Science.gov

Sample records for additional design constraints

  1. Optimality criteria design and stress constraint processing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Methods for pre-screening stress constraints into either primary or side-constraint categories are reviewed; a projection method, which is developed from prior cycle stress resultant history, is introduced as an additional screening parameter. Stress resultant projections are also employed to modify the traditional stress-ratio, side-constraint boundary. A special application of structural modification reanalysis is applied to the critical stress constraints to provide feasible designs that are preferable to those obtained by conventional scaling. Sample problem executions show relatively short run times and fewer design cycle iterations to achieve low structural weights; those attained are comparable to the minimum values developed elsewhere.

  2. The Probabilistic Admissible Region with Additional Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roscoe, C.; Hussein, I.; Wilkins, M.; Schumacher, P.

    The admissible region, in the space surveillance field, is defined as the set of physically acceptable orbits (e.g., orbits with negative energies) consistent with one or more observations of a space object. Given additional constraints on orbital semimajor axis, eccentricity, etc., the admissible region can be constrained, resulting in the constrained admissible region (CAR). Based on known statistics of the measurement process, one can replace hard constraints with a probabilistic representation of the admissible region. This results in the probabilistic admissible region (PAR), which can be used for orbit initiation in Bayesian tracking and prioritization of tracks in a multiple hypothesis tracking framework. The PAR concept was introduced by the authors at the 2014 AMOS conference. In that paper, a Monte Carlo approach was used to show how to construct the PAR in the range/range-rate space based on known statistics of the measurement, semimajor axis, and eccentricity. An expectation-maximization algorithm was proposed to convert the particle cloud into a Gaussian Mixture Model (GMM) representation of the PAR. This GMM can be used to initialize a Bayesian filter. The PAR was found to be significantly non-uniform, invalidating an assumption frequently made in CAR-based filtering approaches. Using the GMM or particle cloud representations of the PAR, orbits can be prioritized for propagation in a multiple hypothesis tracking (MHT) framework. In this paper, the authors focus on expanding the PAR methodology to allow additional constraints, such as a constraint on perigee altitude, to be modeled in the PAR. This requires re-expressing the joint probability density function for the attributable vector as well as the (constrained) orbital parameters and range and range-rate. The final PAR is derived by accounting for any interdependencies between the parameters. Noting that the concepts presented are general and can be applied to any measurement scenario, the idea

  3. Stress constraints in optimality criteria design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.

    1982-01-01

    Procedures described emphasize the processing of stress constraints within optimality criteria designs for low structural weight with stress and compliance constraints. Prescreening criteria are used to partition stress constraints into either potentially active primary sets or passive secondary sets that require minimal processing. Side constraint boundaries for passive constraints are derived by projections from design histories to modify conventional stress-ratio boundaries. Other procedures described apply partial structural modification reanalysis to design variable groups to correct stress constraint violations of unfeasible designs. Sample problem results show effective design convergence and, in particular, advantages for reanalysis in obtaining lower feasible design weights.

  4. Hard and Soft Constraints in Reliability-Based Design Optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, L.uis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements in the form of inequality constraints are present. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value and by sets of componentwise bounded uncertain variables. These models, which often arise in engineering problems, allow for a sharp mathematical manipulation. Constraints can be implemented in the hard sense, i.e., constraints must be satisfied for all parameter realizations in the uncertainty model, and in the soft sense, i.e., constraints can be violated by some realizations of the uncertain parameter. In regard to hard constraints, this methodology allows (i) to determine if a hard constraint can be satisfied for a given uncertainty model and constraint structure, (ii) to generate conclusive, formally verifiable reliability assessments that allow for unprejudiced comparisons of competing design alternatives and (iii) to identify the critical combination of uncertain parameters leading to constraint violations. In regard to soft constraints, the methodology allows the designer (i) to use probabilistic uncertainty models, (ii) to calculate upper bounds to the probability of constraint violation, and (iii) to efficiently estimate failure probabilities via a hybrid method. This method integrates the upper bounds, for which closed form expressions are derived, along with conditional sampling. In addition, an l(sub infinity) formulation for the efficient manipulation of hyper-rectangular sets is also proposed.

  5. Boosting Set Constraint Propagation for Network Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yip, Justin; van Hentenryck, Pascal; Gervet, Carmen

    This paper reconsiders the deployment of synchronous optical networks (SONET), an optimization problem naturally expressed in terms of set variables. Earlier approaches, using either MIP or CP technologies, focused on symmetry breaking, including the use of SBDS, and the design of effective branching strategies. This paper advocates an orthogonal approach and argues that the thrashing behavior experienced in earlier attempts is primarily due to a lack of pruning. It studies how to improve domain filtering by taking a more global view of the application and imposing redundant global constraints. The technical results include novel hardness results, propagation algorithms for global constraints, and inference rules. The paper also evaluates the contributions experimentally by presenting a novel model with static symmetric-breaking constraints and a static variable ordering which is many orders of magnitude faster than existing approaches.

  6. Design of helicopter rotors to noise constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schaeffer, E. G.; Sternfeld, H., Jr.

    1978-01-01

    Results of the initial phase of a research project to study the design constraints on helicopter noise are presented. These include the calculation of nonimpulsive rotor harmonic and broadband hover noise spectra, over a wide range of rotor design variables and the sensitivity of perceived noise level (PNL) to changes in rotor design parameters. The prediction methodology used correlated well with measured whirl tower data. Application of the predictions to variations in rotor design showed tip speed and thrust as having the most effect on changing PNL.

  7. Decoupling Coupled Constraints Through Utility Design

    SciTech Connect

    Li, N; Marden, JR

    2014-08-01

    Several multiagent systems exemplify the need for establishing distributed control laws that ensure the resulting agents' collective behavior satisfies a given coupled constraint. This technical note focuses on the design of such control laws through a game-theoretic framework. In particular, this technical note provides two systematic methodologies for the design of local agent objective functions that guarantee all resulting Nash equilibria optimize the system level objective while also satisfying a given coupled constraint. Furthermore, the designed local agent objective functions fit into the framework of state based potential games. Consequently, one can appeal to existing results in game-theoretic learning to derive a distributed process that guarantees the agents will reach such an equilibrium.

  8. Minimum weight design of helicopter rotor blades with frequency constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1989-01-01

    The minimum weight design of helicopter rotor blades subject to constraints on fundamental coupled flap-lag natural frequencies has been studied in this paper. A constraint has also been imposed on the minimum value of the blade autorotational inertia to ensure that the blade has sufficient inertia to autorotate in case of an engine failure. The program CAMRAD has been used for the blade modal analysis and the program CONMIN has been used for the optimization. In addition, a linear approximation analysis involving Taylor series expansion has been used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis which consists of analytical derivatives of the objective function and the autorotational inertia constraint and central finite difference derivatives of the frequency constraints. Optimum designs have been obtained for blades in vacuum with both rectangular and tapered box beam structures. Design variables include taper ratio, nonstructural segment weights and box beam dimensions. The paper shows that even when starting with an acceptable baseline design, a significant amount of weight reduction is possible while satisfying all the constraints for blades with rectangular and tapered box beams.

  9. Material constraints on high-speed design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bucur, Diana; Militaru, Nicolae

    2015-02-01

    Current high-speed circuit designs with signal rates up to 100Gbps and above are implying constraints for dielectric and conductive materials and their dependence of frequency, for component elements and for production processes. The purpose of this paper is to highlight through various simulation results the frequency dependence of specific parameters like insertion and return loss, eye diagrams, group delay that are part of signal integrity analyses type. In low-power environment designs become more complex as the operation frequency increases. The need for new materials with spatial uniformity for dielectric constant is a need for higher data rates circuits. The fiber weave effect (FWE) will be analyzed through the eye diagram results for various dielectric materials in a differential signaling scheme given the fact that the FWE is a phenomenon that affects randomly the performance of the circuit on balanced/differential transmission lines which are typically characterized through the above mentioned approaches. Crosstalk between traces is also of concern due to propagated signals that have tight rise and fall times or due to high density of the boards. Criteria should be considered to achieve maximum performance of the designed system requiring critical electronic properties.

  10. Incorporating manufacturability constraints into the design process of heterogeneous objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hu, Yuna; Blouin, Vincent Y.; Fadel, Georges M.

    2004-11-01

    Rapid prototyping (RP) technology, such as Laser Engineering Net Shaping (LENSTM), can be used to fabricate heterogeneous objects with gradient variations in material composition. These objects are generally characterized by enhanced functional performance. Past research on the design of such objects has focused on representation, modeling, and functional performance. However, the inherent constraints in RP processes, such as system capability and processing time, lead to heterogeneous objects that may not meet the designer's original intent. To overcome this situation, the research presented in this paper focuses on the identification and implementation of manufacturing constraints into the design process. A node-based finite element modeling technique is used for the representation and analysis and the multicriteria design problem corresponds to finding the nodal material compositions that minimize structural weight and maximize thermal performance. The optimizer used in this research is a real-valued Evolutionary Strategies (ES), which is well suited for this type of multi-modal problem. Two limitations of the LENS manufacturing process, which have an impact on the design process, are identified and implemented. One of them is related to the manufacturing time, which is considered as an additional criterion to be minimized in the design problem for a preselected tool path. A brake disc rotor made of two materials, aluminum for lightweight and steel for superior thermal characteristics, is used to illustrate the tradeoff between manufacturability and functionality.

  11. Study of design constraints on helicopter noise

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sternfeld, H., Jr.; Wiedersum, C. W.

    1979-01-01

    A means of estimating the noise generated by a helicopter main rotor using information which is generally available during the preliminary design phase of aircraft development is presented. The method utilizes design charts and tables which do not require an understanding of acoustical theory or computational procedures in order to predict the perceived noise level, a weighted sound pressure level, or C weighted sound pressure level of a single hovering rotor. A method for estimating the effective perceived noise level in forward flight is also included. In order to give the designer an assessment of the relative rotor performance, which may be traded off against noise, an additional chart for estimating the percent of available rotor thrust which must be expended in lifting the rotor and drive system, is included as well as approach for comparing the subjective acceptability of various rotors once the absolute sound pressure levels are predicted.

  12. Additional constraints on circumstellar disks in the Trapezium Cluster

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stauffer, John R.; Prosser, Charles F.; Hartmann, Lee; Mccaughrean, Mark J.

    1994-01-01

    We discuss new constraints on the population of compact ionized sources in the Trapezium Cluster thought to arise from the ionization by the central OB stars of circumstellar disks around low-mass pre-main sequence stars. We present new HST Planetary Camera observations of two of these candidate disk sources, resolving extended nebulosity around them. One source shows a small-scale (greater than 100 AU) bow-shock structure, previously seen on larger scales by O'Dell et al. We show that the circumstellar disk model is the most likely one for the majority of sources, although it remains plausible that some of the larger objects could be equilibrium globules. We combine the most complete censuses of compact radio sources and stars in the core region to derive the fraction of the stellar population that may be associated with a circumstellar disk. Our estimate of 25-75 percent is comparable to that found for PMS stars in the Taurus-Auriga dark clouds, indicating that the dense cluster environment of the Trapezium has not drastically reduced the frequency of disks seen around pre-main sequence stars.

  13. 78 FR 59766 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics ] traffickers and...

  14. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property are blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act... they are owned or controlled by a specially designated narcotics trafficker. FOR FURTHER...

  15. 77 FR 48609 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act''). DATES: The designation by the Director of OFAC of the... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  16. Water Infrastructure Adaptation in New Urban Design: Possibilities and Constraints

    EPA Science Inventory

    Natural constraints, including climate change and dynamic socioeconomic development, can significantly impact the way we plan, design, and operate water infrastructure, thus its sustainability to deliver reliable quality water supplies and comply with environmental regulations. ...

  17. 76 FR 5857 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  18. 77 FR 2347 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  19. 75 FR 34214 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  20. 78 FR 53191 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  1. 77 FR 56271 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  2. 76 FR 67792 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  3. 76 FR 25407 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property are blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics ] traffickers and their organizations on...

  4. 77 FR 29755 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  5. 78 FR 53007 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  6. 78 FR 29814 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-21

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  7. 77 FR 22846 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-17

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  8. 76 FR 56875 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  9. 78 FR 28289 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-14

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis....

  10. 76 FR 6843 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-08

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  11. 77 FR 36041 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  12. 76 FR 5858 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  13. 78 FR 13760 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  14. 77 FR 63418 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  15. 77 FR 28670 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-05-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  16. 78 FR 3083 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-15

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  17. 75 FR 65554 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin..., 1999. The Kingpin Act establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign...

  18. A Novel Constraint for Thermodynamically Designing DNA Sequences

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Changjun

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological and biomolecular advances have introduced novel uses for DNA such as DNA computing, storage, and encryption. For these applications, DNA sequence design requires maximal desired (and minimal undesired) hybridizations, which are the product of a single new DNA strand from 2 single DNA strands. Here, we propose a novel constraint to design DNA sequences based on thermodynamic properties. Existing constraints for DNA design are based on the Hamming distance, a constraint that does not address the thermodynamic properties of the DNA sequence. Using a unique, improved genetic algorithm, we designed DNA sequence sets which satisfy different distance constraints and employ a free energy gap based on a minimum free energy (MFE) to gauge DNA sequences based on set thermodynamic properties. When compared to the best constraints of the Hamming distance, our method yielded better thermodynamic qualities. We then used our improved genetic algorithm to obtain lower-bound DNA sequence sets. Here, we discuss the effects of novel constraint parameters on the free energy gap. PMID:24015217

  19. A novel constraint for thermodynamically designing DNA sequences.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qiang; Wang, Bin; Wei, Xiaopeng; Zhou, Changjun

    2013-01-01

    Biotechnological and biomolecular advances have introduced novel uses for DNA such as DNA computing, storage, and encryption. For these applications, DNA sequence design requires maximal desired (and minimal undesired) hybridizations, which are the product of a single new DNA strand from 2 single DNA strands. Here, we propose a novel constraint to design DNA sequences based on thermodynamic properties. Existing constraints for DNA design are based on the Hamming distance, a constraint that does not address the thermodynamic properties of the DNA sequence. Using a unique, improved genetic algorithm, we designed DNA sequence sets which satisfy different distance constraints and employ a free energy gap based on a minimum free energy (MFE) to gauge DNA sequences based on set thermodynamic properties. When compared to the best constraints of the Hamming distance, our method yielded better thermodynamic qualities. We then used our improved genetic algorithm to obtain lower-bound DNA sequence sets. Here, we discuss the effects of novel constraint parameters on the free energy gap. PMID:24015217

  20. 78 FR 9997 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). In addition, OFAC... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  1. Contextual Shaping of Student Design Practices: The Role of Constraint in First-Year Engineering Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goncher, Andrea M.

    thResearch on engineering design is a core area of concern within engineering education, and a fundamental understanding of how engineering students approach and undertake design is necessary in order to develop effective design models and pedagogies. This dissertation contributes to scholarship on engineering design by addressing a critical, but as yet underexplored, problem: how does the context in which students design shape their design practices? Using a qualitative study comprising of video data of design sessions, focus group interviews with students, and archives of their design work, this research explored how design decisions and actions are shaped by context, specifically the context of higher education. To develop a theoretical explanation for observed behavior, this study used the nested structuration. framework proposed by Perlow, Gittell, & Katz (2004). This framework explicated how teamwork is shaped by mutually reinforcing relationships at the individual, organizational, and institutional levels. I appropriated this framework to look specifically at how engineering students working on a course-related design project identify constraints that guide their design and how these constraints emerge as students interact while working on the project. I first identified and characterized the parameters associated with the design project from the student perspective and then, through multi-case studies of four design teams, I looked at the role these parameters play in student design practices. This qualitative investigation of first-year engineering student design teams revealed mutual and interconnected relationships between students and the organizations and institutions that they are a part of. In addition to contributing to research on engineering design, this work provides guidelines and practices to help design educators develop more effective design projects by incorporating constraints that enable effective design and learning. Moreover, I found

  2. 78 FR 66105 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  3. 78 FR 70630 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  4. 77 FR 69706 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  5. 75 FR 64781 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pending investigation pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  6. 77 FR 23807 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-20

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  7. 77 FR 44715 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-30

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  8. 77 FR 14592 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have ] been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  9. 77 FR 38140 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-26

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities) whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  10. 78 FR 8701 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-06

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  11. 75 FR 36474 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  12. 78 FR 61000 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-02

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  13. 76 FR 25405 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a...

  14. 78 FR 62946 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-22

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  15. 78 FR 36635 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-06-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  16. 77 FR 51616 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-24

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  17. 76 FR 10668 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on...

  18. 77 FR 4400 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entities whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  19. 77 FR 69707 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin...

  20. Teaching Database Design with Constraint-Based Tutors

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mitrovic, Antonija; Suraweera, Pramuditha

    2016-01-01

    Design tasks are difficult to teach, due to large, unstructured solution spaces, underspecified problems, non-existent problem solving algorithms and stopping criteria. In this paper, we comment on our approach to develop KERMIT, a constraint-based tutor that taught database design. In later work, we re-implemented KERMIT as EER-Tutor, and…

  1. Magnetic design constraints of helical solenoids

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes, M. L.; Krave, S. T.; Tompkins, J. C.; Yonehara, K.; Flanagan, G.; Kahn, S. A.; Melconian, K.

    2015-01-30

    Helical solenoids have been proposed as an option for a Helical Cooling Channel for muons in a proposed Muon Collider. Helical solenoids can provide the required three main field components: solenoidal, helical dipole, and a helical gradient. In general terms, the last two are a function of many geometric parameters: coil aperture, coil radial and longitudinal dimensions, helix period and orbit radius. In this paper, we present design studies of a Helical Solenoid, addressing the geometric tunability limits and auxiliary correction system.

  2. Math software for calculating design constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Deitz, D.

    1995-02-01

    This article describes how, to determine the specifications for a combustor in a high-speed civil transport plane, mechanical engineers are using a commercial math program to solve hundreds of complex equations. Since the demise of the slide rule, many engineers have created math routines from scratch or adapted spreadsheet programs when they needed to calculate design parameters. Commercial math programs, however, are more flexible than homemade routines or jury-rigged spreadsheet calculators, and therefore make it easier to solve complex equations. They can also cut the time it takes to determine key parameters early in the design process, when time savings can translate into big cost savings. Engineers working on Pratt and Whitney`s portion of the National Aeronautics and Space Administration`s high-speed civil transport (HSCT) project estimated that they were able to cut in half the time needed to solve equations in the preliminary design process by using a commercial math program, TK Solver, from Universal Technical Systems Inc. in Rockford, Ill. The time savings resulted from the program`s ability to solve any equation for any variable, relieving engineers of the need to rewrite or reenter equations.

  3. Noise constraints effecting optimal propeller designs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. J.; Sullivan, J. P.

    1985-01-01

    A preliminary design tool for advanced propellers was developed combining a fast vortex lattice aerodynamic analysis, a fast subsonic point source noise analysis, and an optimization scheme using a conjugate directions method. Twist, chord and sweep distributions are optimized to simultaneously improve both the aerodynamic performance and the noise observed at a fixed relative position. The optimal noise/performance tradeoffs for straight and advanced concept blades are presented. The techniques used include increasing the blade number, blade sweep, reducing the rotational speed, shifting the spanwise loading and diameter changes.

  4. Mars Rover Sample Return aerocapture configuration design and packaging constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawson, Shelby J.

    1989-01-01

    This paper discusses the aerodynamics requirements, volume and mass constraints that lead to a biconic aeroshell vehicle design that protects the Mars Rover Sample Return (MRSR) mission elements from launch to Mars landing. The aerodynamic requirements for Mars aerocapture and entry and packaging constraints for the MRSR elements result in a symmetric biconic aeroshell that develops a L/D of 1.0 at 27.0 deg angle of attack. A significant problem in the study is obtaining a cg that provides adequate aerodynamic stability and performance within the mission imposed constraints. Packaging methods that relieve the cg problems include forward placement of aeroshell propellant tanks and incorporating aeroshell structure as lander structure. The MRSR missions developed during the pre-phase A study are discussed with dimensional and mass data included. Further study is needed for some missions to minimize MRSR element volume so that launch mass constraints can be met.

  5. 75 FR 44311 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-28

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  6. 78 FR 53007 - Additional Designation, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designation, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act AGENCY... property and interests in property has been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides...

  7. 78 FR 5562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-25

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  8. 76 FR 23644 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-04-27

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  9. 75 FR 24773 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-05

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  10. 78 FR 47828 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-06

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  11. 77 FR 39573 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-03

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). OFAC is also.... The Kingpin Act establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign...

  12. 77 FR 6191 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-07

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  13. 77 FR 14859 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-13

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  14. 78 FR 22620 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-16

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C. 1182). DATES: The... establishes a program targeting the activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and...

  15. 76 FR 58562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis with the objective of denying...

  16. 75 FR 20425 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-19

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  17. Optimality criteria solution strategies in multiple constraint design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Levy, R.; Parzynski, W.

    1981-01-01

    Procedures and solution strategies are described to solve the conventional structural optimization problem using the Lagrange multiplier technique. The multipliers, obtained through solution of an auxiliary nonlinear optimization problem, lead to optimality criteria to determine the design variables. It is shown that this procedure is essentially equivalent to an alternative formulation using a dual method Lagrangian function objective. Although mathematical formulations are straight-forward, successful applications and computational efficiency depend upon execution procedure strategies. Strategies examined, with application examples, include selection of active constraints, move limits, line search procedures, and side constraint boundaries.

  18. 77 FR 58912 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ...) (individual) Linked To: CONSTRUCTORA FR DE VENEZUELA, C.A. Entity: 2. CONSTRUCTORA FR DE VENEZUELA, C.A. (a.k... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign...

  19. 76 FR 25406 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-04

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  20. 77 FR 74915 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-18

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act... entity whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis. It provides a statutory framework...

  1. Designing under Constraints: Cell Phone Case Design Challenge

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sutton, Kevin; Grubbs, Michael E.; Ernst, Jeremy

    2014-01-01

    Engineering design has been suggested as a viable instructional approach for Technology Education (TE) to intentionally provide students the opportunity to apply multidisciplinary concepts to solve ill-defined design challenges (Wells & Ernst, 2012; Sanders & Wells, 2010; Wicklein, 2006). Currently, the context for design challenges in TE…

  2. Engineering design constraints of the lunar surface environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morrison, D. A.

    1992-01-01

    Living and working on the lunar surface will be difficult. Design of habitats, machines, tools, and operational scenarios in order to allow maximum flexibility in human activity will require paying attention to certain constraints imposed by conditions at the surface and the characteristics of lunar material. Primary design drivers for habitat, crew health and safety, and crew equipment are: ionizing radiation, the meteoroid flux, and the thermal environment. Secondary constraints for engineering derive from: the physical and chemical properties of lunar surface materials, rock distributions and regolith thicknesses, topography, electromagnetic properties, and seismicity. Protection from ionizing radiation is essential for crew health and safety. The total dose acquired by a crew member will be the sum of the dose acquired during EVA time (when shielding will be least) plus the dose acquired during time spent in the habitat (when shielding will be maximum). Minimizing the dose acquired in the habitat extends the time allowable for EVA's before a dose limit is reached. Habitat shielding is enabling, and higher precision in predicting secondary fluxes produced in shielding material would be desirable. Means for minimizing dose during a solar flare event while on extended EVA will be essential. Early warning of the onset of flare activity (at least a half-hour is feasible) will dictate the time available to take mitigating steps. Warning capability affects design of rovers (or rover tools) and site layout. Uncertainty in solar flare timing is a design constraint that points to the need for quickly accessible or constructible safe havens.

  3. Strict Constraint Feasibility in Analysis and Design of Uncertain Systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2006-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design optimization of models subject to parametric uncertainty, where hard inequality constraints are present. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations prescribed by the uncertainty model. Emphasis is given to uncertainty models prescribed by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles. These models make it possible to consider sets of parameters having comparable as well as dissimilar levels of uncertainty. Two alternative formulations for hyper-rectangular sets are proposed, one based on a transformation of variables and another based on an infinity norm approach. The suite of tools developed enable us to determine if the satisfaction of hard constraints is feasible by identifying critical combinations of uncertain parameters. Since this practice is performed without sampling or partitioning the parameter space, the resulting assessments of robustness are analytically verifiable. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness of competing design alternatives, the approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness characteristics are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the solution methods only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, the tools developed are applicable to a broad range of problems in several disciplines.

  4. Measurement kernel design for compressive imaging under device constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shilling, Richard; Muise, Robert

    2013-05-01

    We look at the design of projective measurements for compressive imaging based upon image priors and device constraints. If one assumes that image patches from natural imagery can be modeled as a low rank manifold, we develop an optimality criterion for a measurement matrix based upon separating the canonical elements of the manifold prior. We then describe a stochastic search algorithm for finding the optimal measurements under device constraints based upon a subspace mismatch algorithm. The algorithm is then tested on a prototype compressive imaging device designed to collect an 8x4 array of projective measurements simultaneously. This work is based upon work supported by DARPA and the SPAWAR System Center Pacific under Contract No. N66001-11-C-4092. The views expressed are those of the author and do not reflect the official policy or position of the Department of Defense or the U.S. Government.

  5. Filter Design With Secrecy Constraints: The MIMO Gaussian Wiretap Channel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reboredo, Hugo; Xavier, Joao; Rodrigues, Miguel R. D.

    2013-08-01

    This paper considers the problem of filter design with secrecy constraints, where two legitimate parties (Alice and Bob) communicate in the presence of an eavesdropper (Eve), over a Gaussian multiple-input-multiple-output (MIMO) wiretap channel. This problem involves designing, subject to a power constraint, the transmit and the receive filters which minimize the mean-squared error (MSE) between the legitimate parties whilst assuring that the eavesdropper MSE remains above a certain threshold. We consider a general MIMO Gaussian wiretap scenario, where the legitimate receiver uses a linear Zero-Forcing (ZF) filter and the eavesdropper receiver uses either a ZF or an optimal linear Wiener filter. We provide a characterization of the optimal filter designs by demonstrating the convexity of the optimization problems. We also provide generalizations of the filter designs from the scenario where the channel state is known to all the parties to the scenario where there is uncertainty in the channel state. A set of numerical results illustrates the performance of the novel filter designs, including the robustness to channel modeling errors. In particular, we assess the efficacy of the designs in guaranteeing not only a certain MSE level at the eavesdropper, but also in limiting the error probability at the eavesdropper. We also assess the impact of the filter designs on the achievable secrecy rates. The penalty induced by the fact that the eavesdropper may use the optimal non-linear receive filter rather than the optimal linear one is also explored in the paper.

  6. Theoretical constraints in the design of multivariable control systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rynaski, E. G.; Mook, D. J.

    1993-01-01

    The theoretical constraints inherent in the design of multivariable control systems were defined and investigated. These constraints are manifested by the system transmission zeros that limit or bound the areas in which closed loop poles and individual transfer function zeros may be placed. These constraints were investigated primarily in the context of system decoupling or non-interaction. It was proven that decoupling requires the placement of closed loop poles at the system transmission zeros. Therefore, the system transmission zeros must be minimum phase to guarantee a stable decoupled system. Once decoupling has been accomplished, the remaining part of the system exhibits transmission zeros at infinity, so nearly complete design freedom is possible in terms of placing both poles and zeros of individual closed loop transfer functions. A general, dynamic inversion model following system architecture was developed that encompasses both the implicit and explicit configuration. Robustness properties are developed along with other attributes of this type of system. Finally, a direct design is developed for the longitudinal-vertical degrees of freedom of aircraft motion to show how a direct lift flap can be used to improve the pitch-heave maneuvering coordination for enhanced flying qualities.

