10%, and ~40% for middle-aged and older individuals with either or both comorbidities. Antihypertensive medications reduce the relative risk of CVD and death by ~15% in secondary-prevention studies of prehypertension. Data on primary prevention of CVD with pharmacotherapy in prehypertension are lacking. Risk-stratified, patient-centred, comparative-effectiveness research is needed in prehypertension to inform an acceptable, safe, and effective balance of lifestyle and medication interventions to prevent incident hypertension and CVD.

  16. Sodium and potassium intake and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality: the Rotterdam Study

    PubMed Central

    Witteman, Jacqueline C. M.; Stijnen, Theo; Kloos, Margot W.; Hofman, Albert; Grobbee, Diederick E.

    2007-01-01

    Background Dietary electrolytes influence blood pressure, but their effect on clinical outcomes remains to be established. We examined sodium and potassium intake in relation to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in an unselected older population. Methods A case–cohort analysis was performed in the Rotterdam Study among subjects aged 55 years and over, who were followed for 5 years. Baseline urinary samples were analyzed for sodium and potassium in 795 subjects who died, 206 with an incident myocardial infarction and 181 subjects with an incident stroke, and in 1,448 randomly selected subjects. For potassium, dietary data were additionally obtained by food-frequency questionnaire for 78% of the cohort. Results There was no consistent association of urinary sodium, potassium, or sodium/potassium ratio with CVD and all-cause mortality over the range of intakes observed in this population. Dietary potassium estimated by food frequency questionnaire, however, was associated with a lower risk of all-cause mortality in subjects initially free of CVD and hypertension (RR = 0.71 per standard deviation increase; 95% confidence interval: 0.51–1.00). We observed a significant positive association between urinary sodium/potassium ratio and all-cause mortality, but only in overweight subjects who were initially free of CVD and hypertension (RR = 1.19 (1.02–1.39) per unit). Conclusion The effect of sodium and potassium intake on CVD morbidity and mortality in Western societies remains to be established. PMID:17902026

  17. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need. PMID:27425792

  18. Influence of growth pressure on filling 4H-SiC trenches by CVD method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Shiyang; Kojima, Kazutoshi; Kosugi, Ryoji; Saito, Shingo; Sakuma, Yuuki; Tanaka, Yasunori; Yoshida, Sadafumi; Himi, Hiroaki; Okumura, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    To construct a superjunction structure consisting of p/n columns, narrow stripe-shaped trenches (∼1.5 µm wide and ∼4.7 µm deep) preformed on an n+ 4H-SiC substrate were filled by the hot-wall CVD method using a conventional gas reaction system, SiH4:C3H8:H2. The influences of growth pressure on the coverage distribution of epilayers and the corresponding filling efficiency (the thickness ratio of epilayers on trench bottom and mesa top) were investigated. Two benefits of increasing the growth pressure from 10 to 38 kPa were found: one is the reduced growth around the mesa surface, which lessens the risk of void formation; the other is a high filling rate as well as an improved filling efficiency up to ∼7. By supplying source gases at high flow rates, a void-free trench filling with a filling rate of ∼1.3 µm/h was successfully achieved at 38 kPa.

  19. Successful comeback of the single-dose live oral cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR.

    PubMed

    Herzog, Christian

    2016-01-01

    Effective and easy to administer cholera vaccines are in need more than ever, for at risk populations and travellers alike. In many parts of the world cholera is still endemic, causing outbreaks and constituting repeatedly serious public health problems. The oral live cholera vaccine CVD 103-HgR (Orochol, Mutachol), the first genetically modified organism (GMO) used as vaccine, was in its time (launched 1993, Switzerland) the ideal cholera vaccine: single-dose, protective efficacy of 80-100% against moderate to severe cholera, acting within 8 days and exhibiting excellent safety, indiscernible from placebo. However, there were strong headwinds: In the 1990s the indication for cholera vaccines was generally downplayed by experts and in 1997 the European Commission called for a moratorium of GMOs which blocked the registration in the European Union. Thus, demand for this vaccine remained low and in 2003 it was taken off the market for economic reasons. After a decade in obscurity it (Vaxchora) has resurfaced again, now produced in the U.S. and equipped with a U.S. FDA license (June 10, 2016). What had happened? This commentary gives a critical account of an almost unbelievable string of misadventures, emerging adverse circumstances and man-made failures which nearly killed this single-dose live oral cholera vaccine. The good news is that patience and persistence lead to success in the end, allowing good science to prevail for the benefit of those in need.

  20. The obesity related gene, FTO, interacts with APOE, and is associated with Alzheimer's disease risk: a prospective cohort study.

    PubMed

    Keller, Lina; Xu, Weili; Wang, Hui-Xin; Winblad, Bengt; Fratiglioni, Laura; Graff, Caroline

    2011-01-01

    The FTO gene has been shown to have a small but robust effect on body mass index (BMI) and to increase the risk for diabetes. Both high BMI and diabetes are vascular risk factors that might play a role in the development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and dementia. Thus, our aim was to explore the impact of FTO on AD and dementia risk. Nine years of follow-up data was gathered from the Kungsholmen project, a prospective population-based study on 1,003 persons without dementia. Cox-regression models were used to assess the relative risks of developing AD and dementia (DSM-III-R criteria) according to FTO genotypes (rs9939609), taking into account APOE, physical inactivity, BMI, diabetes, and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Compared to carriers of the FTO TT-genotype, AA-carriers had a higher risk for AD (RR 1.58, 95% CI: 1.11-2.24) and for dementia (RR 1.48, 95% CI: 1.09-2.02) after adjustment for age, gender, education, and APOE genotype. This effect remained after additional adjustment for physical inactivity, BMI, diabetes, and CVD. An interaction between FTO and APOE was found, with increased risk for dementia for those carrying both FTO AA and APOE ϵ4. Importantly, the effect of the AA-genotype on dementia/AD risk seems to act mostly through the interaction with APOE ϵ4. Our findings suggest that the FTO AA-genotype increases the risk for dementia, and in particular AD, independently of physical inactivity, BMI, diabetes, and CVD measured at baseline. Our results are in line with the recently reported association between FTO and reduced brain volume in cognitively healthy subjects.

  1. Optimization of a Wcl6 CVD System to Coat UO2 Powder with Tungsten

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belancik, Grace A.; Barnes, Marvin W.; Mireles, Omar; Hickman, Robert

    2015-01-01

    In order to achieve deep space exploration via Nuclear Thermal Propulsion (NTP), Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is developing W-UO2 CERMET fuel elements, with focus on fabrication, testing, and process optimization. A risk of fuel loss is present due to the CTE mismatch between tungsten and UO2 in the W-60vol%UO2 fuel element, leading to high thermal stresses. This fuel loss can be reduced by coating the spherical UO2 particles with tungsten via H2/WCl6 reduction in a fluidized bed CVD system. Since the latest incarnation of the inverted reactor was completed, various minor modifications to the system design were completed, including an inverted frit sublimer. In order to optimize the parameters to achieve the desired tungsten coating thickness, a number of trials using surrogate HfO2 powder were performed. The furnace temperature was varied between 930 C and 1000degC, and the sublimer temperature was varied between 140 C and 200 C. Each trial lasted 73-82 minutes, with one lasting 205 minutes. A total of 13 trials were performed over the course of three months, two of which were re-coatings of previous trials. The powder samples were weighed before and after coating to roughly determine mass gain, and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) data was also obtained. Initial mass results indicated that the rate of layer deposition was lower than desired in all of the trials. SEM confirmed that while a uniform coating was obtained, the average coating thickness was 9.1% of the goal. The two re-coating trials did increase the thickness of the tungsten layer, but only to an average 14.3% of the goal. Therefore, the number of CVD runs required to fully coat one batch of material with the current configuration is not feasible for high production rates. Therefore, the system will be modified to operate with a negative pressure environment. This will allow for better gas mixing and more efficient heating of the substrate material, yielding greater tungsten coating per trial.

  2. Cardiovascular Risk Factors of Taxi Drivers.

    PubMed

    Elshatarat, Rami Azmi; Burgel, Barbara J

    2016-06-01

    In the United States (U.S.), cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major leading cause of death. Despite the high mortality rate related to CVD, little is known about CVD risk factors among urban taxi drivers in the U.S. A cross-sectional design was used to identify the predictors of high cardiovascular risk factors among taxi drivers. Convenience sampling method was used to recruit 130 taxi drivers. A structured questionnaire was used to obtain the data. The sample was male (94 %), age mean (45 ± 10.75) years, married (54 %), born outside of the USA (55 %), had some college or below (61.5 %), night drivers (50.8 %), and driving on average 9.7 years and 41 h/week. About 79 % of them were eligible for CVD prevention, and 35.4 % had high CVD risk factors (4-9 risk factors). A CVD high-risk profile had a significant relationship with the subjects who were ≥55 years old; had hypertension, diabetes, or hyperlipidemia; were drinking alcohol ≥2 times/week; and had insufficient physical activity. Subjects who worked as a taxi driver for more than 10 years (OR 4.37; 95 % CI 1.82, 10.50) and had mental exertion from cab driving >5 out of 10 (OR 2.63; 95 % CI 1.05, 6.57) were more likely to have a CVD high-risk profile. As a conclusion, system-level or worksite interventions include offering healthy food at taxi dispatching locations, creating a work culture of frequent walking breaks, and interventions focusing on smoking, physical activity, and weight management. Improving health insurance coverage for this group of workers is recommended. PMID:27151321

  3. Menthol cigarettes and the cardiovascular risks of people living with HIV

    PubMed Central

    Míguez-Burbano, María José; Vargas, Mayra; Quiros, Clery; Lewis, John E.; Espinoza, Luis; Asthana, Deshratan

    2014-01-01

    The possibility that menthol cigarettes add to the deleterious cardiovascular effects of smoking has been barely discussed. Although cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are at the forefront of medical concerns of people living with HIV (PLWH), an important, yet unknown, issue for clinicians and public health authorities is whether use of menthol-flavored cigarettes heightens CVD risk factors. Our study aims to assess traditional (10-year risk using the Framingham Risk Model) and nontraditional CVD risk factors and to contrast the effects of menthol-flavored versus non-menthol flavored cigarettes on these risk factors. Compared to controls, menthol smokers were twice as likely to have hypertension. Users of menthol-flavored cigarettes had higher body mass index values, and increased risk of abdominal obesity. Multivariate analyses indicated that menthol smokers doubled the odds of having moderate to high CVD risk. This finding is highly significant given the widespread use of menthol-flavored cigarettes, particularly among women, minorities, and PLWH. PMID:24581861

  4. Fat and starch as additive risk factors for milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles.

    PubMed

    Ramirez Ramirez, H A; Castillo Lopez, E; Harvatine, K J; Kononoff, P J

    2015-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the additive effects of starch and fat as risk factors associated with milk fat depression in dairy diets containing corn dried distillers grains with solubles. In experiment 1, 4 multiparous ruminally cannulated Holstein cows, averaging 114±14 d in milk and 662±52 kg of body weight, were randomly assigned to 4 treatments in a 4×4 Latin square to determine the effect of these risk factors on rumen fermentation and milk fatty acid profile. In each 21-d period, cows were assigned to 1 of 4 dietary treatments: a control diet (CON; ether extract 5.2%, starch 19%); CON with added oil (OL; ether extract 6.4%, starch 18%); CON with added starch (STR; ether extract 5.5%, starch 22%); and CON with added oil and starch (COMBO; ether extract 6.5%, starch 23%). After completion of experiment 1, milk production response was evaluated in a second experiment with a similar approach to diet formulation. Twenty Holstein cows, 12 primiparous and 8 multiparous, averaging 117±17 d in milk and 641±82 kg, were used in replicated 4×4 Latin squares with 21-d periods. Results from experiment 1 showed that ruminal pH was not affected by treatment averaging 5.87±0.08. Molar proportion of propionate in rumen fluid was greatest on the COMBO diet, followed by OL and STR, and lowest for CON. The concentration of trans-10,cis-12 conjugated linoleic acid in milk fat increased with the COMBO diet. Adding oil, starch, or a combination of both resulted in lower concentration and yield of fatty acids<16 carbons. Compared with the control, OL and STR resulted in 13% lower concentration, whereas the COMBO diet resulted in a 27% reduction; similarly yield was reduced by 24% with the OL and STR treatments and 54% with the COMBO diet. In experiment 2, milk yield, milk protein percentage, and milk protein yield were similar across treatments, averaging 26.6±1.01 kg/d, 3.2±0.05%, and 0.84±0.03 kg/d, respectively. Fat-corrected milk was greatest for CON, 26

