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Sample records for additional dc bias

  1. DC Self Bias Trends in Dual Frequency PECVD Deposition Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Keil, D. L.; Augustyniak, E.; Leeser, C.; Galli, F.

    2011-10-01

    Capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) etch systems commonly report the DC auto or self bias developed as a consequence of capacitively coupling RF to the plasma. Frequently, these systems employ wafer pedestals comprised of electrostatic chucks which must monitor the self bias as part of their normal operation. DC self bias is often found to correlate with various etch process behaviors or system states. It is less common, however, to find CCP deposition systems that report DC self bias. This work reports results of a study of DC self bias trends due to chamber pressure, chamber conditioning and aging, and changes in wafer pedestal hardware. In particular, chamber film accumulation is found to correlate to certain DC bias trends. The applicability of these results for process tracking and system monitoring is discussed. Additionally, the DC self bias response to deliberate perturbations to the RF system are examined. These perturbations include those not normally encountered during commercial deposition such as `bleeding' current to ground.

  2. Harmonics generated from a DC biased transformer

    SciTech Connect

    Shu Lu; Yilu Liu; Ree, J. De La . The Bradley Dept. of Electrical Engineering)

    1993-04-01

    The paper presents harmonic characteristics of transformer excitation currents under DC bias caused by geomagnetically induced currents (GIC). A newly developed saturation model of a single phase shell form transformer based on 3D finite element analysis is used to calculate the excitation currents. As a consequence, the complete variations of excitation current harmonics with respect to an extended range of GIC bias are revealed. The results of this study are useful in understanding transformers as harmonic sources and the impact on power systems during a solar magnetic disturbance.

  3. Reduction in plasma potential by applying negative DC cathode bias in RF magnetron sputtering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Isomura, Masao; Yamada, Toshinori; Osuga, Kosuke; Shindo, Haruo

    2016-11-01

    We applied a negative DC bias voltage to the cathode of an RF magnetron sputtering system and successfully reduced the plasma potential in both argon plasma and hydrogen-diluted argon plasma. The crystallinity of the deposited Ge films is improved by increasing the negative DC bias voltage. It is indicated that the reduction in plasma potential is effective for reducing the plasma damage on deposited materials, caused by the electric potential between the plasma and substrates. In addition, the deposition rate is increased by the increased electric potential between the plasma and the cathode owing to the negative DC bias voltage. The present method successfully gives us higher speed and lower damage sputtering deposition. The increased electric potential between the plasma and the cathode suppresses the evacuation of electrons from the plasma and also enhances the generation of secondary electrons on the cathode. These probably suppress the electron loss from the plasma and result in the reduction in plasma potential.

  4. DC bias effect on alternating current electrical conductivity of poly(ethylene terephthalate)/alumina nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikam, Pravin N.; Deshpande, Vineeta D.

    2016-05-01

    Polymer nanocomposites based on metal oxide (ceramic) nanoparticles are a new class of materials with unique properties and designed for various applications such as electronic device packaging, insulation, fabrication and automotive industries. Poly(ethylene terephthalate) (PET)/alumina (Al2O3) nanocomposites with filler content between 1 wt% and 5 wt% were prepared by melt compounding method using co-rotating twin screw extruder and characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and precision LCR meter techniques. The results revealed that proper uniform dispersion at lower content up to 2 wt% of nano-alumina observed by using TEM. Aggregation of nanoparticles was observed at higher content of alumina examined by using SEM and TEM. The frequency dependences of the alternating current (AC) conductivity (σAC) of PET/alumina nanocomposites on the filler content and DC bias were investigated in the frequency range of 20Hz - 1MHz. The results showed that the AC and direct current (DC) conductivity increases with increasing DC bias and nano-alumina content upto 3 wt%. It follows the Jonscher's universal power law of solids. It revealed that σAC of PET/alumina nanocomposites can be well characterized by the DC conductivity (σDC), critical frequency (ωc), critical exponent of the power law (s). Roll of DC bias potential led to an increase of DC conductivity (σDC) due to the creation of additional conducting paths with the polymer nanocomposites and percolation behavior achieved through co-continuous morphology.

  5. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes.

    PubMed

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  6. Numerical study of dc-biased ac-electrokinetic flow over symmetrical electrodes

    PubMed Central

    Yang Ng, Wee; Ramos, Antonio; Cheong Lam, Yee; Rodriguez, Isabel

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents a numerical study of DC-biased AC-electrokinetic (DC-biased ACEK) flow over a pair of symmetrical electrodes. The flow mechanism is based on a transverse conductivity gradient created through incipient Faradaic reactions occurring at the electrodes when a DC-bias is applied. The DC biased AC electric field acting on this gradient generates a fluid flow in the form of vortexes. To understand more in depth the DC-biased ACEK flow mechanism, a phenomenological model is developed to study the effects of voltage, conductivity ratio, channel width, depth, and aspect ratio on the induced flow characteristics. It was found that flow velocity on the order of mm/s can be produced at higher voltage and conductivity ratio. Such rapid flow velocity is one of the highest reported in microsystems technology using electrokinetics. PMID:22662084

  7. Charge Accumulation Effects on Breakdown Condition of Capacitive Discharges in DC-biased RF Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoji, M.; Sato, M.

    1998-10-01

    Breakdown characteristics of capacitively coupled argon dc-biased rf (13.56 MHz) discharges are measured using an insulated electrode (IE) system made from glass-covered aluminum disk plates. In the IE system under the influence of a dc-biased rf field, charged particles generated in the discharge space will accumulate at the glass surface without leakage, which may weaken the dc electric field strength. After the dc-biased rf voltage is applied, a time lag Tl until breakdown is observed and the rf breakdown voltage V_rf is considerably lowered. For example, V_rf decreases by more than 10 % at Tl = 1000 sec. The values of V_rf which cause breakdown within Tl = 20 sec. in the IE system are compared with those for the bare metal electrode (BME) system for which no charge accumulation takes place. At low dc biases, they are almost the same for both systems. As the dc bias is increased, V_rf of the BME system becomes much smaller than that of the IE system. The decrease in V_rf can be explained by the occurring of secondary electron emission from the metal surface.

  8. Effects of DC bias voltages on the RF-excited plasma-tissue interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Aijun; Liu, Dingxin; Wang, Xiaohua; Li, Jiafeng; Chen, Chen; Rong, Mingzhe; Kong, Michael G.

    2016-10-01

    We present in this study how DC bias voltage impacts on the fluxes of reactive species on the skin tissue by means of a plasma-tissue interaction model. The DC bias voltage inputs less than 2% of the total discharge power, and hence it has little influence on the whole plasma characteritics including the volume-averaged densities of reactive species and the heating effect. However, it pushes the plasma bulk towards the skin surface, which significantly changes the local plasma characteristics in the vicinity of the skin surface, and in consequence remarkably enhances the flux densities of reactive species on the skin tissue. With the consideration of plasma dosage and heat damage on the skin tissue, DC bias voltage is a better approach compared with the common approach of increasing the plasma power. Since the DC voltage is easy to apply on the human body, it is a promising approach for use in clincial applications.

  9. Analysis of Fe Nanoparticles Using XPS Measurements Under D.C. or Pulsed-Voltage Bias

    SciTech Connect

    Suzer, Sefik; Baer, Donald R.; Engelhard, Mark H.

    2010-06-16

    The impact of solution exposure on the charging properties of oxide coatings on Fe metal-core oxide-shells has been examined by sample biasing during XPS measurements. The Fe nanoparticles were suspended in relatively unreactive acetone and were analyzed after particle containing solutions were deposited on SiO2/Si substrates, and/or Au substrates. The particle and substrate combinations were subjected to ± 10V d.c. biasing in the form of square waves (SQW) pulses with 5V amplitude. The samples experienced variable degrees of charging for which low energy electrons at ~1 eV, 20μA and low energy Ar+ ions were used to minimize. Application of d.c. bias and/or square wave pulses drastically influences the extent of charging, which is utilized to gather additional analytical information about the sample under investigation. This approach allows separation of otherwise overlapping peaks. Accordingly, the O1s peaks of the silicon oxide substrate, the iron oxide nanoparticles, and that of the casting solvent can be separated from each other. Similarly the C1s peak belonging to the solvent can be separated from that of the adventitious carbon. The charging shifts of the iron nanoparticles are strongly influenced by the surrounding solvent. Hence, acetone exhibits the largest shift, water the smallest, and methanol in between. Dynamical measurements performed by application of the voltage stress in the form of SQW pulses gives information about the time constants of the processes involved, which led us postulate that these charging properties we probe in these systems, stem mainly from ionic movement(s).

  10. Micro-fabrication considerations for MEMS-based reconfigurable antenna apertures: with emphasis on DC bias network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moghadas, Hamid; Mousavi, Pedram; Daneshmand, Mojgan

    2016-11-01

    This note addresses the main challenges involved in monolithic micro-fabrication of large capacitive-MEMS-based reconfigurable electromagnetic apertures in antenna applications. The fabrication of a large DC bias line network, and also the metallic features in such apertures, requires special attention and optimization. It is shown that the choice of DC bias network material can impact DC and RF performance of the structure, and a trade-off between switching time and radiation pattern integrity should be considered.

  11. Effect of DC bias on dielectric properties of nanocrystalline CuAlO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prakash, T.; Ramasamy, S.; Murty, B. S.

    2013-03-01

    Grain boundary effect on the room temperature dielectric behavior in mechanically alloyed nanocrystalline CuAlO2 has been investigated using impedance spectroscopy under the applied DC bias voltages 0 V to 4.8 V in a periodic interval of 0.2 V. Analysis of impedance data confirms the existence of double Schottky potential barrier heights ( Φ b ) between two adjacent grains (left and right side) with grain boundary and its influences in dielectric relaxation time ( τ), dielectric constant ( ɛ') and dielectric loss (tan δ) factor. Also, clear evidence on the suppression of Φ b was demonstrated in the higher applied bias voltages with the parameter τ. At equilibrium state, τ is 0.63 ms and it was reduced to 0.13 ms after the 3.2 V applied DC bias. These observed DC bias voltage effects are obeying `brick layer model' and also elucidates Φ b is playing a crucial role in controlling dielectric properties of nanomaterials.

  12. Modeling of Interactions between Surface properties, DC Self Bias and Plasma Stability in PECVD Tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galli, Federico; Keil, Douglas; Augustyniak, Edward

    2011-10-01

    PECVD tools employing capacitively coupled plasma (CCP) sources are widely used in the semiconductor industry to deposit low-k dielectric materials. Power coupling in a CCP reactor is dominated by the plasma-sheath-surface dynamics. The properties of the electrode and other plasma-bounding surfaces, as well as the amount and type of material deposited thereon, affect such dynamics by modifying locally the plasma density, the electron temperature, and the DC self bias. Because PECVD tools are depositing tools, changes to the plasma properties due to surface modification are intrinsic of the process and unavoidable. The purpose of this work is to study these interactions between surface properties, secondary electron emission, DC self bias, plasma density and electron temperature by means of a fluid-type plasma model. Furthermore, the correlation between modeling results and some experimental results as a function of process parameters and chamber conditioning are reported and discussed.

  13. Characterization of terahertz emission from a dc-biased filament in air

    SciTech Connect

    Chen Yanping; Wang Tiejun; Marceau, Claude; Chin, See Leang; Theberge, Francis; Chateauneuf, Marc; Dubois, Jacques; Kosareva, Olga

    2009-09-07

    We demonstrate that the terahertz emission from a dc-biased filament can be regarded as a sum of an elliptically polarized terahertz source (generated by a filament without external electric field) and a linearly polarized terahertz source induced by the external electric field applied to the filament. The peak frequency and linewidth of the linearly polarized terahertz source are related to the average plasma density of the filament.

  14. Self-Biased 215MHz Magnetoelectric NEMS Resonator for Ultra-Sensitive DC Magnetic Field Detection

    PubMed Central

    Nan, Tianxiang; Hui, Yu; Rinaldi, Matteo; Sun, Nian X.

    2013-01-01

    High sensitivity magnetoelectric sensors with their electromechanical resonance frequencies < 200 kHz have been recently demonstrated using magnetostrictive/piezoelectric magnetoelectric heterostructures. In this work, we demonstrate a novel magnetoelectric nano-electromechanical systems (NEMS) resonator with an electromechanical resonance frequency of 215 MHz based on an AlN/(FeGaB/Al2O3) × 10 magnetoelectric heterostructure for detecting DC magnetic fields. This magnetoelectric NEMS resonator showed a high quality factor of 735, and strong magnetoelectric coupling with a large voltage tunable sensitivity. The admittance of the magnetoelectric NEMS resonator was very sensitive to DC magnetic fields at its electromechanical resonance, which led to a new detection mechanism for ultra-sensitive self-biased RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor with a low limit of detection of DC magnetic fields of ~300 picoTelsa. The magnetic/piezoelectric heterostructure based RF NEMS magnetoelectric sensor is compact, power efficient and readily integrated with CMOS technology, which represents a new class of ultra-sensitive magnetometers for DC and low frequency AC magnetic fields. PMID:23760520

  15. Bias-voltage-controlled ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in hybrid structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volkov, N. V.; Tarasov, A. S.; Smolyakov, D. A.; Varnakov, S. N.; Ovchinnikov, S. G.

    2015-06-01

    We report some ac and dc magnetotransport phenomena in silicon-based hybrid structures. The giant impedance change under an applied magnetic field has been experimentally found in the metal/insulator/semiconductor (MIS) diode with the Schottky barrier based on the Fe/SiO2/p-Si and Fe/SiO2/n-Si structures. The maximum effect is found to observe at temperatures of 10-30 K in the frequency range 10 Hz-1 MHz. Below 1 kHz the magnetoresistance can be controlled in a wide range by applying a bias to the device. A photoinduced dc magnetoresistance of over 104% has been found in the Fe/SiO2/p-Si back-to-back Schottky diode. The observed magnetic-field-dependent effects are caused by the interface states localized in the insula-tor/semiconductor interface.

  16. Effects of dc bias on the fabrication of amorphous GdCo RF sputtered films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bourne, H. C., Jr.; Goldfarb, R. B.; Wilson, W. L., Jr.; Zwingman, R.

    1975-01-01

    An investigation has been conducted on the effects of a dc bias field applied to Gd(1-x)Co(x) thin films during RF sputter deposition. Such films may possess uniaxial magnetic anisotropy with easy axis perpendicular to the plane of the film and may be used in magnetic bubble devices. Uniformity in composition, thickness and magnetic properties has been achieved and film composition has been controlled to within one percent. However, significant variations of magnetic properties were observed from film to film.

  17. The influence of DC biasing on the uniformity of a-C:H films for three-dimensional substrates by using a plasma-based ion implantation technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Toshiya; Yamamoto, Kazuhiro; Tsuda, Osamu; Tanaka, Akihiro; Koga, Yoshinori; Takai, Osamu

    2003-05-01

    Amorphous hydrogenated carbon (a-C:H) films were synthesized by the use of a PBII technique using an electron cyclotron resonance plasma source with a mirror field, and the influence of the biasing conditions on the properties and the uniformity of the three-dimensional surfaces of a-C:H films was investigated. For convex faces, the film thickness was almost constant, independent of the deposition conditions, because a uniform plasma surrounded the substrates. For concave faces, the thickness of the films that formed without biasing and with only the application of a pulse bias decreased when the microwave-incident angle was decreased. On the other hand, when a DC bias was applied to the substrate in addition to a pulse bias, the uniformity of the thickness was much improved with a distribution within ±10%. The improvement in the uniformity was assumed to be the result of the continuous supply of ions in the plasma to the surfaces by the DC biasing.

  18. Nonlinear magnetization relaxation of superparamagnetic nanoparticles in superimposed ac and dc magnetic bias fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Titov, Serguey V.; Déjardin, Pierre-Michel; El Mrabti, Halim; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    2010-09-01

    The nonlinear ac response of the magnetization M(t) of a uniaxially anisotropic superparamagnetic nanoparticle subjected to both ac and dc bias magnetic fields of arbitrary strengths and orientations is determined by averaging Gilbert’s equation augmented by a random field with Gaussian white-noise properties in order to calculate exactly the relevant statistical averages. It is shown that the magnetization dynamics of the uniaxial particle driven by a strong ac field applied at an angle to the easy axis of the particle (so that the axial symmetry is broken) alters drastically leading to different nonlinear effects due to coupling of the thermally activated magnetization reversal mode with the precessional modes of M(t) via the driving ac field.

  19. Pulsed DC bias effects on p-type semiconductor SrCu2O2 film deposited by RF magnetron sputtering.

    PubMed

    Seok, Hye-Won; Kim, Sei-Ki; Lee, Hyun-Seok; Lee, Mi-Jae; Ju, Byeong-Kwon

    2013-05-01

    Transparent p-type semiconducting SrCu2O2 films have been deposited by RF magnetron sputtering under unbalanced bipolar pulsed DC bias on low-alkali glass substrates in a mixed gas of 1% H2/Ar below 400 degrees C. The pulsed DC bias voltages to substrate were varied from 0 V to -200 V with a frequency of 350 kHz. The effect of pulsed DC bias on the structure and electrical and optical properties of SrCu2O2 films has been investigated using SEM, XRD, surface profiler, Hall measurements and UV-VIS spectrometer. The deposition rates of SrCu2O2 films under DC-pulsed bias show a maximum at -100 V bias, and decreased with increasing the bias voltage. XRD results of the as-deposited films under the bias voltage at 400 degrees C reveal SrCu2O2 polycrystalline phase, and increased crystallite size with increasing pulsed DC bias voltage. The SrCu2O2 films deposited under the pulsed-bias of -100 V exhibits the highest conductivity of 0.08 S/cm, and over 70% of transmittance at 550 nm. It is confirmed that the application of pulsed DC bias in sputtering improves the crystallization, crystal growth, and the electrical and optical properties eventually under 400 degrees C. PMID:23858855

  20. On the scaling of rf and dc self-bias voltages with pressure in electronegative capacitively coupled plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, Ankur; Dorf, Leonid; Rauf, Shahid; Collins, Ken

    2012-03-15

    Higher gas densities and lower diffusion losses at higher operating pressures typically lead to increased charged species densities (and hence flux) for a constant power deposition in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCP). As a result, one would expect that the bias radio-frequency (rf) voltage required to deposit a given power in a CCP reactor decreases with increasing operating pressure. These observations may not hold true in multiple frequency CCPs, commonly used for dielectric etching in microelectronics fabrication, due to nonlinear interactions between the rf sources. Wafer-based measurements of the rf and self-generated direct current (dc) bias voltages in a dual-frequency capacitively coupled electronegative plasma were made, which indicate that the rf and dc voltages vary nonmonotonically with pressure. These experimental results are presented in this paper and a computational plasma model is used to explain the experimental observations for varying 60 MHz and 13 MHz powers in the Ar/CF{sub 4}/CHF{sub 3} plasma over a pressure range of 25 to 400 mTorr. The authors found that while the ion density increases with pressure, the increase is most dominant near the electrode with the high frequency source (60 MHz). The rf and dc bias voltages are ultimately influenced by both charged species density magnitudes and spatial profiles.

  1. Fabrication of FeSiBPNb amorphous powder cores with high DC-bias and excellent soft magnetic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Junjiang; Dong, Yaqiang; Man, Qikui; Li, Qiang; Chang, Chuntao; Wang, Xin-Min; Li, Run-Wei

    2016-03-01

    Fe-based amorphous magnetic alloy powders with a composition of (Fe0.76Si0.09B0.1P0.05)99Nb1 were first prepared by water atomization, and then amorphous magnetic powder cores were produced from a mixture of the amorphous alloy powders with diameters of below 75 μm and different volume of insulation and bonding materials by mold compacting with a compact pressure of 2200 MPa at room temperature. The amorphous magnetic cores exhibit superior DC-bias properties and excellent soft magnetic properties after appropriate heating treatment. The DC-bias properties of the present amorphous magnetic cores just decrease 15% as the external field increases to 100 Oe. Meanwhile, it also exhibits a high permeability of 56 at 1 MHz and a low core loss of 451 W/kg at Bm=0.1 T and f=100 kHz. The present Fe-based amorphous magnetic powder cores with superior DC-bias properties are a potential candidate for a variety of industrial applications.

  2. External dc bias field effects in the nonlinear ac stationary response of permanent dipoles in a uniaxial potential

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Nijun; Coffey, William T.; Déjardin, Pirre-Michel; Kalmykov, Yuri P.

    External dc bias field effects on the nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect of a system of permanent dipoles in a uniaxial mean field potential are studied via the rotational Brownian motion model. Postulated in terms of the infinite hierarchy of differential-recurrence equations for the statistical moments (the expectation value of the Legendre polynomials), the dielectric and Kerr effect ac stationary responses may be evaluated for arbitrary dc bias field strength via perturbation theory in the ac field. We have given two complementary approaches for treating the nonlinear effects. The first is based on perturbation theory allowing one to calculate the nonlinear ac stationary responses using powerful matrix methods. The second approach based on the accurate two-mode approximation [D.A. Garanin, Phys. Rev. E. 54, 3250 (1996)] effectively generalizes the existing results for dipolar systems in superimposed ac and dc fields to a mean field potential. The results apply both to nonlinear dielectric relaxation and dynamic Kerr effect of nematics and to magnetic birefringence relaxation of ferrofluids. Furthermore, the given methods of the solution of infinite hierarchies of multi-term recurrence relations are quite general and can be applied to analogous nonlinear response problems.

  3. Real-time DC-dynamic biasing method for switching time improvement in severely underdamped fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators.

    PubMed

    Small, Joshua; Fruehling, Adam; Garg, Anurag; Liu, Xiaoguang; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Mechanically underdamped electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators are well known for their fast switching operation in response to a unit step input bias voltage. However, the tradeoff for the improved switching performance is a relatively long settling time to reach each gap height in response to various applied voltages. Transient applied bias waveforms are employed to facilitate reduced switching times for electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators with high mechanical quality factors. Removing the underlying substrate of the fringing-field actuator creates the low mechanical damping environment necessary to effectively test the concept. The removal of the underlying substrate also a has substantial improvement on the reliability performance of the device in regards to failure due to stiction. Although DC-dynamic biasing is useful in improving settling time, the required slew rates for typical MEMS devices may place aggressive requirements on the charge pumps for fully-integrated on-chip designs. Additionally, there may be challenges integrating the substrate removal step into the back-end-of-line commercial CMOS processing steps. Experimental validation of fabricated actuators demonstrates an improvement of 50x in switching time when compared to conventional step biasing results. Compared to theoretical calculations, the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:25145811

  4. Real-time DC-dynamic biasing method for switching time improvement in severely underdamped fringing-field electrostatic MEMS actuators.

    PubMed

    Small, Joshua; Fruehling, Adam; Garg, Anurag; Liu, Xiaoguang; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Mechanically underdamped electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators are well known for their fast switching operation in response to a unit step input bias voltage. However, the tradeoff for the improved switching performance is a relatively long settling time to reach each gap height in response to various applied voltages. Transient applied bias waveforms are employed to facilitate reduced switching times for electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators with high mechanical quality factors. Removing the underlying substrate of the fringing-field actuator creates the low mechanical damping environment necessary to effectively test the concept. The removal of the underlying substrate also a has substantial improvement on the reliability performance of the device in regards to failure due to stiction. Although DC-dynamic biasing is useful in improving settling time, the required slew rates for typical MEMS devices may place aggressive requirements on the charge pumps for fully-integrated on-chip designs. Additionally, there may be challenges integrating the substrate removal step into the back-end-of-line commercial CMOS processing steps. Experimental validation of fabricated actuators demonstrates an improvement of 50x in switching time when compared to conventional step biasing results. Compared to theoretical calculations, the experimental results are in good agreement.

  5. Real-Time DC-dynamic Biasing Method for Switching Time Improvement in Severely Underdamped Fringing-field Electrostatic MEMS Actuators

    PubMed Central

    Small, Joshua; Fruehling, Adam; Garg, Anurag; Liu, Xiaoguang; Peroulis, Dimitrios

    2014-01-01

    Mechanically underdamped electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators are well known for their fast switching operation in response to a unit step input bias voltage. However, the tradeoff for the improved switching performance is a relatively long settling time to reach each gap height in response to various applied voltages. Transient applied bias waveforms are employed to facilitate reduced switching times for electrostatic fringing-field MEMS actuators with high mechanical quality factors. Removing the underlying substrate of the fringing-field actuator creates the low mechanical damping environment necessary to effectively test the concept. The removal of the underlying substrate also a has substantial improvement on the reliability performance of the device in regards to failure due to stiction. Although DC-dynamic biasing is useful in improving settling time, the required slew rates for typical MEMS devices may place aggressive requirements on the charge pumps for fully-integrated on-chip designs. Additionally, there may be challenges integrating the substrate removal step into the back-end-of-line commercial CMOS processing steps. Experimental validation of fabricated actuators demonstrates an improvement of 50x in switching time when compared to conventional step biasing results. Compared to theoretical calculations, the experimental results are in good agreement. PMID:25145811

  6. Application of dc and mark-space bias differential electrolytic potentiometry for determination of cyanide using a programmable syringe pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Tawfik A.; Abulkibash, A. M.

    2011-09-01

    This paper describes a rapid sequential injection titration method for the determination of cyanide in aqueous solutions. Mercuric nitrate was used as a titrant and a pair of gold-amalgam electrodes as an indicating system. The technique of differential electrolytic potentiometry using both mark-space bias (m.s.b.) and dc current for polarization was employed. The optimum values of current and percentage bias were 5 μA and 13%, respectively. The effects of dispense time, volume of analyte, supporting electrolyte, and the concentration of titrant were investigated. The results obtained are in agreement with those of the standard method (APHA), with a relative standard deviation of 1.43%, t = 0.783, F = 1.713. A sampling rate of about 20 samples per hour was achieved with good reproducibility and lower consumption of reagents.