  7. Minimum weight design of rectangular and tapered helicopter rotor blades with frequency constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1988-01-01

    The minimum weight design of a helicopter rotor blade subject to constraints on coupled flap-lag natural frequencies has been studied. A constraint has also been imposed on the minimum value of the autorotational inertia of the blade in order to ensure that it has sufficient inertia to autorotate in the case of engine failure. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade modal analysis and CONMIN is used for the optimization. In addition, a linear approximation analysis involving Taylor series expansion has been used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis which consists of analytical derivatives of the objective function and the autorotational inertia constraint and central finite difference derivatives of the frequency constraints. Optimum designs have been obtained for both rectangular and tapered blades. Design variables include taper ratio, segment weights, and box beam dimensions. It is shown that even when starting with an acceptable baseline design, a significant amount of weight reduction is possible while satisfying all the constraints for both rectangular and tapered blades.

  8. 76 FR 58562 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-21

    ... THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin... individuals whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics... activities of significant foreign narcotics traffickers and their organizations on a worldwide basis with...

  9. Study on singular radius and surface boundary constraint in refractive beam shaper design

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, C.; Zhang, Shukui

    2007-10-01

    Abstract: This paper presents analysis on important issues associated with the design of the refractive laser beam shaping system. The concept of â singular radiusâ is introduced along with solutions to minimize its adverse effect on the shaper performance. In addition, the surface boundary constraint is also discussed in details. This study provides useful guidelines against possible general design errors that would degrade the shaper quality or add undesired complication to the system.

  10. Dust Around Herbig Ae Stars: Additional Constraints from their Photometric and Polarimetric Variability

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Krivova, N. A.; Ilin, V. B.; Fischer, O.

    1996-01-01

    For the Herbig Ae stars with Algol-like minima (UX Ori, WW Vul, etc), the effects of circumstellar dust include: excess infrared emission, anomalous ultraviolet extinction, the 'blueing' of the stars in minima accompanying by an increase of intrinsic polarization. Using a Monte-Carlo code for polarized radiation transfer we have simulated these effects and compared the results obtained for different models with the observational data available. We found that the photometric and polarimetric behavior of the stars provided essential additional constraints on the circumstellar dust models. The models with spheroidal shell geometry and compact (non-fluffy) dust grains do not appear to be able to explain all the data.

  11. Design constraints of the LST fine guidance sensor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wissinger, A. B.

    1975-01-01

    The LST Fine Guidance Sensor design is shaped by the rate of occurrence of suitable guide stars, the competition for telescope focal plane space with the Science Instruments, and the sensitivity of candidate image motion sensors. The relationship between these parameters is presented, and sensitivity to faint stars is shown to be of prime importance. An interferometric technique of image motion sensing is shown to have improved sensitivity and, therefore, a reduced focal plane area requirement in comparison with other candidate techniques (image-splitting prism and image dissector tube techniques). Another design requirement is speed in acquiring the guide star in order to maximize the time available for science observations. The design constraints are shown parametrically, and modelling results are presented.

  12. A Constrainted Design Approach for NLF Airfoils by Coupling Inverse Design and Optimal Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deng, L.; Gao, Y. W.; Qiao, Z. D.

    2011-09-01

    In present paper, a design method for natural laminar flow (NLF) airfoils with a substantial amount of natural laminar flow on both surfaces by coupling inverse design method and optimal technique is developed. The N-factor method is used to design the target pressure distributions before pressure recovery region with desired transition locations while maintaining aerodynamics constraints. The pressure in recovery region is designed according to Stratford separation criteria to prevent the laminar separation. In order to improve the off-design performance in inverse design, a multi-point inverse design is performed. An optimal technique based on response surface methodology (RSM) is used to calculate the target airfoil shapes according to the designed target pressure distributions. The set of design points is selected to satisfy the D-optimality and the reduced quadratic polynomial RS models without the 2nd-order cross items are constructed to reduce the computational cost. The design cases indicated that by the coupling-method developed in present paper, the inverse design method can be used in multi-point design to improve the off-design performance and the airfoils designed have the desired transition locations and maintain the aerodynamics constraints while the thickness constraint is difficult to meet in this design procedure.

  13. Minimum weight design of pressure vessel with constraints on stiffness and strength

    SciTech Connect

    Krikanov, A.A.; Soni, S.R.

    1995-12-31

    A new design method of composite pressure vessel with constraints on stiffness and strength is proposed in this paper. A netting analysis approach is used to develop an optimization procedure. Filament wound pressure vessels are assumed to have adjacent ({+-}{phi}) angle lay ups. It is proved that laminate of two layer orientations has minimum weight. The additional constraint on strength of the first layer forming vessel`s dome is used. Minimum lamination weight is determined from the condition of active execution of two constraints. Two examples are given to obtain optimum layer orientations, thicknesses and materials. Pressure vessel without change in cylindrical diameter or length can be made. For comparison purpose, calculations of stresses are done in orthotropic material using classical lamination theory. Matrix degrades at 30 to 50% of ultimate load without fiber failure. It is allowable because elastomeric liners are used to prevent leakage due to matrix cracking.

  14. Design and additive manufacture for flow chemistry.

    PubMed

    Capel, Andrew J; Edmondson, Steve; Christie, Steven D R; Goodridge, Ruth D; Bibb, Richard J; Thurstans, Matthew

    2013-12-01

    We review the use of additive manufacturing (AM) as a novel manufacturing technique for the production of milli-scale reactor systems. Five well-developed additive manufacturing techniques: stereolithography (SL), multi-jet modelling (MJM), selective laser melting (SLM), laser sintering (LS) and fused deposition modelling (FDM) were used to manufacture a number of miniaturised reactors which were tested using a range of organic and inorganic reactions. PMID:24100659

  15. Sensitivity of the optimal preliminary design of a transport to operational constraints and performance index

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sliwa, S. M.

    1980-01-01

    Constrained parameter optimization was used to perform the optimal preliminary design of a medium range transport configuration. The impact of choosing a performance index was studied and the required fare for a 15 percent return-on-investment was proposed as a figure-of-merit. A number of design constants and constraint functions were systematically varied to document the sensitivities of the optimal design to a variety of economic and technological assumptions. Additionally, a comparison is made for each of the parameter variations between the baseline configuration and the optimally redesigned configuration.

  16. CMB topography and electrical conductivity as additional constraints for the lowermost mantle thermo-chemical structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deschamps, F.; Yin, Y.; Tackley, P. J.

    2013-12-01

    A variety of seismic observations, including tomographic models, indicate that the lowermost mantle is strongly heterogeneous. Seismic observations further support a thermo-chemical origin for the large scale heterogeneities. In particular, the large low-shear wave velocity provinces (LLSVP) observed by global tomographic images are better explained by a combination of thermal and chemical anomalies. Despite the accuracy of seismic information, uncertainties and trade-off still prevent the determination of a detailed lower mantle thermo-chemical structure. For instance, the nature of chemical heterogeneities and the exact role played by the post-perovskite phase transition are still debated. Additional constraints are needed to discriminate between the possible models of structure and dynamics of the lower mantle. Here, we consider two potential additional constraints, the electrical conductivity and the dynamic topography at the core-mantle boundary (CMB). Unlike density and seismic velocities, electrical conductivity increases with temperature. In addition, it strongly varies with the iron and silicate content. Using appropriate mineral physics data, we calculated a 3D distribution of electrical conductivity in lower mantle from the thermo-chemical structure inferred by probabilistic tomography, which maps iron and silicate excess in the LLSVP. In the lowermost mantle, we observe a belt of high conductivity, with maximum values around 20 S/m located in the LLSVP. Such a belt may trigger electric currents in the lowermost mantle and induce magnetic field variations with period of one year or more. It may thus be seen by global models of electrical conductivity. Unfortunately, such models do not sample yet regions deeper than 2000 km. A second, independent constraint we explored is the dynamic topography at the CMB. We used stagYY to calculate the dynamic topography associated with several models of thermo-chemical convection, and observe strong differences

  17. Motorcycle suspension design using matrix inequalities and passivity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Amrit; Limebeer, David J. N.

    2012-03-01

    This paper presents a design methodology for the suspension system of a novel aerodynamically efficient motorcycle. Since the machine's layout and the rider's seating position are unconventional, several aspects of the machine design, including the suspension, must be reviewed afresh. The design process is based on matrix inequalities that are used to optimise a road-grip objective function - others could be used equally well. The design problem is cast as the minimisation of an H 2 cost with passivity constraints imposed on the suspension transference. The resulting bilinear matrix inequality problem is solved using a locally optimal iterative algorithm. The matrix inequality-type characterisation of positive real functions permits the optimisation of the suspension system over an entire class of passive admittances. Torsional springs, dampers and inerters are then used to construct networks corresponding to the optimal (positive real) admittances. Networks of first, second, third and fourth orders are considered, and an argument based on the compromise between complexity and improved grip is made for the most suitable suspension configuration. Finally, the effects of improved road grip on the stability of the vehicle's lateral dynamics are analysed.

  18. An identification method for enclosed voids restriction in manufacturability design for additive manufacturing structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Shutian; Li, Quhao; Chen, Wenjiong; Tong, Liyong; Cheng, Gengdong

    2015-06-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, such as selective laser sintering (SLS) and fused deposition modeling (FDM), have become the powerful tools for direct manufacturing of complex parts. This breakthrough in manufacturing technology makes the fabrication of new geometrical features and multiple materials possible. Past researches on designs and design methods often focused on how to obtain desired functional performance of the structures or parts, specific manufacturing capabilities as well as manufacturing constraints of AM were neglected. However, the inherent constraints in AM processes should be taken into account in design process. In this paper, the enclosed voids, one type of manufacturing constraints of AM, are investigated. In mathematics, enclosed voids restriction expressed as the solid structure is simplyconnected. We propose an equivalent description of simply-connected constraint for avoiding enclosed voids in structures, named as virtual temperature method (VTM). In this method, suppose that the voids in structure are filled with a virtual heating material with high heat conductivity and solid areas are filled with another virtual material with low heat conductivity. Once the enclosed voids exist in structure, the maximum temperature value of structure will be very high. Based upon this method, the simplyconnected constraint is equivalent to maximum temperature constraint. And this method can be easily used to formulate the simply-connected constraint in topology optimization. The effectiveness of this description method is illustrated by several examples. Based upon topology optimization, an example of 3D cantilever beam is used to illustrate the trade-off between manufacturability and functionality. Moreover, the three optimized structures are fabricated by FDM technology to indicate further the necessity of considering the simply-connected constraint in design phase for AM.

  19. Integrated reservoir characterization: Improvement in heterogeneities stochastic modelling by integration of additional external constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Doligez, B.; Eschard, R.; Geffroy, F.

    1997-08-01

    The classical approach to construct reservoir models is to start with a fine scale geological model which is informed with petrophysical properties. Then scaling-up techniques allow to obtain a reservoir model which is compatible with the fluid flow simulators. Geostatistical modelling techniques are widely used to build the geological models before scaling-up. These methods provide equiprobable images of the area under investigation, which honor the well data, and which variability is the same than the variability computed from the data. At an appraisal phase, when few data are available, or when the wells are insufficient to describe all the heterogeneities and the behavior of the field, additional constraints are needed to obtain a more realistic geological model. For example, seismic data or stratigraphic models can provide average reservoir information with an excellent areal coverage, but with a poor vertical resolution. New advances in modelisation techniques allow now to integrate this type of additional external information in order to constrain the simulations. In particular, 2D or 3D seismic derived information grids, or sand-shale ratios maps coming from stratigraphic models can be used as external drifts to compute the geological image of the reservoir at the fine scale. Examples are presented to illustrate the use of these new tools, their impact on the final reservoir model, and their sensitivity to some key parameters.

  20. Can an energy balance model provide additional constraints on how to close the energy imbalance?

    PubMed

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Widmoser, Peter

    2013-02-15

    Elucidating the causes for the energy imbalance, i.e. the phenomenon that eddy covariance latent and sensible heat fluxes fall short of available energy, is an outstanding problem in micrometeorology. This paper tests the hypothesis that the full energy balance, through incorporation of additional independent measurements which determine the driving forces of and resistances to energy transfer, provides further insights into the causes of the energy imbalance and additional constraints on energy balance closure options. Eddy covariance and auxiliary data from three different biomes were used to test five contrasting closure scenarios. The main result of our study is that except for nighttime, when fluxes were low and noisy, the full energy balance generally did not contain enough information to allow further insights into the causes of the imbalance and to constrain energy balance closure options. Up to four out of the five tested closure scenarios performed similarly and in up to 53% of all cases all of the tested closure scenarios resulted in plausible energy balance values. Our approach may though provide a sensible consistency check for eddy covariance energy flux measurements. PMID:24465072

  1. Dynamic Financial Constraints: Distinguishing Mechanism Design from Exogenously Incomplete Regimes*

    PubMed Central

    Karaivanov, Alexander; Townsend, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    We formulate and solve a range of dynamic models of constrained credit/insurance that allow for moral hazard and limited commitment. We compare them to full insurance and exogenously incomplete financial regimes (autarky, saving only, borrowing and lending in a single asset). We develop computational methods based on mechanism design, linear programming, and maximum likelihood to estimate, compare, and statistically test these alternative dynamic models with financial/information constraints. Our methods can use both cross-sectional and panel data and allow for measurement error and unobserved heterogeneity. We estimate the models using data on Thai households running small businesses from two separate samples. We find that in the rural sample, the exogenously incomplete saving only and borrowing regimes provide the best fit using data on consumption, business assets, investment, and income. Family and other networks help consumption smoothing there, as in a moral hazard constrained regime. In contrast, in urban areas, we find mechanism design financial/information regimes that are decidedly less constrained, with the moral hazard model fitting best combined business and consumption data. We perform numerous robustness checks in both the Thai data and in Monte Carlo simulations and compare our maximum likelihood criterion with results from other metrics and data not used in the estimation. A prototypical counterfactual policy evaluation exercise using the estimation results is also featured. PMID:25246710

  2. RNAiFOLD: a constraint programming algorithm for RNA inverse folding and molecular design.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Clote, Peter; Dotu, Ivan

    2013-04-01

    Synthetic biology is a rapidly emerging discipline with long-term ramifications that range from single-molecule detection within cells to the creation of synthetic genomes and novel life forms. Truly phenomenal results have been obtained by pioneering groups--for instance, the combinatorial synthesis of genetic networks, genome synthesis using BioBricks, and hybridization chain reaction (HCR), in which stable DNA monomers assemble only upon exposure to a target DNA fragment, biomolecular self-assembly pathways, etc. Such work strongly suggests that nanotechnology and synthetic biology together seem poised to constitute the most transformative development of the 21st century. In this paper, we present a Constraint Programming (CP) approach to solve the RNA inverse folding problem. Given a target RNA secondary structure, we determine an RNA sequence which folds into the target structure; i.e. whose minimum free energy structure is the target structure. Our approach represents a step forward in RNA design--we produce the first complete RNA inverse folding approach which allows for the specification of a wide range of design constraints. We also introduce a Large Neighborhood Search approach which allows us to tackle larger instances at the cost of losing completeness, while retaining the advantages of meeting design constraints (motif, GC-content, etc.). Results demonstrate that our software, RNAiFold, performs as well or better than all state-of-the-art approaches; nevertheless, our approach is unique in terms of completeness, flexibility, and the support of various design constraints. The algorithms presented in this paper are publicly available via the interactive webserver http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAiFold; additionally, the source code can be downloaded from that site. PMID:23600819

  3. Modified Fully Utilized Design (MFUD) Method for Stress and Displacement Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Patnaik, Surya; Gendy, Atef; Berke, Laszlo; Hopkins, Dale

    1997-01-01

    The traditional fully stressed method performs satisfactorily for stress-limited structural design. When this method is extended to include displacement limitations in addition to stress constraints, it is known as the fully utilized design (FUD). Typically, the FUD produces an overdesign, which is the primary limitation of this otherwise elegant method. We have modified FUD in an attempt to alleviate the limitation. This new method, called the modified fully utilized design (MFUD) method, has been tested successfully on a number of designs that were subjected to multiple loads and had both stress and displacement constraints. The solutions obtained with MFUD compare favorably with the optimum results that can be generated by using nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The MFUD method appears to have alleviated the overdesign condition and offers the simplicity of a direct, fully stressed type of design method that is distinctly different from optimization and optimality criteria formulations. The MFUD method is being developed for practicing engineers who favor traditional design methods rather than methods based on advanced calculus and nonlinear mathematical programming techniques. The Integrated Force Method (IFM) was found to be the appropriate analysis tool in the development of the MFUD method. In this paper, the MFUD method and its optimality are presented along with a number of illustrative examples.

  4. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 75 FR 64782 - Additional Designations, Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-20

    ...The Treasury Department's Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the names of 12 entities and 17 individuals whose property and interests in property have been blocked pursuant to the Foreign Narcotics Kingpin Designation Act (``Kingpin Act'') (21 U.S.C. 1901-1908, 8 U.S.C....

  6. Laser Additive Manufacturing and Bionics: Redefining Lightweight Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emmelmann, C.; Sander, P.; Kranz, J.; Wycisk, E.

    New layer wise manufacturing technologies such as Laser Additive Manufacturing (LAM) allow innovative approaches to product design. Especially for lightweight design in aircraft applications LAM offers new possibilities for load-adapted structures. However, to fully capture lightweight potential of LAM technologies new design guidelines and processes have to be developed. A novel approach to extreme lightweight design is realized by incorporating structural optimization tools, bionic structures and LAM guidelines into one design process. By consequently following this design process designers can achieve lightweight savings in designing new aircraft structures.

  7. Battery-package design provides for cell cooling and constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gross, S.

    1968-01-01

    Lightweight battery-package provides for even cooling of individual alkaline cells, constraint against cell expansion, and convenient placement of cells. The battery package also provides for venting of the cells and includes instrumentation to measure cell temperature, pressure, and voltage.

  8. A flexible computer aid for conceptual design based on constraint propagation and component-modeling. [of aircraft in three dimensions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1988-01-01

    The Rubber Airplane program, which combines two symbolic processing techniques with a component-based database of design knowledge, is proposed as a computer aid for conceptual design. Using object-oriented programming, programs are organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, and using constraint propagation, declarative statements designate mathematical relationships among all the equation variables. It is found that the additional level of organizational structure resulting from the arrangement of the design information in terms of design components provides greater flexibility and convenience.

  9. Additive Manufacturing of Metal Cellular Structures: Design and Fabrication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Li; Harrysson, Ola; Cormier, Denis; West, Harvey; Gong, Haijun; Stucker, Brent

    2015-03-01

    With the rapid development of additive manufacturing (AM), high-quality fabrication of lightweight design-efficient structures no longer poses an insurmountable challenge. On the other hand, much of the current research and development with AM technologies still focuses on material and process development. With the design for additive manufacturing in mind, this article explores the design issue for lightweight cellular structures that could be efficiently realized via AM processes. A unit-cell-based modeling approach that combines experimentation and limited-scale simulation was demonstrated, and it was suggested that this approach could potentially lead to computationally efficient design optimizations with the lightweight structures in future applications.

  10. Capturing multimedia design knowledge using TYRO, the constraint-based designer's apprentice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacNeil, Ronald L.

    1991-08-01

    TYRO is a visual programming environment that uses a case-based reasoning approach to capturing and reusing knowledge about the design of multimedia presentations. Case-based reasoning assumes that people solve problems by remembering relevant scenarios and modifying or adapting them to the situation at hand, then storing this new approach away for future reuse. In TYRO, the designer constructs a case library by demonstrating solutions of prototypical multimedia problems and defining constraining relations between object sequences. Adaptation and augmentation of the case library takes place as trial presentations reveal failure conditions. The designer constructs rule objects which are combinations of condition objects and actions objects. Condition objects trigger when the failure conditions is detected and action objects, or rules of thumb, fire and revise the constraint network, or revise the sequence of objects, etc. The resulting cases generated are stored and indexed for future use by the system.

  11. Contextual constraints for the design of patient-centered health IT tools.

    PubMed

    Gonzales, Michael J; O'Connor, Maria Francesca; Riek, Laurel D

    2013-01-01

    Technologists are constantly working to improve clinical practice by developing new health information technology (Health IT) tools, yet may not always consider the context of how these tools may be used. Patient preferences can vary widely as a result of demographics, health conditions, physical limitations, and personal inclinations, with healthcare providers having to adapt clinical encounters to better suit patient needs. Health IT tools, too, need to be agile across different healthcare contexts, with each stakeholder's specific needs in mind. In this paper, we discuss the challenges and limitations associated with the design and automation of contextually sensitive devices in the healthcare environment. We target the various contexts in which health information is presented in patient-provider encounters, and discuss contextual constraints that may apply to the aforementioned situations. In addition, we present a number of suggestions for informational constraints and the design of informational tools in these settings so that patient and provider informational needs can be better met in clinical communication contexts. PMID:23941934

  12. The design of impact absorbing structures for additive manufacture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brennan-Craddock, J.; Brackett, D.; Wildman, R.; Hague, R.

    2012-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is increasingly becoming a viable manufacturing process due to dramatic advantages that it facilitates in the area of design complexity. This paper investigates the potential of additively manufactured lattice structures for the application of tailored impact absorption specifically for conformal body protection. It explores lattice cell types based on foam microstructures and assesses their suitability for impact absorption. The effect of varying the cell strut edge design is also investigated. The implications of scaling these cells up for AM are discussed as well as the design issues regarding the handling of geometric complexity and the requirement for body conformity. The suitability of AM materials for this application is also discussed.

  13. Design and fabrication of the progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qin, Linling; Qian, Lin; Yu, Jingchi

    2011-11-01

    The use of progressive addition lenses (PALs) for the correction of presbyopia has increased dramatically in recent years. These lenses are now being used as the preferred alternative to bifocal and trifocal lenses in many parts of the world. Progressive addition lenses are a kind of opthalmic lenses with freeform surface. The surface curvature of the Progressive addition lenses varies gradually from a minimum value in the upper area, to a maximum value in the lower area. Thus a PAL has a surface with three zones which have very small astigmatism: far-view zone, near-view zone, and intermediate zone. The far view zone and near view zone have relatively constant powers and connected by the intermediate zone with power varies progressively. The design and fabrication technologies of progressive addition lenses have fast progresses because of the massive development of the optical simulation software, multi-axis ultraprecision machining technologies and CNC machining technologies. The design principles of progressive addition lenses are discussed in a historic review. Several kinds of design methods are illustrated, and their advantages and disadvantages are also represented. In the current study, it is shown that the optical characteristics of the different progressive addition lenses designs are significantly different from one another. The different fabrication technologies of Progressive addition lenses are also discussed in the paper. Plastic injection molding and precision-machine turning are the common fabrication technologies for exterior PALs and Interior PALs respectively.

  14. A methodology for designing aircraft to low sonic boom constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.; Needleman, Kathy E.

    1991-01-01

    A method for designing conceptual supersonic cruise aircraft to meet low sonic boom requirements is outlined and described. The aircraft design is guided through a systematic evolution from initial three view drawing to a final numerical model description, while the designer using the method controls the integration of low sonic boom, high supersonic aerodynamic efficiency, adequate low speed handling, and reasonable structure and materials technologies. Some experience in preliminary aircraft design and in the use of various analytical and numerical codes is required for integrating the volume and lift requirements throughout the design process.

  15. Hyperbolic tangential function-based progressive addition lens design.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Gufeng; Cui, Xudong

    2015-12-10

    The diopter distribution is key to the successful design of a progressive addition lens. A hyperbolic tangential function is then introduced to describe well the desired diopter distribution on the lens. Simulation and fabrication show that the astigmia on the whole surface is very close to the addition, exhibiting superior performance than that of currently used high-order polynomials and cosine functions. Our investigations found that once the diopter distribution design is reasonable, both the direct and indirect methods of constructing a progressive addition lens can give consistent results. With this function we are able to effectively control the design of critical areas, the position, sizes of far-view and near-view zones, as well as the channel of the lens. This study would provide an efficient way to customize different progressive lenses not only for presbyopia, but also for anti-fatigue, office progressive usages, etc. PMID:26836863

  16. Growth mechanism and additional constraints on FeNi metal condensation in the solar nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meibom, Anders; Petaev, Mikhail I.; Krot, Alexander N.; Keil, Klaus; Wood, John A.

    2001-12-01

    Chemically zoned FeNi metal grains in the metal-rich chondrites QUE 94411 and Hammadah at Hamra 237 formed by gas-solid condensation in the temperature range from ~1500 to 1400 K during highly energetic thermal events in the solar nebula. We observe a linear correlation between the apparent diameter of the zoned FeNi metal grains and their inferred condensation temperature interval, which indicates that the grain growth rate was essentially constant. This lends strong support for a kinetic ``hit-and-stick'' growth model that yields growth timescales of ~20-85 hours and gas cooling rates of ~1-2 Kh-1 for six representative zoned metal grains studied in QUE 94411. In the core regions of the zoned metal grains the Ni concentration is systematically lower than the thermodynamically predicted values, suggesting that solid-state diffusion played an important role in shaping the zoning profiles. Combined with existing data, our observations provide a set of constraints on the physics and chemistry of large-scale, high-temperature processes in the earliest solar nebula, which present astrophysicists with profound challenges.

  17. Additive Manufacturing Design Considerations for Liquid Engine Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Whitten, Dave; Hissam, Andy; Baker, Kevin; Rice, Darron

    2014-01-01

    The Marshall Space Flight Center's Propulsion Systems Department has gained significant experience in the last year designing, building, and testing liquid engine components using additive manufacturing. The department has developed valve, duct, turbo-machinery, and combustion device components using this technology. Many valuable lessons were learned during this process. These lessons will be the focus of this presentation. We will present criteria for selecting part candidates for additive manufacturing. Some part characteristics are 'tailor made' for this process. Selecting the right parts for the process is the first step to maximizing productivity gains. We will also present specific lessons we learned about feature geometry that can and cannot be produced using additive manufacturing machines. Most liquid engine components were made using a two-step process. The base part was made using additive manufacturing and then traditional machining processes were used to produce the final part. The presentation will describe design accommodations needed to make the base part and lessons we learned about which features could be built directly and which require the final machine process. Tolerance capabilities, surface finish, and material thickness allowances will also be covered. Additive Manufacturing can produce internal passages that cannot be made using traditional approaches. It can also eliminate a significant amount of manpower by reducing part count and leveraging model-based design and analysis techniques. Information will be shared about performance enhancements and design efficiencies we experienced for certain categories of engine parts.

  18. The Design of Time-Series Comparisons under Resource Constraints.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Willemain, Thomas R.; Hartunian, Nelson S.

