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Sample records for additional dc bias

  1. Blind signal processing algorithms under DC biased Gaussian noise

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Namyong; Byun, Hyung-Gi; Lim, Jeong-Ok

    2013-05-01

    Distortions caused by the DC-biased laser input can be modeled as DC biased Gaussian noise and removing DC bias is important in the demodulation process of the electrical signal in most optical communications. In this paper, a new performance criterion and a related algorithm for unsupervised equalization are proposed for communication systems in the environment of channel distortions and DC biased Gaussian noise. The proposed criterion utilizes the Euclidean distance between the Dirac-delta function located at zero on the error axis and a probability density function of biased constant modulus errors, where constant modulus error is defined by the difference between the system out and a constant modulus calculated from the transmitted symbol points. From the results obtained from the simulation under channel models with fading and DC bias noise abruptly added to background Gaussian noise, the proposed algorithm converges rapidly even after the interruption of DC bias proving that the proposed criterion can be effectively applied to optical communication systems corrupted by channel distortions and DC bias noise.

  2. Experimental Investigation of DC-Bias Related Core Losses in a Boost Inductor (Postprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    dc bias-flux conditions. These dc bias conditions result in distorted hysteresis loops, increased core losses, and have been shown to be independent...core are proportional to the controllable converter load currents, this topology is ideal to study dc-related losses. Inductor core B-H hysteresis ...These dc bias conditions result in dis- torted hysteresis loops, increased core losses, and have been shown to be independent of core material. The

  3. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  4. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  5. Effects of DC bias on magnetic performance of high grades grain-oriented silicon steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Guang; Cheng, Ling; Lu, Licheng; Yang, Fuyao; Chen, Xin; Zhu, Chengzhi

    2017-03-01

    When high voltage direct current (HVDC) transmission adopting mono-polar ground return operation mode or unbalanced bipolar operation mode, the invasion of DC current into neutral point of alternating current (AC) transformer will cause core saturation, temperature increasing, and vibration acceleration. Based on the MPG-200D soft magnetic measurement system, the influence of DC bias on magnetic performance of 0.23 mm and 0.27 mm series (P1.7=0.70-1.05 W/kg, B8>1.89 T) grain-oriented (GO) silicon steels under condition of AC / DC hybrid excitation were systematically realized in this paper. For the high magnetic induction GO steels (core losses are the same), greater thickness can lead to stronger ability of resisting DC bias, and the reasons for it were analyzed. Finally, the magnetostriction and A-weighted magnetostriction velocity level of GO steel under DC biased magnetization were researched.

  6. Systematic tests for position-dependent additive shear bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Uitert, Edo; Schneider, Peter

    2016-11-01

    We present new tests to identify stationary position-dependent additive shear biases in weak gravitational lensing data sets. These tests are important diagnostics for currently ongoing and planned cosmic shear surveys, as such biases induce coherent shear patterns that can mimic and potentially bias the cosmic shear signal. The central idea of these tests is to determine the average ellipticity of all galaxies with shape measurements in a grid in the pixel plane. The distribution of the absolute values of these averaged ellipticities can be compared to randomised catalogues; a difference points to systematics in the data. In addition, we introduce a method to quantify the spatial correlation of the additive bias, which suppresses the contribution from cosmic shear and therefore eases the identification of a position-dependent additive shear bias in the data. We apply these tests to the publicly available shear catalogues from the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope Lensing Survey (CFHTLenS) and the Kilo Degree Survey (KiDS) and find evidence for a small but non-negligible residual additive bias at small scales. As this residual bias is smaller than the error on the shear correlation signal at those scales, it is highly unlikely that it causes a significant bias in the published cosmic shear results of CFHTLenS. In CFHTLenS, the amplitude of this systematic signal is consistent with zero in fields where the number of stars used to model the point spread function (PSF) is higher than average, suggesting that the position-dependent additive shear bias originates from undersampled PSF variations across the image.

  7. Long-ranged order formation of colloids of implanted ions in a dc biased piezoelectric semiconductor

    SciTech Connect

    Salimullah, M.; Rizwan, A.M.; Ghosh, S.K.; Shukla, P.K.; Nambu, M.; Nitta, H.; Hayashi, Y.

    2005-06-15

    A dc bias in a piezoelectric semiconductor may drive a beam of electrons which could charge the neutralized colloids of implanted ions and cause a uniform drift of charged colloidal particles. Using a test particle approach and appropriate dielectric-response function for an n-type piezoelectric semiconductor plasma, the potential distribution of uniformly drifting colloidal ions has been investigated. The dynamical oscillatory wake potential, besides the usual static Coulombian Debye-Hueckel potential, is found to be contributing more dominantly due to the plasma effect, rather than due to electron-phonon coupling interactions. This periodic wakefield may cause a long-range ordered structure of charged colloidal particles within the semiconductor to exhibit various additional properties.

  8. Microwave sintering versus conventional sintering of NiCuZn ferrites. Part II: Microstructure and DC-bias superposition characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ouyang, Chenxin; Xiao, Shumin; Zhu, Jianhua; Shi, Wei

    2016-06-01

    NiCuZn ferrites with the composition of (Ni0.48Cu0.10Zn0.42O)1.04(Fe2O3)0.96 were consolidated by microwave sintering (MS) and conventional sintering (CS), respectively. The influences of external microwave field and additives (1 wt% BSZ glass or 1 wt% Bi2O3) on the microstructure and DC-bias superposition characteristics of NiCuZn ferrites were investigated. Experimental results demonstrated that the final grain size was much larger with higher density since applying microwave field. In addition, for undoped ferrites, coarse grains structure obtained from microwave sintering is harmful to the DC-bias superposition characteristics. However, since adding BSZ glass or Bi2O3, the discrepancy on the final grain size obtained from MS and CS methods is not obvious. NiCuZn ferrites with the addition of BSZ glass or Bi2O3 exhibited a stronger ability to inhibit the drop of permeability under the DC-bias magnetic field. Possible mechanisms behind are discussed in this article.

  9. Micro-fabrication considerations for MEMS-based reconfigurable antenna apertures: with emphasis on DC bias network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadas, Hamid; Mousavi, Pedram; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2016-11-01

    This note addresses the main challenges involved in monolithic micro-fabrication of large capacitive-MEMS-based reconfigurable electromagnetic apertures in antenna applications. The fabrication of a large DC bias line network, and also the metallic features in such apertures, requires special attention and optimization. It is shown that the choice of DC bias network material can impact DC and RF performance of the structure, and a trade-off between switching time and radiation pattern integrity should be considered.

  10. Dielectric responses of modified BaTiO3 ceramics in multilayer ceramic capacitors to the combined uniaxial stress and dc bias field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Yue, Zhenxing; Gui, Zhilun; Li, Longtu

    2008-10-01

    Dielectric measurements of modified BaTiO3 in a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) show that the application of external uniaxial stress perpendicular to electric field in a MLCC can lead to a slight increase in the dielectric permittivity. The additional application of a dc bias results in a significantly suppressed dielectric permittivity in the temperature range from 228 to 453 K. These observations can be explained as a result of domain wall movements in grains with a core-shell structure, due to the combined stress and dc bias field. As the dc bias increased up to 5.6 MV/m, the Curie peak, which has diffuse phase transition characteristics in the absence of dc bias, becomes sharper, and two new peaks are induced at about 250 and 315 K. Furthermore, the first order paraelectric-ferroelectric phase transition of the modified BaTiO3 ceramic becomes stronger with increasing dc bias when a uniaxial stress is also applied.

  11. Bi-directional flow induced by an AC electroosmotic micropump with DC voltage bias.

    PubMed

    Islam, Nazmul; Reyna, Jairo

    2012-04-01

    This paper discusses the principle of biased alternating current electroosmosis (ACEO) and its application to move the bulk fluid in a microchannel, as an alternative to mechanical pumping methods. Previous EO-driven flow research has looked at the effect of electrode asymmetry and transverse traveling wave forms on the performance of electroosmotic pumps. This paper presents an analysis that was conducted to assess the effect of combining an AC signal with a DC (direct current) bias when generating the electric field needed to impart electroosmosis (EO) within a microchannel. The results presented here are numerical and experimental. The numerical results were generated through simulations performed using COMSOL 3.5a. Currently available theoretical models for EO flows were embedded in the software and solved numerically to evaluate the effects of channel geometry, frequency of excitation, electrode array geometry, and AC signal with a DC bias on the flow imparted on an electrically conducting fluid. Simulations of the ACEO flow driven by a constant magnitude of AC voltage over symmetric electrodes did not indicate relevant net flows. However, superimposing a DC signal over the AC signal on the same symmetric electrode array leads to a noticeable net forward flow. Moreover, changing the polarity of electrical signal creates a bi-directional flow on symmetrical electrode array. Experimental flow measurements were performed on several electrode array configurations. The mismatch between the numerical and experimental results revealed the limitations of the currently available models for the biased EO. However, they confirm that using a symmetric electrode array excited by an AC signal with a DC bias leads to a significant improvement in flow rates in comparison to the flow rates obtained in an asymmetric electrode array configuration excited just with an AC signal.

  12. Fabrication of Superhydrophobic Fiber Coatings by DC-Biased AC-Electrospinning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gad-El-Hak, M.; Ochanda, F. O.; Samaha, M. A.; Vahedi Tafreshi, H.; Tepper, G. C.

    2011-11-01

    Mesh-like fiber mats of polystyrene (PS) were deposited using DC-biased AC-electrospinning. Superhydrophobic surfaces with water contact angles greater than 150° and gas fraction values of up to 97% were obtained. A Rheological study was conducted on these fiber surfaces and showed a decrease in shear stress when compared with a noncoated surface (no slip), making them excellent candidates for applications requiring the reduction of skin-friction drag in submerged surfaces. We have also shown that addition of a second, low-surface energy polymer to a solution of PS can be used to control the fiber internal porosity depending on the concentration of the second polymer. Contact-angle measurements on mats consisting of porous and nonporous fibers have been used to evaluate the role of the larger spaces between the fibers and the pores on individual fibers on superhydrophobicity. Financial support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA), contract number W91CRB-10-1-0003, is acknowledged.

  13. Bias-voltage-controlled ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Smolyakov, D. A.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2015-06-01

    We report some ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in silicon-based hybrid structures. The giant impedance change under an applied magnetic field has been experimentally found in the metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) diode with the Schottky barrier based on the Fe/SiO2/p-Si and Fe/SiO2/n-Si structures. The maximum effect is found to observe at temperatures of 10-30 K in the frequency range 10 Hz-1 MHz. Below 1 kHz the magnetoresistance can be controlled in a wide range by applying a bias to the device. A photoinduced dc magnetoresistance of over 104% has been found in the Fe/SiO2/p-Si back-to-back Schottky diode. The observed magnetic-field-dependent effects are caused by the interface states localized in the insula-tor/semiconductor interface.

  14. Design and realization of assessment software for DC-bias of transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Liu, Lian-guang; Yuan, Zhong-chen

    2013-03-01

    The transformer working at the rated state will partically be saturated, and its mangetic current will be distorted accompanying with various of harmonic, increasing reactive power demand and some other affilicated phenomenon, which will threaten the safe operation of power grid. This paper establishes a transformer saturation circuit model of DCbias under duality principle basing on J-A theory which can reflect the hysteresis characteristics of iron core, and develops an software can assess the effects of transformer DC-bias using hybrid programming technology of C#.net and MATLAB with the microsoft.net platform. This software is able to simulate the mangnetizing current of different structures and assess the Saturation Level of transformers and the influnces of affilicated phenomenon accroding to the parameter of transformers and the DC equivalent voltage. It provides an effective method to assess the influnces of transformers caused by magnetic storm disaster and the earthing current of the HVDC project.

  15. Effects of dc bias on the fabrication of amorphous GdCo RF sputtered films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Wilson, W. L., Jr.; Zwingman, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the effects of a dc bias field applied to Gd(1-x)Co(x) thin films during RF sputter deposition. Such films may possess uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with easy axis perpendicular to the plane of the film and may be used in magnetic bubble devices. Uniformity in composition, thickness and magnetic properties has been achieved and film composition has been controlled to within one percent. However, significant variations of magnetic properties were observed from film to film.

  16. Effects of edge dc biasing on plasma rotation and transport in a toroidal geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksen, Åshild; Riccardi, Claudia; Magni, Simone

    2006-02-01

    We report results from experiments performed to study how a change in boundary conditions affects the plasma state in the toroidal geometry of the Blaamann device in Tromso. The boundary condition was changed by applying a dc bias on a limiter extended around the entire poloidal circumference of the plasma column. Two distinctly different plasma potential states were found. One state was associated with a bias at or negative with respect to the floating potential of the limiter, and a small ion-saturation current. The other state was associated with a positive bias with respect to the floating potential, near or in the electron saturation regime of the limiter. In the latter case the potential minimum in the middle of the cross-section was significantly less negative than in the case of ion-saturation current to the limiter. On the other hand, the grounded limiter provided the best confinement properties, for which the density maximum was significantly higher than for both more positive and more negative biases. This state also had the lowest fluctuation levels, and near zero poloidal velocities close to the boundaries, as well as the smallest radial, anomalous particle transport.

  17. Effects of Edge DC Biasing on Plasma Rotation and Transport in a Toroidal Geometry.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fredriksen, Ashild; Riccardi, Claudia

    2005-10-01

    We report results from experiments performed to study how a change in boundary conditions is affecting the plasma states in the toroidal geometry of the Blaamann device in Tromso. The boundary condition was changed by applying a DC bias on a limiter extended around the entire poloidal circumference of the plasma column. Two distinctly different plasma potential states were found. One state was associated with a bias at or negative with respect to the floating potential of the limiter, and a small ion saturation current. The other state was associated with a positive bias with respect to the floating potential, near or in the electron saturation regime of the limiter. In the latter case the potential minimum in the middle of the cross-section was significantly less negative than in the case of ion-saturation current to the limiter. On the other hand, the grounded limiter provided the best confinement properties, for which the density maximum was significantly higher than for both more positive and more negative biases. This state also had the lowest fluctuation levels, and near zero poloidal velocities close to the boundaries, as well as the smallest radial, anomalous particle transport.

  18. Production of semiconducting gold-DNA nanowires by application of DC bias.

    PubMed

    Joshi, Rakesh K; West, Leigh; Kumar, Amrita; Joshi, Nidhi; Alwarappan, Subbiah; Kumar, Ashok

    2010-05-07

    There is considerable interest in using DNA nanowires or nanotubes in a wide variety of bioelectronic applications and microcircuitry. Various methods have been developed to construct DNA nanostructures. Here, we report a novel method to construct semiconducting DNA nanowires by applying a suitable DC bias to a gold plating solution containing double-stranded DNA. The self-assembled nanowires fabricated by this method contain attached gold nanoparticles. Further, we report that the dimensions of the nanowires can be easily manipulated by altering the applied DC bias. We also confirmed the semiconducting nature of the DNA nanowires by studying their resistance-temperature behavior from 25 to 65 degrees C in a microelectrode system. These studies describe a simple process by which gold-decorated, semiconducting DNA nanowires could be created and may lead to a breakthrough in the field of self-assembly of nanometer-scale circuits. The self-assembled structures do have some similarity with tube-like structures but in the present work we are using the term 'DNA nanowires' to define the structures.

  19. Dielectric behaviour of BaTiO3-based ceramic multilayer capacitors under high dc bias field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Yue, Zhenxing; Zhao, Jianqiang; Wen, Hai; Wang, Xiaohui; Li, Longtu

    2006-08-01

    The dielectric behaviour of X7R-MLCCs with different active layers under high dc bias field (up to 6.25 MV m-1) has been investigated in the whole measurement temperature range from 213 to 453 K. The results show that as the dc bias field increases, the dielectric permittivity in the whole measurement range and the frequency dispersion at lower temperature are both suppressed, while dielectric loss initially decreases till the temperature reaches about 423 K and subsequently remains invariable. These results are attributed to the response of the core-shell structure in grains to the applied dc bias field. Furthermore, the dielectric permittivity of X7R-MLCCs with more dielectric layers is more significantly affected because of a more powerful pinning effect of the residual stress between the dielectric layer and the Ni electrode on the migration of the domain walls and the influence of created interfaces on dielectric properties of the dielectric materials close to the interface. The Curie peaks for two samples shift towards higher temperature at a rate 0.55 × 10-5 K m V-1 in the presence of the dc bias field. It is more significant that an interesting field-induced transition from paraelectric phase to ferroelectric phase in the shell part was found at about 323 K and Curie temperature.