  7. YjjQ Represses Transcription of flhDC and Additional Loci in Escherichia coli

    PubMed Central

    Wiebe, Helene; Gürlebeck, Doreen; Groß, Jana; Dreck, Katrin; Pannen, Derk; Ewers, Christa; Wieler, Lothar H.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The presumptive transcriptional regulator YjjQ has been identified as being virulence associated in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC). In this work, we characterize YjjQ as transcriptional repressor of the flhDC operon, encoding the master regulator of flagellar synthesis, and of additional loci. The latter include gfc (capsule 4 synthesis), ompC (outer membrane porin C), yfiRNB (regulated c-di-GMP synthesis), and loci of poorly defined function (ybhL and ymiA-yciX). We identify the YjjQ DNA-binding sites at the flhDC and gfc promoters and characterize a DNA-binding sequence motif present at all promoters found to be repressed by YjjQ. At the flhDC promoter, the YjjQ DNA-binding site overlaps the RcsA-RcsB DNA-binding site. RcsA-RcsB likewise represses the flhDC promoter, but the repression by YjjQ and that by RcsA-RcsB are independent of each other. These data suggest that YjjQ is an additional regulator involved in the complex control of flhDC at the level of transcription initiation. Furthermore, we show that YjjQ represses motility of the E. coli K-12 laboratory strain and of uropathogenic E. coli (UPEC) strains CFT073 and 536. Regulation of flhDC, yfiRNB, and additional loci by YjjQ may be features relevant for pathogenicity. IMPORTANCE Escherichia coli is a commensal and pathogenic bacterium causing intra- and extraintestinal infections in humans and farm animals. The pathogenicity of E. coli strains is determined by their particular genome content, which includes essential and associated virulence factors that control the cellular physiology in the host environment. However, the gene pools of commensal and pathogenic E. coli are not clearly differentiated, and the function of virulence-associated loci needs to be characterized. In this study, we characterize the function of yjjQ, encoding a transcription regulator that was identified as being virulence associated in avian pathogenic E. coli (APEC). We characterize YjjQ as transcriptional

  8. Influence of dc bias on the dielectric relaxation in Fe-substituted CaCu3Ti4O12 ceramics: grain boundary and surface effects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mu, Chunhong; Zhang, Huaiwu; He, Ying; Shen, Jian; Liu, Peng

    2009-09-01

    CaCu3Ti4-xFexO12 (CCTFO, 0 <= x <= 0.2) ceramics were fabricated by the solid-state reaction method and the dielectric properties have been systematically studied. All ceramics showed the single cubic perovskite structure, and there was no secondary phase. The average grain size increased and the grain boundaries became thin and dense with increasing x. With increasing Fe doping content, the resistivity of grains and grain boundaries increased, which led to a decrease in ɛ' in the frequency range from 1 kHz to 1 MHz. A new relaxation process II was discovered by means of dielectric properties spectra measurement at room temperature. Based on the internal barrier layer capacitance model, the dielectric relaxation process I originates from interfacial polarization at grain boundaries. The relaxation process II is sensitive to surface treatment and, in contrast to the relaxation process I, is also strongly affected by the dc bias. As the dc bias voltage increased up to 40 V, the low-frequency dielectric constant and resistivity decreased dramatically in the CCTFO (x = 0.01) ceramic. After polishing the surfaces of the CCTFO (x = 0.01) ceramic, ɛ' decreased from 105 to 5 × 104 without the dc bias, but remained essentially unchanged with increasing dc bias voltage at low frequencies. The dependence of the dielectric properties on dc bias voltage and surface characteristics reveals that the relaxation process II originates from the interfacial polarization at the surface layers.

  9. Contingency bias in probability judgement may arise from ambiguity regarding additional causes.

    PubMed

    Mitchell, Chris J; Griffiths, Oren; More, Pranjal; Lovibond, Peter F

    2013-09-01

    In laboratory contingency learning tasks, people usually give accurate estimates of the degree of contingency between a cue and an outcome. However, if they are asked to estimate the probability of the outcome in the presence of the cue, they tend to be biased by the probability of the outcome in the absence of the cue. This bias is often attributed to an automatic contingency detection mechanism, which is said to act via an excitatory associative link to activate the outcome representation at the time of testing. We conducted 3 experiments to test alternative accounts of contingency bias. Participants were exposed to the same outcome probability in the presence of the cue, but different outcome probabilities in the absence of the cue. Phrasing the test question in terms of frequency rather than probability and clarifying the test instructions reduced but did not eliminate contingency bias. However, removal of ambiguity regarding the presence of additional causes during the test phase did eliminate contingency bias. We conclude that contingency bias may be due to ambiguity in the test question, and therefore it does not require postulation of a separate associative link-based mechanism.

  10. Effects of the energy spread of secondary electrons in a dc-biased single-surface multipactor

    SciTech Connect

    Hur, Min Sup; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Jeon, Seok-Gy

    2011-03-15

    The effects of the energy spread of secondary electrons are theoretically investigated for a dc-biased single-surface multipactor. In our previous publication [S. G. Jeon et al., Phys. Plasmas 16, 073101 (2009)], we obtained the conditions for the phase lock of an electron bunch, assuming zero velocity spread of the secondary electrons. In this work, we extended our previous theory to derive a quadratic map, by which the stability and bifurcation of the electron bunch can be systematically investigated. For the study of the energy spread of the secondary electrons, a randomized term was added to this map. The modified map then showed significant smearing-out of the bifurcated branches. The theoretical results were verified by particle-in-cell simulations, which showed good agreement in wide parameter ranges for both cases of monoenergetic and energy-spread secondary electrons.

  11. DC bias immune nanocrystalline magnetic cores made of Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 ribbon with induced transverse magnetic anisotropy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nosenko, Anton; Rudenko, Olexandr; Mika, Taras; Yevlash, Igor; Semyrga, Olexandr; Nosenko, Viktor

    2016-02-01

    The comparative analysis of magnetic properties of cut cores made of nanocrystalline Fe73Nb3Cu1B7Si16 alloy ribbon and cores made of the same ribbon with preliminary tension-induced transverse magnetic anisotropy was carried out. The possibility of improving magnetic properties of cut cores, decreasing loss, and increasing DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability is presented. The influence of induced magnetic anisotropy on DC bias immunity of reversible magnetic permeability was investigated. The advantages and disadvantages of new cores (made of ribbon heated under tensile stress) over cut ones were determined.

  12. Compact, DC-electrical biased sulfur dioxide sensing elements for use at high temperatures

    SciTech Connect

    West, David L; Montgomery, Fred C; Armstrong, Beth L

    2012-01-01

    Fabrication and operation of sensing elements for the detection of sulfur dioxide (SO_2) at high temperature (800 900 ^oC) is reported. The sensing elements consisted of three (two oxide and one Pt) electrodes on yttria-stabilized zirconia substrates. To operate the elements, a DC current (typically about 0.1 mA) is driven between two of the electrodes and the voltage between one of these electrodes and the third electrode is used as the sensing signal. These sensing elements respond very strongly to SO_2, for example 2 ppm_V of SO_2 in a background of 7 vol% O_2, balance N_2 was found to produce a >10% change in the sensing signal, which could be easily detected. Sensing elements fabricated to be nominally identical were shown to yield qualitatively identical sensing behavior, and temperature, oxygen content, and flow were all found to strongly impact sensing performance. The impact of interferents, such as NO_x and CO, was evaluated and found to be relatively small in comparison to the SO_2 response. The sensing response, over a 1 month period, was very stable, with the ratio of the average change in sensing signal over one day to the average sensing signal magnitude being about 0.1%.

  13. Peak divergence in the curve of magnetoelectric coefficient versus dc bias magnetic field at resonance region for bi-layer magnetostrictive/piezoelectric composites

    SciTech Connect

    Zuo, Z. J.; Pan, D. A. Zhang, S. G.; Qiao, L. J.; Jia, Y. M.

    2013-12-15

    Magnetoelectric (ME) coefficient dependence on the bias magnetic field at resonance frequencies for the bi-layered bonded Terfenol-D/Pb(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} composite was investigated. The resonance frequency decreases first and then increases with the bias magnetic field (H{sub DC}), showing a “V” shape in the range of 0 ∼ 5 kOe. Below the resonance frequency, the pattern of ME coefficient dependence on the H{sub DC} shows a single peak, but splits into a double-peak pattern when the testing frequency increases into a certain region. With increasing the frequency, a divergent evolution of the H{sub DC} patterns was observed. Domain motion and ΔE effect combined with magnetostriction-piezoelectric coupling effect were employed to explain this experimental result.

  14. Effect of additional sample bias in Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) on microstructural, surface and mechanical properties of Si-DLC films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Mingzhong; Tian, Xiubo; Li, Muqin; Gong, Chunzhi; Wei, Ronghua

    2016-07-01

    Meshed Plasma Immersion Ion Deposition (MPIID) using cage-like hollow cathode discharge is a modified process of conventional PIID, but it allows the deposition of thick diamond-like carbon (DLC) films (up to 50 μm) at a high deposition rate (up to 6.5 μm/h). To further improve the DLC film properties, a new approach to the MPIID process is proposed, in which the energy of ions incident to the sample surface can be independently controlled by an additional voltage applied between the samples and the metal meshed cage. In this study, the meshed cage was biased with a pulsed DC power supply at -1350 V peak voltage for the plasma generation, while the samples inside the cage were biased with a DC voltage from 0 V to -500 V with respect to the cage to study its effect. Si-DLC films were synthesized with a mixture of Ar, C2H2 and tetramethylsilane (TMS). After the depositions, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray photoelectrons spectroscopy (XPS), Raman spectroscopy and nanoindentation were used to study the morphology, surface roughness, chemical bonding and structure, and the surface hardness as well as the modulus of elasticity of the Si-DLC films. It was observed that the intense ion bombardment significantly densified the films, reduced the surface roughness, reduced the H and Si contents, and increased the nanohardness (H) and modulus of elasticity (E), whereas the deposition rate decreased slightly. Using the H and E data, high values of H3/E2 and H/E were obtained on the biased films, indicating the potential excellent mechanical and tribological properties of the films. In this paper, the effects of the sample bias voltage on the film properties are discussed in detail and the optimal bias voltage is presented.

  15. On the super-additivity and estimation biases of quantile contributions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taleb, Nassim Nicholas; Douady, Raphael

    2015-07-01

    Sample measures of top centile contributions to the total (concentration) are downward biased, unstable estimators, extremely sensitive to both sample and population size and concave in accounting for large deviations. It makes them particularly unfit in domains with power law tails, especially for low values of the exponent. These estimators can vary over time and increase with the population size, thus providing the illusion of structural changes in concentration. They are also inconsistent under aggregation and mixing distributions, as the weighted average of concentration measures for A and B will tend to be lower than that from A ∪ B. In addition, it can be shown that under such fat tails, increases in the total sum need to be accompanied by increased sample size of the concentration measurement. We examine the estimation superadditivity and bias under homogeneous and mixed distributions.

  16. Separating response-execution bias from decision bias: arguments for an additional parameter in Ratcliff's diffusion model.

    PubMed

    Voss, Andreas; Voss, Jochen; Klauer, Karl Christoph

    2010-11-01

    Diffusion model data analysis permits the disentangling of different processes underlying the effects of experimental manipulations. Estimates can be provided for the speed of information accumulation, for the amount of information used to draw conclusions, and for a decision bias. One parameter describes the duration of non-decisional processes including the duration of motor-response execution. In the default diffusion model, it is implicitly assumed that both responses are executed with the same speed. In some applications of the diffusion model, this assumption will be violated. This will lead to biased parameter estimates. Consequently, we suggest accounting explicitly for differences in the speed of response execution for both responses. Results from a simulation study illustrate that parameter estimates from the default model are biased if the speed of response execution differs between responses. A second simulation study shows that large trial numbers (N>1,000) are needed to detect whether differences in response-execution times are based on different execution times.

  17. Effect of alkali addition on DC conductivity and thermal properties of vanadium-bismo-borate glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Khasa, S. Dahiya, M. S.; Agarwal, A.

    2014-04-24

    The DC Conductivity and Differential Thermal Analysis of glasses with composition (30−x)Li{sub 2}O⋅xV{sub 2}O{sub 5}⋅20Bi{sub 2}O{sub 3}⋅50B{sub 2}O{sub 3}(x=15, 10, 5) has been carried out in order to study the effect of replacing the Transition Metal Oxide (TMO) with alkali oxide. A significant increase in the DC conductivity has been observed with increase in alkali content. Again the thermal measurements have shown the decrease in both glass transition temperature (T{sub g}) and crystallization temperature (T{sub x}). The Glass Stability (GS) and Glass Forming Ability (GFA) have also been calculated and these also were found to decrease with increase in alkali oxide content at the cost of TMO.

  18. Microwave polarization angle study of the radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in the GaAs/AlGaAs 2D electron system under dc current bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iqbal, Muhammad-Zahir; Liu, Han-Chun; Heimbeck, Martin S.; Everitt, Henry O.; Wegscheider, Werner; Mani, Ramesh G.

    Microwave-induced magnetoresistance oscillations followed by the vanishing resistance states are a prime representation of non-equilibrium transport phenomena in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES). The effect of a dc current bias on the nonlinear response of 2DES with microwave polarization angle under magnetic field is a subject of interest. Here, we have studied the effect of various dc current bias on microwave radiation-induced magnetoresistance oscillations in a high mobility 2DES. Further, we systematically investigate the effect of the microwave polarization angle on the magneto-resistance oscillations at two different frequencies 152.78 GHz and 185.76 GHz. This study aims to better understand the effects of both dc current and microwave polarization angle in the GaAs/AlGaAs system, both of which modify the observed magneto-transport properties DOE-BES, Mat'l. Sci. & Eng. Div., DE-SC0001762; ARO W911NF-14-2-0076; ARO W911NF-15-1-0433.

  19. Initial phase zone for phase locking to the resonance, using “main condition” of phase stability in DC-biased single-sided multipactor

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-05-15

    In the present work, the concept of accurate phase stability is employed to study a DC-biased single-sided multipactor. A “main condition” of phase stability was introduced in our previous studies of two-sided multipactors [M. Mostajeran, J. Instrum. 8, P04024 (2013); M. Mostajeran and M. Lamehi Rachti, Nucl. Instrum. Methods Phys. Res. A 615, 1–5 (2010)]. Using the same condition and assuming zero initial velocity for the secondary electrons, a regime of multipactors outside the resonance zones is found. The theoretical results are then verified by numerical simulation.

  20. How the “main condition” of phase stability can explain the effect of the velocity deviation of secondary electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors

    SciTech Connect

    Mostajeran, M.

    2014-11-15

    In this work, a “main condition” for phase stability has been employed to investigate the effects of the velocity deviation of the electrons in DC-biased single-sided multipactors (MPs). In a previous study [M. Mostajeran, Phys. Plasmas 21, 053108 (2014)], a stability equation was derived, where the secondary electron was assumed to have zero initial velocity and the phase deviation from the resonant phase was considered. In this work, both deviations in phase and velocity from the resonant condition are taken into account, assuming nonzero initial velocity for the secondary electrons. Using the main condition for stability, it is shown that MP discharge can rise in situations, where large velocity deviations from initial velocity and large phase deviations from resonant phase exist. This is contrary to what can be predicted on the basis of the “simple stability condition.” This result is further confirmed by numerical simulations.

  1. Effect of dc bias and hydrostatic pressure on the ferroelectric-antiferroelectric phase transformation in a tin modified lead zirconate titanate ceramic.

    SciTech Connect

    Grubbs, Robert K.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Yang, Pin; Roesler, Alexander William; Montgomery, Stephen Tedford; Moore, Roger Howard

    2010-06-01

    Phase transformation between the ferroelectric (FE) and the antiferroelectric (AFE) phases in tin modified lead zirconate titanate (PSZT) ceramics can be influenced by pressure and electric field. Increasing the pressure has the tendency to favor the AFE phase while electric field favors the FE phase. In this study, these phase transformations are studied as functions of external pressure, temperature, and dc bias. The shifting of transformation temperature and the relative phase stability between FE and AFE with respect to these external parameters will be presented. Results will be compared to a pressure-induced depoling behavior (or FE-to-AFE phase transformation) for the PSZT ceramic. Fundamental issues relates to the relative phase stability will be discussed from the perspective of lattice dynamics theory.

  2. Oxygen nonstoichiometry and dielectric evolution of BaTiO3. Part II—insulation resistance degradation under applied dc bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, G. Y.; Lian, G. D.; Dickey, E. C.; Randall, C. A.; Barber, D. E.; Pinceloup, P.; Henderson, M. A.; Hill, R. A.; Beeson, J. J.; Skamser, D. J.

    2004-12-01

    The microchemical and microstructural origins of insulation-resistance degradation in BaTiO3-based capacitors are studied by complementary impedance spectroscopy and analytical transmission electron microscopy. The degradation under dc-field bias involves electromigration and accumulation of oxygen vacancies at interfaces. The nonstoichiometric BaTiO3-δ becomes locally more conducting through increased oxygen vacancy concentration and Ti ion reduction. The symmetry across the dielectric layer and locally across each grain is broken during the degradation process. Locally, the nonstoichiometry becomes so severe that metastable lattice structures are formed. The degradation in insulation resistance at the grain boundaries and electrode interfaces is associated with the double Schottky-barrier potential lowering and narrowing. This may correlate with an effective decrease in net acceptor charge density at the grain boundaries.

  3. Effect of Si addition on AC and DC magnetic properties of (Fe-P)-Si alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Ravi; Prabhu, D.; Chandrasekaran, V.; Gopalan, R.; Sundararajan, G.

    2016-05-01

    We report a new (Fe-P)-Si based alloy with relatively high induction (1.8-1.9 T), low coercivity (< 80 A/m), high resistivity (˜38 μΩ cm) and low core loss (217 W/kg @ 1 T/1 kHz) comparable to the commercially available M530-50 A5 Si-steel. The attractive magnetic and electrical properties are attributed to i) the two phase microstructure of fine nano precipitates of Fe3P dispersed in α-Fe matrix achieved by a two-step heat-treatment process and ii) Si addition enhancing the resistivity of the α-Fe matrix phase. As the alloy processing is by conventional wrought metallurgy method, it has the potential for large scale production.

  4. Improvement in nano-hardness and corrosion resistance of low carbon steel by plasma nitriding with negative DC bias voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alim, Mohamed Mounes; Saoula, Nadia; Tadjine, Rabah; Hadj-Larbi, Fayçal; Keffous, Aissa; Kechouane, Mohamed

    2016-10-01

    In this work, we study the effect of plasma nitriding on nano-hardness and corrosion resistance of low carbon steel samples. The plasma was generated through a radio-frequency inductively coupled plasma source. The substrate temperature increased (by the self-induced heating mechanism) with the treatment time for increasing negative bias voltages. X-rays diffraction analysis revealed the formation of nitride phases (ɛ-Fe2-3N and γ'-Fe4N) in the compound layer of the treated samples. A phase transition occurred from 3.5 kV to 4.0 kV and was accompanied by an increase in the volume fraction of the γ'-Fe4N phase and a decrease in that of the ɛ-Fe2-3N phase. Auger electron spectroscopy revealed a deep diffusion of the implanted nitrogen beyond 320 nm. The nano-hardness increased by ~400% for the nitrogen-implanted samples compared to the untreated state, the nitride phases are believed to participate to the hardening. Potentiodynamic polarization measurements revealed that the plasma nitriding has improved the corrosion resistance behavior of the material. When compared to the untreated state, the sample processed at 4.0 kV exhibits a shift of +500 mV and a reduction to 3% in its corrosion current. These results were obtained for relatively low bias voltages and short treatment time (2 h).

  5. Electron bunching from a dc-biased, single-surface multipactor with realistically broad energy spectrum and emission angle of secondary electrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Dongwon; Jeon, Seok-Gy; Kim, Jung-Il; Kim, Geun-Ju; Hur, Min Sup

    2012-02-01

    We studied the influences of wide energy spectrum and emission angle of secondary electrons on electron bunching from a dc-biased single surface multipactor. In our previous study of the same system, an ideally narrow energy spread of secondary electrons without emission angle was used in the analysis of the electron trajectory [M. S. Hur, J.-I. Kim, G.-J. Kim, and S.-G. Jeon, Phys. Plasmas 18, 033103 (2011) and S.-G. Jeon, J.-I. Kim, S.-T. Han, S.-S. Jung, and J. U. Kim, Phys. Plasmas 16, 073101 (2009)]. In this paper, we investigated the cases with realistic energy spectrum, which is featured by a wide energy spread and significant emission angle. To theoretically approach the matter of emission angle, we employed a concept of effective longitudinal velocity distribution. The theoretical results are verified by particle-in-cell (PIC) simulations. We also studied the electron bunching from a copper by PIC simulations, where we observed stable electron bunches with bunch width of approximately 80 μm.

  6. Attentional bias induced by solving simple and complex addition and subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The processing of numbers has been shown to induce shifts of spatial attention in simple probe detection tasks, with small numbers orienting attention to the left and large numbers to the right side of space. Recently, the investigation of this spatial-numerical association has been extended to mental arithmetic with the hypothesis that solving addition or subtraction problems may induce attentional displacements (to the right and to the left, respectively) along a mental number line onto which the magnitude of the numbers would range from left to right, from small to large numbers. Here we investigated such attentional shifts using a target detection task primed by arithmetic problems in healthy participants. The constituents of the addition and subtraction problems (first operand; operator; second operand) were flashed sequentially in the centre of a screen, then followed by a target on the left or the right side of the screen, which the participants had to detect. This paradigm was employed with arithmetic facts (Experiment 1) and with more complex arithmetic problems (Experiment 2) in order to assess the effects of the operation, the magnitude of the operands, the magnitude of the results, and the presence or absence of a requirement for the participants to carry or borrow numbers. The results showed that arithmetic operations induce some spatial shifts of attention, possibly through a semantic link between the operation and space. PMID:24833320

  7. Attentional bias induced by solving simple and complex addition and subtraction problems.

    PubMed

    Masson, Nicolas; Pesenti, Mauro

    2014-01-01

    The processing of numbers has been shown to induce shifts of spatial attention in simple probe detection tasks, with small numbers orienting attention to the left and large numbers to the right side of space. Recently, the investigation of this spatial-numerical association has been extended to mental arithmetic with the hypothesis that solving addition or subtraction problems may induce attentional displacements (to the right and to the left, respectively) along a mental number line onto which the magnitude of the numbers would range from left to right, from small to large numbers. Here we investigated such attentional shifts using a target detection task primed by arithmetic problems in healthy participants. The constituents of the addition and subtraction problems (first operand; operator; second operand) were flashed sequentially in the centre of a screen, then followed by a target on the left or the right side of the screen, which the participants had to detect. This paradigm was employed with arithmetic facts (Experiment 1) and with more complex arithmetic problems (Experiment 2) in order to assess the effects of the operation, the magnitude of the operands, the magnitude of the results, and the presence or absence of a requirement for the participants to carry or borrow numbers. The results showed that arithmetic operations induce some spatial shifts of attention, possibly through a semantic link between the operation and space.

  8. Effect of Ta addition of co-sputtered amorphous tantalum indium zinc oxide thin film transistors with bias stability.

    PubMed

    Son, Dae-Ho; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Park, Si-Nae; Sung, Shi-Joon; Kang, Jin-Kyu

    2014-11-01

    In this work, we have fabricated thin film transistors (TFTs) using amorphous tantalum indium zinc oxide (a-TaInZnO) channels by the co-sputtering process. The effects of incorporating tantalum on the InZnO material were investigated using Hall-effect measurement results, and electrical characteristics. We also found that the carrier densities of thin films and the transistor on-off currents were greatly influenced by the composition of tantalum addition. Ta ions have strong affinity to oxygen and so suppress the formation of free electron carriers inthin films; they play an important role in enhancing the electrical characteristic due to their high oxygen bonding ability. The electrical characteristics of the optimized TFTs shows a field effect mobility of 3.67 cm2 V(-1) s(-1), a threshold voltage of 1.28 V, an on/off ratio of 1.1 x 10(8), and a subthreshold swing of 480 mV/dec. Under gate bias stress conditions, the TaInZnO TFTs showed lower shift in threshold voltage shifts. PMID:25958492

  9. Effect of barium titanate (BaTiO{sub 3}) additive on the short-term DC breakdown strength of polyethylene

    SciTech Connect

    Khalil, M.S.; Henk, P.O.

    1996-12-31

    The use of additives to insulating materials is one of the methods to improve certain properties of these materials. Additives can also be used to provide more insight into some processes like conduction, space charge formation and breakdown under certain conditions of field application. In the present paper, the effect of the addition of fine particles 1 wt% BaTiO{sub 3} to plain low density polyethylene (LDPE) on the short-term dc breakdown strength of LDPE at room temperature was investigated. The characteristics of the used polyethylene are as follows: density 0.925 g/cm{sup 3}, melt index 0.25 g/10 min. The BaTiO{sub 3} used was laboratory grade with particle size less than 7 {micro}m. Special cylindrical test samples of both undoped and doped materials were used in this investigation. Stainless steel hemispherically tipped electrodes were embedded in the material by molding. The mean value of the gap length between the electrodes was 0.25 mm. The design of the test sample allows for determining the intrinsic breakdown strength of the material. The Weibull plots were used to analyze the breakdown test results. Analysis of the results indicate that the addition of BaTiO{sub 3} to LDPE has reduced the short term dc breakdown strength of the doped material by about 16% if compared with the corresponding value for the plain LDPE. An attempt is made to correlate between the present results, and earlier published results about the effect of BaTiO{sub 3} on dc conductivity and space charge formation in LDPE.