    1982-01-01

    Two methods for dividing an interrupted time-series study between baseline and experimental phases when study resources are limited are compared. In fixed designs, the baseline duration is predetermined. In flexible designs the baseline duration is contingent on remaining resources and the match of results to prior expectations of the evaluator.…

  19. Unique sodium phosphosilicate glasses designed through extended topological constraint theory.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huidan; Jiang, Qi; Liu, Zhao; Li, Xiang; Ren, Jing; Chen, Guorong; Liu, Fude; Peng, Shou

    2014-05-15

    Sodium phosphosilicate glasses exhibit unique properties with mixed network formers, and have various potential applications. However, proper understanding on the network structures and property-oriented methodology based on compositional changes are lacking. In this study, we have developed an extended topological constraint theory and applied it successfully to analyze the composition dependence of glass transition temperature (Tg) and hardness of sodium phosphosilicate glasses. It was found that the hardness and Tg of glasses do not always increase with the content of SiO2, and there exist maximum hardness and Tg at a certain content of SiO2. In particular, a unique glass (20Na2O-17SiO2-63P2O5) exhibits a low glass transition temperature (589 K) but still has relatively high hardness (4.42 GPa) mainly due to the high fraction of highly coordinated network former Si((6)). Because of its convenient forming and manufacturing, such kind of phosphosilicate glasses has a lot of valuable applications in optical fibers, optical amplifiers, biomaterials, and fuel cells. Also, such methodology can be applied to other types of phosphosilicate glasses with similar structures. PMID:24779999

  20. An investigation of constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Originally, computer programs for engineering design focused on detailed geometric design. Later, computer programs for algorithmically performing the preliminary design of specific well-defined classes of objects became commonplace. However, due to the need for extreme flexibility, it appears unlikely that conventional programming techniques will prove fruitful in developing computer aids for engineering conceptual design. The use of symbolic processing techniques, such as object-oriented programming and constraint propagation, facilitate such flexibility. Object-oriented programming allows programs to be organized around the objects and behavior to be simulated, rather than around fixed sequences of function- and subroutine-calls. Constraint propagation allows declarative statements to be understood as designating multi-directional mathematical relationships among all the variables of an equation, rather than as unidirectional assignments to the variable on the left-hand side of the equation, as in conventional computer programs. The research has concentrated on applying these two techniques to the development of a general-purpose computer aid for engineering conceptual design. Object-oriented programming techniques are utilized to implement a user-extensible database of design components. The mathematical relationships which model both geometry and physics of these components are managed via constraint propagation. In addition, to this component-based hierarchy, special-purpose data structures are provided for describing component interactions and supporting state-dependent parameters. In order to investigate the utility of this approach, a number of sample design problems from the field of aerospace engineering were implemented using the prototype design tool, Rubber Airplane. The additional level of organizational structure obtained by representing design knowledge in terms of components is observed to provide greater convenience to the program user, and to

  1. A Modular Aerospike Engine Design Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peugeot, John; Garcia, Chance; Burkhardt, Wendel

    2014-01-01

    A modular aerospike engine concept has been developed with the objective of demonstrating the viability of the aerospike design using additive manufacturing techniques. The aerospike system is a self-compensating design that allows for optimal performance over the entire flight regime and allows for the lowest possible mass vehicle designs. At low altitudes, improvements in Isp can be traded against chamber pressure, staging, and payload. In upper stage applications, expansion ratio and engine envelope can be traded against nozzle efficiency. These features provide flexibility to the System Designer optimizing a complete vehicle stage. The aerospike concept is a good example of a component that has demonstrated improved performance capability, but traditionally has manufacturing requirements that are too expensive and complex to use in a production vehicle. In recent years, additive manufacturing has emerged as a potential method for improving the speed and cost of building geometrically complex components in rocket engines. It offers a reduction in tooling overhead and significant improvements in the integration of the designer and manufacturing method. In addition, the modularity of the engine design provides the ability to perform full scale testing on the combustion devices outside of the full engine configuration. The proposed design uses a hydrocarbon based gas-generator cycle, with plans to take advantage of existing powerhead hardware while focusing DDT&E resources on manufacturing and sub-system testing of the combustion devices. The major risks for the modular aerospike concept lie in the performance of the propellant feed system, the structural integrity of the additive manufactured components, and the aerodynamic efficiency of the exhaust flow.

  2. Engineering Effort Needed to Design Spacecraft with Radiation Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singleterry, Robert C., Jr.

    2005-01-01

    A roadmap is articulated that describes what is needed to allow designers, to include researchers, management, and engineers, to investigate, design, build, test, and fly spacecraft that meet the mission requirements yet, be as low cost as possible. This roadmap describes seven levels of tool fidelity and application: 1) Mission Speculation, 2) Management Overview, 3) Mission Design, 4) Detailed Design, 5) Simulation and Training, 6) Operations, and 7) Research. The interfaces and output are described in top-level detail along with the transport engines needed, and deficiencies are noted. This roadmap, if implemented, will allow Multidisciplinary Optimization (MDO) ideas to incorporate radiation concerns. Also, as NASA moves towards Simulation Based Acquisition (SBA), these tools will facilitate the appropriate spending of government money. Most of the tools needed to serve these levels do not exist or exist in pieces and need to be integrated to create the tool.

  3. 19 CFR 115.7 - Designation of additional Certifying Authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Designation of additional Certifying Authorities. 115.7 Section 115.7 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY CARGO CONTAINER AND ROAD VEHICLE CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO INTERNATIONAL...

  4. The Role of Additional Processing Time and Lexical Constraint in Spoken Word Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LoCasto, Paul C.; Connine, Cynthia M.; Patterson, David

    2007-01-01

    Three phoneme monitoring experiments examined the manner in which additional processing time influences spoken word recognition. Experiment 1a introduced a version of the phoneme monitoring paradigm in which a silent interval is inserted prior to the word-final target phoneme. Phoneme monitoring reaction time decreased as the silent interval…

  5. The Disciplinary Constraints of SLA and TESOL: Additive Bilingualism and Second Language Acquisition, Teaching and Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    May, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    For over 15 years now, various commentators have highlighted the 'monolingual bias' inherent in SLA and TESOL research, which invariably constructs bi/multilingualism in deficit terms. In contrast, these critics have advocated an additive bilingual approach to SLA and TESOL, albeit, not as yet to any great effect. In this paper, I explore why so…

  6. A mathematical formulation for interface-based modular product design with geometric and weight constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung-Woon Yoo, John

    2016-06-01

    Since customer preferences change rapidly, there is a need for design processes with shorter product development cycles. Modularization plays a key role in achieving mass customization, which is crucial in today's competitive global market environments. Standardized interfaces among modularized parts have facilitated computational product design. To incorporate product size and weight constraints during computational design procedures, a mixed integer programming formulation is presented in this article. Product size and weight are two of the most important design parameters, as evidenced by recent smart-phone products. This article focuses on the integration of geometric, weight and interface constraints into the proposed mathematical formulation. The formulation generates the optimal selection of components for a target product, which satisfies geometric, weight and interface constraints. The formulation is verified through a case study and experiments are performed to demonstrate the performance of the formulation.

  7. Web-based software tool for constraint-based design specification of synthetic biological systems.

    PubMed

    Oberortner, Ernst; Densmore, Douglas

    2015-06-19

    miniEugene provides computational support for solving combinatorial design problems, enabling users to specify and enumerate designs for novel biological systems based on sets of biological constraints. This technical note presents a brief tutorial for biologists and software engineers in the field of synthetic biology on how to use miniEugene. After reading this technical note, users should know which biological constraints are available in miniEugene, understand the syntax and semantics of these constraints, and be able to follow a step-by-step guide to specify the design of a classical synthetic biological system-the genetic toggle switch.1 We also provide links and references to more information on the miniEugene web application and the integration of the miniEugene software library into sophisticated Computer-Aided Design (CAD) tools for synthetic biology ( www.eugenecad.org ). PMID:25426642

  8. Effect of leading-edge load constraints on the design and performance of supersonic wings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Darden, C. M.

    1985-01-01

    A theoretical and experimental investigation was conducted to assess the effect of leading-edge load constraints on supersonic wing design and performance. In the effort to delay flow separation and the formation of leading-edge vortices, two constrained, linear-theory optimization approaches were used to limit the loadings on the leading edge of a variable-sweep planform design. Experimental force and moment tests were made on two constrained camber wings, a flat uncambered wing, and an optimum design with no constraints. Results indicate that vortex strength and separation regions were mildest on the severely and moderately constrained wings.

  9. DESAP 2: A structural design program with stress and buckling constraints. Volume 1: Theoretical and user's manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kiusalaas, J.; Reddy, G. B.

    1977-01-01

    DESAP 2 is described as a finite element program for computer-automated, minimum weight design of elastic structures with constraints on stresses (including local instability criteria) and buckling loads. No limits are placed on the number of load conditions for stress-constrained design, but only one of these load conditions can be chosen as the potential buckling load. A substantial portion of DESAP 2, particularly the analysis of the prebuckling state, is derived from the SOLID SAP finite element program. The stress-constrained design is based on the classical stress ratio method, which drives the design towards a fully stressed state. The constraints on the buckling load are handled by solving the appropriate optimality criterion by successive iterations. During each iteration, the element sizes determined by the stress ratio method are used as the minimum size constraints. The element subroutines are organized in a manner that permits the user to make additions and changes with a minimal programming effort. Consequently, DESAP 2 can readily be changed into a special-purpose program to handle the user's specific design requirements and failure criteria.

  10. Parametric study of critical constraints for a canard configured medium range transport using conceptual design optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arbuckle, P. D.; Sliwa, S. M.

    1983-01-01

    Constrained parameter optimization was used to perform optimal conceptual design of both canard and conventional configurations of a medium range transport. A number of design constants and design constraints were systematically varied to compare the sensitivities of canard and conventional configurations to a variety of technology assumptions. Main landing gear location and horizontal stabilizer high-lift performance were identified as critical design parameters for a statically stable, subsonic canard transport.

  11. Control law design to meet constraints using SYNPAC-synthesis package for active controls

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adams, W. M., Jr.; Tiffany, S. H.

    1982-01-01

    Major features of SYNPAC (Synthesis Package for Active Controls) are described. SYNPAC employs constrained optimization techniques which allow explicit inclusion of design criteria (constraints) in the control law design process. Interrelationships are indicated between this constrained optimization approach, classical and linear quadratic Gaussian design techniques. Results are presented that were obtained by applying SYNPAC to the design of a combined stability augmentation/gust load alleviation control law for the DAST ARW-2.

  12. Rubber airplane: Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge representation in computer-aided conceptual design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    Viewgraphs on Rubber Airplane: Constraint-based Component-Modeling for Knowledge Representation in Computer Aided Conceptual Design are presented. Topics covered include: computer aided design; object oriented programming; airfoil design; surveillance aircraft; commercial aircraft; aircraft design; and launch vehicles.

  13. Courtyard Commons retail addition. Phase I. Final design documentation

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-04-25

    The project consists of a retail addition to an existing cluster of buildings located on the main commercial street in Santa Cruz, California. The existing complex is formed by two wings of one-story buildings enclosing an open courtyard now used for circulation, a coffee shop seating area, a flower stand, and access to four retail stores. The program calls for an addition of new retail space above the existing buildings constructed of eight inch concrete blocks. In order to provide for the year around use of the courtyard, the program also calls for a flexible glass cover which could be removed during the sunny warm summer days. The main requirements of the program finally, are to develop an energy efficient and cost effective design which uses natural light at its full potential for both the courtyard and interior spaces. This report includes sections of the following: overview of final design; unavailable solar design information; incremental passive design cost, energy performance analysis and results; economic analysis and results; architectural compatibility; NBSGLD output and documentation; and design development drawings.

  14. Applying Additive Manufacturing to a New Liquid Oxygen Turbopump Design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    O'Neal, Derek

    2016-01-01

    A liquid oxygen turbopump has been designed at Marshall Space Flight Center as part of the in-house, Advanced Manufacturing Demonstrator Engine (AMDE) project. Additive manufacturing, specifically direct metal laser sintering (DMLS) of Inconel 718, is used for 77% of the parts by mass. These parts include the impeller, turbine components, and housings. The near-net shape DMLS parts have been delivered and final machining is underway. Fabrication of the traditionally manufactured hardware is also proceeding. Testing in liquid oxygen is planned for Q2 of FY2017. This topic explores the design of the turbopump along with fabrication and material testing of the DMLS hardware.

  15. Optimal Design of General Stiffened Composite Circular Cylinders for Global Buckling with Strength Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, N.; Ambur, D. R.; Knight, N. F., Jr.

    1998-01-01

    A design strategy for optimal design of composite grid-stiffened cylinders subjected to global and local buckling constraints and strength constraints was developed using a discrete optimizer based on a genetic algorithm. An improved smeared stiffener theory was used for the global analysis. Local buckling of skin segments were assessed using a Rayleigh-Ritz method that accounts for material anisotropy. The local buckling of stiffener segments were also assessed. Constraints on the axial membrane strain in the skin and stiffener segments were imposed to include strength criteria in the grid-stiffened cylinder design. Design variables used in this study were the axial and transverse stiffener spacings, stiffener height and thickness, skin laminate stacking sequence and stiffening configuration, where stiffening configuration is a design variable that indicates the combination of axial, transverse and diagonal stiffener in the grid-stiffened cylinder. The design optimization process was adapted to identify the best suited stiffening configurations and stiffener spacings for grid-stiffened composite cylinder with the length and radius of the cylinder, the design in-plane loads and material properties as inputs. The effect of having axial membrane strain constraints in the skin and stiffener segments in the optimization process is also studied for selected stiffening configurations.

  16. Optimal Design of General Stiffened Composite Circular Cylinders for Global Buckling with Strength Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaunky, Navin; Knight, Norman F., Jr.; Ambur, Damodar R.

    1998-01-01

    A design strategy for optimal design of composite grid-stiffened cylinders subjected to global and local buckling constraints and, strength constraints is developed using a discrete optimizer based on a genetic algorithm. An improved smeared stiffener theory is used for the global analysis. Local buckling of skin segments are assessed using a Rayleigh-Ritz method that accounts for material anisotropy. The local buckling of stiffener segments are also assessed. Constraints on the axial membrane strain in the skin and stiffener segments are imposed to include strength criteria in the grid-stiffened cylinder design. Design variables used in this study are the axial and transverse stiffener spacings, stiffener height and thickness, skin laminate stacking sequence, and stiffening configuration, where herein stiffening configuration is a design variable that indicates the combination of axial, transverse, and diagonal stiffener in the grid-stiffened cylinder. The design optimization process is adapted to identify the best suited stiffening configurations and stiffener spacings for grid-stiffened composite cylinder with the length and radius of the cylinder, the design in-plane loads, and material properties as inputs. The effect of having axial membrane strain constraints in the skin and stiffener segments in the optimization process is also studied for selected stiffening configuration.

  17. Rare Potassium-Bearing Mica in Allan Hills 84001: Additional Constraints on Carbonate Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brearley, A. J.

    1998-01-01

    There have been presented several intriguing observations suggesting evidence of fossil life in martian orthopyroxenite ALH 84001. These exciting and controversial observations have stimulated extensive debate over the origin and history of ALH 84001, but many issues still remain unresolved. Among the most important is the question of the temperature at which the carbonates, which host the putative microfossils, formed. Oxygen- isotopic data, while showing that the carbonates are generally out of isotopic equilibria with the host rock, cannot constrain their temperature of formation. Both low- and high-temperature scenarios are plausible depending on whether carbonate growth occurred in an open or closed system. Petrographic arguments have generally been used to support a high-temperature origin but these appear to be suspect because they assume equilibrium between carbonate compositions that are not in contact. Some observations appear to be consistent with shock mobilization and growth from immiscible silicate-carbonate melts at high temperatures. Proponents of a low-temperature origin for the carbonates are hampered by the fact that there is currently no evidence of hydrous phases that would indicate low temperatures and the presence of a hydrous fluid during the formation of the carbonates. However, the absence of hydrous phases does not rule out carbonate formation at low temperatures, because the carbonate forming fluids may have been extremely CO2 rich, such that hydrous phases would not have been stabilized. In this study, I have carried out additional Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) studies of ALH-84001 and have found evidence of very rare phyllosilicates, which appear to be convincingly of pre-terrestrial origin. At present these observations are limited to one occurrence: further studies are in progress to determine if the phyllosilicates are more widespread.

  18. Tribological design constraints of marine renewable energy systems.

    PubMed

    Wood, Robert J K; Bahaj, AbuBakr S; Turnock, Stephen R; Wang, Ling; Evans, Martin

    2010-10-28

    Against the backdrop of increasing energy demands, the threat of climate change and dwindling fuel reserves, finding reliable, diverse, sustainable/renewable, affordable energy resources has become a priority for many countries. Marine energy conversion systems are at the forefront of providing such a resource. Most marine renewable energy conversion systems require tribological components to convert wind or tidal streams to rotational motion for generating electricity while wave machines typically use oscillating hinge or piston within cylinder geometries to promote reciprocating linear motion. This paper looks at the tribology of three green marine energy systems, offshore wind, tidal and wave machines. Areas covered include lubrication and contamination, bearing and gearbox issues, biofouling, cavitation erosion, tribocorrosion, condition monitoring as well as design trends and loading conditions associated with tribological components. Current research thrusts are highlighted along with areas needing research as well as addressing present-day issues related to the tribology of offshore energy conversion technologies. PMID:20855321

  19. Progressive addition lens design by optimizing NURBS surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yen-Liang; Hsu, Wei-Yao; Cheng, Yuan-Chieh; Su, Guo-Dung

    2011-10-01

    Progressive addition lenses (PAL) are used to compensate presbyopia, which is induced by losing accommodation of elder eyes. These eyes need different optical power provided by eye glasses while watching objects at different distance. A smaller optical power is required in further distance and a larger one in nearer zone. A progressive addition lens can provides different power requirements in one piece of lens. This paper introduces a whole process of PAL production, from design, fabrication, to measurement. The PAL is designed by optimizing NURBS surface. Parameters of merit function are adjusted to design lenses with different specifications. The simulation results confirm that the power distributes as expected and cylinders are controlled under an acceptable level. Besides, sample lenses have been fabricated and measured. We apply precise-machining to produce the molds for plastic injection. Then, the samples are produced by injecting polycorbonate to the molds. Finally, Ultra Accuracy 3D Profilemeter is used to measure the sample PALs. Practical examinations shows that our designs are achievable and feasible in practice use.

  20. Constraint-based component-modeling for knowledge-based design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kolb, Mark A.

    1992-01-01

    The paper describes the application of various advanced programming techniques derived from artificial intelligence research to the development of flexible design tools for conceptual design. Special attention is given to two techniques which appear to be readily applicable to such design tools: the constraint propagation technique and the object-oriented programming. The implementation of these techniques in a prototype computer tool, Rubber Airplane, is described.

  1. An efficient constraint to account for mistuning effects in the optimal design of engine rotors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murthy, Durbha V.; Pierre, Christophe; Ottarsson, Gisli

    1992-01-01

    Blade-to-blade differences in structural properties, unavoidable in practice due to manufacturing tolerances, can have significant influence on the vibratory response of engine rotor blade. Accounting for these differences, also known as mistuning, in design and in optimization procedures is generally not possible. This note presents an easily calculated constraint that can be used in design and optimization procedures to control the sensitivity of final designs to mistuning.

  2. Linear Quadratic Tracking Design for a Generic Transport Aircraft with Structural Load Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burken, John J.; Frost, Susan A.; Taylor, Brian R.

    2011-01-01

    When designing control laws for systems with constraints added to the tracking performance, control allocation methods can be utilized. Control allocations methods are used when there are more command inputs than controlled variables. Constraints that require allocators are such task as; surface saturation limits, structural load limits, drag reduction constraints or actuator failures. Most transport aircraft have many actuated surfaces compared to the three controlled variables (such as angle of attack, roll rate & angle of side slip). To distribute the control effort among the redundant set of actuators a fixed mixer approach can be utilized or online control allocation techniques. The benefit of an online allocator is that constraints can be considered in the design whereas the fixed mixer cannot. However, an online control allocator mixer has a disadvantage of not guaranteeing a surface schedule, which can then produce ill defined loads on the aircraft. The load uncertainty and complexity has prevented some controller designs from using advanced allocation techniques. This paper considers actuator redundancy management for a class of over actuated systems with real-time structural load limits using linear quadratic tracking applied to the generic transport model. A roll maneuver example of an artificial load limit constraint is shown and compared to the same no load limitation maneuver.

  3. CONSTRICTOR: Constraint Modification Provides Insight into Design of Biochemical Networks

    PubMed Central

    Erickson, Keesha E.; Gill, Ryan T.; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-01-01

    Advances in computational methods that allow for exploration of the combinatorial mutation space are needed to realize the potential of synthetic biology based strain engineering efforts. Here, we present Constrictor, a computational framework that uses flux balance analysis (FBA) to analyze inhibitory effects of genetic mutations on the performance of biochemical networks. Constrictor identifies engineering interventions by classifying the reactions in the metabolic model depending on the extent to which their flux must be decreased to achieve the overproduction target. The optimal inhibition of various reaction pathways is determined by restricting the flux through targeted reactions below the steady state levels of a baseline strain. Constrictor generates unique in silico strains, each representing an “expression state”, or a combination of gene expression levels required to achieve the overproduction target. The Constrictor framework is demonstrated by studying overproduction of ethylene in Escherichia coli network models iAF1260 and iJO1366 through the addition of the heterologous ethylene-forming enzyme from Pseudomonas syringae. Targeting individual reactions as well as combinations of reactions reveals in silico mutants that are predicted to have as high as 25% greater theoretical ethylene yields than the baseline strain during simulated exponential growth. Altering the degree of restriction reveals a large distribution of ethylene yields, while analysis of the expression states that return lower yields provides insight into system bottlenecks. Finally, we demonstrate the ability of Constrictor to scan networks and provide targets for a range of possible products. Constrictor is an adaptable technique that can be used to generate and analyze disparate populations of in silico mutants, select gene expression levels and provide non-intuitive strategies for metabolic engineering. PMID:25422896

  4. Minimum weight design of rotorcraft blades with multiple frequency and stress constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Walsh, Joanne L.

    1988-01-01

    Minimum weight designs of helicopter rotor blades with constraints on multiple coupled flap-lag natural frequencies are studied. Constraints are imposed on the minimum value of the blade autorotational inertia to ensure sufficient rotary inertia to autorotate in case of engine failure and on stresses to guard against structural failure due to blade centrifugal forces. Design variables include blade taper ratio, dimensions of the box beam located inside the airfoil and magnitudes of nonstructural weights. The program CAMRAD is used for the blade modal analysis; the program CONMIN is used for the optimization. A linear approximation involving Taylor series expansion is used to reduce the analysis effort. The procedure contains a sensitivity analysis consisting of analytical derivatives for objective function and constraints on autorotational inertia and stresses. Central finite difference derivatives are used for frequency constraints. Optimal designs are obtained for both rectangular and tapered blades. Using this method, it is possible to design a rotor blade with reduced weight, when compared to a baseline blade, while satisfying all the imposed design requirements.

  5. Wind farm layout design optimization through multi-scenario decomposition with complementarity constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Shen; Kim, Harrison M.

    2014-12-01

    This article presents a multi-scenario decomposition with complementarity constraints approach to wind farm layout design to maximize wind energy production under region boundary and inter-turbine distance constraints. A complementarity formulation technique is introduced such that the wind farm layout design can be described with a continuously differentiable optimization model, and a multi-scenario decomposition approach is proposed to ensure efficient solution with local optimality. To combine global exploration and local optimization, a hybrid solution algorithm is presented, which combines the multi-scenario approach with a bi-objective genetic algorithm that maximizes energy production and minimizes constraint violations simultaneously. A numerical case study demonstrates the effectiveness of the proposed approach.

  6. Integration of additional constraints to Inverse the differential kinematic model for a nonholonomic and redundant mobile manipulator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Akli, Isma; Achour, Noura

    2008-06-01

    This article presents a differential kinematic study for a car-like mobile system carrying a four degrees of freedom manipulator. The generalized coordinates and velocities of the mobile manipulator are required, when the position and the velocity of the end-effector are imposed in the cartesian space. Our approach consists of planning the motion of the mobile platform with make the onboard manipulator able to follow the cartesian trajectory. The resulted generalized coordinates are exploited to calculate the Forward Differential Kinematic Model. Since the mobile manipulator is redundant regarding to the task, we profit from the system characteristics to augment the jacobian matrix, while integrating additional constraints, to inverse the differential kinematic model.

  7. Embracing additive manufacture: implications for foot and ankle orthosis design

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The design of foot and ankle orthoses is currently limited by the methods used to fabricate the devices, particularly in terms of geometric freedom and potential to include innovative new features. Additive manufacturing (AM) technologies, where objects are constructed via a series of sub-millimetre layers of a substrate material, may present the opportunity to overcome these limitations and allow novel devices to be produced that are highly personalised for the individual, both in terms of fit and functionality. Two novel devices, a foot orthosis (FO) designed to include adjustable elements to relieve pressure at the metatarsal heads, and an ankle foot orthosis (AFO) designed to have adjustable stiffness levels in the sagittal plane, were developed and fabricated using AM. The devices were then tested on a healthy participant to determine if the intended biomechanical modes of action were achieved. Results The adjustable, pressure relieving FO was found to be able to significantly reduce pressure under the targeted metatarsal heads. The AFO was shown to have distinct effects on ankle kinematics which could be varied by adjusting the stiffness level of the device. Conclusions The results presented here demonstrate the potential design freedom made available by AM, and suggest that it may allow novel personalised orthotic devices to be produced which are beyond the current state of the art. PMID:22642941

  8. Understanding Enactivism: A Study of Affordances and Constraints of Engaging Practicing Teachers as Digital Game Designers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Qing

    2012-01-01

    This study is intended to deepen our understanding of enactivism, an emergent theoretical paradigm, through empirical exploration of teacher undertakings as digital game creators. Specifically, it explores the affordances and constraints, two important enactivism concepts, of practicing teachers' experiences in designing and developing games for…

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Design and calibration of zero-additional-phase SPIDER

    SciTech Connect

    Baum, Peter; Riedle, Eberhard

    2005-09-01

    Zero-additional-phase spectral phase interferometry for direct electric field reconstruction (ZAP-SPIDER) is a novel technique for measuring the temporal shape and phase of ultrashort optical pulses directly at the interaction point of a spectroscopic experiment. The scheme is suitable for an extremely wide wavelength region from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. We present a comprehensive description of the experimental setup and design guidelines to effectively apply the technique to various wavelengths and pulse durations. The calibration of the setup and procedures to check the consistency of the measurement are discussed in detail. We show experimental data for various center wavelengths and pulse durations down to 7 fs to verify the applicability to a wide range of pulse parameters.

  11. LV wall segmentation using the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for oedema quantification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadir, K.; Gao, H.; Payne, A.; Soraghan, J.; Berry, C.

    2012-10-01

    In this paper an automatic algorithm for the left ventricle (LV) wall segmentation and oedema quantification from T2-weighted cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) images is presented. The extent of myocardial oedema delineates the ischaemic area-at-risk (AAR) after myocardial infarction (MI). Since AAR can be used to estimate the amount of salvageable myocardial post-MI, oedema imaging has potential clinical utility in the management of acute MI patients. This paper presents a new scheme based on the variational level set method (LSM) with additional shape constraint for the segmentation of T2-weighted CMR image. In our approach, shape information of the myocardial wall is utilized to introduce a shape feature of the myocardial wall into the variational level set formulation. The performance of the method is tested using real CMR images (12 patients) and the results of the automatic system are compared to manual segmentation. The mean perpendicular distances between the automatic and manual LV wall boundaries are in the range of 1-2 mm. Bland-Altman analysis on LV wall area indicates there is no consistent bias as a function of LV wall area, with a mean bias of -121 mm2 between individual investigator one (IV1) and LSM, and -122 mm2 between individual investigator two (IV2) and LSM when compared to two investigators. Furthermore, the oedema quantification demonstrates good correlation when compared to an expert with an average error of 9.3% for 69 slices of short axis CMR image from 12 patients.

