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Sample records for additional dc bias

  1. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  2. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  3. Spin–orbit coupling induced magnetoresistance oscillation in a dc biased two-dimensional electron system.

    PubMed

    Wang, C M; Lei, X L

    2014-06-11

    We study dc-current effects on the magnetoresistance oscillation in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling, using the balance-equation approach to nonlinear magnetotransport. In the weak current limit the magnetoresistance exhibits periodical Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation with changing Rashba coupling strength for a fixed magnetic field. At finite dc bias, the period of the oscillation halves when the interbranch contribution to resistivity dominates. With further increasing current density, the oscillatory resistivity exhibits phase inversion, i.e., magnetoresistivity minima (maxima) invert to maxima (minima) at certain values of the dc bias, which is due to the current-induced magnetoresistance oscillation. PMID:25932474

  4. Multipactor susceptibility on a dielectric with a bias dc electric field and a background gas

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Franzi, Matthew; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2011-05-15

    We use Monte Carlo simulations and analytical calculations to derive the condition for the onset of multipactor discharge on a dielectric surface at various combinations of the bias dc electric field, rf electric field, and background pressures of noble gases, such as Argon. It is found that the presence of a tangential bias dc electric field on the dielectric surface lowers the magnitude of rf electric field threshold to initiate multipactor, therefore plausibly offering robust protection against high power microwaves. The presence of low pressure gases may lead to a lower multipactor saturation level, however. The combined effects of tangential dc electric field and external gases on multipactor susceptibility are presented.

  5. Analysis of Fe Nanoparticles Using XPS Measurements Under D.C. or Pulsed-Voltage Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Suzer, Sefik; Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2010-06-16

    The impact of solution exposure on the charging properties of oxide coatings on Fe metal-core oxide-shells has been examined by sample biasing during XPS measurements. The Fe nanoparticles were suspended in relatively unreactive acetone and were analyzed after particle containing solutions were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates, and/or Au substrates. The particle and substrate combinations were subjected to ± 10V d.c. biasing in the form of square waves (SQW) pulses with 5V amplitude. The samples experienced variable degrees of charging for which low energy electrons at ~1 eV, 20μA and low energy Ar+ ions were used to minimize. Application of d.c. bias and/or square wave pulses drastically influences the extent of charging, which is utilized to gather additional analytical information about the sample under investigation. This approach allows separation of otherwise overlapping peaks. Accordingly, the O1s peaks of the silicon oxide substrate, the iron oxide nanoparticles, and that of the casting solvent can be separated from each other. Similarly the C1s peak belonging to the solvent can be separated from that of the adventitious carbon. The charging shifts of the iron nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the surrounding solvent. Hence, acetone exhibits the largest shift, water the smallest, and methanol in between. Dynamical measurements performed by application of the voltage stress in the form of SQW pulses gives information about the time constants of the processes involved, which led us postulate that these charging properties we probe in these systems, stem mainly from ionic movement(s).

  6. DC bias modulation characteristics of longitudinal KD*P modulators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Ed; Wilkins, Nathan

    1992-12-01

    A test program designed to study the DC modulation characteristics of longitudinal KD*P modulators and to determine what electrode structure might improve the performance of these devices is presented which was developed in the Marshall Space Flight Center. The physical constraints of these devices and the necessary electrical characteristics that the KD*P modulators must have to be used in the MSFC polarimeter are discussed.

  7. Microwave sintering versus conventional sintering of NiCuZn ferrites. Part II: Microstructure and DC-bias superposition characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Chenxin; Xiao, Shumin; Zhu, Jianhua; Shi, Wei

    2016-06-01

    NiCuZn ferrites with the composition of (Ni0.48Cu0.10Zn0.42O)1.04(Fe2O3)0.96 were consolidated by microwave sintering (MS) and conventional sintering (CS), respectively. The influences of external microwave field and additives (1 wt% BSZ glass or 1 wt% Bi2O3) on the microstructure and DC-bias superposition characteristics of NiCuZn ferrites were investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the final grain size was much larger with higher density since applying microwave field. In addition, for undoped ferrites, coarse grains structure obtained from microwave sintering is harmful to the DC-bias superposition characteristics. However, since adding BSZ glass or Bi2O3, the discrepancy on the final grain size obtained from MS and CS methods is not obvious. NiCuZn ferrites with the addition of BSZ glass or Bi2O3 exhibited a stronger ability to inhibit the drop of permeability under the DC-bias magnetic field. Possible mechanisms behind are discussed in this article.

  8. Quadrature Mixer LO Leakage Suppression Through Quadrature DC Bias

    SciTech Connect

    BALDWIN, JESSE G; DUBBERT, DALE F.

    2002-05-01

    A new concept has been developed which allows direct-to-RF conversion of digitally synthesized waveforms. The concept named Quadrature Error Corrected Digital Waveform Synthesis (QECDWS) employs quadrature amplitude and phase predistortion to the complex waveform to reduce the undesirable quadrature image. Another undesirable product of QECDWS-based RF conversion is the Local Oscillator (LO) leakage through the quadrature upconverter (mixer). A common technique for reducing this LO leakage is to apply a quadrature bias to the mixer I and Q inputs. This report analyzes this technique through theory, lab measurement, and data analysis for a candidate quadrature mixer for Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) applications.

  9. Influence of substrate bias on practical adhesion, toughness, and roughness of reactive dc-sputtered zirconium nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Cheng-Shi; Liu, Chuan-Pu; Yang, Heng-Ghieh; Tsao, C.-Y. A.

    2004-09-01

    The ZrN films were grown on Si (100) substrates using dc magnetron sputtering where the substrate bias was varied from -45 to 50 V. In this article, the film/substrate practical adhesion of the ZrN films were measured by scratch testing while the hardness, elastic modulus, and fracture toughness were measured by nanoindentation. The structures and morphologies of the ZrN films were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy, atomic force microscopy, and x-ray diffraction. The results indicate that the introduction of either negative or positive bias results in the degradation of the practical adhesion properties, while the films under zero bias exhibit the best adhesion. In addition, positive bias results in the increase in both the hardness and elastic modulus, while negative bias enhances the hardness and toughness of the ZrN thin films. The mechanical properties are greatly influenced by substrate bias and can be correlated to microstructure variations. The detailed mechanisms accounted for these phenomena are discussed.

  10. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Fiber Coatings by DC-Biased AC-Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.; Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.

    2011-11-01

    Mesh-like fiber mats of polystyrene (PS) were deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles greater than 150° and gas fraction values of up to 97% were obtained. A Rheological study was conducted on these fiber surfaces and showed a decrease in shear stress when compared with a noncoated surface (no slip), making them excellent candidates for applications requiring the reduction of skin-friction drag in submerged surfaces. We have also shown that addition of a second, low-surface energy polymer to a solution of PS can be used to control the fiber internal porosity depending on the concentration of the second polymer. Contact-angle measurements on mats consisting of porous and nonporous fibers have been used to evaluate the role of the larger spaces between the fibers and the pores on individual fibers on superhydrophobicity. Financial support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  11. A broadband reflective filter for applying dc biases to high-Q superconducting microwave cavities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hao, Yu; Rouxinol, Francisco; Lahaye, Matt

    2015-03-01

    The integration of dc-bias circuitry into low-loss microwave cavities is an important technical issue for topics in many fields that include research with qubit- and cavity-coupled mechanical system, circuit QED and quantum dynamics of nonlinear systems. The applied potentials or currents serve a variety of functions such as maintaining the operating state of device or establishing tunable electrostatic interactions between devices (for example, in order to couple a nanomechanical resonator to a superconducting qubit to generate and detect quantum states of a mechanical resonator). Here we report a bias-circuit design that utilizes a broadband reflective filter to connect to a high-Q superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) cavity. Our design allows us to apply dc-voltages to the center trace of CPW, with negligible changes in loaded quality factors of the fundamental mode. Simulations and measurements of the filter demonstrate insertion loss greater than 20 dB in the range of 3 to 10 GHz. Transmission measurements of the voltage-biased CPW show that loaded quality factors exceeding 105 can be achieved for dc-voltages as high as V = +/- 20V for the cavity operated in the single photon regime. National Science Foundation under Grant No. DMR-1056423 and Grant No. DMR-1312421.

  12. Self-biased 215 MHz magnetoelectric NEMS resonator for ultra-sensitive DC magnetic field detection.

    PubMed

    Nan, Tianxiang; Hui, Yu; Rinaldi, Matteo; Sun, Nian X

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity magnetoelectric sensors with their electromechanical resonance frequencies < 200 kHz have been recently demonstrated using magnetostrictive/piezoelectric magnetoelectric heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a novel magnetoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) resonator with an electromechanical resonance frequency of 215 MHz based on an AlN/(FeGaB/Al2O3) × 10 magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting DC magnetic fields. This magnetoelectric NEMS resonator showed a high quality factor of 735, and strong magnetoelectric coupling with a large voltage tunable sensitivity. The admittance of the magnetoelectric NEMS resonator was very sensitive to DC magnetic fields at its electromechanical resonance, which led to a new detection mechanism for ultra-sensitive self-biased RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor with a low limit of detection of DC magnetic fields of ~300 picoTelsa. The magnetic/piezoelectric heterostructure based RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor is compact, power efficient and readily integrated with CMOS technology, which represents a new class of ultra-sensitive magnetometers for DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. PMID:23760520

  13. Self-Biased 215MHz Magnetoelectric NEMS Resonator for Ultra-Sensitive DC Magnetic Field Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Hui, Yu; Rinaldi, Matteo; Sun, Nian X.

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity magnetoelectric sensors with their electromechanical resonance frequencies < 200 kHz have been recently demonstrated using magnetostrictive/piezoelectric magnetoelectric heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a novel magnetoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) resonator with an electromechanical resonance frequency of 215 MHz based on an AlN/(FeGaB/Al2O3) × 10 magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting DC magnetic fields. This magnetoelectric NEMS resonator showed a high quality factor of 735, and strong magnetoelectric coupling with a large voltage tunable sensitivity. The admittance of the magnetoelectric NEMS resonator was very sensitive to DC magnetic fields at its electromechanical resonance, which led to a new detection mechanism for ultra-sensitive self-biased RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor with a low limit of detection of DC magnetic fields of ~300 picoTelsa. The magnetic/piezoelectric heterostructure based RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor is compact, power efficient and readily integrated with CMOS technology, which represents a new class of ultra-sensitive magnetometers for DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. PMID:23760520

  14. Design and realization of assessment software for DC-bias of transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Lian-guang; Yuan, Zhong-chen

    2013-03-01

    The transformer working at the rated state will partically be saturated, and its mangetic current will be distorted accompanying with various of harmonic, increasing reactive power demand and some other affilicated phenomenon, which will threaten the safe operation of power grid. This paper establishes a transformer saturation circuit model of DCbias under duality principle basing on J-A theory which can reflect the hysteresis characteristics of iron core, and develops an software can assess the effects of transformer DC-bias using hybrid programming technology of C#.net and MATLAB with the microsoft.net platform. This software is able to simulate the mangnetizing current of different structures and assess the Saturation Level of transformers and the influnces of affilicated phenomenon accroding to the parameter of transformers and the DC equivalent voltage. It provides an effective method to assess the influnces of transformers caused by magnetic storm disaster and the earthing current of the HVDC project.

  15. Bias-voltage-controlled ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Smolyakov, D. A.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2015-06-01

    We report some ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in silicon-based hybrid structures. The giant impedance change under an applied magnetic field has been experimentally found in the metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) diode with the Schottky barrier based on the Fe/SiO2/p-Si and Fe/SiO2/n-Si structures. The maximum effect is found to observe at temperatures of 10-30 K in the frequency range 10 Hz-1 MHz. Below 1 kHz the magnetoresistance can be controlled in a wide range by applying a bias to the device. A photoinduced dc magnetoresistance of over 104% has been found in the Fe/SiO2/p-Si back-to-back Schottky diode. The observed magnetic-field-dependent effects are caused by the interface states localized in the insula-tor/semiconductor interface.

  16. Effects of dc bias on the fabrication of amorphous GdCo RF sputtered films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Wilson, W. L., Jr.; Zwingman, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the effects of a dc bias field applied to Gd(1-x)Co(x) thin films during RF sputter deposition. Such films may possess uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with easy axis perpendicular to the plane of the film and may be used in magnetic bubble devices. Uniformity in composition, thickness and magnetic properties has been achieved and film composition has been controlled to within one percent. However, significant variations of magnetic properties were observed from film to film.

  17. Variance and bias computations for improved modal identification using ERA/DC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Longman, Richard W.; Lew, Jiann-Shiun; Tseng, Dong-Huei; Juang, Jer-Nan

    1991-01-01

    Variance and bias confidence criteria were recently developed for the eigensystem realization algorithm (ERA) identification technique. These criteria are extended for the modified version of ERA based on data correlation, ERA/DC, and also for the Q-Markov cover algorithm. The importance and usefulness of the variance and bias information are demonstrated in numerical studies. The criteria are shown to be very effective not only by indicating the accuracy of the identification results, especially in terms of confidence intervals, but also by helping the ERA user to obtain better results by seeing the effect of changing the sample time, adjusting the Hankel matrix dimension, choosing how many singular values to retain, deciding the model order, etc.

  18. New Fe-based amorphous compound powder cores with superior DC-bias properties and low loss characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiangyue; Lu, Caowei; Guo, Feng; Lu, Zhichao; Li, Deren; Zhou, Shaoxiong

    2012-09-01

    The Fe-Si-B-P-C metallic glassy alloys exhibit relatively high glass forming ability (GFA) as well as good soft magnetic properties such as ultra-low core loss. In this paper, the metallic glassy alloy (Fe0.76Si0.09B0.10P0.05)98C2 has been newly developed. A new Fe-based amorphous compound powder was prepared from FeSiB amorphous powder by crushing the amorphous ribbons as the first magnetic component and FeSiBPC metallic glassy powder by water atomization as the second magnetic component. Subsequently by adding organic and inorganic binders to the compound powder and cold pressing, the new Fe-based amorphous compound powder cores were fabricated. These new Fe-based amorphous compound powder cores combine the superior DC-bias properties and the excellently low core loss. The core loss of 453 kW/m3 at Bm=0.1 T and f=100 kHz was obtained when the mass ratio of FeSiB/FeSiBPC equals 3:2, and meanwhile the DC-bias properties of the new Fe-based amorphous compound powder cores just increased by 10% at H=100 Oe for μ=60 compared to those of the FeSiBPC powder cores. In addition, with the increase in the content of the FeSiPC metallic glassy powder, the core loss tends to decrease.

  19. Ripple current loss measurement with DC bias condition for high temperature superconducting power cable using calorimetry method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, D. W.; Kim, J. G.; Kim, A. R.; Park, M.; Yu, I. K.; Sim, K. D.; Kim, S. H.; Lee, S. J.; Cho, J. W.; Won, Y. J.

    2010-11-01

    The authors calculated the loss of the High Temperature Superconducting (HTS) model cable using Norris ellipse formula, and measured the loss of the model cable experimentally. Two kinds of measuring method are used. One is the electrical method, and the other is the calorimetric method. The electrical method can be used only in AC condition. But the calorimetric method can be used in both AC and DC bias conditions. In order to propose an effective measuring approach for Ripple Dependent Loss (RDL) under DC bias condition using the calorimetric method, Bismuth Strontium Calcium Copper Oxide (BSCCO) wires were used for the HTS model cable, and the SUS tapes were used as a heating tape to make the same pattern of the temperature profiles as in the electrical method without the transport current. The temperature-loss relations were obtained by the electrical method, and then applied to the calorimetric method by which the RDL under DC bias condition was well estimated.

  20. Nonlinear magnetization relaxation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in superimposed ac and dc magnetic bias fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Serguey V.; Déjardin, Pierre-Michel; El Mrabti, Halim; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    2010-09-01

    The nonlinear ac response of the magnetization M(t) of a uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic nanoparticle subjected to both ac and dc bias magnetic fields of arbitrary strengths and orientations is determined by averaging Gilbert’s equation augmented by a random field with Gaussian white-noise properties in order to calculate exactly the relevant statistical averages. It is shown that the magnetization dynamics of the uniaxial particle driven by a strong ac field applied at an angle to the easy axis of the particle (so that the axial symmetry is broken) alters drastically leading to different nonlinear effects due to coupling of the thermally activated magnetization reversal mode with the precessional modes of M(t) via the driving ac field.