  10. Copper-rich phase segregation effects on the magnetic properties and DC-bias-superposition characteristic of NiCuZn ferrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsiang, Hsing-I.; Wu, Jhao-Ling

    2015-01-01

    NiCuZn ferrites with Ni0.42Cu0.13+xZn0.45Fe2-xO4; x=0, 0.01, 0.02, 0.04, 0.07, 0.1 chemical compositions were prepared using conventional solid-state reaction in this study. The effects of different NiCuZn ferrite chemical compositions on the microstructure, magnetic properties and DC superposition characteristics were investigated. The results showed that increasing the CuO content in the NiCuZn ferrites led to copper-rich phase precipitation at the grain boundaries. The liquid phase resulted from copper-rich phase melting during sintering, promoting liquid phase densification and hence lowering the maximum densification rate temperature. The non-magnetic copper-rich secondary phase at the grain boundaries reduced the effective magnetic field applied on the ferrite grain, and hence enhanced the DC superposition characteristics at low magnetic field. The sample with x=0.07 sintered at 1100 °C for 2 h exhibited excellent initial permeability (μ'=325) and superior DC superposition characteristics. A NiCuZn ferrite with superior initial permeability and DC superposition characteristics can be obtained by changing the x value to adjust the non-magnetic copper-rich precipitate thickness at the grain boundaries.

  11. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  12. Metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N film growth by hybrid high power pulsed magnetron/dc magnetron co-sputtering using synchronized pulsed substrate bias

    SciTech Connect

    Greczynski, Grzegorz; Lu Jun; Jensen, Jens; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, Joseph E.; Bolz, Stephan; Koelker, Werner; Schiffers, Christoph; Lemmer, Oliver; Hultman, Lars

    2012-11-15

    Metastable NaCl-structure Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N is employed as a model system to probe the effects of metal versus rare-gas ion irradiation during film growth using reactive high-power pulsed magnetron sputtering (HIPIMS) of Al and dc magnetron sputtering of Ti. The alloy film composition is chosen to be x = 0.61, near the kinetic solubility limit at the growth temperature of 500 Degree-Sign C. Three sets of experiments are carried out: a -60 V substrate bias is applied either continuously, in synchronous with the full HIPIMS pulse, or in synchronous only with the metal-rich-plasma portion of the HIPIMS pulse. Alloy films grown under continuous dc bias exhibit a thickness-invariant small-grain, two-phase nanostructure (wurtzite AlN and cubic Ti{sub 1-x}Al{sub x}N) with random orientation, due primarily to intense Ar{sup +} irradiation leading to Ar incorporation (0.2 at. %), high compressive stress (-4.6 GPa), and material loss by resputtering. Synchronizing the bias with the full HIPIMS pulse results in films that exhibit much lower stress levels (-1.8 GPa) with no measureable Ar incorporation, larger grains elongated in the growth direction, a very small volume fraction of wurtzite AlN, and random orientation. By synchronizing the bias with the metal-plasma phase of the HIPIMS pulses, energetic Ar{sup +} ion bombardment is greatly reduced in favor of irradiation predominantly by Al{sup +} ions. The resulting films are single phase with a dense competitive columnar structure, strong 111 orientation, no measureable trapped Ar concentration, and even lower stress (-0.9 GPa). Thus, switching from Ar{sup +} to Al{sup +} bombardment, while maintaining the same integrated incident ion/metal ratio, eliminates phase separation, minimizes renucleation during growth, and reduces the high concentration of residual point defects, which give rise to compressive stress.

  13. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias. PMID:26881901

  14. The effect of additional exposure to the unique features in a perceptual learning task can be attributed to a location bias.

    PubMed

    Recio, Sergio A; Iliescu, Adela F; Bergés, Germán D; Gil, Marta; de Brugada, Isabel

    2016-04-01

    It has been suggested that human perceptual learning could be explained in terms of a better memory encoding of the unique features during intermixed exposure. However, it is possible that a location bias could play a relevant role in explaining previous results of perceptual learning studies using complex visual stimuli. If this were the case, the only relevant feature would be the location, rather than the content, of the unique features. To further explore this possibility, we attempted to replicate the results of Lavis, Kadib, Mitchell, and Hall (2011, Experiment 2), which showed that additional exposure to the unique elements resulted in better discrimination than simple intermixed exposure. We manipulated the location of the unique elements during the additional exposure. In one experiment, they were located in the same position as that when presented together with the common element. In another experiment, the unique elements were located in the center of the screen, regardless of where they were located together with the common element. Our results showed that additional exposure only improved discrimination when the unique elements were presented in the same position as when they were presented together with the common element. The results reported here do not provide support for the explanation of the effects of additional exposure of the unique elements in terms of a better memory encoding and instead suggest an explanation in terms of location bias.

  15. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals.

    PubMed

    Nobles, J E; Zagorodnii, V; Hutchison, A; Celinski, Z

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal. PMID:27587141

  16. Biasing vector network analyzers using variable frequency and amplitude signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobles, J. E.; Zagorodnii, V.; Hutchison, A.; Celinski, Z.

    2016-08-01

    We report the development of a test setup designed to provide a variable frequency biasing signal to a vector network analyzer (VNA). The test setup is currently used for the testing of liquid crystal (LC) based devices in the microwave region. The use of an AC bias for LC based devices minimizes the negative effects associated with ionic impurities in the media encountered with DC biasing. The test setup utilizes bias tees on the VNA test station to inject the bias signal. The square wave biasing signal is variable from 0.5 to 36.0 V peak-to-peak (VPP) with a frequency range of DC to 10 kHz. The test setup protects the VNA from transient processes, voltage spikes, and high-frequency leakage. Additionally, the signals to the VNA are fused to ½ amp and clipped to a maximum of 36 VPP based on bias tee limitations. This setup allows us to measure S-parameters as a function of both the voltage and the frequency of the applied bias signal.

  17. DC SQUID Phase Qubit with LC Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, Hyeokshin; Przybysz, A. J.; Paik, Hanhee; Lewis, R. M.; Palomaki, T. A.; Dutta, S. K.; Cooper, B. K.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2008-03-01

    We investigate the use of an inductor-capacitor (LC) network to increase the isolation of a dc SQUID phase qubit from its current bias leads and thereby increase the dissipation time T1 and coherence time T2. One junction in the SQUID acts as an ideal phase qubit while the second junction and the SQUID loop inductance act as a broadband filter to isolate the first junction from the current bias leads. The LC-isolation network provides an additional isolation factor and allows flexibility in the choice of SQUID parameters. In addition to increasing the isolation from the leads, our design minimizes the effects of dielectric loss and two-level systems by using a relatively small Josephson junction, building the devices from Al/Al2O3/Al on sapphire, and only using insulating layers (SiNx) in external capacitors for the phase qubit junction and LC network. *Funding provided by JQI, CNAM and the DOD.

  18. DC-DC powering for the CMS pixel upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, Lutz; Fleck, Martin; Friedrichs, Marcel; Hensch, Richard; Karpinski, Waclaw; Klein, Katja; Rittich, David; Sammet, Jan; Wlochal, Michael

    2013-12-01

    The CMS experiment plans to replace its silicon pixel detector with a new one with improved rate capability and an additional detection layer at the end of 2016. In order to cope with the increased number of detector modules the new pixel detector will be powered via DC-DC converters close to the sensitive detector volume. This paper reviews the DC-DC powering scheme and reports on the ongoing R&D program to develop converters for the pixel upgrade. Design choices are discussed and results from the electrical and thermal characterisation of converter prototypes are shown. An emphasis is put on system tests with up to 24 converters. The performance of pixel modules powered by DC-DC converters is compared to conventional powering. The integration of the DC-DC powering scheme into the pixel detector is described and system design issues are reviewed.

  19. Self-contained automatic recorder of the dc Josephson current.

    PubMed

    Simon, R W; Landmeier, P

    1978-12-01

    A circuit for the automatic recording of the dc Josephson current as a function of magnetic field or other variable has been designed and constructed. The apparatus requires no additional signal processing devices as have techniques for this measurement utilized in the past. Sensitivity to critical current amplitudes corresponding to the appearance of 5 mV across a sensing resistor is attained, as well as separate examination of the positive and negative halves of the zero-bias current. PMID:18699046

  20. Milliwatt dc/dc Inverter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mclyman, C. W.

    1983-01-01

    Compact dc/dc inverter uses single integrated-circuit package containing six inverter gates that generate and amplify 100-kHz square-wave switching signal. Square-wave switching inverts 10-volt local power to isolated voltage at another desired level. Relatively high operating frequency reduces size of filter capacitors required, resulting in small package unit.

  1. High energy electron fluxes in dc-augmented capacitively coupled plasmas I. Fundamental characteristics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Mingmei; Kushner, Mark J.

    2010-01-01

    Power deposition from electrons in capacitively coupled plasmas (CCPs) has components from stochastic heating, Joule heating, and from the acceleration of secondary electrons through sheaths produced by ion, electron, or photon bombardment of electrodes. The sheath accelerated electrons can produce high energy beams which, in addition to producing excitation and ionization in the gas can penetrate through the plasma and be incident on the opposite electrode. In the use of CCPs for microelectronics fabrication, there may be an advantage to having these high energy electrons interact with the wafer. To control the energy and increase the flux of the high energy electrons, a dc bias can be externally imposed on the electrode opposite the wafer, thereby producing a dc-augmented CCP (dc-CCP). In this paper, the characteristics of dc-CCPs will be discussed using results from a computational study. We found that for a given rf bias power, beams of high energy electrons having a narrow angular spread (<1°) can be produced incident on the wafer. The maximum energy in the high energy electron flux scales as ɛmax=-Vdc+Vrf+Vrf0, for a voltage on the dc electrode of Vdc, rf voltage of Vrf, and dc bias on the rf electrode of Vrf0. The dc current from the biased electrode must return to ground through surfaces other than the rf electrode and so seeks out a ground plane, typically the side walls. If the side wall is coated with a poorly conducting polymer, the surface will charge to drive the dc current through.

  2. Radiation Effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, De-Xin; AbdulMazid, M. D.; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this work, several DC-DC converters were designed and built. The converters are Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, Flyback, and full-bridge zero-voltage switched. The total ionizing dose radiation and single event effects on the converters were investigated. The experimental results for the TID effects tests show that the voltages of the Buck Buck-Boost, Cuk, and Flyback converters increase as total dose increased when using power MOSFET IRF250 as a switching transistor. The change in output voltage with total dose is highest for the Buck converter and the lowest for Flyback converter. The trend of increase in output voltages with total dose in the present work agrees with those of the literature. The trends of the experimental results also agree with those obtained from PSPICE simulation. For the full-bridge zero-voltage switch converter, it was observed that the dc-dc converter with IRF250 power MOSFET did not show a significant change of output voltage with total dose. In addition, for the dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation-hardened power MOSFET, the output voltage did not change significantly with total dose. The experimental results were confirmed by PSPICE simulation that showed that FB-ZVS converter with IRF250 power MOSFET's was not affected with the increase in total ionizing dose. Single Event Effects (SEE) radiation tests were performed on FB-ZVS converters. It was observed that the FB-ZVS converter with the IRF250 power MOSFET, when the device was irradiated with Krypton ion with ion-energy of 150 MeV and LET of 41.3 MeV-square cm/mg, the output voltage increased with the increase in fluence. However, for Krypton with ion-energy of 600 MeV and LET of 33.65 MeV-square cm/mg, and two out of four transistors of the converter were permanently damaged. The dc-dc converter with FSF254R4 radiation hardened power MOSFET's did not show significant change at the output voltage with fluence while being irradiated by Krypton with ion energy of 1.20 GeV and LET of 25

  3. delta-biased Josephson tunnel junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Monaco, R.; Mygind, J.; Koshelets, V. P.; Dmitriev, P.

    2010-02-01

    The behavior of a long Josephson tunnel junction drastically depends on the distribution of the dc bias current. We investigate the case in which the bias current is fed in the central point of a one-dimensional junction. Such junction configuration has been recently used to detect the persistent currents circulating in a superconducting loop. Analytical and numerical results indicate that the presence of fractional vortices leads to remarkable differences from the conventional case of uniformly distributed dc bias current. The theoretical findings are supported by detailed measurements on a number of delta-biased samples having different electrical and geometrical parameters.

  4. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, R.L.; Kirbie, H.C.; Newton, M.A.

    1998-06-30

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current. 1 fig.

  5. Light-weight DC to very high voltage DC converter

    DOEpatents

    Druce, Robert L.; Kirbie, Hugh C.; Newton, Mark A.

    1998-01-01

    A DC-DC converter capable of generating outputs of 100 KV without a transformer comprises a silicon opening switch (SOS) diode connected to allow a charging current from a capacitor to flow into an inductor. When a specified amount of charge has flowed through the SOS diode, it opens up abruptly; and the consequential collapsing field of the inductor causes a voltage and current reversal that is steered into a load capacitor by an output diode. A switch across the series combination of the capacitor, inductor, and SOS diode closes to periodically reset the SOS diode by inducing a forward-biased current.

  6. Auxiliary resonant DC tank converter

    DOEpatents

    Peng, Fang Z.

    2000-01-01

    An auxiliary resonant dc tank (ARDCT) converter is provided for achieving soft-switching in a power converter. An ARDCT circuit is coupled directly across a dc bus to the inverter to generate a resonant dc bus voltage, including upper and lower resonant capacitors connected in series as a resonant leg, first and second dc tank capacitors connected in series as a tank leg, and an auxiliary resonant circuit comprising a series combination of a resonant inductor and a pair of auxiliary switching devices. The ARDCT circuit further includes first clamping means for holding the resonant dc bus voltage to the dc tank voltage of the tank leg, and second clamping means for clamping the resonant dc bus voltage to zero during a resonant period. The ARDCT circuit resonantly brings the dc bus voltage to zero in order to provide a zero-voltage switching opportunity for the inverter, then quickly rebounds the dc bus voltage back to the dc tank voltage after the inverter changes state. The auxiliary switching devices are turned on and off under zero-current conditions. The ARDCT circuit only absorbs ripples of the inverter dc bus current, thus having less current stress. In addition, since the ARDCT circuit is coupled in parallel with the dc power supply and the inverter for merely assisting soft-switching of the inverter without participating in real dc power transmission and power conversion, malfunction and failure of the tank circuit will not affect the functional operation of the inverter; thus a highly reliable converter system is expected.

  7. Sampler bias -- Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Blanchard, R.J.

    1995-03-07

    This documents Phase 1 determinations on sampler induced bias for four sampler types used in tank characterization. Each sampler, grab sampler or bottle-on-a-string, auger sampler, sludge sampler and universal sampler, is briefly discussed and their physical limits noted. Phase 2 of this document will define additional testing and analysis to further define Sampler Bias.

  8. Elimination of the gate and drain bias stresses in I-V characteristics of WSe2 FETs by using dual channel pulse measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun-Mo; Cho, In-Tak; Kang, Won-Mook; Park, Byung-Gook; Lee, Jong-Ho

    2016-08-01

    Intrinsic transfer and output characteristics of WSe2 field effect transistors are obtained by adopting the dual channel pulsed I-V measurement. Due to the DC gate bias stress during the measurement, a large hysteresis is observed and increased with increasing the sweeping range of the gate bias in the transfer curves. In addition, as a drain bias increases, the drain bias stress during the measurement induces the threshold voltage shift. The output curves measured by a DC method are significantly affected by the drain bias sweeping direction and the previous measurement, which leads to a large error in the analysis. By using the dual channel pulsed I-V measurement with a short turn-on time (10-4 s), a long turn-off time (1 s), and a base voltage (gate and drain bias during turn-off time) of 0 V, hysteretic behaviors caused by the gate bias stress and threshold voltage shift due to the drain bias stress in transfer curves are eliminated. The effect of the drain bias sweeping direction and the previous measurement in output curves are also eliminated, and the output curves show a typical field effect behavior. The intrinsic characteristics of WSe2 field effect transistors show negligible hysteresis and remarkably enhanced mobility (˜200 cm2/V s), and higher current drive capability compared to those of DC measurements.

  9. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, Alan D.; Haigh, Ronald E.; Hugenberg, Keith F.

    1995-01-01

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place.

  10. Triggerable electro-optic amplitude modulator bias stabilizer for integrated optical devices

    DOEpatents

    Conder, A.D.; Haigh, R.E.; Hugenberg, K.F.

    1995-09-26

    An improved Mach-Zehnder integrated optical electro-optic modulator is achieved by application and incorporation of a DC bias box containing a laser synchronized trigger circuit, a DC ramp and hold circuit, a modulator transfer function negative peak detector circuit, and an adjustable delay circuit. The DC bias box ramps the DC bias along the transfer function curve to any desired phase or point of operation at which point the RF modulation takes place. 7 figs.

  11. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukemire, Alan T.

    1993-03-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  12. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lukemire, Alan T.

    1995-05-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  13. Forback DC-to-DC converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lukemire, Alan T. (Inventor)

    1995-01-01

    A pulse-width modulated DC-to-DC power converter including a first inductor, i.e. a transformer or an equivalent fixed inductor equal to the inductance of the secondary winding of the transformer, coupled across a source of DC input voltage via a transistor switch which is rendered alternately conductive (ON) and nonconductive (OFF) in accordance with a signal from a feedback control circuit is described. A first capacitor capacitively couples one side of the first inductor to a second inductor which is connected to a second capacitor which is coupled to the other side of the first inductor. A circuit load shunts the second capacitor. A semiconductor diode is additionally coupled from a common circuit connection between the first capacitor and the second inductor to the other side of the first inductor. A current sense transformer generating a current feedback signal for the switch control circuit is directly coupled in series with the other side of the first inductor so that the first capacitor, the second inductor and the current sense transformer are connected in series through the first inductor. The inductance values of the first and second inductors, moreover, are made identical. Such a converter topology results in a simultaneous voltsecond balance in the first inductance and ampere-second balance in the current sense transformer.

  14. Adaptable DC offset correction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Golusky, John M. (Inventor); Muldoon, Kelly P. (Inventor)

    2009-01-01

    Methods and systems for adaptable DC offset correction are provided. An exemplary adaptable DC offset correction system evaluates an incoming baseband signal to determine an appropriate DC offset removal scheme; removes a DC offset from the incoming baseband signal based on the appropriate DC offset scheme in response to the evaluated incoming baseband signal; and outputs a reduced DC baseband signal in response to the DC offset removed from the incoming baseband signal.

  15. Survey of chaos in the rf-biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, R.L.; Monaco, R.

    1985-02-01

    Chaotic behavior in the rf-biased Josephson junction is studied through digital simulations of the Steward--McCumber model. Chaotic states are characterized by Poincare sections, Liapunov exponents, and power spectra. Models are presented which explain some features of the chaotic spectra. The parameter range over which chaotic behavior occurs is determined empirically for a broad range of dc bias, rf bias, and hysteresis parameters for a fixed rf frequency. It is shown that chaos does not occur if either the dc bias or the rf bias is very large. An attempt is made to explain the boundaries of the chaotic region in terms of simple models for chaotic behavior.

  16. Triple voltage dc-to-dc converter and method

    SciTech Connect

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2008-08-05

    A circuit and method of providing three dc voltage buses and transforming power between a low voltage dc converter and a high voltage dc converter, by coupling a primary dc power circuit and a secondary dc power circuit through an isolation transformer; providing the gating signals to power semiconductor switches in the primary and secondary circuits to control power flow between the primary and secondary circuits and by controlling a phase shift between the primary voltage and the secondary voltage. The primary dc power circuit and the secondary dc power circuit each further comprising at least two tank capacitances arranged in series as a tank leg, at least two resonant switching devices arranged in series with each other and arranged in parallel with the tank leg, and at least one voltage source arranged in parallel with the tank leg and the resonant switching devices, said resonant switching devices including power semiconductor switches that are operated by gating signals. Additional embodiments having a center-tapped battery on the low voltage side and a plurality of modules on both the low voltage side and the high voltage side are also disclosed for the purpose of reducing ripple current and for reducing the size of the components.

  17. High-Efficiency dc/dc Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturman, J.

    1982-01-01

    High-efficiency dc/dc converter has been developed that provides commonly used voltages of plus or minus 12 Volts from an unregulated dc source of from 14 to 40 Volts. Unique features of converter are its high efficiency at low power level and ability to provide output either larger or smaller than input voltage.

  18. Simulation of the dc Plasma in Carbon Nanotube Growth

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hash, David; Bose, Deepak; Govindan, T. R.; Meyyappan, M.; Biegel, Bryan (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    A model for the dc plasma used in carbon nanotube growth is presented, and one-dimensional simulations of an acetylene/ammonia/argon system are performed. The effect of dc bias is illustrated by examining electron temperature, electron and ion densities, and neutral densities. Introducing a tungsten filament in the dc plasma, as in hot filament chemical vapor deposition with plasma assistance, shows negligible influence on the system characteristics.

  19. Digital Control Technologies for Modular DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.; Kascak, Peter E.; Lebron-Velilla, Ramon

    2002-01-01

    Recent trends in aerospace Power Management and Distribution (PMAD) systems focus on using commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) components as standard building blocks. This move to more modular designs has been driven by a desire to reduce costs and development times, but is also due to the impressive power density and efficiency numbers achieved by today's commercial DC-DC converters. However, the PMAD designer quickly learns of the hidden "costs" of using COTS converters. The most significant cost is the required addition of external input filters to meet strict electromagnetic interference (MIAMI) requirements for space systems. In fact, the high power density numbers achieved by the commercial manufacturers are greatly due to the lack of necessary input filters included in the COTS module. The NASA Glenn Research Center is currently pursuing a digital control technology that addresses this problem with modular DC-DC converters. This paper presents the digital control technologies that have been developed to greatly reduce the input filter requirements for paralleled, modular DC-DC converters. Initial test result show that the input filter's inductor size was reduced by 75 percent, and the capacitor size was reduced by 94 percent while maintaining the same power quality specifications.

  20. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (pyranine) by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-11-11

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ∼3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the hydrophobic counterion. The added DA enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol-water (1:1). Thus, a typical separation that involved 20.3g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ∼0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by elemental analyses, proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra, and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21982993

  1. Preparative separation of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt from the color additive D&C Green No. 8 by affinity-ligand pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2011-01-01

    In developing analytical methods for batch certification of the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (G8), the U.S. Food and Drug Administration needed the trisodium salt of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid (P3S) for use as a reference material. Since P3S was not commercially available, preparative quantities of it were separated from portions of a sample of G8 that contained ~ 3.5% P3S. The separations were performed by affinity-ligand pH-zone-refining counter-current chromatography using dodecylamine (DA) as the ligand. The added ligand enabled partitioning of the polysulfonated components into the organic stationary phase of the two-phase solvent system used, 1-butanol – water (1:1). A typical separation that involved 20.3 g of G8, using sulfuric acid as the retainer acid and 20% DA in the stationary phase and 0.1M sodium hydroxide as the mobile phase, resulted in ~0.58 g of P3S of greater than 99% purity. The identification and characterization of the separated P3S were performed by proton nuclear magnetic resonance, high-resolution mass spectrometry, ultra-violet spectra and high-performance liquid chromatography. PMID:21982993

  2. DC/DC Converter Stability Testing Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2008-01-01

    This report presents study results on hybrid DC/DC converter stability testing methods. An input impedance measurement method and a gain/phase margin measurement method were evaluated to be effective to determine front-end oscillation and feedback loop oscillation. In particular, certain channel power levels of converter input noises have been found to have high degree correlation with the gain/phase margins. It becomes a potential new method to evaluate stability levels of all type of DC/DC converters by utilizing the spectral analysis on converter input noises.

  3. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography☆

    PubMed Central

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D.; Mazzola, Eugene P.; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-01-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5 mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1 g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3 mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65–72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity. PMID:25591404

  4. Preparative separation and identification of novel subsidiary colors of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (Acid Red 33) using spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography.

    PubMed

    Weisz, Adrian; Ridge, Clark D; Mazzola, Eugene P; Ito, Yoichiro

    2015-02-01

    Three low-level subsidiary color impurities (A, B, and C) often present in batches of the color additive D&C Red No. 33 (R33, Acid Red 33, Colour Index No. 17200) were separated from a portion of R33 by spiral high-speed counter-current chromatography (HSCCC). The separation involved use of a very polar solvent system, 1-BuOH/5mM aq. (NH4)2SO4. Addition of ammonium sulfate to the lower phase forced partition of the components into the upper phase, thereby eliminating the need to add a hydrophobic counterion as was previously required for separations of components from sulfonated dyes. The very polar solvent system used would not have been retained in a conventional multi-layer coil HSCCC instrument, but the spiral configuration enabled retention of the stationary phase, and thus, the separation was possible. A 1g portion of R33 enriched in A, B, and C was separated using the upper phase of the solvent system as the mobile phase. The retention of the stationary phase was 38.1%, and the separation resulted in 4.8 mg of A of >90% purity, 18.3mg of B of >85% purity, and 91 mg of C of 65-72% purity. A second separation of a portion of the C mixture resulted in 7 mg of C of >94% purity. The separated impurities were identified by high-resolution mass spectrometry and NMR spectroscopic techniques as follows: 5-amino-3-biphenyl-3-ylazo-4-hydroxy-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, A; 5-amino-4-hydroxy-6-phenyl-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, B; and 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3,6-bis-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, C. The isomers A and B are compounds reported for the first time. Application of the spiral HSCCC method resulted in the additional benefit of yielding 930 mg of the main component of R33, 5-amino-4-hydroxy-3-phenylazo-naphthalene-2,7-disulfonic acid, of >97% purity.