  20. Correlation between Barrier Width, Barrier Height, and DC Bias Voltage Dependences on the Magnetoresistance Ratio in Ir-Mn Exchange Biased Single and Double Tunnel Junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saito, Yoshiaki; Amano, Minoru; Nakajima, Kentaro; Takahashi, Shigeki; Sagoi, Masayuki; Inomata, Koichiro

    2000-10-01

    Dual spin-valve-type double tunnel junctions (DTJs) of Ir-Mn/CoFe/AlOx/Co90Fe10/AlOx/CoFe/Ir-Mn and spin-valve-type single tunnel junctions (STJs) of Ir-Mn/CoFe/AlOx/CoFe/Ni-Fe were fabricated using an ultrahigh vacuum sputtering system, conventional photolithography and ion-beam milling. The STJs could be fabricated with various barrier heights by changing the oxidization conditions during deposition and changing the annealing temperature after deposition, while the AlOx layer thickness remained unchanged. There was a correlation between barrier width, height estimated using Simmons’ expressions, and dc bias voltage dependence on the MR ratio. The VB dependence on the tunneling magnetoresistance (TMR) ratio was mainly related to the barrier width, and the decrease in the TMR ratio with increasing bias voltage is well explained, taking into account the spin-independent two-step tunneling via defect states in the barrier, as a main mechanism, at room temperature. Under optimized oxidization and annealing conditions, the maximum TMR ratio at a low bias voltage, and the dc bias voltage value at which the TMR ratio decreases in value by half (V1/2) were 42.4% and 952 mV in DTJs, and 49.0% and 425 mV in STJs, respectively.

  1. Synchronized dynamics of Josephson vortices in artificial stacks of SNS Josephson junctions under both dc and ac bias currents

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berdiyorov, G. R.; Savel'ev, S. E.; Milošević, M. V.; Kusmartsev, F. V.; Peeters, F. M.

    2013-05-01

    Nonlinear dynamics of Josephson vortices (fluxons) in artificial stacks of superconducting-normal-superconducting Josephson junctions under simultaneously applied time-periodic ac and constant biasing dc currents is studied using the time dependent Ginzburg-Landau formalism with a Lawrence-Doniach extension. At zero external magnetic field and dc biasing current the resistive state of the system is characterized by periodic nucleation and annihilation of fluxon-antifluxon pairs, relative positions of which are determined by the state of neighboring junctions. Due to the mutual repulsive interaction, fluxons in different junctions move out of phase. Their collective motion can be synchronized by adding a small ac component to the biasing dc current. Coherent motion of fluxons is observed for a broad frequency range of the applied drive. In the coherent state the maximal output voltage, which is proportional to the number of junctions in the stack, is observed near the characteristic frequency of the system determined by the crossing of the fluxons across the sample. However, in this frequency range the dynamically synchronized state has an alternative—a less ordered state with smaller amplitude of the output voltage. Collective behavior of the junctions is strongly affected by the sloped sidewalls of the stack. Synchronization is observed only for weakly trapezoidal cross sections, whereas irregular motion of fluxons is observed for larger slopes of the sample edge.

  2. External dc bias field effects in the nonlinear ac stationary response of permanent dipoles in a uniaxial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Nijun; Coffey, William T.; Déjardin, Pirre-Michel; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    External dc bias field effects on the nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect of a system of permanent dipoles in a uniaxial mean field potential are studied via the rotational Brownian motion model. Postulated in terms of the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence equations for the statistical moments (the expectation value of the Legendre polynomials), the dielectric and Kerr effect ac stationary responses may be evaluated for arbitrary dc bias field strength via perturbation theory in the ac field. We have given two complementary approaches for treating the nonlinear effects. The first is based on perturbation theory allowing one to calculate the nonlinear ac stationary responses using powerful matrix methods. The second approach based on the accurate two-mode approximation [D.A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. E. 54, 3250 (1996)] effectively generalizes the existing results for dipolar systems in superimposed ac and dc fields to a mean field potential. The results apply both to nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect of nematics and to magnetic birefringence relaxation of ferrofluids. Furthermore, the given methods of the solution of infinite hierarchies of multi-term recurrence relations are quite general and can be applied to analogous nonlinear response problems.

  3. Application of dc and mark-space bias differential electrolytic potentiometry for determination of cyanide using a programmable syringe pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Tawfik A.; Abulkibash, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a rapid sequential injection titration method for the determination of cyanide in aqueous solutions. Mercuric nitrate was used as a titrant and a pair of gold-amalgam electrodes as an indicating system. The technique of differential electrolytic potentiometry using both mark-space bias (m.s.b.) and dc current for polarization was employed. The optimum values of current and percentage bias were 5 μA and 13%, respectively. The effects of dispense time, volume of analyte, supporting electrolyte, and the concentration of titrant were investigated. The results obtained are in agreement with those of the standard method (APHA), with a relative standard deviation of 1.43%, t = 0.783, F = 1.713. A sampling rate of about 20 samples per hour was achieved with good reproducibility and lower consumption of reagents.

  4. Effect of combined external uniaxial stress and dc bias on the dielectric property of BaTiO3-based dielectrics in multilayer ceramic capacitor: thermodynamics and experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Gang; Yue, Zhenxing; Sun, Tieyu; Gou, Huanlin; Li, Longtu

    2008-02-01

    The dielectric properties of (Nb, Y)-doped BaTiO3 in a multilayer ceramic capacitor (MLCC) under combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field were investigated at room temperature by using a modified Ginsburg-Landau-Devonshire thermodynamic theory and the dielectric measurement. It is found that although dc bias decreases the dielectric properties dominantly, the influence of the external uniaixial compressive stress should not be neglected. When applied along a direction perpendicular to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC, the external uniaixal compressive stress will strengthen the negative effect of dc bias. In contrast, the external uniaxial compressive stress along a direction parallel to the internal electrode layer in the MLCC will increase the dielectric permittivity under dc bias field, i.e. improve the ɛ-V response of the MLCC. Furthermore, although there is a difference between the calculated permittivity and the measured permittivity, the effects of the combined external uniaxial compressive stress and dc bias field on the dielectric permittivity described through two approaches are in good agreement.

  5. Field-angle and DC-bias dependence of spin-torque diode in giant magnetoresistive microstripe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, X.; Zhou, Y.; Zheng, C.; Chan, P. H.; Chan, M.; Pong, Philip W. T.

    2016-11-01

    The spin torque diode effect in all metal spintronic devices has been proposed as a microwave detector with a high power limit and resistivity to breakdown. The previous works have revealed the field-angle dependence of the rectified DC voltage (VDC) in the ferromagnetic stripe. The giant magnetoresistive (GMR) microstripe exhibits higher sensitivity compared with the ferromagnetic stripe. However, the influence of the magnetic field direction and bias current in the spin rectification of GMR microstripe is not yet reported. In this work, the angular dependence and bias dependence of resonant frequency (fR) and VDC are investigated. A macrospin model concerning the contribution of magnetic field, shape anisotropy, and unidirectional anisotropy is engaged to interpret the experimental data. fR exhibits a |sin δH| dependence on the in-plane field angle (δH). VDC presents either |sin δH| or |sin2 δH cos δH | relation, depending on the magnitude of Hext. Optimized VDC of 24 μV is achieved under 4 mT magnetic field applied at δH = 170°. Under out-of-plane magnetic field, fR shows a cos 2θH reliance on the polar angle (θH), whereas VDC is sin θH dependent. The Oersted field of the DC bias current (IDC) modifies the effective field, resulting in shifted fR. Enhanced VDC with increasing IDC is attributed to the elevated contribution of spin-transfer torque. Maximum VDC of 35.2 μV is achieved, corresponding to 47% increase compared with the optimized value under zero bias. Higher IDC also results in enlarged damping parameter in the free layer, resulting in increased linewidth in the spin torque diode spectra. This work experimentally and analytically reveals the angular dependence of fR and VDC in the GMR microstripe. The results further demonstrate a highly tunable fR and optimized VDC by bias current without the external magnetic field. GMR microstripe holds promise for application as a high-power, frequency-tunable microwave detector that works under small

  6. An analytical nonlinear model for laminate multiferroic composites reproducing the DC magnetic bias dependent magnetoelectric properties.

    PubMed

    Lin, Lizhi; Wan, Yongping; Li, Faxin

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we propose an analytical nonlinear model for laminate multiferroic composites in which the magnetic-field-induced strain in magnetostrictive phase is described by a standard square law taking the stress effect into account, whereas the ferroelectric phase retains a linear piezoelectric response. Furthermore, differing from previous models which assume uniform deformation, we take into account the stress attenuation and adopt non-uniform deformation along the layer thickness in both piezoelectric and magnetostrictive phases. Analysis of this model on L-T and L-L modes of sandwiched Terfenol-D/lead zirconate titanate/Terfenol-D composites can well reproduce the observed dc magnetic field (H(dc)) dependent magnetoelectric coefficients, which reach their maximum with the H(dc) all at about 500 Oe. The model also suggests that stress attenuation along the layer thickness in practical composites should be taken into account. Furthermore, the model also indicates that a high volume fraction of magnetostrictive phase is required to get giant magnetoelectric coupling, coinciding with existing models.

  7. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  8. Crystalline polarity of ZnO thin films deposited under dc external bias on various substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohsawa, Takeo; Tsunoda, Kei; Dierre, Benjamin; Zellhofer, Caroline; Grachev, Sergey; Montigaud, Hervé; Ishigaki, Takamasa; Ohashi, Naoki

    2017-04-01

    Effects of the nature of substrates, either crystalline or non-crystalline, on the structure and properties of ZnO films deposited by sputtering were investigated. This study focuses mainly on the role of the external electric bias applied to substrates during magnetron sputtering deposition in controlling crystalline polarity, i.e., Zn-face or O-face, and the resulting film properties. It was found that polarity control was achieved on silica and silicon substrates but not on sapphire substrates. The substrate bias did influence the lattice parameters in the structural formation; however, the selection of the substrate type had a significant influence on the defect structures and the film properties.

  9. Electrical Effect in Silver-Point Realization Due to Cell Structure and Bias Voltage Based on Resistance Measurement Using AC and DC Bridges

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Widiatmo, J. V.; Harada, K.; Yamazawa, K.; Tamba, J.; Arai, M.

    2015-08-01

    Electrical effects related to insulating leakage represent one of the major factors contributing to uncertainties in measurements using high-temperature standard platinum resistance thermometers (HTSPRTs), especially during the realization of the silver freezing point (). This work is focused on the evaluation of the differences in resistance measurements observed when using AC resistance bridges and DC resistance bridges, hereafter, termed the AC-DC differences, as the result of various electrical effects. The magnitude of the AC-DC difference in several silver-point cells is demonstrated with several HTSPRTs. The effect of the cell structure on the AC-DC difference is evaluated by exchanging some components, part by part, within a silver-point cell. Then, the effect of the bias voltage applied to the heat pipe within the silver-point furnace is evaluated. Through the analysis of the experimental results and comparison with the reports in the literature, the importance of evaluating the AC-DC difference as a means to characterize the underlying electrical effects is discussed, considering that applying a negative bias condition to the furnace with respect to the high-temperature SPRT can minimize the AC-DC difference. Concluding recommendations are proposed on the components used in silver-point cells and the application of a bias voltage to the measurement circuit to minimize the effects of the electrical leakage.

  10. Effects of the energy spread of secondary electrons in a dc-biased single-surface multipactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hur, Min Sup; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Jeon, Seok-Gy

    2011-03-01

    The effects of the energy spread of secondary electrons are theoretically investigated for a dc-biased single-surface multipactor. In our previous publication [S. G. Jeon et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 073101 (2009)], we obtained the conditions for the phase lock of an electron bunch, assuming zero velocity spread of the secondary electrons. In this work, we extended our previous theory to derive a quadratic map, by which the stability and bifurcation of the electron bunch can be systematically investigated. For the study of the energy spread of the secondary electrons, a randomized term was added to this map. The modified map then showed significant smearing-out of the bifurcated branches. The theoretical results were verified by particle-in-cell simulations, which showed good agreement in wide parameter ranges for both cases of monoenergetic and energy-spread secondary electrons.

  11. Part-whole bias in intertemporal choice: An empirical study of additive assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Wu, Dongmei; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-12-01

    Additive assumption means the overall value of multiple-dated outcomes is based on a simple aggregation of the values of each individual outcome. This assumption is generally accepted in the field of intertemporal choices. However, recent studies show additive assumption is questionable. In this paper, we experimentally tested the additive property of multiple-dated monetary rewards. Our results show: (1) additive assumption does not hold regardless of gain or loss; (2) the sum of subjective values of individual rewards is consistently larger than the valuation placed on the same rewards as a whole. This finding suggests that part-whole bias exists in the context of valuation of intertemporal monetary rewards.

  12. Additions are biased by operands: evidence from repeated versus different operands.

    PubMed

    Charras, Pom; Molina, Enrique; Lupiáñez, Juan

    2014-03-01

    Recent evidence led to the conclusion that addition problems are biased towards overestimation, regardless of whether information is conveyed by symbolic or non-symbolic stimuli (the Operational Momentum effect). The present study focuses on the role of operands in the overestimation of addition problems. Based on the tie effect, and on recent evidence that the nature of operands biases addition problems towards an underestimation when operands are repeated, but towards an overestimation when different, we aim here to further elucidate the contribution of operands to addition problems. Experiment 1 replicates the underestimation of repeated-operand additions and overestimation of different-operand additions, with large numbers (around 50), and explores whether these effects also apply to small operand additions (around 10). Experiment 2 further explores the overestimation of different-operand additions by investigating the roles of operand order and numerical distance between operands. The results show that both factors have an impact on the overestimation size, but are not crucial for overestimation to occur. The results are discussed in terms of arithmetic strategies, spatial organization of numbers and magnitude representation.

  13. Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Beth L

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

  14. Peak divergence in the curve of magnetoelectric coefficient versus dc bias magnetic field at resonance region for bi-layer magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Z. J.; Pan, D. A. Zhang, S. G.; Qiao, L. J.; Jia, Y. M.

    2013-12-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient dependence on the bias magnetic field at resonance frequencies for the bi-layered bonded Terfenol-D/Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} composite was investigated. The resonance frequency decreases first and then increases with the bias magnetic field (H{sub DC}), showing a “V” shape in the range of 0 ∼ 5 kOe. Below the resonance frequency, the pattern of ME coefficient dependence on the H{sub DC} shows a single peak, but splits into a double-peak pattern when the testing frequency increases into a certain region. With increasing the frequency, a divergent evolution of the H{sub DC} patterns was observed. Domain motion and ΔE effect combined with magnetostriction-piezoelectric coupling effect were employed to explain this experimental result.

  15. Effect of dc negative-bias and silicon introduction on performance of Si B N composite film by RF-PECD technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hua, Meng; Xiang, Yu; Junfeng, Yu; Chengbiao, Wang

    2005-05-01

    Under action of different dc negative-bias voltages on samples incorporating with silicon, a series of Si-B-N composite films were synthesized on steel 1045 using RF-PECVD technique (radio-frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition), and the surface analysis of X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and etc. were followed. The experimental results showed: Si-B-N composite films had an obvious mixture phase of c-BN and h-BN crystal at a certain dc negative bias, and the film's mechanical performances including micro-hardness and adhesion were improved. Moreover, bias effect on deposition performance of Si-B-N composite film has been systematically investigated, and silicon introduction was found to be necessary for the growth of Si-B-N film and the improvement of adhesion.