  1. Effect of dc bias on pressure-induced depolarization of Pb(Nb ,Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dai, Zhonghua; Xu, Zhuo; Yao, Xi

    2008-02-01

    The polarization and depolarization of antiferroelectric Pb(Nb ,Zr,Sn,Ti)O3 (PNZST) ceramics under a dc bias were studied in a hydraulic pressure from 0to250MPa. It is found that the antiferroelectric ceramic can be induced to a metastable ferroelectric state and that the ceramic at this ferroelectric state can be switched to the antiferroelectric state using hydraulic pressure. The hydraulic pressure to induce the transition from the ferroelectric to the antiferroelectric states increases with the positive and decreases with the negative dc bias. Based on the results, the pressure-electric field phase diagram for polarized PNZST ceramics was established.

  2. Investigation of silicon heterojunction solar cells by photoluminescence under DC-bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Courtois, Guillaume; Chatterjee, Parsathi; Suendo, Veinardi; Salomon, Antoine; Roca i Cabarrocas, Pere

    2013-09-01

    Photoluminescence measurements on solar cells are usually carried out under open-circuit conditions. We report here on an innovative approach, in which the samples are simultaneously illuminated and DC-biased, so that the luminescence can be monitored under several operating points, that is to say several injection levels, ranging from short-circuit conditions to the light-emitting regime of the device. The experiments were performed on in-house made c-Si/a-Si:H heterojunction solar cells illuminated by a continuous green laser diode and positively biased. The luminescence spectra obtained this way were compared to those obtained with no light excitation source, which corresponds to usual electroluminescence mode and dark J(V). Firstly, the obtained luminescence spectra have shown the expected exponential dependence on the applied voltage. Furthermore, given that the amplitude of the emitted luminescence is proportional to the radiative recombination rate, this approach enables to indirectly characterise the non-radiative recombination phenomena. In the case of HJ solar cells with intrinsic thin layers processed on high quality FZ-wafers, non-radiative recombination is dominated by the defects at the c-Si/a-Si:H interface. The luminescence measurements presented here therefore give information on the quality of the surface passivation. An estimation of the interface defect density was achieved by comparing our experimental results with modelling.

  3. Using the DC self-bias effect for simultaneous ion-electron beam generation in space thruster applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, Dmytro; Aanesland, Ane

    2014-10-01

    In this work we discuss ways to use the self-bias effect for broad ion-electron beam generation and present recent experimental results. In asymmetrical systems the self-bias effect leads to rectification of the applied RF voltage to a DC voltage dropped across the space charge sheath near to the electrode having smaller area. Thus, continuous ion acceleration is possible towards the smaller electrode with periodical electron extraction due to the RF plasma potential oscillations. We propose a new concept of neutralizer-free gridded space thruster called NEPTUNE. In this concept, the RF electrodes in contact with the plasma are replaced by a two-grid system such that ``the smaller electrode'' is now the external grid. The grids are biased with RF power across a capacitor. This allows to locate RF space charge sheath between the acceleration grids while still keeping the possibility of a DC self-bias generation. Here we present first proof-of-concept of the NEPTUNE thruster prototype and give basic parameters spacing for such thruster. Comparison of the main parameters of the beam generated using RF and a classical ``DC with neutralizer'' acceleration method shows several advantages of the NEPTUNE concept. This work was supported by a Marie Curie International Incoming Fellowships within the 7th European Community Framework (NEPTUNE PIIF-GA-2012-326054).

  4. The effect of dust on electron heating and dc self-bias in hydrogen diluted silane discharges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schüngel, E.; Mohr, S.; Iwashita, S.; Schulze, J.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2013-05-01

    In capacitive hydrogen diluted silane discharges the formation of dust affects plasma processes used, e.g. for thin film solar cell manufacturing. Thus, a basic understanding of the interaction between plasma and dust is required to optimize such processes. We investigate a highly diluted silane discharge experimentally using phase-resolved optical emission spectroscopy to study the electron dynamics, laser light scattering on the dust particles to relate the electron dynamics with the spatial distribution of dust, and current and voltage measurements to characterize the electrical symmetry of the discharge via the dc self-bias. The measurements are performed in single and dual frequency discharges. A mode transition from the α-mode to a bulk drift mode (Ω-mode) is found, if the amount of silane and, thereby, the amount of dust and negative ions is increased. By controlling the electrode temperatures, the dust can be distributed asymmetrically between the electrodes via the thermophoretic force. This affects both the electron heating and the discharge symmetry, i.e. a dc self-bias develops in a single frequency discharge. Using the Electrical Asymmetry Effect (EAE), the dc self-bias can be controlled in dual frequency discharges via the phase angle between the two applied frequencies. The Ω-mode is observed for all phase angles and is explained by a simple model of the electron power dissipation. The model shows that the mode transition is characterized by a phase shift between the applied voltage and the electron conduction current, and that the plasma density profile can be estimated using the measured phase shift. The control interval of the dc self-bias obtained using the EAE will be shifted, if an asymmetric dust distribution is present. However, the width of the interval remains unchanged, because the dust distribution is hardly affected by the phase angle.

  5. Fabrication of FeSiBPNb amorphous powder cores with high DC-bias and excellent soft magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjiang; Dong, Yaqiang; Man, Qikui; Li, Qiang; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xin-Min; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Fe-based amorphous magnetic alloy powders with a composition of (Fe0.76Si0.09B0.1P0.05)99Nb1 were first prepared by water atomization, and then amorphous magnetic powder cores were produced from a mixture of the amorphous alloy powders with diameters of below 75 μm and different volume of insulation and bonding materials by mold compacting with a compact pressure of 2200 MPa at room temperature. The amorphous magnetic cores exhibit superior DC-bias properties and excellent soft magnetic properties after appropriate heating treatment. The DC-bias properties of the present amorphous magnetic cores just decrease 15% as the external field increases to 100 Oe. Meanwhile, it also exhibits a high permeability of 56 at 1 MHz and a low core loss of 451 W/kg at Bm=0.1 T and f=100 kHz. The present Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder cores with superior DC-bias properties are a potential candidate for a variety of industrial applications.

  6. On the scaling of rf and dc self-bias voltages with pressure in electronegative capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ankur; Dorf, Leonid; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken

    2012-03-15

    Higher gas densities and lower diffusion losses at higher operating pressures typically lead to increased charged species densities (and hence flux) for a constant power deposition in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP). As a result, one would expect that the bias radio-frequency (rf) voltage required to deposit a given power in a CCP reactor decreases with increasing operating pressure. These observations may not hold true in multiple frequency CCPs, commonly used for dielectric etching in microelectronics fabrication, due to nonlinear interactions between the rf sources. Wafer-based measurements of the rf and self-generated direct current (dc) bias voltages in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled electronegative plasma were made, which indicate that the rf and dc voltages vary nonmonotonically with pressure. These experimental results are presented in this paper and a computational plasma model is used to explain the experimental observations for varying 60 MHz and 13 MHz powers in the Ar/CF{sub 4}/CHF{sub 3} plasma over a pressure range of 25 to 400 mTorr. The authors found that while the ion density increases with pressure, the increase is most dominant near the electrode with the high frequency source (60 MHz). The rf and dc bias voltages are ultimately influenced by both charged species density magnitudes and spatial profiles.

  7. External dc bias field effects in the nonlinear ac stationary response of permanent dipoles in a uniaxial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Nijun; Coffey, William T.; Déjardin, Pirre-Michel; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    External dc bias field effects on the nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect of a system of permanent dipoles in a uniaxial mean field potential are studied via the rotational Brownian motion model. Postulated in terms of the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence equations for the statistical moments (the expectation value of the Legendre polynomials), the dielectric and Kerr effect ac stationary responses may be evaluated for arbitrary dc bias field strength via perturbation theory in the ac field. We have given two complementary approaches for treating the nonlinear effects. The first is based on perturbation theory allowing one to calculate the nonlinear ac stationary responses using powerful matrix methods. The second approach based on the accurate two-mode approximation [D.A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. E. 54, 3250 (1996)] effectively generalizes the existing results for dipolar systems in superimposed ac and dc fields to a mean field potential. The results apply both to nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect of nematics and to magnetic birefringence relaxation of ferrofluids. Furthermore, the given methods of the solution of infinite hierarchies of multi-term recurrence relations are quite general and can be applied to analogous nonlinear response problems.

  8. Real-time DC-dynamic biasing method for switching time improvement in severely underdamped fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators.

    PubMed

    Small, Joshua; Fruehling, Adam; Garg, Anurag; Liu, Xiaoguang; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Mechanically underdamped electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators are well known for their fast switching operation in response to a unit step input bias voltage. However, the tradeoff for the improved switching performance is a relatively long settling time to reach each gap height in response to various applied voltages. Transient applied bias waveforms are employed to facilitate reduced switching times for electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators with high mechanical quality factors. Removing the underlying substrate of the fringing-field actuator creates the low mechanical damping environment necessary to effectively test the concept. The removal of the underlying substrate also a has substantial improvement on the reliability performance of the device in regards to failure due to stiction. Although DC-dynamic biasing is useful in improving settling time, the required slew rates for typical MEMS devices may place aggressive requirements on the charge pumps for fully-integrated on-chip designs. Additionally, there may be challenges integrating the substrate removal step into the back-end-of-line commercial CMOS processing steps. Experimental validation of fabricated actuators demonstrates an improvement of 50x in switching time when compared to conventional step biasing results. Compared to theoretical calculations, the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:25145811

  9. Real-Time DC-dynamic Biasing Method for Switching Time Improvement in Severely Underdamped Fringing-field Electrostatic MEMS Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Small, Joshua; Fruehling, Adam; Garg, Anurag; Liu, Xiaoguang; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Mechanically underdamped electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators are well known for their fast switching operation in response to a unit step input bias voltage. However, the tradeoff for the improved switching performance is a relatively long settling time to reach each gap height in response to various applied voltages. Transient applied bias waveforms are employed to facilitate reduced switching times for electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators with high mechanical quality factors. Removing the underlying substrate of the fringing-field actuator creates the low mechanical damping environment necessary to effectively test the concept. The removal of the underlying substrate also a has substantial improvement on the reliability performance of the device in regards to failure due to stiction. Although DC-dynamic biasing is useful in improving settling time, the required slew rates for typical MEMS devices may place aggressive requirements on the charge pumps for fully-integrated on-chip designs. Additionally, there may be challenges integrating the substrate removal step into the back-end-of-line commercial CMOS processing steps. Experimental validation of fabricated actuators demonstrates an improvement of 50x in switching time when compared to conventional step biasing results. Compared to theoretical calculations, the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:25145811

  10. Application of dc and mark-space bias differential electrolytic potentiometry for determination of cyanide using a programmable syringe pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Tawfik A.; Abulkibash, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a rapid sequential injection titration method for the determination of cyanide in aqueous solutions. Mercuric nitrate was used as a titrant and a pair of gold-amalgam electrodes as an indicating system. The technique of differential electrolytic potentiometry using both mark-space bias (m.s.b.) and dc current for polarization was employed. The optimum values of current and percentage bias were 5 μA and 13%, respectively. The effects of dispense time, volume of analyte, supporting electrolyte, and the concentration of titrant were investigated. The results obtained are in agreement with those of the standard method (APHA), with a relative standard deviation of 1.43%, t = 0.783, F = 1.713. A sampling rate of about 20 samples per hour was achieved with good reproducibility and lower consumption of reagents.

  11. Ion Energy Distribution Control Using Ion Mass Ratios in Inductively Coupled Plasmas With a Pulsed DC Bias on the Substrate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Logue, Michael D.; Kushner, Mark J.

    2012-10-01

    In many applications requiring energetic ion bombardment, such as plasma etching, gas mixtures containing several ion species are used. In cases where two ions have significantly different masses, it may be feasible to selectively control the ion energy distributions (IEDs) by preferentially extracting the lighter ion mass with a controllable energy. In this work, we investigate the possibility of using a pulsed DC substrate bias in an inductively coupled plasma (ICP) to obtain this control. Pulsing of the substrate bias in the afterglow of a pulsed ICP plasma should allow for shifting of the IED peak energy by an amount approximately equal to the applied bias. If short enough pulses are used it may be possible to obtain a higher flux at high energy of the lower mass ion compared to the higher mass ion. A computational investigation of IEDs in low pressure (a few to 100 mTorr) ICPs sustained in gas mixtures such as Ar/H2 or Xe/H2 (having large mass differences) was conducted as a proof of principle. The model is the Hybrid Plasma Equipment Model with which electron energy distributions (EEDs) and IEDs as a function of position and time are obtained using Monte Carlo simulations. We have found a selective ability to mass and energy discriminate ion fluxes when using sufficiently short bias pulses. Results from the model for plasmas densities, electron temperatures, EEDs and IEDs will be discussed.

  12. YjjQ Represses Transcription of flhDC and Additional Loci in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Helene; Gürlebeck, Doreen; Groß, Jana; Dreck, Katrin; Pannen, Derk; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The presumptive transcriptional regulator YjjQ has been identified as being virulence associated in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). In this work, we characterize YjjQ as transcriptional repressor of the flhDC operon, encoding the master regulator of flagellar synthesis, and of additional loci. The latter include gfc (capsule 4 synthesis), ompC (outer membrane porin C), yfiRNB (regulated c-di-GMP synthesis), and loci of poorly defined function (ybhL and ymiA-yciX). We identify the YjjQ DNA-binding sites at the flhDC and gfc promoters and characterize a DNA-binding sequence motif present at all promoters found to be repressed by YjjQ. At the flhDC promoter, the YjjQ DNA-binding site overlaps the RcsA-RcsB DNA-binding site. RcsA-RcsB likewise represses the flhDC promoter, but the repression by YjjQ and that by RcsA-RcsB are independent of each other. These data suggest that YjjQ is an additional regulator involved in the complex control of flhDC at the level of transcription initiation. Furthermore, we show that YjjQ represses motility of the E. coli K-12 laboratory strain and of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains CFT073 and 536. Regulation of flhDC, yfiRNB, and additional loci by YjjQ may be features relevant for pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium causing intra- and extraintestinal infections in humans and farm animals. The pathogenicity of E. coli strains is determined by their particular genome content, which includes essential and associated virulence factors that control the cellular physiology in the host environment. However, the gene pools of commensal and pathogenic E. coli are not clearly differentiated, and the function of virulence-associated loci needs to be characterized. In this study, we characterize the function of yjjQ, encoding a transcription regulator that was identified as being virulence associated in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). We characterize YjjQ as transcriptional

  13. Effect of combined external uniaxial stress and dc bias on the dielectric property of BaTiO3-based dielectrics in multilayer ceramic capacitor: thermodynamics and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Yue, Zhenxing; Sun, Tieyu; Gou, Huanlin; Li, Longtu

    2008-02-01

    The dielectric properties of (Nb, Y)-doped BaTiO3 in a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field were investigated at room temperature by using a modified Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory and the dielectric measurement. It is found that although dc bias decreases the dielectric properties dominantly, the influence of the external uniaixial compressive stress should not be neglected. When applied along a direction perpendicular to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC, the external uniaixal compressive stress will strengthen the negative effect of dc bias. In contrast, the external uniaxial compressive stress along a direction parallel to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC will increase the dielectric permittivity under dc bias field, i.e. improve the ɛ-V response of the MLCC. Furthermore, although there is a difference between the calculated permittivity and the measured permittivity, the effects of the combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field on the dielectric permittivity described through two approaches are in good agreement.

  14. Protective carbon films deposited by dc-bias facing targets sputtering with microscopic ultraflatness and strong sp{sup 3} coordination

    SciTech Connect

    Noda, K.; Kawanabe, T.; Naoe, M.

    1997-04-01

    Carbon thin films were deposited on hard disks as protective layers by facing targets sputtering (FTS), and their characteristics were evaluated to determine whether they would be suitable protective layers for thin-film magnetic recording media. The performance and lifetime of a hard disk drive (HDD) are intimately related to the head-disk interface. Increase in performance due to reduction of the flying height and magnetic spacing, and longer product lifetime are related to the properties of protective layers covering the surfaces of hard disks. Currently, such layers are generally sputtered amorphous carbon films, whose characteristics are strongly dependent on various sputtering conditions such as the argon gas pressure, substrate temperature, and dc and rf bias voltages. In this study, the dependence of the characteristics of carbon films on the dc bias voltage of the FTS was investigated, and the characteristics were also compared with those obtained without a dc bias voltage supply. The carbon films were deposited at an argon gas pressure of 0.2 mTorr and a substrate temperature of 25{degree}C as room temperature, with several dc bias voltages and also without any bias voltage. There have been no reports to date of the successful use of such low gas pressures to realize excellent protective layers. The properties of the films were characterized by Raman spectroscopy, and the results were compared with previously reported ones obtained in different sputtering conditions at high argon pressures. Carbon films deposited, without plasma damage, by FTS, with dc bias voltage at argon gas pressures as low as 0.2 mTorr, showed a large population of sp{sup 3} coordination, columnless morphology, and a microscopically flat surface. These are better properties than those obtained with no dc bias voltage, and may lead to an intrinsically excellent protective layer for hard disks. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  15. DC bias immune nanocrystalline magnetic cores made of Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 ribbon with induced transverse magnetic anisotropy.