  5. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters.

  6. A high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved DC-DC converter for fuel cell applications.

    PubMed

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  7. A High Voltage Ratio and Low Ripple Interleaved DC-DC Converter for Fuel Cell Applications

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Long-Yi; Chao, Kuei-Hsiang; Chang, Tsang-Chih

    2012-01-01

    This paper proposes a high voltage ratio and low ripple interleaved boost DC-DC converter, which can be used to reduce the output voltage ripple. This converter transfers the low DC voltage of fuel cell to high DC voltage in DC link. The structure of the converter is parallel with two voltage-doubler boost converters by interleaving their output voltages to reduce the voltage ripple ratio. Besides, it can lower the current stress for the switches and inductors in the system. First, the PSIM software was used to establish a proton exchange membrane fuel cell and a converter circuit model. The simulated and measured results of the fuel cell output characteristic curve are made to verify the correctness of the established simulation model. In addition, some experimental results are made to validate the effectiveness in improving output voltage ripple of the proposed high voltage ratio interleaved boost DC-DC converters. PMID:23365536

  8. DC source assemblies

    DOEpatents

    Campbell, Jeremy B; Newson, Steve

    2013-02-26

    Embodiments of DC source assemblies of power inverter systems of the type suitable for deployment in a vehicle having an electrically grounded chassis are provided. An embodiment of a DC source assembly comprises a housing, a DC source disposed within the housing, a first terminal, and a second terminal. The DC source also comprises a first capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the first terminal. The DC source assembly further comprises a second capacitor having a first electrode electrically coupled to the housing, and a second electrode electrically coupled to the second terminal.

  9. Coincident ion acceleration and electron extraction for space propulsion using the self-bias formed on a set of RF biased grids bounding a plasma source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rafalskyi, D.; Aanesland, A.

    2014-11-01

    We propose an alternative method to accelerate ions in classical gridded ion thrusters and ion sources such that co-extracted electrons from the source may provide beam space charge neutralization. In this way there is no need for an additional electron neutralizer. The method consists of applying RF voltage to a two-grid acceleration system via a blocking capacitor. Due to the unequal effective area of the two grids in contact with the plasma, a dc self-bias is formed, rectifying the applied RF voltage. As a result, ions are continuously accelerated within the grid system while electrons are emitted in brief instants within the RF period when the RF space charge sheath collapses. This paper presents the first experimental results and a proof-of-principle. Experiments are carried out using the Neptune thruster prototype which is a gridded Inductively Coupled Plasma (ICP) source operated at 4 MHz, attached to a larger beam propagation chamber. The RF power supply is used both for the ICP discharge (plasma generation) and powering the acceleration grids via a capacitor for ion acceleration and electron extraction without any dc power supplies. The ion and electron energies, particle flux and densities are measured using retarding field energy analyzers (RFEA), Langmuir probes and a large beam target. The system operates in Argon and N2. The dc self-bias is found to be generated within the gridded extraction system in all the range of operating conditions. Broad quasi-neutral ion-electron beams are measured in the downstream chamber with energies up to 400 eV. The beams from the RF acceleration method are compared with classical dc acceleration with an additional external electron neutralizer. It is found that the two acceleration techniques provide similar performance, but the ion energy distribution function from RF acceleration is broader, while the floating potential of the beam is lower than for the dc accelerated beam.

  10. Biased Allostery.

    PubMed

    Edelstein, Stuart J; Changeux, Jean-Pierre

    2016-09-01

    G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) constitute a large group of integral membrane proteins that transduce extracellular signals from a wide range of agonists into targeted intracellular responses. Although the responses can vary depending on the category of G-proteins activated by a particular receptor, responses were also found to be triggered by interactions of the receptor with β-arrestins. It was subsequently discovered that for the same receptor molecule (e.g., the β-adrenergic receptor), some agonists have a propensity to specifically favor responses by G-proteins, others by β-arrestins, as has now been extensively studied. This feature of the GPCR system is known as biased agonism and is subject to various interpretations, including agonist-induced conformational change versus selective stabilization of preexisting active conformations. Here, we explore a complete allosteric framework for biased agonism based on alternative preexisting conformations that bind more strongly, but nonexclusively, either G-proteins or β-arrestins. The framework incorporates reciprocal effects among all interacting molecules. As a result, G-proteins and β-arrestins are in steric competition for binding to the cytoplasmic surface of either the G-protein-favoring or β-arrestin-favoring GPCR conformation. Moreover, through linkage relations, the strength of the interactions of G-proteins or β-arrestins with the corresponding active conformation potentiates the apparent affinity for the agonist, effectively equating these two proteins to allosteric modulators. The balance between response alternatives can also be influenced by the physiological concentrations of either G-proteins or β-arrestins, as well as by phosphorylation or interactions with positive or negative allosteric modulators. The nature of the interactions in the simulations presented suggests novel experimental tests to distinguish more fully among alternative mechanisms. PMID:27602718

  11. Piezometer completion report for borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20, and DC-22

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, R.L.; Diediker, L.D.; Ledgerwood, R.K.; Veatch, M.D.

    1984-07-01

    This report describes the design and installation of multi-level piezometers at borehole cluster sites DC-19, DC-20 and DC-22. The network of borehole cluster sites will provide facilities for multi-level water-level monitoring across the RRL for piezometer baseline monitoring and for large-scale hydraulic stress testing. These groundwater-monitoring facilities were installed between August 1983 and March 1984. Three series of piezometer nests (A-, C- and D-series) were installed in nine hydrogeologic units (monitoring horizons) within the Columbia River Basalt Group at each borehole cluster site. In addition to the piezometer facilities, a B-series pumping well was installed at borehole cluster sites DC-20 and DC-22. The A-series piezometer nest monitors the basal Ringold sediments and the Rattlesnake Ridge interbed. The C-series piezometer nests monitors the six deepest horizons, which are in increasing depth, the Priest Rapids interflow, Sentinel Gap flow top, Ginkgo flow top, Rocky Coulee flow top, Cohassett flow top and Umtanum flow top. The D-series piezometer monitors the Mabton interbed. The B-series pumping well was completed in the Priest Rapids interflow. 21 refs., 6 figs., 6 tabs.

  12. Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.

    PubMed

    Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S

    2000-08-01

    An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampling of trajectories is then biased, but the sampling is unbiased when the trajectory outcomes are multiplied by their weights. With a suitable choice of the biasing force, more reacted trajectories are sampled. As a consequence, the variance of the estimate is reduced. In our test case, biased Brownian dynamics gives a sevenfold improvement in central processing unit (CPU) time with the choice of a simple centripetal biasing force.

  13. Biased Brownian dynamics for rate constant calculation.

    PubMed

    Zou, G; Skeel, R D; Subramaniam, S

    2000-08-01

    An enhanced sampling method-biased Brownian dynamics-is developed for the calculation of diffusion-limited biomolecular association reaction rates with high energy or entropy barriers. Biased Brownian dynamics introduces a biasing force in addition to the electrostatic force between the reactants, and it associates a probability weight with each trajectory. A simulation loses weight when movement is along the biasing force and gains weight when movement is against the biasing force. The sampling of trajectories is then biased, but the sampling is unbiased when the trajectory outcomes are multiplied by their weights. With a suitable choice of the biasing force, more reacted trajectories are sampled. As a consequence, the variance of the estimate is reduced. In our test case, biased Brownian dynamics gives a sevenfold improvement in central processing unit (CPU) time with the choice of a simple centripetal biasing force. PMID:10919998

  14. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  15. Performance enhancement of ITO/oxide/semiconductor MOS-structure silicon solar cells with voltage biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Wen-Jeng; Huang, Min-Chun; Lee, Yi-Yu; Hou, Zhong-Fu; Liao, Changn-Jyun

    2014-12-01

    In this study, we demonstrate the photovoltaic performance enhancement of a p-n junction silicon solar cell using a transparent-antireflective ITO/oxide film deposited on the spacing of the front-side finger electrodes and with a DC voltage applied on the ITO-electrode. The depletion width of the p-n junction under the ITO-electrode was induced and extended while the absorbed volume and built-in electric field were also increased when the biasing voltage was increased. The photocurrent and conversion efficiency were increased because more photo-carriers are generated in a larger absorbed volume and because the carriers transported and collected more effectively due to higher biasing voltage effects. Compared to a reference solar cell (which was biased at 0 V), a conversion efficiency enhancement of 26.57% (from 12.42% to 15.72%) and short-circuit current density enhancement of 42.43% (from 29.51 to 42.03 mA/cm2) were obtained as the proposed MOS-structure solar cell biased at 2.5 V. In addition, the capacitance-volt (C-V) measurement was also used to examine the mechanism of photovoltaic performance enhancement due to the depletion width being enlarged by applying a DC voltage on an ITO-electrode.

  16. Radiation effects on DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Dexin; Attia, John O.; Kankam, Mark D. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    DC-DC switching converters are circuits that can be used to convert a DC voltage of one value to another by switching action. They are increasing being used in space systems. Most of the popular DC-DC switching converters utilize power MOSFETs. However power MOSFETs, when subjected to radiation, are susceptible to degradation of device characteristics or catastrophic failure. This work focuses on the effects of total ionizing dose on converter performance. Four fundamental switching converters (buck converter, buck-boost converter, cuk converter, and flyback converter) were built using Harris IRF250 power MOSFETs. These converters were designed for converting an input of 60 volts to an output of about 12 volts with a switching frequency of 100 kHz. The four converters were irradiated with a Co-60 gamma source at dose rate of 217 rad/min. The performances of the four converters were examined during the exposure to the radiation. The experimental results show that the output voltage of the converters increases as total dose increases. However, the increases of the output voltage were different for the four different converters, with the buck converter and cuk converter the highest and the flyback converter the lowest. We observed significant increases in output voltage for cuk converter at a total dose of 24 krad (si).

  17. Pulsed-bias magnetron sputtering of non-conductive crystalline chromia films at low substrate temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Audronis, M.; Matthews, A.; Leyland, A.

    2008-02-01

    Chromia coatings were produced by biased pulsed-dc sputter deposition in a dual-frequency (2F) mode, pulsing the target and substrate at frequencies of 130 kHz and 250 kHz, respectively. Crystalline α-Cr2O3 coatings were deposited at substrate temperatures as low as 90 °C, significantly less than the values reported in the literature (~250 °C and more), exhibiting the potential to coat temperature sensitive substrates, such as polymers, with crystalline oxide films. We found that generating optimal ion bombardment conditions at the growing film surface is a critical factor in defining the structure of Cr2O3 coatings. Too low or too high energy ion bombardment can result in amorphous coatings, while a narrow window of optimal ion energies exists within which strongly crystalline coatings can be deposited at very low substrate temperatures. Also, we found that the conventional trend of decreasing deposition rate with increasing substrate bias voltage can be reversed when operating in 2F-pulsed-dc configuration, providing a combined benefit of both energetic ion-assisted deposition and a high deposition rate. The Cr2O3 films produced were found to possess hardness values of 23-27 GPa, approaching that of bulk Cr2O3 and remaining approximately constant over the range of deposition parameters (and resultant coating structures) investigated. Results show that the 2F-pulsed-dc mode enhances the deposition process, in turn allowing an enhanced control of film structure and texture. Significantly less enhancement of the deposition process (and a reduced capability to manipulate beneficially the coating structure) is obtained when operating in one frequency (1F) synchronous pulsed-dc mode. The relative efficacy of the 2F-pulsed-dc processing configuration we believe to be due to additional plasma enhancement and to the fact that, in contrast to 1F-synchronous pulsed-dc configuration, the whole range of charged species (positive ions, negative ions, electrons, etc

  18. DC-to-DC switching converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cuk, Slobodan M. (Inventor); Middlebrook, Robert D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    A dc-to-dc converter having nonpulsating input and output current uses two inductances, one in series with the input source, the other in series with the output load. An electrical energy transferring device with storage, namely storage capacitance, is used with suitable switching means between the inductances to DC level conversion. For isolation between the source and load, the capacitance may be divided into two capacitors coupled by a transformer, and for reducing ripple, the inductances may be coupled. With proper design of the coupling between the inductances, the current ripple can be reduced to zero at either the input or the output, or the reduction achievable in that way may be divided between the input and output.

  19. Structure of the velocity distribution of sheath-accelerated secondary electrons in an asymmetric RF-dc discharge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khrabrov, Alexander V.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Ventzek, Peter L. G.; Ranjan, Alok; Chen, Lee

    2015-10-01

    Low-pressure capacitively-coupled discharges with additional dc bias applied to a separate electrode are utilized in plasma-assisted etching for semiconductor device manufacturing. Measurements of the electron velocity distribution function (EVDF) of the flux impinging on the wafer, as well as in the plasma bulk, show a thermal population and additional peaks within a broad range of energies. That range extends from the thermal level up to the value for the ‘ballistic’ peak, corresponding to the bias potential. The non-thermal electron flux has been correlated to alleviating the electron shading effect and providing etch-resistance properties to masking photoresist layers. ‘Middle-energy peak electrons’ at energies of several hundred eV may provide an additional sustaining mechanism for the discharge. These features in the electron velocity (or energy) distribution functions are possibly caused by secondary electrons emitted from the electrodes and interacting with two high-voltage sheaths: a stationary sheath at the dc electrode and an oscillating self-biased sheath at the powered electrode. Since at those energies the mean free path for large-angle scattering (momentum relaxation length) is comparable to, or exceeds the size of the discharge gap, these ‘ballistic’ electrons will not be fully scattered by the background gas as they traverse the inter-electrode space. We have performed test-particle simulations in which the features in the EVDF of electrons impacting the RF electrode are fully resolved at all energies. An analytical model has been developed to predict existence of peaked and step-like structures in the EVDF. Those features can be explained by analyzing the kinematics of electron trajectories in the discharge gap. Step-like structures in the EVDF near the powered electrode appear due to accumulation of electrons emitted from the dc electrode within a portion of the RF cycle, and their subsequent release. Trapping occurs when the RF

  20. Sequential biases in accumulating evidence

    PubMed Central

    Huggins, Richard; Dogo, Samson Henry

    2015-01-01

    Whilst it is common in clinical trials to use the results of tests at one phase to decide whether to continue to the next phase and to subsequently design the next phase, we show that this can lead to biased results in evidence synthesis. Two new kinds of bias associated with accumulating evidence, termed ‘sequential decision bias’ and ‘sequential design bias’, are identified. Both kinds of bias are the result of making decisions on the usefulness of a new study, or its design, based on the previous studies. Sequential decision bias is determined by the correlation between the value of the current estimated effect and the probability of conducting an additional study. Sequential design bias arises from using the estimated value instead of the clinically relevant value of an effect in sample size calculations. We considered both the fixed‐effect and the random‐effects models of meta‐analysis and demonstrated analytically and by simulations that in both settings the problems due to sequential biases are apparent. According to our simulations, the sequential biases increase with increased heterogeneity. Minimisation of sequential biases arises as a new and important research area necessary for successful evidence‐based approaches to the development of science. © 2015 The Authors. Research Synthesis Methods Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26626562

  1. Multilevel DC link inverter

    DOEpatents

    Su, Gui-Jia

    2003-06-10

    A multilevel DC link inverter and method for improving torque response and current regulation in permanent magnet motors and switched reluctance motors having a low inductance includes a plurality of voltage controlled cells connected in series for applying a resulting dc voltage comprised of one or more incremental dc voltages. The cells are provided with switches for increasing the resulting applied dc voltage as speed and back EMF increase, while limiting the voltage that is applied to the commutation switches to perform PWM or dc voltage stepping functions, so as to limit current ripple in the stator windings below an acceptable level, typically 5%. Several embodiments are disclosed including inverters using IGBT's, inverters using thyristors. All of the inverters are operable in both motoring and regenerating modes.

  2. Radiation-Tolerant DC-DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Skutt, Glenn; Sable, Dan; Leslie, Leonard; Graham, Shawn

    2012-01-01

    A document discusses power converters suitable for space use that meet the DSCC MIL-PRF-38534 Appendix G radiation hardness level P classification. A method for qualifying commercially produced electronic parts for DC-DC converters per the Defense Supply Center Columbus (DSCC) radiation hardened assurance requirements was developed. Development and compliance testing of standard hybrid converters suitable for space use were completed for missions with total dose radiation requirements of up to 30 kRad. This innovation provides the same overall performance as standard hybrid converters, but includes assurance of radiation- tolerant design through components and design compliance testing. This availability of design-certified radiation-tolerant converters can significantly reduce total cost and delivery time for power converters for space applications that fit the appropriate DSCC classification (30 kRad).

  3. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS Reg. No. 2814-77-9). The color additive is manufactured by...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 36 may contain only those diluents that...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS Reg. No. 2814-77-9). The color additive is manufactured by...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 36 may contain only those diluents that...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive shall... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 31 may contain only those diluents that...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS Reg. No. 2814-77-9). The color additive is manufactured by...) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No. 36 may contain only those diluents that...

  9. Terahertz Bloch oscillator with a modulated bias.

    PubMed

    Hyart, Timo; Alexeeva, Natalia V; Mattas, Jussi; Alekseev, Kirill N

    2009-04-10

    Electrons performing Bloch oscillations in an energy band of a dc-biased superlattice in the presence of weak dissipation can potentially generate THz fields at room temperature. The realization of such a Bloch oscillator is a long-standing problem due to the instability of a homogeneous electric field in conditions of negative differential conductivity. We establish the theoretical feasibility of stable THz gain in a long superlattice device in which the bias is quasistatically modulated by microwave fields. The modulation waveforms must have at least two harmonics in their spectra.

  10. High sensitivity ancilla assisted nanoscale DC magnetometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yixiang; Ajoy, Ashok; Marseglia, Luca; Saha, Kasturi; Cappellaro, Paola

    2016-05-01

    Sensing slowly varying magnetic fields are particularly relevant to many real world scenarios, where the signals of interest are DC or close to static. Nitrogen Vacancy (NV) centers in diamond are a versatile platform for such DC magnetometry on nanometer length scales. Using NV centers, the standard technique for measuring DC magnetic fields is via the Ramsey protocol, where sensitivities can approach better than 1 μ T/vHz, but are limited by the sensor fast dephasing time T2*. In this work we instead present a method of sensing DC magnetic fields that is intrinsically limited by the much longer T2 coherence time. The method exploits a strongly-coupled ancillary nuclear spin to achieve high DC field sensitivities potentially exceeding that of the Ramsey method. In addition, through this method we sense the perpendicular component of the DC magnetic field, which in conjunction with the parallel component sensed by the Ramsey method provides a valuable tool for vector DC magnetometry at the nanoscale.

  11. Highly Efficient Multi-Band Power Amplifier Employing Reconfigurable Matching and Biasing Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fukuda, Atsushi; Okazaki, Hiroshi; Narahashi, Shoichi

    This paper presents a highly efficient multi-band power amplifier (PA) with a novel reconfigurable configuration. It consists of band-switchable matching networks (BS-MNs) and a biasing network (BS-BN) that are available for multi-band operation. BS-MNs with a susceptance block (SB) require a shorter transmission line (TL) than those without the SB at some target impedances. This paper theoretically derives the relationships of the required TL lengths for the BS-MN with or without the SB and the target impedances. The required TL lengths at the target impedances are evaluated numerically in order to discuss the advantages of the proposed configuration. The BS-BN employing switches for band switching can supply DC power to an amplification device without additional DC power dissipation because the DC bias current does not flow through the switches. Numerical analyses confirm that a BS-BN can be configured with low loss in multiple bands. Based on the proposed configuration, a 1/1.5/1.9/2.5-GHz quad-band reconfigurable PA is designed and fabricated employing RF microelectro mechanical systems switches and partitioned low temperature co-fired ceramics substrates. The fabricated 1W-class PA achieves a high output power of greater than 30dBm and a maximum power added efficiency of over 40% in all operating modes.

  12. Developing biases

    PubMed Central

    van de Vijver, Ruben; Baer-Henney, Dinah

    2014-01-01

    and, as a consequence, they can confidently form generalizations based on their lexicon. In addition, they know that many alternations are not based on phonetic considerations. PMID:25009518

  13. Intelligent dc-dc Converter Technology Developed and Tested

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Button, Robert M.

    2001-01-01

    The NASA Glenn Research Center and the Cleveland State University have developed a digitally controlled dc-dc converter to research the benefits of flexible, digital control on power electronics and systems. Initial research and testing has shown that conventional dc-dc converters can benefit from improved performance by using digital-signal processors and nonlinear control algorithms.

  14. Hybrid simulation of a dc-enhanced radio-frequency capacitive discharge in hydrogen

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Diomede, P.; Longo, S.; Economou, D. J.; Capitelli, M.

    2012-05-01

    A PIC-MCC/fluid hybrid model was employed to study a parallel-plate capacitively coupled radio-frequency discharge in hydrogen, under the application of a dc bias voltage. When a negative dc voltage was applied to one of the electrodes of a continuous wave (cw) plasma, a ‘beam’ of secondary electrons was formed that struck the substrate counter-electrode at nearly normal incidence. The energy distribution of the electrons striking the substrate extended all the way to VRF + |Vdc|, the sum of the peak RF voltage and the absolute value of the applied dc bias. Such directional, energetic electrons may be useful for ameliorating charging damage in etching of high aspect ratio nano-features. The vibrational distribution function of molecular hydrogen was calculated self-consistently, and was found to have a characteristic plateau for intermediate values of the vibrational quantum number, v. When a positive dc bias voltage was applied synchronously during a specified time window in the afterglow of a pulsed plasma, the ion energy distributions (IEDs) of positive ions acquired an extra peak at an energy equivalent of the applied dc voltage. The electron energy distribution function was slightly and temporarily heated during the application of the dc bias pulse. The calculated IEDs of H_3^+ and H_2^+ ions in a cw plasma without dc bias were found to be in good agreement with published experimental data.

  15. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  16. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... thiophen-3(2H)-one (CAS Reg. No. 2379-74-0). (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with D&C Red No... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  17. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 may be safely used...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 may be safely used...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 may be safely used...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306 (a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Red No. 6 may be safely used...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1710(a)(1) and (b). (b) Uses and restrictions. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 10 may...

  18. Divertor bias experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Staebler, G. M.

    1994-06-01

    Electrical biasing of the divertor target plates has recently been implemented on several tokamaks. The results of these experiments to date will be reviewed in this paper. The bias electrode configuration is unique in each experiment. The effects of biasing on the scrape-off layer (SOL) plasma also differ. By comparing results between machines, and using theoretical models, an understanding of the basic physics of biasing begins to emerge. Divertor biasing has been demonstrated to have a strong influence on the particle and energy transport within the SOL. The ability to externally control the SOL plasma with biasing has promising applications to future tokamak reactors.

  19. The construction of an electrode biasing system for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, T. Z.; Chen, Z. P.; Sun, Yue; Nan, J. Y.; Liu, H.; Zhuang, G.; Wang, Z. J.

    2014-05-01

    A newly designed electrode biasing system has been constructed for driving plasma rotation in J-TEXT tokamak. To reduce the influence to the plasma, the system contains a pneumatic driving system so that it can reciprocate in a single discharge, with a stroke of about 5 cm in 100 ms. The power supply of the system can provide stable and adjustable dc voltage in the range of 0-700 V, with adjustable duration of 10-200 ms; its instantaneous power output can reach up to more than 200 kW. In addition, the power supply can also provide a multi-cycle voltage waveform, with adjustable pulse width and voltage amplitude. When applying a positive bias to the plasma, both an improvement of plasma confinement and the speed-up of plasma-edge toroidal rotation in the same direction of plasma current are observed in the experiments.

  20. RISK D/C

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dias, W. C.

    1994-01-01

    RISK D/C is a prototype program which attempts to do program risk modeling for the Space Exploration Initiative (SEI) architectures proposed in the Synthesis Group Report. Risk assessment is made with respect to risk events, their probabilities, and the severities of potential results. The program allows risk mitigation strategies to be proposed for an exploration program architecture and to be ranked with respect to their effectiveness. RISK D/C allows for the fact that risk assessment in early planning phases is subjective. Although specific to the SEI in its present form, RISK D/C can be used as a framework for developing a risk assessment program for other specific uses. RISK D/C is organized into files, or stacks, of information, including the architecture, the hazard, and the risk event stacks. Although predefined, all stacks can be upgraded by a user. The architecture stack contains information concerning the general program alternatives, which are subsequently broken down into waypoints, missions, and mission phases. The hazard stack includes any background condition which could result in a risk event. A risk event is anything unfavorable that could happen during the course of a specific point within an architecture, and the risk event stack provides the probabilities, consequences, severities, and any mitigation strategies which could be used to reduce the risk of the event, and how much the risk is reduced. RISK D/C was developed for Macintosh series computers. It requires HyperCard 2.0 or later, as well as 2Mb of RAM and System 6.0.8 or later. A Macintosh II series computer is recommended due to speed concerns. The standard distribution medium for this package is one 3.5 inch 800K Macintosh format diskette. RISK D/C was developed in 1991 and is a copyrighted work with all copyright vested in NASA. Macintosh and HyperCard are trademarks of Apple Computer, Inc.

  1. DC Breakdown Experiments

    SciTech Connect

    Calatroni, S.; Descoeudres, A.; Levinsen, Y.; Taborelli, M.; Wuensch, W.