  16. The effect of the dc bias voltage on the x-ray bremsstrahlung and beam intensities of medium and highly charged ions of argon

    SciTech Connect

    Rodrigues, G.; Lakshmy, P. S.; Kanjilal, D.; Roy, A.; Baskaran, R.

    2010-02-15

    X-ray bremsstrahlung measurements from the 18 GHz High Temperature Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source, Pantechnik-Delhi Ion Source were measured as a function of negative dc bias voltage, keeping all other source operating parameters fixed and the extraction voltage in the off condition. The optimization of medium and highly charged ions of argon with similar source operating parameters is described. It is observed that the high temperature component of the electron is altered significantly with the help of bias voltage, and the electron population has to be maximized for obtaining higher current.

  17. The effect of the dc bias voltage on the x-ray bremsstrahlung and beam intensities of medium and highly charged ions of argon.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, G; Lakshmy, P S; Baskaran, R; Kanjilal, D; Roy, A

    2010-02-01

    X-ray bremsstrahlung measurements from the 18 GHz High Temperature Superconducting Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source, Pantechnik-Delhi Ion Source were measured as a function of negative dc bias voltage, keeping all other source operating parameters fixed and the extraction voltage in the off condition. The optimization of medium and highly charged ions of argon with similar source operating parameters is described. It is observed that the high temperature component of the electron is altered significantly with the help of bias voltage, and the electron population has to be maximized for obtaining higher current.

  18. Effect of Mn Addition on dc-Electrical Degradation of Multilayer Ceramic Capacitor with Ni Internal Electrode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morita, Koichiro; Mizuno, Youichi; Chazono, Hirokazu; Kishi, Hiroshi

    2002-11-01

    The effect of Mn addition on the microstructure and electrical properties, especially on the dc-electrical degradation, of the X7R-type multilayer ceramic capacitor with Ni internal electrode (Ni-MLCC) with thin active layers was investigated. As the amount of Mn increased, grain growth was suppressed, and the temperature characteristic (TC) curve was flattened. I-V characteristic measurements revealed that nonlinearity coefficient (α) at a high electric field of more than 10 V/μm was decreased, and the lifetime during the highly accelerated lifetime testing (HALT) under 20 V/μm was improved, as the Mn content increased. It was found that Mn addition caused the change of the electrical properties of the grain boundary (GB). The effect of Mn on dc-electrical degradation during HALT was investigated by introducing impedance measurement at elevated temperatures from the microstructural view point. The roles of Mn on dc-electrical degradation during HALT were proposed.

  19. Effect of alkali addition on DC conductivity and thermal properties of vanadium-bismo-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khasa, S. Dahiya, M. S.; Agarwal, A.

    2014-04-24

    The DC Conductivity and Differential Thermal Analysis of glasses with composition (30−x)Li{sub 2}O⋅xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}(x=15, 10, 5) has been carried out in order to study the effect of replacing the Transition Metal Oxide (TMO) with alkali oxide. A significant increase in the DC conductivity has been observed with increase in alkali content. Again the thermal measurements have shown the decrease in both glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub x}). The Glass Stability (GS) and Glass Forming Ability (GFA) have also been calculated and these also were found to decrease with increase in alkali oxide content at the cost of TMO.

  20. Initial phase zone for phase locking to the resonance, using “main condition” of phase stability in DC-biased single-sided multipactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-05-15

    In the present work, the concept of accurate phase stability is employed to study a DC-biased single-sided multipactor. A “main condition” of phase stability was introduced in our previous studies of two-sided multipactors [M. Mostajeran, J. Instrum. 8, P04024 (2013); M. Mostajeran and M. Lamehi Rachti, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 615, 1–5 (2010)]. Using the same condition and assuming zero initial velocity for the secondary electrons, a regime of multipactors outside the resonance zones is found. The theoretical results are then verified by numerical simulation.

  1. Effects of MgO Doping on DC Bias Aging Behavior of Mn-Doped BaTiO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, Dong Woo; Hong, Jeong Oh; Han, Young Ho

    2008-07-01

    The capacitance aging of multilayer ceramic capacitors (MLCCs) based on BaTiO3 dielectrics under DC electric fields has been studied. At a DC field of 1 V/µm, the capacitance of MLCC specimens decreased immediately in a very short period (<10 s, the first stage) and then decreased continuously with time (the second stage). Substitution of Mn ions markedly increased the slope of aging curves in the second stage. MgO doping significantly decreased the second stage aging rate of Mn-doped specimens. This aging rate decreased in the second stage with increasing MgO content. This may be due to the existence of a stable defect complex (MgTi''-VO••) inhibiting domain wall motion. MgO-doped specimens showed a small decrease in capacitance in the first stage, which may be due to small grain size and low dielectric permittivity.

  2. How the “main condition” of phase stability can explain the effect of the velocity deviation of secondary electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, a “main condition” for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the “simple stability condition.” This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

  3. Effect of Si addition on AC and DC magnetic properties of (Fe-P)-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Ravi; Prabhu, D.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Gopalan, R.; Sundararajan, G.

    2016-05-01

    We report a new (Fe-P)-Si based alloy with relatively high induction (1.8-1.9 T), low coercivity (< 80 A/m), high resistivity (˜38 μΩ cm) and low core loss (217 W/kg @ 1 T/1 kHz) comparable to the commercially available M530-50 A5 Si-steel. The attractive magnetic and electrical properties are attributed to i) the two phase microstructure of fine nano precipitates of Fe3P dispersed in α-Fe matrix achieved by a two-step heat-treatment process and ii) Si addition enhancing the resistivity of the α-Fe matrix phase. As the alloy processing is by conventional wrought metallurgy method, it has the potential for large scale production.

  4. Improvement in nano-hardness and corrosion resistance of low carbon steel by plasma nitriding with negative DC bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Mohamed Mounes; Saoula, Nadia; Tadjine, Rabah; Hadj-Larbi, Fayçal; Keffous, Aissa; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we study the effect of plasma nitriding on nano-hardness and corrosion resistance of low carbon steel samples. The plasma was generated through a radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma source. The substrate temperature increased (by the self-induced heating mechanism) with the treatment time for increasing negative bias voltages. X-rays diffraction analysis revealed the formation of nitride phases (ɛ-Fe2-3N and γ'-Fe4N) in the compound layer of the treated samples. A phase transition occurred from 3.5 kV to 4.0 kV and was accompanied by an increase in the volume fraction of the γ'-Fe4N phase and a decrease in that of the ɛ-Fe2-3N phase. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed a deep diffusion of the implanted nitrogen beyond 320 nm. The nano-hardness increased by ~400% for the nitrogen-implanted samples compared to the untreated state, the nitride phases are believed to participate to the hardening. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the plasma nitriding has improved the corrosion resistance behavior of the material. When compared to the untreated state, the sample processed at 4.0 kV exhibits a shift of +500 mV and a reduction to 3% in its corrosion current. These results were obtained for relatively low bias voltages and short treatment time (2 h).

  5. Experimental investigation of dielectric barrier discharge plasma actuators driven by repetitive high-voltage nanosecond pulses with dc or low frequency sinusoidal bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Opaits, Dmitry F.; Likhanskii, Alexandre V.; Neretti, Gabriele; Zaidi, Sohail; Shneider, Mikhail N.; Miles, Richard B.; Macheret, Sergey O.

    2008-08-01

    Experimental studies were conducted of a flow induced in an initially quiescent room air by a single asymmetric dielectric barrier discharge driven by voltage waveforms consisting of repetitive nanosecond high-voltage pulses superimposed on dc or alternating sinusoidal or square-wave bias voltage. To characterize the pulses and to optimize their matching to the plasma, a numerical code for short pulse calculations with an arbitrary impedance load was developed. A new approach for nonintrusive diagnostics of plasma actuator induced flows in quiescent gas was proposed, consisting of three elements coupled together: the schlieren technique, burst mode of plasma actuator operation, and two-dimensional numerical fluid modeling. The force and heating rate calculated by a plasma model was used as an input to two-dimensional viscous flow solver to predict the time-dependent dielectric barrier discharge induced flow field. This approach allowed us to restore the entire two-dimensional unsteady plasma induced flow pattern as well as characteristics of the plasma induced force. Both the experiments and computations showed the same vortex flow structures induced by the actuator. Parametric studies of the vortices at different bias voltages, pulse polarities, peak pulse voltages, and pulse repetition rates were conducted experimentally. The significance of charge buildup on the dielectric surface was demonstrated. The charge buildup decreases the effective electric field in the plasma and reduces the plasma actuator performance. The accumulated surface charge can be removed by switching the bias polarity, which leads to a newly proposed voltage waveform consisting of high-voltage nanosecond repetitive pulses superimposed on a high-voltage low frequency sinusoidal voltage. Advantages of the new voltage waveform were demonstrated experimentally.

  6. Bidirectional DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pedersen, F.

    2008-09-01

    The presented bidirectional DC/DC converter design concept is a further development of an already existing converter used for low battery voltage operation.For low battery voltage operation a high efficient low parts count DC/DC converter was developed, and used in a satellite for the battery charge and battery discharge function.The converter consists in a bidirectional, non regulating DC/DC converter connected to a discharge regulating Buck converter and a charge regulating Buck converter.The Bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter performs with relatively high efficiency even at relatively high currents, which here means up to 35Amps.This performance was obtained through the use of power MOSFET's with on- resistances of only a few mille Ohms connected to a special transformer allowing paralleling several transistor stages on the low voltage side of the transformer. The design is patent protected. Synchronous rectification leads to high efficiency at the low battery voltages considered, which was in the range 2,7- 4,3 Volt DC.The converter performs with low switching losses as zero voltage zero current switching is implemented in all switching positions of the converter.Now, the drive power needed, to switch a relatively large number of low Ohm , hence high drive capacitance, power MOSFET's using conventional drive techniques would limit the overall conversion efficiency.Therefore a resonant drive consuming considerable less power than a conventional drive circuit was implemented in the converter.To the originally built and patent protected bidirectional non regulating DC/DC converter, is added the functionality of regulation.Hereby the need for additional converter stages in form of a Charge Buck regulator and a Discharge Buck regulator is eliminated.The bidirectional DC/DC converter can be used in connection with batteries, motors, etc, where the bidirectional feature, simple design and high performance may be useful.

  7. Electron bunching from a dc-biased, single-surface multipactor with realistically broad energy spectrum and emission angle of secondary electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongwon; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Hur, Min Sup

    2012-02-01

    We studied the influences of wide energy spectrum and emission angle of secondary electrons on electron bunching from a dc-biased single surface multipactor. In our previous study of the same system, an ideally narrow energy spread of secondary electrons without emission angle was used in the analysis of the electron trajectory [M. S. Hur, J.-I. Kim, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, Phys. Plasmas 18, 033103 (2011) and S.-G. Jeon, J.-I. Kim, S.-T. Han, S.-S. Jung, and J. U. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 073101 (2009)]. In this paper, we investigated the cases with realistic energy spectrum, which is featured by a wide energy spread and significant emission angle. To theoretically approach the matter of emission angle, we employed a concept of effective longitudinal velocity distribution. The theoretical results are verified by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We also studied the electron bunching from a copper by PIC simulations, where we observed stable electron bunches with bunch width of approximately 80 μm.

  8. Female mate choice predicts paternity success in the absence of additive genetic variance for other female paternity bias mechanisms in Drosophila serrata.

    PubMed

    Collet, J M; Blows, M W

    2014-11-01

    After choosing a first mate, polyandrous females have access to a range of opportunities to bias paternity, such as repeating matings with the preferred male, facilitating fertilization from the best sperm or differentially investing in offspring according to their sire. Female ability to bias paternity after a first mating has been demonstrated in a few species, but unambiguous evidence remains limited by the access to complex behaviours, sperm storage organs and fertilization processes within females. Even when found at the phenotypic level, the potential evolution of any mechanism allowing females to bias paternity other than mate choice remains little explored. Using a large population of pedigreed females, we developed a simple test to determine whether there is additive genetic variation in female ability to bias paternity after a first, chosen, mating. We applied this method in the highly polyandrous Drosophila serrata, giving females the opportunity to successively mate with two males ad libitum. We found that despite high levels of polyandry (females mated more than once per day), the first mate choice was a significant predictor of male total reproductive success. Importantly, there was no detectable genetic variance in female ability to bias paternity beyond mate choice. Therefore, whether or not females can bias paternity before or after copulation, their role on the evolution of sexual male traits is likely to be limited to their first mate choice in D. serrata.

  9. Spin transfer torque and dc bias magnetic field effects on the magnetization reversal time of nanoscale ferromagnets at very low damping: Mean first-passage time versus numerical methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byrne, D. J.; Coffey, W. T.; Dowling, W. J.; Kalmykov, Y. P.; Titov, S. V.

    2016-02-01

    Spin transfer torque and bias field effects on the magnetization reversal time of a nanoscale ferromagnet are investigated in the very-low-damping regime via the energy-controlled diffusion equation. That equation is rooted in a generalization of the Kramers escape rate theory for point Brownian particles in a potential to the magnetic relaxation of a macrospin. Using the mean first-passage method, the reversal time is then evaluated in closed integral form for a nanomagnet with the free-energy density given in the standard form of superimposed easy-plane and in-plane easy-axis anisotropies with the dc bias field along the easy axis. The results completely agree with those yielded by independent numerical methods.

  10. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  11. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias.

  12. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobles, J. E.; Zagorodnii, V.; Hutchison, A.; Celinski, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal.

  13. A multi-module microfluidic platform for continuous pre-concentration of water-soluble ions and separation of oil droplets from oil-in-water (O/W) emulsions using a DC-biased AC electrokinetic technique.

    PubMed

    Das, Dhiman; Phan, Dinh-Tuan; Zhao, Yugang; Kang, Yuejun; Chan, Vincent; Yang, Chun

    2017-03-01

    A novel continuous flow microfluidic platform specifically designed for environmental monitoring of O/W emulsions during an aftermath of oil spills is reported herein. Ionized polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons which are toxic are readily released from crude oil to the surrounding water phase through the smaller oil droplets with enhanced surface area. Hence, a multi-module microfluidic device is fabricated to form ion enrichment zones in the water phase of O/W emulsions for the ease of detection and to separate micron-sized oil droplets from the O/W emulsions. Fluorescein ions in the water phase are used to simulate the presence of these toxic ions in the O/W emulsion. A DC-biased AC electric field is employed in both modules. In the first module, a nanoporous Nafion membrane is used for activating the concentration polarization effect on the fluorescein ions, resulting in the formation of stable ion enrichment zones in the water phase of the emulsion. A 35.6% amplification of the fluorescent signal is achieved in the ion enrichment zone; corresponding to 100% enrichment of the fluorescent dye concentration. In this module, the main inlet is split into two channels by using a Y-junction so that there are two outlets for the oil droplets. The second module located downstream of the first module consists of two oil droplet entrapment zones at two outlets. By switching on the appropriate electrodes, either one of the two oil droplet entrapment zones can be activated and the droplets can be blocked in the corresponding outlet.

  14. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  15. Combined complementary plasma diagnostics to characterize a 2f plasma with additional DC current with conditioning effects at the chamber wall

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klick, Michael; Rothe, Ralf; Baek, Kye Hyun; Lee, Eunwoo

    2016-09-01

    Multiple frequencies and DC current used in a low-pressure plasma rf discharge result in an increased complexity. This needs plasma diagnostics applied, in particular in a plasma process chamber. That is done under manufacturing conditions which restrict the applicable plasma diagnostics to non-invasive methods with small footprint. So plasma chamber parameters, optical emission spectroscopy (OES), and self-excited electron spectroscopy (SEERS) are used to characterize the plasma and to understand chamber wall conditioning effects in an Ar plasma. The parameters are classified according to their origin--the region they are representative for. The center ion density is estimated from the DC current and compared to the SEERS electron density reflecting the electron density close to that at the chamber wall. The conditioning effects are caused by Si sputtering at a Si wafer changing the chamber wall state only when the chamber is clean, subsequent plasmas in the same chamber are not affected in that way. Through the combination of the complementary methods it can be shown that the chamber wall condition finally changes the radial plasma density distribution. Also the heating of electrons in the sheath is shown to be influenced by conditioning effects.