    PubMed

    Nosenko, Anton; Rudenko, Olexandr; Mika, Taras; Yevlash, Igor; Semyrga, Olexandr; Nosenko, Viktor

    2016-12-01

    The comparative analysis of magnetic properties of cut cores made of nanocrystalline Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 alloy ribbon and cores made of the same ribbon with preliminary tension-induced transverse magnetic anisotropy was carried out. The possibility of improving magnetic properties of cut cores, decreasing loss, and increasing DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability is presented. The influence of induced magnetic anisotropy on DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of new cores (made of ribbon heated under tensile stress) over cut ones were determined. PMID:26847696

  16. DC bias immune nanocrystalline magnetic cores made of Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 ribbon with induced transverse magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Anton; Rudenko, Olexandr; Mika, Taras; Yevlash, Igor; Semyrga, Olexandr; Nosenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    The comparative analysis of magnetic properties of cut cores made of nanocrystalline Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 alloy ribbon and cores made of the same ribbon with preliminary tension-induced transverse magnetic anisotropy was carried out. The possibility of improving magnetic properties of cut cores, decreasing loss, and increasing DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability is presented. The influence of induced magnetic anisotropy on DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of new cores (made of ribbon heated under tensile stress) over cut ones were determined.

  17. Electrical Effect in Silver-Point Realization Due to Cell Structure and Bias Voltage Based on Resistance Measurement Using AC and DC Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Yamazawa, K.; Tamba, J.; Arai, M.

    2015-08-01

    Electrical effects related to insulating leakage represent one of the major factors contributing to uncertainties in measurements using high-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs), especially during the realization of the silver freezing point (). This work is focused on the evaluation of the differences in resistance measurements observed when using AC resistance bridges and DC resistance bridges, hereafter, termed the AC-DC differences, as the result of various electrical effects. The magnitude of the AC-DC difference in several silver-point cells is demonstrated with several HTSPRTs. The effect of the cell structure on the AC-DC difference is evaluated by exchanging some components, part by part, within a silver-point cell. Then, the effect of the bias voltage applied to the heat pipe within the silver-point furnace is evaluated. Through the analysis of the experimental results and comparison with the reports in the literature, the importance of evaluating the AC-DC difference as a means to characterize the underlying electrical effects is discussed, considering that applying a negative bias condition to the furnace with respect to the high-temperature SPRT can minimize the AC-DC difference. Concluding recommendations are proposed on the components used in silver-point cells and the application of a bias voltage to the measurement circuit to minimize the effects of the electrical leakage.

  18. Relaxation of Coupled Li(^+)--Dipole Pairs in K(_1-x)Li(_x)TaO(_3)(KLT) and Effects of DC Bias Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pattnaik, Radha; Toulouse, Jean; Bola, George

    2000-03-01

    It has been well established by several studies that the relaxor perovskite K(_1-x)Li(_x)TaO(_3) (KLT) exhibits two relaxation modes in its dielectric spectrum, with respective barrier heights about 1200K and 2400K. While the mode with the smaller barrier (known as (π)/2 relaxation) is responsible for the complex relaxor behavior of KLT, the relaxation connected with the larger barrier involves pairs of lithium dipoles reorienting as a single unit (known as (π) relaxation). A detailed study of this relaxation over a broad temperature range for nominal lithium concentrations 3.5% to 16% is presented here. The measured dielectric dispersion and absorption for all concentrations over this temperature range is shown to be in agreement with the Cole--Cole modification of the complex Debye dielectric response. Implicit in this modification is the recognition of a distribution of relaxation times in terms of two parameters, (α) and (τ_m). We find that the parameter ``(α)" connected with the distribution function, increases with increasing concentration and decreasing temperature. Furthermore, (α) also decreases in presence of a dc bias field. In addition, the bias field reduces the dielectric loss and hardens the relaxation frequency. The distribution of relaxation times and its temperature evolution are explained in terms the random static electric fields due to frozen Li dipole pairs.

  19. Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Beth L

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

  20. Far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge triple-junction solar cell under forward DC bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wenbo, Xiao; Xingdao, He; Yiqing, Gao; Zhimin, Zhang; Jiangtao, Liu

    2012-06-01

    The far-infrared electroluminescence characteristics of an InGaP/InGaAs/Ge solar cell are investigated under forward DC bias at room temperature in dark conditions. An electroluminescence viewgraph shows the clear device structures, and the electroluminescence intensity is shown to increases exponentially with bias voltage and linearly with bias current. The results can be interpreted using an equivalent circuit of a single ideal diode model for triple-junction solar cells. The good fit between the measured and calculated data proves the above conclusions. This work is of guiding significance for current solar cell testing and research.

  1. Peak divergence in the curve of magnetoelectric coefficient versus dc bias magnetic field at resonance region for bi-layer magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Z. J.; Pan, D. A. Zhang, S. G.; Qiao, L. J.; Jia, Y. M.

    2013-12-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient dependence on the bias magnetic field at resonance frequencies for the bi-layered bonded Terfenol-D/Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} composite was investigated. The resonance frequency decreases first and then increases with the bias magnetic field (H{sub DC}), showing a “V” shape in the range of 0 ∼ 5 kOe. Below the resonance frequency, the pattern of ME coefficient dependence on the H{sub DC} shows a single peak, but splits into a double-peak pattern when the testing frequency increases into a certain region. With increasing the frequency, a divergent evolution of the H{sub DC} patterns was observed. Domain motion and ΔE effect combined with magnetostriction-piezoelectric coupling effect were employed to explain this experimental result.

  2. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingzhong; Tian, Xiubo; Li, Muqin; Gong, Chunzhi; Wei, Ronghua

    2016-07-01

    Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at -1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to -500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C2H2 and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H3/E2 and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this paper, the effects of the sample bias voltage on the film properties are discussed in detail and the optimal bias voltage is presented.

  3. Separating response-execution bias from decision bias: arguments for an additional parameter in Ratcliff's diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Voss, Jochen; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Diffusion model data analysis permits the disentangling of different processes underlying the effects of experimental manipulations. Estimates can be provided for the speed of information accumulation, for the amount of information used to draw conclusions, and for a decision bias. One parameter describes the duration of non-decisional processes including the duration of motor-response execution. In the default diffusion model, it is implicitly assumed that both responses are executed with the same speed. In some applications of the diffusion model, this assumption will be violated. This will lead to biased parameter estimates. Consequently, we suggest accounting explicitly for differences in the speed of response execution for both responses. Results from a simulation study illustrate that parameter estimates from the default model are biased if the speed of response execution differs between responses. A second simulation study shows that large trial numbers (N>1,000) are needed to detect whether differences in response-execution times are based on different execution times. PMID:20030967

  4. Effect of Mn Addition on dc-Electrical Degradation of Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor with Ni Internal Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Koichiro; Mizuno, Youichi; Chazono, Hirokazu; Kishi, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    The effect of Mn addition on the microstructure and electrical properties, especially on the dc-electrical degradation, of the X7R-type multilayer ceramic capacitor with Ni internal electrode (Ni-MLCC) with thin active layers was investigated. As the amount of Mn increased, grain growth was suppressed, and the temperature characteristic (TC) curve was flattened. I-V characteristic measurements revealed that nonlinearity coefficient (α) at a high electric field of more than 10 V/μm was decreased, and the lifetime during the highly accelerated lifetime testing (HALT) under 20 V/μm was improved, as the Mn content increased. It was found that Mn addition caused the change of the electrical properties of the grain boundary (GB). The effect of Mn on dc-electrical degradation during HALT was investigated by introducing impedance measurement at elevated temperatures from the microstructural view point. The roles of Mn on dc-electrical degradation during HALT were proposed.

  5. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: The electrical asymmetry effect in capacitively coupled radio frequency discharges - measurements of dc self bias, ion energy and ion flux

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schulze, J.; Schüngel, E.; Czarnetzki, U.

    2009-05-01

    The recently theoretically predicted electrical asymmetry effect (EAE) (Heil et al 2008 IEEE Trans. Plasma Sci. 36 1404, Heil et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 41 165202, Czarnetzki et al 2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. at press) in capacitively coupled radio frequency (CCRF) discharges and the related separate control of ion energy and flux via the EAE (Czarnetzki et al 2009 J. Phys.: Conf. Ser. at press, Donkó et al 2008 J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys. 42 025205) are tested experimentally for the first time. A geometrically symmetric CCRF discharge (equal electrode surface areas) operated at 13.56 and 27.12 MHz with variable phase angle between the harmonics is operated in argon at different pressures. The dc self bias, the energy as well as the flux of ions at the grounded electrode, and the space and phase resolved optical emission are measured. The results verify the predictions of models and simulations: via the EAE a dc self bias is generated as an almost linear function of the phase. This variable dc self bias allows separate control of ion energy and flux in an almost ideal way under various discharge conditions.

  6. Effect of alkali addition on DC conductivity and thermal properties of vanadium-bismo-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khasa, S. Dahiya, M. S.; Agarwal, A.

    2014-04-24

    The DC Conductivity and Differential Thermal Analysis of glasses with composition (30−x)Li{sub 2}O⋅xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}(x=15, 10, 5) has been carried out in order to study the effect of replacing the Transition Metal Oxide (TMO) with alkali oxide. A significant increase in the DC conductivity has been observed with increase in alkali content. Again the thermal measurements have shown the decrease in both glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub x}). The Glass Stability (GS) and Glass Forming Ability (GFA) have also been calculated and these also were found to decrease with increase in alkali oxide content at the cost of TMO.

  7. Microwave polarization angle study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system under dc current bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad-Zahir; Liu, Han-Chun; Heimbeck, Martin S.; Everitt, Henry O.; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh G.

    Microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations followed by the vanishing resistance states are a prime representation of non-equilibrium transport phenomena in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES). The effect of a dc current bias on the nonlinear response of 2DES with microwave polarization angle under magnetic field is a subject of interest. Here, we have studied the effect of various dc current bias on microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in a high mobility 2DES. Further, we systematically investigate the effect of the microwave polarization angle on the magneto-resistance oscillations at two different frequencies 152.78 GHz and 185.76 GHz. This study aims to better understand the effects of both dc current and microwave polarization angle in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, both of which modify the observed magneto-transport properties DOE-BES, Mat'l. Sci. & Eng. Div., DE-SC0001762; ARO W911NF-14-2-0076; ARO W911NF-15-1-0433.

  8. Initial phase zone for phase locking to the resonance, using “main condition” of phase stability in DC-biased single-sided multipactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-05-15

    In the present work, the concept of accurate phase stability is employed to study a DC-biased single-sided multipactor. A “main condition” of phase stability was introduced in our previous studies of two-sided multipactors [M. Mostajeran, J. Instrum. 8, P04024 (2013); M. Mostajeran and M. Lamehi Rachti, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 615, 1–5 (2010)]. Using the same condition and assuming zero initial velocity for the secondary electrons, a regime of multipactors outside the resonance zones is found. The theoretical results are then verified by numerical simulation.

  9. Effects of MgO Doping on DC Bias Aging Behavior of Mn-Doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Dong Woo; Hong, Jeong Oh; Han, Young Ho

    2008-07-01

    The capacitance aging of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) based on BaTiO3 dielectrics under DC electric fields has been studied. At a DC field of 1 V/µm, the capacitance of MLCC specimens decreased immediately in a very short period (<10 s, the first stage) and then decreased continuously with time (the second stage). Substitution of Mn ions markedly increased the slope of aging curves in the second stage. MgO doping significantly decreased the second stage aging rate of Mn-doped specimens. This aging rate decreased in the second stage with increasing MgO content. This may be due to the existence of a stable defect complex (MgTi''-VO••) inhibiting domain wall motion. MgO-doped specimens showed a small decrease in capacitance in the first stage, which may be due to small grain size and low dielectric permittivity.

  10. How the “main condition” of phase stability can explain the effect of the velocity deviation of secondary electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, a “main condition” for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the “simple stability condition.” This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

  11. Effect of Si addition on AC and DC magnetic properties of (Fe-P)-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Ravi; Prabhu, D.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Gopalan, R.; Sundararajan, G.

    2016-05-01

    We report a new (Fe-P)-Si based alloy with relatively high induction (1.8-1.9 T), low coercivity (< 80 A/m), high resistivity (˜38 μΩ cm) and low core loss (217 W/kg @ 1 T/1 kHz) comparable to the commercially available M530-50 A5 Si-steel. The attractive magnetic and electrical properties are attributed to i) the two phase microstructure of fine nano precipitates of Fe3P dispersed in α-Fe matrix achieved by a two-step heat-treatment process and ii) Si addition enhancing the resistivity of the α-Fe matrix phase. As the alloy processing is by conventional wrought metallurgy method, it has the potential for large scale production.

  12. Experimental investigation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses with dc or low frequency sinusoidal bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opaits, Dmitry F.; Likhanskii, Alexandre V.; Neretti, Gabriele; Zaidi, Sohail; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B.; Macheret, Sergey O.

    2008-08-01

    Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in an initially quiescent room air by a single asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge driven by voltage waveforms consisting of repetitive nanosecond high-voltage pulses superimposed on dc or alternating sinusoidal or square-wave bias voltage. To characterize the pulses and to optimize their matching to the plasma, a numerical code for short pulse calculations with an arbitrary impedance load was developed. A new approach for nonintrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and two-dimensional numerical fluid modeling. The force and heating rate calculated by a plasma model was used as an input to two-dimensional viscous flow solver to predict the time-dependent dielectric barrier discharge induced flow field. This approach allowed us to restore the entire two-dimensional unsteady plasma induced flow pattern as well as characteristics of the plasma induced force. Both the experiments and computations showed the same vortex flow structures induced by the actuator. Parametric studies of the vortices at different bias voltages, pulse polarities, peak pulse voltages, and pulse repetition rates were conducted experimentally. The significance of charge buildup on the dielectric surface was demonstrated. The charge buildup decreases the effective electric field in the plasma and reduces the plasma actuator performance. The accumulated surface charge can be removed by switching the bias polarity, which leads to a newly proposed voltage waveform consisting of high-voltage nanosecond repetitive pulses superimposed on a high-voltage low frequency sinusoidal voltage. Advantages of the new voltage waveform were demonstrated experimentally.

  13. DC-Bias-Superposition Characteristics of Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 Nanopowders Synthesized by Auto-Combustion.

    PubMed

    Sadhana, K; Sandhya, R; Praveena, K

    2015-06-01

    Ni0.4Zn0.2Mn0.4Fe2O4 nanopowders were prepared by auto-combustion method. The as-synthesized powders were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and thermo-gravimetric-differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA), and the powders were densified at different temperatures 400 degrees C, 500 degrees C, 600 degrees C and 700 degrees C/4 hrs using conventional sintering method. The sintered samples were characterized by XRD and transmission electron microscope (TEM). The bulk densities of the samples were increased with an increase of sintering temperature. The grain sizes of all the samples vary in between 18 nm to 30 nm. The hysteresis loops show high saturation magnetization and low coercivity, indicates that it is a soft material. The incremental permeability (permeability with magnetic field superposition) was influenced by both ΔM and H(c). A sample with higher initial permeability and favoured the attainment of a higher incremental permeability. The Q-factor was mainly determined by the sintered density and microstructure. To summarize, a uniform and dense microstructure with relatively small average grain size is favourable for obtaining better dc-bias-superposition characteristics, including permeability and Q-factor. PMID:26369079

  14. Effect of Ta addition of co-sputtered amorphous tantalum indium zinc oxide thin film transistors with bias stability.