    2009-01-22

    In the context of the CLIC (Compact Linear Collider) project investigations of DC breakdown in ultra high vacuum are carried out in parallel with high power RF tests. From the point of view of saturation breakdown field the best material tested so far is stainless steel, followed by titanium. Copper shows a four times weaker breakdown field than stainless steel. The results indicate clearly that the breakdown events are initiated by field emission current and that the breakdown field is limited by the cathode. In analogy to RF, the breakdown probability has been measured in DC and the data show similar behaviour as a function of electric field.

  2. DC attenuation meter

    DOEpatents

    Hargrove, Douglas L.

    2004-09-14

    A portable, hand-held meter used to measure direct current (DC) attenuation in low impedance electrical signal cables and signal attenuators. A DC voltage is applied to the signal input of the cable and feedback to the control circuit through the signal cable and attenuators. The control circuit adjusts the applied voltage to the cable until the feedback voltage equals the reference voltage. The "units" of applied voltage required at the cable input is the system attenuation value of the cable and attenuators, which makes this meter unique. The meter may be used to calibrate data signal cables, attenuators, and cable-attenuator assemblies.

  3. Demonstrating the Correspondence Bias

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howell, Jennifer L.; Shepperd, James A.

    2011-01-01

    Among the best-known and most robust biases in person perception is the correspondence bias--the tendency for people to make dispositional, rather than situational, attributions for an actor's behavior. The correspondence bias appears in virtually every social psychology textbook and in many introductory psychology textbooks, yet the authors'…

  4. Bias in Grading

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Malouff, John

    2008-01-01

    Bias in grading can be conscious or unconscious. The author describes different types of bias, such as those based on student attractiveness or performance in prior courses, and a variety of methods of reducing bias, including keeping students anonymous during grading and using detailed criteria for subjective grading.

  5. DYLOS DC110

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Dylos DC1100 air quality monitor measures particulate matter (PM) to provide a continuous assessment of indoor air quality. The unit counts particles in two size ranges: large and small. According to the manufacturer, large particles have diameters between 2.5 and 10 micromet...

  6. DC arc weld starter

    DOEpatents

    Campiotti, Richard H.; Hopwood, James E.

    1990-01-01

    A system for starting an arc for welding uses three DC power supplies, a high voltage supply for initiating the arc, an intermediate voltage supply for sustaining the arc, and a low voltage welding supply directly connected across the gap after the high voltage supply is disconnected.

  7. Biasing a ferronematic - a new way to detect weak magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Tomašovičová, Natália; Kováč, Jozef; Raikher, Yuriy; Éber, Nándor; Tóth-Katona, Tibor; Gdovinová, Veronika; Jadżyn, Jan; Pinčák, Richard; Kopčanský, Peter

    2016-06-29

    The magnetic properties of a ferronematic, i.e., a nematic liquid crystal doped with magnetic nanoparticles in low volume concentration are studied, with the focus on the ac magnetic susceptibility. A weak dc bias magnetic field (a few Oe) applied to the ferronematic in its isotropic phase increases the ac magnetic susceptibility considerably. Passage of the isotropic-to-nematic phase transition resets this enhancement irreversibly (unless the dc bias field is applied again in the isotropic phase). PMID:27296792

  8. Queries for Bias Testing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gordon, Diana F.

    1992-01-01

    Selecting a good bias prior to concept learning can be difficult. Therefore, dynamic bias adjustment is becoming increasingly popular. Current dynamic bias adjustment systems, however, are limited in their ability to identify erroneous assumptions about the relationship between the bias and the target concept. Without proper diagnosis, it is difficult to identify and then remedy faulty assumptions. We have developed an approach that makes these assumptions explicit, actively tests them with queries to an oracle, and adjusts the bias based on the test results.

  9. Biased signaling at chemokine receptors.

    PubMed

    Corbisier, Jenny; Galès, Céline; Huszagh, Alexandre; Parmentier, Marc; Springael, Jean-Yves

    2015-04-10

    The ability of G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) to activate selective signaling pathways according to the conformation stabilized by bound ligands (signaling bias) is a challenging concept in the GPCR field. Signaling bias has been documented for several GPCRs, including chemokine receptors. However, most of these studies examined the global signaling bias between G protein- and arrestin-dependent pathways, leaving unaddressed the potential bias between particular G protein subtypes. Here, we investigated the coupling selectivity of chemokine receptors CCR2, CCR5, and CCR7 in response to various ligands with G protein subtypes by using bioluminescence resonance energy transfer biosensors monitoring directly the activation of G proteins. We also compared data obtained with the G protein biosensors with those obtained with other functional readouts, such as β-arrestin-2 recruitment, cAMP accumulation, and calcium mobilization assays. We showed that the binding of chemokines to CCR2, CCR5, and CCR7 activated the three Gαi subtypes (Gαi1, Gαi2, and Gαi3) and the two Gαo isoforms (Gαoa and Gαob) with potencies that generally correlate to their binding affinities. In addition, we showed that the binding of chemokines to CCR5 and CCR2 also activated Gα12, but not Gα13. For each receptor, we showed that the relative potency of various agonist chemokines was not identical in all assays, supporting the notion that signaling bias exists at chemokine receptors.

  10. Early Oscillation Detection for DC/DC Converter Fault Diagnosis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    The electrical power system of a spacecraft plays a very critical role for space mission success. Such a modern power system may contain numerous hybrid DC/DC converters both inside the power system electronics (PSE) units and onboard most of the flight electronics modules. One of the faulty conditions for DC/DC converter that poses serious threats to mission safety is the random occurrence of oscillation related to inherent instability characteristics of the DC/DC converters and design deficiency of the power systems. To ensure the highest reliability of the power system, oscillations in any form shall be promptly detected during part level testing, system integration tests, flight health monitoring, and on-board fault diagnosis. The popular gain/phase margin analysis method is capable of predicting stability levels of DC/DC converters, but it is limited only to verification of designs and to part-level testing on some of the models. This method has to inject noise signals into the control loop circuitry as required, thus, interrupts the DC/DC converter's normal operation and increases risks of degrading and damaging the flight unit. A novel technique to detect oscillations at early stage for flight hybrid DC/DC converters was developed.

  11. 21 CFR 74.2052 - D&C Black No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2052 D&C Black No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... color (as carbon), not less than 95 percent. (c) Uses and restrictions. D&C Black No. 2 may be...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.1328 Section 74.1328 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 28 is principally the disodium salt of...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.2261 Section 74.2261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.2260 Section 74.2260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  3. A genetic optimization approach for isolating translational efficiency bias.

    PubMed

    Raiford, Douglas W; Krane, Dan E; Doom, Travis E W; Raymer, Michael L

    2011-01-01

    The study of codon usage bias is an important research area that contributes to our understanding of molecular evolution, phylogenetic relationships, respiratory lifestyle, and other characteristics. Translational efficiency bias is perhaps the most well-studied codon usage bias, as it is frequently utilized to predict relative protein expression levels. We present a novel approach to isolating translational efficiency bias in microbial genomes. There are several existent methods for isolating translational efficiency bias. Previous approaches are susceptible to the confounding influences of other potentially dominant biases. Additionally, existing approaches to identifying translational efficiency bias generally require both genomic sequence information and prior knowledge of a set of highly expressed genes. This novel approach provides more accurate results from sequence information alone by resisting the confounding effects of other biases. We validate this increase in accuracy in isolating translational efficiency bias on 10 microbial genomes, five of which have proven particularly difficult for existing approaches due to the presence of strong confounding biases.

  4. Suppression of spatially periodic patterns by dc voltage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Éber, Nándor; Salamon, Péter; Fekete, Balázs András; Karapinar, Ridvan; Krekhov, Alexei; Buka, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    The effect of superposed dc and ac applied voltages on two types of spatially periodic instabilities in nematic liquid crystals, flexoelectric domains (FD), and electroconvection (EC) was studied. The onset characteristics, threshold voltages, and critical wave vectors were determined. We found that in general the superposition of driving with different time symmetries inhibits the pattern forming mechanisms for FD and EC as well. As a consequence, the onset extends to much higher voltages than the individual dc or ac thresholds. A dc-bias-induced reduction of the crossover frequency from the conductive to the dielectric EC regimes and a peculiar transition between two types of flexodomains with different wavelengths were detected. Direct measurements of the change of the electrical conductivity and its anisotropy, induced by the applied dc voltage component, showed that the dc bias substantially affects both parameters. Taking into account the experimentally detected variations of the conductivity in the linear stability analysis of the underlying nematohydrodynamic equations, a qualitative agreement with the experimental findings on the onset behavior of spatially periodic instabilities was obtained.

  5. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification.

  6. Two junction effects in dc SQUID phase qubit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cooper, B. K.; Kwon, H.; Przybysz, A. J.; Budoyo, R.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2011-03-01

    The dc SQUID phase qubit was designed to allow one isolation junction to filter bias current noise from a second junction operating as a single junction phase qubit. As junctions shrink to minimize dielectric loss, the Josephson inductances of each junction approach the coupling loop inductance and this single junction picture appears inadequate. We consider a two-junction model of the dc SQUID phase qubit, where the qubit now corresponds to one of the normal oscillatory modes of the full SQUID. We discuss applications of this model to sweet spots in various control parameters and unusual behavior in the tunneling state measurement. Funded by DOD, CNAM and JQI.

  7. Chronic and acute biases in perceptual stabilization

    PubMed Central

    Al-Dossari, Munira; Blake, Randolph; Brascamp, Jan W.; Freeman, Alan W.

    2015-01-01

    When perceptually ambiguous stimuli are presented intermittently, the percept on one presentation tends to be the same as that on the previous presentation. The role of short-term, acute biases in the production of this perceptual stability is relatively well understood. In addition, however, long-lasting, chronic bias may also contribute to stability. In this paper we develop indices for both biases and for stability, and show that stability can be expressed as a sum of contributions from the two types of bias. We then apply this analytical procedure to binocular rivalry, showing that adjustment of the monocular contrasts can alter the relative contributions of the two biases. Stability is mainly determined by chronic bias when the contrasts are equal, but acute bias dominates stability when right-eye contrast is set lower than left-eye contrast. Finally, we show that the right-eye bias persists in continuous binocular rivalry. Our findings reveal a previously unappreciated contribution of chronic bias to stable perception. PMID:26641947

  8. Interpretation biases in paranoia.

    PubMed

    Savulich, George; Freeman, Daniel; Shergill, Sukhi; Yiend, Jenny

    2015-01-01

    Information in the environment is frequently ambiguous in meaning. Emotional ambiguity, such as the stare of a stranger, or the scream of a child, encompasses possible good or bad emotional consequences. Those with elevated vulnerability to affective disorders tend to interpret such material more negatively than those without, a phenomenon known as "negative interpretation bias." In this study we examined the relationship between vulnerability to psychosis, measured by trait paranoia, and interpretation bias. One set of material permitted broadly positive/negative (valenced) interpretations, while another allowed more or less paranoid interpretations, allowing us to also investigate the content specificity of interpretation biases associated with paranoia. Regression analyses (n=70) revealed that trait paranoia, trait anxiety, and cognitive inflexibility predicted paranoid interpretation bias, whereas trait anxiety and cognitive inflexibility predicted negative interpretation bias. In a group comparison those with high levels of trait paranoia were negatively biased in their interpretations of ambiguous information relative to those with low trait paranoia, and this effect was most pronounced for material directly related to paranoid concerns. Together these data suggest that a negative interpretation bias occurs in those with elevated vulnerability to paranoia, and that this bias may be strongest for material matching paranoid beliefs. We conclude that content-specific biases may be important in the cause and maintenance of paranoid symptoms.

  9. Current-driven non-linear magnetodynamics in exchange-biased spin valves

    SciTech Connect

    Seinige, Heidi; Wang, Cheng; Tsoi, Maxim

    2015-05-07

    This work investigates the excitation of parametric resonance in exchange-biased spin valves (EBSVs). Using a mechanical point contact, high density dc and microwave currents were injected into the EBSV sample. Observing the reflected microwave power and the small rectification voltage that develops across the contact allows detecting the current-driven magnetodynamics not only in the bulk sample but originating exclusively from the small contact region. In addition to ferromagnetic resonance (FMR), parametric resonance at twice the natural FMR frequency was observed. In contrast to FMR, this non-linear resonance was excited only in the vicinity of the point contact where current densities are high. Power-dependent measurements displayed a typical threshold-like behavior of parametric resonance and a broadening of the instability region with increasing power. Parametric resonance showed a linear shift as a function of applied dc bias which is consistent with the field-like spin-transfer torque induced by current on magnetic moments in EBSV.

  10. Sliding-mode control of single input multiple output DC-DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Libo; Sun, Yihan; Luo, Tiejian; Wan, Qiyang

    2016-10-01

    Various voltage levels are required in the vehicle mounted power system. A conventional solution is to utilize an independent multiple output DC-DC converter whose cost is high and control scheme is complicated. In this paper, we design a novel SIMO DC-DC converter with sliding mode controller. The proposed converter can boost the voltage of a low-voltage input power source to a controllable high-voltage DC bus and middle-voltage output terminals, which endow the converter with characteristics of simple structure, low cost, and convenient control. In addition, the sliding mode control (SMC) technique applied in our converter can enhance the performances of a certain SIMO DC-DC converter topology. The high-voltage DC bus can be regarded as the main power source to the high-voltage facility of the vehicle mounted power system, and the middle-voltage output terminals can supply power to the low-voltage equipment on an automobile. In the respect of control algorithm, it is the first time to propose the SMC-PID (Proportion Integration Differentiation) control algorithm, in which the SMC algorithm is utilized and the PID control is attended to the conventional SMC algorithm. The PID control increases the dynamic ability of the SMC algorithm by establishing the corresponding SMC surface and introducing the attached integral of voltage error, which endow the sliding-control system with excellent dynamic performance. At last, we established the MATLAB/SIMULINK simulation model, tested performance of the system, and built the hardware prototype based on Digital Signal Processor (DSP). Results show that the sliding mode control is able to track a required trajectory, which has robustness against the uncertainties and disturbances.

  11. Measuring discriminability when there are multiple sources of bias.

    PubMed

    Brown, Glenn S; White, K Geoffrey

    2009-02-01

    Performance measures such as log d and d' aim to measure stimulus discriminability independently of response bias in conditional discrimination tasks, including the yes/no signal-detection procedure. However, they assume only one dimension of bias (e.g., response color) and do not account for bias on additional dimensions (e.g., response side). Such bias reduces log d, thus violating the statistical independence of discriminability and bias measurements. We modified log d to account for side bias and reanalyzed previous side-biased data. With strong side bias, the modified log d differed enough from the standard log d to potentially alter the conclusions of an experiment. Simulations showed that the modified log d produces discriminability estimates that are more accurate and bias-independent than the standard log d calculation.

  12. CO2 Network Design for Washington DC/Baltimore

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lopez-Coto, I.; Prasad, K.; Ghosh, S.; Whetstone, J. R.

    2015-12-01

    The North-East Corridor project aims to use a top-down inversion method to quantify sources of Greenhouse Gas (GHG) emissions in the urban areas of Washington DC and Baltimore at approximately 1km2 resolutions. The aim of this project is to help establish reliable measurement methods for quantifying and validating GHG emissions independently of the inventory methods typically used to guide mitigation efforts. Since inversion methods depend on atmospheric observations of GHG, deploying a suitable network of ground-based measurement stations is a fundamental step in estimating emissions from the perspective of the atmosphere with reasonable levels of uncertainty. The purpose of this work is to design a tower based network of measurement stations that can reduce the uncertainty in emissions by 50% in the central areas of DC and Baltimore. To this end, the Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF-ARW) was used along with the Stochastic Time-Inverted Lagrangian Transport model (STILT) to derive the sensitivity of hypothetical observations to surface emissions (footprints) for the months of February and July 2013. An iterative selection algorithm, based on k-means clustering method, was applied in order to minimize the similarities between the temporal response of each site and maximize the urban contribution. Afterwards, a synthetic inversion Kalman Filter was used to evaluate the performances of the observing system based on the merit of the retrieval over time and the amount of a priori uncertainty reduced by the network. We present the performances of various measurement networks that consist of different number of towers and where the location of these towers vary. Results show that too compact networks lose spatial coverage whilst too spread networks lose capabilities of constraining uncertainties in the fluxes. In addition, we explore the possibility of using a very high density network of low-cost, low-accuracy sensors characterized by larger uncertainties and

  13. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect.

  14. Investigating Test Bias.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hoepfner, Ralph; Strickland, Guy P.

    This study investigates the question of test bias to develop an index of the appropriateness of a test to a particular socioeconomic or racial-ethnic group. Bias is defined as an item by race interaction in an analysis-of-variance design. The sample of 172 third graders at two integrated schools in a large California school district, included 26…

  15. Experience from design, prototyping and production of a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the CMS Phase-1 Pixel Upgrade

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Lipinski, M.; Preuten, M.; Rauch, M.; Schmitz, S.; Wlochal, M.

    2016-02-01

    The CMS collaboration has adopted a DC-DC conversion powering scheme for the Phase-1 Upgrade of its pixel detector. DC-DC buck converters with a conversion ratio of around 3 are installed on the support structures, outside of the sensitive tracking region, requiring a re-design of the low and high voltage distribution to the pixel modules. After several years of R&D, the project has entered the production phase. A total of 1800 DC-DC converters are being produced, and rigorous quality assurance and control is being employed during the production process. The testing program is outlined, results from mass production are presented and issues that have been encountered are described. In addition, two system level challenges, namely the choice of output voltage in the presence of large, load-dependent voltage drops, and the thermal management required to remove the heat load caused by the DC-DC converters, are discussed.

  16. Chaos and catastrophe near the plasma frequency in the rf-biased Josephson junction

    SciTech Connect

    Kautz, R.L.; Monaco, R.

    1989-03-01

    At bias frequencies much higher than the plasma frequency, the zero-voltage state of the rf-biased Josephson junction is known to span a range of dc bias proportional to the zero-order Bessel function of the rf amplitude. This pattern is modified at frequencies near the plasma frequency by the onset of chaotic instabilities and by the presence of cusp catastrophes.

  17. High performance dc-dc conversion with voltage multipliers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Harrigill, W. T.; Myers, I. T.

    1974-01-01

    The voltage multipliers using capacitors and diodes first developed by Cockcroft and Walton in 1932 were reexamined in terms of state of the art fast switching transistors and diodes, and high energy density capacitors. Because of component improvements, the voltage multiplier, used without a transformer, now appears superior in weight to systems now in use for dc-dc conversion. An experimental 100-watt 1000-volt dc-dc converter operating at 100 kHz was built, with a component weight of about 1 kg/kW. Calculated and measured values of output voltage and efficiency agreed within experimental error.

  18. Improved DC Gun Insulator

    SciTech Connect

    M.L. Neubauer, K.B. Beard, R. Sah, C. Hernandez-Garcia, G. Neil

    2009-05-01

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron light sources and free electron lasers require accelerating structures that support electric fields of 10-100 MV/m, especially at the start of the accelerator chain where ceramic insulators are used for very high gradient DC guns. These insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic, creating a buildup of charge and causing eventual puncture. A novel ceramic manufacturing process is proposed. It will incorporate bulk resistivity in the region where it is needed to bleed off accumulated charge caused by highly energetic electrons. This process will be optimized to provide an appropriate gradient in bulk resistivity from the vacuum side to the air side of the HV standoff ceramic cylinder. A computer model will be used to determine the optimum cylinder dimensions and required resistivity gradient for an example RF gun application. A ceramic material example with resistivity gradient appropriate for use as a DC gun insulator will be fabricated by glazing using doping compounds and tested.

  19. Magnetoencephalography using a Multilayer hightc DC SQUID Magnetometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faley, M. I.; Poppe, U.; Borkowski, R. E. Dunin; Schiek, M.; Boers, F.; Chocholacs, H.; Dammers, J.; Eich, E.; Shah, N. J.; Ermakov, A. B.; Slobodchikov, V. Yu.; Maslennikov, Yu. V.; Koshelets, V. P.

    We describe tests of the use of a multilayer highTc DC SQUID magnetometer for magnetoencephalography (MEG) and compare our measurements with results obtained using a lowTc SQUID sensor. The integration of bias reversal readout electronics for highTc DC SQUID magnetometry into a commercial MEG data acquisition system is demonstrated. Results of measurements performed on a salinefilled head phantom are shown and the detection of an auditory evoked magnetic response of the human cortex elicited by a stimulus is illustrated. Future modifications of highTc DC SQUID sensors for applications in MEG, in order to reach a resolution of 1 fT/√Hz at 77.5 K over a wide frequency band, are outlined.

  20. Spreading Freedom and Saving Money. The Fiscal Impact of the D.C. Voucher Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Aud, Susan L.; Michos, Leon

    2006-01-01

    In August 2004 the first ever federally funded school voucher program began in Washington, D.C. Eligible students could attend a private school of their choice in the District of Columbia. Each participant received up to $7,500 for school tuition, fees, and transportation. In addition, the D.C. Public School System (DCPS) and D.C. charter school…

  1. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 82.1260 Section 82.1260 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 82.1261 Section 82.1261 Food... CERTIFIED PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. Conventional high-performance liquid chromatography versus derivative spectrophotometry for the determination of 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt in the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Pyranine).

    PubMed

    Jitian, Simion; White, Samuel R; Yang, H-H Wendy; Weisz, Adrian

    2014-01-10

    Specifications in the U.S. Code of Federal Regulations for the color additive D&C Green No. 8 (Colour Index No. 59040) limit the levels of the subsidiary colors 1,3,6-pyrenetrisulfonic acid trisodium salt (P3S) and 1,3,6,8-pyrenetetrasulfonic acid tetrasodium salt (P4S). The present paper describes a comparative study of two possible methods to replace the currently used multi-step TLC/spectrophotometry method of separating and quantifying the minor components P3S and P4S in G8. One of the new approaches uses conventional high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and the other, derivative spectrophotometry. While the derivative spectrophotometric method was shown to be inadequate for the analysis of minor components overwhelmed by components of much higher concentration, the HPLC method was proven highly effective. The closely related, very polar compounds P3S and P4S were separated by the new HPLC method in less than 4 min using a conventional HPLC instrument. P3S and P4S were quantified by using five-point calibration curves with data points that ranged from 0.45 to 7.63% and from 0.13 to 1.82%, by weight, for P3S and P4S, respectively. The HPLC method was applied to the analysis of test portions from 20 batches of D&C Green No. 8 submitted to the U.S. Food and Drug Administration for certification. PMID:24315677

  12. DC corona ozone generation enhanced by TiO2 photocatalyst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pekã¡Rek, S.

    2008-12-01

    Non-thermal electrical discharges, such as corona discharge are apart of the source of ozone, charged, and excited species and acoustic noise also the source of electromagnetic radiation of different wavelengths. The important component of this radiation from the standpoint of photocatalyst activation is the ultraviolet radiation. We studied the role of UV radiation on corona discharge ozone production by placing the titanium dioxide photocatalyst into the discharge region. We used hollow needle to mesh DC corona discharge at atmospheric pressure with TiO2 globules on the mesh. The discharge was enhanced by the flow of air through the needle. We found that for the needle biased negatively addition of TiO2 photocatalyst on the mesh electrode drastically increases discharge ozone production as well as the ozone production yield. These quantities are also influenced by the mass of the used photocatalyst and its distribution in the discharge chamber.

  13. rf Photon Peaks of a dc SQUID Phase Qubit Coupled to On-Chip LC Filter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Budoyo, R. P.; Cooper, B. K.; Zaretskey, V.; Ballard, C. J.; Anderson, J. R.; Lobb, C. J.; Wellstood, F. C.

    2013-03-01

    We have fabricated and tested an Al/AlOx /Al dc SQUID phase qubit on a sapphire substrate. The qubit is shunted by an interdigitated capacitor and isolated from the bias leads by an inductive isolation network using a larger Josephson junction. Additional high frequency filtering is provided by an on-chip LC filter which consists of square spiral inductors and parallel plate SiNx capacitors, with ~330 MHz cutoff frequency. Spectroscopy of the qubit transition frequency at 8.7 GHz shows multiple equally spaced subpeaks. These subpeaks are caused by coupling between the qubit and the LC filter, forming a system that can be described by Jaynes-Cummings model. The individual subpeaks correspond to transitions with different photon numbers in the LC filter. Acknowledgement: LPS, JQI, and CNAM

  14. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures prepared therefrom... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... (CAS Reg. No. 25709-84-6). The color additive is manufactured by brominating fluorescein with...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice. (d) Labeling. The label of the color additive and any mixtures prepared therefrom... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... (CAS Reg. No. 25709-84-6). The color additive is manufactured by brominating fluorescein with...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 is principally 2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione. (2) Color additive mixtures, for... listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 is principally 2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione. (2) Color additive mixtures, for... listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 is principally 2-(2-quinolyl)-1,3-indandione. (2) Color additive mixtures, for... listed in part 73 of this chapter as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring...

  19. Biased predecision processing.

    PubMed

    Brownstein, Aaron L

    2003-07-01

    Decision makers conduct biased predecision processing when they restructure their mental representation of the decision environment to favor one alternative before making their choice. The question of whether biased predecision processing occurs has been controversial since L. Festinger (1957) maintained that it does not occur. The author reviews relevant research in sections on theories of cognitive dissonance, decision conflict, choice certainty, action control, action phases, dominance structuring, differentiation and consolidation, constructive processing, motivated reasoning, and groupthink. Some studies did not find evidence of biased predecision processing, but many did. In the Discussion section, the moderators are summarized and used to assess the theories. PMID:12848220

  20. 21 CFR 82.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 82.2707a Section 82.2707a... Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity with specifications to the requirements of § 74.1707a(a)(1) and (b) of this chapter. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  1. Dc-To-Dc Converter Uses Reverse Conduction Of MOSFET's

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gruber, Robert P.; Gott, Robert W.