  5. Community-responsive interventions to reduce cardiovascular risk in American Indians.

    PubMed

    Jobe, Jared B; Adams, Alexandra K; Henderson, Jeffrey A; Karanja, Njeri; Lee, Elisa T; Walters, Karina L

    2012-08-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations bear a heavy burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and they have the highest rates of risk factors for CVD, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes, of any U.S. population group. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have been launched to test potential preventive interventions in Indian Country. Five randomized controlled trials were initiated recently in AI/AN communities to test the effectiveness of interventions targeting adults and/or children to promote healthy behaviors that are known to impact biological CVD risk factors. This article provides a context for and an overview of these five trials. The high burden of CVD among AI/AN populations will worsen unless behaviors and lifestyles affecting CVD risk can be modified. These five trials, if successful, represent a starting point in addressing these significant health disparities. PMID:22983753

  6. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Murakawa, Masao; Watanabe, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Sadao; Miyake, Shojiro; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1998-01-01

    The main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) cubic MM /(N*m), respectively. Carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain, chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond and diamondlike carbon (DLC) ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the criteria regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  7. Simulation of a perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode steep forward current-voltage characteristic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kukushkin, V. A.

    2016-10-01

    The kinetic equation approach to the simulation of the perfect CVD diamond Schottky diode current-voltage characteristic is considered. In result it is shown that the latter has a significantly steeper forward branch than that of perfect devices of such a type on usual semiconductors. It means that CVD diamond-based Schottky diodes have an important potential advantage over analogous devices on conventional materials.

  8. CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN Coatings for Solid Film Lubrication

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa

    1998-01-01

    When the main criteria for judging coating performance were coefficient of friction and wear rate, which had to be less than 0.1 and 10(exp -6) mm(exp 3)/N-m, respectively, carbon- and nitrogen-ion-implanted, fine-grain CVD diamond and DLC ion beam deposited on fine-grain CVD diamond met the requirements regardless of environment (vacuum, nitrogen, and air).

  9. Tribological Characteristics and Applications of Superhard Coatings: CVD Diamond, DLC, and c-BN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Murakawa, Masao; Watanabe, Shuichi; Takeuchi, Sadao; Wu, Richard L. C.

    1999-01-01

    Results of fundamental research on the tribological properties of chemical-vapor-deposited (CVD) diamond, diamondlike carbon, and cubic boron nitride films in sliding contact with CVD diamond in ultrahigh vacuum, dry nitrogen, humid air, and water are discussed. Furthermore, the actual and potential applications of the three different superhard coatings in the field of tribology technology, particularly for wear parts and tools, are reviewed.

  10. Community-Responsive Interventions to Reduce Cardiovascular Risk in American Indians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jobe, Jared B.; Adams, Alexandra K.; Henderson, Jeffrey A.; Karanja, Njeri; Lee, Elisa T.; Walters, Karina L.

    2012-01-01

    American Indian and Alaska Native (AI/AN) populations bear a heavy burden of cardiovascular disease (CVD), and they have the highest rates of risk factors for CVD, such as cigarette smoking, obesity, and diabetes, of any U.S. population group. Yet, few randomized controlled trials have been launched to test potential preventive interventions in…

  11. Risk

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barshi, Immanuel

    2016-01-01

    Speaking up, i.e. expressing ones concerns, is a critical piece of effective communication. Yet, we see many situations in which crew members have concerns and still remain silent. Why would that be the case? And how can we assess the risks of speaking up vs. the risks of keeping silent? And once we do make up our minds to speak up, how should we go about it? Our workshop aims to answer these questions, and to provide us all with practical tools for effective risk assessment and effective speaking-up strategies..

  12. Ion beam induced surface graphitization of CVD diamond for x-ray beam position monitor applications

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Chian; Shu, D.; Kuzay, T.M.; Wen, L.; Melendres, C.A. |

    1996-12-31

    The Advanced Photon Source at ANL is a third-generation synchrotron facility that generates powerful x-ray beams on its undulator beamlines. It is important to know the position and angle of the x- ray beam during experiments. Due to very high heat flux levels, several patented x-ray beam position monitors (XBPM) exploiting chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond have been developed. These XBPMs have a thin layer of low-atomic-mass metallic coating so that photoemission from the x rays generate a minute but measurable current for position determination. Graphitization of the CVD diamond surface creates a very thin, intrinsic and conducting layer that can stand much higher temperatures and minimal x-ray transmission losses compared to the coated metallic layers. In this paper, a laboratory sputter ion source was used to transform selected surfaces of a CVD diamond substrate into graphite. The effect of 1-5 keV argon ion bombardment on CVD diamond surfaces at various target temperatures from 200 to 500 C was studied using Auger electron spectroscopy and in-situ electrical resistivity measurements. Graphitization after the ion bombardment has been confirmed and optimum conditions for graphitization studied. Raman spectroscopy was used to identify the overall diamond structure in the bulk of CVD diamond substrate after the ion bombardments. It was found that target temperature plays an important role in stability and electrical conductivity of the irradiated CVD diamonds.

  13. Defects in CVD Diamond Films from Their Response as Nuclear Detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marinelli, Marco; Milani, Enrico; Tucciarone, Aldo; Rinati, Gianluca Verona

    CVD diamond films can be used to realize nuclear detectors with outstanding working capability in harsh environments. Since efficient particle detection requires high drift lengths of the carriers produced by the ionizing particle, the presence of defects severely limits the performance of these detectors. This is a major issue because the fabrication technology of CVD diamond is much less advanced than that of more conventional materials like silicon. The different kinds of defects in CVD diamond and their influence on the detector response are discussed. The connections between the microscopic structure of CVD diamond and the priming (or pumping) effect, which is widely used to increase CVD diamond detector performance, are elucidated. The analysis of the response of CVD diamond-based detectors is used to extract qualitative and quantitative information on the properties of defects limiting the free movement of charge carriers in the detector (e.g., carrier type for which the traps are active, activation energies, geometrical distribution in the film, etc.). Milani-begin

  14. Assessing cardiovascular risk in hepatitis C: An unmet need

    PubMed Central

    Ampuero, Javier; Romero-Gómez, Manuel

    2015-01-01

    Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) is associated with significant morbidity and mortality, as a result of the progression towards cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Additionally, HCV seems to be an independent risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVD) due to its association with insulin resistance, diabetes and steatosis. HCV infection represents an initial step in the chronic inflammatory cascade, showing a direct role in altering glucose metabolism. After achieving sustained virological response, the incidence of insulin resistance and diabetes dramatically decrease. HCV core protein plays an essential role in promoting insulin resistance and oxidative stress. On the other hand, atherosclerosis is a common disease in which the artery wall thickens due to accumulation of fatty deposits. The main step in the formation of atherosclerotic plaques is the oxidation of low density lipoprotein particles, together with the increased production of proinflammatory markers [tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-18 or C-reactive protein]. The advent of new direct acting antiviral therapy has dramatically increased the sustained virological response rates of hepatitis C infection. In this scenario, the cardiovascular risk has emerged and represents a major concern after the eradication of the virus. Consequently, the number of studies evaluating this association is growing. Data derived from these studies have demonstrated the strong link between HCV infection and the atherogenic process, showing a higher risk of coronary heart disease, carotid atherosclerosis, peripheral artery disease and, ultimately, CVD-related mortality. PMID:26380047

  15. Advanced Functional Thin Films Prepared by Plasma CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takai, Osamu

    1998-10-01

    Recently water repellency has been required for many types of substrate (e.g. glass, plastics, fibers, ceramics and metals) in various industrial fields. This paper reports on the preparation of highly water-repellent thin films by plasma CVD (PCVD). We have prepared transparent water-repellent thin films at low substrate temperatures by two types of PCVD, rf PCVD and microwave PCVD, using fluoro-alkyl silanes (FASs) as source gases. Silicon oxide thin films contained fluoro-alkyl functions were deposited onto glass and plastics, and realized the excellent water repellency like polytetrafluoroetylene (PTFE) and the high transparency like glass. Increasing the deposition pressure we have formed ultra water-repellent (contact angle for a water drop of over about 150 degrees) thin films by microwave PCVD using a multiple gas mixture of tetramethylsilane (TMS), (heptadecafluoro-1,1,2,2-tetrahydro-decyl)-1-trimethoxysilane (FAS-17) and argon. Ultra water-repellency appears at higher total pressures over 40 Pa because the surface becomes rough due to the growth of large particles. The color of these ultra water-repellent films is slightly white because of the scattering of light by the large particles. Recently we have also deposited transparent ultra water-repellent thin films at low substrate temperatures by microwave PCVD using organosilicon compounds without fluorine as source gases. We evaluated water repellency, optical transmittance, surface morphology and chemical composition of the deposited films. At the suitable substrate position the deposited film gave the contact angle of about 150 degrees and the transmittance of over 80 visible region for a coated glass (thickness was about 1 micron). The control of the surface morphology of the deposited films is most important to obtain the transparent ultra water-repellent films.

  16. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  17. Burden of Cardio- and Cerebro-vascular Diseases and the Conventional Risk Factors in South Asian Population.

    PubMed

    Turin, Tanvir Chowdhury; Shahana, Nahid; Wangchuk, Lungten Z; Specogna, Adrian V; Al Mamun, Mohammad; Khan, Mudassir Azeez; Choudhury, Sohel Reza; Zaman, M Mostafa; Rumana, Nahid

    2013-06-01

    Similar to most populations, South Asian countries are also witnessing the dramatic transitions in health during the last few decades with the major causes of adverse health shifting from a predominance of nutritional deficiencies and infectious diseases to chronic diseases such as cardio and cerebrovascular disease (CVD). We summarized the available information of the burden of CVD and risk factors in the South Asian populations. The prevalence of conventional cardiovascular has been increasing among all South Asian populations. Extensive urbanization, shift in dietary pattern and sedentary daily life style is contributing towards the worsening of the CVD risk factor scenario. The burdens of the chronic cardiovascular risk factors are much prevalent in the South Asian populations. These are also rising alarmingly which ought to influence the already existed heavy CVD burden. Similar to the rest of the world, management for the conventional cardiovascular risk factors is very important for the prevention of CVD in South Asia.