  16. Eliminating Bias

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Learn how to eliminate bias from monitoring systems by instituting appropriate installation, operation, and quality assurance procedures. Provides links to download An Operator's Guide to Eliminating Bias in CEM Systems.

  17. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  18. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, Robert L.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Newton, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  19. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  20. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  1. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  2. Intergroup bias.

    PubMed

    Hewstone, Miles; Rubin, Mark; Willis, Hazel

    2002-01-01

    This chapter reviews the extensive literature on bias in favor of in-groups at the expense of out-groups. We focus on five issues and identify areas for future research: (a) measurement and conceptual issues (especially in-group favoritism vs. out-group derogation, and explicit vs. implicit measures of bias); (b) modern theories of bias highlighting motivational explanations (social identity, optimal distinctiveness, uncertainty reduction, social dominance, terror management); (c) key moderators of bias, especially those that exacerbate bias (identification, group size, status and power, threat, positive-negative asymmetry, personality and individual differences); (d) reduction of bias (individual vs. intergroup approaches, especially models of social categorization); and (e) the link between intergroup bias and more corrosive forms of social hostility.

  3. A voltage biased superconducting quantum interference device bootstrap circuit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Xiaoming; Zhang, Yi; Wang, Huiwu; Wang, Yongliang; Mück, Michael; Dong, Hui; Krause, Hans-Joachim; Braginski, Alex I.; Offenhäusser, Andreas; Jiang, Mianheng

    2010-06-01

    We present a dc superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) readout circuit operating in the voltage bias mode and called a SQUID bootstrap circuit (SBC). The SBC is an alternative implementation of two existing methods for suppression of room-temperature amplifier noise: additional voltage feedback and current feedback. Two circuit branches are connected in parallel. In the dc SQUID branch, an inductively coupled coil connected in series provides the bias current feedback for enhancing the flux-to-current coefficient. The circuit branch parallel to the dc SQUID branch contains an inductively coupled voltage feedback coil with a shunt resistor in series for suppressing the preamplifier noise current by increasing the dynamic resistance. We show that the SBC effectively reduces the preamplifier noise to below the SQUID intrinsic noise. For a helium-cooled planar SQUID magnetometer with a SQUID inductance of 350 pH, a flux noise of about 3 μΦ0 Hz - 1/2 and a magnetic field resolution of less than 3 fT Hz - 1/2 were obtained. The SBC leads to a convenient direct readout electronics for a dc SQUID with a wider adjustment tolerance than other feedback schemes.

  4. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  5. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  6. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  7. Piezometer completion report for borehold cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 14 tabs.

  8. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  9. GaN Microwave DC-DC Converters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramos Franco, Ignacio

    Increasing the operating frequency of switching converters can have a direct impact in the miniaturization and integration of power converters. The size of energy-storage passive components and the difficulty to integrate them with the rest of the circuitry is a major challenge in the development of a fully integrated power supply on a chip. The work presented in this thesis attempts to address some of the difficulties encountered in the design of high-frequency converters by applying concepts and techniques usually used in the design of high-efficiency power amplifiers and high-efficiency rectifiers at microwave frequencies. The main focus is in the analysis, design, and characterization of dc-dc converters operating at microwave frequencies in the low gigahertz range. The concept of PA-rectifier duality, where a high-efficiency power amplifier operates as a high-efficiency rectifier is investigated through non-linear simulations and experimentally validated. Additionally, the concept of a self-synchronous rectifier, where a transistor rectifier operates synchronously without the need of a RF source or driver is demonstrated. A theoretical analysis of a class-E self-synchronous rectifier is presented and validated through non-linear simulations and experiments. Two GaN class-E2 dc-dc converters operating at a switching frequency of 1 and 1.2 GHz are demonstrated. The converters achieve 80 % and 75 % dc-dc efficiency respectively and are among the highest-frequency and highest-efficiency reported in the literature. The application of the concepts established in the analysis of a self-synchronous rectifier to a power amplifier culminated in the development of an oscillating, self-synchronous class-E 2 dc-dc converter. Finally, a proof-of-concept fully integrated GaN MMIC class-E 2 dc-dc converter switching at 4.6 GHz is demonstrated for the first time to the best of our knowledge. The 3.8 mm x 2.6 mm chip contains distributed inductors and does not require any

  10. Simulation of the dc Plasma in Carbon Nanotube Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A model for the dc plasma used in carbon nanotube growth is presented, and one-dimensional simulations of an acetylene/ammonia/argon system are performed. The effect of dc bias is illustrated by examining electron temperature, electron and ion densities, and neutral densities. Introducing a tungsten filament in the dc plasma, as in hot filament chemical vapor deposition with plasma assistance, shows negligible influence on the system characteristics.

  11. Bias for the left visual field in rapid serial visual presentation: effects of additional salient cues suggest a critical role of attention.

    PubMed

    Śmigasiewicz, Kamila; Asanowicz, Dariusz; Westphal, Nicole; Verleger, Rolf

    2015-02-01

    Everyday experience suggests that people are equally aware of stimuli in both hemifields. However, when two streams of stimuli are rapidly presented left and right, the second target (T2) is better identified in the left hemifield than in the right hemifield. This left visual field (LVF) advantage may result from differences between hemifields in attracting attention. Therefore, we introduced a visual cue shortly before T2 onset to draw attention to one stream. Thus, to identify T2, attention was correctly positioned with valid cues but had to be redirected to the other stream with invalid ones. If the LVF advantage is caused by differences between hemifields in attracting attention, invalid cues should increase, and valid cues should reduce the LVF advantage as compared with neutral cues. This prediction was confirmed. ERP analysis revealed that cues evoked an early posterior negativity, confirming that attention was attracted by the cue. This negativity was earlier with cues in the LVF, which suggests that responses to salient events are faster in the right hemisphere than in the left hemisphere. Valid cues speeded up, and invalid cues delayed T2-evoked N2pc; in addition, valid cues enlarged T2-evoked P3. After N2pc, right-side T2 evoked more sustained contralateral negativity than left T2, least long-lasting after valid cues. Difficulties in identifying invalidly cued right T2 were reflected in prematurely ending P3 waveforms. Overall, these data provide evidence that the LVF advantage is because of different abilities of the hemispheres in shifting attention to relevant events in their contralateral hemifield.

  12. Journal bias or author bias?

    PubMed

    Harris, Ian

    2016-01-01

    I read with interest the comment by Mark Wilson in the Indian Journal of Medical Ethics regarding bias and conflicts of interest in medical journals. Wilson targets one journal (the New England Journal of Medicine: NEJM) and one particular "scandal" to make his point that journals' decisions on publication are biased by commercial conflicts of interest (CoIs). It is interesting that he chooses the NEJM which, by his own admission, had one of the strictest CoI policies and had published widely on this topic. The feeling is that if the NEJM can be guilty, they can all be guilty.

  13. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (pyranine) by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-11-11

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ∼3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the hydrophobic counterion. The added DA enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol-water (1:1). Thus, a typical separation that involved 20.3g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by elemental analyses, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra, and high-performance liquid chromatography.

  14. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  15. Efficient dc-to-dc converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Black, J. M.

    1978-01-01

    Circuit consists of chopper section which converts input dc to square wave, followed by bridge-rectifier stage. Chopper gives nearly-ideal switching characteristics, and bridge uses series of full-wave stages rather than less-efficient half-wave rectifiers found in previous circuits. Special features of full-wave circuit allow redundant components to be eliminated, lowering parts count. Circuit can also be adapted for use as dc-to-dc converter or as combination dc-and-ac source.

  16. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  17. Diagnostics of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid capacitively coupled discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Lee; Funk, Merritt; Ranjan, Alok; Hummel, Mike; Bravenec, Ron; Sundararajan, Radha; Economou, Demetre J.; Donnelly, Vincent M.

    2008-12-01

    The energy distribution of ballistic electrons in a dc/rf hybrid parallel-plate capacitively coupled plasma reactor was measured. Ballistic electrons originated as secondaries produced by ion and electron bombardment of the electrodes. The energy distribution of ballistic electrons peaked at the value of the negative bias applied to the dc electrode. As that bias became more negative, the ballistic electron current on the rf substrate electrode increased dramatically. The ion current on the dc electrode also increased.

  18. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-06

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity.

  19. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography☆

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5 mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1 g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3 mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65–72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  20. A High Voltage Ratio and Low Ripple Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  1. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  2. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Performance enhancement of ITO/oxide/semiconductor MOS-structure silicon solar cells with voltage biasing

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the photovoltaic performance enhancement of a p-n junction silicon solar cell using a transparent-antireflective ITO/oxide film deposited on the spacing of the front-side finger electrodes and with a DC voltage applied on the ITO-electrode. The depletion width of the p-n junction under the ITO-electrode was induced and extended while the absorbed volume and built-in electric field were also increased when the biasing voltage was increased. The photocurrent and conversion efficiency were increased because more photo-carriers are generated in a larger absorbed volume and because the carriers transported and collected more effectively due to higher biasing voltage effects. Compared to a reference solar cell (which was biased at 0 V), a conversion efficiency enhancement of 26.57% (from 12.42% to 15.72%) and short-circuit current density enhancement of 42.43% (from 29.51 to 42.03 mA/cm2) were obtained as the proposed MOS-structure solar cell biased at 2.5 V. In addition, the capacitance-volt (C-V) measurement was also used to examine the mechanism of photovoltaic performance enhancement due to the depletion width being enlarged by applying a DC voltage on an ITO-electrode. PMID:25593550

  4. Performance enhancement of ITO/oxide/semiconductor MOS-structure silicon solar cells with voltage biasing.

    PubMed

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Min-Chun; Lee, Yi-Yu; Hou, Zhong-Fu; Liao, Changn-Jyun

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the photovoltaic performance enhancement of a p-n junction silicon solar cell using a transparent-antireflective ITO/oxide film deposited on the spacing of the front-side finger electrodes and with a DC voltage applied on the ITO-electrode. The depletion width of the p-n junction under the ITO-electrode was induced and extended while the absorbed volume and built-in electric field were also increased when the biasing voltage was increased. The photocurrent and conversion efficiency were increased because more photo-carriers are generated in a larger absorbed volume and because the carriers transported and collected more effectively due to higher biasing voltage effects. Compared to a reference solar cell (which was biased at 0 V), a conversion efficiency enhancement of 26.57% (from 12.42% to 15.72%) and short-circuit current density enhancement of 42.43% (from 29.51 to 42.03 mA/cm(2)) were obtained as the proposed MOS-structure solar cell biased at 2.5 V. In addition, the capacitance-volt (C-V) measurement was also used to examine the mechanism of photovoltaic performance enhancement due to the depletion width being enlarged by applying a DC voltage on an ITO-electrode.

  5. Brushless DC Motors, Velocity and Position Control of the Brushless DC Motor.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-06-01

    DC motor was designed using the Hall effect sensors. In addition, the position control of the brushless DC motor was developed using an optical encoder to sense angular position changes and a microprocessor to provide the desired position control. A Pittman 5111 wdg 1 brushless DC motor was used for this study. The design of the digital tachometer and pulse width modulator for velocity control and the design of the Z-80 based microprocessor controller and software design are described in

  6. Summary of relationships between exchangeability, biasing paths and bias.

    PubMed

    Flanders, William Dana; Eldridge, Ronald Curtis

    2015-10-01

    Definitions and conceptualizations of confounding and selection bias have evolved over the past several decades. An important advance occurred with development of the concept of exchangeability. For example, if exchangeability holds, risks of disease in an unexposed group can be compared with risks in an exposed group to estimate causal effects. Another advance occurred with the use of causal graphs to summarize causal relationships and facilitate identification of causal patterns that likely indicate bias, including confounding and selection bias. While closely related, exchangeability is defined in the counterfactual-model framework and confounding paths in the causal-graph framework. Moreover, the precise relationships between these concepts have not been fully described. Here, we summarize definitions and current views of these concepts. We show how bias, exchangeability and biasing paths interrelate and provide justification for key results. For example, we show that absence of a biasing path implies exchangeability but that the reverse implication need not hold without an additional assumption, such as faithfulness. The close links shown are expected. However confounding, selection bias and exchangeability are basic concepts, so comprehensive summarization and definitive demonstration of links between them is important. Thus, this work facilitates and adds to our understanding of these important biases.

  7. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  8. Structure of the velocity distribution of sheath-accelerated secondary electrons in an asymmetric RF-dc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, Alexander V.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Ranjan, Alok; Chen, Lee

    2015-10-01

    Low-pressure capacitively-coupled discharges with additional dc bias applied to a separate electrode are utilized in plasma-assisted etching for semiconductor device manufacturing. Measurements of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) of the flux impinging on the wafer, as well as in the plasma bulk, show a thermal population and additional peaks within a broad range of energies. That range extends from the thermal level up to the value for the ‘ballistic’ peak, corresponding to the bias potential. The non-thermal electron flux has been correlated to alleviating the electron shading effect and providing etch-resistance properties to masking photoresist layers. ‘Middle-energy peak electrons’ at energies of several hundred eV may provide an additional sustaining mechanism for the discharge. These features in the electron velocity (or energy) distribution functions are possibly caused by secondary electrons emitted from the electrodes and interacting with two high-voltage sheaths: a stationary sheath at the dc electrode and an oscillating self-biased sheath at the powered electrode. Since at those energies the mean free path for large-angle scattering (momentum relaxation length) is comparable to, or exceeds the size of the discharge gap, these ‘ballistic’ electrons will not be fully scattered by the background gas as they traverse the inter-electrode space. We have performed test-particle simulations in which the features in the EVDF of electrons impacting the RF electrode are fully resolved at all energies. An analytical model has been developed to predict existence of peaked and step-like structures in the EVDF. Those features can be explained by analyzing the kinematics of electron trajectories in the discharge gap. Step-like structures in the EVDF near the powered electrode appear due to accumulation of electrons emitted from the dc electrode within a portion of the RF cycle, and their subsequent release. Trapping occurs when the RF

  9. 76 FR 13926 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-8-11, DC-8-12, DC-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-15

    ... Model DC-8-11, DC-8- 12, DC-8-21, DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41, DC-8-42, and DC-8-43 Airplanes; DC-8-50 Series Airplanes; DC-8F-54 and DC-8F-55 Airplanes; DC-8-60 Series Airplanes; DC-8-60F Series Airplanes; DC-8-70 Series Airplanes; and DC-8-70F Series Airplanes AGENCY:......

  10. 75 FR 61989 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-07

    ... Corporation Model DC- 8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41, DC-8-42, and DC-8-43 Airplanes; Model DC-8-50 Series Airplanes; Model DC-8F-54 and DC-8F-55 Airplanes; Model DC-8-60 Series Airplanes; Model DC-8-60F Series Airplanes; Model DC-8- 70 Series Airplanes; and Model DC-8-70F Series Airplanes AGENCY:......

  11. Berkson's bias, selection bias, and missing data.

    PubMed

    Westreich, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Although Berkson's bias is widely recognized in the epidemiologic literature, it remains underappreciated as a model of both selection bias and bias due to missing data. Simple causal diagrams and 2 × 2 tables illustrate how Berkson's bias connects to collider bias and selection bias more generally, and show the strong analogies between Berksonian selection bias and bias due to missing data. In some situations, considerations of whether data are missing at random or missing not at random are less important than the causal structure of the missing data process. Although dealing with missing data always relies on strong assumptions about unobserved variables, the intuitions built with simple examples can provide a better understanding of approaches to missing data in real-world situations.