  12. Making the constraints visible: testing the ecological approach to interface design.

    PubMed

    Effken, J A; Kim, N G; Shaw, R E

    1997-01-01

    A haemodynamic monitoring and control task was used to evaluate the ecological approach to interface design for complex high-technology environments. Guidelines proposed by Bennett and Flach (1992) were used to design multilevel displays that made visible (a) anatomical constraints, and (b) causal constraints on haemodynamic systems. These displays were compared with a traditional display that showed pressure and flow values in five separate graphs. Simulations of clinical problems were generated by a computer model and presented in an interactive computer environment. Critical care nurses and nursing students observed changes in pressures and flow corresponding to certain disease states and corrected those states using simulated drugs. For both groups, speed and accuracy were progressively improved by the enhanced, multilevel displays. PMID:8995046

  13. Robust attitude control design for spacecraft under assigned velocity and control constraints.

    PubMed

    Hu, Qinglei; Li, Bo; Zhang, Youmin

    2013-07-01

    A novel robust nonlinear control design under the constraints of assigned velocity and actuator torque is investigated for attitude stabilization of a rigid spacecraft. More specifically, a nonlinear feedback control is firstly developed by explicitly taking into account the constraints on individual angular velocity components as well as external disturbances. Considering further the actuator misalignments and magnitude deviation, a modified robust least-squares based control allocator is employed to deal with the problem of distributing the previously designed three-axis moments over the available actuators, in which the focus of this control allocation is to find the optimal control vector of actuators by minimizing the worst-case residual error using programming algorithms. The attitude control performance using the controller structure is evaluated through a numerical example. PMID:23618744

  14. The use of the Regier number in the structural design with flutter constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dunn, H. J.; Doggett, Robert V., Jr.

    1994-01-01

    This preliminary investigation introduces the use of the Regier number as a flutter constraint criterion for aeroelastic structural optimization. Artificial neural network approximations are used to approximate the flutter criterion requirements as a function of the design Mach number and the parametric variables defining the aspect ratio, center of gravity, taper ratio, mass ratio, and pitch inertia of the wing. The presented approximations are simple enough to be used in the preliminary design stage without a well defined structural model. An example problem for a low-speed, high-aspect-ratio, light-aircraft wing is presented. The example problem is analyzed for the flutter Mach number using doublet lattice aerodynamics and the PK solution method. The use of the Regier number constraint criterion to optimize the example problem for minimum structural mass while maintaining a constant flutter Mach number is demonstrated.

  15. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  16. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  17. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  18. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Additional design requirements for Type A packages. In addition to meeting the general design requirements... gas by chemical reaction and radiolysis. (f) The containment system will retain its...

  19. Evaluation of critical materials in five additional advance design photovoltaic cells

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, S.A.; Watts, R.L.; Martin, P.; Gurwell, W.E.

    1981-02-01

    The objective of this study is to identify potential material supply constraints due to the large-scale deployment of five advanced photovoltaic (PV) cell designs, and to suggest strategies to reduce the impacts of these production capacity limitations and potential future material shortages. The Critical Materials Assessment Program (CMAP) screens the designs and their supply chains and identifies potential shortages which might preclude large-scale use of the technologies. The results of the screening of five advanced PV cell designs are presented: (1) indium phosphide/cadmium sulfide, (2) zinc phosphide, (3) cadmium telluride/cadmium sulfide, (4) copper indium selenium, and (5) cadmium selenide photoelectrochemical. Each of these five cells is screened individually assuming that they first come online in 1991, and that 25 Gwe of peak capacity is online by the year 2000. A second computer screening assumes that each cell first comes online in 1991 and that each cell has a 5 GWe of peak capacity by the year 2000, so that the total online capacity for the five cells is 25 GWe. Based on a review of the preliminary baseline screening results, suggestions were made for varying such parameters as the layer thickness, cell production processes, etc. The resulting PV cell characterizations were then screened again by the CMAP computer code. The CMAP methodology used to identify critical materials is described; and detailed characterizations of the advanced photovoltaic cell designs under investigation, descriptions of additional cell production processes, and the results are presented. (WHK)

  20. Conceptual Design Optimization of an Augmented Stability Aircraft Incorporating Dynamic Response Performance Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welstead, Jason

    2014-01-01

    This research focused on incorporating stability and control into a multidisciplinary de- sign optimization on a Boeing 737-class advanced concept called the D8.2b. A new method of evaluating the aircraft handling performance using quantitative evaluation of the sys- tem to disturbances, including perturbations, continuous turbulence, and discrete gusts, is presented. A multidisciplinary design optimization was performed using the D8.2b transport air- craft concept. The con guration was optimized for minimum fuel burn using a design range of 3,000 nautical miles. Optimization cases were run using xed tail volume coecients, static trim constraints, and static trim and dynamic response constraints. A Cessna 182T model was used to test the various dynamic analysis components, ensuring the analysis was behaving as expected. Results of the optimizations show that including stability and con- trol in the design process drastically alters the optimal design, indicating that stability and control should be included in conceptual design to avoid system level penalties later in the design process.

  1. Restoring natural geomorphic process to river environments influenced by practical design constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moir, H. J.

    2015-12-01

    The process restoration philosophy promotes the reinstatement of natural process (particularly the continuum of sediment transport processes) at the catchment scale. Associated with this approach is the concept that river biological communities, having evolved under natural/ un-impacted conditions, will respond positively to the reinstatement of natural physical function. The application of this 'let-the-river-do-the-work' approach is regarded as providing a sustainable alternative to traditional more 'hard engineering' approaches. However, often the reality is that full restoration of the controlling physical processes at the catchment scale is not feasible due to a variety of constraints (e.g. altered geomorphic regime, agriculture, infrastructure/ services, urban development, costs, etc.) and less ambitious objectives have to be set. Thus, under these typical constrained circumstances, can process restoration still be applied and, given the fundamental assumption of biophysical linkage, can ecology still be expected to respond positively? To elucidate these issues, we present four case studies from Scotland which represent the spectrum of process restoration application relating to almost no design constraints to very significant limitations (culvert daylighting within a housing development). We highlight that, despite significant constraints, physical river processes can (and should) always be considered in restoration design. The case studies demonstrate that natural physical processes (evidenced through indicators of sediment transport) quickly reinstate following construction; this was despite significant local constraints but reliant on physical/ geomorphic process being explicitly incorporated into to the design approach. Furthermore, evidence of associated improvements to the ecological/ habitat/ biotic condition of the restored sections of river were observed.

  2. Exploring the impact of mask making constraints on double patterning design rules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dam, Thuc; Sinn, Robert; Rissman, Paul; Gleason, Bob

    2011-11-01

    In order to achieve an economical design-to-mask (DTM) development cycle in the low k1 domain, designers, lithographers, and mask makers needed to move away from many sequentially isolated developmental activities onto one collaborative environment managed by a computational lithography platform that integrates their respective ecosystems. 1,2 A successful development cycle used to be achievable by designers providing designs to lithographers, who then provided RET/OPC solutions to realize designs, but once k1 fell below a certain level, the lithographers could not provide solutions to realize some critical designs, which then required feedback to designers for further redesigns requiring further lithographic evaluation cycles. So collaboration and automations between lithographers and designers became necessary to reduce feedback loops and development cycle time. RET and design solutions also were impacted by mask making, and so mask maker's feedback on MRC and other constraints needed to be integrated for all three groups to achieve an economical DTM. As many lithographers attempted to print sub-80 nm pitches with 193 nm wavelength, it became necessary to use double patterning to achieve feature resolution. With the effective pitch doubling on each split layer, there could be significant increased design rule freedom for certain complex design situations. Using an integrated computational lithographic platform, one could find design space sweet spots that could further achieve optimal lithographic performance. In this paper, the optimization of design rules (DRD) for double pattern designs (~60 nm pitch) was explored with the mask maker's perspective. The experiment to be presented started with a 2x nm design set of clips. Each set of clips underwent size/width/space/pitch variations to generate a design space, and then each design space underwent SMO with an inverse lithography technology (ILT) engine using various mask MRC's and manhattan segmentations. The

  3. A multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design including local and system buckling constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schmit, L. A., Jr.; Ramanathan, R. K.

    1977-01-01

    A rational multilevel approach for minimum weight structural design of truss and wing structures including local and system buckling constraints is presented. Overall proportioning of the structure is achieved at the system level subject to strength, displacement and system buckling constraints, while the detailed component designs are carried out separately at the component level satisfying local buckling constraints. Total structural weight is taken to be the objective function at the system level while employing the change in the equivalent system stiffness of the component as the component level objective function. Finite element analysis is used to predict static response while system buckling behavior is handled by incorporating a geometric stiffness matrix capability. Buckling load factors and the corresponding mode shapes are obtained by solving the eigenvalue problem associated with the assembled elastic stiffness and geometric stiffness matrices for the structural system. At the component level various local buckling failure modes are guarded against using semi-empirical formulas. Mathematical programming techniques are employed at both the system and component level.

  4. Feature, design intention and constraint preservation for direct modeling of 3D freeform surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fu, Luoting; Kara, Levent Burak; Shimada, Kenji

    2012-06-01

    Direct modeling has recently emerged as a suitable approach for 3D free-form shape modeling in industrial design. It has several advantages over the conventional, parametric modeling techniques, including natural user interactions, as well as the underlying, automatic feature-preserving shape deformation algorithms. However, current direct modeling packages still lack several capabilities critical for product design, such as managing aesthetic design intentions, and enforcing dimensional, geometric constraints. In this paper, we describe a novel 3D surface editing system capable of jointly accommodating aesthetic design intentions expressed in the form of surface painting and color-coded annotations, as well as engineering constraints expressed as dimensions. The proposed system is built upon differential coordinates and constrained least squares, and is intended for conceptual design that involves frequent shape tuning and explorations. We also provide an extensive review of the state-of-the-art direct modeling approaches for 3D mesh-based, freeform surfaces, with an emphasis on the two broad categories of shape deformation algorithms developed in the relevant field of geometric modeling. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Dynamic reliability-based robust design optimization with time-variant probabilistic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Pingfeng; Wang, Zequn; Almaktoom, Abdulaziz T.

    2014-06-01

    With the increasing complexity of engineering systems, ensuring high system reliability and system performance robustness throughout a product life cycle is of vital importance in practical engineering design. Dynamic reliability analysis, which is generally encountered due to time-variant system random inputs, becomes a primary challenge in reliability-based robust design optimization (RBRDO). This article presents a new approach to efficiently carry out dynamic reliability analysis for RBRDO. The key idea of the proposed approach is to convert time-variant probabilistic constraints to time-invariant ones by efficiently constructing a nested extreme response surface (NERS) and then carry out dynamic reliability analysis using NERS in an iterative RBRDO process. The NERS employs an efficient global optimization technique to identify the extreme time responses that correspond to the worst case scenario of system time-variant limit state functions. With these extreme time samples, a kriging-based time prediction model is built and used to estimate extreme responses for any given arbitrary design in the design space. An adaptive response prediction and model maturation mechanism is developed to guarantee the accuracy and efficiency of the proposed NERS approach. The NERS is integrated with RBRDO with time-variant probabilistic constraints to achieve optimum designs of engineered systems with desired reliability and performance robustness. Two case studies are used to demonstrate the efficacy of the proposed approach.

  6. Conceptual Design Optimization of an Augmented Stability Aircraft Incorporating Dynamic Response and Actuator Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Welstead, Jason; Crouse, Gilbert L., Jr.

    2014-01-01

    Empirical sizing guidelines such as tail volume coefficients have long been used in the early aircraft design phases for sizing stabilizers, resulting in conservatively stable aircraft. While successful, this results in increased empty weight, reduced performance, and greater procurement and operational cost relative to an aircraft with optimally sized surfaces. Including flight dynamics in the conceptual design process allows the design to move away from empirical methods while implementing modern control techniques. A challenge of flight dynamics and control is the numerous design variables, which are changing fluidly throughout the conceptual design process, required to evaluate the system response to some disturbance. This research focuses on addressing that challenge not by implementing higher order tools, such as computational fluid dynamics, but instead by linking the lower order tools typically used within the conceptual design process so each discipline feeds into the other. In thisresearch, flight dynamics and control was incorporated into the conceptual design process along with the traditional disciplines of vehicle sizing, weight estimation, aerodynamics, and performance. For the controller, a linear quadratic regulator structure with constant gains has been specified to reduce the user input. Coupling all the disciplines in the conceptual design phase allows the aircraft designer to explore larger design spaces where stabilizers are sized according to dynamic response constraints rather than historical static margin and volume coefficient guidelines.

  7. Hybrid method for designing digital FIR filters based on fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Baderia, Kuldeep; Kumar, Anil; Kumar Singh, Girish

    2015-09-01

    In this manuscript, a hybrid approach based on Lagrange multiplier method and cuckoo search (CS) optimization technique is proposed for the design of linear phase finite impulse response (FIR) filters using fractional derivative constraints. In the proposed method, FIR filter is designed by optimizing the integral squares in passband and stopband from ideal response such that the fractional derivatives of designed filter response become zero at a given frequency point. Lagrange multiplier method is exploited for finding the optimized filter coefficients. Optimal value of fractional derivative constraints for optimized filter coefficients are determined by minimizing the objective function constructed using a sum of maximum passband ripple and maximum stopband ripple in frequency domain using CS algorithm. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕ(p)), stopband error (ϕ(s)), stopband attenuation (A(s)), maximum passband ripple (MPR), maximum stopband ripple (MSR) and CPU time. A comparative study of the performance of particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) for designing FIR filters using the proposed method is also made. PMID:26142984

  8. Structural design optimization with survivability dependent constraints application: Primary wing box of a multi-role fighter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dolvin, Douglas J.

    1992-01-01

    The superior survivability of a multirole fighter is dependent upon balanced integration of technologies for reduced vulnerability and susceptability. The objective is to develop a methodology for structural design optimization with survivability dependent constraints. The design criteria for optimization will be survivability in a tactical laser environment. The following analyses are studied to establish a dependent design relationship between structural weight and survivability: (1) develop a physically linked global design model of survivability variables; and (2) apply conventional constraints to quantify survivability dependent design. It was not possible to develop an exact approach which would include all aspects of survivability dependent design, therefore guidelines are offered for solving similar problems.

  9. Sensor and Display Human Factors Based Design Constraints for Head Mounted and Tele-Operation Systems

    PubMed Central

    Harrison, Andre; Mullins, Linda; Etienne-Cummings, Ralph

    2011-01-01

    For mobile imaging systems in head mounted displays and tele-operation systems it is important to maximize the amount of visual information transmitted to the human visual system without exceeding its input capacity. This paper aims to describe the design constraints on the imager and display systems of head mounted devices and tele-operated systems based upon the capabilities of the human visual system. We also present the experimental results of methods to improve the amount of visual information conveyed to a user when trying to display a high dynamic range image on a low dynamic range display. PMID:22319370

  10. Structure design: an artificial intelligence-based method for the design of molecules under geometrical constraints.

    PubMed

    Cohen, A A; Shatzmiller, S E

    1993-09-01

    This study presents an algorithm that implements artificial-intelligence techniques for automated, and site-directed drug design. The aim of the method is to link two or more predetermined functional groups into a sensible molecular structure. The proposed designing process mimics the classical manual design method, in which the drug designer sits in front of the computer screen and with the aid of computer graphics attempts to design the new drug. Therefore, the key principle of the algorithm is the parameterization of some criteria that affect the decision-making process carried out by the drug designer. This parameterization is based on the generation of weighting factors that reflect the knowledge and knowledge-based intuition of the drug designer, and thus add further rationalization to the drug design process. The proposed algorithm has been shown to yield a large variety of different structures, of which the drug designer may choose the most sensible. Performance tests indicate that with the proper set of parameters, the method generates a new structure within a short time. PMID:8110662

  11. Using Generalized Additive Models to Analyze Single-Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shadish, William; Sullivan, Kristynn

    2013-01-01

    Many analyses for single-case designs (SCDs)--including nearly all the effect size indicators-- currently assume no trend in the data. Regression and multilevel models allow for trend, but usually test only linear trend and have no principled way of knowing if higher order trends should be represented in the model. This paper shows how Generalized…

  12. Effect of Tip-Speed Constraints on the Optimized Design of a Wind Turbine

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Resor, B.; Platt, A.; Guo, Y.; Ning, A.; King, R.; Parsons, T.; Petch, D.; Veers, P.

    2014-10-01

    This study investigates the effect of tip-velocity constraints on system levelized cost of energy (LCOE). The results indicate that a change in maximum tip speed from 80 to 100~m/s could produce a 32% decrease in gearbox weight (a 33% reduction in cost) which would result in an overall reduction of 1%-9% in system LCOE depending on the design approach. Three 100~m/s design cases were considered including a low tip-speed ratio/high-solidity rotor design, a high tip-speed ratio/ low-solidity rotor design, and finally a flexible blade design in which a high tip-speed ratio was used along with removing the tip deflection constraint on the rotor design. In all three cases, the significant reduction in gearbox weight caused by the higher tip-speed and lower overall gear ratio was counterbalanced by increased weights for the rotor and/or other drivetrain components and the tower. As a result, the increased costs of either the rotor or drivetrain components offset the overall reduction in turbine costs from down-sizing the gearbox. Other system costs were not significantly affected, whereas energy production was slightly reduced in the 100~m/s case low tip-speed ratio case and increased in the high tip-speed ratio case. This resulted in system cost of energy reductions moving from the 80~m/s design to the 100~m/s designs of 1.2% for the low tip-speed ratio, 4.6% for the high tip-speed ratio, and 9.5% for the final flexible case (the latter result is optimistic because the impact of deflection of the flexible blade on power production was not modeled). Overall, the results demonstrate that there is a trade-off in system design between the maximum tip velocity and the overall wind plant cost of energy, and there are many trade-offs within the overall system in designing a turbine for a high maximum tip velocity.

  13. A methodology for aeroelastic constraint analysis in a conceptual design environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Baets, Peter Wilfried Gaston

    The objective of this study is the infusion of aeroelastic constraint knowledge into the design space. The mapping of such aeroelastic information in the conceptual design space has long been a desire of the design community. The conceptual design phase of an aircraft is a multidisciplinary environment and has the most influence on the future design of the vehicle. However, sufficient results cannot he obtained in a timely enough manner to materially contribute to early design decisions. Furthermore, the natural division of the engineering team into specialty groups is not well supported by the monolithic aerodynamic-structures codes typically used in modern aeroelastic analysis. The research examines how the Bi-Level Integrated System Synthesis decomposition technique can be adapted to perform as the conceptual aeroelastic design tool. The study describes a comprehensive solution of the aeroelastic coupled problem cast in this decomposition format and implemented in an integrated framework. The method is supported by application details of a proof of concept high speed vehicle. Physics-based codes such as finite element and an aerodynamic panel method are used to model the high-definition geometric characteristics of the vehicle. A synthesis and sizing code was added to referee the conflicts that arise between the two disciplines. This research's novelty lies in four points. First is the use of physics-based tools at the conceptual design phase to calculate the aeroelastic properties. Second is the projection of flutter and divergence velocity constraint lines in a power loading versus wing loading graph. Third is the aeroelastic assessment time reduction, which has moved from a matter of years to months. Lastly, this assessment allowed verification of the impact of changing velocity, altitude, and angle of attack on the aeroelastic properties. This then allowed identification of robust design space with respect to these three mission properties. The method

  14. Heuristic optimization of pressurized water reactor fuel cycle design under general constraints

    SciTech Connect

    Moon, H.; Levine, S.H. ); Mahgerefteh, M. )

    1989-12-01

    Optimization techniques in fuel management have directed modern fuel cycle designs to use low-leakage loading patterns. Future optimization calculations involving low-leakage patterns must utilize nucleonic models that are both fast operationally and rigorous. A two-dimensional two-group diffusion theory code is developed and lattice homogenization constants are generated using a modified LEOPARD code to fulfill these criteria. Based on these two codes, a heuristic optimization study is performed that considers the general constraints (e.g., spent-fuel storage limit and mechanical burnup limit) given to a utility fuel cycle designer. The optimum cycle length that minimizes the fuel cost is {approximately} 600 effective full-power days for the conditions assumed.

  15. Concentric Tube Robot Design and Optimization Based on Task and Anatomical Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Bergeles, Christos; Gosline, Andrew H.; Vasilyev, Nikolay V.; Codd, Patrick J.; del Nido, Pedro J.; Dupont, Pierre E.

    2015-01-01

    Concentric tube robots are catheter-sized continuum robots that are well suited for minimally invasive surgery inside confined body cavities. These robots are constructed from sets of pre-curved superelastic tubes and are capable of assuming complex 3D curves. The family of 3D curves that the robot can assume depends on the number, curvatures, lengths and stiffnesses of the tubes in its tube set. The robot design problem involves solving for a tube set that will produce the family of curves necessary to perform a surgical procedure. At a minimum, these curves must enable the robot to smoothly extend into the body and to manipulate tools over the desired surgical workspace while respecting anatomical constraints. This paper introduces an optimization framework that utilizes procedureor patient-specific image-based anatomical models along with surgical workspace requirements to generate robot tube set designs. The algorithm searches for designs that minimize robot length and curvature and for which all paths required for the procedure consist of stable robot configurations. Two mechanics-based kinematic models are used. Initial designs are sought using a model assuming torsional rigidity. These designs are then refined using a torsionally-compliant model. The approach is illustrated with clinically relevant examples from neurosurgery and intracardiac surgery. PMID:26380575

  16. The paradox of conformational constraint in the design of Cbl(TKB)-binding peptides

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Eric A.; Chen, Qianyi; Kizhake, Smitha; Kolar, Carol; Kang, Myungshim; Chang, Chia-en A.; Borgstahl, Gloria E. O.; Natarajan, Amarnath

    2013-01-01

    Solving the crystal structure of Cbl(TKB) in complex with a pentapeptide, pYTPEP, revealed that the PEP region adopted a poly-L-proline type II (PPII) helix. An unnatural amino acid termed a proline-templated glutamic acid (ptE) that constrained both the backbone and sidechain to the bound conformation was synthesized and incorporated into the pYTPXP peptide. We estimated imposing structural constraints onto the backbone and sidechain of the peptide and preorganize it to the bound conformation in solution will yield nearly an order of magnitude improvement in activity. NMR studies confirmed that the ptE-containing peptide adopts the PPII conformation, however, competitive binding studies showed an order of magnitude loss of activity. Given the emphasis that is placed on imposing structural constraints, we provide an example to support the contrary. These results point to conformational flexibility at the interface, which have implications in the design of potent Cbl(TKB)-binding peptides. PMID:23572190

  17. Design of two-channel filter bank using nature inspired optimization based fractional derivative constraints.

    PubMed

    Kuldeep, B; Singh, V K; Kumar, A; Singh, G K

    2015-01-01

    In this article, a novel approach for 2-channel linear phase quadrature mirror filter (QMF) bank design based on a hybrid of gradient based optimization and optimization of fractional derivative constraints is introduced. For the purpose of this work, recently proposed nature inspired optimization techniques such as cuckoo search (CS), modified cuckoo search (MCS) and wind driven optimization (WDO) are explored for the design of QMF bank. 2-Channel QMF is also designed with particle swarm optimization (PSO) and artificial bee colony (ABC) nature inspired optimization techniques. The design problem is formulated in frequency domain as sum of L2 norm of error in passband, stopband and transition band at quadrature frequency. The contribution of this work is the novel hybrid combination of gradient based optimization (Lagrange multiplier method) and nature inspired optimization (CS, MCS, WDO, PSO and ABC) and its usage for optimizing the design problem. Performance of the proposed method is evaluated by passband error (ϕp), stopband error (ϕs), transition band error (ϕt), peak reconstruction error (PRE), stopband attenuation (As) and computational time. The design examples illustrate the ingenuity of the proposed method. Results are also compared with the other existing algorithms, and it was found that the proposed method gives best result in terms of peak reconstruction error and transition band error while it is comparable in terms of passband and stopband error. Results show that the proposed method is successful for both lower and higher order 2-channel QMF bank design. A comparative study of various nature inspired optimization techniques is also presented, and the study singles out CS as a best QMF optimization technique. PMID:25034647

  18. The WFIRST Interim Design Reference Mission: Capabilities, Constraints, and Open Questions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kruk, Jeffrey W.

    2012-01-01

    The Project Office and Science Definition Team for the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Telescope (WFIRST) are in the midst of a pre-Phase A study to establish a Design Reference Mission (DRM). An Interim report was released in June 2011, with a final report due later in 2012. The predicted performance of the Interim DRM Observatory will be described, including optical quality, observing efficiency, and sensitivity for representative observing scenarios. Observing constraints and other limitations on performance will also be presented, with an emphasis on potential Guest Observer programs. Finally, a brief status update will be provided on open trade studies of interest to the scientific community. The final DRM may differ from the Interim DRM presented here. However, the underlying requirements of the scientific programs are not expected to change, hence the capabilities of the IDRM are likely to be maintained even if the implementation changes in significant ways.

  19. Decision making with epistemic uncertainty under safety constraints: An application to seismic design

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Veneziano, D.; Agarwal, A.; Karaca, E.

    2009-01-01

    The problem of accounting for epistemic uncertainty in risk management decisions is conceptually straightforward, but is riddled with practical difficulties. Simple approximations are often used whereby future variations in epistemic uncertainty are ignored or worst-case scenarios are postulated. These strategies tend to produce sub-optimal decisions. We develop a general framework based on Bayesian decision theory and exemplify it for the case of seismic design of buildings. When temporal fluctuations of the epistemic uncertainties and regulatory safety constraints are included, the optimal level of seismic protection exceeds the normative level at the time of construction. Optimal Bayesian decisions do not depend on the aleatory or epistemic nature of the uncertainties, but only on the total (epistemic plus aleatory) uncertainty and how that total uncertainty varies randomly during the lifetime of the project. ?? 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Design constraints for third-order PLL nodes in master-slave clock distribution networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueno, A. M.; Rigon, A. G.; Ferreira, A. A.; Piqueira, José R. C.

    2010-09-01

    Clock signal distribution in telecommunication commercial systems usually adopts a master-slave architecture, with a precise time basis generator as a master and phase-locked loops (PLLs) as slaves. In the majority of the networks, second-order PLLs are adopted due to their simplicity and stability. Nevertheless, in some applications better transient responses are necessary and, consequently, greater order PLLs need to be used, in spite of the possibility of bifurcations and chaotic attractors. Here a master-slave network with third-order PLLs is analyzed and conditions for the stability of the synchronous state are derived, providing design constraints for the node parameters, in order to guarantee stability and reachability of the synchronous state for the whole network. Numerical simulations are carried out in order to confirm the analytical results.

  1. The Inverse Phase Stability Problem as a Constraint Satisfaction Problem: Application to Materials Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arróyave, R.; Gibbons, S. L.; Galvan, E.; Malak, R. J.

    2016-05-01

    In general, the forward phase stability problem consists of mapping thermodynamic conditions (e.g., composition, temperature, pressure) to corresponding equilibrium states. In this paper, we instead focus on the generalized inverse phase stability problem (GIPSP) that deals with mapping a set of phase constitutions to a set of corresponding thermodynamic conditions. Specifically, we define the GIPSP as mapping of sets of phase constitution definitions in a multidimensional phase constitution search space to corresponding ranges of thermodynamic conditions. Mathematically, the solution to the GIPSP corresponds to all solutions to a continuous constraint satisfaction problem (CCSP). We present novel algorithms combining computational thermodynamics, evolutionary computation, and machine learning to approximate solution sets to the GIPSP as a CCSP. Some preliminary examples demonstrating the algorithms are presented. Moreover, the implications of the proposed framework for the larger problem of materials design are discussed, and future work is suggested.

  2. The constraints satisfaction problem approach in the design of an architectural functional layout

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zawidzki, Machi; Tateyama, Kazuyoshi; Nishikawa, Ikuko

    2011-09-01

    A design support system with a new strategy for finding the optimal functional configurations of rooms for architectural layouts is presented. A set of configurations satisfying given constraints is generated and ranked according to multiple objectives. The method can be applied to problems in architectural practice, urban or graphic design-wherever allocation of related geometrical elements of known shape is optimized. Although the methodology is shown using simplified examples-a single story residential building with two apartments each having two rooms-the results resemble realistic functional layouts. One example of a practical size problem of a layout of three apartments with a total of 20 rooms is demonstrated, where the generated solution can be used as a base for a realistic architectural blueprint. The discretization of design space is discussed, followed by application of a backtrack search algorithm used for generating a set of potentially 'good' room configurations. Next the solutions are classified by a machine learning method (FFN) as 'proper' or 'improper' according to the internal communication criteria. Examples of interactive ranking of the 'proper' configurations according to multiple criteria and choosing 'the best' ones are presented. The proposed framework is general and universal-the criteria, parameters and weights can be individually defined by a user and the search algorithm can be adjusted to a specific problem.