    PubMed

    Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we have fabricated thin film transistors (TFTs) using amorphous tantalum indium zinc oxide (a-TaInZnO) channels by the co-sputtering process. The effects of incorporating tantalum on the InZnO material were investigated using Hall-effect measurement results, and electrical characteristics. We also found that the carrier densities of thin films and the transistor on-off currents were greatly influenced by the composition of tantalum addition. Ta ions have strong affinity to oxygen and so suppress the formation of free electron carriers inthin films; they play an important role in enhancing the electrical characteristic due to their high oxygen bonding ability. The electrical characteristics of the optimized TFTs shows a field effect mobility of 3.67 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), a threshold voltage of 1.28 V, an on/off ratio of 1.1 x 10(8), and a subthreshold swing of 480 mV/dec. Under gate bias stress conditions, the TaInZnO TFTs showed lower shift in threshold voltage shifts. PMID:25958492

  15. Effect of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.S.; Henk, P.O.

    1996-12-31

    The use of additives to insulating materials is one of the methods to improve certain properties of these materials. Additives can also be used to provide more insight into some processes like conduction, space charge formation and breakdown under certain conditions of field application. In the present paper, the effect of the addition of fine particles 1 wt% BaTiO{sub 3} to plain low density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term dc breakdown strength of LDPE at room temperature was investigated. The characteristics of the used polyethylene are as follows: density 0.925 g/cm{sup 3}, melt index 0.25 g/10 min. The BaTiO{sub 3} used was laboratory grade with particle size less than 7 {micro}m. Special cylindrical test samples of both undoped and doped materials were used in this investigation. Stainless steel hemispherically tipped electrodes were embedded in the material by molding. The mean value of the gap length between the electrodes was 0.25 mm. The design of the test sample allows for determining the intrinsic breakdown strength of the material. The Weibull plots were used to analyze the breakdown test results. Analysis of the results indicate that the addition of BaTiO{sub 3} to LDPE has reduced the short term dc breakdown strength of the doped material by about 16% if compared with the corresponding value for the plain LDPE. An attempt is made to correlate between the present results, and earlier published results about the effect of BaTiO{sub 3} on dc conductivity and space charge formation in LDPE.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Copper-rich phase segregation effects on the magnetic properties and DC-bias-superposition characteristic of NiCuZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Wu, Jhao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    NiCuZn ferrites with Ni0.42Cu0.13+xZn0.45Fe2-xO4; x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1 chemical compositions were prepared using conventional solid-state reaction in this study. The effects of different NiCuZn ferrite chemical compositions on the microstructure, magnetic properties and DC superposition characteristics were investigated. The results showed that increasing the CuO content in the NiCuZn ferrites led to copper-rich phase precipitation at the grain boundaries. The liquid phase resulted from copper-rich phase melting during sintering, promoting liquid phase densification and hence lowering the maximum densification rate temperature. The non-magnetic copper-rich secondary phase at the grain boundaries reduced the effective magnetic field applied on the ferrite grain, and hence enhanced the DC superposition characteristics at low magnetic field. The sample with x=0.07 sintered at 1100 °C for 2 h exhibited excellent initial permeability (μ'=325) and superior DC superposition characteristics. A NiCuZn ferrite with superior initial permeability and DC superposition characteristics can be obtained by changing the x value to adjust the non-magnetic copper-rich precipitate thickness at the grain boundaries.

  18. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars

    2012-11-15

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  19. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias. (PsycINFO Database Record PMID:26881901

  20. Function-Biased Choice of Additives for Optimization of Protein Crystallization: The Case of the Putative Thioesterase PA5185 from Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1

    SciTech Connect

    Chruszcz, Maksymilian; Zimmerman, Matthew D.; Wang, Shuren; Koclega, Katarzyna D.; Zheng, Heping; Evdokimova, Elena; Kudritska, Marina; Cymborowski, Marcin; Savchenko, Alexei; Edwards, Aled; Minor, Wladek

    2009-09-15

    The crystal structure of PA5185, a putative thioesterase from Pseudomonas aeruginosa strain PAO1, was solved using multi-wavelength anomalous diffraction to 2.4 {angstrom}. Analysis of the structure and information about the putative function of the protein were used to optimize crystallization conditions. The crystal growth was optimized by applying additives with chemical similarity to a fragment of a putative PA5185 substrate (CoA or its derivative). Using new crystallization conditions containing this function-biased set of additives, several new crystal forms were produced, and structures of three of them (in three different space groups) were determined. One of the new crystal forms had an improved resolution limit of 1.9 {angstrom}, and another displayed an alternative conformation of the highly conserved loop containing Asn26, which could play a physiological role. Surprisingly, none of the additives were ordered in the crystal structures. Application of function-biased additives could be used as a standard optimization protocol for producing improved diffraction, or new crystal forms, which may lead to better understanding of the biological functions of proteins.

  1. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobles, J. E.; Zagorodnii, V.; Hutchison, A.; Celinski, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal.

  2. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals.

    PubMed

    Nobles, J E; Zagorodnii, V; Hutchison, A; Celinski, Z

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal. PMID:27587141

  3. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  4. Giant magnetoelectric effect (under a dc magnetic bias of 2 Oe) in laminate composites of FeBSiC alloy ribbons and Pb(Zn{sub 1/3},Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-7%PbTiO{sub 3} fibers

    SciTech Connect

    Dong Shuxiang; Zhai Junyi; Xing Zhengping; Li Jiefang; Viehland, D.

    2007-07-09

    Giant magnetoelectric (ME) voltage and charge coefficients have been found in long-type composites of high-permeability magnetostrictive FeBSiC alloy ribbons laminated together with piezoelectric Pb(Zn{sub 1/3},Nb{sub 2/3})O{sub 3}-7%PbTiO{sub 3} single crystal fibers. The maximum ME voltage and charge coefficients at low frequencies were 10.5 V/cm Oe and 1 nC/Oe under a notably low dc magnetic bias of 2 Oe; at resonance, these coefficients were dramatically increased to 400 V/cm Oe and 42 nC/Oe, respectively. These values are much higher, and the required dc magnetic bias much lower, than those of previously reported Terfenol-D based ME laminates.

  5. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  6. Simplified dc to dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, R. P. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A dc to dc converter which can start with a shorted output and which regulates output voltage and current is described. Voltage controlled switches directed current through the primary of a transformer the secondary of which includes virtual reactance. The switching frequency of the switches is appropriately varied to increase the voltage drop across the virtual reactance in the secondary winding to which there is connected a low impedance load. A starting circuit suitable for voltage switching devices is provided.

  7. Radiation Effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, De-Xin; AbdulMazid, M. D.; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, several DC-DC converters were designed and built. The converters are Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, Flyback, and full-bridge zero-voltage switched. The total ionizing dose radiation and single event effects on the converters were investigated. The experimental results for the TID effects tests show that the voltages of the Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, and Flyback converters increase as total dose increased when using power MOSFET IRF250 as a switching transistor. The change in output voltage with total dose is highest for the Buck converter and the lowest for Flyback converter. The trend of increase in output voltages with total dose in the present work agrees with those of the literature. The trends of the experimental results also agree with those obtained from PSPICE simulation. For the full-bridge zero-voltage switch converter, it was observed that the dc-dc converter with IRF250 power MOSFET did not show a significant change of output voltage with total dose. In addition, for the dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation-hardened power MOSFET, the output voltage did not change significantly with total dose. The experimental results were confirmed by PSPICE simulation that showed that FB-ZVS converter with IRF250 power MOSFET's was not affected with the increase in total ionizing dose. Single Event Effects (SEE) radiation tests were performed on FB-ZVS converters. It was observed that the FB-ZVS converter with the IRF250 power MOSFET, when the device was irradiated with Krypton ion with ion-energy of 150 MeV and LET of 41.3 MeV-square cm/mg, the output voltage increased with the increase in fluence. However, for Krypton with ion-energy of 600 MeV and LET of 33.65 MeV-square cm/mg, and two out of four transistors of the converter were permanently damaged. The dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation hardened power MOSFET's did not show significant change at the output voltage with fluence while being irradiated by Krypton with ion energy of 1.20 GeV and LET of 25

  8. DC to DC battery charger

    SciTech Connect

    Carr, F.L.; Terrill, L.R.

    1987-01-20

    A DC to DC battery charger is described for a vehicle comprising: adapter plug means for making electrical connections to a first battery through a cigarette lighter socket in the vehicle; means of making electrical connections to a second battery to be charged; a DC to AC converter and an AC to DC rectifier for elevating the voltage from the first battery to a voltage above that of the second battery; integrated circuit means for generating a pulse width modulated current as a function for the charged condition of the second battery; transistor switch means supplied with the pulse width modulated current for developing a charging voltage; a choke coil and a capacitor serially connected to the transistor switch means; and a diode connected across the choke coil and the capacitor whereby the capacitor is charged during pulses of current from the transistor switch means through the choke coil. The choke coil reverses polarity at the termination of the pulses of current and continues to charge the battery through the diode. The DC rectified voltage is controlled by the integrated circuit means for regulating current through the choke coil.

  9. Intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility. PMID:11752497

  10. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  11. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, Robert L.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Newton, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  12. Elimination of the gate and drain bias stresses in I-V characteristics of WSe2 FETs by using dual channel pulse measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Mo; Cho, In-Tak; Kang, Won-Mook; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic transfer and output characteristics of WSe2 field effect transistors are obtained by adopting the dual channel pulsed I-V measurement. Due to the DC gate bias stress during the measurement, a large hysteresis is observed and increased with increasing the sweeping range of the gate bias in the transfer curves. In addition, as a drain bias increases, the drain bias stress during the measurement induces the threshold voltage shift. The output curves measured by a DC method are significantly affected by the drain bias sweeping direction and the previous measurement, which leads to a large error in the analysis. By using the dual channel pulsed I-V measurement with a short turn-on time (10-4 s), a long turn-off time (1 s), and a base voltage (gate and drain bias during turn-off time) of 0 V, hysteretic behaviors caused by the gate bias stress and threshold voltage shift due to the drain bias stress in transfer curves are eliminated. The effect of the drain bias sweeping direction and the previous measurement in output curves are also eliminated, and the output curves show a typical field effect behavior. The intrinsic characteristics of WSe2 field effect transistors show negligible hysteresis and remarkably enhanced mobility (˜200 cm2/V s), and higher current drive capability compared to those of DC measurements.

  13. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  14. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  15. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  16. Sympathetic bias.

    PubMed

    Levy, David M; Peart, Sandra J

    2008-06-01

    We wish to deal with investigator bias in a statistical context. We sketch how a textbook solution to the problem of "outliers" which avoids one sort of investigator bias, creates the temptation for another sort. We write down a model of the approbation seeking statistician who is tempted by sympathy for client to violate the disciplinary standards. We give a simple account of one context in which we might expect investigator bias to flourish. Finally, we offer tentative suggestions to deal with the problem of investigator bias which follow from our account. As we have given a very sparse and stylized account of investigator bias, we ask what might be done to overcome this limitation. PMID:17925315

  17. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  18. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  19. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  20. Hindsight Bias.

    PubMed

    Roese, Neal J; Vohs, Kathleen D

    2012-09-01

    Hindsight bias occurs when people feel that they "knew it all along," that is, when they believe that an event is more predictable after it becomes known than it was before it became known. Hindsight bias embodies any combination of three aspects: memory distortion, beliefs about events' objective likelihoods, or subjective beliefs about one's own prediction abilities. Hindsight bias stems from (a) cognitive inputs (people selectively recall information consistent with what they now know to be true and engage in sensemaking to impose meaning on their own knowledge), (b) metacognitive inputs (the ease with which a past outcome is understood may be misattributed to its assumed prior likelihood), and (c) motivational inputs (people have a need to see the world as orderly and predictable and to avoid being blamed for problems). Consequences of hindsight bias include myopic attention to a single causal understanding of the past (to the neglect of other reasonable explanations) as well as general overconfidence in the certainty of one's judgments. New technologies for visualizing and understanding data sets may have the unintended consequence of heightening hindsight bias, but an intervention that encourages people to consider alternative causal explanations for a given outcome can reduce hindsight bias. PMID:26168501

  1. Piezometer completion report for borehold cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  2. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  3. Lagrangian bias in the local bias model

    SciTech Connect

    Frusciante, Noemi; Sheth, Ravi K. E-mail: sheth@ictp.it

    2012-11-01

    It is often assumed that the halo-patch fluctuation field can be written as a Taylor series in the initial Lagrangian dark matter density fluctuation field. We show that if this Lagrangian bias is local, and the initial conditions are Gaussian, then the two-point cross-correlation between halos and mass should be linearly proportional to the mass-mass auto-correlation function. This statement is exact and valid on all scales; there are no higher order contributions, e.g., from terms proportional to products or convolutions of two-point functions, which one might have thought would appear upon truncating the Taylor series of the halo bias function. In addition, the auto-correlation function of locally biased tracers can be written as a Taylor series in the auto-correlation function of the mass; there are no terms involving, e.g., derivatives or convolutions. Moreover, although the leading order coefficient, the linear bias factor of the auto-correlation function is just the square of that for the cross-correlation, it is the same as that obtained from expanding the mean number of halos as a function of the local density only in the large-scale limit. In principle, these relations allow simple tests of whether or not halo bias is indeed local in Lagrangian space. We discuss why things are more complicated in practice. We also discuss our results in light of recent work on the renormalizability of halo bias, demonstrating that it is better to renormalize than not. We use the Lognormal model to illustrate many of our findings.

  4. High-Efficiency dc/dc Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency dc/dc converter has been developed that provides commonly used voltages of plus or minus 12 Volts from an unregulated dc source of from 14 to 40 Volts. Unique features of converter are its high efficiency at low power level and ability to provide output either larger or smaller than input voltage.

  5. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (pyranine) by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-11-11

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ∼3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the hydrophobic counterion. The added DA enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol-water (1:1). Thus, a typical separation that involved 20.3g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by elemental analyses, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra, and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21982993

  6. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 by affinity-ligand pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ~ 3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by affinity-ligand pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the ligand. The added ligand enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol – water (1:1). A typical separation that involved 20.3 g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ~0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21982993

  7. Simulation of the dc Plasma in Carbon Nanotube Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A model for the dc plasma used in carbon nanotube growth is presented, and one-dimensional simulations of an acetylene/ammonia/argon system are performed. The effect of dc bias is illustrated by examining electron temperature, electron and ion densities, and neutral densities. Introducing a tungsten filament in the dc plasma, as in hot filament chemical vapor deposition with plasma assistance, shows negligible influence on the system characteristics.

  8. Smooth, low-bias plasma etching of InP in microwave Cl2/CH4/H2 mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantine, C.; Barratt, C.; Pearton, S. J.; Ren, F.; Lothian, J. R.

    1992-12-01

    Electron cyclotron resonance microwave (2.45 GHz) discharges of Cl2/CH4/H2 with low additional dc biases (-80 to -150 V) on the sample are shown to provide smooth, anisotropic dry etching of InP at ˜150 °C. Rates of 2500 Å min-1 are obtained at a pressure of 0.5 mTorr and ˜80 V dc bias. SiO2 masks show no discernible erosion under these conditions, yielding a process that is extremely well suited for laser mesa fabrication. The CH4 addition promotes the anisotropy of the etching by a sidewall polymer mechanism, while the H2 addition significantly enhances the etch rate at low pressure.

  9. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  10. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  11. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography☆

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5 mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1 g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3 mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65–72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  12. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  13. Biased Allostery.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Stuart J; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large group of integral membrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals from a wide range of agonists into targeted intracellular responses. Although the responses can vary depending on the category of G-proteins activated by a particular receptor, responses were also found to be triggered by interactions of the receptor with β-arrestins. It was subsequently discovered that for the same receptor molecule (e.g., the β-adrenergic receptor), some agonists have a propensity to specifically favor responses by G-proteins, others by β-arrestins, as has now been extensively studied. This feature of the GPCR system is known as biased agonism and is subject to various interpretations, including agonist-induced conformational change versus selective stabilization of preexisting active conformations. Here, we explore a complete allosteric framework for biased agonism based on alternative preexisting conformations that bind more strongly, but nonexclusively, either G-proteins or β-arrestins. The framework incorporates reciprocal effects among all interacting molecules. As a result, G-proteins and β-arrestins are in steric competition for binding to the cytoplasmic surface of either the G-protein-favoring or β-arrestin-favoring GPCR conformation. Moreover, through linkage relations, the strength of the interactions of G-proteins or β-arrestins with the corresponding active conformation potentiates the apparent affinity for the agonist, effectively equating these two proteins to allosteric modulators. The balance between response alternatives can also be influenced by the physiological concentrations of either G-proteins or β-arrestins, as well as by phosphorylation or interactions with positive or negative allosteric modulators. The nature of the interactions in the simulations presented suggests novel experimental tests to distinguish more fully among alternative mechanisms. PMID:27602718

  14. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N2. The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam.

  15. A High Voltage Ratio and Low Ripple Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  16. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  17. A scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with continuous bias modulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beall, Edward; Yin, Xing; Waldeck, David H.; Wierzbinski, Emil

    2015-09-01

    Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule.Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional current-time traces recorded for mesitylene, 2,4-dichlorotoluene, and 3,4-dichlorotoluene under different bias modulation frequencies, determined solvent capacitance values, and traces recorded under various geometrical constraints in the experimental cell. See DOI: 10.1039/c5nr04649a

  18. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  19. Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.