  12. DC-to-DC switching converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor); Middlebrook, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter having nonpulsating input and output current uses two inductances, one in series with the input source, the other in series with the output load. An electrical energy transferring device with storage, namely storage capacitance, is used with suitable switching means between the inductances to DC level conversion. For isolation between the source and load, the capacitance may be divided into two capacitors coupled by a transformer, and for reducing ripple, the inductances may be coupled. With proper design of the coupling between the inductances, the current ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, or the reduction achievable in that way may be divided between the input and output.

  13. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  14. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS Reg. No. 2814-77-9). The color additive is manufactured by...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 36 may contain only those diluents that...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 31 may contain only those diluents that...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 34 may contain only those diluents that are suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for...

  18. High-Tc and low-Tc dc SQUID electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drung, Dietmar

    2003-12-01

    Superconducting quantum interference devices (SQUIDs) are commonly operated in a flux-locked loop (FLL). The SQUID electronics amplifies the small SQUID signal to an acceptable level without adding noise, and it linearizes the transfer function of the SQUID in order to provide sufficient dynamic range. In this paper, the fundamentals of SQUID readout are reviewed including a discussion of preamplifier noise. The basic FLL concepts, direct readout and flux modulation readout, are discussed both with dc bias and bias reversal. Alternative readout concepts such as additional positive feedback (APF), two-stage SQUIDs, SQUID series arrays, relaxation oscillation SQUIDs and digital SQUIDs are briefly described. The FLL dynamics are discussed on the basis of a simple model with finite loop delay. It is shown that with optimized SQUID electronics a system bandwidth of ap18 MHz and a corresponding slew rate of ap8 PHgr0 µs-1 are possible. A novel FLL scheme involving a Smith predictor is presented which allows one to increase the FLL bandwidth to about 100 MHz. The theoretical predictions are experimentally checked using a high-speed SQUID electronics prototype with a small-signal bandwidth of 300 MHz. Methods for increasing the dynamic range of SQUID systems are described: flux-quanta counting and dynamic field compensation (DFC). With DFC, the residual magnetic field at the SQUID can be kept close to zero even if the device is moved in the Earth's field. Therefore, the noise level of a high-Tc magnetometer measured inside a magnetically shielded room (60 fT Hz-1/2 with a 1/f corner at 2 Hz) remained unchanged after moving the device in the magnetic field outside the room (60 µT dc plus 0.8 µT peak-to-peak power line interference).

  19. Effects of an elastic scatterer on the DC spin current generation in a Rashba-type quantum channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L. Y.; Tang, C. S.; Chu, C. S.

    2006-05-01

    In this work, we consider a Rashba-type quantum channel (RQC) consisting of one AC-biased finger-gates (FG) that orient perpendicularly and located above the RQC. Such an AC-biased FG gives rise to a local time-modulation in the Rashba coupling parameter, and is shown recently to generate a DC spin current [L.Y. Wang, C.S. Tang, C.S. Chu, Cond-mat/0409291, 2004]. No charge current, however, is generated in this configuration. We explore the robustness of such DC spin current generation against elastic scattering in the RQC. The effect of backscattering is studied by introducing a static barrier that is uniform in the transverse dimension. The effects of both backscattering and subband mixing is studied by introducing a static partial-barrier that is spatially localized and non-uniform in the transverse dimension. In addition, we compare the cases of attractive and repulsive partial-barriers. It is found that attractive partial-barrier gives rise to additional DC spin current structures due to resonant inter-subband and inter-sideband transition to quasi-bound states formed just beneath subband thresholds.

  20. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Amiri, Farhang

    2016-02-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant differences from the AC case. In particular, the ring does not fly off the core but rises a short distance and then falls back. If the ring jumps high enough, the rising and the falling motion of the ring does not follow simple vertical motion of a projectile. This indicates that there are additional forces on the ring in each part of its motion. Four possible stages of the motion of the ring with DC are identified, which result from the ring current changing directions during the jump in response to a changing magnetic flux through the moving ring.

  1. Bias and self-bias of magnetic macroparticle filters for cathodic arc plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Byon, Eungsun; Anders, Andre

    2002-12-01

    Curved magnetic filters are often used for the removal of macroparticles from cathodic arc plasmas. This study addresses the need to further reduce losses and improving plasma throughput. The central figure of merit is the system coefficient Kappa defined as filtered ion current normalized by the plasma-producing arc current. The coefficient Kappa is investigated as a function of DC and pulsed magnetic field operation, magnetic field strength, external electric bias, and arc amplitude. It increases with positive filter bias but saturates at about 15 V for relatively low magnetic field ({approx}10 mT), whereas stronger magnetic fields lead to higher Kappa with saturation at about 25 V. Further increase of positive bias reduces Kappa. These findings are true for both pulsed and DC filters. Bias of pulsed filters has been realized using the voltage drop across a self-bias resistor, eliminating the need for a separate bias circuit. Almost 100 A of filtered copper ions have been obtained in pulse d mode, corresponding to Kappa approximately equal to 0.04. The results are interpreted by a simplified potential trough model.

  2. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  3. 75 FR 6160 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-02-08

    ... Douglas Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10... airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC- 10A and... would require a one-time installation of electrical bonding jumpers for the fill valve controllers...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  5. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1602(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 may...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  17. The construction of an electrode biasing system for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T. Z.; Chen, Z. P.; Sun, Yue; Nan, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z. J.

    2014-05-01

    A newly designed electrode biasing system has been constructed for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak. To reduce the influence to the plasma, the system contains a pneumatic driving system so that it can reciprocate in a single discharge, with a stroke of about 5 cm in 100 ms. The power supply of the system can provide stable and adjustable dc voltage in the range of 0-700 V, with adjustable duration of 10-200 ms; its instantaneous power output can reach up to more than 200 kW. In addition, the power supply can also provide a multi-cycle voltage waveform, with adjustable pulse width and voltage amplitude. When applying a positive bias to the plasma, both an improvement of plasma confinement and the speed-up of plasma-edge toroidal rotation in the same direction of plasma current are observed in the experiments.

  18. The construction of an electrode biasing system for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak.

    PubMed

    Zhu, T Z; Chen, Z P; Sun, Yue; Nan, J Y; Liu, H; Zhuang, G; Wang, Z J

    2014-05-01

    A newly designed electrode biasing system has been constructed for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak. To reduce the influence to the plasma, the system contains a pneumatic driving system so that it can reciprocate in a single discharge, with a stroke of about 5 cm in 100 ms. The power supply of the system can provide stable and adjustable dc voltage in the range of 0-700 V, with adjustable duration of 10-200 ms; its instantaneous power output can reach up to more than 200 kW. In addition, the power supply can also provide a multi-cycle voltage waveform, with adjustable pulse width and voltage amplitude. When applying a positive bias to the plasma, both an improvement of plasma confinement and the speed-up of plasma-edge toroidal rotation in the same direction of plasma current are observed in the experiments.

  19. DC-DC conversion powering schemes for the CMS tracker at Super-LHC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klein, K.; Feld, L.; Jussen, R.; Karpinski, W.; Merz, J.; Sammet, J.

    2010-07-01

    The CMS experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, Geneva, houses the largest silicon strip tracker ever built. For the foreseen luminosity upgrade of the LHC, the Super-LHC, however, a completely new silicon tracker will have to be constructed. One out of several major improvements currently under consideration is the implementation of a track trigger, with tracking information being provided to the first level trigger. Such an intelligent tracker design, utilising fast digital readout electronics, will most certainly lead to an increased power consumption, compared to today's tracker. In combination with the desire to reduce the amount of passive material inside the tracking volume and the impracticality to exchange or even add additional supply cables, a novel powering scheme will be inevitable. In this article a powering scheme based on DC-DC conversion is proposed, and requirements for the DC-DC converters are discussed. Studies of important DC-DC converter quantities such as the power efficiency, conducted and radiated noise levels, and material budget are presented, and a possible implementation of DC-DC buck converters into one proposed track trigger layout is sketched.

  20. Biased dielectric response in LuFe2O4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudasov, Yu. B.; Markelova, M.; Maslov, D. A.; Platonov, V. V.; Surdin, O. M.; Kaul, A.

    2016-12-01

    A complex permittivity at a low level of excitation signal was measured in ceramic LuFe2O4. A Debye-type relaxation response with a strong temperature dependence of a characteristic frequency was observed in accordance with earlier works. A small DC bias of about 10 V/cm led to unusual changes in the dielectric response. At frequencies, which were lower than the characteristic one, the conductivity drastically increased with slight decrease of the real part of the permittivity under the bias. In the opposite case of low frequencies, there are no traces of the DC bias effect. We show that an inhomogeneous charge distribution over surface layer (domain structure) is essential for describing the biased dielectric response in LuFe2O4.

  1. CD8α¯ DC is the major DC subset which mediates inhibition of allergic responses by Schistosoma infection.

    PubMed

    Liu, J-Y; Lu, P; Hu, L-Z; Shen, Y-J; Zhu, Y-J; Ren, J-L; Ji, W-H; Zhang, X-Z; Wu, Z-Q; Yang, X-Z; Yang, J; Li, L-Y; Yang, X; Liu, P-M

    2014-12-01

    Our and others' previous studies have shown that Schistosoma japonicum (SJ) infection can inhibit allergic reactions. We recently reported that DCs played an important role in SJ infection-mediated inhibition of allergy, which was associated with enhanced IL-10 and T regulatory cell responses. Here, we further compared the role of CD8α(+) DC and CD8α(-) DC subsets for the inhibitory effect. We sorted CD8α(+) DC (SJCD8α(+) DC) and CD8α(-) DC (SJCD8α(-) DC) from SJ-infected mice and tested their ability to modulate allergic responses in vivo. The data showed that the adoptive transfer of SJCD8α(-) DC was much more efficient than SJCD8α(+) DC for the suppression of allergic airway eosinophilia, mucus overproduction, antigen-specific IgE responses, and Th2 cytokines (IL-4 and IL-5). More importantly, we found that the transfer of SJCD8α(-) DC, but not SJCD8α(+) DC, significantly increased IL-10 and TGF-β production following OVA exposure. As control, the transfer of DC subsets from naïve mice had no significant effect on allergic inflammation. In addition, SJCD8α-DC expressed significantly higher IL-10 but lower IL-12, CD80 and CD86 than SJCD8α(+) DC, fitting a tolerogenic phenotype. The results suggest that CD8α(-) DC is the predominant DC subset which is involved in the parasitic infection-mediated inhibition of allergic inflammation and possibly through enhancing immunomodulatory cytokine (IL-10 and TGF-β) production.

  2. 21 CFR 74.1339 - D&C Red No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 39. 74.1339 Section 74.1339 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1339 D&C Red No. 39. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 39 is o- -benzoic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures made with D&C Red No. 39 may contain...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1339 - D&C Red No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 39. 74.1339 Section 74.1339 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1339 D&C Red No. 39. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 39 is o- -benzoic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures made with D&C Red No. 39 may contain...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1339 - D&C Red No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 39. 74.1339 Section 74.1339 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1339 D&C Red No. 39. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 39 is o- -benzoic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures made with D&C Red No. 39 may contain...

  5. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  6. Oaths and hypothetical bias.

    PubMed

    Stevens, T H; Tabatabaei, Maryam; Lass, Daniel

    2013-09-30

    Results from experiments using an oath to eliminate hypothetical bias in stated preference valuation are presented. An oath has several potential advantages relative to other methods for reducing hypothetical bias. Our empirical results suggest that with an oath, mean hypothetical payments are not different from mean actual payments and that when controlling for experimental participants' characteristics using regression analyses, the oath eliminated hypothetical bias.

  7. Recalibrating Academic Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yancey, George

    2012-01-01

    Whether political and/or religious academic bias exists is a question with important ramifications for the educational institutions. Those arguing for the presence of such bias contend that political conservatives and the highly religious in academia are marginalized and face discrimination. The question of academic bias tends to be cast in a…

  8. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  9. Bayesian long branch attraction bias and corrections.

    PubMed

    Susko, Edward

    2015-03-01

    Previous work on the star-tree paradox has shown that Bayesian methods suffer from a long branch attraction bias. That work is extended to settings involving more taxa and partially resolved trees. The long branch attraction bias is confirmed to arise more broadly and an additional source of bias is found. A by-product of the analysis is methods that correct for biases toward particular topologies. The corrections can be easily calculated using existing Bayesian software. Posterior support for a set of two or more trees can thus be supplemented with corrected versions to cross-check or replace results. Simulations show the corrections to be highly effective.

  10. 75 FR 23571 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-04

    ... Corporation Model DC- 10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40, DC-10-40F.... ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: We are adopting a new airworthiness directive (AD) for certain Model DC-10-10, DC-10-10F, DC-10-15, DC-10-30, DC-10-30F (KC-10A and KDC-10), DC-10-40,......

  11. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  12. DC Breakdown Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Calatroni, S.; Descoeudres, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.

    2009-01-22

    In the context of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project investigations of DC breakdown in ultra high vacuum are carried out in parallel with high power RF tests. From the point of view of saturation breakdown field the best material tested so far is stainless steel, followed by titanium. Copper shows a four times weaker breakdown field than stainless steel. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown events are initiated by field emission current and that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. In analogy to RF, the breakdown probability has been measured in DC and the data show similar behaviour as a function of electric field.

  13. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  14. "Catching" Social Bias.

    PubMed

    Skinner, Allison L; Meltzoff, Andrew N; Olson, Kristina R

    2017-02-01

    Identifying the origins of social bias is critical to devising strategies to overcome prejudice. In two experiments, we tested the hypothesis that young children can catch novel social biases from brief exposure to biased nonverbal signals demonstrated by adults. Our results are consistent with this hypothesis. In Experiment 1, we found that children who were exposed to a brief video depicting nonverbal bias in favor of one individual over another subsequently explicitly preferred, and were more prone to behave prosocially toward, the target of positive nonverbal signals. Moreover, in Experiment 2, preschoolers generalized such bias to other individuals. The spread of bias observed in these experiments lays a critical foundation for understanding the way that social biases may develop and spread early in childhood.

  15. Renormalized halo bias

    SciTech Connect

    Assassi, Valentin; Baumann, Daniel; Green, Daniel; Zaldarriaga, Matias E-mail: dbaumann@damtp.cam.ac.uk E-mail: matiasz@ias.edu

    2014-08-01

    This paper provides a systematic study of renormalization in models of halo biasing. Building on work of McDonald, we show that Eulerian biasing is only consistent with renormalization if non-local terms and higher-derivative contributions are included in the biasing model. We explicitly determine the complete list of required bias parameters for Gaussian initial conditions, up to quartic order in the dark matter density contrast and at leading order in derivatives. At quadratic order, this means including the gravitational tidal tensor, while at cubic order the velocity potential appears as an independent degree of freedom. Our study naturally leads to an effective theory of biasing in which the halo density is written as a double expansion in fluctuations and spatial derivatives. We show that the bias expansion can be organized in terms of Galileon operators which aren't renormalized at leading order in derivatives. Finally, we discuss how the renormalized bias parameters impact the statistics of halos.

  16. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... excess of 700 °C for at least 6 hours. (b) Specifications. D&C Black No. 3 shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named, to the extent that such other...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... excess of 700 °C for at least 6 hours. (b) Specifications. D&C Black No. 3 shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named, to the extent that such other...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... excess of 700 °C for at least 6 hours. (b) Specifications. D&C Black No. 3 shall conform to the following specifications and shall be free from impurities other than those named, to the extent that such other...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. DYLOS DC110

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dylos DC1100 air quality monitor measures particulate matter (PM) to provide a continuous assessment of indoor air quality. The unit counts particles in two size ranges: large and small. According to the manufacturer, large particles have diameters between 2.5 and 10 micromet...

  7. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  8. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  9. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification.

  10. 21 CFR 74.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... million. Total color, not less than 85 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. D&C Blue No. 4 may be safely... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 74.1104 Section 74.1104 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... million. Total color, not less than 85 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. D&C Blue No. 4 may be safely... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 74.1104 Section 74.1104 Food...