  18. Lifestyle strategies for cardiovascular risk reduction.

    PubMed

    Rippe, James M; Angelopoulos, Theodore J

    2014-10-01

    Daily lifestyle practices and habits profoundly affect the likelihood of developing cardiovascular disease (CVD). Abundant research and multiple recent consensus documents support the role of regular physical activity, not smoking cigarettes, maintaining a healthy body weight, controlling cholesterol levels, and controlling blood pressure to lower the risk of CVD. These strategies also play important roles in avoiding ever developing risk factors. Despite overwhelming knowledge in this area, adherence to lifestyle strategies remains suboptimal. Challenges remain in helping the public to act upon the current knowledge in this area. Recent guidelines for managing cholesterol and blood pressure provide new guidance in these areas. Controversy, however, exists related to specific recommendations in both of these areas. Similar strategies that are applied to adults for improving lifestyle habits and practices to lower CVD risk also apply to children and adolescents. A clear consensus exists that lifestyle strategies play a critical role in preventing, managing, and reducing cardiovascular disease and its risk factors.

  19. Variation in prescribing of lipid-lowering medication in primary care is associated with incidence of cardiovascular disease and all-cause mortality in people with screen-detected diabetes: findings from the ADDITION-Denmark trial

    PubMed Central

    Simmons, R K; Carlsen, A H; Griffin, S J; Charles, M; Christiansen, J S; Borch-Johnsen, K; Sandbæk, A; Lauritzen, T

    2014-01-01

    Aims To examine variation between general practices in the prescription of lipid-lowering treatment to people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes, and associations with practice and participant characteristics and risk of cardiovascular events and all-cause mortality. Methods Observational cohort analysis of data from 1533 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes aged 40–69 years from the ADDITION-Denmark study. One hundred and seventy-four general practices were cluster randomized to receive: (1) routine diabetes care according to national guidelines (623 individuals), or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (910 individuals). Multivariable logistic regression was used to quantify the association between the proportion of individuals in each practice who redeemed prescriptions for lipid-lowering medication in the two years following diabetes diagnosis and a composite cardiovascular disease (CVD) outcome, adjusting for age, sex, prevalent chronic disease, baseline CVD risk factors, smoking and lipid-lowering medication, and follow-up time. Results The proportion of individuals treated with lipid-lowering medication varied widely between practices (0–100%). There were 118 CVD events over 9431 person-years of follow-up. For the whole trial cohort, the risk of CVD was significantly higher in practices in the lowest compared with the highest quartile for prescribing lipid-lowering medication [adjusted odds ratio (OR) 3.4, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.6–7.3]. Similar trends were found for all-cause mortality. Conclusions More frequent prescription of lipid-lowering treatment was associated with a lower incidence of CVD and all-cause mortality. Improved understanding of factors underlying practice variation in prescribing may enable more frequent use of lipid-lowering treatment. The results highlight the benefits of intensive treatment of people with screen-detected diabetes (Clinical Trials Registry No; NCT 00237549). What's new Despite

  20. Cardiovascular Risk Factors (Diabetes, Hypertension, Hypercholesterolemia and Metabolic Syndrome) in Older People with Intellectual Disability: Results of the HA-ID Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Winter, C. F.; Bastiaanse, L. P.; Hilgenkamp, T. I. M.; Evenhuis, H. M.; Echteld, M. A.

    2012-01-01

    Hypertension, diabetes, hypercholesterolemia and the metabolic syndrome are important risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD). In older people with intellectual disability (ID), CVD is a substantial morbidity risk. The aims of the present study, which was part of the Healthy Ageing in Intellectual Disability (HA-ID) study, were (1) to…

  1. Tree nut consumption is associated with better adiposity measures and cardiovascular and metabolic syndrome health risk factors in U.S adults: NHANES 2005-2010

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Previous research has shown inconsistencies in the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for cardiovascular disease (CVD) and metabolic syndrome (MetS). To determine the association of tree nut consumption with risk factors for CVD and for MetS in adults. NHANES 2005-2010 data were u...

  2. Immigration disparities in cardiovascular disease risk factor awareness.

    PubMed

    Langellier, Brent A; Garza, Jeremiah R; Glik, Deborah; Prelip, Michael L; Brookmeyer, Ron; Roberts, Christian K; Peters, Anne; Ortega, Alexander N

    2012-12-01

    The association between immigration status and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor awareness is unknown. Using physical examination-based data and participants' self-report of prior diagnosis, we assessed immigration-based disparities in awareness of diabetes, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, and overweight among 12,124 participants in the 2003-2008 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Unawareness of CVD risk factors is high among all groups, but tends to be higher among foreign-born English and non-English speaking participants than among US-born participants. After adjusting for demographic factors and access to health care, foreign-born participants appear more likely to be unaware of their hypertension and overweight than US-born participants. Immigrants are more likely than those born in the US to be unaware of their CVD risk factors, and therefore may be less motivated to seek treatment and modify their behavior to prevent negative CVD outcomes.

  3. Racial/ethnic residential segregation and cardiovascular disease risk

    PubMed Central

    Kershaw, Kiarri N.; Albrecht, Sandra S.

    2015-01-01

    A growing body of research has examined whether racial/ethnic residential segregation contributes to health disparities, but recent findings in the literature, particularly with respect to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk, have not been summarized. This review provides an overview of findings from studies of racial/ethnic residential segregation of non-Hispanic blacks and Hispanics with CVD risk published between January 2011 and July 2014. The majority of studies of black segregation showed higher segregation was related to higher CVD risk, although relationships were less clear for certain outcomes. Relationships among Hispanics were more mixed and appeared to vary widely by factors such as gender, country of origin, racial identity, and acculturation. Implications for research on racial/ethnic disparities in CVD and lingering gaps in the literature are discussed as well. PMID:25893031

  4. Age trends in prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors in Roma minority population of Croatia.

    PubMed

    Zeljko, Hrvojka Marija; Skarić-Jurić, Tatjana; Narančić, Nina Smolej; Barešić, Ana; Tomas, Zeljka; Petranović, Matea Zajc; Miličić, Jasna; Salihović, Marijana Peričić; Janićijević, Branka

    2013-07-01

    The Roma (Gypsy) are the largest European minority population characterized by poverty, social exclusion as well as by numerous life-style and cultural specificities, which all could have an adverse impact on their cardiovascular health. This study assesses the prevalence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) risk factors in community-based sample of 430 adult Roma, living in rural area of Croatia, by providing the actual and age-adjusted estimates using the European standard population. The most prominent classical CVD risk phenotypes (blood pressure, obesity, smoking, glucose and lipid profile) were selected, and the standard risk cut-offs were applied. The study has shown that compared to general population of Croatia, the Roma population bears a high CVD risk factors load related to smoking and high glucose level. The CVD risk factors prevalence in Roma also showed important sex and age patterns, the most imposing of which are the findings of higher prevalence of CVD risks in women (especially obesity and triglyceride levels) and the trend of higher body mass index (BMI) level in younger age group (18-34 years) which both stand in contrast to the trends characterizing the general population of Croatia. These findings are complemented by the trend of decreased risk in the oldest age group (65+ years) for all investigated CVD risk factors (with exception of triglycerides level) compared to the 50-64 age group. We conclude that the age and sex CVD risks pattern point to the health transition of this rural Roma population. As we expect the proportion of CVD in the Roma minority of Croatia to increase in the future along with further modernization of their lifestyle, the CVD prevention measures in this population are urgent and should be primarily targeted at women and at the younger segment of this population.

  5. Intra-Thoracic Fat, Cardiometabolic Risk Factors, and Subclinical Cardiovascular Disease in Healthy, Recently Menopausal Women Screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (KEEPS)

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Gary; Wang, Dan; Zeb, Irfan; Budoff, Matthew J.; Harman, S. Mitchell; Miller, Virginia; Brinton, Eliot A.; Khoudary, Samar El; Manson, JoAnn E.; Sowers, MaryFran R.; Hodis, Howard N.; Merriam, George R.; Cedars, Marcelle I.; Taylor, Hugh S.; Naftolin, Frederick; Lobo, Rogerio A.; Santoro, Nanette; Wildman, Rachel P.

    2012-01-01

    Objective To examine the correlations between intra-hepatic and intra-thoracic (total, epicardial, and pericardial) fat deposition with cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors and subclinical atherosclerosis burden in healthy, recently postmenopausal women. Methods Women screened for the Kronos Early Estrogen Prevention Study (mean age 52.9 years) who underwent electron beam or multidetector computed tomography (CT) imaging for the quantification of intra-hepatic fat and thoracic adipose tissue, and coronary artery calcification (CAC) were included (n= 650). Results Higher levels of intra-hepatic and thoracic fat were each associated with CVD risk markers. After adjustment for BMI, the associations for intra-hepatic fat with hs-CRP and insulin persisted (r= 0.21 and 0.19, respectively; P<0.001), while those between thoracic fat indices and lipids persisted (r for total thoracic fat with HDL, LDL, and triglycerides= −0.16, 0.11, and 0.11, respectively, P<0.05). Total thoracic fat was associated with CAC after initial multivariable adjustment (odds ratio [OR] of 2nd, 3rd, and 4th vs. 1st quartile and [95% confidence intervals]: 0.8 [0.4–1.6], 1.5 [0.8–2.9], and 1.8 [1.0–3.4]; P for linear trend=0.017) and was only slightly attenuated after additional adjustment for BMI. Associations between total thoracic fat and CVD risk markers and CAC appeared due slightly more to associations with epicardial than pericardial fat. Conclusion While hepatic fat is related to hs-CRP and insulin, cardiac fat is associated with subclinical atherosclerosis as demonstrated by CAC. Cardiac fat may represent a useful marker for increased CVD risk beyond the standard adiposity measures of BMI and WC. PMID:22209479

  6. Some arguments in favor of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system as an additional test in risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Tunić, Tanja; Knežević, Varja; Kerkez, Đurđa; Tubić, Aleksandra; Šunjka, Dragana; Lazić, Sanja; Brkić, Dragica; Teodorović, Ivana

    2015-09-01

    The present study compares the practicability, reproducibility, power, and sensitivity of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system with the recently accepted Myriophyllum spicatum test in an equivalent testing system and the standard Lemna sp. test. Special consideration was given to endpoints based on M. aquaticum control plant growth and variability of relative growth rate and yield: shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and root weight. Sensitivity analysis was based on tests performed with 3,5-dichlorophenol, atrazine, isoproturon, trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoloxyacetic acid, and dicamba. Growth rates for average M. aquaticum control plants were 0.119 d(-1) and 0.112 d(-1), with average estimated doubling time 6.33 d and 6.74 d for relative growth rate fresh weight and shoot length, respectively. Intrinsic variability of M. aquaticum endpoints was low: 12.9%, 12.5%, and 17.8% for relative growth rate shoot length, relative growth rate fresh weight and yield fresh weight, respectively. The power of the test was fairly high. When the most sensitive endpoints were used for comparison, the 2 Myriophyllum species were similarly sensitive, more sensitive (in the case of auxin simulators), or at least equally sensitive as Lemna minor to other tested herbicides. The M. aquaticum 10-d test with a 7-d exposure period in a water-sediment system has acceptable sensitivity and can provide repeatable, reliable, and reproducible results; therefore, it should not be disregarded as a good and representative additional test in environmental risk assessment. PMID:25943248

  7. STAT4 Associates with SLE Through Two Independent Effects that Correlate with Gene Expression and Act Additively with IRF5 to Increase Risk