  3. Design of an optimal-weighted MACE filter realizable with arbitrary SLM constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, Jin; Rajan, P. Karivaratha

    1996-03-01

    A realizable optimal weighted minimum average correlation energy (MACE) filter with arbitrary spatial light modulator (SLM) constraints is presented. The MACE filter can be considered as the cascade of two separate stages. The first stage is the prewhitener which essentially converts colored noise to white noise. The second stage is the conventional synthetic discriminant function (SDF) which is optimal for white noise, but which uses training vectors subjected to the prewhitening transformation. So the energy spectrum matrix is very important for filter design. New weight function we introduce is used to adjust the correlation energy to improve the performance of MACE filter on current SLMs. The action of the weight function is to emphasize the importance of the signal energy at some frequencies and reduce the importance of signal energy at some other frequencies so as to improve correlation plane structure. The choice of weight function which is used to enhance the noise tolerance and reduce sidelobes is related to a priori pattern recognition knowledge. An algorithm which combines an iterative optimal technique with Juday's minimum Euclidean distance (MED) method is developed for the design of the realizable optimal weighted MACE filter. The performance of the designed filter is evaluated with numerical experiments.

  4. Explicit correlation model of multi-source constraints for Re-design parts with complex curved surface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jia, Zhenyuan; Wang, Fuji; Wang, Yongqing; Guo, Dongming

    2014-03-01

    In precision machining of complex curved surface parts with high performance, geometry accuracy is not the only constraint, but the performance should also be met. Performance of this kind of parts is closely related to the geometrical and physical parameters, so the final actual size and shape are affected by multiple source constraints, such as geometry, physics, and performance. These parts are rather difficult to be manufactured and new manufacturing method according to performance requirement is urgently needed. Based on performance and manufacturing requirements for complex curved surface parts, a new classification method is proposed, which divided the complex curved surface parts into two categories: surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints(PRCS) and surface unique complex curved surface parts with pure geometric constraints(PUCS). A correlation model is constructed between the performance and multi-source constraints for PRCS, which reveals the correlation between the performance and multi-source constraints. A re-design method is also developed. Through solving the correlation model of the typical part's performance-associated surface, the mapping relation between the performance-associated surface and the related removal amount is obtained. The explicit correlation model and the method for the corresponding related removal amount of the performance-associated surface are built based on the classification of surface re-design complex curved surface parts with multi-source constraints. Research results have been used in the actual processing of the typical parts such as radome, common bottom components, nozzle, et al., which shows improved efficiency and accuracy of the precision machining for the surface re-design parts with complex curved surface.

  5. Multi Canister Overpack (MCO) Handling Machine Trolley Seismic Uplift Constraint Design Loads

    SciTech Connect

    SWENSON, C.E.

    2000-03-09

    The MCO Handling Machine (MHM) trolley moves along the top of the MHM bridge girders on east-west oriented rails. To prevent trolley wheel uplift during a seismic event, passive uplift constraints are provided as shown in Figure 1-1. North-south trolley wheel movement is prevented by flanges on the trolley wheels. When the MHM is positioned over a Multi-Canister Overpack (MCO) storage tube, east-west seismic restraints are activated to prevent trolley movement during MCO handling. The active seismic constraints consist of a plunger, which is inserted into slots positioned along the tracks as shown in Figure 1-1. When the MHM trolley is moving between storage tube positions, the active seismic restraints are not engaged. The MHM has been designed and analyzed in accordance with ASME NOG-1-1995. The ALSTHOM seismic analysis (Reference 3) reported seismic uplift restraint loading and EDERER performed corresponding structural calculations. The ALSTHOM and EDERER calculations were performed with the east-west seismic restraints activated and the uplift restraints experiencing only vertical loading. In support of development of the CSB Safety Analysis Report (SAR), an evaluation of the MHM seismic response was requested for the case where the east-west trolley restraints are not engaged. For this case, the associated trolley movements would result in east-west lateral loads on the uplift constraints due to friction, as shown in Figure 1-2. During preliminary evaluations, questions were raised as to whether the EDERER calculations considered the latest ALSTHOM seismic analysis loads (See NCR No. 00-SNFP-0008, Reference 5). Further evaluation led to the conclusion that the EDERER calculations used appropriate vertical loading, but the uplift restraints would need to be re-analyzed and modified to account for lateral loading. The disposition of NCR 00-SNFP-0008 will track the redesign and modification effort. The purpose of this calculation is to establish bounding seismic

  6. ILP model for Greenfield WDM PON network design based on physical layer constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arévalo, Germán. V.; Sierra, Javier E.; Hincapié, Roberto C.

    2013-09-01

    One of the main issues in the WDM PON networks design is the optimal dimensioning of the network. The network size usually depends on the traffic demand and the user density, taking in to account the active and passive equipment capacity and some physical layer constraints like the attenuation in the optical path. However, some physical layer limitations related with signal transmission in an optical fiber become more relevant in a WDM transmission and when operating at very high data rates, like 10 Gbps or beyond. In this paper we propose a novel physical layer restrictions based integer linear programming (ILP) model for greenfield next generation 10 Gbps WDM PON network design. The results of the model are validated by means of computational techniques. The proposed ILP model takes into account not only the attenuation of the signal in the optical path but also, through the use of the data obtained by simulation software. We take in to account the restrictions imposed by other phenomena like dispersion, cross talk and some non linear effects typically present in a dense WDM optical transmission.

  7. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  8. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  9. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  10. 49 CFR 192.112 - Additional design requirements for steel pipe using alternative maximum allowable operating...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional design requirements for steel pipe...: MINIMUM FEDERAL SAFETY STANDARDS Pipe Design § 192.112 Additional design requirements for steel pipe using... for the steel pipe (1) The plate, skelp, or coil used for the pipe must be micro-alloyed, fine...

  11. Multidisciplinary design optimization of a fighter aircraft with damage tolerance constraints and a probabilistic model of the fatigue environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arrieta, Albert Joseph

    2001-07-01

    Damage tolerance analysis (DTA) was considered in the global design optimization of an aircraft wing structure. Residual strength and fatigue life requirements, based on the damage tolerance philosophy, were investigated as new design constraints. In general, accurate fatigue prediction is difficult if the load environment is not known with a high degree of certainty. To address this issue, a probabilistic approach was used to describe the uncertain load environment. Probabilistic load spectra models were developed from flight recorder data. The global/local finite element approach allowed local fatigue requirements to be considered in the global design optimization. AFGROW fatigue crack growth analysis provided a new strength criterion for satisfying damage tolerance requirements within a global optimization environment. Initial research with the ASTROS program used the probabilistic load model and this damage tolerance constraint to optimize cracked skin panels on the lower wing of a fighter/attack aircraft. For an aerodynamic and structural model similar to an F-16, ASTROS simulated symmetric and asymmetric maneuvers during the optimization. Symmetric maneuvers, without underwing stores, produced the highest stresses and drove the optimization of the inboard lower wing skin. Asymmetric maneuvers, with underwing stores, affected the optimum thickness of the outboard hard points. Subsequent design optimizations included von Mises stress, aileron effectiveness, and lift effectiveness constraints simultaneously. This optimization was driven by the DTA and von Mises stress constraints and, therefore, DTA requirements can have an active role to play in preliminary aircraft design.

  12. RNAiFold2T: Constraint Programming design of thermo-IRES switches

    PubMed Central

    Garcia-Martin, Juan Antonio; Dotu, Ivan; Fernandez-Chamorro, Javier; Lozano, Gloria; Ramajo, Jorge; Martinez-Salas, Encarnacion; Clote, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Motivation: RNA thermometers (RNATs) are cis-regulatory elements that change secondary structure upon temperature shift. Often involved in the regulation of heat shock, cold shock and virulence genes, RNATs constitute an interesting potential resource in synthetic biology, where engineered RNATs could prove to be useful tools in biosensors and conditional gene regulation. Results: Solving the 2-temperature inverse folding problem is critical for RNAT engineering. Here we introduce RNAiFold2T, the first Constraint Programming (CP) and Large Neighborhood Search (LNS) algorithms to solve this problem. Benchmarking tests of RNAiFold2T against existent programs (adaptive walk and genetic algorithm) inverse folding show that our software generates two orders of magnitude more solutions, thus allowing ample exploration of the space of solutions. Subsequently, solutions can be prioritized by computing various measures, including probability of target structure in the ensemble, melting temperature, etc. Using this strategy, we rationally designed two thermosensor internal ribosome entry site (thermo-IRES) elements, whose normalized cap-independent translation efficiency is approximately 50% greater at 42 °C than 30 °C, when tested in reticulocyte lysates. Translation efficiency is lower than that of the wild-type IRES element, which on the other hand is fully resistant to temperature shift-up. This appears to be the first purely computational design of functional RNA thermoswitches, and certainly the first purely computational design of functional thermo-IRES elements. Availability: RNAiFold2T is publicly available as part of the new release RNAiFold3.0 at https://github.com/clotelab/RNAiFold and http://bioinformatics.bc.edu/clotelab/RNAiFold, which latter has a web server as well. The software is written in C ++ and uses OR-Tools CP search engine. Contact: clote@bc.edu Supplementary information: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online. PMID

  13. Constraints on target chamber first wall and target designs that will enable NIF debris shields to survive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burnham, Alan K.; Gerassimenko, Michel; Scott, J. M.; Latkowski, Jeff F.; Whitman, Pamela K.; Genin, Francois Y.; Hibbard, Wilthea; Peterson, P. F.; Tokheim, R. E.; Curran, D. R.

    1999-07-01

    The NIF target chamber interior materials and target designs themselves have to be compatible with survival of the final- optics debris shields. To meet the planned maintenance and refinishing rate, the contamination of the debris shields cannot exceed about 1 nm equivalent thickness per shot of total material. This implies that he target mass must be limited to no more than 1 gram and the ablated mass released to the chamber from all other components must not exceed 3 grams. In addition, the targets themselves must either completely vaporize or send any minor amounts of shrapnel towards the chamber waist to prevent excessive catering of the debris shields. The constraints on the first-wall debris will remobilize at a rate fast enough to require cleaning every 3 weeks, about three times more frequent than possible with planned robotics. Furthermore, a comparison of ablatants from B4C and stainless-steel louvers suggest that remobilization of target debris by x-rays will be greater than that of the base material in both cases, thereby reducing the performance advantage of clean B4C over much cheaper stainless steel. Neutronics calculations indicate that activation of thin Ni-free stainless steel is not a significant source of maintenance personnel radiation dose. Consequently, the most attractive first wall design consists of stainless-steel louvers. Evaluation of various unconverted-light beam dump designs indicates that stainless steel louvers generate no more debris than other matrices, so one single design can serve as both first wall and beam dumps, eliminating beam steering restrictions caused by size and location of the beam dumps. One reservation is that the allowable contamination rate of the debris shield is not yet completely understood. Consequently, it is likely that either a protruding beam tube, a rapid post-shot gas purge of the final optics assembly, or thin polymeric pre-shield will be required to prevent low-velocity contamination from reaching

  14. 77 FR 9251 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... designate a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the... addition to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any area at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  15. Disassemblability modeling technology of configurable product based on disassembly constraint relation weighted design structure matrix(DSM)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Lemiao; Liu, Xiaojian; Zhang, Shuyou; Sun, Liangfeng

    2014-05-01

    The current research of configurable product disassemblability focuses on disassemblability evaluation and disassembly sequence planning. Little work has been done on quantitative analysis of configurable product disassemblability. The disassemblability modeling technology for configurable product based on disassembly constraint relation weighted design structure matrix (DSM) is proposed. Major factors affecting the disassemblability of configurable product are analyzed, and the disassembling degrees between components in configurable product are obtained by calculating disassembly entropies such as joint type, joint quantity, disassembly path, disassembly accessibility and material compatibility. The disassembly constraint relation weighted DSM of configurable product is constructed and configuration modules are formed by matrix decomposition and tearing operations. The disassembly constraint relation in configuration modules is strong coupling, and the disassembly constraint relation between modules is weak coupling, and the disassemblability configuration model is constructed based on configuration module. Finally, taking a hydraulic forging press as an example, the decomposed weak coupling components are used as configuration modules alone, components with a strong coupling are aggregated into configuration modules, and the disassembly sequence of components inside configuration modules is optimized by tearing operation. A disassemblability configuration model of the hydraulic forging press is constructed. By researching the disassemblability modeling technology of product configuration design based on disassembly constraint relation weighted DSM, the disassembly property in maintenance, recycling and reuse of configurable product are optimized.

  16. Constrictor: Flux Balance Analysis Constraint Modification Provides Insight for Design of Biochemical Networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erickson, Keesha; Chatterjee, Anushree

    2014-03-01

    The use of in silico methods has become standard practice to correlate the structure of a biochemical network to the expression of a desired phenotype. Flux balance analysis (FBA) is one of the most prevalent techniques for modeling metabolism. FBA models have been successfully applied to obtain growth predictions, theoretical product yields from heterologous pathways, and genome engineering targets. We take inspiration from high-throughput recombineering techniques, which show that combinatorial exploration can reveal optimal mutants, and apply the advantages of computational techniques to analyze these combinations. We introduce Constrictor, an in silico tool for FBA that allows gene mutations to be analyzed in a combinatorial fashion, by applying simulated constraints accounting for regulation of gene expression. We apply this algorithm to study ethylene production in E. coli through the addition of the heterologous ethylene-forming enzyme from P. syringae. Targeting individual reactions as well as sets of reactions results in theoretical ethylene yields that are as much 65% greater than yields calculated using typical FBA. Constrictor is an adaptable technique that can be used to generate and analyze disparate populations of in silico mutants & select gene expression levels.

  17. 78 FR 18350 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on...

  18. 77 FR 76489 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on January 6, 2013, unless Congress...

  19. 77 FR 58381 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY..., as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness... included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on September 22,...

  20. 77 FR 76489 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY..., Massachusetts, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational... Cohort. This designation will become effective on January 6, 2013, unless Congress provides...

  1. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Electric Corp., Bloomfield, New Jersey, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  2. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on May 5,...

  3. 78 FR 64500 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on October 30, 2013,...

  4. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... the Santa Susana Field Laboratory as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on May 5, 2010,...

  5. 78 FR 64501 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on October 30, 2013, unless Congress...

  6. 78 FR 18351 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective on...

  7. 13 CFR 108.1940 - Procedures for designation of additional Low-Income Geographic Areas

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 13 Business Credit and Assistance 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for designation of additional Low-Income Geographic Areas 108.1940 Section 108.1940 Business Credit and Assistance SMALL BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION NEW MARKETS VENTURE CAPITAL (âNMVCâ) PROGRAM Miscellaneous § 108.1940 Procedures for designation of additional...

  8. Tilable nature of virus capsids and the role of topological constraints in natural capsid design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mannige, Ranjan V.; Brooks, Charles L., III

    2008-05-01

    Virus capsids are highly specific assemblies that are formed from a large number of often chemically identical capsid subunits. In the present paper we ask to what extent these structures can be viewed as mathematically tilable objects using a single two-dimensional tile. We find that spherical viruses from a large number of families—eight out of the twelve studied—qualitatively possess properties that allow their representation as two-dimensional monohedral tilings of a bound surface, where each tile represents a subunit. This we did by characterizing the extent to which individual spherical capsids display subunit-subunit (1) holes, (2) overlaps, and (3) gross structural variability. All capsids with T numbers greater than 1 from the Protein Data Bank, with homogeneous protein composition, were used in the study. These monohedral tilings, called canonical capsids due to their platonic (mathematical) form, offer a mathematical segue into the structural and dynamical understanding of not one, but a large number of virus capsids. From our data, it appears as though one may only break the long-standing rules of quasiequivalence by the introduction of subunit-subunit structural variability, holes, and gross overlaps into the shell. To explore the utility of canonical capsids in understanding structural aspects of such assemblies, we used graph theory and discrete geometry to enumerate the types of shapes that the tiles (and hence the subunits) must possess. We show that topology restricts the shape of the face to a limited number of five-sided prototiles, one of which is the “bisected trapezoid” that is a platonic representation of the most ubiquitous capsid subunit shape seen in nature (the trapezoidal jelly-roll motif). This motif is found in a majority of seemingly unrelated virus families that share little to no host, size, or amino acid sequence similarity. This suggests that topological constraints may exhibit dominant roles in the natural design of

  9. 78 FR 77686 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... designate a class of employees from the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, as an addition to the Special... subcontractors who worked at the Rocky Flats Plant in Golden, Colorado, from April 1, 1952, through December...

  10. 77 FR 32640 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, as an addition... their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at Sandia National Laboratories...

  11. 77 FR 32640 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to... Carbon Chemicals Corporation (1947-1949) who were employed at the Clinton Engineer Works in Oak...

  12. 77 FR 76489 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... designate a class of employees from the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, as an addition to the Special... subcontractors who worked at the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, from September 1, 1972, through December...

  13. Wood lens design philosophy based on a binary additive manufacturing technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marasco, Peter L.; Bailey, Christopher

    2016-04-01

    Using additive manufacturing techniques in optical engineering to construct a gradient index (GRIN) optic may overcome a number of limitations of GRIN technology. Such techniques are maturing quickly, yielding additional design degrees of freedom for the engineer. How best to employ these degrees of freedom is not completely clear at this time. This paper describes a preliminary design philosophy, including assumptions, pertaining to a particular printing technique for GRIN optics. It includes an analysis based on simulation and initial component measurement.

  14. Modified constraint-induced movement therapy for clients with chronic stroke: interrupted time series (ITS) design

    PubMed Central

    Park, JuHyung; Lee, NaYun; Cho, YongHo; Yang, YeongAe

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the impact that modified constraint-induced movement therapy has on upper extremity function and the daily life of chronic stroke patients. [Subjects and Methods] Modified constraint-induced movement therapy was conduct for 2 stroke patients with hemiplegia. It was performed 5 days a week for 2 weeks, and the participants performed their daily living activities wearing mittens for 6 hours a day, including the 2 hours of the therapy program. The assessment was conducted 5 times in 3 weeks before and after intervention. The upper extremity function was measured using the box and block test and a dynamometer, and performance daily of living activities was assessed using the modified Barthel index. The results were analyzed using a scatterplot and linear regression. [Results] All the upper extremity functions of the participants all improved after the modified constraint-induced movement therapy. Performance of daily living activities by participant 1 showed no change, but the results of participant 2 had improved after the intervention. [Conclusion] Through the results of this research, it was identified that modified constraint-induced movement therapy is effective at improving the upper extremity functions and the performance of daily living activities of chronic stroke patients. PMID:25931770

  15. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Junction Operations Office in Grand Junction, Colorado, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort...

  16. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Chang facility in Albany, Oregon, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... parameters established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure...

  17. 75 FR 22410 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Test Site as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees...

  18. 77 FR 2545 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-01-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy...

  19. 77 FR 40059 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-06

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... as the Fernald Environmental Management Project (FEMP), as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort... parameters established for one or more classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  20. STEADY-STATE DESIGN OF VERTICAL WELLS FOR LIQUIDS ADDITION AT BIOREACTOR LANDFILLS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This paper presents design charts that a landfill engineer can use for the design of a vertical well system for liquids addition at bioreactor landfills. The flow rate and lateral and vertical zones of impact of a vertical well were estimated as a function of input variables su...

  1. 76 FR 76219 - Designation of Additional Individual Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-12-06

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Additional Individual Pursuant to Executive Order 13413... Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the name of one individual whose property and... designation by the Director of OFAC of the individual identified in this notice, pursuant to Executive...

  2. 76 FR 63351 - Designation of Additional Individual Pursuant to Executive Order 13413

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-12

    ... Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Additional Individual Pursuant to Executive Order 13413... Office of Foreign Assets Control (``OFAC'') is publishing the name of one individual whose property and... designation by the Director of OFAC of the individual identified in this notice, pursuant to Executive...

  3. 77 FR 9250 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-16

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will...

  4. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... established for one or more other classes of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  5. 76 FR 28436 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On April... other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will...

  6. 78 FR 64501 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-29

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation will become effective...

  7. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores

    PubMed Central

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-01-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  8. Additive genetic variation in resistance traits of an exotic pine species: little evidence for constraints on evolution of resistance against native herbivores.

    PubMed

    Moreira, X; Zas, R; Sampedro, L

    2013-05-01

    The apparent failure of invasions by alien pines in Europe has been explained by the co-occurrence of native pine congeners supporting herbivores that might easily recognize the new plants as hosts. Previous studies have reported that exotic pines show reduced tolerance and capacity to induce resistance to those native herbivores. We hypothesize that limited genetic variation in resistance to native herbivores and the existence of evolutionary trade-offs between growth and resistance could represent additional potential constraints on the evolution of invasiveness of exotic pines outside their natural range. In this paper, we examined genetic variation for constitutive and induced chemical defences (measured as non-volatile resin in the stem and total phenolics in the needles) and resistance to two major native generalist herbivores of pines in cafeteria bioassays (the phloem-feeder Hylobius abietis and the defoliator Thaumetopoea pityocampa) using half-sib families drawn from a sample of the population of Pinus radiata introduced to Spain in the mid-19th century. We found (i) significant genetic variation, with moderate-to-high narrow-sense heritabilities for both the production of constitutive non-volatile resin and induced total phenolics, and for constitutive resistance against T. pityocampa in bioassays, (ii) no evolutionary trade-offs between plant resistance and growth traits or between the production of different quantitative chemical defences and (iii) a positive genetic correlation between constitutive resistance to the two studied herbivores. Overall, results of our study indicate that the exotic pine P. radiata has limited genetic constraints on the evolution of resistance against herbivores in its introduced range, suggesting that, at least in terms of interactions with these enemies, this pine species has potential to become invasive in the future. PMID:23232833

  9. The effect of additional design parameters on the LQR based design of a control/structural system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bainum, Peter M.; Xu, Jianke

    1990-01-01

    A multiobjective cost function that includes a form of the standard LQR regulator cost and its partial variation with respect to the additional design parameters is presented in connection with the design of an orbiting control/structural system. Simple models of uniform solid and tubular beams are demonstrated with two typical additional payload masses, i.e., symmetrically distributed and asymmetrically distributed, with respect to the center of the beam. By regarding the transient response of pitch angle and free-free beam deformations in the orbital plane, the optimal outer diameter of the beam and all feedback control can be determined by numerical analysis with this multicriterial approach. It is concluded that the multicriteria design approach should give better results from both the structural designer's and the control designer's standpoints.

  10. Isolating wetland CH4 emissions using the additional constraints of δ13CH4, and C2H6 in a inverse modeling framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guillermo Nuñez Ramirez, Tonatiuh; Marshall, Julia; Houweling, Sander; Dlugokencky, Edward J.; Worthy, Douglas E. J.; Vaughn, Bruce; Simpson, Isobel; White, James; Brand, Willi A.; Sasakawa, Motoki; Nichol, Silvia; Ramonet, Michel; Tyler, Stanley C.; Hueber, Jacques; Helmig, Detlev; Read, Katie; Punjabi, Schalini; Vanni Gatti, Luciana; Krummel, Paul; Heimann, Martin

    2015-04-01

    Wetlands are the largest single source of atmospheric methane (CH_4). However, estimates of their relative contribution to the atmospheric CH4 budget are highly uncertain. Models of CH4 fluxes from wetlands, which reflect our understanding of the processes driving these fluxes, disagree strongly in their estimates of the total contribution of wetlands to the CH4 budget and in the variability of the fluxes in space and time. Atmospheric CH4 observations can provide a top-down constraint on wetland CH4 flux estimates. Results from atmospheric inverse modeling studies highlight the importance of tropical wetlands in driving interannual variability of atmospheric CH_4. Nevertheless, atmospheric observations in the tropics are scarce, with large areas of strong emissions not covered by the atmospheric observation network. Furthermore, the Bayesian framework, often used in atmospheric inverse modeling, preferentially projects signals onto spatiotemporal regions with large a-priori uncertainty, which is the case of tropical wetlands. Since a large lack of knowledge exists as well for other non-wetland sources of atmospheric CH_4, signals from these could be wrongly allocated to tropical wetlands. The CH4 stable carbon isotope signal (δ13CH_4) and co-emitted species such as ethane (C_2H_6) can provide additional constraints which may be use to discriminate wetland from non-wetland CH4 emissions. We describe the set-up of an inverse modeling framework based on the Jena Inversion System and the TM3 transport model that optimizes CH4 fluxes to fit the observed atmospheric CH_4, δ13CH_4, and C_2H6 signals. The fluxes are optimized with the constraint that each source process was assigned a characteristic range of δ13CH4 signals and methane-to-ethane ratios (MERs). An additional characteristic of our set-up is that no seasonal or interannual variability was included in the wetland a-priori estimate to ensure that all variability is derived exclusively from observations. A

  11. Design Constraints Regarding The Use Of Fluids In Emergency Medical Systems For Space Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McQuillen, John

    2013-01-01

    The Exploration Medical Capability Project of the Human Research Program is tasked with identifying, investigating and addressing gaps existing gaps in either knowledge or technology that need to be addressed in order to enable safer exploration missions. There are several gaps that involve treatment for emergency medical situations. Some of these treatments involve the handling of liquids in the spacecraft environment which involve gas-liquid mixtures handling, dissolution chemistry and thermal issues. Some of the recent technology efforts include the Intravenous fluid generation (IVGEN) experiment, the In-Suit Injection System (ISIS) experiment, and medical suction. Constraints include limited volume, shelf life, handling biohazards, availability of power, crew time and medical training.

  12. Spatial, socio-economic, and ecological implications of incorporating minimum size constraints in marine protected area network design.