    1991-01-01

    In modified high-power, phase-controlled, full-bridge, pulse-width-modulated dc-to-dc converters, switching devices power metal oxide/semiconductor field-effect transistors (MOSFET's). Decreases dissipation of power during switching by eliminating approximately 0.7-V forward voltage drop in anti-parallel diodes. Energy-conversion efficiency increased.

  2. Efficient Design in a DC to DC Converter Unit

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruemmer, Joel E.; Williams, Fitch R.; Schmitz, Gregory V.

    2002-01-01

    Space Flight hardware requires high power conversion efficiencies due to limited power availability and weight penalties of cooling systems. The International Space Station (ISS) Electric Power System (EPS) DC-DC Converter Unit (DDCU) power converter is no exception. This paper explores the design methods and tradeoffs that were utilized to accomplish high efficiency in the DDCU. An isolating DC to DC converter was selected for the ISS power system because of requirements for separate primary and secondary grounds and for a well-regulated secondary output voltage derived from a widely varying input voltage. A flyback-current-fed push-pull topology or improved Weinberg circuit was chosen for this converter because of its potential for high efficiency and reliability. To enhance efficiency, a non-dissipative snubber circuit for the very-low-Rds-on Field Effect Transistors (FETs) was utilized, redistributing the energy that could be wasted during the switching cycle of the power FETs. A unique, low-impedance connection system was utilized to improve contact resistance over a bolted connection. For improved consistency in performance and to lower internal wiring inductance and losses a planar bus system is employed. All of these choices contributed to the design of a 6.25 KW regulated dc to dc converter that is 95 percent efficient. The methodology used in the design of this DC to DC Converter Unit may be directly applicable to other systems that require a conservative approach to efficient power conversion and distribution.

  3. A Plasma-Based DC-DC Electrical Transformer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nebel, Richard; Finn, John

    2013-10-01

    Previous work has indicated that it may be possible to make DC-DC electrical transformers using plasmas. The mechanism is an MHD electromagnetic relaxation process induced by helical electrodes. This process is now being tested on the Bismark device at Tibbar Technologies.

  4. A DC Transformer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Youngquist, Robert C.; Ihlefeld, Curtis M.; Starr, Stanley O.

    2013-01-01

    A component level dc transformer is described in which no alternating currents or voltages are present. It operates by combining features of a homopolar motor and a homopolar generator, both de devices, such that the output voltage of a de power supply can be stepped up (or down) with a corresponding step down (or up) in current. The basic theory for this device is developed, performance predictions are made, and the results from a small prototype are presented. Based on demonstrated technology in the literature, this de transformer should be scalable to low megawatt levels, but it is more suited to high current than high voltage applications. Significant development would be required before it could achieve the kilovolt levels needed for de power transmission.

  5. Early Oscillation Detection Technique for Hybrid DC/DC Converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bright L.

    2011-01-01

    Oscillation or instability is a situation that must be avoided for reliable hybrid DC/DC converters. A real-time electronics measurement technique was developed to detect catastrophic oscillations at early stages for hybrid DC/DC converters. It is capable of identifying low-level oscillation and determining the degree of the oscillation at a unique frequency for every individual model of the converters without disturbing their normal operations. This technique is specially developed for space-used hybrid DC/DC converters, but it is also suitable for most of commercial and military switching-mode power supplies. This is a weak-electronic-signal detection technique to detect hybrid DC/DC converter oscillation presented as a specific noise signal at power input pins. It is based on principles of feedback control loop oscillation and RF signal modulations, and is realized by using signal power spectral analysis. On the power spectrum, a channel power amplitude at characteristic frequency (CPcf) and a channel power amplitude at switching frequency (CPsw) are chosen as oscillation level indicators. If the converter is stable, the CPcf is a very small pulse and the CPsw is a larger, clear, single pulse. At early stage of oscillation, the CPcf increases to a certain level and the CPsw shows a small pair of sideband pulses around it. If the converter oscillates, the CPcf reaches to a higher level and the CPsw shows more high-level sideband pulses. A comprehensive stability index (CSI) is adopted as a quantitative measure to accurately assign a degree of stability to a specific DC/DC converter. The CSI is a ratio of normal and abnormal power spectral density, and can be calculated using specified and measured CPcf and CPsw data. The novel and unique feature of this technique is the use of power channel amplitudes at characteristic frequency and switching frequency to evaluate stability and identify oscillations at an early stage without interfering with a DC/DC converter s

  6. Introduction to Unconscious Bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schmelz, Joan T.

    2010-05-01

    We all have biases, and we are (for the most part) unaware of them. In general, men and women BOTH unconsciously devalue the contributions of women. This can have a detrimental effect on grant proposals, job applications, and performance reviews. Sociology is way ahead of astronomy in these studies. When evaluating identical application packages, male and female University psychology professors preferred 2:1 to hire "Brian” over "Karen” as an assistant professor. When evaluating a more experienced record (at the point of promotion to tenure), reservations were expressed four times more often when the name was female. This unconscious bias has a repeated negative effect on Karen's career. This talk will introduce the concept of unconscious bias and also give recommendations on how to address it using an example for a faculty search committee. The process of eliminating unconscious bias begins with awareness, then moves to policy and practice, and ends with accountability.

  7. Estimating Bias Error Distributions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Liu, Tian-Shu; Finley, Tom D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper formulates the general methodology for estimating the bias error distribution of a device in a measuring domain from less accurate measurements when a minimal number of standard values (typically two values) are available. A new perspective is that the bias error distribution can be found as a solution of an intrinsic functional equation in a domain. Based on this theory, the scaling- and translation-based methods for determining the bias error distribution arc developed. These methods are virtually applicable to any device as long as the bias error distribution of the device can be sufficiently described by a power series (a polynomial) or a Fourier series in a domain. These methods have been validated through computational simulations and laboratory calibration experiments for a number of different devices.

  8. Political bias is tenacious.

    PubMed

    Ditto, Peter H; Wojcik, Sean P; Chen, Eric Evan; Grady, Rebecca Hofstein; Ringel, Megan M

    2015-01-01

    Duarte et al. are right to worry about political bias in social psychology but they underestimate the ease of correcting it. Both liberals and conservatives show partisan bias that often worsens with cognitive sophistication. More non-liberals in social psychology is unlikely to speed our convergence upon the truth, although it may broaden the questions we ask and the data we collect. PMID:26786070

  9. Finite-time control of DC-DC buck converters via integral terminal sliding modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chiu, Chian-Song; Shen, Chih-Teng

    2012-05-01

    This article presents novel terminal sliding modes for finite-time output tracking control of DC-DC buck converters. Instead of using traditional singular terminal sliding mode, two integral terminal sliding modes are introduced for robust output voltage tracking of uncertain buck converters. Different from traditional sliding mode control (SMC), the proposed controller assures finite convergence time for the tracking error and integral tracking error. Furthermore, the singular problem in traditional terminal SMC is removed from this article. When considering worse modelling, adaptive integral terminal SMC is derived to guarantee finite-time convergence under more relaxed stability conditions. In addition, several experiments show better start-up performance and robustness.

  10. Improved DC Gun and Insulator Assembly

    SciTech Connect

    Neubauer, Michael; Johnson, Rolland P

    2015-01-11

    Many user facilities such as synchrotron radiation light sources and free electron lasers rely on DC high voltage photoguns with internal field gradients as high as 10 to 15 MV/m. These high gradients often lead to field emission which poses serious problems for the photocathode used to generate the electron beam and the ceramic insulators used to bias the photocathode at high voltage. Ceramic insulators are difficult to manufacture, require long commissioning times, and have poor reliability, in part because energetic electrons bury themselves in the ceramic causing a buildup of charge and eventual puncture, and also because large diameter ceramics are difficult to braze reliably. The lifetimes of photo cathodes inside high current DC guns exhibiting field emission are limited to less than a hundred hours. Reducing the surface gradients on the metals reduces the field emission, which serves to maintain the required ultrahigh vacuum condition. A novel gun design with gradients around 5 MV/m and operating at 350 kV, a major improvement over existing designs, was proposed that allows for the in-situ replacement of photo cathodes in axially symmetric designs using inverted ceramics. In this project, the existing JLAB CEBAF asymmetric gun design with an inverted ceramic support was modeled and the beam dynamics characterized. An improved structure was designed that reduces the surface gradients and improves the beam optics. To minimize the surface gradients, a number of electrostatic gun designs were studied to determine the optimum configuration of the critical electrodes within the gun structure. Coating experiments were carried out to create a charge dissipative coating for cylindrical ceramics. The phase II proposal, which was not granted, included the design and fabrication of an axially symmetric DC Gun with an inverted ceramic that would operate with less than 5 MV/m at 350 kV and would be designed with an in-situ replaceable photo-cathode.

  11. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 is principally the disodium salt of 8-hydroxy-5,7-di-nitro-2-naphthalenesulfonic acid. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 may contain...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures...

  14. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures...

  16. 21 CFR 74.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.1602 Section 74.1602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 is principally 1-hydroxy -4- -9,10-anthracenedione. (2) Color additive mixtures...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.1336 Section 74.1336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 is 1- -2-naphthalenol (CAS Reg. No. 2814-77-9). The color additive is manufactured...

  18. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  1. 21 CFR 74.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.1317 Section 74.1317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 17 is principally 1- azo]-2-naphthalenol. (2) Color additive mixtures for drug use made with...

  2. Statistical framework for estimating GNSS bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vierinen, Juha; Coster, Anthea J.; Rideout, William C.; Erickson, Philip J.; Norberg, Johannes

    2016-03-01

    We present a statistical framework for estimating global navigation satellite system (GNSS) non-ionospheric differential time delay bias. The biases are estimated by examining differences of measured line-integrated electron densities (total electron content: TEC) that are scaled to equivalent vertical integrated densities. The spatiotemporal variability, instrumentation-dependent errors, and errors due to inaccurate ionospheric altitude profile assumptions are modeled as structure functions. These structure functions determine how the TEC differences are weighted in the linear least-squares minimization procedure, which is used to produce the bias estimates. A method for automatic detection and removal of outlier measurements that do not fit into a model of receiver bias is also described. The same statistical framework can be used for a single receiver station, but it also scales to a large global network of receivers. In addition to the Global Positioning System (GPS), the method is also applicable to other dual-frequency GNSS systems, such as GLONASS (Globalnaya Navigazionnaya Sputnikovaya Sistema). The use of the framework is demonstrated in practice through several examples. A specific implementation of the methods presented here is used to compute GPS receiver biases for measurements in the MIT Haystack Madrigal distributed database system. Results of the new algorithm are compared with the current MIT Haystack Observatory MAPGPS (MIT Automated Processing of GPS) bias determination algorithm. The new method is found to produce estimates of receiver bias that have reduced day-to-day variability and more consistent coincident vertical TEC values.

  3. Study of the Dependency on Magnetic Field and Bias Voltage of an AC-Biased TES Microcalorimeter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gottardi, L.; Bruijn, M.; denHartog, R.; Hoevers, H.; deKorte, P.; vanderKuur, J.; Linderman, M.; Adams, J.; Bailey, C.; Bandler, S.; Chervenak, J.; Eckart, M.; Finkbeiner, F.; Kelley, R.; Kilbourne, C.; Porter, F.; Sadlier, J.; Smith, S.

    2012-01-01

    At SRON we are studying the performance of a Goddard Space Flight Center single pixel TES microcalorimeter operated in an AC bias configuration. For x-ray photons at 6 keV the pixel shows an x-ray energy resolution Delta E(sub FWHM) = 3.7 eV, which is about a factor 2 worse than the energy resolution observed in an identical DC-biased pixel. In order to better understand the reasons for this discrepancy we characterized the detector as a function of temperature, bias working point and applied perpendicular magnetic field. A strong periodic dependency of the detector noise on the TES AC bias voltage is measured. We discuss the results in the framework of the recently observed weak-link behaviour of a TES microcalorimeter.

  4. Bicrystal YBCO dc squids with low noise

    SciTech Connect

    Miklich, A.H.; Koelle, D.; Dantsker, E.; Nemeth, D.T.; Kingston, J.J.; Kromann, R.F.; Clarke, J.

    1992-08-01

    We have fabricated 12 dc SQUIDs by laser depositing YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-x} on a SrTiO{sub 3} bicrystal substrate with a misorientation angle of 24*. At 77K all twelve devices had acceptable values of critical current, resistance and voltage modulation produced by an external magnetic field. The white noise energy of one device with an estimated inductance of 41 pH was 1.8 {times} 10{sup {minus}30} JHz{sup {minus}1}. The noise power scaled as 1/f at frequencies below about 1kHz, however, by using a bias current reversal scheme we were able to reduce this noise by two orders of magnitude at 1 Hz, to a value of about 1.5 {times} 10{sup {minus}29} JHz{sup {minus}1}. We made a magnetometer by coupling the SQUID to a flux transformer with a 5-turn input coil. The measured magnetic field gain was 60, and the white noise 36fT Hz{sup {minus}{1/2}}. However, the transformer produced relatively large levels of 1/f flux noise, not reduced by the bias reversal scheme, that limited the noise at 1 Hz to 1.7 pT Hz{sup {minus}{1/2}}. A single-layer magnetometer with a single-turn pick up loop is briefly described.

  5. Bi-Directional DC-DC Converter for PHEV Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Abas Goodarzi

    2011-01-31

    Plug-In Hybrid Electric Vehicles (PHEV) require high power density energy storage system (ESS) for hybrid operation and high energy density ESS for Electric Vehicle (EV) mode range. However, ESS technologies to maximize power density and energy density simultaneously are not commercially feasible. The use of bi-directional DC-DC converter allows use of multiple energy storage, and the flexible DC-link voltages can enhance the system efficiency and reduce component sizing. This will improve fuel consumption, increase the EV mode range, reduce the total weight, reduce battery initial and life cycle cost, and provide flexibility in system design.

  6. Biasing and fast degaussing circuit for magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Dress, Jr., William B.; McNeilly, David R.

    1984-01-01

    A dual-function circuit is provided which may be used to both magnetically bias and alternately, quickly degauss a magnetic device. The circuit may be magnetically coupled or directly connected electrically to a magnetic device, such as a magnetostrictive transducer, to magnetically bias the device by applying a d.c. current and alternately apply a selectively damped a.c. current to the device to degauss the device. The circuit is of particular value in many systems which use magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic transmission in different propagation modes over very short time periods.

  7. Biasing and fast degaussing circuit for magnetic materials

    DOEpatents

    Dress, W.B. Jr.; McNeilly, D.R.

    1983-10-04

    A dual-function circuit is provided which may be used to both magnetically bias and alternately, quickly degauss a magnetic device. The circuit may be magnetically coupled or directly connected electrically to a magnetic device, such as a magnetostrictive transducer, to magnetically bias the device by applying a dc current and alternately apply a selectively damped ac current to the device to degauss the device. The circuit is of particular value in many systems which use magnetostrictive transducers for ultrasonic transmission in different propagation modes over very short time periods.

  8. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements. The label of the color additive and any mixtures prepared... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C... (CAS Reg. No. 25709-84-6). The color additive is manufactured by brominating fluorescein with elemental... anhydride. The fluorescein is isolated and partially purified prior to bromination. (2) Color...

  10. Lessons learned: DC-X

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Steinmeyer, D. A.

    1996-01-01

    The DC-X was conceived and developed specifically to lay the ground work for significantly lowering the cost of space operations. The system design was based on an initial set of program goals and a finite, limited set of resources. The goal in its simplest terms was to demonstrate vertical landing after rotation of the vehicle from a nose-first to an engines-first altitude. Finite resources actually drove the selection of a robust design to reduce fabrication and preflight testing costs. The result was a system with a large amount of flexibility which allowed expansion of the test goals as the system, and test program, evolved. The use of the vehicle flight computer interfacing with the ground control system for flight crew training was also not an initial concept. However, by defining an architecture for the system control modes which allowed additions and modifications as learning progressed, the 6 DOF codes used for flight controls software development were transported to the operating system to be used in a simulated flight mode. Flight data reduction was also greatly improved as the program progressed, and the data needs and presentation were refined. The software, avionics hardware, and the FOCC system development proceeded ahead of the vehicle, primarily because most of the hardware elements were existing at the outset of the program. The Built-in-Test (BIT) for avionics and propulsion systems were adequate. Particularly the flight readiness system which verified the vehicle health after engine start and before throttle-up for flight.

  11. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-20

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component.

  12. DC-Compensated Current Transformer.

    PubMed

    Ripka, Pavel; Draxler, Karel; Styblíková, Renata

    2016-01-01

    Instrument current transformers (CTs) measure AC currents. The DC component in the measured current can saturate the transformer and cause gross error. We use fluxgate detection and digital feedback compensation of the DC flux to suppress the overall error to 0.15%. This concept can be used not only for high-end CTs with a nanocrystalline core, but it also works for low-cost CTs with FeSi cores. The method described here allows simultaneous measurements of the DC current component. PMID:26805830

  13. Halo velocity bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biagetti, Matteo; Desjacques, Vincent; Kehagias, Alex; Riotto, Antonio

    2014-11-01

    It has been recently shown that any halo velocity bias present in the initial conditions does not decay to unity, in agreement with predictions from peak theory. However, this is at odds with the standard formalism based on the coupled-fluids approximation for the coevolution of dark matter and halos. Starting from conservation laws in phase space, we discuss why the fluid momentum conservation equation for the biased tracers needs to be modified in accordance with the change advocated in Baldauf et al. Our findings indicate that a correct description of the halo properties should properly take into account peak constraints when starting from the Vlasov-Boltzmann equation.

  14. Implicit Bias about Weight and Weight Loss Treatment Outcomes

    PubMed Central

    Carels, Robert A; Hinman, Nova G; Hoffmann, Debra A; Burmeister, Jacob M; Borushok, Jessica E.; Marx, Jenna M; Ashrafioun, Lisham

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The goal of the current study was to examine the impact of a weight loss intervention on implicit bias toward weight, as well as the relationship among implicit bias, weight loss behaviors, and weight loss outcomes. Additionally, of interest was the relationship among these variables when implicit weight bias was measured with a novel assessment that portrays individuals who are thin and obese engaged in both stereotypical and nonstereotypical health-related behaviors. Methods Implicit weight bias (stereotype consistent and stereotype inconsistent), binge eating, self-monitoring, and body weight were assessed among weight loss participants at baseline and post-treatment (N=44) participating in two weight loss programs. Results Stereotype consistent bias significantly decreased from baseline to post-treatment. Greater baseline stereotype consistent bias was associated with lower binge eating and greater self-monitoring. Greater post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with greater percent weight loss. Stereotype inconsistent bias did not change from baseline to post-treatment and was generally unrelated to outcomes. Conclusion Weight loss treatment may reduce implicit bias toward overweight individuals among weight loss participants. Higher post-treatment stereotype consistent bias was associated with a higher percent weight loss, possibly suggesting that losing weight may serve to maintain implicit weight bias. Alternatively, great implicit weight bias may identify individuals motivated to make changes necessary for weight loss. PMID:25261809

  15. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders.

  16. Expectancy biases in fear and anxiety and their link to biases in attention.

    PubMed

    Aue, Tatjana; Okon-Singer, Hadas

    2015-12-01

    Healthy individuals often exhibit prioritized processing of aversive information, as manifested in enhanced orientation of attention to threatening stimuli compared with neutral items. In contrast to this adaptive behavior, anxious, fearful, and phobic individuals show exaggerated attention biases to threat. In addition, they overestimate the likelihood of encountering their feared stimulus and the severity of the consequences; both are examples of expectancy biases. The co-occurrence of attention and expectancy biases in fear and anxiety raises the question about causal influences. Herein, we summarize findings related to expectancy biases in fear and anxiety, and their association with attention biases. We suggest that evidence calls for more comprehensive research strategies in the investigation of mutual influences between expectancy and attention biases, as well as their combined effects on fear and anxiety. Moreover, both types of bias need to be related to other types of distorted information processing commonly observed in fear and anxiety (e.g., memory and interpretation biases). Finally, we propose new research directions that may be worth considering in developing more effective treatments for anxiety disorders. PMID:26379081

  17. Own Variety Bias

    PubMed Central

    García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-01-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn’t claim a different variety as their own.

  18. Biased to Learn Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebastian-Galles, Nuria

    2007-01-01

    Some recent publications that explore the foundations of early language development are reviewed in this article. The review adopts the pivotal idea that infants' advancements are helped by the existence of different types of biases. The infant's discovery of the phonological properties of the language of the environment, as well as their learning…

  19. Optically biased laser gyro

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, D.Z.; Chow, W.W.; Scully, M.O.; Sanders, V.E.

    1980-10-01

    We describe a four-mode ring laser that exhibits none of the mode-locking characteristics that plague laser gyros. This laser is characterized by a bias that changes sign with a change in the direction of rotation and prevents the counterpropagating modes from locking. A theoretical analysis explaining the experimental results is outlined.

  20. Own Variety Bias.

    PubMed

    Sloos, Marjoleine; García, Andrea Ariza

    2015-10-01

    In a language identification task, native Belgian French and native Swiss French speakers identified French from France as their own variety. However, Canadian French was not subject to this bias. Canadian and French listeners didn't claim a different variety as their own. PMID:27648211

  1. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2)...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1208 - D&C Green No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 8. 74.1208 Section 74.1208 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1208 D&C Green No. 8. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 8 is principally the trisodium salt of 8-hydroxy-1,3,6-pyrene-trisulfonic acid. (2)...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 is 1,4-bis -9,10-anthracenedione (CAS. Reg. No. 128-80-3). (b) Specifications. The...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Blue No. 9 is principally 7,16-dichloro-6,15...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Black No. 3. 74.2053 Section 74.2053 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Black No. 3 is a washed bone char prepared from calcined cattle bones. The bones are twice heated...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  8. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2602a - Ext. D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602a Section 74.2602a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602a Ext. D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity. The color additive Ext. D&C Violet No. 2 is principally the monosodium salt of 2-...

  15. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  16. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  17. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.2602 Section 74.2602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  20. 21 CFR 74.3602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 74.3602 Section 74.3602 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3602 D&C Violet No. 2. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.2707a Section 74.2707a... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Blue No. 9 is principally 7,16-dichloro-6,15...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1109 - D&C Blue No. 9.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Blue No. 9. 74.1109 Section 74.1109 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1109 D&C Blue No. 9. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C Blue No. 9 is principally 7,16-dichloro-6,15...

  4. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.1707a Section 74.1707a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 11. 74.1711 Section 74.1711 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 is principally...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 34. 74.2334 Section 74.2334 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.2317 Section 74.2317 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.2321 Section 74.2321 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 74.2333 Section 74.2333 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.2331 Section 74.2331 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 74.1331 Section 74.1331 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 31 is principally the calcium salt of 3-hydroxy-4-(phenylazo)-2-naphthalenecarboxylic acid....

  12. 21 CFR 74.2322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.2322 Section 74.2322 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 74.1321 Section 74.1321 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1321 D&C Red No. 21. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 21 is principally 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No. 15086-94-9), and may...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 74.2328 Section 74.2328 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.1327 Section 74.1327 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 27 is principally 2′,4′,5′,7′-tetrabromo-4,5,6,7-tetrachlorofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  16. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.2330 Section 74.2330 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 74.2306 Section 74.2306 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications.The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1339 - D&C Red No. 39.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... with 26 CFR part 212. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No. 39 shall conform to the following specifications... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 39. 74.1339 Section 74.1339 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1339 D&C Red No. 39. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 74.1322 Section 74.1322 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1322 D&C Red No. 22. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 22 is principally the disodium salt of 2′,4′,5′7′-tetrabromofluorescein (CAS Reg. No....

  1. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 74.2327 Section 74.2327 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2307 - D&C Red No. 7

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7 74.2307 Section 74.2307 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2307 D&C Red No. 7 (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Red No. 30 is principally 6-chloro-2-(6-chloro-4-methyl-3-oxobenzo...

  4. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 74.2336 Section 74.2336 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  7. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  15. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  17. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  19. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.2254 Section 74.2254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  5. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 11. 74.1261 Section 74.1261 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1261 D&C Orange No. 11. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 74.1254 Section 74.1254 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 4 is principally the sodium salt of 4- benzenesulfonic acid. (2) Color...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.2255 Section 74.2255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the...

  11. 21 CFR 74.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 74.1255 Section 74.1255 Food and... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) the color additive D&C Orange No. 5 is a mixture consisting principally the sodium salt of 4′,5′-dibromofluorescein...

  12. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  13. 21 CFR 74.1260 - D&C Orange No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 10. 74.1260 Section 74.1260 Food... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1260 D&C Orange No. 10. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Orange No. 10 is a mixture consisting principally of 4′,5′-diiodofluorescein,...

  14. DC superconducting fault current limiter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tixador, P.; Villard, C.; Cointe, Y.