    PubMed

    Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S

    2000-08-01

    An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampling of trajectories is then biased, but the sampling is unbiased when the trajectory outcomes are multiplied by their weights. With a suitable choice of the biasing force, more reacted trajectories are sampled. As a consequence, the variance of the estimate is reduced. In our test case, biased Brownian dynamics gives a sevenfold improvement in central processing unit (CPU) time with the choice of a simple centripetal biasing force. PMID:10919998

  20. Compact dc link

    SciTech Connect

    Flairty, C. )

    1991-10-01

    The EPRI Compact Substation Project (a HVDC Converter Station) was developed, designed, and constructed per EPRI Agreement RP213. In December 1983, the converter station operated at its rating (100 MW power transmission and 300 kV dc bias plus 100 kV operating voltage). From January to May 1984, the converter station operated at various power transmission levels. Operation was intermittent due to a randomly occurring voltage breakdown. The voltage breakdown was isolated to the steel tanks containing the thyristor valves in an SF{sub 6} environment. The type of insulators stressed within the valve tanks were: (1) the epoxy cone shape insulators providing an interface to the bus entering the valve tank; (2) epoxy fiberglass hydraulic columns for the flow of the R113 refrigerant to and from the thyristor valves; and (3) the epoxy fiberglass support columns supporting the thyristor valves from the floor of the valve tank. The cause of the randomly occurring breakdown was investigated and determined to be the epoxy fiberglass support columns. The random dielectric breakdowns were due to excessive voltage gradients existing at the epoxy fiberglass support columns. This probably was caused by the misplacement of an internal insert within the column with respect to an external shield on the column. The cost and time to retrofit the support columns outweighed the benefits expected from resuming the project. Consequently, work was terminated and the equipment disassembled. Examination of the epoxy fiberglass support columns revealed several arcing tracks along the inside surface confirming the earlier hypothesis. 53 figs., 32 tabs.

  1. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  2. Performance enhancement of ITO/oxide/semiconductor MOS-structure silicon solar cells with voltage biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Min-Chun; Lee, Yi-Yu; Hou, Zhong-Fu; Liao, Changn-Jyun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the photovoltaic performance enhancement of a p-n junction silicon solar cell using a transparent-antireflective ITO/oxide film deposited on the spacing of the front-side finger electrodes and with a DC voltage applied on the ITO-electrode. The depletion width of the p-n junction under the ITO-electrode was induced and extended while the absorbed volume and built-in electric field were also increased when the biasing voltage was increased. The photocurrent and conversion efficiency were increased because more photo-carriers are generated in a larger absorbed volume and because the carriers transported and collected more effectively due to higher biasing voltage effects. Compared to a reference solar cell (which was biased at 0 V), a conversion efficiency enhancement of 26.57% (from 12.42% to 15.72%) and short-circuit current density enhancement of 42.43% (from 29.51 to 42.03 mA/cm2) were obtained as the proposed MOS-structure solar cell biased at 2.5 V. In addition, the capacitance-volt (C-V) measurement was also used to examine the mechanism of photovoltaic performance enhancement due to the depletion width being enlarged by applying a DC voltage on an ITO-electrode.

  3. Performance enhancement of ITO/oxide/semiconductor MOS-structure silicon solar cells with voltage biasing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Min-Chun; Lee, Yi-Yu; Hou, Zhong-Fu; Liao, Changn-Jyun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the photovoltaic performance enhancement of a p-n junction silicon solar cell using a transparent-antireflective ITO/oxide film deposited on the spacing of the front-side finger electrodes and with a DC voltage applied on the ITO-electrode. The depletion width of the p-n junction under the ITO-electrode was induced and extended while the absorbed volume and built-in electric field were also increased when the biasing voltage was increased. The photocurrent and conversion efficiency were increased because more photo-carriers are generated in a larger absorbed volume and because the carriers transported and collected more effectively due to higher biasing voltage effects. Compared to a reference solar cell (which was biased at 0 V), a conversion efficiency enhancement of 26.57% (from 12.42% to 15.72%) and short-circuit current density enhancement of 42.43% (from 29.51 to 42.03 mA/cm(2)) were obtained as the proposed MOS-structure solar cell biased at 2.5 V. In addition, the capacitance-volt (C-V) measurement was also used to examine the mechanism of photovoltaic performance enhancement due to the depletion width being enlarged by applying a DC voltage on an ITO-electrode. PMID:25593550

  4. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  5. Radiation effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dexin; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    DC-DC switching converters are circuits that can be used to convert a DC voltage of one value to another by switching action. They are increasing being used in space systems. Most of the popular DC-DC switching converters utilize power MOSFETs. However power MOSFETs, when subjected to radiation, are susceptible to degradation of device characteristics or catastrophic failure. This work focuses on the effects of total ionizing dose on converter performance. Four fundamental switching converters (buck converter, buck-boost converter, cuk converter, and flyback converter) were built using Harris IRF250 power MOSFETs. These converters were designed for converting an input of 60 volts to an output of about 12 volts with a switching frequency of 100 kHz. The four converters were irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source at dose rate of 217 rad/min. The performances of the four converters were examined during the exposure to the radiation. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the converters increases as total dose increases. However, the increases of the output voltage were different for the four different converters, with the buck converter and cuk converter the highest and the flyback converter the lowest. We observed significant increases in output voltage for cuk converter at a total dose of 24 krad (si).

  6. Structure of the velocity distribution of sheath-accelerated secondary electrons in an asymmetric RF-dc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, Alexander V.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Ranjan, Alok; Chen, Lee

    2015-10-01

    Low-pressure capacitively-coupled discharges with additional dc bias applied to a separate electrode are utilized in plasma-assisted etching for semiconductor device manufacturing. Measurements of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) of the flux impinging on the wafer, as well as in the plasma bulk, show a thermal population and additional peaks within a broad range of energies. That range extends from the thermal level up to the value for the ‘ballistic’ peak, corresponding to the bias potential. The non-thermal electron flux has been correlated to alleviating the electron shading effect and providing etch-resistance properties to masking photoresist layers. ‘Middle-energy peak electrons’ at energies of several hundred eV may provide an additional sustaining mechanism for the discharge. These features in the electron velocity (or energy) distribution functions are possibly caused by secondary electrons emitted from the electrodes and interacting with two high-voltage sheaths: a stationary sheath at the dc electrode and an oscillating self-biased sheath at the powered electrode. Since at those energies the mean free path for large-angle scattering (momentum relaxation length) is comparable to, or exceeds the size of the discharge gap, these ‘ballistic’ electrons will not be fully scattered by the background gas as they traverse the inter-electrode space. We have performed test-particle simulations in which the features in the EVDF of electrons impacting the RF electrode are fully resolved at all energies. An analytical model has been developed to predict existence of peaked and step-like structures in the EVDF. Those features can be explained by analyzing the kinematics of electron trajectories in the discharge gap. Step-like structures in the EVDF near the powered electrode appear due to accumulation of electrons emitted from the dc electrode within a portion of the RF cycle, and their subsequent release. Trapping occurs when the RF

  7. DC-to-DC switching converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor); Middlebrook, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter having nonpulsating input and output current uses two inductances, one in series with the input source, the other in series with the output load. An electrical energy transferring device with storage, namely storage capacitance, is used with suitable switching means between the inductances to DC level conversion. For isolation between the source and load, the capacitance may be divided into two capacitors coupled by a transformer, and for reducing ripple, the inductances may be coupled. With proper design of the coupling between the inductances, the current ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, or the reduction achievable in that way may be divided between the input and output.

  8. A mechanical memory with a dc modulation of nonlinear resonance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Noh, Hyunho; Shim, Seung-Bo; Jung, Minkyung; Khim, Zheong G.; Kim, Jinhee

    2010-07-01

    We present a mechanical memory device based on dynamic motion of a nanoelectromechanical (NEM) resonator. The NEM resonator exhibits clear nonlinear resonance characteristics which can be controlled by the dc bias voltage. For memory operations, the NEM resonator is driven to the nonlinear resonance region, and binary values are assigned to the two allowed states on the bifurcation branch. The transition between memory states is achieved by modulating the nonlinear resonance characteristics with dc bias voltage. Our device works at room temperature and modest vacuum conditions with a maximum operation frequency of about 5 kHz.

  9. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  10. The North Atlantic Cold Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greatbatch, Richard; Drews, Annika; Ding, Hui; Latif, Mojib; Park, Wonsun

    2016-04-01

    The North Atlantic cold bias, associated with a too zonal path of the North Atlantic Current and a missing "northwest corner", is a common problem in coupled climate and forecast models. The bias affects the North Atlantic and European climate mean state, variability and predictability. We investigate the use of a flow field correction to adjust the path of the North Atlantic Current as well as additional corrections to the surface heat and freshwater fluxes. Results using the Kiel Climate Model show that the flow field correction allows a northward flow into the northwest corner, largely eliminating the bias below the surface layer. A surface cold bias remains but can be eliminated by additionally correcting the surface freshwater flux, without adjusting the surface heat flux seen by the ocean model. A model version in which only the surface fluxes of heat and freshwater are corrected continues to exhibit the incorrect path of the North Atlantic Current and a strong subsurface bias. Removing the bias impacts the multi-decadal time scale variability in the model and leads to a better representation of the SST pattern associated with the Atlantic Multidecadal Variability than the uncorrected model.

  11. Developing biases

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Ruben; Baer-Henney, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    and, as a consequence, they can confidently form generalizations based on their lexicon. In addition, they know that many alternations are not based on phonetic considerations. PMID:25009518

  12. High-Tc and low-Tc dc SQUID electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, Dietmar

    2003-12-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are commonly operated in a flux-locked loop (FLL). The SQUID electronics amplifies the small SQUID signal to an acceptable level without adding noise, and it linearizes the transfer function of the SQUID in order to provide sufficient dynamic range. In this paper, the fundamentals of SQUID readout are reviewed including a discussion of preamplifier noise. The basic FLL concepts, direct readout and flux modulation readout, are discussed both with dc bias and bias reversal. Alternative readout concepts such as additional positive feedback (APF), two-stage SQUIDs, SQUID series arrays, relaxation oscillation SQUIDs and digital SQUIDs are briefly described. The FLL dynamics are discussed on the basis of a simple model with finite loop delay. It is shown that with optimized SQUID electronics a system bandwidth of ap18 MHz and a corresponding slew rate of ap8 PHgr0 µs-1 are possible. A novel FLL scheme involving a Smith predictor is presented which allows one to increase the FLL bandwidth to about 100 MHz. The theoretical predictions are experimentally checked using a high-speed SQUID electronics prototype with a small-signal bandwidth of 300 MHz. Methods for increasing the dynamic range of SQUID systems are described: flux-quanta counting and dynamic field compensation (DFC). With DFC, the residual magnetic field at the SQUID can be kept close to zero even if the device is moved in the Earth's field. Therefore, the noise level of a high-Tc magnetometer measured inside a magnetically shielded room (60 fT Hz-1/2 with a 1/f corner at 2 Hz) remained unchanged after moving the device in the magnetic field outside the room (60 µT dc plus 0.8 µT peak-to-peak power line interference).

  13. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2016-02-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant differences from the AC case. In particular, the ring does not fly off the core but rises a short distance and then falls back. If the ring jumps high enough, the rising and the falling motion of the ring does not follow simple vertical motion of a projectile. This indicates that there are additional forces on the ring in each part of its motion. Four possible stages of the motion of the ring with DC are identified, which result from the ring current changing directions during the jump in response to a changing magnetic flux through the moving ring.

  14. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 31 may contain only those diluents that...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 31 may contain only those diluents that...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 31 may contain only those diluents that...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 31 may contain only those diluents that...

  2. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  3. High sensitivity ancilla assisted nanoscale DC magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiang; Ajoy, Ashok; Marseglia, Luca; Saha, Kasturi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Sensing slowly varying magnetic fields are particularly relevant to many real world scenarios, where the signals of interest are DC or close to static. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a versatile platform for such DC magnetometry on nanometer length scales. Using NV centers, the standard technique for measuring DC magnetic fields is via the Ramsey protocol, where sensitivities can approach better than 1 μ T/vHz, but are limited by the sensor fast dephasing time T2*. In this work we instead present a method of sensing DC magnetic fields that is intrinsically limited by the much longer T2 coherence time. The method exploits a strongly-coupled ancillary nuclear spin to achieve high DC field sensitivities potentially exceeding that of the Ramsey method. In addition, through this method we sense the perpendicular component of the DC magnetic field, which in conjunction with the parallel component sensed by the Ramsey method provides a valuable tool for vector DC magnetometry at the nanoscale.

  4. Intelligent dc-dc Converter Technology Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the Cleveland State University have developed a digitally controlled dc-dc converter to research the benefits of flexible, digital control on power electronics and systems. Initial research and testing has shown that conventional dc-dc converters can benefit from improved performance by using digital-signal processors and nonlinear control algorithms.

  5. Highly aligned carbon nanotube arrays fabricated by bias sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hayashi, Nobuyuki; Honda, Shin-ichi; Tsuji, Keita; Lee, Kuei-Yi; Ikuno, Takashi; Fujimoto, Keiichi; Ohkura, Shigeharu; Katayama, Mitsuhiro; Oura, Kenjiro; Hirao, Takashi

    2003-05-01

    Vertically aligned carbon nanotube (CNT) arrays have been successfully grown on Si substrates by dc bias sputtering. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) observations revealed that the resultant arrays consisted of dense CNTs with diameters of 40-60 nm and lengths of 300-400 nm. The CNTs were found to have a bamboo-like structure at the end of which metallic nanoparticle was formed, indicating tip growth mechanism. The energy enhancement of carbon particles is a key factor for synthesis of CNTs using dc bias sputtering system.

  6. Particles as probes for complex plasmas in front of biased surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Basner, R.; Sigeneger, F.; Loffhagen, D.; Schubert, G.; Fehske, H.; Kersten, H.

    2009-01-01

    An interesting aspect in the research of complex (dusty) plasmas is the experimental study of the interaction of micro-particles with the surrounding plasma for diagnostic purposes. Local electric fields can be determined from the behaviour of particles in the plasma, e.g. particles may serve as electrostatic probes. Since in many cases of applications in plasma technology it is of great interest to describe the electric field conditions in front of floating or biased surfaces, the confinement and behaviour of test particles is studied in front of floating walls inserted into a plasma as well as in front of additionally biased surfaces. For the latter case, the behaviour of particles in front of an adaptive electrode, which allows for an efficient confinement and manipulation of the grains, has been experimentally studied in terms of the dependence on the discharge parameters and on different bias conditions of the electrode. The effect of the partially biased surface (dc and rf) on the charged micro-particles has been investigated by particle falling experiments. In addition to the experiments, we also investigate the particle behaviour numerically by molecular dynamics, in combination with a fluid and particle-in-cell description of the plasma.

  7. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  8. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  9. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  10. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  11. Air-breakdown coherent detection of terahertz using controlled optical bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Chia-Yeh; Seletskiy, Denis V.; Sheik-Bahae, Mansoor

    2013-03-01

    Detection of the electric field induced second harmonic (EFISH) signal has been used in gas plasma for measurement of the symmetry-breaking THz transients. Previously, detection linearity with the THz field was accomplished by either mixing EFISH signal with a second harmonic component of an octave-spanning plasma supercontinuum or by addition of a high voltage DC bias across the plasma. Here we report a new method where controlled injection of the second harmonic signal provides the necessary bias for the coherent signal detection. This is accomplished simply by insertion of the BBO crystal in an optical path. The absence of high intensity or high voltage makes the detection scheme more viable for remote sensing.

  12. Bias in Mental Tests.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bond, Lloyd

    1981-01-01

    While some forms of test bias (for example, bias in selection and prediction) appear amenable to definitional consensus, a definition of cultural bias will remain problematic so long as it is confused with the nature/nurture issue. (Author/BW)

  13. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  14. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  15. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  16. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of 8-hydroxy-5,7-di-nitro-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 may contain only... additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of 8-hydroxy-5,7-di-nitro-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 may contain only... additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of 8-hydroxy-5,7-di-nitro-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 may contain only... additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color... coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform to the following... color, not less than 85 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of 8-hydroxy-5,7-di-nitro-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 may contain only... additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  1. Experimenter Bias Effects: A Direct Replication.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio; Waite, Vicki A.

    1980-01-01

    This study replicates previous research by Kent and O'Leary assessing the effects of experimenter bias on behavioral recordings. Behaviors targeted for biased statements evidenced more change in observers' scorings from "baseline" to "treatment" tape segments than control behaviors. Additional analyses of observers' scorings indicated an increase…

  2. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  3. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  4. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  5. DC Breakdown Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Calatroni, S.; Descoeudres, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.