    PubMed

    Metcalfe, Kristian; Vaughan, Gregory; Vaz, Sandrine; Smith, Robert J

    2015-12-01

    Marine protected areas (MPAs) are the cornerstone of most marine conservation strategies, but the effectiveness of each one partly depends on its size and distance to other MPAs in a network. Despite this, current recommendations on ideal MPA size and spacing vary widely, and data are lacking on how these constraints might influence the overall spatial characteristics, socio-economic impacts, and connectivity of the resultant MPA networks. To address this problem, we tested the impact of applying different MPA size constraints in English waters. We used the Marxan spatial prioritization software to identify a network of MPAs that met conservation feature targets, whilst minimizing impacts on fisheries; modified the Marxan outputs with the MinPatch software to ensure each MPA met a minimum size; and used existing data on the dispersal distances of a range of species found in English waters to investigate the likely impacts of such spatial constraints on the region's biodiversity. Increasing MPA size had little effect on total network area or the location of priority areas, but as MPA size increased, fishing opportunity cost to stakeholders increased. In addition, as MPA size increased, the number of closely connected sets of MPAs in networks and the average distance between neighboring MPAs decreased, which consequently increased the proportion of the planning region that was isolated from all MPAs. These results suggest networks containing large MPAs would be more viable for the majority of the region's species that have small dispersal distances, but dispersal between MPA sets and spill-over of individuals into unprotected areas would be reduced. These findings highlight the importance of testing the impact of applying different MPA size constraints because there are clear trade-offs that result from the interaction of size, number, and distribution of MPAs in a network. PMID:26219669

  13. Design and development of a layer-based additive manufacturing process for the realization of metal parts of designed mesostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Christopher Bryant

    Low-density cellular materials, metallic bodies with gaseous voids, are a unique class of materials that are characterized by their high strength, low mass, good energy absorption characteristics, and good thermal and acoustic insulation properties. In an effort to take advantage of this entire suite of positive mechanical traits, designers are tailoring the cellular mesostructure for multiple design objectives. Unfortunately, existing cellular material manufacturing technologies limit the design space as they are limited to certain part mesostructure, material type, and macrostructure. The opportunity that exists to improve the design of existing products, and the ability to reap the benefits of cellular materials in new applications is the driving force behind this research. As such, the primary research goal of this work is to design, embody, and analyze a manufacturing process that provides a designer the ability to specify the material type, material composition, void morphology, and mesostructure topology for any conceivable part geometry. The accomplishment of this goal is achieved in three phases of research: (1) Design---Following a systematic design process and a rigorous selection exercise, a layer-based additive manufacturing process is designed that is capable of meeting the unique requirements of fabricating cellular material geometry. Specifically, metal parts of designed mesostructure are fabricated via three-dimensional printing of metal oxide ceramic powder followed by post-processing in a reducing atmosphere. (2) Embodiment ---The primary research hypothesis is verified through the use of the designed manufacturing process chain to successfully realize metal parts of designed mesostructure. (3) Modeling & Evaluation ---The designed manufacturing process is modeled in this final research phase so as to increase understanding of experimental results and to establish a foundation for future analytical modeling research. In addition to an analysis of

  14. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of... established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  15. 78 FR 18350 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-26

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... parameters established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure...

  16. 77 FR 32641 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY... the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program... established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  17. 77 FR 58911 - Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated Pursuant to Executive Order...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-24

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Additional Identifying Information for One (1) Individual Designated... identifying information for one individual whose property and interests in property are blocked pursuant...

  18. 76 FR 52384 - Designation of Additional Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13405

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-22

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Foreign Assets Control Designation of Additional Entities Pursuant to Executive Order 13405... repression, electoral fraud, and public corruption in Belarus. The Order imposes economic sanctions...

  19. 78 FR 50313 - Final Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Night Visual Flight Rules (VFR) Under the...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-08-19

    ... Code of Federal Regulations and two additional design criteria issued on September 2, 2003 (68 FR 56809... Federal Register on Friday May 31, 2013, 78 FR 32576. No comments were received, and the airworthiness... hazard or carbon monoxide contamination in the personnel compartment. (b) Each exhaust system part with...

  20. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.202 Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible... government and tribal regulatory authority, as applicable, at the time it files its petition with the...

  1. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support § 54.202 Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible... government and tribal regulatory authority, as applicable, at the time it files its petition with the...

  2. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 3 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers. 54.202 Section 54.202 Telecommunication FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION (CONTINUED) COMMON CARRIER SERVICES (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE Carriers Eligible for Universal Service Support §...

  3. 49 CFR 173.412 - Additional design requirements for Type A packages.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional design requirements for Type A packages. 173.412 Section 173.412 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS SHIPPERS-GENERAL REQUIREMENTS FOR SHIPMENTS...

  4. 49 CFR 173.466 - Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional tests for Type A packagings designed for liquids and gases. 173.466 Section 173.466 Transportation Other Regulations Relating to Transportation PIPELINE AND HAZARDOUS MATERIALS SAFETY ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION HAZARDOUS MATERIALS REGULATIONS...

  5. 78 FR 54791 - Proposed Additional Airworthiness Design Standards: Advanced Avionics Under the Special Class...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-09-06

    ... Regulations and two additional design criteria issued on September 2, 2003 (68 FR 56809). The regulation... 75 FR 32576. In conjunction with the expansion to Night-VFR operations intergrated avionic displays...-49, ``Electrical bonding and protection against lightning and static electricity'' 14 CFR 23.1307...

  6. Design under Constraints: The Case of Large-Scale Assessment Systems

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mislevy, Robert J.

    2010-01-01

    In "Updating the Duplex Design for Test-Based Accountability in the Twenty-First Century," Bejar and Graf (2010) propose extensions to the duplex design for large-scale assessment presented in Bock and Mislevy (1988). Examining the range of people who use assessment results--from students, teachers, administrators, curriculum designers,…

  7. The Beimarang mélange (southern Tibet) brings additional constraints in assessing the origin, metamorphic evolution and obduction processes of the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huot, François; Hébert, Réjean; Varfalvy, Véronika; Beaudoin, Georges; Wang, Chengshan; Liu, Zhifei; Cotten, Jo; Dostal, Jaroslav

    2002-12-01

    The Beimarang massif is one of many ophiolitic remnants which crop out discontinuously along the Yarlung Zangbo suture zone in southern Tibet. The southern contact of these remnants is marked by a highly sheared serpentinite mélange made up of blocks of serpentinites, diabases, gabbros and composite blocks of serpentinites and mafic injections. The Beimarang mélange has been investigated in order to bring additional constraints on the origin, metamorphic evolution and obduction processes of the Yarlung Zangbo ophiolite. Petrography and geochemical data suggest that the ultramafic components are similar to moderately depleted upper mantle peridotites. They may represent the already cooled and serpentinized Tethyan upper mantle which was trapped in a mantle wedge at the onset of a north-dipping Early Cretaceous intra-oceanic subduction zone located south of the Gangdese arc. These peridotites were then intruded by back-arc-like mafic magmas whose moderately depleted mantle source was affected by a subduction component. Ultramafic and mafic secondary mineral assemblages suggest that early low-( P/ T) metamorphic intra-oceanic conditions reached the amphibolite facies (>550 °C) before being retrograded down to the pumpellyite-prehnite facies (<280 °C). The Beimarang mélange, interpreted as an obduction mélange formed near a spreading ridge, was subjected to metamorphic conditions in the pumpellyite-prehnite facies which favored re-serpentinization of the peridotites and partial rodingitization of the mafic rocks. Unlike subduction-related mélanges and their associated lithological units found in the Ladakh area, we found no evidence of high-( P/ T) conditions in lithologies from the Beimarang mélange.

  8. An integrated optimum design approach for high speed prop-rotors including acoustic constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chattopadhyay, Aditi; Wells, Valana; Mccarthy, Thomas; Han, Arris

    1993-01-01

    The objective of this research is to develop optimization procedures to provide design trends in high speed prop-rotors. The necessary disciplinary couplings are all considered within a closed loop multilevel decomposition optimization process. The procedures involve the consideration of blade-aeroelastic aerodynamic performance, structural-dynamic design requirements, and acoustics. Further, since the design involves consideration of several different objective functions, multiobjective function formulation techniques are developed.

  9. Recent US target-physics-related research in heavy-ion inertial fusion: target gains and constraints on accelerator design

    SciTech Connect

    Mark, J.W.K.

    1982-03-09

    Inertial-fusion targets were designed for use with heavy-ion accelerators as drivers in fusion energy power plants. In the interest of providing inputs for understanding the trade-offs among accelerator designs, an initial survey was carried out regarding target gain versus parameters of relevance. This was done in two stages, firstly target gain was related to the beam energy, power, focal radius, and ion range. Secondly, a more comprehensive discussion was made by posing target gain constraints on the beam-occupied phase-space volume of the linacs. This latter discussion had included some rather simplified models of accelerator final focus and beam transport in near-vacuum fusion reaction chambers. Some further analyses of the basic assumptions of this summary are also described.

  10. Earth Shelter Buildings Coupled with the Sun: Opportunities and Constraints in Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, David J.

    1982-01-01

    The new Civil/Mineral Engineering Building on the University of Minnesota Minneapolis campus is a demonstration design in energy conservation and innovation in active and passive solar energy applications. Its antecedents at the university represent contributory steps in the identification of issues and the development of design principles. (MLW)

  11. Prescription for the design and selection of density functional approximations: more constraint satisfaction with fewer fits.

    PubMed

    Perdew, John P; Ruzsinszky, Adrienn; Tao, Jianmin; Staroverov, Viktor N; Scuseria, Gustavo E; Csonka, Gábor I

    2005-08-01

    We present the case for the nonempirical construction of density functional approximations for the exchange-correlation energy by the traditional method of "constraint satisfaction" without fitting to data sets, and present evidence that this approach has been successful on the first three rungs of "Jacob's ladder" of density functional approximations [local spin-density approximation (LSD), generalized gradient approximation (GGA), and meta-GGA]. We expect that this approach will also prove successful on the fourth and fifth rungs (hyper-GGA or hybrid and generalized random-phase approximation). In particular, we argue for the theoretical and practical importance of recovering the correct uniform density limit, which many semiempirical functionals fail to do. Among the beyond-LSD functionals now available to users, we recommend the nonempirical Perdew-Burke-Ernzerhof (PBE) GGA and the nonempirical Tao-Perdew-Staroverov-Scuseria (TPSS) meta-GGA, and their one-parameter hybrids with exact exchange. TPSS improvement over PBE is dramatic for atomization energies of molecules and surface energies of solids, and small or moderate for other properties. TPSS is now or soon will be available in standard codes such as GAUSSIAN, TURBOMOLE, NWCHEM, ADF, WIEN, VASP, etc. We also discuss old and new ideas to eliminate the self-interaction error that plagues the functionals on the first three rungs of the ladder, bring up other related issues, and close with a list of "do's and don't's" for software developers and users. PMID:16122287

  12. Constraint-Based Abstract Semantics for Temporal Logic: A Direct Approach to Design and Implementation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banda, Gourinath; Gallagher, John P.

    interpretation provides a practical approach to verifying properties of infinite-state systems. We apply the framework of abstract interpretation to derive an abstract semantic function for the modal μ-calculus, which is the basis for abstract model checking. The abstract semantic function is constructed directly from the standard concrete semantics together with a Galois connection between the concrete state-space and an abstract domain. There is no need for mixed or modal transition systems to abstract arbitrary temporal properties, as in previous work in the area of abstract model checking. Using the modal μ-calculus to implement CTL, the abstract semantics gives an over-approximation of the set of states in which an arbitrary CTL formula holds. Then we show that this leads directly to an effective implementation of an abstract model checking algorithm for CTL using abstract domains based on linear constraints. The implementation of the abstract semantic function makes use of an SMT solver. We describe an implemented system for proving properties of linear hybrid automata and give some experimental results.

  13. Design and Evaluation of the User-Adapted Program Scheduling system based on Bayesian Network and Constraint Satisfaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iwasaki, Hirotoshi; Sega, Shinichiro; Hiraishi, Hironori; Mizoguchi, Fumio

    In recent years, lots of music content can be stored in mobile computing devices, such as a portable digital music player and a car navigation system. Moreover, various information content like news or traffic information can be acquired always anywhere by a cellular communication and a wireless LAN. However, usability issues arise from the simple interfaces of mobile computing devices. Moreover, retrieving and selecting such content poses safety issues, especially while driving. Thus, it is important for the mobile system to recommend content automatically adapted to user's preference and situation. In this paper, we present the user-adapted program scheduling that generates sequences of content (Program) suiting user's preference and situation based on the Bayesian network and the Constraint Satisfaction Problem (CSP) technique. We also describe the design and evaluation of its realization system, the Personal Program Producer (P3). First, preference such as a genre ratio of content in a program is learned as a Bayesian network model using simple operations such as a skip behavior. A model including each content tends to become large-scale. In order to make it small, we present the model separation method that carries out losslessly compression of the model. Using the model, probabilistic distributions of preference to generate constraints are inferred. Finally satisfying the constraints, a program is produced. This kind of CSP has an issue of which the number of variables is not fixedness. In order to make it variable, we propose a method using metavariables. To evaluate the above methods, we applied them to P3 on a car navigation system. User evaluations helped us clarify that the P3 can produce the program that a user prefers and adapt it to the user.

  14. Enhanced Luminance of Electrochemical Cells with a Rationally Designed Ionic Iridium Complex and an Ionic Additive.

    PubMed

    Suhr, Kristin J; Bastatas, Lyndon D; Shen, Yulong; Mitchell, Lauren A; Holliday, Bradley J; Slinker, Jason D

    2016-04-13

    Light-emitting electrochemical cells (LEECs) offer the potential for high efficiency operation from an inexpensive device. However, long turn-on times and low luminance under steady-state operation are longstanding LEEC issues. Here, we present a single-layer LEEC with a custom-designed iridium(III) complex and a lithium salt additive for enhanced device performance. These devices display reduced response times, modest lifetimes, and peak luminances as high as 5500 cd/m(2), 80% higher than a comparable device from an unoptimized complex and 50% higher than the salt-free device. Improved device efficiency suggests that salt addition balances space charge effects at the interfaces. Extrapolation suggests favorable half-lives of 120 ± 10 h at 1000 cd/m(2) and 3800 ± 400 h at 100 cd/m(2). Overall, complex design and device engineering produce competitive LEECs from simple, single-layer architectures. PMID:27023074

  15. The effect of alkaline additives on the performance of surfactant systems designed to recover light oils

    SciTech Connect

    French, T.R.; Josephson, C.B.; Evans, D.B.

    1991-02-01

    Surfactant flooding is flexible because of the ability to optimize formulations for a wide range of reservoir conditions and crude oil types. The objective for this work was to determine if the addition of alkaline additives will allow the design of surfactant formulations that are effective for the recovery of crude oil, while, at the same time, maintaining the surfactant concentration at a much lower level than has previously been used for micellar flooding. Specifically, the focus of the work was on light, midcontinent crudes that typically have very low acid contents. These oils are typical of much of the midcontinent resource. The positive effect of alkaline additives on the phase behavior of the surfactant formulations and acidic crude oils is well known. The extension to nonacidic and slightly acidic oils is not obvious. Three crude oils, a variety of commercial surfactants, and several alkaline additives were tested. The oils had acid numbers that ranged from 0.13, which is quite low, to less than 0.01 mg KOH/g of oil. Alkaline additives were found to be very effective in recovering Delaware-Childers (OK) oil at elevated temperatures, but much less effective at reservoir temperatures. Alkaline additives were very effective with Teapot Dome (WY) oil. With Teapot Dome oil, surfactant/alkali systems produced ultralow IFT values and recovered 60% of the residual oil that remained after waterflooding. The effect of alkaline additives on recovering Hepler (KS) oil was minimal. The results of this work indicate that alkaline additives do have merit for use in surfactant flooding of low acid crude oils; however, no universal statement about applicability can be made. Each oil behaves differently, with this treatment, and the effect of alkaline additives must be determined (at reservoir conditions) for each oil. 23 refs., 13 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. A design study for the addition of higher order parametric discrete elements to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of discrete elements to NASTRAN poses significant interface problems with the level 15.1 assembly modules and geometry modules. Potential problems in designing new modules for higher-order parametric discrete elements are reviewed in both areas. An assembly procedure is suggested that separates grid point degrees of freedom on the basis of admissibility. New geometric input data are described that facilitate the definition of surfaces in parametric space.

  17. Design of additive quantum codes via the code-word-stabilized framework

    SciTech Connect

    Kovalev, Alexey A.; Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya

    2011-12-15

    We consider design of the quantum stabilizer codes via a two-step, low-complexity approach based on the framework of codeword-stabilized (CWS) codes. In this framework, each quantum CWS code can be specified by a graph and a binary code. For codes that can be obtained from a given graph, we give several upper bounds on the distance of a generic (additive or nonadditive) CWS code, and the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound for the existence of additive CWS codes. We also consider additive cyclic CWS codes and show that these codes correspond to a previously unexplored class of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes. We present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters.

  18. Topological design and additive manufacturing of porous metals for bone scaffolds and orthopaedic implants: A review.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaojian; Xu, Shanqing; Zhou, Shiwei; Xu, Wei; Leary, Martin; Choong, Peter; Qian, M; Brandt, Milan; Xie, Yi Min

    2016-03-01

    One of the critical issues in orthopaedic regenerative medicine is the design of bone scaffolds and implants that replicate the biomechanical properties of the host bones. Porous metals have found themselves to be suitable candidates for repairing or replacing the damaged bones since their stiffness and porosity can be adjusted on demands. Another advantage of porous metals lies in their open space for the in-growth of bone tissue, hence accelerating the osseointegration process. The fabrication of porous metals has been extensively explored over decades, however only limited controls over the internal architecture can be achieved by the conventional processes. Recent advances in additive manufacturing have provided unprecedented opportunities for producing complex structures to meet the increasing demands for implants with customized mechanical performance. At the same time, topology optimization techniques have been developed to enable the internal architecture of porous metals to be designed to achieve specified mechanical properties at will. Thus implants designed via the topology optimization approach and produced by additive manufacturing are of great interest. This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of topological design and manufacturing processes of various types of porous metals, in particular for titanium alloys, biodegradable metals and shape memory alloys. This review also identifies the limitations of current techniques and addresses the directions for future investigations. PMID:26773669

  19. Ceramic Ink-Jet Printing for Digital Decoration: Physical Constraints for Ink Design.

    PubMed

    Gardini, Davide; Blosi, Magda; Zanelli, Chiara; Dondi, Michele

    2015-05-01

    In the last decade, the drop-on-demand (DOD) ink-jet printing has become the leading technology for the decoration of ceramic tiles. The inks employed for such application are colloidal suspensions of oxide particles (0.3 μm) whose stability (against agglomeration and over time) is fundamental to get successfully the tile decoration. Jettability from the DOD print heads is a key requirement along with proper colour after sintering. This means that a careful set up of inks properties (viscosity, density, surface tension) is required. The phenomena involved in the different stages of the ink-jet printing process (drop ejection from the nozzles, impact and spreading on the substrates) are described through dimensionless numbers as Reynolds, Weber, and Bond numbers, or their combinations. In literature physical constraints, obtained with a semi-theoretical approach on the basis of experimental evidences on other systems, allow to define a reference region in the space of the dimensionless numbers (here called "printable fluid region," PFR) where the inks should be suitable for the application. In this paper, 26 inks currently used for ceramic tile decoration were characterized and mapped in the space of dimensionless numbers for several printing conditions. For typical nozzle diameters (20-50 gm) and drop velocities (6-8 m/s), it has been found that they fall in the region identified by 3 < Re < 30, 27 < We < 160, and 0.6 < 1/Oh < 2.5, where Re, We, and Oh, are the Reynolds, Weber and Ohnesorge numbers, respectively. Such experimental region can be taken as reference to tune the colloidal interactions in proper way, though the thresholds delimiting the PFR should be better defined. PMID:26504976

  20. Repair Concepts as Design Constraints of a Stiffened Composite PRSEUS Panel

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Przekop, Adam

    2012-01-01

    A design and analysis of a repair concept applicable to a stiffened thin-skin composite panel based on the Pultruded Rod Stitched Efficient Unitized Structure is presented. The concept is a bolted repair using metal components, so that it can easily be applied in the operational environment. The damage scenario considered is a midbay-to-midbay saw-cut with a severed stiffener, flange and skin. In a previous study several repair configurations were explored and their feasibility confirmed but refinement was needed. The present study revisits the problem under recently revised design requirements and broadens the suite of loading conditions considered. The repair assembly design is based on the critical tension loading condition and subsequently its robustness is verified for a pressure loading case. High fidelity modeling techniques such as mesh-independent definition of compliant fasteners, elastic-plastic material properties for metal parts and geometrically nonlinear solutions are utilized in the finite element analysis. The best repair design is introduced, its analysis results are presented and factors influencing the design are assessed and discussed.

  1. Enforcing compatibility and constraint conditions and information retrieval at the design action

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Woodruff, George W.

    1990-01-01

    The design of complex entities is a multidisciplinary process involving several interacting groups and disciplines. There is a need to integrate the data in such environments to enhance the collaboration between these groups and to enforce compatibility between dependent data entities. This paper discusses the implementation of a workstation based CAD system that is integrated with a DBMS and an expert system, CLIPS, (both implemented on a mini computer) to provide such collaborative and compatibility enforcement capabilities. The current implementation allows for a three way link between the CAD system, the DBMS and CLIPS. The engineering design process associated with the design and fabrication of sheet metal housing for computers in a large computer manufacturing facility provides the basis for this prototype system.

  2. Design and fabrication of a laterally-driven inertial micro-switch with multi-directional constraint structures for lowering off-axis sensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Qihuan; Yang, Zhuoqing; Xu, Qiu; Wang, Yang; Ding, Guifu; Zhao, Xiaolin

    2016-05-01

    This paper proposes a novel laterally-driven inertial micro-switch with multi-directional compact constraint structures for lowering off-axis sensitivity and improving shock-resistibility. The design utilizes constraint sleeve and reverse stop-block structures to limit too much displacement of proof mass in the micro-switch and avoid damage to the device under a high shock load. The dynamic contact simulation indicates that the designed inertial micro-switch can limit the movement of proof mass and lower the off-axis sensitivity by constraint sleeve and reverse block structures. The first collision response time between proof mass and constraint structures in the z-direction has been analyzed theoretically and simulated, which have indicated that the collision response time mainly depends on geometric parameters, applied shock acceleration amplitude and the inherent frequency of the mass-spring inertial system. Simulated dynamic response curves under applied reverse directional shock accelerations show the proposed inertial micro-switch also has a good shock-resistibility. The inertial micro-switch fabricated by surface micromachining technology has been evaluated using a drop hammer system. The test results indicate that spurious triggering is more likely to occur in the inertial micro-switch without constraint structures, and the designed constraint structures can effectively lower the off-axis sensitivity and improve the shock-resistibility.

  3. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-graph Framework under Cost Constraints and Sustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  4. Constraint-Driven Software Design: An Escape from the Waterfall Model.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Hoog, Robert; And Others

    1994-01-01

    Presents the principles of a development methodology for software design based on a nonlinear, product-driven approach that integrates quality aspects. Two examples are given to show that the flexibility needed for building high quality systems leads to integrated development environments in which methodology, product, and tools are closely…

  5. On the design of novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunnigan, Ross Daniel

    This thesis has been organized into five chapters. The main focus of this thesis is to design novel multifunctional materials by using particulate additives. Chapter 1 is devoted to reviewing recent studies in additive manufacturing (AM) and other background information. In Chapter 2, the synthesis and characterization of novel Ti3SiC2-reinforced Zn-matrix composites is reported. During this study, all the Zn composites were hot pressed at 500°C for 5 min at a uniaxial pressure of ~150 MPa. Microstructure analysis by SEM (Scanning Electron Microscopy) and phase analysis by XRD (X-ray Diffraction) confirmed that there was minimal interfacial reaction between Ti3SiC 2 particles and the Zn matrix. The addition of Ti3SiC 2 improved the tribological performance of these composites against alumina substrates but did not have any beneficial effect on the mechanical performance. The addition of Ti3SiC2 particulates to metal and polymer matrices show interesting properties. Chapter 3 will focus on additive manufacturing of Ti3SiC2 particulates in a polymer matrix. Waste materials are a big problem in the world. Chapters 4 and 5 focus on recycling materials. The mechanical and tribological properties of the Resin-Nylon and ResinPolyester composites are reported, respectively.

  6. Theoretical and experimental investigation of design for multioptical-axis freeform progressive addition lenses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, HuaZhong; Chen, JiaBi; Zhu, TianFen; Wei, YeFei; Fu, DongXiang

    2015-11-01

    A freeform progressive addition lens (PAL) provides a good solution to correct presbyopia and prevent juvenile myopia by distributing pupils' optical powers of distance zone, near zone, and intermediate zone and is more widely adopted in the present optometric study. However, there is still a lack of a single-optical-axis system for the design of a PAL. This paper focuses on the research for an approach for designing a freeform PAL. A multioptical-axis system based on real viewing conditions using the eyes is employed for the representation of the freeform surface. We filled small pupils in the intermediate zone as a progressive corridor and the distance- and near-vision portions were defined as the standard spherical surfaces delimited by quadratic curves. Three freeform PALs with a spherical surface as the front side and a freeform surface as the backside were designed. We demonstrate the fabrication and measurement technologies for the PAL surface using computer numerical control machine tools from Schneider Smart and a Visionix VM-2000 Lens Power Mapper. Surface power and astigmatic values were obtained. Preliminary results showed that the approach for the design and fabrication is helpful to advance the design procedure optimization and mass production of PALs in optometry.

  7. Investigation of smart inspection of critical layer reticles using additional designer data to determine defect significance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Volk, William W.; Hess, Carl; Ruch, Wayne; Yu, Zongchang; Ma, Weimin; Fisher, Lisa; Vickery, Carl; Ma, Z. Mark

    2003-12-01

    With expected implementation of low k1 lithography on 193nm scanners for 65nm node wafer production, high resolution defect inspection will be needed to insure reticle quality and reticle manufacture process monitoring. Reticle cost and reticle defectivity are both increasing with each shrink to the next node. Simultaneously, system on chip (SoC) designs are increasing in which a large area of the exposure field typically contains dummy patterns and other features which are not electrically active. Knowing which defects will electrically impact device yield and performance can improve reticle manufacturing yield and cycle time -- resulting in lower reticle costs. This investigation examines the feasibility of using additional design data layers for die-to-database reticle inspection to determine in real time the relevance of a reticle defect by its location in the device (Smart InspectionTM). The impact to data preparation and inspection throughput is evaluated. The current prototype algorithm is built on the XPA and XPE die-to-database algorithms for chrome-on-glass and EPSM reticles, respectively. The algorithms implement variable sensitivity based on the additional design data regions. During defect review the defects are intelligently binned into the different predetermined design regions. Tests show the new Smart Inspection algorithm provides the capability of using higher than normal sensitivity in critical regions while reducing sensitivity in less critical regions to filter total defect counts and allow for the review of just defects that matter. Performance characterization of a variable sensitivity Smart Inspection algorithm is discussed in addition to the filtering of the total defect count during review to show the defects that matter to device performance. Using seven critical layer production reticles from a system on chip device we examine the applications of Smart Inspection by layer including active, poly, contact, metal and via layers. Data volume

  8. 10 CFR 60.132 - Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the geologic repository operations area.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional design criteria for surface facilities in the...) DISPOSAL OF HIGH-LEVEL RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository Operations Area § 60.132 Additional design criteria for surface facilities...

  9. Constraints complicate centrifugal compressor depressurization

    SciTech Connect

    Key, B. ); Colbert, F.L. )

    1993-05-10

    Blowdown of a centrifugal compressor is complicated by process constraints that might require slowing the depressurization rate and by mechanical constraints for which a faster rate might be preferred. The paper describes design constraints such as gas leaks; thrust-bearing overload; system constraints; flare extinguishing; heat levels; and pressure drop.

  10. Conflict-cost based random sampling design for parallel MRI with low rank constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Wan; Zhou, Yihang; Lyu, Jingyuan; Ying, Leslie

    2015-05-01

    In compressed sensing MRI, it is very important to design sampling pattern for random sampling. For example, SAKE (simultaneous auto-calibrating and k-space estimation) is a parallel MRI reconstruction method using random undersampling. It formulates image reconstruction as a structured low-rank matrix completion problem. Variable density (VD) Poisson discs are typically adopted for 2D random sampling. The basic concept of Poisson disc generation is to guarantee samples are neither too close to nor too far away from each other. However, it is difficult to meet such a condition especially in the high density region. Therefore the sampling becomes inefficient. In this paper, we present an improved random sampling pattern for SAKE reconstruction. The pattern is generated based on a conflict cost with a probability model. The conflict cost measures how many dense samples already assigned are around a target location, while the probability model adopts the generalized Gaussian distribution which includes uniform and Gaussian-like distributions as special cases. Our method preferentially assigns a sample to a k-space location with the least conflict cost on the circle of the highest probability. To evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed random pattern, we compare the performance of SAKEs using both VD Poisson discs and the proposed pattern. Experimental results for brain data show that the proposed pattern yields lower normalized mean square error (NMSE) than VD Poisson discs.