    PubMed Central

    Abelson, Anna-Karin; Delgado-Vega, Angélica M.; Kozyrev, Sergey V.; Sánchez, Elena; Velázquez-Cruz, Rafael; Eriksson, Niclas; Wojcik, Jerome; Reddy, Prasad Linga; Lima, Guadalupe; D’Alfonso, Sandra; Migliaresi, Sergio; Baca, Vicente; Orozco, Lorena; Witte, Torsten; Ortego-Centeno, Norberto; Abderrahim, Hadi; Pons-Estel, Bernardo A.; Gutiérrez, Carmen; Suárez, Ana; González-Escribano, Maria Francisca; Martin, Javier; Alarcón-Riquelme, Marta E.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives To confirm and define the genetic association of STAT4 and systemic lupus erythematosus, investigate the possibility of correlations with differential splicing and/or expression levels, and genetic interaction with IRF5. Methods 30 tag SNPs were genotyped in an independent set of Spanish cases and controls. SNPs surviving correction for multiple tests were genotyped in 5 new sets of cases and controls for replication. STAT4 cDNA was analyzed by 5’-RACE PCR and sequencing. Expression levels were measured by quantitative PCR. Results In the fine-mapping, four SNPs were significant after correction for multiple testing, with rs3821236 and rs3024866 as the strongest signals, followed by the previously associated rs7574865, and by rs1467199. Association was replicated in all cohorts. After conditional regression analyses, two major independent signals represented by SNPs rs3821236 and rs7574865, remained significant across the sets. These SNPs belong to separate haplotype blocks. High levels of STAT4 expression correlated with SNPs rs3821236, rs3024866 (both in the same haplotype block) and rs7574865 but not with other SNPs. We also detected transcription of alternative tissue-specific exons 1, indicating presence of tissue-specific promoters of potential importance in the expression of STAT4. No interaction with associated SNPs of IRF5 was observed using regression analysis. Conclusions These data confirm STAT4 as a susceptibility gene for SLE and suggest the presence of at least two functional variants affecting levels of STAT4. Our results also indicate that both genes STAT4 and IRF5 act additively to increase risk for SLE. PMID:19019891

  8. Short-term salivary acetaldehyde increase due to direct exposure to alcoholic beverages as an additional cancer risk factor beyond ethanol metabolism

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background An increasing body of evidence now implicates acetaldehyde as a major underlying factor for the carcinogenicity of alcoholic beverages and especially for oesophageal and oral cancer. Acetaldehyde associated with alcohol consumption is regarded as 'carcinogenic to humans' (IARC Group 1), with sufficient evidence available for the oesophagus, head and neck as sites of carcinogenicity. At present, research into the mechanistic aspects of acetaldehyde-related oral cancer has been focused on salivary acetaldehyde that is formed either from ethanol metabolism in the epithelia or from microbial oxidation of ethanol by the oral microflora. This study was conducted to evaluate the role of the acetaldehyde that is found as a component of alcoholic beverages as an additional factor in the aetiology of oral cancer. Methods Salivary acetaldehyde levels were determined in the context of sensory analysis of different alcoholic beverages (beer, cider, wine, sherry, vodka, calvados, grape marc spirit, tequila, cherry spirit), without swallowing, to exclude systemic ethanol metabolism. Results The rinsing of the mouth for 30 seconds with an alcoholic beverage is able to increase salivary acetaldehyde above levels previously judged to be carcinogenic in vitro, with levels up to 1000 μM in cases of beverages with extreme acetaldehyde content. In general, the highest salivary acetaldehyde concentration was found in all cases in the saliva 30 sec after using the beverages (average 353 μM). The average concentration then decreased at the 2-min (156 μM), 5-min (76 μM) and 10-min (40 μM) sampling points. The salivary acetaldehyde concentration depends primarily on the direct ingestion of acetaldehyde contained in the beverages at the 30-sec sampling, while the influence of the metabolic formation from ethanol becomes the major factor at the 2-min sampling point. Conclusions This study offers a plausible mechanism to explain the increased risk for oral cancer associated with

  9. Some arguments in favor of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system as an additional test in risk assessment of herbicides.

    PubMed

    Tunić, Tanja; Knežević, Varja; Kerkez, Đurđa; Tubić, Aleksandra; Šunjka, Dragana; Lazić, Sanja; Brkić, Dragica; Teodorović, Ivana

    2015-09-01

    The present study compares the practicability, reproducibility, power, and sensitivity of a Myriophyllum aquaticum growth inhibition test in a water-sediment system with the recently accepted Myriophyllum spicatum test in an equivalent testing system and the standard Lemna sp. test. Special consideration was given to endpoints based on M. aquaticum control plant growth and variability of relative growth rate and yield: shoot length, fresh weight, dry weight, and root weight. Sensitivity analysis was based on tests performed with 3,5-dichlorophenol, atrazine, isoproturon, trifluralin, 2,4-dichlorophenoloxyacetic acid, and dicamba. Growth rates for average M. aquaticum control plants were 0.119 d(-1) and 0.112 d(-1), with average estimated doubling time 6.33 d and 6.74 d for relative growth rate fresh weight and shoot length, respectively. Intrinsic variability of M. aquaticum endpoints was low: 12.9%, 12.5%, and 17.8% for relative growth rate shoot length, relative growth rate fresh weight and yield fresh weight, respectively. The power of the test was fairly high. When the most sensitive endpoints were used for comparison, the 2 Myriophyllum species were similarly sensitive, more sensitive (in the case of auxin simulators), or at least equally sensitive as Lemna minor to other tested herbicides. The M. aquaticum 10-d test with a 7-d exposure period in a water-sediment system has acceptable sensitivity and can provide repeatable, reliable, and reproducible results; therefore, it should not be disregarded as a good and representative additional test in environmental risk assessment.

  10. CVD growth of N-doped carbon nanotubes on silicon substrates and its mechanism.

    PubMed

    He, Maoshuai; Zhou, Shuang; Zhang, Jin; Liu, Zhongfan; Robinson, Colin

    2005-05-19

    In the present study, we report the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of nitrogen-doped (N-doped) aligned carbon nanotubes on a silicon (Si) substrate using ferrocene (Fe(C5H5)2) as catalyst and acetonitrile (CH3CN) as the carbon source. The effect of experimental conditions such as temperature, gaseous environment, and substrates on the structure and morphology of N-doped carbon nanotubes arrays is reported. From XPS and EELS data, it was found that the nitrogen content of the nanotubes could be determined over a wide range, from 1.9% to 12%, by adding the addition of hydrogen (H2) to the reaction system. It was also shown by SEM that N-doped carbon nanotube arrays could be produced on Si and SiO2 substrates at suitable temperatures, although at different growth rates. Using these concentrations, it was possible to produce three-dimensional (3D) carbon nanotubes architectures on predetermined Si/SiO2 patterns. The mechanism underlying the effect of nitrogen containing carbon sources on nanotube formation was explored using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS).

  11. Flexible low-power RF nanoelectronics in the GHz regime using CVD MoS2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yogeesh, Maruthi

    Two-dimensional (2D) materials have attracted substantial interest for flexible nanoelectronics due to the overall device mechanical flexibility and thickness scalability for high mechanical performance and low operating power. In this work, we demonstrate the first MoS2 RF transistors on flexible substrates based on CVD-grown monolayers, featuring record GHz cutoff frequency (5.6 GHz) and saturation velocity (~1.8×106 cm/s), which is significantly superior to contemporary organic and metal oxide thin-film transistors. Furthermore, multicycle three-point bending results demonstrated the electrical robustness of our flexible MoS2 transistors after 10,000 cycles of mechanical bending. Additionally, basic RF communication circuit blocks such as amplifier, mixer and wireless AM receiver have been demonstrated. These collective results indicate that MoS2 is an ideal advanced semiconducting material for low-power, RF devices for large-area flexible nanoelectronics and smart nanosystems owing to its unique combination of large bandgap, high saturation velocity and high mechanical strength.

  12. Systematic study on synthesis and purification of double-walled carbon nanotubes synthesized via CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jedrzejewska, A.; Kalenczuk, R. J.; Mijowska, E.

    2011-12-01

    Carbon nanotubes have unique properties, such as thermal and electrical conductance, which could be useful in the fields of aerospace, microelectronics and biotechnology. However, these properties may vary widely depending on the dimensions, uniformity and purity of the nanotube. Nanotube samples typically contain a significant percentage of more allotropes forms of carbon as well as metal particles left over from catalysts used in manufacturing. Purity characterization of double-walled carbon nanotubes (DWCNTs) is an increasingly popular topic in the field of carbon nanotechnology. In this study, DWCNTs were synthesized in a catalytic reaction, using Fe:MgO as catalyst and methane or methane/ethanol as carbon feedstock for chemical vapor deposition (CVD). The addition of ethanol as carbon feedstock allowed to investigate the influence of oxygen on the sample quality. The purification of the as-produced material from the metallic particles and the catalyst support was performed by sonication in an acid solution. The influence of the duration of the acid treatment using ultrasound on the sample purity was investigated, and the optimal value of this parameter was found. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images confirmed the removal of impurities and served to elucidate the morphology of the samples. The purity of carbon nanotubes was analyzed using thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA). The Raman spectra of the samples, as a measure of the concentration of defects, were also reported.

  13. Challenges and Opportunities for the implementation of interventions to prevent and control CVD in low resource settings in Argentina

    PubMed Central

    Rubinstein, Adolfo; Irazola, Vilma E.; Poggio, Rosana; Gulayin, Pablo; Nejamis, Analía; Beratarrechea, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    In Argentina, Cardiovascular diseases are estimated to cause about 100,000 deaths and more than 250,000 coronary heart disease and stroke events annually, at a cost of more than one billion international dollars. Despite progress in the implementation of several programs to combat non-communicable diseases in Argentina over the last years, most health resources are still dedicated to infectious disease and maternal and child health. The Institute for Clinical Effectiveness and Health Policy, an independent academic institution affiliated to the University of Buenos Aires medical school, runs CESCAS (South American Centre of Excellence in Cardiovascular Health), a center devoted to epidemiological, implementation and policy research. At CESCAS there are three ongoing randomized clinical trials focused on implementation science: 1) A Mobile health intervention to prevent progression of pre-hypertension in poor urban settings in Argentina, Guatemala and Peru; 2) A Comprehensive Approach for Hypertension Prevention and Control in low-resource settings in Argentina; and 3) An Educational Approach to Improve Physician Effectiveness in the Detection, Treatment and Control for patients with Hypercholesterolemia and high Cardiovascular Disease (CVD) risk in low-resource settings in Argentina. All these studies involve the design and implementation of complex interventions to change behaviors of providers and patients. The rationale of each of the three studies, the design of the interventions and the evaluation of processes and outcomes are described in this article together with the barriers and enabling factors associated with implementation research studies. There is a strong need in Argentina and the region at large to build the health research capacity and infrastructure necessary to undertake implementation studies to translate evidence from research findings into improvements in health policy and practice to address CVD and their risk factors. PMID:25754563

  14. Neighborhood Characteristics and Cardiovascular Risk among Older People in Japan: Findings from the JAGES Project

    PubMed Central

    Inoue, Yosuke; Stickley, Andrew; Yazawa, Aki; Shirai, Kokoro; Amemiya, Airi; Kondo, Naoki; Kondo, Katsunori; Ojima, Toshiyuki; Hanazato, Masamichi; Suzuki, Norimichi; Fujiwara, Takeo

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have found an association between neighborhood characteristics (i.e., aspects of the physical and social environment) and the incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) and elevated CVD risk. This study investigated the relationship between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk among older people in Japan where research on this association is scarce. Data came from the Japan Gerontological Evaluation Study project; questionnaire data collected from 3,810 people aged 65 years or older living in 20 primary school districts in Aichi prefecture, Japan, was linked to a computed composite CVD risk score based on biomarker data (i.e., hemoglobin A1c, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and estimated glomerular filtration rate). A sex-stratified multilevel linear regression analysis revealed that for male participants, living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived occurrence of traffic accidents and reduced personal safety was associated with an elevated CVD risk (coefficient = 1.08 per interquartile range increase, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 0.30 to 1.86) whereas males living in neighborhoods with a higher perceived proximity of exercise facilities had a lower risk (coefficient = −1.00, 95% CI = −1.78 to −0.21). For females, there was no statistically significant association between neighborhood characteristics and CVD risk. This study suggests that aspects of the neighborhood environment might be important for CVD morbidity and mortality in Japan, particularly among men. PMID:27716825