    2009-01-22

    In the context of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project investigations of DC breakdown in ultra high vacuum are carried out in parallel with high power RF tests. From the point of view of saturation breakdown field the best material tested so far is stainless steel, followed by titanium. Copper shows a four times weaker breakdown field than stainless steel. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown events are initiated by field emission current and that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. In analogy to RF, the breakdown probability has been measured in DC and the data show similar behaviour as a function of electric field.

  6. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  7. Biasing a ferronematic - a new way to detect weak magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tomašovičová, Natália; Kováč, Jozef; Raikher, Yuriy; Éber, Nándor; Tóth-Katona, Tibor; Gdovinová, Veronika; Jadżyn, Jan; Pinčák, Richard; Kopčanský, Peter

    2016-06-29

    The magnetic properties of a ferronematic, i.e., a nematic liquid crystal doped with magnetic nanoparticles in low volume concentration are studied, with the focus on the ac magnetic susceptibility. A weak dc bias magnetic field (a few Oe) applied to the ferronematic in its isotropic phase increases the ac magnetic susceptibility considerably. Passage of the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition resets this enhancement irreversibly (unless the dc bias field is applied again in the isotropic phase). PMID:27296792

  8. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  9. DYLOS DC110

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dylos DC1100 air quality monitor measures particulate matter (PM) to provide a continuous assessment of indoor air quality. The unit counts particles in two size ranges: large and small. According to the manufacturer, large particles have diameters between 2.5 and 10 micromet...

  10. Regulated dc-to-dc converter features low power drain

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Thornwall, J.

    1968-01-01

    A regulated dc-to-dc converter requires negligible standby power for the operation of critical electronic equipment. The main operating circuitry consumes power intermittently according to load conditions, rather than constantly.

  11. Effect of a direct current bias on the electrohydrodynamic performance of a surface dielectric barrier discharge actuator for airflow control

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Huijie; Yang, Liang; Qi, Xiaohua; Ren, Chunsheng

    2015-02-01

    The effect of a DC bias on the electrohydrodynamics (EHD) force induced by a surface dielectric barrier AC discharge actuator for airflow control at the atmospheric pressure is investigated. The measurement of the surface potential due to charge deposition at different DC biases is carried out by using a special designed corona like discharge potential probe. From the surface potential data, the plasma electromotive force is shown not affected much by the DC biases except for some reduction of the DC bias near the exposed electrode edge for the sheath-like configuration. The total thrust is measured by an analytical balance, and an almost linear relationship to the potential voltage at the exposed electrode edge is found for the direct thrust force. The temporally averaged ionic wind characteristics are investigated by Pitot tube sensor and schlieren visualization system. It is found that the ionic wind velocity profiles with different DC biases are almost the same in the AC discharge plasma area but gradually diversified in the further downstream area as well as the upper space away from the discharge plasma area. Also, the DC bias can significantly modify the topology of the ionic wind produced by the AC discharge actuator. These results can provide an insight into how the DC biases to affect the force generation.

  12. Analysis of DC magnetron sputtered beryllium films

    SciTech Connect

    Price, C.W.; Hsieh, E.J.; Lindsey, E.F.; Pierce, E.L.; Norberg, J.C.

    1988-10-01

    We are evaluating techniques that alter the columnar grain structure in sputtered beryllium films on fused silica substrates. The films are formed by DC magnetron sputtering, and the columnar structure, which is characteristic of this and most other deposition techniques, is highly detrimental to the tensile strength of the films. Attempts to modify the columnar structure by using RF-biased sputtering combined with nitrogen pulsing have been successful, and this paper describes the analyses of these films. Sputtered beryllium films are quite brittle, and the columnar structure in particular tends to form a distinct intergranular fracture; therefore, the grain structure was analyzed in fractured specimens using the high-resolution capability of a scanning electron microscope (SEM) equipped with a field emission gun (FESEM). Ion microanalysis using secondary-ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) was conducted on some specimens to determining relative contamination levels introduced by nitrogen pulsing. The capability to perform quantitative SIMS analyses using ion-implanted specimens as standards also is being developed. This work confirms that the structure of DC magnetron sputtered beryllium can be improved significantly with combined nitrogen pulsing and RF-biased sputtering. 8 refs.

  13. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  14. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  4. Suppression of spatially periodic patterns by dc voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Éber, Nándor; Salamon, Péter; Fekete, Balázs András; Karapinar, Ridvan; Krekhov, Alexei; Buka, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    The effect of superposed dc and ac applied voltages on two types of spatially periodic instabilities in nematic liquid crystals, flexoelectric domains (FD), and electroconvection (EC) was studied. The onset characteristics, threshold voltages, and critical wave vectors were determined. We found that in general the superposition of driving with different time symmetries inhibits the pattern forming mechanisms for FD and EC as well. As a consequence, the onset extends to much higher voltages than the individual dc or ac thresholds. A dc-bias-induced reduction of the crossover frequency from the conductive to the dielectric EC regimes and a peculiar transition between two types of flexodomains with different wavelengths were detected. Direct measurements of the change of the electrical conductivity and its anisotropy, induced by the applied dc voltage component, showed that the dc bias substantially affects both parameters. Taking into account the experimentally detected variations of the conductivity in the linear stability analysis of the underlying nematohydrodynamic equations, a qualitative agreement with the experimental findings on the onset behavior of spatially periodic instabilities was obtained.

  5. The Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jacob

    Controlling magnetism via voltage in the virtual absence of electric current is the key to reduce power consumption while enhancing processing speed, integration density and functionality in comparison with present-day information technology. Almost all spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is therefore a key challenge to better spintronics. However, there is no direct interaction between magnetization and electric fields, thus making voltage control of magnetism in general a scientific challenge. The significance of controlled interface magnetism started with the exchange-bias effect. Exchange bias is a coupling phenomenon at magnetic interfaces that manifests itself prominently in the shift of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop along the magnetic-field axis. Various attempts on controlling exchange bias via voltage utilizing different scientific principles have been intensively studied recently. The majority of present research is emphasizing on various complex oxides. Our approach can be considered as a paradigm shift away from complex oxides. We focus on a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic simple oxide Cr2O3. From a combination of experimental and theoretical efforts, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr2O3 single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This is a significant scientific breakthrough providing a new route towards potentially revolutionizing information technology. In addition, a second path of electrically controlled exchange bias is introduced by exploiting the piezoelectric property of BaTiO3. An exchange-bias Co

  6. DC current monitor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canter, Stanley (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    A non-intrusive DC current monitor is presented which emulates the theoretical operation of an AC transformer. A conductor, carrying the current to be measured, acts as the primary of a DC current transformer. This current is passed through the center of a secondary coil, and core positioned thereabout, and produces a magnetic flux which induces a current in the secondary proportional to the current flowing in the primary. Means are provided to periodically reset the transformer core such that the measurement inaccuracies associated with core saturation are obviated. A reset current is caused to periodically flow through the secondary coil which produces a magnetic flux oppositely polarized to the flux created by the current in the primary, thus allowing ongoing measurements to be made.

  7. Addressing bias in the forensic assessment of sexual harassment claims.

    PubMed

    Gold, L H

    1998-01-01

    This article addresses unique biases that arise in the assessment of sexual harassment claims by forensic psychiatrists. These include gender biases, diagnostic biases, sociopolitical biases, and bias that arises from lack of knowledge regarding sexual harassment or lack of formal psychiatric training. Forensic psychiatrists are ethically obligated to strive for objectivity and honesty in their assessments. By becoming aware of these biases and attempting to minimize them, we can meet our ethical obligations as forensic psychiatrists. In addition, we can provide more credible and valuable assessments to the courts in this increasingly litigated and partisan issue. PMID:9894213

  8. Study of the Dependence on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in the AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6keV the AC biased pixel shows a best energy resolution of 3.7eV, which is about a factor of 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in identical DC-biased pixels. To better understand the reasons of this discrepancy, we investigated the detector performance as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied magnetic field. A strong periodic dependence of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recent weak-link behaviour observed inTES microcalorimeters.

  9. Current-driven non-linear magnetodynamics in exchange-biased spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Seinige, Heidi; Wang, Cheng; Tsoi, Maxim

    2015-05-07

    This work investigates the excitation of parametric resonance in exchange-biased spin valves (EBSVs). Using a mechanical point contact, high density dc and microwave currents were injected into the EBSV sample. Observing the reflected microwave power and the small rectification voltage that develops across the contact allows detecting the current-driven magnetodynamics not only in the bulk sample but originating exclusively from the small contact region. In addition to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), parametric resonance at twice the natural FMR frequency was observed. In contrast to FMR, this non-linear resonance was excited only in the vicinity of the point contact where current densities are high. Power-dependent measurements displayed a typical threshold-like behavior of parametric resonance and a broadening of the instability region with increasing power. Parametric resonance showed a linear shift as a function of applied dc bias which is consistent with the field-like spin-transfer torque induced by current on magnetic moments in EBSV.

  10. Highly zero-biased magnetoelectric response in magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Lei; Li, Ping; Wen, Yumei; Wang, Pan

    2012-07-01

    The magnetoelectric (ME) coupling is investigated in laminated composites employing piezoelectric ceramic PZT (PZT-8), iron-nickel-based ferromagnetic alloy with constant elasticity (FeNi-FACE), and soft magnetic amorphous ribbon FeCuNbSiB (Fe73.5Cu1Nb3Si13.5B9). The two different ferromagnetic materials of FeNi-FACE and FeCuNbSiB result in built-in dc magnetic bias (Hdc) due to difference in their magnetic permeability and coercivity. In addition, the relatively high mechanical quality factors (Qm) for FeNi-FACE, PZT-8, and FeCuNbSiB enhance the resonant ME voltage due to an increased effective Qm of ME composite. Hence, a strong resonant ME response at zero-biased dc magnetic field can be obtained. The corresponding ME voltage coefficients (MEVC) at resonance for PZT/FeNi-FACE/FeCuNbSiB (FeFP) composite and FeCuNbSiB/FeNi-FACE/PZT/FeNi-FACE/FeCuNbSiB (FeFPFFe) composites achieve 2.19 V/Oe (27.375 V/cm Oe) and 3.37 V/Oe (42.125 V/cm Oe), respectively, which is ˜102 times higher than that of the previously reported NKNLS-NZF/Ni/NKNLS-NZF trilayer composite.

  11. Chaos and catastrophe near the plasma frequency in the rf-biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, R.L.; Monaco, R.

    1989-03-01

    At bias frequencies much higher than the plasma frequency, the zero-voltage state of the rf-biased Josephson junction is known to span a range of dc bias proportional to the zero-order Bessel function of the rf amplitude. This pattern is modified at frequencies near the plasma frequency by the onset of chaotic instabilities and by the presence of cusp catastrophes.

  12. Failure mechanisms of DC and capacitive RF MEMS switches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, Steven T.; Zabinski, Jeffrey S.

    2006-01-01

    Microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) radio frequency (RF) switches hold great promise in a myriad of commercial, aerospace, and military applications including cellular phones and phased array antennas. However, there is limited understanding of the factors determining the performance and reliability of these devices. Fundamental studies of hot-switched DC (gold versus gold) and capacitive (gold versus silicon nitride) MEMS RF switch contacts were conducted in a controlled air environment at MEMS-scale forces using a micro/nanoadhesion apparatus as a switch simulator. This paper reviews key experimental results from the switch simulator and how they relate to failure mechanisms of MEMS switches. For DC switch contacts, electric current had a profound effect on deformation mechanisms, adhesion, contact resistance (R), and reliability/durability. At low current (1-10 μA), junction growth/force relaxation, slightly higher R, and switching induced adhesion growth were prominent. At high current (1-10 mA), asperity melting, slightly lower R, and shorting were present. Adhesion increased during cycling at low current and was linked to the creation of smooth contact surfaces, increased van der Waals interaction, and chemical bonding. Surface roughening by nanowire formation (which also caused shorting) prevented adhesion at high current. Aging of the contacts in air led to hydrocarbon adsorption and less adhesion. Studies of capacitive switches demonstrated that excessive adhesion was the primary failure mechanism and that both mechanical and electrical effects were contributing factors. The mechanical effect is adhesion growth with cycling due to surface smoothening, which allows increased van der Waals interaction and chemical bonding. The electrical effect on adhesion is due to electrostatic force associated with trapped parasitic charge in the dielectric, and was only observed after operating the switch at 40 V bias and above. The two effects are additive; however

  13. CO2 Network Design for Washington DC/Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Ghosh, S.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion method to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in the urban areas of Washington DC and Baltimore at approximately 1km2 resolutions. The aim of this project is to help establish reliable measurement methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used to guide mitigation efforts. Since inversion methods depend on atmospheric observations of GHG, deploying a suitable network of ground-based measurement stations is a fundamental step in estimating emissions from the perspective of the atmosphere with reasonable levels of uncertainty. The purpose of this work is to design a tower based network of measurement stations that can reduce the uncertainty in emissions by 50% in the central areas of DC and Baltimore. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) was used along with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface emissions (footprints) for the months of February and July 2013. An iterative selection algorithm, based on k-means clustering method, was applied in order to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize the urban contribution. Afterwards, a synthetic inversion Kalman Filter was used to evaluate the performances of the observing system based on the merit of the retrieval over time and the amount of a priori uncertainty reduced by the network. We present the performances of various measurement networks that consist of different number of towers and where the location of these towers vary. Results show that too compact networks lose spatial coverage whilst too spread networks lose capabilities of constraining uncertainties in the fluxes. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of low-cost, low-accuracy sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and

  14. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories. PMID:12848220

  15. Experience from design, prototyping and production of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, S.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS collaboration has adopted a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the Phase-1 Upgrade of its pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters with a conversion ratio of around 3 are installed on the support structures, outside of the sensitive tracking region, requiring a re-design of the low and high voltage distribution to the pixel modules. After several years of R&D, the project has entered the production phase. A total of 1800 DC-DC converters are being produced, and rigorous quality assurance and control is being employed during the production process. The testing program is outlined, results from mass production are presented and issues that have been encountered are described. In addition, two system level challenges, namely the choice of output voltage in the presence of large, load-dependent voltage drops, and the thermal management required to remove the heat load caused by the DC-DC converters, are discussed.

  16. Harassment, Bias, and Discrimination.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welliver, Paul W.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses a new principle which has been added to the AECT (Association for Educational Communications and Technology) Code of Professional Ethics regarding discrimination, harassment, and bias. An example is presented which illustrates a violation of a professional colleague's rights. (LRW)

  17. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  18. Estimating Bias Error Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.

  19. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification. PMID:24315677

  20. Analysis of self-oscillating dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The basic operational characteristics of dc-to-dc converters are analyzed along with the basic physical characteristics of power converters. A simple class of dc-to-dc power converters are chosen which could satisfy any set of operating requirements, and three different controlling methods in this class are described in detail. Necessary conditions for the stability of these converters are measured through analog computer simulation whose curves are related to other operational characteristics, such as ripple and regulation. Further research is suggested for the solution of absolute stability and efficient physical design of this class of power converters.

  1. High performance dc-dc conversion with voltage multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T.; Myers, I. T.

    1974-01-01

    The voltage multipliers using capacitors and diodes first developed by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932 were reexamined in terms of state of the art fast switching transistors and diodes, and high energy density capacitors. Because of component improvements, the voltage multiplier, used without a transformer, now appears superior in weight to systems now in use for dc-dc conversion. An experimental 100-watt 1000-volt dc-dc converter operating at 100 kHz was built, with a component weight of about 1 kg/kW. Calculated and measured values of output voltage and efficiency agreed within experimental error.

  2. Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

  3. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect. PMID:26786070

  4. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  5. Frequency dependence of PMN-PT ceramics under electrical bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Robinson, Harold C.; McLaughlin, Elizabeth A.

    2002-07-01

    It is a well-known fact that electrostrictive materials, such as lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) ceramics, exhibit significant frequency dispersion in their small signal dielectric constant below their dielectric maximum temperature Tm. The frequency dispersion in several PMN-PT compositions will be examined in this study using two independent measurement methods: dc biased resonance and large signal quasistatic measurements conducted on NUWC Division Newport's SDECS. From these measurements, the coupling factor, piezoelectric constant and Young's modulus are compared as a function of the applied bias and frequency. Both the DC biased and SDECS measurements were performed on the same 3:1 aspect ratio samples. Finite element calculations will show that the error in determining the Young's modulus and piezoelectric constant from resonance using these samples is less than 5 percent. It will be shown that when frequency dispersion exists it remains even with the application of dc bias, and that the degree of deviation between these quantities increases the further below Tm the temperature drops. It will also be shown that, like the dielectric constant, the coupling factor, piezoelectric constant and Young's modulus in PMN-PT ceramics above Tm are non-dispersive.