  11. Design and tuning of standard additive model based fuzzy PID controllers for multivariable process systems.

    PubMed

    Harinath, Eranda; Mann, George K I

    2008-06-01

    This paper describes a design and two-level tuning method for fuzzy proportional-integral derivative (FPID) controllers for a multivariable process where the fuzzy inference uses the inference of standard additive model. The proposed method can be used for any n x n multi-input-multi-output process and guarantees closed-loop stability. In the two-level tuning scheme, the tuning follows two steps: low-level tuning followed by high-level tuning. The low-level tuning adjusts apparent linear gains, whereas the high-level tuning changes the nonlinearity in the normalized fuzzy output. In this paper, two types of FPID configurations are considered, and their performances are evaluated by using a real-time multizone temperature control problem having a 3 x 3 process system. PMID:18558531

  12. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift

    PubMed Central

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives. PMID:26703606

  13. Cloud-Based Automated Design and Additive Manufacturing: A Usage Data-Enabled Paradigm Shift.

    PubMed

    Lehmhus, Dirk; Wuest, Thorsten; Wellsandt, Stefan; Bosse, Stefan; Kaihara, Toshiya; Thoben, Klaus-Dieter; Busse, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Integration of sensors into various kinds of products and machines provides access to in-depth usage information as basis for product optimization. Presently, this large potential for more user-friendly and efficient products is not being realized because (a) sensor integration and thus usage information is not available on a large scale and (b) product optimization requires considerable efforts in terms of manpower and adaptation of production equipment. However, with the advent of cloud-based services and highly flexible additive manufacturing techniques, these obstacles are currently crumbling away at rapid pace. The present study explores the state of the art in gathering and evaluating product usage and life cycle data, additive manufacturing and sensor integration, automated design and cloud-based services in manufacturing. By joining and extrapolating development trends in these areas, it delimits the foundations of a manufacturing concept that will allow continuous and economically viable product optimization on a general, user group or individual user level. This projection is checked against three different application scenarios, each of which stresses different aspects of the underlying holistic concept. The following discussion identifies critical issues and research needs by adopting the relevant stakeholder perspectives. PMID:26703606

  14. Biomechanical investigation into the structural design of porous additive manufactured cages using numerical and experimental approaches.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Pei-I; Hsu, Ching-Chi; Chen, San-Yuan; Wu, Tsung-Han; Huang, Chih-Chieh

    2016-09-01

    Traditional solid cages have been widely used in posterior lumbar interbody fusion (PLIF) surgery. However, solid cages significantly affect the loading mechanism of the human spine due to their extremely high structural stiffness. Previous studies proposed and investigated porous additive manufactured (AM) cages; however, their biomechanical performances were analyzed using oversimplified bone-implant numerical models. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the outer shape and inner porous structure of the AM cages. The outer shape of the AM cages was discovered using a simulation-based genetic algorithm; their inner porous structure was subsequently analyzed parametrically using T10-S1 multilevel spine models. Finally, six types of the AM cages, which were manufactured using selective laser melting, were tested to validate the numerical outcomes. The subsidence resistance of the optimum design was superior to the conventional cage designs. A porous AM cage with a pillar diameter of 0.4mm, a pillar angle of 40°, and a porosity of between 69% and 80% revealed better biomechanical performances. Both the numerical and experimental outcomes can help surgeons to understand the biomechanics of PLIF surgery combined with the use of AM cages. PMID:27392226

  15. Design of a mechanical system in gait rehabilitation with progressive addition of weight

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braidot, Ariel A. A.; Aleman, Guillermo L.

    2011-12-01

    In this paper we designed and developed a mechanical device for gait rehabilitation based on the application of "partial body weight reduction therapy". An evaluation of the characteristics of devices based on this therapy currently available on the market was carried out obtaining information of the different mechanisms used in it. The device was designed to adapt to different height and weight of patients and to be used with additional equipment in gait rehabilitation, for example, treadmills, elliptical trainers and vertical scalers. It was envisaged to be used by patients with asymmetry in the lower extremities capabilities. We developed a stable structure in steel ASTM A36 which does not depend on the building conditions of the installation site. RamAdvanse software was used to calculate structural stability. A winch with automatic brake mechanism was used to raise/lower the patient, who was tied to a comfortable harness which provided safety to the patient and therapist. It was possible to quantify precisely, using counterweights, the weight borne by the patient during therapy. We obtained a small-sized and ergonomic low-cost prototype, with similar features to those currently considered cutting-edge devices.

  16. Proposal for manipulating functional interface properties of composite organic semiconductors with addition of designed macromolecules.

    PubMed

    Maniadis, P; Lookman, T; Saxena, A; Smith, D L

    2012-06-22

    The arrangement of the electronic levels in an interface between organic semiconductors is crucial for the operation of devices such as solar cells and light emitting diodes. With the addition of designed macromolecules, we show that it is possible to control the relative position of the highest occupied molecular orbital and lowest unoccupied molecular orbital levels, and consequently improve the performance. The designed macromolecules consist of two end segments, each compatible with one of the interface components, and a central segment which adds functionality to the interface. The tails control the position and the orientation of the functional units. When the central functional unit is an electric dipole, an electrostatic field is created due to the orientation of the dipoles, which shifts the electronic levels in a controlled way. We develop a theoretical framework, based on self-consistent field theory, to study the concentration and the orientation of the central functional units. We find that the levels can shift by as much as several tenths of an eV. PMID:23004659

  17. 77 FR 42500 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort; Correction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-07-19

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. The designation published...

  18. Extracellular matrix protein in calcified endoskeleton: a potential additive for crystal growth and design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azizur Rahman, M.; Fujimura, Hiroyuki; Shinjo, Ryuichi; Oomori, Tamotsu

    2011-06-01

    In this study, we demonstrate a key function of extracellular matrix proteins (ECMPs) on seed crystals, which are isolated from calcified endoskeletons of soft coral and contain only CaCO 3 without any living cells. This is the first report that an ECMP protein extracted from a marine organism could potentially influence in modifying the surface of a substrate for designing materials via crystallization. We previously studied with the ECMPs from a different type of soft coral ( Sinularia polydactyla) without introducing any seed crystals in the process , which showed different results. Thus, crystallization on the seed in the presence of ECMPs of present species is an important first step toward linking function to individual proteins from soft coral. For understanding this interesting phenomenon, in vitro crystallization was initiated in a supersaturated solution on seed particles of calcite (1 0 4) with and without ECMPs. No change in the crystal growth shape occurred without ECMPs present during the crystallization process. However, with ECMPs, the morphology and phase of the crystals in the crystallization process changed dramatically. Upon completion of crystallization with ECMPs, an attractive crystal morphology was found. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was utilized to observe the crystal morphologies on the seeds surface. The mineral phases of crystals nucleated by ECMPs on the seeds surface were examined by Raman spectroscopy. Although 50 mM Mg 2+ is influential in making aragonite in the crystallization process, the ECMPs significantly made calcite crystals even when 50 mM Mg 2+ was present in the process. Crystallization with the ECMP additive seems to be a technically attractive strategy to generate assembled micro crystals that could be used in crystals growth and design in the Pharmaceutical and biotechnology industries.

  19. New Detection Systems of Bacteria Using Highly Selective Media Designed by SMART: Selective Medium-Design Algorithm Restricted by Two Constraints

    PubMed Central

    Kawanishi, Takeshi; Shiraishi, Takuya; Okano, Yukari; Sugawara, Kyoko; Hashimoto, Masayoshi; Maejima, Kensaku; Komatsu, Ken; Kakizawa, Shigeyuki; Yamaji, Yasuyuki; Hamamoto, Hiroshi; Oshima, Kenro; Namba, Shigetou

    2011-01-01

    Culturing is an indispensable technique in microbiological research, and culturing with selective media has played a crucial role in the detection of pathogenic microorganisms and the isolation of commercially useful microorganisms from environmental samples. Although numerous selective media have been developed in empirical studies, unintended microorganisms often grow on such media probably due to the enormous numbers of microorganisms in the environment. Here, we present a novel strategy for designing highly selective media based on two selective agents, a carbon source and antimicrobials. We named our strategy SMART for highly Selective Medium-design Algorithm Restricted by Two constraints. To test whether the SMART method is applicable to a wide range of microorganisms, we developed selective media for Burkholderia glumae, Acidovorax avenae, Pectobacterium carotovorum, Ralstonia solanacearum, and Xanthomonas campestris. The series of media developed by SMART specifically allowed growth of the targeted bacteria. Because these selective media exhibited high specificity for growth of the target bacteria compared to established selective media, we applied three notable detection technologies: paper-based, flow cytometry-based, and color change-based detection systems for target bacteria species. SMART facilitates not only the development of novel techniques for detecting specific bacteria, but also our understanding of the ecology and epidemiology of the targeted bacteria. PMID:21304596

  20. Additive Manufacturing, Design, Testing, and Fabrication: A Full Engineering Experience at JSC

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zusack, Steven

    2016-01-01

    I worked on several projects this term. While most projects involved additive manufacturing, I was also involved with two design projects, two testing projects, and a fabrication project. The primary mentor for these was Richard Hagen. Secondary mentors were Hai Nguyen, Khadijah Shariff, and fabrication training from James Brown. Overall, my experience at JSC has been successful and what I have learned will continue to help me in my engineering education and profession long after I leave. My 3D printing projects ranged from less than a 1 cubic centimeter to about 1 cubic foot and involved several printers using different printing technologies. It was exciting to become familiar with printing technologies such as industrial grade FDM (Fused Deposition Modeling), the relatively new SLA (Stereolithography), and PolyJet. My primary duty with the FDM printers was to model parts that came in from various sources to print effectively and efficiently. Using methods my mentor taught me and the Stratasys Insight software, I was able to minimize imperfections, hasten build time, improve strength for specific forces (tensile, shear, etc...), and reduce likelihood of a print-failure. Also using FDM, I learned how to repair a part after it was printed. This is done by using a special kind of glue that chemically melts the two faces of plastic parts together to form a fused interface. My first goal with SLA technology was to bring the printer back to operational readiness. In becoming familiar with the Pegasus SLA printer, I researched the leveling, laser settings, and different vats to hold liquid material. With this research, I was successfully able to bring the Pegasus back online and have successfully printed multiple sample parts as well as functional parts. My experience with PolyJet technology has been focused on an understanding of the abilities/limits, costs, and the maintenance for daily use. Still upcoming will be experience with using a composite printer that uses FDM

  1. Automated microbial metabolism laboratory. [design of advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into test chambers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The design and rationale of an advanced labeled release experiment based on single addition of soil and multiple sequential additions of media into each of four test chambers are outlined. The feasibility for multiple addition tests was established and various details of the methodology were studied. The four chamber battery of tests include: (1) determination of the effect of various atmospheric gases and selection of that gas which produces an optimum response; (2) determination of the effect of incubation temperature and selection of the optimum temperature for performing Martian biochemical tests; (3) sterile soil is dosed with a battery of C-14 labeled substrates and subjected to experimental temperature range; and (4) determination of the possible inhibitory effects of water on Martian organisms is performed initially by dosing with 0.01 ml and 0.5 ml of medium, respectively. A series of specifically labeled substrates are then added to obtain patterns in metabolic 14CO2 (C-14)O2 evolution.

  2. An introduction to modeling longitudinal data with generalized additive models: applications to single-case designs.

    PubMed

    Sullivan, Kristynn J; Shadish, William R; Steiner, Peter M

    2015-03-01

    Single-case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time in both the presence and absence of treatment. This article introduces a statistical technique for analyzing SCD data that has not been much used in psychological and educational research: generalized additive models (GAMs). In parametric regression, the researcher must choose a functional form to impose on the data, for example, that trend over time is linear. GAMs reverse this process by letting the data inform the choice of functional form. In this article we review the problem that trend poses in SCDs, discuss how current SCD analytic methods approach trend, describe GAMs as a possible solution, suggest a GAM model testing procedure for examining the presence of trend in SCDs, present a small simulation to show the statistical properties of GAMs, and illustrate the procedure on 3 examples of different lengths. Results suggest that GAMs may be very useful both as a form of sensitivity analysis for checking the plausibility of assumptions about trend and as a primary data analysis strategy for testing treatment effects. We conclude with a discussion of some problems with GAMs and some future directions for research on the application of GAMs to SCDs. PMID:24885341

  3. A “Reverse-Schur” Approach to Optimization With Linear PDE Constraints: Application to Biomolecule Analysis and Design

    PubMed Central

    Bardhan, Jaydeep P.; Altman, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    We present a partial-differential-equation (PDE)-constrained approach for optimizing a molecule’s electrostatic interactions with a target molecule. The approach, which we call reverse-Schur co-optimization, can be more than two orders of magnitude faster than the traditional approach to electrostatic optimization. The efficiency of the co-optimization approach may enhance the value of electrostatic optimization for ligand-design efforts–in such projects, it is often desirable to screen many candidate ligands for their viability, and the optimization of electrostatic interactions can improve ligand binding affinity and specificity. The theoretical basis for electrostatic optimization derives from linear-response theory, most commonly continuum models, and simple assumptions about molecular binding processes. Although the theory has been used successfully to study a wide variety of molecular binding events, its implications have not yet been fully explored, in part due to the computational expense associated with the optimization. The co-optimization algorithm achieves improved performance by solving the optimization and electrostatic simulation problems simultaneously, and is applicable to both unconstrained and constrained optimization problems. Reverse-Schur co-optimization resembles other well-known techniques for solving optimization problems with PDE constraints. Model problems as well as realistic examples validate the reverse-Schur method, and demonstrate that our technique and alternative PDE-constrained methods scale very favorably compared to the standard approach. Regularization, which ordinarily requires an explicit representation of the objective function, can be included using an approximate Hessian calculated using the new BIBEE/P (boundary-integral-based electrostatics estimation by preconditioning) method. PMID:23055839

  4. D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Humans are exposed to mixtures of environmental compounds. A regulatory assumption is that the mixtures of chemicals act in an additive manner. However, this assumption requires experimental validation. Traditional experimental designs (full factorial) require a large number of e...

  5. D-optimal experimental designs to test for departure from additivity in a fixed-ratio mixture ray.

    PubMed

    Coffey, Todd; Gennings, Chris; Simmons, Jane Ellen; Herr, David W

    2005-12-01

    Traditional factorial designs for evaluating interactions among chemicals in a mixture may be prohibitive when the number of chemicals is large. Using a mixture of chemicals with a fixed ratio (mixture ray) results in an economical design that allows estimation of additivity or nonadditive interaction for a mixture of interest. This methodology is extended easily to a mixture with a large number of chemicals. Optimal experimental conditions can be chosen that result in increased power to detect departures from additivity. Although these designs are used widely for linear models, optimal designs for nonlinear threshold models are less well known. In the present work, the use of D-optimal designs is demonstrated for nonlinear threshold models applied to a fixed-ratio mixture ray. For a fixed sample size, this design criterion selects the experimental doses and number of subjects per dose level that result in minimum variance of the model parameters and thus increased power to detect departures from additivity. An optimal design is illustrated for a 2:1 ratio (chlorpyrifos:carbaryl) mixture experiment. For this example, and in general, the optimal designs for the nonlinear threshold model depend on prior specification of the slope and dose threshold parameters. Use of a D-optimal criterion produces experimental designs with increased power, whereas standard nonoptimal designs with equally spaced dose groups may result in low power if the active range or threshold is missed. PMID:16162847

  6. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... from BWX Technologies, Inc., in Lynchburg, Virginia, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... or more other classes of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became...

  7. 78 FR 3898 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from Oak...

  8. 78 FR 3897 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  9. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  10. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Oak...

  11. 78 FR 21955 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  12. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  13. 78 FR 21954 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  14. 78 FR 3898 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  15. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the...

  16. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  17. 78 FR 21954 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-04-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  18. 77 FR 60438 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  19. 77 FR 69845 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  20. 77 FR 15759 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  1. 75 FR 37812 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the...

  2. 77 FR 38834 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  3. 77 FR 46438 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-08-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the...

  4. 75 FR 3470 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the...

  5. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  6. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from...

  7. 75 FR 22409 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-28

    ... Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory in Berkeley, California, from August 13, 1942 through December...

  8. 77 FR 58382 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-20

    ... designate a class of employees from Winchester Engineering and Analytical Center in Winchester... Analytical Center in Winchester, Massachusetts, from January 1, 1952, through December 31, 1961, for a...

  9. Modeling Longitudinal Data with Generalized Additive Models: Applications to Single-Case Designs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sullivan, Kristynn J.; Shadish, William R.

    2013-01-01

    Single case designs (SCDs) are short time series that assess intervention effects by measuring units repeatedly over time both in the presence and absence of treatment. For a variety of reasons, interest in the statistical analysis and meta-analysis of these designs has been growing in recent years. This paper proposes modeling SCD data with…

  10. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  11. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  12. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  13. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  14. 10 CFR 60.133 - Additional design criteria for the underground facility.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... RADIOACTIVE WASTES IN GEOLOGIC REPOSITORIES Technical Criteria Design Criteria for the Geologic Repository... waste. The underground facility shall be designed to permit retrieval of waste in accordance with the... creating a preferential pathway for groundwater to contact the waste packages or radionuclide migration...

  15. 76 FR 26299 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-06

    ... Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under... Employees who worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, from January 1, 1954...

  16. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... facility in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, during the period from January 1, 1948 through December 31, 1957, for...

  17. 76 FR 3907 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-21

    ... Saw and Steel Co., Lockport, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the... Employer employees who worked at Simonds Saw and Steel Co. from January 1, 1948 through December 31,...

  18. 76 FR 59488 - Addition to the Identifying Information for an Individual Previously Designated Pursuant to...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-26

    ... was previously designated pursuant to the Order: GRAJALES PUENTES, Diana Carolina, c/o AGRONILO S.A...) (individual) The listing now appears as follows: GRAJALES PUENTES, Diana Carolina, c/o AGRONILO S.A.,...

  19. 76 FR 68460 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Ames... Ames Laboratory at Iowa State University during the period from August 13, 1942 through December...

  20. 76 FR 51035 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-08-17

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from Sandia... at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from January 1, 1949 through...

  1. 78 FR 77685 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-24

    ... designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratories-Livermore in Livermore, California, as..., and their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at the Sandia National...

  2. 77 FR 32641 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-01

    ... designate a class of employees from the Electro Metallurgical site in Niagara Falls, New York, as an... their contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Electro Metallurgical site in Niagara Falls,...

  3. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from Vitro... Employees who worked at Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, from January 1, 1960...

  4. 76 FR 28435 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-05-17

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Vitro... Employer employees who worked at Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, from January 1,...

  5. 75 FR 44967 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio, as an... Mound Plant in Miamisburg, Ohio from March 1, 1959 through March 5, 1980, for a number of work...

  6. CHARMM additive and polarizable force fields for biophysics and computer-aided drug design

    PubMed Central

    Vanommeslaeghe, K.

    2014-01-01

    Background Molecular Mechanics (MM) is the method of choice for computational studies of biomolecular systems owing to its modest computational cost, which makes it possible to routinely perform molecular dynamics (MD) simulations on chemical systems of biophysical and biomedical relevance. Scope of Review As one of the main factors limiting the accuracy of MD results is the empirical force field used, the present paper offers a review of recent developments in the CHARMM additive force field, one of the most popular bimolecular force fields. Additionally, we present a detailed discussion of the CHARMM Drude polarizable force field, anticipating a growth in the importance and utilization of polarizable force fields in the near future. Throughout the discussion emphasis is placed on the force fields’ parametrization philosophy and methodology. Major Conclusions Recent improvements in the CHARMM additive force field are mostly related to newly found weaknesses in the previous generation of additive force fields. Beyond the additive approximation is the newly available CHARMM Drude polarizable force field, which allows for MD simulations of up to 1 microsecond on proteins, DNA, lipids and carbohydrates. General Significance Addressing the limitations ensures the reliability of the new CHARMM36 additive force field for the types of calculations that are presently coming into routine computational reach while the availability of the Drude polarizable force fields offers a model that is an inherently more accurate model of the underlying physical forces driving macromolecular structures and dynamics. PMID:25149274

  7. Conceptual HALT (Hydrate Addition at Low Temperature) scaleup design: Capital and operating costs: Part 5. [Hydrate addition at low temperature for the removal of SO/sub 2/

    SciTech Connect

    Babu, M.; Kerivan, D.; Hendrick, C.; Kosek, B.; Tackett, D.; Golightley, M.

    1988-12-01

    Hydrate addition at low temperature (or the HALT process) is a retrofit option for moderate SO/sub 2/ removal efficiency in coal burning utility plants. This dry FGD process involves injecting calcium based dry hydrate particles into flue gas ducting downstream of the air preheater where the flue gas temperature is typically in the range of 280-325/degree/F. This report is comprised of the conceptual scaleup design of the HALT process to a 180 MW and a 500 MW coal fired utility station followed by detailed capital and operating cost estimates. A cost sensitivity analysis of major process variables for the 500 MW unit is also included. 1 fig.

  8. Large Advanced Space Systems (LASS) computer-aided design program additions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Farrell, C. E.

    1982-01-01

    The LSS preliminary and conceptual design requires extensive iteractive analysis because of the effects of structural, thermal, and control intercoupling. A computer aided design program that will permit integrating and interfacing of required large space system (LSS) analyses is discussed. The primary objective of this program is the implementation of modeling techniques and analysis algorithms that permit interactive design and tradeoff studies of LSS concepts. Eight software modules were added to the program. The existing rigid body controls module was modified to include solar pressure effects. The new model generator modules and appendage synthesizer module are integrated (interfaced) to permit interactive definition and generation of LSS concepts. The mass properties module permits interactive specification of discrete masses and their locations. The other modules permit interactive analysis of orbital transfer requirements, antenna primary beam n, and attitude control requirements.

  9. Designing Location-Based Learning Experiences for People with Intellectual Disabilities and Additional Sensory Impairments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, David J.; McHugh, David; Standen, Penny; Evett, Lindsay; Shopland, Nick; Battersby, Steven

    2011-01-01

    The research reported here is part of a larger project which seeks to combine serious games (or games-based learning) with location-based services to help people with intellectual disabilities and additional sensory impairments to develop work based skills. Specifically this paper reports on where these approaches are combined to scaffold the…

  10. Design of additive quantum codes via the codeword-stabilized framework

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pryadko, Leonid P.; Dumer, Ilya; Kovalev, Alexey A.

    2012-02-01

    Codeword stabilized (CWS) construction defines a quantum code by combining a classical binary code with some underlying graph state. In general, CWS codes are non-additive but become additive stabilizer codes if derived from a linear binary code. Generic CWS codes typically require complex error correction; however, we show that the CWS framework is an efficient tool for constructing good stabilizer codes with simple decoding. We start by proving the lower Gilbert-Varshamov bound on the parameters of an additive CWS code which can be obtained from a given graph. We also show that cyclic additive CWS codes belong to a previously overlooked family of single-generator cyclic stabilizer codes; these codes are derived from a circulant graph and a cyclic binary code. Finally, we present several families of simple stabilizer codes with relatively good parameters, including a family of the smallest toric-like cyclic CWS codes which have length, dimension, and distance as follows: [[t^2+(t+1)^2,1,2t+1

  11. 75 FR 44968 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Designation of a Class of Employees..., National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), 4676 Columbia Parkway, MS C-46, Cincinnati....GOV . John Howard, Director, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health. BILLING CODE...

  12. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... applicant's service area where the applicant's network already passes the potential customer's premises; and... applicant's licensed service area but outside its existing network coverage, if service can be provided at... proposed designated service area to all customers making a reasonable request for service. Each...

  13. 47 CFR 54.202 - Additional requirements for Commission designation of eligible telecommunications carriers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... applicant's service area where the applicant's network already passes the potential customer's premises; and... applicant's licensed service area but outside its existing network coverage, if service can be provided at... proposed designated service area to all customers making a reasonable request for service. Each...

  14. 77 FR 76490 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-28

    ... designate a class of employees from the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, as an... their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (X-10) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee, from June 17, 1943, through July 31, 1955, for a number of work...

  15. 76 FR 68459 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-04

    ...). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice of a decision to designate a class of employees from W.R. Grace... Employees who worked at any building or area at the facility owned by W.R. Grace and Company in Curtis...

  16. 75 FR 44968 - Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-30

    ... of a decision to designate a class of employees from the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos... predecessor agencies, and their contractors and subcontractors who worked at the Los Alamos National Laboratory in Los Alamos, New Mexico from March 15, 1943 through December 31, 1975, for a number of work...

  17. Design of high-performing hybrid meta-heuristics for unrelated parallel machine scheduling with machine eligibility and precedence constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Afzalirad, Mojtaba; Rezaeian, Javad

    2016-04-01

    This study involves an unrelated parallel machine scheduling problem in which sequence-dependent set-up times, different release dates, machine eligibility and precedence constraints are considered to minimize total late works. A new mixed-integer programming model is presented and two efficient hybrid meta-heuristics, genetic algorithm and ant colony optimization, combined with the acceptance strategy of the simulated annealing algorithm (Metropolis acceptance rule), are proposed to solve this problem. Manifestly, the precedence constraints greatly increase the complexity of the scheduling problem to generate feasible solutions, especially in a parallel machine environment. In this research, a new corrective algorithm is proposed to obtain the feasibility in all stages of the algorithms. The performance of the proposed algorithms is evaluated in numerical examples. The results indicate that the suggested hybrid ant colony optimization statistically outperformed the proposed hybrid genetic algorithm in solving large-size test problems.

  18. Laser and electron-beam powder-bed additive manufacturing of metallic implants: A review on processes, materials and designs.

    PubMed

    Sing, Swee Leong; An, Jia; Yeong, Wai Yee; Wiria, Florencia Edith

    2016-03-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM), also commonly known as 3D printing, allows the direct fabrication of functional parts with complex shapes from digital models. In this review, the current progress of two AM processes suitable for metallic orthopaedic implant applications, namely selective laser melting (SLM) and electron beam melting (EBM) are presented. Several critical design factors such as the need for data acquisition for patient-specific design, design dependent porosity for osteo-inductive implants, surface topology of the implants and design for reduction of stress-shielding in implants are discussed. Additive manufactured biomaterials such as 316L stainless steel, titanium-6aluminium-4vanadium (Ti6Al4V) and cobalt-chromium (CoCr) are highlighted. Limitations and future potential of such technologies are also explored. PMID:26488900

  19. Additional F-Functions Useful for Preliminary Design of Shaped-Signature, Low-Boom, Supersonic-Cruise Aircraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mack, Robert J.

    1999-01-01

    Two additional low-boom F-functions have been described for use in designing low-boom, shaped-pressure-signature, supersonic-cruise aircraft. Based on the minimization studies of Seebass and George, the drag-nose shock strength trade-off modification of Darden, and the practical modification of Haglund, their use can aid in the design of conceptual low-boom aircraft, provide additional flexibility in the shaping of the low-boom aircraft nose section, and extend the applicability of shaped-pressure-signature methodology.

  20. Design of a Soil Science practical exercise to understand the soil carbon sequestration after biochar addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gascó, Gabriel; Cely, Paola; Saa-Requejo, Antonio; Mendez, Ana; Antón, Jose Manuel; Sánchez, Elena; Moratiel, Ruben; Tarquis, Ana M.