  15. Does early intensive multifactorial therapy reduce modelled cardiovascular risk in individuals with screen-detected diabetes? Results from the ADDITION-Europe cluster randomized trial

    PubMed Central

    Black, J A; Sharp, S J; Wareham, N J; Sandbæk, A; Rutten, G E H M; Lauritzen, T; Khunti, K; Davies, M J; Borch-Johnsen, K; Griffin, S J; Simmons, R K

    2014-01-01

    Aims Little is known about the long-term effects of intensive multifactorial treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory. In the absence of long-term data on hard outcomes, we described change in 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk in the 5 years following diagnosis, and quantified the impact of intensive treatment on 10-year modelled cardiovascular risk at 5 years. Methods In a pragmatic, cluster-randomized, parallel-group trial in Denmark, the Netherlands and the UK, 3057 people with screen-detected Type 2 diabetes were randomized by general practice to receive (1) routine care of diabetes according to national guidelines (1379 patients) or (2) intensive multifactorial target-driven management (1678 patients). Ten-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was calculated at baseline and 5 years using the UK Prospective Diabetes Study Risk Engine (version 3β). Results Among 2101 individuals with complete data at follow up (73.4%), 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was 27.3% (sd 13.9) at baseline and 21.3% (sd 13.8) at 5-year follow-up (intensive treatment group difference –6.9, sd 9.0; routine care group difference –5.0, sd 12.2). Modelled 10-year cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group compared with the routine care group at 5 years, after adjustment for baseline cardiovascular disease risk and clustering (–2.0; 95% CI –3.1 to –0.9). Conclusions Despite increasing age and diabetes duration, there was a decline in modelled cardiovascular disease risk in the 5 years following diagnosis. Compared with routine care, 10-year modelled cardiovascular disease risk was lower in the intensive treatment group at 5 years. Our results suggest that patients benefit from intensive treatment early in the diabetes disease trajectory, where the rate of cardiovascular disease risk progression may be slowed. PMID:24533664

  16. The impact of cardiovascular disease and risk factor treatment on ethnic disparities in kidney transplant.

    PubMed

    Taber, David J; Pilch, Nicole A; Meadows, Holly B; McGillicuddy, John W; Bratton, Charles F; Chavin, Kenneth D; Baliga, Prabhakar K; Egede, Leonard E

    2013-05-01

    There is limited data on the use of cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factor medications following renal transplant, especially when comparing use across ethnicities. The aim of this study was to compare the incidence, treatment, and impact of CVD between ethnicities in kidney transplant recipients. This was a retrospective cohort study of adults who underwent transplant between 2000 and 2008 within our academic medical transplant center. Pediatrics, multiorgan transplants, and those lost to follow-up were excluded. Data collection included all transplant and sociodemographic characteristics, medication use, CVD risk factor management, and follow-up events, including acute rejection, graft loss, and death. A total of 987 patients were included and followed for a mean of 6.7 ± 3.0 years. The baseline demographics revealed black patients were equally likely to have preexisting CVD (24% vs 25%, P = .651), but more likely to have preexisting diabetes (35% vs 23%, P < .001) or hypertension (97% vs 94%, P = .029). Black patients had poorer treatment of CVD risk factors, with lower rates of control of diabetes (35% vs 51%, P < .05) and dyslipidemia (37% vs 42%, P < .05). Black renal transplant recipients who had preexisting CVD had reduced graft survival rates compared to white patients (10-year rate 50% vs 60%, P = .033), but similar rates of graft survival were found in those without CVD (10-year rate 70% vs 71% in white patients, P = .483). CVD is common in transplant recipients, with black patients having higher rates and poorer control of diabetes and dyslipidemia.

  17. Friction Properties of Polished Cvd Diamond Films Sliding against Different Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Zichao; Sun, Fanghong; Shen, Bin

    2016-11-01

    Owing to their excellent mechanical and tribological properties, like the well-known extreme hardness, low coefficient of friction and high chemical inertness, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond films have found applications as a hard coating for drawing dies. The surface roughness of the diamond films is one of the most important attributes to the drawing dies. In this paper, the effects of different surface roughnesses on the friction properties of diamond films have been experimentally studied. Diamond films were fabricated using hot filament CVD. The WC-Co (Co 6wt.%) drawing dies were used as substrates. A gas mixture of acetone and hydrogen gas was used as the feedstock gas. The CVD diamond films were polished using mechanical polishing. Polished diamond films with three different surface roughnesses, as well as the unpolished diamond film, were fabricated in order to study the tribological performance between the CVD diamond films and different metals with oil lubrication. The unpolished and polished CVD diamond films are characterized with scanning electron microscope (SEM), atomic force microscope (AFM), surface profilometer, Raman spectrum and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The friction examinations were carried out by using a ball-on-plate type reciprocating friction tester. Low carbide steel, stainless steel, copper and aluminum materials were used as counterpart balls. Based on this study, the results presented the friction coefficients between the polished CVD films and different metals. The friction tests demonstrate that the smooth surface finish of CVD diamond films is beneficial for reducing their friction coefficients. The diamond films exhibit low friction coefficients when slid against the stainless steel balls and low carbide steel ball, lower than that slid against copper ball and aluminum ball, attributed to the higher ductility of copper and aluminum causing larger amount of wear debris adhering to the sliding interface and higher adhesive

  18. Obstructive sleep apnea as an independent stroke risk factor: possible mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Godoy, Jaime; Mellado, Patricio; Tapia, Jorge; Santín, Julia

    2009-03-01

    Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) is a prevalent disease that has emerged as a new cerebrovascular disease (CVD) risk factor, which is independent of its association to hypertension, age and other known conditions that increase CVD. The mechanisms involved in this relation are most likely induced by the periodic hypoxia/reoxygenation that characteristically occurs in OSA, which results in oxidative stress, endothelial dysfunction and activation of the inflammatory cascade, all of which favor atherogenesis. Numerous markers of these changes have been reported in OSA patients, including increased circulating free radicals, increased lipid peroxidation, decreased antioxidant capacity, elevation of tumor necrosis factor and interleukines, increased levels of proinflammatory nuclear transcription factor kappa B, decreased circulating nitric oxide, elevation of vascular adhesion molecules and vascular endothelial growth factor. In addition, several authors have described that Continuous Positive Airway Pressure, the standard OSA therapy, reverts these abnormalities. Further research is needed in order to better clarify the complex mechanisms that underlie the relation between OSA, atherogenesis and CVD which most likely will have significant clinical impact.

  19. Capacitance characteristics of low-k low-cost CVD grown polyimide liner for high-density Cu through-Si-via in three-dimensional LSI

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariappan, Murugesan; Fukushima, Takafumi; Bea, Ji-Chel; Hashimoto, Hiroyuki; Koyanagi, Mitsumasa

    2016-04-01

    Minimization of the parasitic capacitance arising from Cu-through-Si-vias (TSVs) has been rigorously considered in order to enhance the performances of three-dimensional (3D) LSIs. We have systematically investigated the role of chemical vapor deposited (CVD) polyimide (PI) liner in Cu-TSVs in reducing the TSV capacitance. It is confirmed that CVD grown PI greatly helps to reduce the TSV capacitance as compared to the conventional PECVD-SiO2 liner. In addition to that the presence of very small hysteresis and a negligible flat-band voltage shift along the voltage axis confirms the suitability of PI liner as dielectric in the Cu-TSVs, if it were operated below the bias voltages of ±20 V. In over all, the large reduction in capacitance along with the conformal deposition of PI in the TSVs having less than 3 µm-width with aspect ratios greater than 10 reveals that CVD grown PI has the potential application in the future 3D-LSIs with highly scaled TSV.

  20. An analysis of the risk of introduction of additional strains of the rust puccinia psidii Winter ('Ohi'a Rust) to Hawai'i

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Loope, Lloyd; La Rosa, Anne Marie

    2010-01-01

    In April 2005, the rust fungus Puccinia psidii (most widely known as guava rust or eucalyptus rust) was found in Hawai'i. This was the first time this rust had been found outside the Neotropics (broadly-defined, including subtropical Florida, where the rust first established in the 1970s). First detected on a nursery-grown 'ohi'a plant, it became known as ''ohi'a rust'in Hawai'i. The rust spread rapidly and by August 2005 had been found throughout the main Hawaiian Islands. The rust probably reached Hawai'i via the live plant trade or via the foliage trade. In Hawai'i, the rust has infected three native plant species and at least eight non-native species. Effects have been substantial on the endangered endemic plant Eugenia koolauensis and the introduced rose apple, Syzygium jambos. Billions of yellow, asexual urediniospores are produced on rose apple, but a complete life cycle (involving sexual reproduction) has not yet been observed. The rust is autoecious (no alternate host known) on Myrtaceae. The strain introduced into Hawai'i is found sparingly on 'ohi'a (Metrosideros polymorpha), the dominant tree of Hawai'i's forests, with sporadic damage detected to date. The introduction of a rust strain that causes widespread damage to 'ohi'a would be catastrophic for Hawai'i's native biodiversity. Most imports of material potentially contaminated with rust are shipped to Hawai'i from Florida and California (from which P. psidii was reported in late 2005 by Mellano, 2006). Florida is known to have multiple strains. The identity of the strain or strains in California is unclear, but one of them is known to infect myrtle, Myrtus communis, a species commonly imported into Hawai'i. It is important to ecosystem conservation and commercial forestry that additional rust strains or genotypes be prevented from establishing in Hawai'i. The purpose of this analysis of risk is to evaluate the need for an interim rule by the Hawai'i Department of Agriculture to regulate plant

  1. Consideration of QRS complex in addition to ST-segment abnormalities in the estimation of the "risk region" during acute anterior or inferior myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Vervaat, F E; Bouwmeester, S; van Hellemond, I E G; Wagner, G S; Gorgels, A P M

    2014-01-01

    The myocardial area at risk (MaR) is an important aspect in acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). It represents the myocardium at the onset of the STEMI that is ischemic and could become infarcted if no reperfusion occurs. The MaR, therefore, has clinical value because it gives an indication of the amount of myocardium that could potentially be salvaged by rapid reperfusion therapy. The most validated method for measuring the MaR is (99m)Tc-sestamibi SPECT, but this technique is not easily applied in the clinical setting. Another method that can be used for measuring the MaR is the standard ECG-based scoring system, Aldrich ST score, which is more easily applied. This ECG-based scoring system can be used to estimate the extent of acute ischemia for anterior or inferior left ventricular locations, by considering quantitative changes in the ST-segment. Deviations in the ST-segment baseline that occur following an acute coronary occlusion represent the ischemic changes in the transmurally ischemic myocardium. In most instances however, the ECG is not available at the very first moments of STEMI and as times passes the ischemic myocardium becomes necrotic with regression of the ST-segment deviation along with progressive changes of the QRS complex. Thus over the time course of the acute event, the Aldrich ST score would be expected to progressively underestimate the MaR, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold standard; anterior STEMI (r=0.21, p=0.32) and inferior STEMI (r=0.17, p=0.36). Another standard ECG-based scoring system is the Selvester QRS score, which can be used to estimate the final infarct size by considering the quantitative changes in the QRS complex. Therefore, additional consideration of the Selvester QRS score in the acute phase could potentially provide the "component" of infarcted myocardium that is missing when the Aldrich ST score alone is used to determine the MaR in the acute phase, as was seen in studies with SPECT as gold

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Non-valvular atrial fibrillation patients with none or one additional risk factor of the CHA2DS2-VASc score. A comprehensive net clinical benefit analysis for warfarin, aspirin, or no therapy.