  12. Bias in clinical chemistry.

    PubMed

    Theodorsson, Elvar; Magnusson, Bertil; Leito, Ivo

    2014-01-01

    Clinical chemistry uses automated measurement techniques and medical knowledge in the interest of patients and healthy subjects. Automation has reduced repeatability and day-to-day variation considerably. Bias has been reduced to a lesser extent by reference measurement systems. It is vital to minimize clinically important bias, in particular bias within conglomerates of laboratories that measure samples from the same patients. Small and variable bias components will over time show random error properties and conventional random-error based methods for calculating measurement uncertainty can then be applied. The present overview of bias presents the general principles of error and uncertainty concepts, terminology and analysis, and suggests methods to minimize bias and measurement uncertainty in the interest of healthcare.

  13. Bias in research.

    PubMed

    Simundić, Ana-Maria

    2013-01-01

    By writing scientific articles we communicate science among colleagues and peers. By doing this, it is our responsibility to adhere to some basic principles like transparency and accuracy. Authors, journal editors and reviewers need to be concerned about the quality of the work submitted for publication and ensure that only studies which have been designed, conducted and reported in a transparent way, honestly and without any deviation from the truth get to be published. Any such trend or deviation from the truth in data collection, analysis, interpretation and publication is called bias. Bias in research can occur either intentionally or unintentionally. Bias causes false conclusions and is potentially misleading. Therefore, it is immoral and unethical to conduct biased research. Every scientist should thus be aware of all potential sources of bias and undertake all possible actions to reduce or minimize the deviation from the truth. This article describes some basic issues related to bias in research.

  14. Chronic and acute biases in perceptual stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dossari, Munira; Blake, Randolph; Brascamp, Jan W.; Freeman, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    When perceptually ambiguous stimuli are presented intermittently, the percept on one presentation tends to be the same as that on the previous presentation. The role of short-term, acute biases in the production of this perceptual stability is relatively well understood. In addition, however, long-lasting, chronic bias may also contribute to stability. In this paper we develop indices for both biases and for stability, and show that stability can be expressed as a sum of contributions from the two types of bias. We then apply this analytical procedure to binocular rivalry, showing that adjustment of the monocular contrasts can alter the relative contributions of the two biases. Stability is mainly determined by chronic bias when the contrasts are equal, but acute bias dominates stability when right-eye contrast is set lower than left-eye contrast. Finally, we show that the right-eye bias persists in continuous binocular rivalry. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated contribution of chronic bias to stable perception. PMID:26641947

  15. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  16. Current-driven non-linear magnetodynamics in exchange-biased spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Seinige, Heidi; Wang, Cheng; Tsoi, Maxim

    2015-05-07

    This work investigates the excitation of parametric resonance in exchange-biased spin valves (EBSVs). Using a mechanical point contact, high density dc and microwave currents were injected into the EBSV sample. Observing the reflected microwave power and the small rectification voltage that develops across the contact allows detecting the current-driven magnetodynamics not only in the bulk sample but originating exclusively from the small contact region. In addition to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), parametric resonance at twice the natural FMR frequency was observed. In contrast to FMR, this non-linear resonance was excited only in the vicinity of the point contact where current densities are high. Power-dependent measurements displayed a typical threshold-like behavior of parametric resonance and a broadening of the instability region with increasing power. Parametric resonance showed a linear shift as a function of applied dc bias which is consistent with the field-like spin-transfer torque induced by current on magnetic moments in EBSV.

  17. Study of the Dependence on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bandler, Simon

    2011-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in the AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6keV the AC biased pixel shows a best energy resolution of 3.7eV, which is about a factor of 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in identical DC-biased pixels. To better understand the reasons of this discrepancy, we investigated the detector performance as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied magnetic field. A strong periodic dependence of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recent weak-link behaviour observed inTES microcalorimeters.

  18. The Electrically Controlled Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harper, Jacob

    Controlling magnetism via voltage in the virtual absence of electric current is the key to reduce power consumption while enhancing processing speed, integration density and functionality in comparison with present-day information technology. Almost all spintronic devices rely on tailored interface magnetism. Controlling magnetism at thin-film interfaces, preferably by purely electrical means, is therefore a key challenge to better spintronics. However, there is no direct interaction between magnetization and electric fields, thus making voltage control of magnetism in general a scientific challenge. The significance of controlled interface magnetism started with the exchange-bias effect. Exchange bias is a coupling phenomenon at magnetic interfaces that manifests itself prominently in the shift of the ferromagnetic hysteresis loop along the magnetic-field axis. Various attempts on controlling exchange bias via voltage utilizing different scientific principles have been intensively studied recently. The majority of present research is emphasizing on various complex oxides. Our approach can be considered as a paradigm shift away from complex oxides. We focus on a magnetoelectric antiferromagnetic simple oxide Cr2O3. From a combination of experimental and theoretical efforts, we show that the (0001) surface of magnetoelectric Cr2O3 has a roughness-insensitive, electrically switchable magnetization. Using a ferromagnetic Pd/Co multilayer deposited on the (0001) surface of a Cr2O3 single crystal, we achieve reversible, room-temperature isothermal switching of the exchange-bias between positive and negative values by reversing the electric field while maintaining a permanent magnetic field. This is a significant scientific breakthrough providing a new route towards potentially revolutionizing information technology. In addition, a second path of electrically controlled exchange bias is introduced by exploiting the piezoelectric property of BaTiO3. An exchange-bias Co

  19. AC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jain, Praveen K.

    1992-08-01

    In a system such as a 20 kHz space station primary electrical power distribution system, power conversion from AC to DC is required. Some of the basic requirements for this conversion are high efficiency, light weight and small volume, regulated output voltage, close to unity input power factor, distortionless input current, soft-starting, low electromagnetic interference, and high reliability. An AC-to-DC converter is disclosed which satisfies the main design objectives of such converters for use in space. The converter of the invention comprises an input transformer, a resonant network, a current controller, a diode rectifier, and an output filter. The input transformer is for connection to a single phase, high frequency, sinusoidal waveform AC voltage source and provides a matching voltage isolating from the AC source. The resonant network converts this voltage to a sinusoidal, high frequency bidirectional current output, which is received by the current controller to provide the desired output current. The diode rectifier is connected in parallel with the current controller to convert the bidirectional current into a unidirectional current output. The output filter is connected to the rectifier to provide an essentially ripple-free, substantially constant voltage DC output.

  20. 76 FR 18022 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F Airplanes; and...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-01

    ... Model DC-9-14, DC-9- 15, and DC-9-15F Airplanes; and DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC-9-40, and DC-9-50 Series..., Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT...) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-14, DC-9- 15, DC-9-15F, DC-9-21, DC-9-31,......

  1. 75 FR 47242 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-05

    ... Corporation Model DC- 9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F Airplanes; and Model DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC- 9-40, and DC-9-50... airworthiness directive (AD) that applies to certain Model DC-9-14 and DC-9-15 airplanes; and Model DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC-9-40, and DC-9-50 series airplanes. The existing AD currently......

  2. Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Application

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-13

    34Approved for public release: distribution is unlimited" Isolated Bidirectional DC-DC Converter for Hybrid Electric Vehicle Applications Sonya...requirements for DC-DC converters for electric and hybrid vehicles . This paper introduces a bidirectional, isolated DC-DC converter for medium power...the design and build of a medium power DC-DC converter . Key words: Power Converter , DC-DC, Hybrid Electric Vehicle , Battery, Galvanically Isolation

  3. The Bias Fallacy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Linvill, Darren L.

    2013-01-01

    Do those who complain about liberal bias in higher education have any actionable point at all? Critics of the politicization of higher education claim that political partisanship in the classroom is pervasive and that it affects student learning. Although the existence of such partisanship has not been empirically proven, allegations of bias are…

  4. Full Electric Control of Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, S. M.; Cybart, Shane A.; Yi, D.; Parker, James M.; Ramesh, R.; Dynes, R. C.

    2013-02-01

    We report the creation of a multiferroic field effect device with a BiFeO3 (BFO) (antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric) gate dielectric and a La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) (ferromagnetic) conducting channel that exhibits direct, bipolar electrical control of exchange bias. We show that exchange bias is reversibly switched between two stable states with opposite exchange bias polarities upon ferroelectric poling of the BFO. No field cooling, temperature cycling, or additional applied magnetic or electric field beyond the initial BFO polarization is needed for this bipolar modulation effect. Based on these results and the current understanding of exchange bias, we propose a model to explain the control of exchange bias. In this model the coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric order in BFO along with the modulation of interfacial exchange interactions due to ionic displacement of Fe3+ in BFO relative to Mn3+/4+ in LSMO cause bipolar modulation.

  5. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  6. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  7. CO2 Network Design for Washington DC/Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Ghosh, S.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion method to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in the urban areas of Washington DC and Baltimore at approximately 1km2 resolutions. The aim of this project is to help establish reliable measurement methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used to guide mitigation efforts. Since inversion methods depend on atmospheric observations of GHG, deploying a suitable network of ground-based measurement stations is a fundamental step in estimating emissions from the perspective of the atmosphere with reasonable levels of uncertainty. The purpose of this work is to design a tower based network of measurement stations that can reduce the uncertainty in emissions by 50% in the central areas of DC and Baltimore. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) was used along with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface emissions (footprints) for the months of February and July 2013. An iterative selection algorithm, based on k-means clustering method, was applied in order to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize the urban contribution. Afterwards, a synthetic inversion Kalman Filter was used to evaluate the performances of the observing system based on the merit of the retrieval over time and the amount of a priori uncertainty reduced by the network. We present the performances of various measurement networks that consist of different number of towers and where the location of these towers vary. Results show that too compact networks lose spatial coverage whilst too spread networks lose capabilities of constraining uncertainties in the fluxes. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of low-cost, low-accuracy sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and

  8. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  19. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  20. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  1. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  2. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  3. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  4. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  5. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  6. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317 (a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 17 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  7. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1331(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. D&C Red No. 31 is restricted to use in externally applied drugs and cosmetics....

  8. Magnetoencephalography using a Multilayer hightc DC SQUID Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faley, M. I.; Poppe, U.; Borkowski, R. E. Dunin; Schiek, M.; Boers, F.; Chocholacs, H.; Dammers, J.; Eich, E.; Shah, N. J.; Ermakov, A. B.; Slobodchikov, V. Yu.; Maslennikov, Yu. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    We describe tests of the use of a multilayer highTc DC SQUID magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compare our measurements with results obtained using a lowTc SQUID sensor. The integration of bias reversal readout electronics for highTc DC SQUID magnetometry into a commercial MEG data acquisition system is demonstrated. Results of measurements performed on a salinefilled head phantom are shown and the detection of an auditory evoked magnetic response of the human cortex elicited by a stimulus is illustrated. Future modifications of highTc DC SQUID sensors for applications in MEG, in order to reach a resolution of 1 fT/√Hz at 77.5 K over a wide frequency band, are outlined.

  9. DC Cable for Railway

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomita, Masaru

    The development of a superconducting cable for railways has commenced, assuming that a DC transmission cable will be used for electric trains. The cable has been fabricated based on the results of current testing of a superconducting wire, and various evaluation tests have been performed to determine the characteristics of the cable. A superconducting transmission cable having zero electrical resistance and suitable for railway use is expected to enhance regeneration efficiency, reduce power losses, achieve load leveling and integration of sub-stations, and reduce rail potential.

  10. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories.

  11. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 is principally 2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione. (2) Color additive mixtures, for... listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use in externally...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 is principally the disodium salt of fluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for use... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter for use in color additive mixtures for...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures for... suitable and that are listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures...

  16. Analysis of self-oscillating dc-to-dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burger, P.

    1974-01-01

    The basic operational characteristics of dc-to-dc converters are analyzed along with the basic physical characteristics of power converters. A simple class of dc-to-dc power converters are chosen which could satisfy any set of operating requirements, and three different controlling methods in this class are described in detail. Necessary conditions for the stability of these converters are measured through analog computer simulation whose curves are related to other operational characteristics, such as ripple and regulation. Further research is suggested for the solution of absolute stability and efficient physical design of this class of power converters.

  17. Multiple high voltage output DC-to-DC power converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cronin, Donald L. (Inventor); Farber, Bertrand F. (Inventor); Gehm, Hartmut K. (Inventor); Goldin, Daniel S. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    Disclosed is a multiple output DC-to-DC converter. The DC input power is filtered and passed through a chopper preregulator. The chopper output is then passed through a current source inverter controlled by a squarewave generator. The resultant AC is passed through the primary winding of a transformer, with high voltages induced in a plurality of secondary windings. The high voltage secondary outputs are each solid-state rectified for passage to individual output loads. Multiple feedback loops control the operation of the chopper preregulator, one being responsive to the current through the primary winding and another responsive to the DC voltage level at a selected output.

  18. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  19. Estimating Bias Error Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.

  20. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  1. Increasingly minimal bias routing

    DOEpatents

    Bataineh, Abdulla; Court, Thomas; Roweth, Duncan

    2017-02-21

    A system and algorithm configured to generate diversity at the traffic source so that packets are uniformly distributed over all of the available paths, but to increase the likelihood of taking a minimal path with each hop the packet takes. This is achieved by configuring routing biases so as to prefer non-minimal paths at the injection point, but increasingly prefer minimal paths as the packet proceeds, referred to herein as Increasing Minimal Bias (IMB).

  2. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein, 2′,4′,5′-triiodofluorescein, and 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetraiodofluorescein. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C... color additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Orange No....

  3. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of 8-hydroxy-5,7-di-nitro-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 may contain...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  8. SCM Handbooks for dc-to-dc Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F.; Mohmoud, M.; Yu, Y.

    1984-01-01

    Two documents aid in design of control modules for dc-to-dc converters. Features of SCM include: Adaptive stability, power component stress limiting, implementation of various control laws, unified design approach. Analysis and quidelines contained in handbooks enable engineer to design SCM circuit and confidently predict resulting overall performance.

  9. Efficient Design in a DC to DC Converter Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruemmer, Joel E.; Williams, Fitch R.; Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight hardware requires high power conversion efficiencies due to limited power availability and weight penalties of cooling systems. The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) power converter is no exception. This paper explores the design methods and tradeoffs that were utilized to accomplish high efficiency in the DDCU. An isolating DC to DC converter was selected for the ISS power system because of requirements for separate primary and secondary grounds and for a well-regulated secondary output voltage derived from a widely varying input voltage. A flyback-current-fed push-pull topology or improved Weinberg circuit was chosen for this converter because of its potential for high efficiency and reliability. To enhance efficiency, a non-dissipative snubber circuit for the very-low-Rds-on Field Effect Transistors (FETs) was utilized, redistributing the energy that could be wasted during the switching cycle of the power FETs. A unique, low-impedance connection system was utilized to improve contact resistance over a bolted connection. For improved consistency in performance and to lower internal wiring inductance and losses a planar bus system is employed. All of these choices contributed to the design of a 6.25 KW regulated dc to dc converter that is 95 percent efficient. The methodology used in the design of this DC to DC Converter Unit may be directly applicable to other systems that require a conservative approach to efficient power conversion and distribution.

  10. Dc-To-Dc Converter Uses Reverse Conduction Of MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P.; Gott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    In modified high-power, phase-controlled, full-bridge, pulse-width-modulated dc-to-dc converters, switching devices power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Decreases dissipation of power during switching by eliminating approximately 0.7-V forward voltage drop in anti-parallel diodes. Energy-conversion efficiency increased.

  11. First experimental results from DC/DC and AC/DC plasma-based power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McEvoy, Aaron; Gibson, William; Nebel, Richard

    2016-10-01

    A plasma-based power transformer has been built and operated in both DC/DC and AC/DC mode. The proprietary Tibbar Plasma Technologies, Inc. transformer design consists of two cylindrically symmetric helical primary electrodes surrounding a low temperature plasma within which a secondary axial current is generated. Initial experimental results have compared well with simulations and moderate conversion efficiencies have been observed. A new proprietary device is currently being constructed that will utilize 3-phase 480 VAC input to achieve higher conversion efficiency and output power. A description of the apparatus and several potential applications will be presented along with preliminary experimental data demonstrating the DC/DC and AC/DC conversion processes. Work performed under ARPA-E contract DE-AR0000677.