  6. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 82.1710 Section 82.1710 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 82.1710 Section 82.1710 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 82.1710 Section 82.1710 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 82.1710 Section 82.1710 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 82.1710 Section 82.1710...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. Spreading Freedom and Saving Money. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  2. 21 CFR 74.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use in externally...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 is principally the disodium salt of fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures for...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 is principally the disodium salt of fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures for...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 is principally the disodium salt of fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures for...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use in externally...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use in externally...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 is principally the disodium salt of fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures for...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use in externally...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  14. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  15. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  16. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  17. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  18. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section...

  19. Statistical framework for estimating GNSS bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William C.; Erickson, Philip J.; Norberg, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    We present a statistical framework for estimating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) non-ionospheric differential time delay bias. The biases are estimated by examining differences of measured line-integrated electron densities (total electron content: TEC) that are scaled to equivalent vertical integrated densities. The spatiotemporal variability, instrumentation-dependent errors, and errors due to inaccurate ionospheric altitude profile assumptions are modeled as structure functions. These structure functions determine how the TEC differences are weighted in the linear least-squares minimization procedure, which is used to produce the bias estimates. A method for automatic detection and removal of outlier measurements that do not fit into a model of receiver bias is also described. The same statistical framework can be used for a single receiver station, but it also scales to a large global network of receivers. In addition to the Global Positioning System (GPS), the method is also applicable to other dual-frequency GNSS systems, such as GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema). The use of the framework is demonstrated in practice through several examples. A specific implementation of the methods presented here is used to compute GPS receiver biases for measurements in the MIT Haystack Madrigal distributed database system. Results of the new algorithm are compared with the current MIT Haystack Observatory MAPGPS (MIT Automated Processing of GPS) bias determination algorithm. The new method is found to produce estimates of receiver bias that have reduced day-to-day variability and more consistent coincident vertical TEC values.

  20. Statistical framework for estimating GNSS bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, J.; Coster, A. J.; Rideout, W. C.; Erickson, P. J.; Norberg, J.

    2015-09-01

    We present a statistical framework for estimating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) non-ionospheric differential time delay bias. The biases are estimated by examining differences of measured line integrated electron densities (TEC) that are scaled to equivalent vertical integrated densities. The spatio-temporal variability, instrumentation dependent errors, and errors due to inaccurate ionospheric altitude profile assumptions are modeled as structure functions. These structure functions determine how the TEC differences are weighted in the linear least-squares minimization procedure, which is used to produce the bias estimates. A method for automatic detection and removal of outlier measurements that do not fit into a model of receiver bias is also described. The same statistical framework can be used for a single receiver station, but it also scales to a large global network of receivers. In addition to the Global Positioning System (GPS), the method is also applicable to other dual frequency GNSS systems, such as GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema). The use of the framework is demonstrated in practice through several examples. A specific implementation of the methods presented here are used to compute GPS receiver biases for measurements in the MIT Haystack Madrigal distributed database system. Results of the new algorithm are compared with the current MIT Haystack Observatory MAPGPS bias determination algorithm. The new method is found to produce estimates of receiver bias that have reduced day-to-day variability and more consistent coincident vertical TEC values.

  1. Prediction Bias and Selection Bias: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cahan, Sorel; Gamliel, Eyal

    2001-01-01

    Proposed a definition of selection bias and studied the empirical relation between prediction bias and selection bias with respect to prominent social groups. Results show that, although the two biases are related, the relation is not isomorphic. It is mediated by the selection ratio, and for most selection ratios, it is only moderate. (SLD)

  2. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  3. A Plasma-Based DC-DC Electrical Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Richard; Finn, John

    2013-10-01

    Previous work has indicated that it may be possible to make DC-DC electrical transformers using plasmas. The mechanism is an MHD electromagnetic relaxation process induced by helical electrodes. This process is now being tested on the Bismark device at Tibbar Technologies.

  4. Dc-To-Dc Converter Uses Reverse Conduction Of MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P.; Gott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    In modified high-power, phase-controlled, full-bridge, pulse-width-modulated dc-to-dc converters, switching devices power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Decreases dissipation of power during switching by eliminating approximately 0.7-V forward voltage drop in anti-parallel diodes. Energy-conversion efficiency increased.

  5. Efficient Design in a DC to DC Converter Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruemmer, Joel E.; Williams, Fitch R.; Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight hardware requires high power conversion efficiencies due to limited power availability and weight penalties of cooling systems. The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) power converter is no exception. This paper explores the design methods and tradeoffs that were utilized to accomplish high efficiency in the DDCU. An isolating DC to DC converter was selected for the ISS power system because of requirements for separate primary and secondary grounds and for a well-regulated secondary output voltage derived from a widely varying input voltage. A flyback-current-fed push-pull topology or improved Weinberg circuit was chosen for this converter because of its potential for high efficiency and reliability. To enhance efficiency, a non-dissipative snubber circuit for the very-low-Rds-on Field Effect Transistors (FETs) was utilized, redistributing the energy that could be wasted during the switching cycle of the power FETs. A unique, low-impedance connection system was utilized to improve contact resistance over a bolted connection. For improved consistency in performance and to lower internal wiring inductance and losses a planar bus system is employed. All of these choices contributed to the design of a 6.25 KW regulated dc to dc converter that is 95 percent efficient. The methodology used in the design of this DC to DC Converter Unit may be directly applicable to other systems that require a conservative approach to efficient power conversion and distribution.

  6. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  7. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; Chervenak, J.; Eckart, M.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; Porter, F.; Sadlier, J.; Smith, S.

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  8. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  9. 76 FR 13926 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-8-11, DC-8-12, DC-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... required by AD 2008-25-05, Amendment 39-15763 (73 FR 78936, December 24, 2008), for Principal Structural... Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979), and 3. Will not have a significant economic...-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41, DC-8-42, DC-8-43, DC-8-51, DC-8-52, DC-8-53,......

  10. Bias in Psychological Assessment: Heterosexism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chernin, Jeffrey; Holden, Janice Miner; Chandler, Cynthia

    1997-01-01

    Explores heterosexist bias in seven widely used assessment instruments. Focuses on bias that is observable in the instruments themselves and in the ancillary materials. Describes three types of bias, how these biases manifest in various instruments, and makes recommendations for mental health practitioners and for professionals who develop…

  11. Biasing and fast degaussing circuit for magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1984-01-01

    A dual-function circuit is provided which may be used to both magnetically bias and alternately, quickly degauss a magnetic device. The circuit may be magnetically coupled or directly connected electrically to a magnetic device, such as a magnetostrictive transducer, to magnetically bias the device by applying a d.c. current and alternately apply a selectively damped a.c. current to the device to degauss the device. The circuit is of particular value in many systems which use magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic transmission in different propagation modes over very short time periods.

  12. Biasing and fast degaussing circuit for magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Dress, W.B. Jr.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1983-10-04

    A dual-function circuit is provided which may be used to both magnetically bias and alternately, quickly degauss a magnetic device. The circuit may be magnetically coupled or directly connected electrically to a magnetic device, such as a magnetostrictive transducer, to magnetically bias the device by applying a dc current and alternately apply a selectively damped ac current to the device to degauss the device. The circuit is of particular value in many systems which use magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic transmission in different propagation modes over very short time periods.

  13. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS Reg. No. 2814-77-9). The color additive is manufactured...

  14. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  15. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:26379081

  16. Gravity and large-scale nonlocal bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chan, Kwan Chuen; Scoccimarro, Román; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2012-04-01

    For Gaussian primordial fluctuations the relationship between galaxy and matter overdensities, bias, is most often assumed to be local at the time of observation in the large-scale limit. This hypothesis is however unstable under time evolution, we provide proofs under several (increasingly more realistic) sets of assumptions. In the simplest toy model galaxies are created locally and linearly biased at a single formation time, and subsequently move with the dark matter (no velocity bias) conserving their comoving number density (no merging). We show that, after this formation time, the bias becomes unavoidably nonlocal and nonlinear at large scales. We identify the nonlocal gravitationally induced fields in which the galaxy overdensity can be expanded, showing that they can be constructed out of the invariants of the deformation tensor (Galileons), the main signature of which is a quadrupole field in second-order perturbation theory. In addition, we show that this result persists if we include an arbitrary evolution of the comoving number density of tracers. We then include velocity bias, and show that new contributions appear; these are related to the breaking of Galilean invariance of the bias relation, a dipole field being the signature at second order. We test these predictions by studying the dependence of halo overdensities in cells of fixed dark matter density: measurements in simulations show that departures from the mean bias relation are strongly correlated with the nonlocal gravitationally induced fields identified by our formalism, suggesting that the halo distribution at the present time is indeed more closely related to the mass distribution at an earlier rather than present time. However, the nonlocality seen in the simulations is not fully captured by assuming local bias in Lagrangian space. The effects on nonlocal bias seen in the simulations are most important for the most biased halos, as expected from our predictions. Accounting for these

  17. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  18. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  19. Optically biased laser gyro

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.Z.; Chow, W.W.; Scully, M.O.; Sanders, V.E.

    1980-10-01

    We describe a four-mode ring laser that exhibits none of the mode-locking characteristics that plague laser gyros. This laser is characterized by a bias that changes sign with a change in the direction of rotation and prevents the counterpropagating modes from locking. A theoretical analysis explaining the experimental results is outlined.

  20. Lessons learned: DC-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmeyer, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. The system design was based on an initial set of program goals and a finite, limited set of resources. The goal in its simplest terms was to demonstrate vertical landing after rotation of the vehicle from a nose-first to an engines-first altitude. Finite resources actually drove the selection of a robust design to reduce fabrication and preflight testing costs. The result was a system with a large amount of flexibility which allowed expansion of the test goals as the system, and test program, evolved. The use of the vehicle flight computer interfacing with the ground control system for flight crew training was also not an initial concept. However, by defining an architecture for the system control modes which allowed additions and modifications as learning progressed, the 6 DOF codes used for flight controls software development were transported to the operating system to be used in a simulated flight mode. Flight data reduction was also greatly improved as the program progressed, and the data needs and presentation were refined. The software, avionics hardware, and the FOCC system development proceeded ahead of the vehicle, primarily because most of the hardware elements were existing at the outset of the program. The Built-in-Test (BIT) for avionics and propulsion systems were adequate. Particularly the flight readiness system which verified the vehicle health after engine start and before throttle-up for flight.

  1. An Exact Formulation of Laser Assisted Electron Emission on a Biased Metal Surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Peng; Lau, Y. Y.; Ang, L. K.; Shiffler, D.; Jensen, K. L.; Gilgenbach, R. M.

    2015-11-01

    Laser-driven ultrafast electron emission is important to free electron lasers (FELs), laser acceleration of relativistic electrons, and ultrafast electron diffraction. It would enable exciting technological development on four-dimensional (4D) time-resolved electron microscopy. We constructed an analytic solution for the highly nonlinear electron emission from a metal surface that is exposed to both a dc biased electric field and a single frequency laser field. The solution is valid for arbitrary combinations of dc electric field, laser electric field, laser frequency, metal work function and Fermi level. Various emission mechanisms, such as multiphoton absorption or emission, optical or dc field emission, are all included in this single formulation. The time-dependent emission current reveals that intense current modulation may be possible even with a low intensity laser, by merely increasing the applied dc bias. This work was supported by AFOSR Grant No. FA9550-14-1-0309.

  2. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  3. Lessons learned, DC-XA

    SciTech Connect

    Steinmeyer, D.

    1997-01-01

    The Delta Clipper-Experimental A (DC-XA) program was conceived and specifically developed to provide a low cost reusable flight vehicle testbed for demonstrating performance and operability testing of advanced technologies required for the development of next generation Reusable Launch Vehicles (RLVs). The three primary program objectives addressed were: To integrate a variety of advanced launch vehicle technology components into the DC-XA flight vehicle testbed. Demonstrate performance, operability, and supportability of Advanced Launch Technologies (ALT) components through ground and flight testing of the DC-XA. Demonstrate rapid prototyping of hardware and software in a combined government, industry cooperative effort. {copyright} {ital 1997 American Institute of Physics.}

  4. Exchange bias in ferrite hollow nanoparticles originated by complex internal magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, Emilio; Lima, Enio, Jr.; Vargas, Jose M.; Zysler, Roberto D.; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, Alfonso; Goya, Gerardo F.; Ibarra, M. Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Iron-oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) may present unusual magnetic behavior as a consequence of their unique morphology. Here, we report the unusual magnetic behavior of HNS that are 9 nm in diameter. The magnetic properties of HNS originate in their complex magnetic structure, as evidenced by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. We observe a bias in the hysteresis when measured at very low temperature in the field cooling protocol (10 kOe). In addition, dc (static) and ac (dynamic) magnetization measurements against temperature and applied field reveal a frustrated order of the system below 10 K. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal that the HNS are composed of small crystalline clusters of about 2 nm in diameter, which behave as individual magnetic entities. Micromagnetic simulations (using conjugate gradient in order to minimize the total energy of the system) reproduce the experimentally observed magnetic behavior. The model considers the hollow particles as constituted by small ordered clusters embedded in an antiferromagnetic environment (spins localized outside the clusters). In addition, the surface spins (in both inner and outer surfaces of the HNS) are affected by a local surface anisotropy. The strong effective magnetic anisotropy field of the clusters induces the bias observed when the system is cooled in the presence of a magnetic external field. This effect propagates through the exchange interaction into the entire particle.

  5. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  6. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.2206 Section 74.2206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 74.2708 Section 74.2708 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Black No. 3. 74.2053 Section 74.2053 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Black No. 3 is a washed bone...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 74.2306 Section 74.2306 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 74.2104 Section 74.2104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 74.2205 Section 74.2205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 5...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 31 is principally the calcium...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.2330 Section 74.2330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.2711 Section 74.2711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No....

  15. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.2334 Section 74.2334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.2327 Section 74.2327 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 30 is principally...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.2321 Section 74.2321 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.2707 Section 74.2707 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 is 1,4-bis...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.2322 Section 74.2322 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.2328 Section 74.2328 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.1707a Section 74.1707a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7 74.2307 Section 74.2307 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 74.1708 Section 74.1708 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 is principally...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.2331 Section 74.2331 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.1711 Section 74.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 is principally...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.2317 Section 74.2317 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.2710 Section 74.2710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No....

  11. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.1707 Section 74.1707 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 is...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  14. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Blue No. 9 is principally 7,16-dichloro-6,15...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 74.1205 Section 74.1205 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 5 is principally the...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.1333 Section 74.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 33 is principally the...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Blue No. 9 is principally 7,16-dichloro-6,15...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.1334 Section 74.1334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 34 is principally the calcium...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.1333 Section 74.1333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 33 is principally the...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.1334 Section 74.1334 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 34 is principally the calcium...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.2208 Section 74.2208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2)...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.2208 Section 74.2208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  8. 21 CFR 74.3206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.3206 Section 74.3206 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity to the requirements of § 74.1206(a). (b)...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2)...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.1710 Section 74.1710 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 is a mixture of the sodium salts of the mono- and disulfonic acids of...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.1710 Section 74.1710 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 is a mixture of the sodium salts of the mono- and disulfonic acids of...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.1322 Section 74.1322 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 22 is principally the disodium salt of 2′,4′,5′7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.1327 Section 74.1327 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 27 is principally 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachlorofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.1321 Section 74.1321 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 21 is principally 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No. 15086-94-9), and may...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 74.1205 Section 74.1205 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 5 is principally the disodium salt of 2,2′- bis- (CAS Reg. No. 4403-90-1). (2) Color...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2) Color... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2) Color... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2) Color... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 74.1104 Section 74.1104 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 is principally the diammonium salt of ethyl -α-(o-...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2052 - D&C Black No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Black No. 2. 74.2052 Section 74.2052 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2052 D&C Black No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Black No. 2 is a high-purity...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2151 - D&C Brown No. 1.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Brown No. 1. 74.2151 Section 74.2151 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2151 D&C Brown No. 1. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Brown No. 1 is a mixture of the sodium salts of 4 -2,4-dihydroxyphenyl]azo]-benzene sulfonic acid....

  19. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.1710 Section 74.1710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 is a mixture of...

  20. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  1. Vortex ratchet reversal in an asymmetric washboard pinning potential subject to combined dc and ac stimuli.