    PubMed

    Lip, Gregory Y H; Skjøth, Flemming; Nielsen, Peter B; Larsen, Torben Bjerregaard

    2015-10-01

    Oral anticoagulation (OAC) to prevent stroke has to be balanced against the potential harm of serious bleeding, especially intracranial haemorrhage (ICH). We determined the net clinical benefit (NCB) balancing effectiveness and safety of no antithrombotic therapy, aspirin and warfarin in AF patients with none or one stroke risk factor. Using Danish registries, we determined NCB using various definitions intrinsic to our cohort (Danish weights at 1 and 5 year follow-up), with risk weights which were derived from the hazard ratio (HR) of death following an event, relative to HR of death after ischaemic stroke. When aspirin was compared to no treatment, NCB was neutral or negative for both risk strata. For warfarin vs no treatment, NCB using Danish weights was neutral where no risk factors were present and using five years follow-up. For one stroke risk factor, NCB was positive for warfarin vs no treatment, for one year and five year follow-up. For warfarin vs aspirin use in patients with no risk factors, NCB was positive with one year follow-up, but neutral with five year follow-up. With one risk factor, NCB was generally positive for warfarin vs aspirin. In conclusion, we show a positive overall advantage (i.e. positive NCB) of effective stroke prevention with OAC, compared to no therapy or aspirin with one additional stroke risk factor, using Danish weights. 'Low risk' AF patients with no additional stroke risk factors (i.e.CHA2DS2-VASc 0 in males, 1 in females) do not derive any advantage (neutral or negative NCB) with aspirin, nor with warfarin therapy in the long run.

  4. Inadequacy of Cardiovascular Risk Factor Management in Chronic Kidney Transplantation -- Evidence from the FAVORIT Study

    PubMed Central

    Carpenter, Myra A.; Weir, Matthew R.; Adey, Deborah B.; House, Andrew A.; Bostom, Andrew G.; Kusek, John W.

    2015-01-01

    Background Kidney transplant recipients (KTRs) have increased risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our objective is to describe the prevalence of CVD risk factors applying standard criteria and use of CVD risk factor lowering medications in contemporary KTRs. Methods The Folic Acid for Vascular Outcome Reduction in Transplantation study enrolled and collected medication data on 4,107 KTRs with elevated homocysteine and stable graft function an average of 5 years post-transplant. Results CVD risk factors were common (hypertension or use of blood pressure lowering medication in 92%, borderline or elevated LDL or use of lipid-lowering agent in 66%, history of diabetes mellitus in 41%, and obesity in 38%); prevalent CVD was reported in 20% of study participants. National Kidney Foundation blood pressure (BP) guidelines (BP < 130/80 mm Hg) were not met by 69% of participants. Uncontrolled hypertension (BP of 140/90 mm Hg or higher) was present in 44% of those taking anti-hypertension medication; 18% of participants had borderline or elevated LDL, of which 60% were untreated, and 31% of the participants with prevalent CVD were not using an anti-platelet agent. Conclusion There is opportunity to improve treatment and control of traditional CVD risk factors in kidney transplant recipients. PMID:22775763

  5. "Every disease…man can get can start in this cab": focus groups to identify south Asian taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes and beliefs about cardiovascular disease and its risks.

    PubMed

    Gany, Francesca M; Gill, Pavan P; Ahmed, Ayaz; Acharya, Sudha; Leng, Jennifer

    2013-10-01

    South Asian (SA) taxi drivers potentially possess a double epidemiologic risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to their ethnicity and occupation. This study investigates SA taxi drivers' knowledge, attitudes, beliefs about general health, CVD and approaches to reduce CVD risk. Five focus groups were conducted with 31 SA taxi drivers in the participants' primary language (Bengali, Hindi, Urdu or Punjabi). Audio-recordings of the sessions were transcribed, translated and entered into ATLAS.ti 6.2 for coding and analysis. SA drivers in an urban setting perceive themselves to be at high risk for CVD because of high work-related stress, physical inactivity, poor diet and poor health care access. Participants attributed their occupation to increasing risk for heart disease; none believed that being SA increased their risk. Interventions to lower CVD risk among SA taxi drivers should be multi-level and involve the individual drivers and the taxi industry.

  6. Benefits of Aldosterone Receptor Antagonism in Chronic Kidney Disease (BARACK D) trial–a multi-centre, prospective, randomised, open, blinded end-point, 36-month study of 2,616 patients within primary care with stage 3b chronic kidney disease to compare the efficacy of spironolactone 25 mg once daily in addition to routine care on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes versus routine care alone: study protocol for a randomized controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Chronic kidney disease (CKD) is common and increasing in prevalence. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a major cause of morbidity and death in CKD, though of a different phenotype to the general CVD population. Few therapies have proved effective in modifying the increased CVD risk or rate of renal decline in CKD. There are accumulating data that aldosterone receptor antagonists (ARA) may offer cardio-protection and delay renal impairment in patients with the CV phenotype in CKD. The use of ARA in CKD has therefore been increasingly advocated. However, no large study of ARA with renal or CVD outcomes is underway. Methods The study is a prospective randomised open blinded endpoint (PROBE) trial set in primary care where patients will mainly be identified by their GPs or from existing CKD lists. They will be invited if they have been formally diagnosed with CKD stage 3b or there is evidence of stage 3b CKD from blood results (eGFR 30–44 mL/min/1.73 m2) and fulfil the other inclusion/exclusion criteria. Patients will be randomised to either spironolactone 25 mg once daily in addition to routine care or routine care alone and followed-up for 36 months. Discussion BARACK D is a PROBE trial to determine the effect of ARA on mortality and cardiovascular outcomes (onset or progression of CVD) in patients with stage 3b CKD. Trial registration EudraCT: 2012-002672-13 ISRTN: ISRCTN44522369 PMID:24886488

  7. A Pilot Study To Examine the Effects of Smoking Cessation on Serum Markers of Inflammation in Women at Risk for Cardiovascular Disease

    PubMed Central

    Reichert, Virginia; Xue, Xiangying; Bartscherer, Diane; Jacobsen, Daniel; Fardellone, Christine; Folan, Patricia; Kohn, Nina; Talwar, Arunabh

    2009-01-01

    Background: The links among smoking, inflammation, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) are well established. Several studies have demonstrated that quitting smoking reverses the risk of coronary heart disease within 5 to 10 years. However, the immediate effects of quitting smoking on inflammatory biomarkers associated with CVD risk have not been well described. Methods: In this pilot study, we examined a panel of circulating inflammatory biomarkers associated with CVD in “at-risk” women during the smoking cessation program. Forty-six women enrolled in a smoking cessation program consented to attend four study visits over 6 to 7 weeks. Health/medical information and blood were collected at each visit. Circulating levels of C-reactive protein (CRP), tumor necrosis factor (TNF), interleukin (IL)-6, soluble TNF receptor (sTNFR)-I, sTNFR-II, and soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule (sVCAM)-1 were measured, and changes between baseline levels (visit 1, while smoking) and visits 2 through 4 were determined. Results: Significant reductions in circulating levels of TNF, sTNFR-I, sTNFR-II, and sVCAM-1 were observed among participants over the course of the smoking cessation program. Serum levels of both IL-6 and CRP declined during the smoking cessation program; the changes were not statistically significant, however. Conclusions: These findings suggest there are rapid consequences of smoking cessation on inflammatory biomarkers in women at risk for CVD. Additional, larger studies including diverse smokers desiring to quit are required to confirm changes in “measurable milestones” that could serve as motivating factors to assist smokers to quit. PMID:19225057

  8. Risk of mortality in individuals with low QRS voltage and free of cardiovascular disease.

    PubMed

    Usoro, Andrew O; Bradford, Natalie; Shah, Amit J; Soliman, Elsayed Z

    2014-05-01

    The prognostic significance of low QRS voltage (LQRSV) in the electrocardiogram (ECG) of individuals free of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is unclear. We evaluated the association between LQRSV and all-cause mortality in 6,440 participants (53% women, mean age 60 years) from the Third National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, a representative sample of the US population. Participants with history of CVD or major ECG abnormalities were excluded. LQRSV was automatically defined from standard 12-lead ECG as QRS complex amplitudes of <0.5 mV in all frontal leads and/or <1.0 mV in all precordial leads. Mortality data through 2006 were obtained from National Death Index records. LQRSV was detected in 1.4% (n = 89) of the participants. During a median follow-up of 13.8 years, 2,000 deaths occurred. The mortality rate in individuals with LQRSV was almost twice that in those without LQRSV (51.1 vs 23.5 events per 1,000 person-years, p <0.01). In a demographic-adjusted model, LQRSV was associated with 63% increased risk of mortality (hazard ratio 1.63, 95% confidence interval [1.21, 2.18]). The magnitude of this risk did not appreciably change after additional adjustment for body mass index, smoking status, systolic blood pressure, blood pressure medication use, dyslipidemia, diabetes, cancer, pulmonary disease, and ECG abnormalities (hazard ratio 1.61, 95% confidence interval [1.20, 2.16]) and was consistent across age, race, and sex subcategories. In conclusion, LQRSV is associated with an increased risk of mortality in individuals free of apparent CVD. More research is warranted to determine the mechanisms by which LQRSV is associated with increased risk of mortality in apparently healthy individuals. PMID:24630386

  9. Tuning interlayer coupling in large-area heterostructures with CVD-grown MoS2 and WS2 monolayers.

    PubMed

    Tongay, Sefaattin; Fan, Wen; Kang, Jun; Park, Joonsuk; Koldemir, Unsal; Suh, Joonki; Narang, Deepa S; Liu, Kai; Ji, Jie; Li, Jingbo; Sinclair, Robert; Wu, Junqiao

    2014-06-11

    Band offsets between different monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides are expected to efficiently separate charge carriers or rectify charge flow, offering a mechanism for designing atomically thin devices and probing exotic two-dimensional physics. However, developing such large-area heterostructures has been hampered by challenges in synthesis of monolayers and effectively coupling neighboring layers. Here, we demonstrate large-area (>tens of micrometers) heterostructures of CVD-grown WS2 and MoS2 monolayers, where the interlayer interaction is externally tuned from noncoupling to strong coupling. Following this trend, the luminescence spectrum of the heterostructures evolves from an additive line profile where each layer contributes independently to a new profile that is dictated by charge transfer and band normalization between the WS2 and MoS2 layers. These results and findings open up venues to creating new material systems with rich functionalities and novel physical effects.

  10. A reaction mechanism for titanium nitride CVD from TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, R.S.; Allendorf, M.D.

    1995-12-01

    A gas-phase and surface reaction mechanism for the CVD of TiN from TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3} is proposed. The only gas-phase process is complex formation, which can compete with deposition. The surface mechanism postulates the stepwise elimination of Cl and H atoms from TiCl{sub 4} and NH{sub 3}, respectively, to form solid TiN and gaseous HCl. The mechanism also accounts for the change in oxidation state of Ti by allowing for liberation of N{sub 2}. Provided that the surface composition is at steady state, the stoichiometry of the overall reaction is reproduced exactly. In addition, the global kinetic law predicted by the mechanism is successfully fit to new deposition data from a rotating disk reactor and is shown to be consistent with literature results.