  12. A New Approach for High Efficiency Buck-Boost DC/DC Converters Using Series Compensation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Itoh, Jun-Ichi; Fujii, Takashi

    This paper proposes a novel concept for non-isolated buck-boost DC/DC converter and control method. The proposed concept uses a series connection converter that only regulates the differential voltage between the input and output voltage. As a result, the power converter capacity is decreased. Moreover, the proposed circuit has advantages such as improved efficiency and losses reduction. The fundamental operation, control method, and design method of the proposed circuit are described in this paper. In addition, the validity of the proposed circuit is confirmed by carrying out simulations and experiments.

  13. Finite-time control of DC-DC buck converters via integral terminal sliding modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chian-Song; Shen, Chih-Teng

    2012-05-01

    This article presents novel terminal sliding modes for finite-time output tracking control of DC-DC buck converters. Instead of using traditional singular terminal sliding mode, two integral terminal sliding modes are introduced for robust output voltage tracking of uncertain buck converters. Different from traditional sliding mode control (SMC), the proposed controller assures finite convergence time for the tracking error and integral tracking error. Furthermore, the singular problem in traditional terminal SMC is removed from this article. When considering worse modelling, adaptive integral terminal SMC is derived to guarantee finite-time convergence under more relaxed stability conditions. In addition, several experiments show better start-up performance and robustness.

  14. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  15. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; Chervenak, J.; Eckart, M.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; Porter, F.; Sadlier, J.; Smith, S.

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  16. Spontaneous dc Current Generation in a Resistively Shunted Semiconductor Superlattice Driven by a Terahertz Field

    SciTech Connect

    Alekseev, K.N.; Cannon, E.H.; McKinney, J.C.; Campbell, D.K.; Alekseev, K.N.; Kusmartsev, F.V.; Alekseev, K.N.; Kusmartsev, F.V.

    1998-03-01

    We study a resistively shunted semiconductor superlattice subject to a high-frequency electric field. Using a balance equation approach that incorporates the influence of the electric circuit, we determine numerically a range of amplitude and frequency of the ac field for which a dc bias and current are generated {ital spontaneously} and show that this region is likely accessible to current experiments. Our simulations reveal that the Bloch frequency corresponding to the spontaneous dc bias is approximately an integer multiple of the ac field frequency. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}

  17. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  18. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  19. Biasing and fast degaussing circuit for magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Dress, W.B. Jr.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1983-10-04

    A dual-function circuit is provided which may be used to both magnetically bias and alternately, quickly degauss a magnetic device. The circuit may be magnetically coupled or directly connected electrically to a magnetic device, such as a magnetostrictive transducer, to magnetically bias the device by applying a dc current and alternately apply a selectively damped ac current to the device to degauss the device. The circuit is of particular value in many systems which use magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic transmission in different propagation modes over very short time periods.

  20. Biasing and fast degaussing circuit for magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1984-01-01

    A dual-function circuit is provided which may be used to both magnetically bias and alternately, quickly degauss a magnetic device. The circuit may be magnetically coupled or directly connected electrically to a magnetic device, such as a magnetostrictive transducer, to magnetically bias the device by applying a d.c. current and alternately apply a selectively damped a.c. current to the device to degauss the device. The circuit is of particular value in many systems which use magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic transmission in different propagation modes over very short time periods.

  1. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... current good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. Distinguishing Selection Bias and Confounding Bias in Comparative Effectiveness Research.

    PubMed

    Haneuse, Sebastien

    2016-04-01

    Comparative effectiveness research (CER) aims to provide patients and physicians with evidence-based guidance on treatment decisions. As researchers conduct CER they face myriad challenges. Although inadequate control of confounding is the most-often cited source of potential bias, selection bias that arises when patients are differentially excluded from analyses is a distinct phenomenon with distinct consequences: confounding bias compromises internal validity, whereas selection bias compromises external validity. Despite this distinction, however, the label "treatment-selection bias" is being used in the CER literature to denote the phenomenon of confounding bias. Motivated by an ongoing study of treatment choice for depression on weight change over time, this paper formally distinguishes selection and confounding bias in CER. By formally distinguishing selection and confounding bias, this paper clarifies important scientific, design, and analysis issues relevant to ensuring validity. First is that the 2 types of biases may arise simultaneously in any given study; even if confounding bias is completely controlled, a study may nevertheless suffer from selection bias so that the results are not generalizable to the patient population of interest. Second is that the statistical methods used to mitigate the 2 biases are themselves distinct; methods developed to control one type of bias should not be expected to address the other. Finally, the control of selection and confounding bias will often require distinct covariate information. Consequently, as researchers plan future studies of comparative effectiveness, care must be taken to ensure that all data elements relevant to both confounding and selection bias are collected.

  4. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  5. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders.

  6. Sex Bias in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zalk, Sue Rosenberg; And Others

    This study investigated children's sex biased attitudes as a function of the sex, age, and race of the child as well as a geographical-SES factor. Two attitudes were measured on a 55-item questionnaire: Sex Pride (attributing positive characteristics to a child of the same sex) and Sex Prejudice (attributing negative characteristics to a child of…

  7. A significant bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eades, Alwyn

    2013-09-01

    While I do not wish to belittle the unfortunate conclusions that may be drawn from your news article "Gender bias judges research by women more critically" (May p12), I do want to comment on the way the article is presented.

  8. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  9. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.1322 Section 74.1322 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 22 is principally the disodium salt of 2′,4′,5′7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  13. 21 CFR 74.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.1322 Section 74.1322 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 22 is principally the disodium salt of 2′,4′,5′7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  14. 21 CFR 74.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.1322 Section 74.1322 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 22 is principally the disodium salt of 2′,4′,5′7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  15. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.2208 Section 74.2208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 74.1205 Section 74.1205 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 5 is principally the disodium salt of 2,2′- bis- (CAS Reg. No. 4403-90-1). (2) Color...

  5. 21 CFR 74.3206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.3206 Section 74.3206 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity to the requirements of § 74.1206(a). (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS. Reg. No. 128-80-3). (b) Specifications. The...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2)...

  8. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  9. Exchange bias in ferrite hollow nanoparticles originated by complex internal magnetic structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Biasi, Emilio; Lima, Enio, Jr.; Vargas, Jose M.; Zysler, Roberto D.; Arbiol, Jordi; Ibarra, Alfonso; Goya, Gerardo F.; Ibarra, M. Ricardo

    2015-10-01

    Iron-oxide hollow nanospheres (HNS) may present unusual magnetic behavior as a consequence of their unique morphology. Here, we report the unusual magnetic behavior of HNS that are 9 nm in diameter. The magnetic properties of HNS originate in their complex magnetic structure, as evidenced by Mössbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. We observe a bias in the hysteresis when measured at very low temperature in the field cooling protocol (10 kOe). In addition, dc (static) and ac (dynamic) magnetization measurements against temperature and applied field reveal a frustrated order of the system below 10 K. High-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) studies reveal that the HNS are composed of small crystalline clusters of about 2 nm in diameter, which behave as individual magnetic entities. Micromagnetic simulations (using conjugate gradient in order to minimize the total energy of the system) reproduce the experimentally observed magnetic behavior. The model considers the hollow particles as constituted by small ordered clusters embedded in an antiferromagnetic environment (spins localized outside the clusters). In addition, the surface spins (in both inner and outer surfaces of the HNS) are affected by a local surface anisotropy. The strong effective magnetic anisotropy field of the clusters induces the bias observed when the system is cooled in the presence of a magnetic external field. This effect propagates through the exchange interaction into the entire particle.

  10. Gregorian calendar bias in monthly temperature databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cerveny, Randall S.; Svoma, Bohumil M.; Balling, Robert C.; Vose, Russell S.

    2008-10-01

    In this study we address a systematic bias in climate records that manifests due to the establishment of the Gregorian calendar system and exerts a statistically significant effect on monthly and seasonal temperature records. The addition of one extra day in February normally every fourth year produces a significant seasonal drift in the monthly values of that year in four major temperature datasets used in climate change analysis. The addition of a `leap year day' for the Northern Hemisphere creates statistically significantly colder months of July to December and, to a lesser degree warmer months of February to June than correspondingly common (non-leap year) months. The discovery of such a fundamental bias in four major temperature datasets used in climate analysis (and likely present in any dataset displaying strong annual cycles, e.g., U.S. streamflow data) indicates the continued need for detailed scrutiny of climate records for such biases.

  11. Full Electric Field Control of Exchange Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Stephen

    2014-03-01

    Exchange bias is the shift of a magnetic hysteresis curve due to interfacial magnetic coupling between a ferromagnet (FM) and an antiferromagnet (AFM). This ubiquitous effect has long been used in the electronics industry to bias the magnetization of FM layers in magnetic devices. Its continued understanding is of critical importance to advance the development of future high-density magnetic storage media and other novel magnetic devices. However, due to the technological limitations of manipulating and observing an atomically thin interface, exchange bias is not well understood. In this talk we present a multiferroic field effect device with BiFeO3 (BFO) (antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric) as the gate dielectric and La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO) (ferromagnetic) as the conducting channel, which exhibits the direct, bipolar electric control of exchange bias. Here the magnetic states at the AFM/FM interface can be directly manipulated with electric fields and the results can be observed as a change in exchange bias polarity and magnitude. Control of exchange bias at this level has significant implications because it represents a form of electric field control of magnetism and may potentially offer a route toward the eventual full electric field control of magnetization. In this device, exchange bias is reversibly switched between two stable states with opposite exchange bias polarities upon ferroelectric poling of the BFO. No field cooling, temperature cycling, or additional applied magnetic or electric field beyond BFO poling is needed for this bipolar modulation effect. Detailed temperature dependent measurements and a model will be presented which will attribute this effect to the coupled antiferromagnetic-ferroelectric order in BFO along with the modulation of interfacial exchange interactions due to ionic displacement of Fe3+ in BFO relative to Mn3 + / 4 + in LSMO.

  12. Greening America's Capitals - Washington, DC

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This Greening America's Capitals report describes design options for the Anacostia Metro station in Washington, DC, that could help people feel safer and more comfortable walking to and from the station.

  13. Description and Status of the DC Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Hall, John M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Zubrick, Steven; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The DC Lightning Mapping Array (DC LMA) centered on the Washington, DC metro region has been in operation since 2006. During that time the DC LMA has provided real time data to regional National Weather Service (NSF) Sterling, VA forecast office for operations support and the NOAA Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) for new product development and assessment. Data from this network (as well as other from other LMA systems) are now being used to create proxy Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data sets for GOES-R risk reduction and algorithm development activities. In addition, since spring 2009 data are provided to the Storm Prediction Center in support of Hazardous Weather Testbed and GOES-R Proving Ground activities during the Spring Program. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  14. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  15. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... to bromination. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 27 may contain only... additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No. 27 shall conform to the following... sulfates (calculated as sodium salts), not more than 10 percent. Insoluble matter (alkaline solution),...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  10. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  13. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  18. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  5. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts not exceeding 0.01 percent by weight of the finished cosmetic...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  9. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts not exceeding 0.01 percent by weight of the finished cosmetic...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  4. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  6. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  8. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts not exceeding 0.01 percent by weight of the finished cosmetic...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  7. 21 CFR 74.2205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally, including cosmetics intended for use in the area of the eye, in amounts consistent...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... for coloring cosmetic lip products in amounts not to exceed 3 percent total color by weight of...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... safely used for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts not exceeding 0.01 percent by weight of the finished cosmetic...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  13. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... safely used for coloring cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good...

  14. Oligomerization domains in the glycan-binding receptors DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR: Sequence variation and stability differences.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, Ália; Hadjivasiliou, Andreas; Ossa, Felipe; Lim, Novandy K; Turgut, Aylin; Taylor, Maureen E; Drickamer, Kurt

    2017-02-01

    Human dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-1 grabbing nonintegrin, DC-SIGN, and the sinusoidal endothelial cell receptor DC-SIGNR or L-SIGN, are closely related sugar-binding receptors. DC-SIGN acts both as a pathogen-binding endocytic receptor and as a cell adhesion molecule, while DC-SIGNR has only the pathogen-binding function. In addition to differences in the sugar-binding properties of the carbohydrate-recognition domains in the two receptors, there are sequence differences in the adjacent neck domains, which are coiled-coil tetramerization domains comprised largely of 23-amino acid repeat units. A series of model polypeptides consisting of uniform repeat units have been characterized by gel filtration, differential scanning calorimetry and circular dichroism. The results demonstrate that two features characterize repeat units which form more stable tetramers: a leucine reside in the first position of the heptad pattern of hydrophobic residues that pack on the inside of the coiled coil and an arginine residue on the surface of the coiled coil that forms a salt bridge with a glutamic acid residue in the same polypeptide chain. In DC-SIGNR from all primates, very stable repeat units predominate, so the carbohydrate-recognition domains must be held relatively closely together. In contrast, stable repeat units are found only near the membrane in DC-SIGN. The presence of residues that disrupt tetramer formation in repeat units near the carbohydrate-recognition domains of DC-SIGN would allow these domains to splay further apart. Thus, the neck domains of DC-SIGN and DC-SIGNR can contribute to the different functions of these receptors by presenting the sugar-binding sites in different contexts.

  15. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  16. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts A,...

  17. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  18. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  19. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and... Rules Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts...

  20. Current patterns and orbital magnetism in mesoscopic dc transport.

    PubMed

    Walz, Michael; Wilhelm, Jan; Evers, Ferdinand

    2014-09-26

    We present ab initio calculations of the local current density j(r) as it arises in dc-transport measurements. We discover pronounced patterns in the local current density, ring currents ("eddies"), that go along with orbital magnetism. Importantly, the magnitude of the ring currents can exceed the (average) transport current by orders of magnitude. We find associated magnetic fields that exhibit drastic fluctuations with field gradients reaching 1  T nm⁻¹ V⁻¹. The relevance of our observations for spin relaxation in systems with very weak spin-orbit interaction, such as organic semiconductors, is discussed. In such systems, spin relaxation induced by bias driven orbital magnetism competes with relaxation induced by the hyperfine interaction and appears to be of similar strength. We propose a NMR-type experiment in the presence of dc-current flow to observe the spatial fluctuations of the induced magnetic fields.

  1. Substrate Frequency Effects on Cr x N Coatings Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Naveed, Muhammad; Volinsky, Alex A.; Weiß, Sabine

    2017-01-01

    Controlled ion bombardment is a popular method to fabricate desirable coating structures and modify their properties. Substrate biasing at high frequencies is a possible technique, which allows higher ion density at the substrate compared with DC current bias. Moreover, high ion energy along with controlled adatom mobility would lead to improved coating growth. This paper focuses on a similar type of study, where effects of coating growth and properties of DC magnetron-sputtered chromium nitride (Cr x N) coatings at various substrate bias frequencies are discussed. Cr x N coatings were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on Inconel 718 and (100) silicon substrates at 110, 160 and 280 kHz frequency at low duty cycle. Coating microstructure and morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scratch adhesion testing and nanoindentation. Results indicate a transformation of columnar into glassy structure of Cr x N coatings with the substrate bias frequency increase. This transformation is attributed to preferential formation of the Cr2N phase at high frequencies compared with CrN at low frequencies. Increase in frequency leads to an increase in deposition rate, which is believed to be due to increase in plasma ion density and energy of the incident adatoms. An increase in coating hardness along with decrease in elastic modulus was observed at high frequencies. Scratch tests show a slight increase in coating adhesion, whereas no clear increase in coating roughness can be found with the substrate bias frequency.