    2006-03-01

    There is a lack of satisfying solutions for fault currents using conventional technologies, especially in DC networks, where a superconducting fault current limiter could play a very important part. DC networks bring a lot of advantages when compared to traditional AC ones, in particular within the context of the liberalization of the electric market. Under normal operation in a DC network, the losses in the superconducting element are nearly zero and only a small, i.e. a low cost, refrigeration system is then required. The absence of zero crossing of a DC fault current favourably accelerates the normal zone propagation. The very high current slope at the time of the short circuit in a DC grid is another favourable parameter. The material used for the experiments is YBCO deposited on Al2O3 as well as YBCO coated conductors. The DC limitation experiments are compared to AC ones at different frequencies (50-2000 Hz). Careful attention is paid to the quench homogenization, which is one of the key issues for an SC FCL. The University of Geneva has proposed constrictions. We have investigated an operating temperature higher than 77 K. As for YBCO bulk, an operation closer to the critical temperature brings a highly improved homogeneity in the electric field development. The material can then absorb large energies without degradation. We present tests at various temperatures. These promising results are to be confirmed over long lengths.

  15. Dynamic stimuli: accentuating aesthetic preference biases.

    PubMed

    Friedrich, Trista E; Harms, Victoria L; Elias, Lorin J

    2014-01-01

    Despite humans' preference for symmetry, artwork often portrays asymmetrical characteristics that influence the viewer's aesthetic preference for the image. When presented with asymmetrical images, aesthetic preference is often given to images whose content flows from left-to-right and whose mass is located on the right of the image. Cerebral lateralization has been suggested to account for the left-to-right directionality bias; however, the influence of cultural factors, such as scanning habits, on aesthetic preference biases is debated. The current research investigates aesthetic preference for mobile objects and landscapes, as previous research has found contrasting preference for the two image types. Additionally, the current experiment examines the effects of dynamic movement on directionality preference to test the assumption that static images are perceived as aesthetically equivalent to dynamic images. After viewing mirror-imaged pairs of pictures and videos, right-to-left readers failed to show a preference bias, whereas left-to-right readers preferred stimuli with left-to-right directionality regardless of the location of the mass. The directionality bias in both reading groups was accentuated by the videos, but the bias was significantly stronger in left-to-right readers. The findings suggest that scanning habits moderate the leftward bias resulting from hemispheric specialization and that dynamic stimuli further fluent visual processing.

  16. Description and Status of the DC Lightning Mapping Array

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Blakeslee, Richard; Rudlosky, Scott D.; Bailey, Jeffrey C.; Hall, John M.; Goodman, Steven J.; Zubrick, Steven; Krehbiel, Paul

    2011-01-01

    The DC Lightning Mapping Array (DC LMA) centered on the Washington, DC metro region has been in operation since 2006. During that time the DC LMA has provided real time data to regional National Weather Service (NSF) Sterling, VA forecast office for operations support and the NOAA Meteorological Development Laboratory (MDL) for new product development and assessment. Data from this network (as well as other from other LMA systems) are now being used to create proxy Geostationary Lightning Mapper (GLM) data sets for GOES-R risk reduction and algorithm development activities. In addition, since spring 2009 data are provided to the Storm Prediction Center in support of Hazardous Weather Testbed and GOES-R Proving Ground activities during the Spring Program. Description, status and plans will be discussed.

  17. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  18. Vortex ratchet reversal in an asymmetric washboard pinning potential subject to combined dc and ac stimuli.

    PubMed

    Shklovskij, Valerij A; Sosedkin, Vladimir V; Dobrovolskiy, Oleksandr V

    2014-01-15

    The mixed-state resistive response of a superconductor thin film with an asymmetric washboard pinning potential subject to superimposed dc and ac currents of arbitrary amplitudes and frequency at finite temperature is theoretically investigated. The problem is considered in the single-vortex approximation, relying upon the exact solution of the Langevin equation in terms of a matrix continued fraction. The dc voltage response and the absorbed power in ac response are analyzed as functions of dc bias and ac current amplitude and frequency in a wide range of corresponding dimensionless parameters. Predictions are made of (i) a reversal of the rectified voltage at small dc biases and strong ac drives and (ii) a non-monotonic enhancement of the absorbed power in the nonlinear ac response at far sub-depinning frequencies. It is elucidated how and why both these effects appear due to the competition of the fixed internal and the tunable, dc bias-induced external asymmetry of the potential as the only reason. This is distinct from other scenarios used for explaining the vortex ratchet reversal effect so far. PMID:24304564

  19. A DC-DC converter based powering scheme for the upgrade of the CMS pixel detector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feld, L.; Karpinski, W.; Klein, K.; Merz, J.; Sammet, J.; Wlochal, M.

    2011-11-01

    Around 2016, the pixel detector of the CMS experiment will be upgraded. The amount of current that has to be provided to the front-end electronics is expected to increase by a factor of two. Since the space available for cables is limited, this would imply unacceptable power losses in the currently installed supply cables. Therefore it is foreseen to place DC-DC converters close to the front-end electronics, allowing the provision of power at higher voltages, thereby facilitating the supply of the required currents with the present cable plant. This conference report introduces the foreseen powering scheme of the pixel upgrade. For the first time, system tests have been conducted with pixel barrel sensor modules, radiation tolerant DC-DC converters and the full power supply chain of the pixel detector. In addition, studies of the stability of different powering schemes under various conditions are summarized. In particular the impact of large and fast load variations, which are related to the bunch structure of the LHC beam, has been studied.

  20. 75 FR 36298 - Airworthiness Directives; McDonnell Douglas Corporation Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC-8-41...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ...-09-04, Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008), for all Model DC-8-31, DC-8-32, DC-8-33, DC... ``significant rule'' under the DOT Regulatory Policies and Procedures (44 FR 11034, February 26, 1979); and 3... removing Amendment 39-15484 (73 FR 21523, April 22, 2008) and adding the following new AD:...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  5. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  6. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  7. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  8. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  12. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2206 D&C Green No. 6. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling requirements....

  17. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  20. 21 CFR 74.2334 - D&C Red No. 34.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2334 D&C Red No. 34. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 34 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  2. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  3. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  4. 21 CFR 74.2330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2330 D&C Red No. 30. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  5. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  6. 21 CFR 74.2707 - D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707 D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  7. 21 CFR 74.2707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2707a Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... for coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice....

  8. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  9. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  10. 21 CFR 74.2711 - D&C Yellow No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2711 D&C Yellow No. 11. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 11 shall conform in identity and specifications to the... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  11. 21 CFR 74.2331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2331 D&C Red No. 31. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  12. 21 CFR 74.2317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2317 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  13. 21 CFR 74.2708 - D&C Yellow No. 8.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2708 D&C Yellow No. 8. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Yellow No. 8 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements... coloring externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  14. 21 CFR 74.2327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2327 D&C Red No. 27. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  15. 21 CFR 74.2104 - D&C Blue No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2104 D&C Blue No. 4. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Blue No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... externally applied cosmetics in amounts consistent with good manufacturing practice. (c) Labeling. The...

  16. 21 CFR 74.2328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2328 D&C Red No. 28. (a) Identity and specifications. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74... cosmetics generally in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice. (c)...

  17. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  18. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  19. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  20. 21 CFR 74.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 5 is principally the disodium salt of 2,2′- bis- (CAS Reg. No. 4403-90-1). (2) Color...

  1. 21 CFR 74.2053 - D&C Black No. 3.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Cosmetics § 74.2053 D&C Black No. 3. (a) Identity. The color additive D&C... cosmetics in amounts consistent with current good manufacturing practice: Eyeliner, eye shadow, mascara,...

  2. 21 CFR 74.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Drugs § 74.1205 D&C Green No. 5. (a) Identity. (1) The color additive D&C Green No. 5 is principally the disodium salt of 2,2′- bis- (CAS Reg. No. 4403-90-1). (2) Color...

  3. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of 4′,5... drug use made with D&C Orange No. 11 may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications....

  4. 21 CFR 74.1261 - D&C Orange No. 11.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... additive D&C Orange No. 11 is a mixture consisting principally of the disodium salts of 4′,5... drug use made with D&C Orange No. 11 may contain only those diluents listed in this subpart as safe and suitable for use in color additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications....

  5. Current patterns and orbital magnetism in mesoscopic dc transport.

    PubMed

    Walz, Michael; Wilhelm, Jan; Evers, Ferdinand

    2014-09-26

    We present ab initio calculations of the local current density j(r) as it arises in dc-transport measurements. We discover pronounced patterns in the local current density, ring currents ("eddies"), that go along with orbital magnetism. Importantly, the magnitude of the ring currents can exceed the (average) transport current by orders of magnitude. We find associated magnetic fields that exhibit drastic fluctuations with field gradients reaching 1  T nm⁻¹ V⁻¹. The relevance of our observations for spin relaxation in systems with very weak spin-orbit interaction, such as organic semiconductors, is discussed. In such systems, spin relaxation induced by bias driven orbital magnetism competes with relaxation induced by the hyperfine interaction and appears to be of similar strength. We propose a NMR-type experiment in the presence of dc-current flow to observe the spatial fluctuations of the induced magnetic fields.

  6. Integrated modeling and control of a PEM fuel cell power system with a PWM DC/DC converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choe, Song-Yul; Lee, Jung-Gi; Ahn, Jong-Woo; Baek, Soo-Hyun

    A fuel cell powered system is regarded as a high current and low voltage source. To boost the output voltage of a fuel cell, a DC/DC converter is employed. Since these two systems show different dynamics, they need to be coordinated to meet the demand of a load. This paper proposes models for the two systems with associated controls, which take into account a PEM fuel cell stack with air supply and thermal systems, and a PWM DC/DC converter. The integrated simulation facilitates optimization of the power control strategy, and analyses of interrelated effects between the electric load and the temperature of cell components. In addition, the results show that the proposed power control can coordinate the two sources with improved dynamics and efficiency at a given dynamic load.

  7. Temperature trend biases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Venema, Victor; Lindau, Ralf

    2016-04-01

    In an accompanying talk we show that well-homogenized national dataset warm more than temperatures from global collections averaged over the region of common coverage. In this poster we want to present auxiliary work about possible biases in the raw observations and on how well relative statistical homogenization can remove trend biases. There are several possible causes of cooling biases, which have not been studied much. Siting could be an important factor. Urban stations tend to move away from the centre to better locations. Many stations started inside of urban areas and are nowadays more outside. Even for villages the temperature difference between the centre and edge can be 0.5°C. When a city station moves to an airport, which often happened around WWII, this takes the station (largely) out of the urban heat island. During the 20th century the Stevenson screen was established as the dominant thermometer screen. This screen protected the thermometer much better against radiation than earlier designs. Deficits of earlier measurement methods have artificially warmed the temperatures in the 19th century. Newer studies suggest we may have underestimated the size of this bias. Currently we are in a transition to Automatic Weather Stations. The net global effect of this transition is not clear at this moment. Irrigation on average decreases the 2m-temperature by about 1 degree centigrade. At the same time, irrigation has increased significantly during the last century. People preferentially live in irrigated areas and weather stations serve agriculture. Thus it is possible that there is a higher likelihood that weather stations are erected in irrigated areas than elsewhere. In this case irrigation could lead to a spurious cooling trend. In the Parallel Observations Science Team of the International Surface Temperature Initiative (ISTI-POST) we are studying influence of the introduction of Stevenson screens and Automatic Weather Stations using parallel measurements

  8. Transformerless dc-to-dc converters with large conversion ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Middlebrook, R. D.

    1988-10-01

    A novel switching dc-dc converter is introduced in which large voltage step-down ratios can be achieved without a very small duty ratio and without a transformer. The circuit is an extension of the Cuk converter to incorporate a multistage capacitor divider. A particularly suitable application would be a 50-V to 5-V converter in which dc isolation is not required. The absence of a transformer and the larger duty ratio permit operation at a high switching frequency and make the circuit amenable to partial integration and hybrid construction techniques. An experimental 50-W three-stage voltage-divider Cuk converter converts 50 V to 5 V at 500 kHz, with efficiency higher than for a basic Cuk converter operated at the same conditions. A corresponding voltage-multiplier Cuk converter is described, as well as dual buck-boost-derived step-down and step-up converters.

  9. Giant self-biased magnetoelectric coupling in co-fired textured layered composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Yongke; Zhou, Yuan; Priya, Shashank

    2013-02-01

    Co-fired magnetostrictive/piezoelectric/magnetostrictive laminate structure with silver inner electrode was synthesized and characterized. We demonstrate integration of textured piezoelectric microstructure with the cost-effective low-temperature co-fired layered structure to achieve strong magnetoelectric coupling. Using the co-fired composite, a strategy was developed based upon the hysteretic response of nickel-copper-zinc ferrite magnetostrictive materials to achieve peak magnetoelectric response at zero DC bias, referred as self-biased magnetoelectric response. Fundamental understanding of self-bias phenomenon in composites with single phase magnetic material was investigated by quantifying the magnetization and piezomagnetic changes with applied DC field. We delineate the contribution arising from the interfacial strain and inherent magnetic hysteretic behavior of copper modified nickel-zinc ferrite towards self-bias response.

  10. Commercial Of-The Shelf DC/DC Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Denzinger, W.; Baumel, S.

    2011-10-01

    A commercial of-the-shelf (COTS) DC/DC converter for the supply of digital electronics on board of spacecraft has been developed with special emphasis on: *Low cost Readily available *Easy manufacturing *No use of ITAR listed EEE parts like rad-hard mosfets *Minimum number of rad-hard digital and analog IC's *Design tolerance against SEE by appropriate filtering The study was supported by the European Space Agency (ESA) under the contract number 21729/08/NL7LvH.

  11. Low dose failures of hardened DC-DC power converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lehman, J.; Yui, C.; Rax, B. G.; Miyahira, T. F.; Weideman, M.; Schrick, P.; Swift, G. M.; Johnston, A. H.

    2002-01-01

    Box-level total dose testing of the FOG (Fiber Optic Gyro) by IXSEA at ESA's GammabeamFacility were abruptly terminated at 8krad (Si) due to catastrophic failure (complete shutdown). This was unexpected because all components within the gyro were supposedly radiation tolerant. Further testing showed that the components responsible for the failure were two DC-DC converters, manufactured by Interpoint, that stopped regulating shortly before shutdown. This paper summarizes diagnostic test results for the converters to determine the underlying cause of the unexpected failure at low levels of radiation.

  12. 36 CFR 1280.71 - What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? 1280.71 Section 1280.71 Parks, Forests, and Public... Apply to Use NARA Public Areas in the Washington, DC, Area? General § 1280.71 What are the general rules for using NARA property in the Washington, DC, area? In addition to the rules listed in Subparts A,...

  13. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., including the DC FRZ. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and in § 93.345, or... operating within the DC SFRA; (5) For VFR operations, the pilot must file and activate a DC FRZ or DC SFRA..., out of, or through the Washington, DC Tri-Area Class B Airspace Area, the pilot receives a...

  14. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ..., including the DC FRZ. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and in § 93.345, or... operating within the DC SFRA; (5) For VFR operations, the pilot must file and activate a DC FRZ or DC SFRA..., out of, or through the Washington, DC Tri-Area Class B Airspace Area, the pilot receives a...

  15. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ..., including the DC FRZ. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and in § 93.345, or... operating within the DC SFRA; (5) For VFR operations, the pilot must file and activate a DC FRZ or DC SFRA..., out of, or through the Washington, DC Tri-Area Class B Airspace Area, the pilot receives a...

  16. 14 CFR 93.339 - Requirements for operating in the DC SFRA, including the DC FRZ.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ..., including the DC FRZ. (a) Except as provided in paragraphs (b) and (c) of this section and in § 93.345, or... operating within the DC SFRA; (5) For VFR operations, the pilot must file and activate a DC FRZ or DC SFRA..., out of, or through the Washington, DC Tri-Area Class B Airspace Area, the pilot receives a...

  17. Complex-plasma manipulation by radiofrequency biasing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Annaratone, B. M.; Antonova, T.; Goldbeck, D. D.; Thomas, H. M.; Morfill, G. E.

    2004-12-01

    This paper presents an experimental study on the nature, the dimensions and the timescale of the perturbation introduced by radiofrequency (rf) biasing of areas adjacent to the plasma. The analysis of the rf sheath, and of the charging of particles in it, has disclosed a levitation force on particles, which is substantially different from the dc one often used in complex plasmas. Experimentally, the rf heavily loaded sheath presents characteristics completely different from the normal case Vrf <= Vdc. Regions of extra ionization and complex electrostatic structures arise. These have been visualized by nanoparticles grown in the plasma. A variety of equilibrium positions for a controlled number of microparticles (injected) can be achieved by fine balancing of dc and rf on a pixel with the neighbouring sheath kept under control. In certain situations gravity is completely compensated, allowing the study of three-dimensional clusters. The motion of clusters from 4 to about 100 particles is simultaneously monitored by a three-dimensional visualization based on two laser lights modulated in intensity. This method enables the study of time-varying effects, such as transitions and vibrations, as well as the study of static structures and lattice defects. At pressures below 40 Pa in large clusters a poloidal motion appears.

  18. Assessing Bias in Search Engines.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mowshowitz, Abbe; Kawaguchi, Akira

    2002-01-01

    Addresses the measurement of bias in search engines on the Web, defining bias as the balance and representation of items in a collection retrieved from a database for a set of queries. Assesses bias by measuring the deviation from the ideal of the distribution produced by a particular search engine. (Author/LRW)

  19. Negativity bias and basic values.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Shalom H

    2014-06-01

    Basic values explain more variance in political attitudes and preferences than other personality and sociodemographic variables. The values most relevant to the political domain are those likely to reflect the degree of negativity bias. Value conflicts that represent negativity bias clarify differences between what worries conservatives and liberals and suggest that relations between ideology and negativity bias are linear. PMID:24970450

  20. Measurement of electron temperature and ion density using the self-bias effect in plasmas

    SciTech Connect

    Hwang, Kwang-Tae; Oh, Se-Jin; Choi, Ik-Jin; Chung, Chin-Wook

    2010-06-15

    For novel plasma diagnostics, the rf floating probe was revisited. For inducing the self-bias effect, ac bias voltage (approxkilohertz) was applied through a dc blocking capacitor between a probe and a signal generator. The dc self-bias potential was changed not only with ac bias voltages but also with electron temperatures, and therefore, the electron temperature was derived from the variations in the self-bias potential with and without ac bias voltage. The harmonic component of the probe contains information about the ion flux, and using a fast Fourier transform analysis of the probe current, the ion density was derived from the first harmonic current of the probe. The experimental results were compared with a single Langmuir probe. The electron temperature and the ion density were in good agreement with those from the Langmuir probe. Because the amplitude of the ac bias voltage is very low (<3 V), local ionizations affected by a high bias-voltage can be neglected.

  1. Human tolerogenic DC-10: perspectives for clinical applications

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Dendritic cells (DCs) are critically involved in inducing either immunity or tolerance. During the last decades efforts have been devoted to the development of ad hoc methods to manipulate DCs in vitro to enhance or stabilize their tolerogenic properties. Addition of IL-10 during monocyte-derived DC differentiation allows the induction of DC-10, a subset of human tolerogenic DCs characterized by high IL-10/IL-12 ratio and co-expression of high levels of the tolerogenic molecules HLA-G and immunoglobulin-like transcript 4. DC-10 are potent inducers of adaptive type 1 regulatory T cells, well known to promote and maintain peripheral tolerance. In this review we provide an in-depth comparison of the phenotype and mechanisms of suppression mediated by DC-10 and other known regulatory antigen-presenting cells currently under clinical development. We discuss the clinical therapeutic application of DC-10 as inducers of type 1 regulatory T cells for tailoring regulatory T-cell-based cell therapy, and the use of DC-10 as adoptive cell therapy for promoting and restoring tolerance in T-cell-mediated diseases. PMID:23369527

  2. An integrated dc SQUID cascade

    SciTech Connect

    Davidson, A.

    1983-05-01

    An integrated tunnel junction dc SQUID cascade has been built and some of its operating characteristics measured. It is shown for the first time that good modulation can be achieved with a remote termination for the tunnel junction shunts. Response time of one of the SQUID's in the cascade was measured to be better than 5 nanoseconds. Maintenance of this high speed is an advantage of the cascade arrangement over other schemes for matching and reading-out dc tunnel junction SQUID's. True cascade operation was not obtained, due to coupling of Josephson oscillations from the first stage of the cascade to the second.

  3. AC and DC power transmission

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1985-01-01

    The technical and economic assessment of AC and DC transmission systems; long distance transmission, cable transmission, system inter-connection, voltage support, reactive compensation, stabilisation of systems; parallel operation of DC links with AC systems; comparison between alternatives for particular schemes. Design and application equipment: design, testing and application of equipment for HVDC, series and shunt static compensated AC schemes, including associated controls. Installations: overall design of stations and conductor arrangements for HVDC, series and shunt static AC schemes including insulation co-ordination. System analysis and modelling.

  4. An efficient switch-mode power supply using an AC-DC interleaved boost converter and a DC-DC full-bridge topology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessa Tofoli, Fernando; Gallo, Carlos Alberto

    2011-04-01

    This work presents the conception and analysis of a switch-mode power supply with desirable characteristics of high power factor, low harmonic distortion, regulated output voltage, and high efficiency. An interleaved boost converter associated with a nondissipative snubber is used as a preregulator stage. Additionally, a soft switching full-bridge converter is chosen as DC-DC stage. The combination of both topologies results in the proposed switch-mode power supply. Theoretical background on each one of the converters is presented and analytical results are discussed in order to validate the proposal.

  5. Racial-ethnic biases, time pressure, and medical decisions.

    PubMed

    Stepanikova, Irena

    2012-09-01

    This study examined two types of potential sources of racial-ethnic disparities in medical care: implicit biases and time pressure. Eighty-one family physicians and general internists responded to a case vignette describing a patient with chest pain. Time pressure was manipulated experimentally. Under high time pressure, but not under low time pressure, implicit biases regarding blacks and Hispanics led to a less serious diagnosis. In addition, implicit biases regarding blacks led to a lower likelihood of a referral to specialist when physicians were under high time pressure. The results suggest that when physicians face stress, their implicit biases may shape medical decisions in ways that disadvantage minority patients.

  6. Switching coordination of distributed dc-dc converters for highly efficient photovoltaic power plants

    DOEpatents

    Agamy, Mohammed; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Galbraith, Anthony William; Harfman Todorovic, Maja

    2014-09-09

    A distributed photovoltaic (PV) power plant includes a plurality of distributed dc-dc converters. The dc-dc converters are configured to switch in coordination with one another such that at least one dc-dc converter transfers power to a common dc-bus based upon the total system power available from one or more corresponding strings of PV modules. Due to the coordinated switching of the dc-dc converters, each dc-dc converter transferring power to the common dc-bus continues to operate within its optimal efficiency range as well as to optimize the maximum power point tracking in order to increase the energy yield of the PV power plant.

  7. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation.

  8. DC coupled Doppler radar physiological monitor.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xi; Song, Chenyan; Lubecke, Victor; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2011-01-01

    One of the challenges in Doppler radar systems for physiological monitoring is a large DC offset in baseband outputs. Typically, AC coupling is used to eliminate this DC offset. Since the physiological signals of interest include frequency content near DC, it is not desirable to simply use AC coupling on the radar outputs. While AC coupling effectively removes DC offset, it also introduces a large time delay and distortion. This paper presents the first DC coupled IQ demodulator printed circuit board (PCB) design and measurements. The DC coupling is achieved by using a mixer with high LO to RF port isolation, resulting in a very low radar DC offset on the order of mV. The DC coupled signals from the PCB radar system were successfully detected with significant LNA gain without saturation. Compared to the AC coupled results, the DC coupled results show great advantages of less signal distortion and more accurate rate estimation. PMID:22254704

  9. 21 CFR 82.1205 - D&C Green No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1205 D&C Green No. 5. The color additive D&C Green No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1205(a)(1... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 5. 82.1205 Section 82.1205 Food...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1206 D&C Green No. 6. The color additive D&C Green No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1206 (a... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 82.1206 Section 82.1206 Food...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1602 - D&C Violet No. 2.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Violet No. 2. 82.1602 Section 82.1602 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1602 D&C Violet No. 2. The color additive D&C Violet No. 2 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1336 - D&C Red No. 36.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 36. 82.1336 Section 82.1336 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1336 D&C Red No. 36. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 36 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1336...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1328 - D&C Red No. 28.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 28. 82.1328 Section 82.1328 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1328 D&C Red No. 28. The color additive D&C Red No. 28 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1328...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1317 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 82.1317 Section 82.1317 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1317 D&C Red No. 17. The color additive D&C Red No. 17 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1317...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1321 - D&C Red No. 21.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 21. 82.1321 Section 82.1321 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1321 D&C Red No. 21. The color additive D&C Red No. 21 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1321...

  20. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  1. 21 CFR 82.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 82.1330 Section 82.1330 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1330 D&C Red No. 30. The color additive D&C Red No. 30 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1330...

  2. 21 CFR 82.1306 - D&C Red No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 6. 82.1306 Section 82.1306 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1306 D&C Red No. 6. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 6 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1306...

  3. 21 CFR 82.1327 - D&C Red No. 27.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 27. 82.1327 Section 82.1327 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1327 D&C Red No. 27. The color additive D&C Red No. 27 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1327...

  4. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  5. 21 CFR 82.1331 - D&C Red No. 31.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 31. 82.1331 Section 82.1331 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1331 D&C Red No. 31. The color additive D&C Red No. 31 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  6. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  7. 21 CFR 82.1307 - D&C Red No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Red No. 7. 82.1307 Section 82.1307 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1307 D&C Red No. 7. (a) The color additive D&C Red No. 7 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1307...

  8. 21 CFR 82.1333 - D&C Red No. 33.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 33. 82.1333 Section 82.1333 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1333 D&C Red No. 33. (a) The color additive D&C Red. No. 33 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  9. 21 CFR 82.1322 - D&C Red No. 22.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Red No. 22. 82.1322 Section 82.1322 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1322 D&C Red No. 22. The color additive D&C Red No. 22 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of § 74.1322...