  11. Cardiovascular risk in climacteric women: focus on diet.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Angeles, C; Castelo-Branco, C

    2016-06-01

    A literature search was made using PubMed. The proportion of postmenopausal women has been continually increasing because of enhanced life expectancy. However, accompanying this trend, there is an observed increase in mortality due to cardiovascular disease (CVD). All over the world, obesity rates are increasing and this fact is associated with expanded rates of hypertension, dyslipidemia, and diabetes. Many of these well-known risk factors for CVD can be modified by lifestyle changes. For this reason, nutritional strategies to prevent CVD in this population should be a primary objective for health-care providers. Any attempt at lifestyle modification should include behavioral changes and the implementation of healthy diets and physical activity. The Mediterranean diet is comparable with other interventions such as aspirin, statins, physical activity, and even antihypertensives in terms of reducing the risk of CVD morbidity, mortality and events. The aim of this review is to analyze the effect of dietary advice on postmenopausal women's health. PMID:27112972

  12. Cardiovascular risk factors following renal transplant

    PubMed Central

    Neale, Jill; Smith, Alice C

    2015-01-01

    Kidney transplantation is the gold-standard treatment for many patients with end-stage renal disease. Renal transplant recipients (RTRs) remain at an increased risk of fatal and non-fatal cardiovascular (CV) events compared to the general population, although rates are lower than those patients on maintenance haemodialysis. Death with a functioning graft is most commonly due to cardiovascular disease (CVD) and therefore this remains an important therapeutic target to prevent graft failure. Conventional CV risk factors such as diabetes, hypertension and renal dysfunction remain a major influence on CVD in RTRs. However it is now recognised that the morbidity and mortality from CVD are not entirely accounted for by these traditional risk-factors. Immunosuppression medications exert a deleterious effect on many of these well-recognised contributors to CVD and are known to exacerbate the probability of developing diabetes, graft dysfunction and hypertension which can all lead on to CVD. Non-traditional CV risk factors such as inflammation and anaemia have been strongly linked to increased CV events in RTRs and should be considered alongside those which are classified as conventional. This review summarises what is known about risk-factors for CVD in RTRs and how, through identification of those which are modifiable, outcomes can be improved. The overall CV risk in RTRs is likely to be multifactorial and a complex interaction between the multiple traditional and non-traditional factors; further studies are required to determine how these may be modified to enhance survival and quality of life in this unique population. PMID:26722646

  13. Physical Activity Level Improves the Predictive Accuracy of Cardiovascular Disease Risk Score: The ATTICA Study (2002–2012)

    PubMed Central

    Georgousopoulou, Ekavi N.; Panagiotakos, Demosthenes B.; Bougatsas, Dimitrios; Chatzigeorgiou, Michael; Kavouras, Stavros A.; Chrysohoou, Christina; Skoumas, Ioannis; Tousoulis, Dimitrios; Stefanadis, Christodoulos; Pitsavos, Christos

    2016-01-01

    Background: Although physical activity (PA) has long been associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD), assessment of PA status has never been used as a part of CVD risk prediction tools. The aim of the present work was to examine whether the inclusion of PA status in a CVD risk model improves its predictive accuracy. Methods: Data from the 10-year follow-up (2002–2012) of the n = 2020 participants (aged 18–89 years) of the ATTICA prospective study were used to test the research hypothesis. The HellenicSCORE (that incorporates age, sex, smoking, total cholesterol, and systolic blood pressure levels) was calculated to estimate the baseline 10-year CVD risk; assessment of PA status was based on the International Physical Activity Questionnaire. The estimated CVD risk was tested against the observed 10-year incidence (i.e., development of acute coronary syndromes, stroke, or other CVD according to the World Health Organization [WHO]-International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10 criteria). Changes in the predictive ability of the nested CVD risk model that contained the HellenicSCORE plus PA assessment were evaluated using Harrell's C and net reclassification index. Results: Both HellenicSCORE and PA status were predictors of future CVD events (P < 0.05). However, the estimating classification bias of the model that included only the HellenicSCORE was significantly reduced when PA assessment was included (Harrel's C = 0.012, P = 0.032); this reduction remained significant even when adjusted for diabetes mellitus and dietary habits (P < 0.05). Conclusions: CVD risk scores seem to be more accurate by incorporating individuals’ PA status; thus, may be more effective tools in primary prevention by efficiently allocating CVD candidates. PMID:27076890

  14. Onset conditions for gas phase reaction and nucleation in the CVD of transition metal oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collins, J.; Rosner, D. E.; Castillo, J.

    1992-01-01

    A combined experimental/theoretical study is presented of the onset conditions for gas phase reaction and particle nucleation in hot substrate/cold gas CVD of transition metal oxides. Homogeneous reaction onset conditions are predicted using a simple high activation energy reacting gas film theory. Experimental tests of the basic theory are underway using an axisymmetric impinging jet CVD reactor. No vapor phase ignition has yet been observed in the TiCl4/O2 system under accessible operating conditions (below substrate temperature Tw = 1700 K). The goal of this research is to provide CVD reactor design and operation guidelines for achieving acceptable deposit microstructures at the maximum deposition rate while simultaneously avoiding homogeneous reaction/nucleation and diffusional limitations.

  15. Polymer Adsorption on Graphite and CVD Graphene Surfaces Studied by Surface-Specific Vibrational Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Su, Yudan; Han, Hui-Ling; Cai, Qun; Wu, Qiong; Xie, Mingxiu; Chen, Daoyong; Geng, Baisong; Zhang, Yuanbo; Wang, Feng; Shen, Y R; Tian, Chuanshan

    2015-10-14

    Sum-frequency vibrational spectroscopy was employed to probe polymer contaminants on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene and to study alkane and polyethylene (PE) adsorption on graphite. In comparing the spectra from the two surfaces, it was found that the contaminants on CVD graphene must be long-chain alkane or PE-like molecules. PE adsorption from solution on the honeycomb surface results in a self-assembled ordered monolayer with the C-C skeleton plane perpendicular to the surface and an adsorption free energy of ∼42 kJ/mol for PE(H(CH2CH2)nH) with n ≈ 60. Such large adsorption energy is responsible for the easy contamination of CVD graphene by impurity in the polymer during standard transfer processes. Contamination can be minimized with the use of purified polymers free of PE-like impurities.

  16. A direct comparison of CVD-grown and exfoliated MoS2 using optical spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plechinger, G.; Mann, J.; Preciado, E.; Barroso, D.; Nguyen, A.; Eroms, J.; Schüller, C.; Bartels, L.; Korn, T.

    2014-06-01

    MoS2 is a highly interesting material, which exhibits a crossover from an indirect band gap in the bulk crystal to a direct gap for single layers. Here, we perform a direct comparison between large-area MoS2 films grown by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and MoS2 flakes prepared by mechanical exfoliation from mineral bulk crystal. Raman spectroscopy measurements show differences between the in-plane and out-of-plane phonon mode positions in CVD-grown and exfoliated MoS2. Photoluminescence (PL) mapping reveals large regions in the CVD-grown films that emit strong PL at room-temperature, and low-temperature PL scans demonstrate a large spectral shift of the A exciton emission as a function of position. Polarization-resolved PL measurements under near-resonant excitation conditions show a strong circular polarization of the PL, corresponding to a valley polarization.

  17. iCVD Cyclic Polysiloxane and Polysilazane as Nanoscale Thin-Film Electrolyte: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Reeja-Jayan, B; Liu, Andong; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Gleason, Karen K

    2016-03-01

    A group of crosslinked cyclic siloxane (Si-O) and silazane (Si-N) polymers are synthesized via solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Notably, this is the first report of cyclic polysilazanes synthesized via the gas-phase iCVD method. The deposited nanoscale thin films are thermally stable and chemically inert. By iCVD, they can uniformly and conformally cover nonplanar surfaces having complex geometry. Although polysiloxanes are traditionally utilized as dielectric materials and insulators, our research shows these cyclic organosilicon polymers can conduct lithium ions (Li(+) ) at room temperature. The conformal coating and the room temperature ionic conductivity make these cyclic organosilicon polymers attractive for use as thin-film electrolytes in solid-state batteries. Also, their synthesis process and properties have been systemically studied and discussed. PMID:26785633

  18. Epitaxial thin film GaAs solar cells using OM-CVD techniques. [Organometallics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stirn, R. J.; Wang, K. L.; Yeh, Y. C. M.

    1981-01-01

    A new approach has been initiated at JPL to fabricate thin-film, high efficiency GaAs solar cells on low-cost, single-crystal Si substrates having a thin CVD interlayer of Ge to minimize the lattice and thermal expansion mismatch. For initial experiments, n(+)/p GaAs cells were grown by OM-CVD on single-crystal GaAs and Ge wafers. Details of the growths and performance results will be presented. Subsequently, a combined epitaxial structure of OM-CVD GaAs on a strongly adherent Ge interlayer on (100) Si was grown. This is the first report of the successful growth of this composite structure. Low module costs projected by JPL SAMICS methodology calculations and the potential for 400-600W/kg space solar arrays will be discussed.

  19. Effect of current stress during thermal CVD of multilayer graphene on cobalt catalytic layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueno, Kazuyoshi; Ichikawa, Hiroyasu; Uchida, Takaki

    2016-04-01

    To improve the crystallinity of multilayer graphene (MLG) by CVD at a low temperature, the effect of current stress during thermal CVD on a cobalt (Co) catalytic layer was investigated. The crystallinity of MLG obtained by CVD with current was higher than that without current at the same temperature. This indicates that current has effects besides the Joule heating effect. The current effects on the Co catalytic layer and the MLG growth reaction were investigated, and it was found that current had small effects on the grain size and crystal structure of the Co catalyst and large effects on the MLG growth reaction such as large grain growth and a low activation energy of 0.49 eV, which is close to the value reported for carbon surface diffusion on Co. It is considered that the enhancement of MLG growth reaction by current leads to the improved crystallinity of MLG at a relatively low temperature.

  20. Metal infiltration into biomaterials by ALD and CVD: a comparative study.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Mo; Pippel, Eckhard; Knez, Mato

    2011-03-14

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a subset of chemical vapor deposition (CVD) and both use very similar chemistry. Recently, it has been reported that ALD has the potential to realize a new design paradigm of bioinorganic materials through metal infiltration, which in nature has been employed as a hardening strategy for many tissues in diverse biological organisms. Herein, using a spider dragline silk and a collagen membrane as targets, we have performed a comparative study to elucidate the difference of the metal infiltration effect by ALD and CVD. From the comparison of mechanical properties, concentration of the infiltrated metal, and structural changes induced by the infiltrated metal, it has been proven that the metal can effectively infiltrate biomaterials by ALD and the infiltrated metal leads to highly improved mechanical properties accompanied by substantial changes in the protein structures, whereas CVD is less effective.

  1. iCVD Cyclic Polysiloxane and Polysilazane as Nanoscale Thin-Film Electrolyte: Synthesis and Properties.

    PubMed

    Chen, Nan; Reeja-Jayan, B; Liu, Andong; Lau, Jonathan; Dunn, Bruce; Gleason, Karen K

    2016-03-01

    A group of crosslinked cyclic siloxane (Si-O) and silazane (Si-N) polymers are synthesized via solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD). Notably, this is the first report of cyclic polysilazanes synthesized via the gas-phase iCVD method. The deposited nanoscale thin films are thermally stable and chemically inert. By iCVD, they can uniformly and conformally cover nonplanar surfaces having complex geometry. Although polysiloxanes are traditionally utilized as dielectric materials and insulators, our research shows these cyclic organosilicon polymers can conduct lithium ions (Li(+) ) at room temperature. The conformal coating and the room temperature ionic conductivity make these cyclic organosilicon polymers attractive for use as thin-film electrolytes in solid-state batteries. Also, their synthesis process and properties have been systemically studied and discussed.