  2. Substrate Frequency Effects on Cr x N Coatings Deposited by DC Magnetron Sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Obrosov, Aleksei; Naveed, Muhammad; Volinsky, Alex A.; Weiß, Sabine

    2016-11-01

    Controlled ion bombardment is a popular method to fabricate desirable coating structures and modify their properties. Substrate biasing at high frequencies is a possible technique, which allows higher ion density at the substrate compared with DC current bias. Moreover, high ion energy along with controlled adatom mobility would lead to improved coating growth. This paper focuses on a similar type of study, where effects of coating growth and properties of DC magnetron-sputtered chromium nitride (Cr x N) coatings at various substrate bias frequencies are discussed. Cr x N coatings were deposited by pulsed DC magnetron sputtering on Inconel 718 and (100) silicon substrates at 110, 160 and 280 kHz frequency at low duty cycle. Coating microstructure and morphology were studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic force microscopy (AFM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), scratch adhesion testing and nanoindentation. Results indicate a transformation of columnar into glassy structure of Cr x N coatings with the substrate bias frequency increase. This transformation is attributed to preferential formation of the Cr2N phase at high frequencies compared with CrN at low frequencies. Increase in frequency leads to an increase in deposition rate, which is believed to be due to increase in plasma ion density and energy of the incident adatoms. An increase in coating hardness along with decrease in elastic modulus was observed at high frequencies. Scratch tests show a slight increase in coating adhesion, whereas no clear increase in coating roughness can be found with the substrate bias frequency.

  3. 76 FR 68745 - DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... No: 2011-28690] DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission [Docket No. EL12-8-000] DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C.; Notice of Complaint Take notice... Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2011), DC Energy, LLC (DC Energy) and DC Energy Mid-Atlantic...

  4. Commercial Of-The Shelf DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzinger, W.; Baumel, S.

    2011-10-01

    A commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) DC/DC converter for the supply of digital electronics on board of spacecraft has been developed with special emphasis on: *Low cost Readily available *Easy manufacturing *No use of ITAR listed EEE parts like rad-hard mosfets *Minimum number of rad-hard digital and analog IC's *Design tolerance against SEE by appropriate filtering The study was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) under the contract number 21729/08/NL7LvH.

  5. Reexamining our bias against heuristics.

    PubMed

    McLaughlin, Kevin; Eva, Kevin W; Norman, Geoff R

    2014-08-01

    Using heuristics offers several cognitive advantages, such as increased speed and reduced effort when making decisions, in addition to allowing us to make decision in situations where missing data do not allow for formal reasoning. But the traditional view of heuristics is that they trade accuracy for efficiency. Here the authors discuss sources of bias in the literature implicating the use of heuristics in diagnostic error and highlight the fact that there are also data suggesting that under certain circumstances using heuristics may lead to better decisions that formal analysis. They suggest that diagnostic error is frequently misattributed to the use of heuristics and propose an alternative view whereby content knowledge is the root cause of diagnostic performance and heuristics lie on the causal pathway between knowledge and diagnostic error or success.

  6. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-09-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time pressure, implicit biases regarding blacks and Hispanics led to a less serious diagnosis. In addition, implicit biases regarding blacks led to a lower likelihood of a referral to specialist when physicians were under high time pressure. The results suggest that when physicians face stress, their implicit biases may shape medical decisions in ways that disadvantage minority patients.

  7. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1104(a)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food...

  8. 21 CFR 74.3106 - D&C Blue No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3106 D&C Blue No. 6. (a) Identity. The color... color, not less than 95 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. (1) D&C Blue No. 6 may be safely used at a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 6. 74.3106 Section 74.3106 Food...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1104(a)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1104(a)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1104(a)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1104 D&C Blue No. 4. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1104(a)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 82.1104 Section 82.1104 Food...

  13. 21 CFR 74.3106 - D&C Blue No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3106 D&C Blue No. 6. (a) Identity. The color... color, not less than 95 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. (1) D&C Blue No. 6 may be safely used at a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 6. 74.3106 Section 74.3106 Food...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206...

  6. Toroidal-Core Microinductors Biased by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Blaes, Brent

    2003-01-01

    The designs of microscopic toroidal-core inductors in integrated circuits of DC-to-DC voltage converters would be modified, according to a proposal, by filling the gaps in the cores with permanent magnets that would apply bias fluxes (see figure). The magnitudes and polarities of the bias fluxes would be tailored to counteract the DC fluxes generated by the DC components of the currents in the inductor windings, such that it would be possible to either reduce the sizes of the cores or increase the AC components of the currents in the cores without incurring adverse effects. Reducing the sizes of the cores could save significant amounts of space on integrated circuits because relative to other integrated-circuit components, microinductors occupy large areas - of the order of a square millimeter each. An important consideration in the design of such an inductor is preventing magnetic saturation of the core at current levels up to the maximum anticipated operating current. The requirement to prevent saturation, as well as other requirements and constraints upon the design of the core are expressed by several equations based on the traditional magnetic-circuit approximation. The equations involve the core and gap dimensions and the magnetic-property parameters of the core and magnet materials. The equations show that, other things remaining equal, as the maximum current is increased, one must increase the size of the core to prevent the flux density from rising to the saturation level. By using a permanent bias flux to oppose the flux generated by the DC component of the current, one would reduce the net DC component of flux in the core, making it possible to reduce the core size needed to prevent the total flux density (sum of DC and AC components) from rising to the saturation level. Alternatively, one could take advantage of the reduction of the net DC component of flux by increasing the allowable AC component of flux and the corresponding AC component of current

  7. Biasing GPCR signaling from inside.

    PubMed

    Shukla, Arun K

    2014-01-28

    The discovery of "functional selectivity" or "biased signaling" through G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) has redefined the classical GPCR signaling paradigm. Moreover, the therapeutic potential of biased signaling by and biased ligands for GPCRs is changing the landscape of GPCR drug discovery. The concept of biased signaling has primarily been developed and discussed in the context of ligands that bind to the extracellular regions of GPCRs. However, two recent reports demonstrate that it is also possible to bias GPCR signaling from inside the cell by targeting intracellular regions of these receptors. These findings present a novel handle for delineating the functional outcomes of biased signaling by GPCRs. Moreover, these approaches also uncover a previously unexplored framework for biasing GPCR signaling for drug discovery.

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. 36 CFR 1280.72 - What additional rules apply for a NARA approved event?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.72 What additional rules apply for a NARA... where original records or historical materials are displayed. National Archives Building, Washington, DC...

  10. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    SciTech Connect

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  11. Soft switching active snubbers for DC/DC converters

    SciTech Connect

    Elasser, A.; Torrey, D.A.

    1996-09-01

    A soft-switching active snubber is proposed to reduce the turn-off losses of the insulated gate bipolar transistor (IGBT) in a buck converter. The soft-switching snubber provides zero-voltage switching for the IGBT, thereby reducing its high turn-off losses due to the current tailing. The proposed snubber uses an auxiliary switch to discharge the snubber capacitor. This auxiliary switch also operates at zero-voltage and zero-current switching. The size of the auxiliary switch compared to the main switch makes this snubber a good alternative to the conventional snubber or even to passive low-loss snubbers. The use of the soft-switching active snubber permits the IGBT to operate at high frequencies with an improved RBSOA. In the experimental results reported for a 1 kW, 40 kHz prototype, combined switching/snubbing losses are reduced by 36% through the use of the active snubber compared to a conventional RCD snubber. The use of an active snubber capacitor during turn-off. The generic snubber cell for the buck converter is generalized to support the common nonisolated dc/dc converters (buck, boost, buck-boost, Cuk, sepic, zeta) as well as isolated dc/dc converters (forward, flyback, Cuk, and sepic).

  12. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation.

  13. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  14. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods.

  15. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…

  16. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  17. Compact integrated dc SQUID gradiometer

    SciTech Connect

    de Waal, V.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.

    1982-10-01

    An all-niobium integrated system of first-order gradiometer and dc suprconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) has been developed. It is relatively simple to fabricate, has an overall size of 17 x 12 mm and a sensitivity of 3.5 x 10/sup -12/ T m/sup -1/ Hz/sup -1/2/.

  18. Designing dc Inductors With Airgaps

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, A. P.

    1986-01-01

    Optimal parameters obtained designing near saturation point. New iterative procedure aids design of dc inductors with airgaps in cores. For given core area and length, technique gives design having specified inductance and peak flux density in core, using minimum required copper weight. Executed rapidly on programmable, hand-held calculator. Applications include lightweight inductors for aircraft electronics.

  19. 76 FR 53346 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-26

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: Deliver to Mail address above between 9 a.m. and...) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83),...

  20. 75 FR 68686 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-09

    ...; AD 2010-23-10] RIN 2120-AA64 Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC- 9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F Airplanes; and Model DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC- 9-40, and DC-9-50 Series Airplanes... Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER...

  1. 75 FR 62331 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-08

    ... Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC- 9-14, DC-9-15, and DC-9-15F Airplanes; and DC-9-20, DC-9-30, DC-9-40, and DC-9-50 Series Airplanes AGENCY: Federal Aviation Administration (FAA), DOT. ACTION... Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. Hand Delivery: Deliver to...

  2. 76 FR 1993 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-12

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83...

  3. 76 FR 41651 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-15

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Ground Floor, Room W12-140, 1200 New Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION...) This AD applies to The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83),...

  4. 76 FR 39251 - Airworthiness Directives; The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD-81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-07-06

    ... Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83 (MD-83), DC-9-87 (MD-87), and MD-88 Airplanes AGENCY... Jersey Avenue, SE., Washington, DC 20590. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Roger Durbin, Aerospace.... Applicability (c) This AD applies to all The Boeing Company Model DC-9-81 (MD- 81), DC-9-82 (MD-82), DC-9-83...

  5. Outcome predictability biases learning.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, Oren; Mitchell, Chris J; Bethmont, Anna; Lovibond, Peter F

    2015-01-01

    Much of contemporary associative learning research is focused on understanding how and when the associative history of cues affects later learning about those cues. Very little work has investigated the effects of the associative history of outcomes on human learning. Three experiments extended the "learned irrelevance" paradigm from the animal conditioning literature to examine the influence of an outcome's prior predictability on subsequent learning of relationships between cues and that outcome. All 3 experiments found evidence for the idea that learning is biased by the prior predictability of the outcome. Previously predictable outcomes were readily associated with novel predictive cues, whereas previously unpredictable outcomes were more readily associated with novel nonpredictive cues. This finding highlights the importance of considering the associative history of outcomes, as well as cues, when interpreting multistage designs. Associative and cognitive explanations of this certainty matching effect are discussed.

  6. Identification of cDC1- and cDC2-committed DC progenitors reveals early lineage priming at the common DC progenitor stage in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Schlitzer, Andreas; Sivakamasundari, V; Chen, Jinmiao; Sumatoh, Hermi Rizal Bin; Schreuder, Jaring; Lum, Josephine; Malleret, Benoit; Zhang, Sanqian; Larbi, Anis; Zolezzi, Francesca; Renia, Laurent; Poidinger, Michael; Naik, Shalin; Newell, Evan W; Robson, Paul; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-07-01

    Mouse conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) can be classified into two functionally distinct lineages: the CD8α(+) (CD103(+)) cDC1 lineage, and the CD11b(+) cDC2 lineage. cDCs arise from a cascade of bone marrow (BM) DC-committed progenitor cells that include the common DC progenitors (CDPs) and pre-DCs, which exit the BM and seed peripheral tissues before differentiating locally into mature cDCs. Where and when commitment to the cDC1 or cDC2 lineage occurs remains poorly understood. Here we found that transcriptional signatures of the cDC1 and cDC2 lineages became evident at the single-cell level from the CDP stage. We also identified Siglec-H and Ly6C as lineage markers that distinguished pre-DC subpopulations committed to the cDC1 lineage (Siglec-H(-)Ly6C(-) pre-DCs) or cDC2 lineage (Siglec-H(-)Ly6C(+) pre-DCs). Our results indicate that commitment to the cDC1 or cDC2 lineage occurs in the BM and not in the periphery.

  7. The intentionality bias and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Pope, A

    2014-01-01

    The "intentionality bias" refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people's actions to be intentional. In this experiment we extended research on this effect in two key ways. First, we developed a novel nonlinguistic task for assessing the intentionality bias. This task used video stimuli of ambiguous movements. Second, we investigated the relationship between the strength of this bias and schizotypy (schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals). Our results showed that the intentionality bias was replicated for the video stimuli and also that this bias is stronger in those individuals scoring higher on the schizotypy rating scales. Overall these findings lend further support for the existence of the intentionality bias. We also discuss the possible relevance of these findings for our understanding of certain symptoms of schizophrenic illness.

  8. The physiological role of DC-SIGN: a tale of mice and men.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Vallejo, Juan J; van Kooyk, Yvette

    2013-10-01

    The innate immune receptor DC-SIGN (dendritic cell-specific intercellular adhesion molecule-3 grabbing non-integrin) was discovered over a decade ago and was initially identified as a pattern recognition receptor. In addition to its ability to recognize a broad range of pathogen-derived ligands and self-glycoproteins, DC-SIGN also mediates intercellular adhesion, as well as antigen uptake and signaling, which is a functional hallmark of dendritic cells (DCs). Most research on DC-SIGN has relied on in vitro studies. The in vivo function of DC-SIGN is difficult to address, in part because there are eight genetic homologs in mice with no clear DC-SIGN ortholog. Here, we summarize the functions attributed to DC-SIGN based on in vitro data and discuss the limitations of available mouse models to uncover the physiological role of this receptor in vivo.

  9. DC to DC power converters and methods of controlling the same

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Todorovic, Maja Harfman; Agamy, Mohammed

    2012-12-11

    A power generation system configured to provide direct current (DC) power to a DC link is described. The system includes a first power generation unit configured to output DC power. The system also includes a first DC to DC converter comprising an input section and an output section. The output section of the first DC to DC converter is coupled in series with the first power generation unit. The first DC to DC converter is configured to process a first portion of the DC power output by the first power generation unit and to provide an unprocessed second portion of the DC power output of the first power generation unit to the output section.

  10. Diagnostics of ballistic electrons in a DC/RF hybrid capacitively coupled plasma reactor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Lin; Chen, Lee; Ranjan, Alok; Funk, Merritt; Bravenec, Ron; Economou, Demetre; Donnelly, Vincent; Sundararajan, Radha

    2008-10-01

    The DC/RF hybrid is a capacitively coupled plasma etcher with RF voltage on the bottom electrode and negative DC bias on the upper electrode. This configuration can significantly alleviate the electron shading effect and preserve photoresist integrity during plasma etching. It is thought that a group of ballistic electrons is responsible for these results. These high-energy electrons start as secondaries emitted from the negatively-biased DC electrode and accelerate across the DC sheath. They acquire high enough energy in the sheath such that they can cross the bulk plasma without gas-phase collisions. The ballistic electrons either strike the RF electrode or are trapped in the plasma bulk depending on the RF phase. Two gridded energy analyzers mounted on the back of the RF electrode were used to determine the energy distribution of ballistic electrons. The dependence of the ballistic electron energy distribution on DC voltage, pressure and RF power will be presented and compared with simulation results.

  11. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.1710 Section 74.1710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.1711 Section 74.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.1710 Section 74.1710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.1711 Section 74.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.1710 Section 74.1710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.1711 Section 74.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.1711 Section 74.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    .... (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 28 may contain only those diluents... mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No. 28 shall conform to the following... sulfates (calculated as sodium salts), not more than 15 percent. Insoluble matter (alkaline solution),...

  19. 21 CFR 74.3106 - D&C Blue No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 6. 74.3106 Section 74.3106 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3106 D&C Blue No. 6. (a) Identity. The...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 74.2104 Section 74.2104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  1. 21 CFR 74.3106 - D&C Blue No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 6. 74.3106 Section 74.3106 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3106 D&C Blue No. 6. (a) Identity. The...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 4. 74.2104 Section 74.2104 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  7. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  8. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206 (a... cosmetics....

  10. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206 (a... cosmetics....

  18. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  19. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  20. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  3. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  10. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206 (a... cosmetics....

  14. 21 CFR 82.1708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1708 D&C Yellow No. 8. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  15. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1707 D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707(a... cosmetics....

  20. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...