  10. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  11. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  12. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  13. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  14. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  15. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  16. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  17. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  18. 21 CFR 82.1254 - D&C Orange No. 4.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 4. 82.1254 Section 82.1254 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1254 D&C Orange No. 4. The color additive D&C Orange No. 4 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  19. 21 CFR 82.1255 - D&C Orange No. 5.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Orange No. 5. 82.1255 Section 82.1255 Food and... PROVISIONALLY LISTED COLORS AND SPECIFICATIONS Drugs and Cosmetics § 82.1255 D&C Orange No. 5. (a) The color additive D&C Orange No. 5 shall conform in identity and specifications to the requirements of §...

  20. CD bias control on hole pattern

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koike, Kyohei; Hara, Arisa; Natori, Sakurako; Yamauchi, Shohei; Yamato, Masatoshi; Oyama, Kenichi; Yaegashi, Hidetami

    2016-03-01

    Gridded design rules[1] is major process in configuring logic circuit used 193-immersion lithography. In the scaling of grid patterning, we can make 10nm order line and space pattern by using multiple patterning techniques such as self-aligned multiple patterning (SAMP) and litho-etch- litho-etch (LELE)[2][3][5] . On the other hand, Line cut process has some error parameters such as pattern defect, placement error, roughness and X-Y CD bias with the decreasing scale. Especially roughness and X-Y CD bias are paid attention because it cause cut error and pattern defect. In this case, we applied some smoothing process to care hole roughness[4]. Each smoothing process showed different effect on X-Y CD bias. In this paper, we will report the pattern controllability comparison of trench and block + inverse. It include X-Y CD bias, roughness and process usability. Furthermore we will discuss optimum method focused on X-Y CD bias when we use additional process such as smoothing and shrink etching .

  1. Quasi-Periodicity, Chaos and Coexistence in the Time Delay Controlled Two-Cell DC-DC Buck Converter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koubaâ, Karama; Feki, Moez

    In addition to border collision bifurcation, the time delay controlled two-cell DC/DC buck converter is shown to exhibit a chaotic behavior as well. The time delay controller adds new design parameters to the system and therefore the variation of a parameter may lead to different types of bifurcation. In this work, we present a thorough analysis of different scenarios leading to bifurcation and chaos. We show that the time delay controlled two-cell DC/DC buck converter may also exhibit a Neimark-Sacker bifurcation which for some parameter set may lead to a 2D torus that may then break yielding a chaotic behavior. Besides, the saturation of the controller can also lead to the coexistence of a stable focus and a chaotic attractor. The results are presented using numerical simulation of a discrete map of the two-cell DC/DC buck converter obtained by expressing successive crossings of Poincaré section in terms of each other.

  2. Children’s Beliefs in Reciprocation of Biases and Flexibility

    PubMed Central

    Rennels, Jennifer L.

    2015-01-01

    Children display positive and negative biases based on peers’ attractiveness, gender, and race, but it is unclear whether children who associate positive attributes with certain peers also believe those peers think positively of them. In each domain (attractiveness, gender, race), we measured 3- to 11-year-olds’ (N=102) biases and flexibility and their beliefs in reciprocity of bias and flexibility by asking who would think positively of them. Children could choose one of two unfamiliar peers (forced choice assessment) or had the additional options of choosing both or neither peer (non-forced choice assessment). We found children often displayed beliefs in reciprocation, with beliefs in positive bias reciprocation from attractive girls showing the largest effect sizes. These beliefs significantly correlated with and were predictive of children’s positive and negative biases and flexibility. The duality of children’s beliefs may contribute to strengthening their biases and segregating social groups. PMID:25918015

  3. Performance of a spacecraft DC-DC converter breadboard modified for low temperature operation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gerber, Scott S.; Stell, Chris; Patterson, Richard; Ray, Biswajit

    1996-01-01

    A 1OW 3OV/5.OV push-pull dc-dc converter breadboard, designed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) with a +50 C to +5 C operating range for the Cassini space probe, was characterized for lower operating temperatures. The breadboard converter which failed to operate for temperatures below -125 C was then modified to operate at temperatures approaching that of liquid nitrogen (LN2). Associated with this low operating temperature range (greater than -196 C) was a variety of performance problems such as significant change in output voltage, converter switching instability, and failure to restart at temperatures below -154 C. An investigation into these problems yielded additional modifications to the converter which improved low temperature performance even further.

  4. SSP Technology Investigation of a High-Voltage DC-DC Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pappas, J. A.; Grady, W. M.; George, Patrick J. (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The goal of this project was to establish the feasibility of a high-voltage DC-DC converter based on a rod-array triggered vacuum switch (RATVS) for the Space Solar Power system. The RATVS has many advantages over silicon and silicon-carbide devices. The RATVS is attractive for this application because it is a high-voltage device that has already been demonstrated at currents in excess of the requirement for an SSP device and at much higher per-device voltages than existing or near-term solid state switching devices. The RATVS packs a much higher specific power rating than any solid-state device and it is likely to be more tolerant of its surroundings in space. In addition, pursuit of an RATVS-based system would provide NASA with a nearer-term and less expensive power converter option for the SSP.

  5. Inverse dual converter (IDC) for high power dc-dc applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, M.; Husain, I.; Bilgic, M. O.

    The inverse dual converter (IDC), suitable for high-power dc-dc conversion applications, is presented. The IDC is a voltage source converter with an ac link and has been derived from an inductor converter bridge. This capacitor commutated converter is capable of continuous voltage step-up or step-down control over a wide range without the need of a transformer. In addition to high-frequency switching the converter is characterized by soft switching techniques, reducing constraints on the ratings of the switches. The average model developed with the help of gyrator theory provides sufficient information for control strategies and design considerations. The results of gyrator modeling and computer simulation are compared with experimental results obtained from a prototype IDC.

  6. Topological variations of the inverse dual converter for high-power dc-dc distribution systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ehsani, Mehrdad; Laskai, Laszlo

    New dc-to-dc converter topologies are presented which are suitable for high density high power supplies. Topological variations of the basic inverse dual converter (IDC) circuit such as the transformer coupled, the multiphase and the multipulse derivation of the single phase IDC have been analyzed and some simulation results have been presented. The single phase IDC offers a buck-boost operation over wide range without transformer, bidirectional power flow, and complementary commutation of the switches. The topologies examined in this paper have additional features such as lower device and component stresses, and smaller filter requirements, resulting in smaller size and weight. Some performance and possible applications are also examined. IDCs for serial and parallel power distribution, and ac tapping of the IDC are discussed.

  7. Bicrystal YBCO dc squids with low noise

    SciTech Connect

    Miklich, A.H.; Koelle, D.; Dantsker, E.; Nemeth, D.T.; Kingston, J.J.; Kromann, R.F.; Clarke, J.

    1992-08-01

    We have fabricated 12 dc SQUIDs by laser depositing YBa[sub 2]Cu[sub 3]O[sub 7-x] on a SrTiO[sub 3] bicrystal substrate with a misorientation angle of 24*. At 77K all twelve devices had acceptable values of critical current, resistance and voltage modulation produced by an external magnetic field. The white noise energy of one device with an estimated inductance of 41 pH was 1.8 [times] 10[sup [minus]30] JHz[sup [minus]1]. The noise power scaled as 1/f at frequencies below about 1kHz, however, by using a bias current reversal scheme we were able to reduce this noise by two orders of magnitude at 1 Hz, to a value of about 1.5 [times] 10[sup [minus]29] JHz[sup [minus]1]. We made a magnetometer by coupling the SQUID to a flux transformer with a 5-turn input coil. The measured magnetic field gain was 60, and the white noise 36fT Hz[sup [minus][1/2

  8. Analytical derivation of DC SQUID response

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soloviev, I. I.; Klenov, N. V.; Schegolev, A. E.; Bakurskiy, S. V.; Kupriyanov, M. Yu

    2016-09-01

    We consider voltage and current response formation in DC superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) with overdamped Josephson junctions in resistive and superconducting state in the context of a resistively shunted junction (RSJ) model. For simplicity we neglect the junction capacitance and the noise effect. Explicit expressions for the responses in resistive state were obtained for a SQUID which is symmetrical with respect to bias current injection point. Normalized SQUID inductance l=2{{eI}}{{c}}L/{\\hslash } (where I c is the critical current of Josephson junction, L is the SQUID inductance, e is the electron charge and ℏ is the Planck constant) was assumed to be within the range l ≤ 1, subsequently expanded up to l≈ 7 using two fitting parameters. SQUID current response in the superconducting state was considered for arbitrary value of the inductance. The impact of small technological spread of parameters relevant to low-temperature superconductor (LTS) technology was studied, using a generalization of the developed analytical approach, for the case of a small difference of critical currents and shunt resistances of the Josephson junctions, and inequality of SQUID inductive shoulders for both resistive and superconducting states. Comparison with numerical calculation results shows that developed analytical expressions can be used in practical LTS SQUIDs and SQUID-based circuits design, e.g. large serial SQIF, drastically decreasing the time of simulation.

  9. DC-Powered Jumping Ring

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jeffery, Rondo N.; Farhang, Amiri

    2016-01-01

    The classroom jumping ring demonstration is nearly always performed using alternating current (AC), in which the ring jumps or flies off the extended iron core when the switch is closed. The ring jumps higher when cooled with liquid nitrogen (LN2). We have performed experiments using DC to power the solenoid and find similarities and significant…

  10. Experiments with a DC Motor

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kraftmakher, Yaakov

    2010-01-01

    Experiments with an electric motor provide good opportunity to demonstrate some basic laws of electricity and magnetism. The aim of the experiments with a low-power dc motor is to show how the motor approaches its steady rotation and how its torque, mechanical power and efficiency depend on the rotation velocity. The tight relationship between the…

  11. Toroidal-Core Microinductors Biased by Permanent Magnets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lieneweg, Udo; Blaes, Brent

    2003-01-01

    The designs of microscopic toroidal-core inductors in integrated circuits of DC-to-DC voltage converters would be modified, according to a proposal, by filling the gaps in the cores with permanent magnets that would apply bias fluxes (see figure). The magnitudes and polarities of the bias fluxes would be tailored to counteract the DC fluxes generated by the DC components of the currents in the inductor windings, such that it would be possible to either reduce the sizes of the cores or increase the AC components of the currents in the cores without incurring adverse effects. Reducing the sizes of the cores could save significant amounts of space on integrated circuits because relative to other integrated-circuit components, microinductors occupy large areas - of the order of a square millimeter each. An important consideration in the design of such an inductor is preventing magnetic saturation of the core at current levels up to the maximum anticipated operating current. The requirement to prevent saturation, as well as other requirements and constraints upon the design of the core are expressed by several equations based on the traditional magnetic-circuit approximation. The equations involve the core and gap dimensions and the magnetic-property parameters of the core and magnet materials. The equations show that, other things remaining equal, as the maximum current is increased, one must increase the size of the core to prevent the flux density from rising to the saturation level. By using a permanent bias flux to oppose the flux generated by the DC component of the current, one would reduce the net DC component of flux in the core, making it possible to reduce the core size needed to prevent the total flux density (sum of DC and AC components) from rising to the saturation level. Alternatively, one could take advantage of the reduction of the net DC component of flux by increasing the allowable AC component of flux and the corresponding AC component of current

  12. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  13. Identification of cDC1- and cDC2-committed DC progenitors reveals early lineage priming at the common DC progenitor stage in the bone marrow.

    PubMed

    Schlitzer, Andreas; Sivakamasundari, V; Chen, Jinmiao; Sumatoh, Hermi Rizal Bin; Schreuder, Jaring; Lum, Josephine; Malleret, Benoit; Zhang, Sanqian; Larbi, Anis; Zolezzi, Francesca; Renia, Laurent; Poidinger, Michael; Naik, Shalin; Newell, Evan W; Robson, Paul; Ginhoux, Florent

    2015-07-01

    Mouse conventional dendritic cells (cDCs) can be classified into two functionally distinct lineages: the CD8α(+) (CD103(+)) cDC1 lineage, and the CD11b(+) cDC2 lineage. cDCs arise from a cascade of bone marrow (BM) DC-committed progenitor cells that include the common DC progenitors (CDPs) and pre-DCs, which exit the BM and seed peripheral tissues before differentiating locally into mature cDCs. Where and when commitment to the cDC1 or cDC2 lineage occurs remains poorly understood. Here we found that transcriptional signatures of the cDC1 and cDC2 lineages became evident at the single-cell level from the CDP stage. We also identified Siglec-H and Ly6C as lineage markers that distinguished pre-DC subpopulations committed to the cDC1 lineage (Siglec-H(-)Ly6C(-) pre-DCs) or cDC2 lineage (Siglec-H(-)Ly6C(+) pre-DCs). Our results indicate that commitment to the cDC1 or cDC2 lineage occurs in the BM and not in the periphery.

  14. A scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with continuous bias modulation.

    PubMed

    Beall, Edward; Yin, Xing; Waldeck, David H; Wierzbinski, Emil

    2015-09-28

    Single molecule conductance measurements on 1,8-octanedithiol were performed using the scanning tunneling microscope break junction method with an externally controlled modulation of the bias voltage. Application of an AC voltage is shown to improve the signal to noise ratio of low current (low conductance) measurements as compared to the DC bias method. The experimental results show that the current response of the molecule(s) trapped in the junction and the solvent media to the bias modulation can be qualitatively different. A model RC circuit which accommodates both the molecule and the solvent is proposed to analyze the data and extract a conductance for the molecule. PMID:26308622

  15. Actively Biased p-Channel MOSFET Studied with Scanning Capacitance Microscopy

    SciTech Connect

    DE WOLF,P.; DODD,PAUL E.; HETHERINGTON,DALE L.; NAKAKURA,CRAIG Y.; SHANEYFELT,MARTY R.

    1999-09-22

    Scanning capacitance microscopy (SCM) was used to study the cross section of an operating p-channel MOSFET. We discuss the novel test structure design and the modifications to the SCM hardware that enabled us to perform SCM while applying dc bias voltages to operate the device. The results are compared with device simulations performed with DAVINCI.

  16. DC to DC power converters and methods of controlling the same

    DOEpatents

    Steigerwald, Robert Louis; Elasser, Ahmed; Sabate, Juan Antonio; Todorovic, Maja Harfman; Agamy, Mohammed

    2012-12-11

    A power generation system configured to provide direct current (DC) power to a DC link is described. The system includes a first power generation unit configured to output DC power. The system also includes a first DC to DC converter comprising an input section and an output section. The output section of the first DC to DC converter is coupled in series with the first power generation unit. The first DC to DC converter is configured to process a first portion of the DC power output by the first power generation unit and to provide an unprocessed second portion of the DC power output of the first power generation unit to the output section.

  17. Bias deconstructed: unravelling the scale dependence of halo bias using real-space measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Paranjape, Aseem; Sefusatti, Emiliano; Chan, Kwan Chuen; Desjacques, Vincent; Monaco, Pierluigi; Sheth, Ravi K.

    2013-11-01

    We explore the scale dependence of halo bias using real-space cross-correlation measurements in N-body simulations and in PINOCCHIO, an algorithm based on Lagrangian Perturbation Theory. Recent work has shown how to interpret such real-space measurements in terms of k-dependent bias in Fourier space, and how to remove the k-dependence to reconstruct the k-independent peak-background split halo bias parameters. We compare our reconstruction of the linear bias, which requires no free parameters, with previous estimates from N-body simulations which were obtained directly in Fourier space at large scales, and find very good agreement. Our reconstruction of the quadratic bias is similarly parameter-free, although in this case there are no previous Fourier space measurements to compare with. Our analysis of N-body simulations explicitly tests the predictions of the excursion set peaks (ESP) formalism of Paranjape et al. for the scale dependence of bias; we find that the ESP predictions accurately describe our measurements. In addition, our measurements in PINOCCHIO serve as a useful, successful consistency check between PINOCCHIO and N-body simulations that is not accessible to traditional measurements.

  18. Dilation and Curettage (D&C)

    MedlinePlus

    ... Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Home For Patients Search FAQs Dilation and ... FAQ062, February 2016 PDF Format Dilation and Curettage (D&C) Special Procedures What is dilation and curettage ( ...

  19. Mesoscopic electronics beyond DC transport

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Carlo, Leonardo

    Since the inception of mesoscopic electronics in the 1980's, direct current (dc) measurements have underpinned experiments in quantum transport. Novel techniques complementing dc transport are becoming paramount to new developments in mesoscopic electronics, particularly as the road is paved toward quantum information processing. This thesis describes seven experiments on GaAs/AlGaAs and graphene nanostructures unified by experimental techniques going beyond traditional dc transport. Firstly, dc current induced by microwave radiation applied to an open chaotic quantum dot is investigated. Asymmetry of mesoscopic fluctuations of induced current in perpendicular magnetic field is established as a tool for separating the quantum photovoltaic effect from classical rectification. A differential charge sensing technique is next developed using integrated quantum point contacts to resolve the spatial distribution of charge inside a double quantum clot. An accurate method for determining interdot tunnel coupling and electron temperature using charge sensing is demonstrated. A two-channel system for detecting current noise in mesoscopic conductors is developed, enabling four experiments where shot noise probes transmission properties not available in dc transport and Johnson noise serves as an electron thermometer. Suppressed shot noise is observed in quantum point contacts at zero parallel magnetic field, associated with the 0.7 structure in conductance. This suppression evolves with increasing field into the shot-noise signature of spin-lifted mode degeneracy. Quantitative agreement is found with a phenomenological model for density-dependent mode splitting. Shot noise measurements of multi-lead quantum-dot structures in the Coulomb blockade regime distill the mechanisms by which Coulomb interaction and quantum indistinguishability correlate electron flow. Gate-controlled sign reversal of noise cross correlation in two capacitively-coupled dots is observed, and shown to

  20. The intentionality bias and schizotypy.

    PubMed

    Moore, J W; Pope, A

    2014-01-01

    The "intentionality bias" refers to our automatic tendency to judge other people's actions to be intentional. In this experiment we extended research on this effect in two key ways. First, we developed a novel nonlinguistic task for assessing the intentionality bias. This task used video stimuli of ambiguous movements. Second, we investigated the relationship between the strength of this bias and schizotypy (schizophrenia-like symptoms in healthy individuals). Our results showed that the intentionality bias was replicated for the video stimuli and also that this bias is stronger in those individuals scoring higher on the schizotypy rating scales. Overall these findings lend further support for the existence of the intentionality bias. We also discuss the possible relevance of these findings for our understanding of certain symptoms of schizophrenic illness.

  1. Lightweight, Low-Loss dc Transducer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nagano, S.; Koerner, T.; Brisendine, P.; Weiner, H.; Detwiler, R.

    1982-01-01

    Direct current is measured by lightweight, magnetically coupled transducer that weighs only 4 grams, without actually being wired into circuit under test. Miniature dc transducer has five windings: 2 for ac excitation inputs, 2 for dc control inputs, and 1 for feedback. Wire gages are selected for minimum size and weight. Size and number of turns of dc windings are selected according to dc current range to be measured.

  2. Development of a Novel Bi-Directional Isolated Multiple-Input DC-DC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.

    2005-10-24

    There is vital need for a compact, lightweight, and efficient energy-storage system that is both affordable and has an acceptable cycle life for the large-scale production of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Most of the current research employs a battery-storage unit (BU) combined with a fuel cell (FC) stack in order to achieve the operating voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. A system block diagram is shown in Fig.1.1. In such a conventional arrangement, the battery is sized to deliver the difference between the energy required by the traction drive and the energy supplied by the FC system. Energy requirements can increase depending on the drive cycle over which the vehicle is expected to operate. Peak-power transients result in an increase of losses and elevated temperatures which result in a decrease in the lifetime of the battery. This research will propose a novel two-input direct current (dc) dc to dc converter to interface an additional energy-storage element, an ultracapacitor (UC), which is shown in Fig.1.2. It will assist the battery during transients to reduce the peak-power requirements of the battery.

  3. 21 CFR 74.1330 - D&C Red No. 30.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false D&C Red No. 30. 74.1330 Section 74.1330 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... as safe for use in color additive mixtures for coloring drugs. (b) Specifications. D&C Red No....

  4. 21 CFR 74.3710 - D&C Yellow No. 10.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Yellow No. 10. 74.3710 Section 74.3710 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3710 D&C Yellow No. 10. (a) Identity....

  5. 21 CFR 74.3230 - D&C Red No. 17.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Red No. 17. 74.3230 Section 74.3230 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR ADDITIVES SUBJECT TO CERTIFICATION Medical Devices § 74.3230 D&C Red No. 17. (a) Identity and...

  6. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  7. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.1707a Section 74.1707a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  8. 21 CFR 74.1206 - D&C Green No. 6.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false D&C Green No. 6. 74.1206 Section 74.1206 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF COLOR... additive D&C Green No. 6 for use in coloring externally applied drugs shall conform to the...

  9. 21 CFR 74.1707a - Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7. 74.1707a Section 74.1707a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... additive mixtures for coloring externally applied drugs. (b) Specifications. Ext. D&C Yellow No. 7...

  10. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  11. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  12. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  13. 49 CFR 372.219 - Washington, DC

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Washington, DC 372.219 Section 372.219... ZONES, AND TERMINAL AREAS Commercial Zones § 372.219 Washington, DC The zone adjacent to, and... points within a line drawn 15 miles beyond the municipal limits of Washington, DC (c) All points...

  14. The effect of a helicopter on DC fields and ions

    SciTech Connect

    Harris, E.L. ); Rindall, B.D.; Tarko, N.J. ); Norris-Elye, O.C. )

    1993-10-01

    When a plan was initiated to utilize a helicopter to perform work on an energized, high voltage dc transmission line by bonding the helicopter to the conductor, it was necessary to determine what effect, if any, the helicopter would have on the dc fields and ions. In addition, it was necessary to determine the possible effect on helicopter instrumentation and communications. A test site and research facility at Lundar, Manitoba, Canada, provided the ideal location for making these tests. As a result, the information obtained determined that a helicopter-airborne platform could safely be used to perform the work.

  15. Washington: A DC Circuit Tour

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Halpern, Paul

    2010-12-01

    I explore the history of physics in Washington, D.C., and its environs through a tour of notable sites and personalities. Highlights include visits to the Smithsonian and Carnegie Institutions, stops at the Einstein Memorial, George Washington University, the University of Maryland, and the American Center for Physics, and biographical sketches of physicists Joseph Henry, George Gamow, Edward Teller, and others who worked in the District of Columbia.

  16. Transformerless dc-Isolated Converter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rippel, Wally E.

    1987-01-01

    Efficient voltage converter employs capacitive instead of transformer coupling to provide dc isolation. Offers buck/boost operation, minimal filtering, and low parts count, with possible application in photovoltaic power inverters, power supplies and battery charges. In photovoltaic inverter circuit with transformerless converter, Q2, Q3, Q4, and Q5 form line-commutated inverter. Switching losses and stresses nil because switching performed when current is zero.

  17. Advanced DC/DC Converters towards higher Volumetric Efficiencies for Space Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Plante, Jeannette; Shue, Jack; Liu, David; Wang, Bright; Shaw, Harry

    2005-01-01

    Contents include the following: 1. NASA mission outlook. 2. Issues with DC/DC converter for space. 3. Statement of newly initiated engineering activities for DC/DC converter. 4. Overview of prototyping work with novel materials. 5. Results of cryogenic testing.

  18. 76 FR 68745 - DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-07

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission DC Energy, LLC; DC Energy Mid-Atlantic, LLC v. PJM Interconnection, L.L.C... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission (Commission), 18 CFR 385.206 (2011), DC Energy, LLC (DC Energy)...

  19. Punch-through characteristics of FOXFET biased detectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bacchetta, N.; Bisello, D.; da Ros, R.; Giraldo, A.; Gotra, Yu; Paccagnella, A.; Verzellesi, G.

    1994-08-01

    The main punch-through characteristics have been studied on Field OXide FETs (FOXFETs) used for microstrip biasing in Si detectors. The voltage-current DC curves have been studied on devices with different channel width/length ratios, fabricated on Si substrates with different doping levels. The punch-through threshold voltage depends on the positive charge in the gate oxide, device layout and temperature. The relation between punch-through current and dynamic resistance is insensitive to charge accumulation in the gate oxide induced by irradiation and to different Si donor doping levels. Dynamic resistance however varies as the doping changes from n- to p-type, and it also depends on the Si bulk damage induced by neutron irradiation. The AC impedance will reproduce the DC dynamic resistance, but show also large effects due to parasitic capacitance, which dominates the FOXFET response at high frequency and can affect the detector performance.

  20. DESIGN OF A DC/RF PHOTOELECTRON GUN.

    SciTech Connect

    YU,D.NEWSHAM,Y.SMIRONOV,A.YU,J.SMEDLEY,J.SRINIVASAN RAU,T.LEWELLEN,J.ZHOLENTS,A.

    2003-05-12

    An integrated dc/rf photoelectron gun produces a low-emittance beam by first rapidly accelerating electrons at a high gradient during a short ({approx}1 ns), high-voltage pulse, and then injecting the electrons into an rf cavity for subsequent acceleration. Simulations show that significant improvement of the emittance appears when a high field ({approx} 0.5-1 GV/m) is applied to the cathode surface. An adjustable dc gap ({le} 1 mm) which can be integrated with an rf cavity is designed for initial testing at the Injector Test Stand at Argonne National Laboratory using an existing 70-kV pulse generator. Plans for additional experiments of an integrated dc/rf gun with a 250-kV pulse generator are being made.