  2. [Cardiovascular risk factors in young people].

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Contreras, Mónica; Moreno-Gómez, Germán A; Marín-Grisales, Marta E; García-Ortiz, Luis H

    2009-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) involves several disorders related to the formation and development of atherosclerotic processes. Several risk factors are involved in CVD aetiology; some of them (i.e. age, hypertension, obesity, dislipidemia and diabetes) have been clearly associated, whereas others have a variable level of association. An increase in cardiovascular risk factors has been recently reported in the young population; studies of cardiovascular risk factors in this population have shown that its cardiovascular risk profile could be different from that presented by older populations. This review presents a summary of reported cardiovascular risk factors in the young population and their causes which have been released and indexed in different databases. Most factors discussed are life-habit risk factors and represent direct targets for clinical intervention. We propose that primary CVD prevention should include a more detailed knowledge of the nature of the risk factors concerning the young population and could have a positive impact on CVD prevalence during the next few years.

  3. The Rationale and Design of the Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) Study

    PubMed Central

    Schnipper, Jeffrey L.; Roumie, Christianne L.; Cawthon, Courtney; Businger, Alexandra; Dalal, Anuj K.; Mugalla, Ileko; Eden, Svetlana; Jacobson, Terry A.; Rask, Kimberly J.; Vaccarino, Viola; Gandhi, Tejal K.; Bates, David W.; Johnson, Daniel C.; Labonville, Stephanie; Gregory, David; Kripalani, Sunil

    2010-01-01

    Background Medication errors and adverse drug events are common after hospital discharge, due to changes in medication regimens, suboptimal discharge instructions, and prolonged time to follow-up. Pharmacist-based interventions may be effective in promoting the safe and effective use of medications, especially among high risk patients such as those with low health literacy. Methods and Results The Pharmacist Intervention for Low Literacy in Cardiovascular Disease (PILL-CVD) study is a randomized controlled trial conducted at 2 academic centers – Vanderbilt University Hospital and Brigham and Women’s Hospital. Patients admitted with acute coronary syndrome or acute decompensated heart failure were randomized to usual care or intervention. The intervention consisted of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient pharmacist counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and tailored telephone follow-up after discharge. The primary outcome is the occurrence of serious medication errors in the first 30 days after hospital discharge. Secondary outcomes are health care utilization, disease-specific quality of life, and cost effectiveness. Enrollment was completed September 2009. A total of 862 patients were enrolled, and 430 patients were randomized to receive the intervention. Analyses will determine whether the intervention was effective in reducing serious medication errors, particularly in patients with low health literacy. Conclusions The PILL-CVD study was designed to reduce serious medication errors after hospitalization through a pharmacist-based intervention. The intervention, if effective, will inform health care facilities on the use of pharmacist-assisted medication reconciliation, inpatient counseling, low-literacy adherence aids, and patient follow-up after discharge. Clinical Trial Registration http://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT00632021, NCT00632021 PMID:20233982

  4. Cardiovascular Disease in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus: The Role of Traditional and Lupus Related Risk Factors

    PubMed Central

    Zeller, Carlos Borelli; Appenzeller, Simone

    2008-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disorder characterized by immune cell activation, inflammation driven plaque formation and subsequent destabilization. In other disorders of an inflammatory nature, the chronic inflammatory state per se has been linked to acceleration of the atherosclerotic process which is underlined by an increased incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and antiphopholipid (Hughes) syndrome (APS). SLE is an autoimmune disease that may affect any organ. Premature coronary heart disease has emerged as a major cause of morbidity and mortality in SLE. In addition to mortality, cardiovascular morbidity is also markedly increased in these patients, compared with the general population. The increased cardiovascular risk can be explained only partially by an increased prevalence of classical risk factors for cardiovascular disease; it also appears to be related to inflammation. Inflammation is increasingly being considered central to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis and an important risk factor for vascular disease. Recent epidemiologic and pathogenesis studies have suggested a great deal in common between the pathogenesis of prototypic autoimmune disease such as SLE and that of atherosclerosis. We will review traditional risk factors for CVD in SLE. We will also discuss the role of inflammation in atherosclerosis, as well as possible treatment strategies in these patients. PMID:19936286

  5. Unfavourable cardiovascular disease risk profiles in a cohort of Dutch and British haemophilia patients.

    PubMed

    Fransen van de Putte, Dietje E; Fischer, Kathelijn; Makris, Michael; Tait, R Campbell; Chowdary, Pratima; Collins, Peter W; Meijer, Karina; Roosendaal, Goris; Schutgens, Roger E G; Mauser-Bunschoten, Eveline P

    2013-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) mortality is reported to be decreased in haemophilia patients, but reports on the prevalence of CVD risk factors are conflicting. A cross-sectional assessment of CVD risk profiles was performed in a large cohort of haemophilia patients. Baseline data on CVD risk factors of 709 Dutch and UK haemophilia patients aged ≥30 years were analysed and compared with the general age-matched male population. CVD risk profiles were assessed using the QRISK®2-2011 and SCORE algorithms. Although QRISK® 2 was only validated in the UK, comparison with SCORE indicated similar properties of QRISK®2 in both Dutch and UK patients (correlation 0.86). Mean age was 49.8 years. Hypertension was more common in haemophilia patients than in the general population (49% vs. 40%), while the prevalences of obesity and hypercholesterolaemia were lower (15 vs. 20% and 44 vs. 68%, respectively), and those of diabetes and smoking were similar. The predicted 10-year QRISK®2 risk was significantly higher in haemophilia patients than in the general population (8.9 vs. 6.7%), indicating more unfavourable cardiovascular disease risk profiles. This increased risk became apparent after the age of 40 years. Our results indicate an increased prevalence of hypertension and overall more unfavourable CVD risk profiles in haemophilia patients compared with the general age-matched male population.

  6. A Community-based Cross-sectional Study of Cardiovascular Risk in a Rural Community of Puducherry

    PubMed Central

    Shrivastava, Saurabh R.; Ghorpade, Arun G.; Shrivastava, Prateek S.

    2015-01-01

    Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) / International Society of Hypertension (ISH) risk prediction chart can predict the risk of cardiovascular events in any population. Aim: To assess the prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and to estimate the cardiovascular risk using the WHO/ISH risk charts. Materials and Methods: A cross-sectional study was done from November 2011 to January 2012 in a rural area of Puducherry. Method of sampling was a single stage cluster random sampling, and subjects were enrolled depending on their suitability with the inclusion and exclusion criteria. The data collection tool was a piloted and semi-structured questionnaire, while WHO/ISH cardiovascular risk prediction charts for the South-East Asian region was used to predict the cardiovascular risk. Institutional Ethics committee permission was obtained before the start of the study. Statistical analysis was done using SPSS version 16 and appropriate statistical tests were applied. Results: The mean age in years was 54.2 (±11.1) years with 46.7% of the participants being male. On application of the WHO/ISH risk prediction charts, almost 17% of the study subjects had moderate or high risk for a cardiovascular event. Additionally, high salt diet, alcohol use and low HDL levels, were identified as the major CVD risk factors. Conclusion: To conclude, stratification of people on the basis of risk prediction chart is a major step to have a clear idea about the magnitude of the problem. The findings of the current study revealed that there is a high burden of CVD risk in the rural Puducherry. PMID:26900417

  7. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  8. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  9. A facile process for soak-and-peel delamination of CVD graphene from substrates using water

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Priti; Dongare, Pratiksha D.; Grover, Sameer; Dubey, Sudipta; Mamgain, Hitesh; Bhattacharya, Arnab; Deshmukh, Mandar M.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate a simple technique to transfer chemical vapour deposited (CVD) graphene from copper and platinum substrates using a soak-and-peel delamination technique utilizing only hot deionized water. The lack of chemical etchants results in cleaner CVD graphene films minimizing unintentional doping, as confirmed by Raman and electrical measurements. The process allows the reuse of substrates and hence can enable the use of oriented substrates for growth of higher quality graphene, and is an inherently inexpensive and scalable process for large-area production. PMID:24457558

  10. System for the growth of bulk SiC crystals by modified CVD techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steckl, Andrew J.

    1994-01-01

    The goal of this program was the development of a SiC CVD growth of films thick enough to be useful as pseudo-substrates. The cold-walled CVD system was designed, assembled, and tested. Extrapolating from preliminary evaluation of SiC films grown in the system at relatively low temperatures indicates that the growth rate at the final temperatures will be high enough to make our approach practical. Modifications of the system to allow high temperature growth and cleaner growth conditions are in progress. This program was jointly funded by Wright Laboratory, Materials Directorate and NASA LeRC and monitored by NASA.

  11. A numerical and experimental analysis of reactor performance and deposition rates for CVD on monofilaments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokoglu, S. A.; Kuczmarski, M.; Veitch, L.; Tsui, P.; Chait, A.

    1990-01-01

    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) code FLUENT is adopted to simulate a cylindrical upflow reactor designed for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) on monofilaments. Equilibrium temperature profiles along the fiber and quartz reactor wall are experimentally measured and used as boundary conditions in numerical simulations. Two-dimensional axisymmetric flow and temperature fields are calculated for hydrogen and argon; the effect of free convection is assessed. The gas and surface chemistry is included for predicting silicon deposition from silane. The model predictions are compared with experimentally measured silicon CVD rates. Inferences are made for optimum conditions to obtain uniformity.

  12. Hot-Wire CVD Amorphous Si Materials for Solar Cell Application

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Q.

    2009-01-01

    Hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) thin films and their application to solar cells fabricated using the hot-wire chemical vapor deposition (HWCVD) or (CAT)-CVD will be reviewed. This review will focus on the comparison to the standard plasma enhance (PE) CVD in the terms of deposition technique, film properties, and solar cell performance. The advantages of using HWCVD for a-Si:H solar cell research as well as the criteria for industry's adaptation of this technique for mass production will be addressed.

  13. Direct growth of macroscopic fibers composed of large diameter SWNTs by CVD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Q. H.; Bai, S.; Fournier, T.; Li, F.; Wang, G.; Cheng, H. M.; Bai, J. B.

    2003-03-01

    Macroscopic nanotube fibers, composed of aligned large diameter single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs), were prepared by a simple CVD method. These fibers, which constitute the nanotube ropes of loose structure like hemp cords, can be divided into the nanotube threads (mesoscopically) and subdivided into nanotube bundles (microscopically). The samples show good alignment at different scales. The fibers, several micrometers in diameter, have a relatively stable structure and only dissociated partially under ultrasonic dispersion. The obtained SWNTs have good crystalline structure and good purity. The influence of the CVD conditions on the fiber morphology was also investigated.

  14. Temperature threshold and water role in CVD growth of single-walled carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Junfeng; Motta, Marcelo; Angels, Volker; Luo, Jikui; Johnson, Brian

    2016-02-01

    An in-depth understanding of the growth process of single walled carbon nanotubes is of vital importance to the control of the yield of the material and its carbon structure. Using a nickel/silica (Ni/SiOx) catalyst we have conducted a series of growth experiments with a chemical vapour deposition (CVD) system. We find that there is a temperature threshold in the CVD process, and if the reaction temperature sets above this threshold there will be no growth of the nanotubes. In association with this temperature effect, water plays an important role in the promotion or termination of the growth of single walled carbon nanotubes.

  15. Fire Hazard Analysis for the Cold Vacuum Drying (CVD) Facility

    SciTech Connect

    JOHNSON, B.H.

    1999-08-19