    PubMed

    Shklovskij, Valerij A; Sosedkin, Vladimir V; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V

    2014-01-15

    The mixed-state resistive response of a superconductor thin film with an asymmetric washboard pinning potential subject to superimposed dc and ac currents of arbitrary amplitudes and frequency at finite temperature is theoretically investigated. The problem is considered in the single-vortex approximation, relying upon the exact solution of the Langevin equation in terms of a matrix continued fraction. The dc voltage response and the absorbed power in ac response are analyzed as functions of dc bias and ac current amplitude and frequency in a wide range of corresponding dimensionless parameters. Predictions are made of (i) a reversal of the rectified voltage at small dc biases and strong ac drives and (ii) a non-monotonic enhancement of the absorbed power in the nonlinear ac response at far sub-depinning frequencies. It is elucidated how and why both these effects appear due to the competition of the fixed internal and the tunable, dc bias-induced external asymmetry of the potential as the only reason. This is distinct from other scenarios used for explaining the vortex ratchet reversal effect so far. PMID:24304564

  2. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  3. Assessing Bias in Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowshowitz, Abbe; Kawaguchi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the measurement of bias in search engines on the Web, defining bias as the balance and representation of items in a collection retrieved from a database for a set of queries. Assesses bias by measuring the deviation from the ideal of the distribution produced by a particular search engine. (Author/LRW)

  4. Description and Status of the DC Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Hall, John M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Zubrick, Steven; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The DC Lightning Mapping Array (DC LMA) centered on the Washington, DC metro region has been in operation since 2006. During that time the DC LMA has provided real time data to regional National Weather Service (NSF) Sterling, VA forecast office for operations support and the NOAA Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) for new product development and assessment. Data from this network (as well as other from other LMA systems) are now being used to create proxy Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data sets for GOES-R risk reduction and algorithm development activities. In addition, since spring 2009 data are provided to the Storm Prediction Center in support of Hazardous Weather Testbed and GOES-R Proving Ground activities during the Spring Program. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  5. Test Bias and the Elimination of Racism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sedlacek, William E.

    1977-01-01

    Three types of test bias are discussed: content bias, atmosphere bias, and use bias. Use bias is considered the most important. Tests reflect the bias in society, and eliminating test bias means eliminating racism and sexism in society. A six-stage model to eliminate racism and sexism is presented. (Author)

  6. Architectures and Control of Submodule Integrated DC-DC Converters for Photovoltaic Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Olalla, C; Clement, D; Rodriguez, M; Maksimovic, D

    2013-06-01

    This paper describes photovoltaic (PV) module architectures with parallel-connected submodule-integrated dc-dc converters (subMICs) that improve efficiency of energy capture in the presence of partial shading or other mismatch conditions. The subMICs are bidirectional isolated dc-dc converters capable of injecting or subtracting currents to balance the module substring voltages. When no mismatches are present, the subMICs are simply shut down, resulting in zero insertion losses. It is shown that the objective of minimum subMIC power processing can be solved as a linear programming problem. A simple close-to-optimal distributed control approach is presented that allows autonomous subMIC control without the need for a central controller or any communication among the subMICs. Furthermore, the proposed control approach is well suited for an isolated-port architecture, which yields additional practical advantages including reduced subMIC power and voltage ratings. The architectures and the control approach are validated by simulations and experimental results using three bidirectional flyback subMICs attached to a standard 180-W, 72-cell PV module, yielding greater than 98% module-level power processing efficiency for a mismatch less than 25%.

  7. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... may be avoided by current good manufacturing practices: (1) Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaO and P2O5), not... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... may be avoided by current good manufacturing practices: (1) Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaO and P2O5), not... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... may be avoided by current good manufacturing practices: (1) Calcium hydroxyapatite (CaO and P2O5), not... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    .... The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may be safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may be safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  14. 75 FR 36298 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...-09-04, Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008), for all Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... removing Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008) and adding the following new AD:...

  15. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-09-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time pressure, implicit biases regarding blacks and Hispanics led to a less serious diagnosis. In addition, implicit biases regarding blacks led to a lower likelihood of a referral to specialist when physicians were under high time pressure. The results suggest that when physicians face stress, their implicit biases may shape medical decisions in ways that disadvantage minority patients. PMID:22811465

  16. CD bias control on hole pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kyohei; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi; Oyama, Kenichi; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2016-03-01

    Gridded design rules[1] is major process in configuring logic circuit used 193-immersion lithography. In the scaling of grid patterning, we can make 10nm order line and space pattern by using multiple patterning techniques such as self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch- litho-etch (LELE)[2][3][5] . On the other hand, Line cut process has some error parameters such as pattern defect, placement error, roughness and X-Y CD bias with the decreasing scale. Especially roughness and X-Y CD bias are paid attention because it cause cut error and pattern defect. In this case, we applied some smoothing process to care hole roughness[4]. Each smoothing process showed different effect on X-Y CD bias. In this paper, we will report the pattern controllability comparison of trench and block + inverse. It include X-Y CD bias, roughness and process usability. Furthermore we will discuss optimum method focused on X-Y CD bias when we use additional process such as smoothing and shrink etching .

  17. Low dose failures of hardened DC-DC power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, J.; Yui, C.; Rax, B. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weideman, M.; Schrick, P.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Box-level total dose testing of the FOG (Fiber Optic Gyro) by IXSEA at ESA's GammabeamFacility were abruptly terminated at 8krad (Si) due to catastrophic failure (complete shutdown). This was unexpected because all components within the gyro were supposedly radiation tolerant. Further testing showed that the components responsible for the failure were two DC-DC converters, manufactured by Interpoint, that stopped regulating shortly before shutdown. This paper summarizes diagnostic test results for the converters to determine the underlying cause of the unexpected failure at low levels of radiation.

  18. Commercial Of-The Shelf DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzinger, W.; Baumel, S.

    2011-10-01

    A commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) DC/DC converter for the supply of digital electronics on board of spacecraft has been developed with special emphasis on: *Low cost Readily available *Easy manufacturing *No use of ITAR listed EEE parts like rad-hard mosfets *Minimum number of rad-hard digital and analog IC's *Design tolerance against SEE by appropriate filtering The study was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) under the contract number 21729/08/NL7LvH.

  19. Evaluating solutions to sponsorship bias.

    PubMed

    Doucet, M; Sismondo, S

    2008-08-01

    More than 40 primary studies, and three recent systematic reviews and meta-analyses, have shown a clear association between pharmaceutical industry funding of clinical trials and pro-industry results. Industry sponsorship biases published scientific research in favour of the sponsors, a result of the strong interest commercial sponsors have in obtaining favourable results. Three proposed remedies to this problem are widely agreed upon among those concerned with the level of sponsorship bias: financial disclosure, reporting standards and trial registries. This paper argues that all of these remedies either fail to address the mechanisms by which pharmaceutical companies' sponsorship leads to biased results-design bias, multiple trials with predictable outcomes, fraud, rhetorical effects and publication bias-or else only inadequately address those mechanisms. As a result, the policies normally proposed for dealing with sponsorship bias are unable to eliminate it. Only completely separating public clinical research from pharmaceutical industry funding can eliminate sponsorship bias. PMID:18667655

  20. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  1. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  2. HIV-1 Infection of DC: Evidence for the Acquisition of Virus Particles from Infected T Cells by Antigen Uptake Mechanism

    PubMed Central

    Venkatachari, Narasimhan J.; Alber, Sean; Watkins, Simon C.; Ayyavoo, Velpandi

    2009-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DC) play a pivotal role in transmission and dissemination of HIV-1. Earlier studies reported that DC present at the site of infection trap virus particles via DC-SIGN and transfer the virus to the interacting naïve T cells. This prompted us to ask the question whether DC could acquire virus from infected T cells during DC-T cell interaction. To address this, we investigated the likely transfer of virus from HIV-1 infected T cells to DC and the underlying mechanisms involved. Results indicate that DC acquire virus from infected T cells via antigen uptake mechanism and this results in infection of DC with expression of proteins directed by viral DNA. Further studies with HIV-1 lacking the Env protein also resulted in infection of DC. The use of antibodies against DC-SIGN and DC-SIGN-R ruled out a role for receptor in the infection of DC. Additional data show that DC infection is directly correlated with the ability of DC to take up antigen from infected T cells. Overall, these studies provide evidence to suggest that HIV-1, besides infecting immune cells, also utilizes immunological mechanism(s) to acquire and disseminate virus. PMID:19829715

  3. Toroidal-Core Microinductors Biased by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Blaes, Brent

    2003-01-01

    The designs of microscopic toroidal-core inductors in integrated circuits of DC-to-DC voltage converters would be modified, according to a proposal, by filling the gaps in the cores with permanent magnets that would apply bias fluxes (see figure). The magnitudes and polarities of the bias fluxes would be tailored to counteract the DC fluxes generated by the DC components of the currents in the inductor windings, such that it would be possible to either reduce the sizes of the cores or increase the AC components of the currents in the cores without incurring adverse effects. Reducing the sizes of the cores could save significant amounts of space on integrated circuits because relative to other integrated-circuit components, microinductors occupy large areas - of the order of a square millimeter each. An important consideration in the design of such an inductor is preventing magnetic saturation of the core at current levels up to the maximum anticipated operating current. The requirement to prevent saturation, as well as other requirements and constraints upon the design of the core are expressed by several equations based on the traditional magnetic-circuit approximation. The equations involve the core and gap dimensions and the magnetic-property parameters of the core and magnet materials. The equations show that, other things remaining equal, as the maximum current is increased, one must increase the size of the core to prevent the flux density from rising to the saturation level. By using a permanent bias flux to oppose the flux generated by the DC component of the current, one would reduce the net DC component of flux in the core, making it possible to reduce the core size needed to prevent the total flux density (sum of DC and AC components) from rising to the saturation level. Alternatively, one could take advantage of the reduction of the net DC component of flux by increasing the allowable AC component of flux and the corresponding AC component of current

  4. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive shall... color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive shall... color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive shall... color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive shall... color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  8. 21 CFR 74.3106 - D&C Blue No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3106 D&C Blue No. 6. (a) Identity. The color... the medical device in which the color additive is used. (d) Labeling. The label of the color...

  9. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and... respect to the medical devices in which the color additive is used. (c) Labeling. The label of the...

  10. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and... respect to the medical devices in which the color additive is used. (c) Labeling. The label of the...

  11. Bias deconstructed: unravelling the scale dependence of halo bias using real-space measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Desjacques, Vincent; Monaco, Pierluigi; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2013-11-01

    We explore the scale dependence of halo bias using real-space cross-correlation measurements in N-body simulations and in PINOCCHIO, an algorithm based on Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. Recent work has shown how to interpret such real-space measurements in terms of k-dependent bias in Fourier space, and how to remove the k-dependence to reconstruct the k-independent peak-background split halo bias parameters. We compare our reconstruction of the linear bias, which requires no free parameters, with previous estimates from N-body simulations which were obtained directly in Fourier space at large scales, and find very good agreement. Our reconstruction of the quadratic bias is similarly parameter-free, although in this case there are no previous Fourier space measurements to compare with. Our analysis of N-body simulations explicitly tests the predictions of the excursion set peaks (ESP) formalism of Paranjape et al. for the scale dependence of bias; we find that the ESP predictions accurately describe our measurements. In addition, our measurements in PINOCCHIO serve as a useful, successful consistency check between PINOCCHIO and N-body simulations that is not accessible to traditional measurements.

  12. A scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with continuous bias modulation.

    PubMed

    Beall, Edward; Yin, Xing; Waldeck, David H; Wierzbinski, Emil

    2015-09-28

    Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule. PMID:26308622

  13. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation. PMID:22254704

  14. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  15. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 82.1708 Section 82.1708 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 82.1708 Section 82.1708 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.1707 Section 82.1707 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 82.1708 Section 82.1708 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.1707 Section 82.1707 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.1707 Section 82.1707 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 82.1708 Section 82.1708 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.1707 Section 82.1707 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.1707 Section 82.1707 Food...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 8. 82.1708 Section 82.1708 Food...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 74.3206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color... § 70.25 of this chapter. (e) Certification. All batches of D&C Green No. 6 shall be certified in... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.3206 Section 74.3206 Food...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The... chapter. (d) Certification. All batches of D&C Green No. 8 shall be certified in accordance with... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.2208 Section 74.2208 Food...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The... chapter. (d) Certification. All batches of D&C Green No. 8 shall be certified in accordance with... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.2208 Section 74.2208 Food...

  4. 21 CFR 74.3206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color... § 70.25 of this chapter. (e) Certification. All batches of D&C Green No. 6 shall be certified in... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.3206 Section 74.3206 Food...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The... chapter. (d) Certification. All batches of D&C Green No. 8 shall be certified in accordance with... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.2208 Section 74.2208 Food...

  6. 21 CFR 74.3206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color... § 70.25 of this chapter. (e) Certification. All batches of D&C Green No. 6 shall be certified in... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.3206 Section 74.3206 Food...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  14. Quasi-Periodicity, Chaos and Coexistence in the Time Delay Controlled Two-Cell DC-DC Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaâ, Karama; Feki, Moez

    In addition to border collision bifurcation, the time delay controlled two-cell DC/DC buck converter is shown to exhibit a chaotic behavior as well. The time delay controller adds new design parameters to the system and therefore the variation of a parameter may lead to different types of bifurcation. In this work, we present a thorough analysis of different scenarios leading to bifurcation and chaos. We show that the time delay controlled two-cell DC/DC buck converter may also exhibit a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation which for some parameter set may lead to a 2D torus that may then break yielding a chaotic behavior. Besides, the saturation of the controller can also lead to the coexistence of a stable focus and a chaotic attractor. The results are presented using numerical simulation of a discrete map of the two-cell DC/DC buck converter obtained by expressing successive crossings of Poincaré section in terms of each other.

  15. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  16. Performance of a spacecraft DC-DC converter breadboard modified for low temperature operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Stell, Chris; Patterson, Richard; Ray, Biswajit

    1996-01-01

    A 1OW 3OV/5.OV push-pull dc-dc converter breadboard, designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a +50 C to +5 C operating range for the Cassini space probe, was characterized for lower operating temperatures. The breadboard converter which failed to operate for temperatures below -125 C was then modified to operate at temperatures approaching that of liquid nitrogen (LN2). Associated with this low operating temperature range (greater than -196 C) was a variety of performance problems such as significant change in output voltage, converter switching instability, and failure to restart at temperatures below -154 C. An investigation into these problems yielded additional modifications to the converter which improved low temperature performance even further.

  17. DC8 and DC13 var Genes Associated with Severe Malaria Bind Avidly to Diverse Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Avril, Marion; Brazier, Andrew J.; Melcher, Martin; Sampath, Sowmya; Smith, Joseph D.

    2013-01-01

    During blood stage infection, Plasmodium falciparum infected erythrocytes (IE) bind to host blood vessels. This virulence determinant enables parasites to evade spleen-dependent killing mechanisms, but paradoxically in some cases may reduce parasite fitness by killing the host. Adhesion of infected erythrocytes is mediated by P. falciparum erythrocyte membrane protein 1 (PfEMP1), a family of polymorphic adhesion proteins encoded by var genes. Whereas cerebral binding and severe malaria are associated with parasites expressing DC8 and DC13 var genes, relatively little is known about the non-brain endothelial selection on severe malaria adhesive types. In this study, we selected P. falciparum-IEs on diverse endothelial cell types and demonstrate that DC8 and DC13 var genes were consistently among the major var transcripts selected on non-brain endothelial cells (lung, heart, bone marrow). To investigate the molecular basis for this avid endothelial binding activity, recombinant proteins were expressed from the predominant upregulated DC8 transcript, IT4var19. In-depth binding comparisons revealed that multiple extracellular domains from this protein bound brain and non-brain endothelial cells, and individual domains largely did not discriminate between different endothelial cell types. Additionally, we found that recombinant DC8 and DC13 CIDR1 domains exhibited a widespread endothelial binding activity and could compete for DC8-IE binding to brain endothelial cells, suggesting they may bind the same host receptor. Our findings provide new insights into the interaction of severe malaria adhesive types and host blood vessels and support the hypothesis that parasites causing severe malaria express PfEMP1 variants with a superior ability to adhere to diverse endothelial cell types, and may therefore endow these parasites with a growth and transmission advantage. PMID:23825944

  18. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  19. D.C. Fights Crime.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    American School and University, 1984

    1984-01-01

    Describes a 30-233 "Youth Awareness Program" in Washington, DC, to help students recognize the responsibilities of citizenship. Police collaborate with schools in providing classroom visits, field trips, and instructional materials aimed at specific areas of concern for adolescents, such as alcohol, drugs, smoking, sexuality, juvenile justice, and…

  20. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…