    2014-05-01

    The adaptation of the Universities to European Higher Education Area (EHEA) involves changes in the learning system. Students must obtain specific capabilities in the different degrees or masters. For example, in the degree of Agronomy at the Universidad Politécnica de Madrid (UPM, Spain), they must command Soil science, Mathematics or English. Sometimes, There is not a good communication between teachers and it causes that students do not understand the importance of the different subjects of a career. For this reason, teachers of the Soil Science and Mathematics Departments of the UPM designed a common practice to teach to the students the role of soil on the carbon sequestration. The objective of this paper is to explain the followed steps to the design of the practice. Acknowledgement to Universidad Politécnica de Madrid for the Projects in Education Innovation IE12_13-02009 and IE12_13-02012.

  1. Targeted gene addition into a specified location in the human genome using designed zinc finger nucleases

    PubMed Central

    Moehle, Erica A.; Rock, Jeremy M.; Lee, Ya-Li; Jouvenot, Yann; DeKelver, Russell C.; Gregory, Philip D.; Urnov, Fyodor D.; Holmes, Michael C.

    2007-01-01

    Efficient incorporation of novel DNA sequences into a specific site in the genome of living human cells remains a challenge despite its potential utility to genetic medicine, biotechnology, and basic research. We find that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can stimulate integration of long DNA stretches into a predetermined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Using an extrachromosomal DNA donor carrying a 12-bp tag, a 900-bp ORF, or a 1.5-kb promoter-transcription unit flanked by locus-specific homology arms, we find targeted integration frequencies of 15%, 6%, and 5%, respectively, within 72 h of treatment, and with no selection for the desired event. Importantly, we find that the integration event occurs in a homology-directed manner and leads to the accurate reconstruction of the donor-specified genotype at the endogenous chromosomal locus, and hence presumably results from synthesis-dependent strand annealing repair of the break using the donor DNA as a template. This site-specific gene addition occurs with no measurable increase in the rate of random integration. Remarkably, we also find that ZFNs can drive the addition of an 8-kb sequence carrying three distinct promoter-transcription units into an endogenous locus at a frequency of 6%, also in the absence of any selection. These data reveal the surprising versatility of the specialized polymerase machinery involved in double-strand break repair, illuminate a powerful approach to mammalian cell engineering, and open the possibility of ZFN-driven gene addition therapy for human genetic disease. PMID:17360608

  2. Targeted gene addition into a specified location in the human genome using designed zinc finger nucleases.

    PubMed

    Moehle, Erica A; Moehle, E A; Rock, Jeremy M; Rock, J M; Lee, Ya-Li; Lee, Y L; Jouvenot, Yann; Jouvenot, Y; DeKelver, Russell C; Dekelver, R C; Gregory, Philip D; Gregory, P D; Urnov, Fyodor D; Urnov, F D; Holmes, Michael C; Holmes, M C

    2007-02-27

    Efficient incorporation of novel DNA sequences into a specific site in the genome of living human cells remains a challenge despite its potential utility to genetic medicine, biotechnology, and basic research. We find that a precisely placed double-strand break induced by engineered zinc finger nucleases (ZFNs) can stimulate integration of long DNA stretches into a predetermined genomic location, resulting in high-efficiency site-specific gene addition. Using an extrachromosomal DNA donor carrying a 12-bp tag, a 900-bp ORF, or a 1.5-kb promoter-transcription unit flanked by locus-specific homology arms, we find targeted integration frequencies of 15%, 6%, and 5%, respectively, within 72 h of treatment, and with no selection for the desired event. Importantly, we find that the integration event occurs in a homology-directed manner and leads to the accurate reconstruction of the donor-specified genotype at the endogenous chromosomal locus, and hence presumably results from synthesis-dependent strand annealing repair of the break using the donor DNA as a template. This site-specific gene addition occurs with no measurable increase in the rate of random integration. Remarkably, we also find that ZFNs can drive the addition of an 8-kb sequence carrying three distinct promoter-transcription units into an endogenous locus at a frequency of 6%, also in the absence of any selection. These data reveal the surprising versatility of the specialized polymerase machinery involved in double-strand break repair, illuminate a powerful approach to mammalian cell engineering, and open the possibility of ZFN-driven gene addition therapy for human genetic disease. PMID:17360608

  3. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  4. Service Use Findings from the Child STEPs Effectiveness Trial: Additional Support for Modular Designs.

    PubMed

    Park, Alayna L; Tsai, Katherine H; Guan, Karen; Reding, Michael E J; Chorpita, Bruce F; Weisz, John R

    2016-01-01

    This study expands upon the Chorpita et al. (J Consult Clin Psychol 81:999-1009, 2013) findings by examining the impact of treatment protocol on youths' service utilization up to 2 years after starting an episode of: standard manualized treatment (Standard); modular treatment (Modular); or usual care (UC). Results showed that youths who received Modular accessed fewer service settings at their one-year follow-up relative to youths who received Standard or UC. Findings suggest that modular treatment may offer an advantage over standardized treatment manuals and UC in terms of sustained clinical benefits, and highlight the importance of treatment design considerations for service systems. PMID:25583271

  5. Determining a Robust D-Optimal Design for Testing for Departure from Additivity in a Mixture of Four Perfluoroalkyl Acids.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective is to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. PFAAs are widely used in consumer products and industrial applications. The presence and persistence of PFAAs, especially in ...

  6. DETERMINING A ROBUST D-OPTIMAL DESIGN FOR TESTING FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A MIXTURE OF FOUR PFAAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Our objective was to determine an optimal experimental design for a mixture of perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) that is robust to the assumption of additivity. Of particular focus to this research project is whether an environmentally relevant mixture of four PFAAs with long half-liv...

  7. 77 FR 60437 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-03

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Modification Center in San Antonio, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... established for one or more other classes of employees in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  8. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 14... in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on August 13, 2010, as provided...

  9. 76 FR 72928 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and... addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on November 17, 2011, as provided for under...

  10. 75 FR 51818 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On... Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on August 12, 2010, as provided for under 42...

  11. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Materials Production Center (FMPC) in Fernald, Ohio, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on...

  12. 78 FR 70949 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-27

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Plant in Amarillo, Texas, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees... of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation became effective on October...

  13. 40 CFR 267.1103 - What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... containment building and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressure exerted... standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building? 267.1103 Section 267.1103 Protection of....1103 What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment...

  14. 40 CFR 267.1103 - What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... containment building and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressure exerted... standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building? 267.1103 Section 267.1103 Protection of....1103 What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment...

  15. 40 CFR 267.1103 - What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... containment building and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressure exerted... standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building? 267.1103 Section 267.1103 Protection of....1103 What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment...

  16. 40 CFR 267.1103 - What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... containment building and of sufficient strength and thickness to prevent collapse under the pressure exerted... standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building? 267.1103 Section 267.1103 Protection of....1103 What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment...

  17. 14 CFR 11.77 - Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Is there any additional information I must include in my petition for designating airspace? 11.77 Section 11.77 Aeronautics and Space FEDERAL... of the agency, office, facility, or person who would have authority to permit the use of the...

  18. Testing for Additivity in Chemical Mixtures Using a Fixed-Ratio Ray Design and Statistical Equivalence Testing Methods

    EPA Science Inventory

    Fixed-ratio ray designs have been used for detecting and characterizing interactions of large numbers of chemicals in combination. Single chemical dose-response data are used to predict an “additivity curve” along an environmentally relevant ray. A “mixture curve” is estimated fr...

  19. 75 FR 27784 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of...

  20. 76 FR 72928 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  1. 76 FR 7852 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  2. 76 FR 33762 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  3. 76 FR 33763 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  4. 75 FR 67364 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  5. 76 FR 72929 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office ] DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  6. 76 FR 34074 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-10

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the...

  7. 75 FR 27785 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure... Human Services (HHS). ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of...

  8. 46 CFR 160.151-17 - Additional requirements for design and performance of SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional requirements for design and performance of SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts. 160.151-17 Section 160.151-17 Shipping COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY (CONTINUED) EQUIPMENT, CONSTRUCTION, AND MATERIALS: SPECIFICATIONS AND APPROVAL LIFESAVING EQUIPMENT Inflatable Liferafts...

  9. 3D bipedal model with holonomic constraints for the decoupled optimal controller design of the biomechanical sit-to-stand maneuver.

    PubMed

    Mughal, Asif; Iqbal, Kamran

    2010-04-01

    Human voluntary movements are complex physical phenomena due to the complex control mechanism for coordination of limbs in the presence of physiological constraints. In this study, we propose a nonlinear human bipedal model with thirteen generalized coordinates to model sit-to-stand (STS) transfer. The model has three position based holonomic constraints and at the first stage, we decouple the translational variables (constrained system) from rotational variables (unconstrained systems). The unconstrained rotational degrees consist of seven sagittal and three frontal plane angles, which are controlled through their respective joint torques. We further decouple these angles in sagittal and frontal plane systems for a better control strategy. In this scheme, there are three decoupled controllers working together to stabilize the nonlinear model for a STS maneuver while satisfying the holonomic constraints. We adopt H(infinity) and H(2) controller designs for feedback torques in sagittal and frontal planes, respectively, and provide simulation results to show the improvement in the angular profiles. We further adopt this modeling strategy to study and analyze the neuromuscular disorders by decoupling healthy and neurodeficient extremities. Our study indicates that the decoupling of the bipedal model improves the controllability of the system and produces better angular profiles for a bipedal STS maneuver. This modeling scheme is useful for analysis of neuromuscular disorders and other relevant physiological motor control models. PMID:20387973

  10. A Framework for Dynamic Constraint Reasoning Using Procedural Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari K.; Frank, Jeremy D.

    1999-01-01

    Many complex real-world decision and control problems contain an underlying constraint reasoning problem. This is particularly evident in a recently developed approach to planning, where almost all planning decisions are represented by constrained variables. This translates a significant part of the planning problem into a constraint network whose consistency determines the validity of the plan candidate. Since higher-level choices about control actions can add or remove variables and constraints, the underlying constraint network is invariably highly dynamic. Arbitrary domain-dependent constraints may be added to the constraint network and the constraint reasoning mechanism must be able to handle such constraints effectively. Additionally, real problems often require handling constraints over continuous variables. These requirements present a number of significant challenges for a constraint reasoning mechanism. In this paper, we introduce a general framework for handling dynamic constraint networks with real-valued variables, by using procedures to represent and effectively reason about general constraints. The framework is based on a sound theoretical foundation, and can be proven to be sound and complete under well-defined conditions. Furthermore, the framework provides hybrid reasoning capabilities, as alternative solution methods like mathematical programming can be incorporated into the framework, in the form of procedures.

  11. Additional testing of the inlets designed for a tandem fan V/STOL nacelle

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ybarra, A. H.

    1981-01-01

    The wind tunnel testing of a scale model of a tandem fan nacelle designed for a type (subsonic cruise) V/STOL aircraft configuration is discussed. The performance for the isolated front inlet and for the combined front and aft inlets is reported. Model variables include front and aft inlets with aft inlet variations of short and long aft inlet cowls, with a shaft simulator and diffuser vortex generators, cowl lip fillets, and nacelle strakes. Inlet pressure recovery, distortion, and inlet angle-to-attack separation limits were evaluated at tunnel velocity from 0 to 240 knots, angles-of-attack from -10 to +40 degrees and inlet flow rates corresponding to throat Mach number from 0.0 to 0.6. Combined nacelle pitch and yaw runs up to 30 deg. were also made.

  12. Design rules for rational control of polymer glass formation behavior and mechanical properties with small molecular additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mangalara, Jayachandra Hari; Simmons, David

    Small molecule additives have long been employed to tune polymers' glass formation, mechanical and transport properties. For example, plasticizers are commonly employed to suppress polymer Tg and soften the glassy state, while antiplasticizers, which stiffen the glassy state of a polymer while suppressing its Tg, are employed to enhance protein and tissue preservation in sugar glasses. Recent literature indicates that additives can have a wide range of possible effects, but all of these have not been clearly understood and well appreciated. Here we employ molecular dynamics simulations to establish design rules for the selection of small molecule additives with size, molecular stiffness, and interaction energy chosen to achieve targeted effects on polymer properties. We furthermore find that a given additive's effect on a polymer's Tg can be predicted from its Debye-Waller factor via a function previously found to describe nanoconfinement effects on the glass transition. These results emphasize the potential for a new generation of targeted molecular additives to contribute to more targeted rational design of polymers. We acknowledge the Keck Foundation and the Ohio Supercomputing Center for financial and computational support of this effort, respectively.

  13. 75 FR 3470 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in Upton, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 10, 2009, as provided for under 42 U.S.C.......

  14. 75 FR 3469 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-01-21

    ...The Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees at the Hanford site in Richland, Washington, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On December 10, 2009, as provided for under 42 U.S.C. 7384q(b), the......

  15. Disentangling Robust Developmental Constraints from the Instructionally Mutable: Young Children's Epistemic Reasoning about a Study of Their Own Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Metz, Kathleen E.

    2011-01-01

    This study examines first graders' epistemic reasoning, in tacit "practical epistemologies" reflected in thinking about an investigation of their own design. I analyzed children's epistemic reasoning, following a design experiment scaffolding increasing regulation of scientific inquiry in a domain they studied in depth. Participants consisted of…

  16. Constraint algebra in bigravity

    SciTech Connect

    Soloviev, V. O.

    2015-07-15

    The number of degrees of freedom in bigravity theory is found for a potential of general form and also for the potential proposed by de Rham, Gabadadze, and Tolley (dRGT). This aim is pursued via constructing a Hamiltonian formalismand studying the Poisson algebra of constraints. A general potential leads to a theory featuring four first-class constraints generated by general covariance. The vanishing of the respective Hessian is a crucial property of the dRGT potential, and this leads to the appearance of two additional second-class constraints and, hence, to the exclusion of a superfluous degree of freedom—that is, the Boulware—Deser ghost. The use of a method that permits avoiding an explicit expression for the dRGT potential is a distinctive feature of the present study.

  17. Designing Energy Supply Chains with the P-Graph Framework under Cost Constraints andSustainability Considerations

    EPA Science Inventory

    A computer-aided methodology for designing sustainable supply chains is presented using the P-graph framework to develop supply chain structures which are analyzed using cost, the cost of producing electricity, and two sustainability metrics: ecological footprint and emergy. They...

  18. 13-Helix folding of a β/γ-peptide manifold designed from a "minimal-constraint" blueprint.

    PubMed

    Grison, Claire M; Robin, Sylvie; Aitken, David J

    2016-06-14

    A bottom-up design rationale was adopted to devise β/γ-peptide foldamer manifolds which would adopt preferred 13-helix conformations, relying on minimal steric imposition brought by the constituent amino acid residues. In this way, a well-defined 13-helix conformer was revealed for short oligomers of trans-2-aminocyclobutanecarboxylic acid and γ(4)-amino acids in alternation, which gave good topological superposition upon an α-helix motif. PMID:27230541

  19. Some design constraints required for the assembly of software components: The incorporation of atomic abstract types into generically structured abstract types

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    It is nearly axiomatic, that to take the greatest advantage of the useful features available in a development system, and to avoid the negative interactions of those features, requires the exercise of a design methodology which constrains their use. A major design support feature of the Ada language is abstraction: for data, functions processes, resources, and system elements in general. Atomic abstract types can be created in packages defining those private types and all of the overloaded operators, functions, and hidden data required for their use in an application. Generically structured abstract types can be created in generic packages defining those structured private types, as buildups from the user-defined data types which are input as parameters. A study is made of the design constraints required for software incorporating either atomic or generically structured abstract types, if the integration of software components based on them is to be subsequently performed. The impact of these techniques on the reusability of software and the creation of project-specific software support environments is also discussed.

  20. Impediments and constraints in the uptake of water sensitive urban design measures in greenfield and infill developments.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Ashok K; Cook, Stephen; Tjandraatmadja, Grace; Gregory, Alan

    2012-01-01

    Water sensitive urban developments are designed with integrated urban water management concepts and water sensitive urban design measures. The initiatives that may be included are the substitution of imported drinking water with alternative sources using a fit-for-purpose approach and structural and non-structural measures for the source control of stormwater. A water sensitive approach to urban development can help in achieving sustainability objectives by minimising disturbance to ecological and hydrological processes, and also relieve stress on conventional water systems. Water sensitive urban developments remain novel in comparison with conventional approaches, so the understanding and knowledge of the systems in regards to their planning; design; implementation; operation and maintenance; health impacts and environmental impacts is still developing and thus the mainstream uptake of these approaches faces many challenges. A study has been conducted to understand these challenges through a detailed literature review, investigating a large number of local greenfield and infill developments, and conducting extensive consultation with water professionals. This research has identified the social, economic, political, institutional and technological challenges faced in implementing water sensitive urban design in greenfield and infill developments. The research found in particular that there is the need for long-term monitoring studies of water sensitive urban developments. This monitoring is important to validate the performance of novel approaches implemented and improve associated guidelines, standards, and regulatory and governance frameworks, which can lead to mainstream acceptance of water sensitive urban development approaches. The dissemination of this research will help generate awareness among water professionals, water utilities, developers, planners and regulators of the research challenges to be addressed in order to achieve more mainstream acceptance of

  1. The environmental constraint needs for design improvements to the Saligny I/LLW-repository near Cernavoda NPP

    SciTech Connect

    Barariu, Gheorghe

    2007-07-01

    The paper presents the new perspectives on the development of the L/ILW Final Repository Project which will be built near Cernavoda NPP. The Repository is designed to satisfy the main performance objectives in accordance to IAEA recommendation. Starting in October 1996, Romania became a country with an operating nuclear power plant. Reactor 2 reached the criticality on May 6, 2007 and it will be put in commercial operation in September 2007. The Ministry of Economy and Finance has decided to proceed with the commissioning of Units 3 and 4 of Cernavoda NPP till 2014. The Strategy for radioactive waste management was elaborated by National Agency for Radioactive Waste (ANDRAD), the jurisdictional authority for definitive disposal and the coordination of nuclear spent fuel and radioactive waste management (Order 844/2004) with attributions established by Governmental Decision (GO) 31/2006. The Strategy specifies the commissioning of the Saligny L/IL Radwaste Repository near Cernavoda NPP in 2014. When designing the L/IL Radwaste Repository, the following prerequisites have been taken into account: 1) Cernavoda NPP will be equipped with 4 Candu 6 units. 2) National Legislation in radwaste management will be reviewed and/or completed to harmonize with UE standards 3) The selected site is now in process of confirmation after a comprehensive set of interdisciplinary investigations. (author)

  2. A review of wireless-photonic systems: Design methodologies and topologies, constraints, challenges, and innovations in electronics and photonics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Farsaei, Ahmadreza; Wang, Yun; Molavi, Reza; Jayatilleka, Hasitha; Caverley, Michael; Beikahmadi, Mohammad; Masnadi Shirazi, Amir Hossein; Jaeger, Nicolas; Chrostowski, Lukas; Mirabbasi, Shahriar

    2016-08-01

    Photonic networks form the backbone for data communications. In particular, in current and future wireless communication systems, photonic networks are becoming increasingly popular for data distribution between the central office and the remote antenna units at base stations. As wireless-photonic systems become in increasing demand, low-cost implementation of such systems will be desirable. This paper describes how integrated photonics and electronics, on silicon, can be used to design such systems. Various building blocks of such silicon-photonics systems are reviewed. The emphasis is on a 60 GHz wireless system which could be suitable for the emerging 5th-generation (5G) cellular networks. The implementation discussed here uses digital baseband optical transmission as opposed to the radio-over-fibre approach.

  3. Optimal design of an electro-hydraulic valve for heavy-duty vehicle clutch actuator with certain constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meng, Fei; Shi, Peng; Karimi, Hamid Reza; Zhang, Hui

    2016-02-01

    The main objective of this paper is to investigate the sensitivity analysis and optimal design of a proportional solenoid valve (PSV) operated pressure reducing valve (PRV) for heavy-duty automatic transmission clutch actuators. The nonlinear electro-hydraulic valve model is developed based on fluid dynamics. In order to implement the sensitivity analysis and optimization for the PRV, the PSV model is validated by comparing the results with data obtained from a real test-bench. The sensitivity of the PSV pressure response with regard to the structural parameters is investigated by using Sobol's method. Finally, simulations and experimental investigations are performed on the optimized prototype and the results reveal that the dynamical characteristics of the valve have been improved in comparison with the original valve.

  4. Use of physiological constraints to identify quantitative design principles for gene expression in yeast adaptation to heat shock

    PubMed Central

    Vilaprinyo, Ester; Alves, Rui; Sorribas, Albert

    2006-01-01

    Background Understanding the relationship between gene expression changes, enzyme activity shifts, and the corresponding physiological adaptive response of organisms to environmental cues is crucial in explaining how cells cope with stress. For example, adaptation of yeast to heat shock involves a characteristic profile of changes to the expression levels of genes coding for enzymes of the glycolytic pathway and some of its branches. The experimental determination of changes in gene expression profiles provides a descriptive picture of the adaptive response to stress. However, it does not explain why a particular profile is selected for any given response. Results We used mathematical models and analysis of in silico gene expression profiles (GEPs) to understand how changes in gene expression correlate to an efficient response of yeast cells to heat shock. An exhaustive set of GEPs, matched with the corresponding set of enzyme activities, was simulated and analyzed. The effectiveness of each profile in the response to heat shock was evaluated according to relevant physiological and functional criteria. The small subset of GEPs that lead to effective physiological responses after heat shock was identified as the result of the tuning of several evolutionary criteria. The experimentally observed transcriptional changes in response to heat shock belong to this set and can be explained by quantitative design principles at the physiological level that ultimately constrain changes in gene expression. Conclusion Our theoretical approach suggests a method for understanding the combined effect of changes in the expression of multiple genes on the activity of metabolic pathways, and consequently on the adaptation of cellular metabolism to heat shock. This method identifies quantitative design principles that facilitate understating the response of the cell to stress. PMID:16584550

  5. Where do the Field Plots Belong? A Multiple-Constraint Sampling Design for the BigFoot Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, R. E.; Cohen, W. B.; Kirschbaum, A. A.; Gower, S. T.

    2002-12-01

    A key component of a MODIS validation project is effective characterization of biophysical measures on the ground. Fine-grain ecological field measurements must be placed strategically to capture variability at the scale of the MODIS imagery. Here we describe the BigFoot project's revised sampling scheme, designed to simultaneously meet three important goals: capture landscape variability, avoid spatial autocorrelation between field plots, and minimize time and expense of field sampling. A stochastic process places plots in clumped constellations to reduce field sampling costs, while minimizing spatial autocorrelation. This stochastic process is repeated, creating several hundred realizations of plot constellations. Each constellation is scored and ranked according to its ability to match landscape variability in several Landsat-based spectral indices, and its ability to minimize field sampling costs. We show how this approach has recently been used to place sample plots at the BigFoot project's two newest study areas, one in a desert system and one in a tundra system. We also contrast this sampling approach to that already used at the four prior BigFoot project sites.

  6. Additive manufacturing and mechanical characterization of graded porosity scaffolds designed based on triply periodic minimal surface architectures.

    PubMed

    Afshar, M; Anaraki, A Pourkamali; Montazerian, H; Kadkhodapour, J

    2016-09-01

    Since the advent of additive manufacturing techniques, triply periodic minimal surfaces have emerged as a novel tool for designing porous scaffolds. Whereas scaffolds are expected to provide multifunctional performance, spatially changing pore patterns have been a promising approach to integrate mechanical characteristics of different architectures into a unique scaffold. Smooth morphological variations are also frequently seen in nature particularly in bone and cartilage structures and can be inspiring for designing of artificial tissues. In this study, we carried out experimental and numerical procedures to uncover the mechanical properties and deformation mechanisms of linearly graded porosity scaffolds for two different mathematically defined pore structures. Among TPMS-based scaffolds, P and D surfaces were subjected to gradient modeling to explore the mechanical responses for stretching and bending dominated deformations, respectively. Moreover, the results were compared to their corresponding uniform porosity structures. Mechanical properties were found to be by far greater for the stretching dominated structure (P-Surface). For bending dominated architecture (D-Surface), although there was no global fracture for uniform structures, graded structure showed a brittle fracture at 0.08 strain. A layer by layer deformation mechanism for stretching dominated structure was observed. For bending dominated scaffolds, deformation was accompanied by development of 45° shearing bands. Finite element simulations were also performed and the results showed a good agreement with the experimental observations. PMID:27281165

  7. Constraint Handling in Transmission Network Expansion Planning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mallipeddi, R.; Verma, Ashu; Suganthan, P. N.; Panigrahi, B. K.; Bijwe, P. R.

    Transmission network expansion planning (TNEP) is a very important and complex problem in power system. Recently, the use of metaheuristic techniques to solve TNEP is gaining more importance due to their effectiveness in handling the inequality constraints and discrete values over the conventional gradient based methods. Evolutionary algorithms (EAs) generally perform unconstrained search and require some additional mechanism to handle constraints. In EA literature, various constraint handling techniques have been proposed. However, to solve TNEP the penalty function approach is commonly used while the other constraint handling methods are untested. In this paper, we evaluate the performance of different constraint handling methods like Superiority of Feasible Solutions (SF), Self adaptive Penalty (SP),E-Constraint (EC), Stochastic Ranking (SR) and the ensemble of constraint handling techniques (ECHT) on TNEP. The potential of different constraint handling methods and their ensemble is evaluated using an IEEE 24 bus system with and without security constraints.

  8. Additive effects on the improvement of insecticidal activity: Design, synthesis, and insecticidal activity of novel pymetrozine derivatives.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yan; Liu, Yuxiu; Song, Hongjian; Li, Yongqiang; Wang, Qingmin

    2016-02-01

    A series of new pymetrozine analogues containing both methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring were designed and synthesized. Their insecticidal activities against bean aphid (Aphis craccivora), mosquito larvae (Culex pipiens pallens), cotton bollworm (Helicoverpa armigera), corn borer (Ostrinia nubilalis) and oriental armyworm (Mythimna separata) were evaluated. The results of bioassays indicated that most of the target compounds showed good insecticidal activity against bean aphid; especially, IIIf (80%) and IIIl (80%) exhibited higher aphicidal activity than pymetrozine (30%) at 5mg/kg, and the two compounds still showed 20% and 30% mortality at 2.5mg/kg, respectively, whereas pymetrozine displayed no activity at the same concentration. These compounds exhibited a completely different structure-activity relationship to that of known pymetrozine derivatives, in which it is thought introducing alkyl group on the imine carbon could be detrimental to the activities. Our new result suggested that the methyl on the imine carbon and phenoxy group at the pyridine ring of phenoxy group may play additive effects on the improvement of aphicidal activity. Besides this, compound IIIs, containing an allyl at the para position of phenoxy group, exhibited excellent insecticidal activity against mosquito larvae, lepidoptera pests cotton bollworm, corn borer and oriental armyworm. PMID:26342545

  9. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  10. 75 FR 81716 - Additional Designation Pursuant to Executive Order 13469 of July 25, 2008 “Blocking Property of...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-28

    ... ``Blocking Property of Additional Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe... ``Blocking Property of Additional Persons Undermining Democratic Processes or Institutions in Zimbabwe'' (the... issued Executive Order 13469 with respect to Zimbabwe pursuant to, inter alia, the...

  11. D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO MIXTURE RAY.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Traditional factorial designs for evaluating interactions among chemicals in a mixture are prohibitive when the number of chemicals is large. However, recent advances in statistically-based experimental design have made it easier to evaluate interactions involving many chemicals...

  12. The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT): hydrostatic constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gunnels, Steve

    2010-07-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is an optical-infrared 25 Meter ELT to be located in Chile. It is being designed and constructed by a group of U.S. and international universities and research institutions1. Structural performance of large telescopes can be enhanced significantly with the added stiffness that results from distributing loads to many points in the structure. In defining the two rotating assemblies in an altitude-over-azimuth mount more than a kinematic set of constraints can lead to hydrostatic bearing oil film failure due to unintended forces that result from runner bearing irregularities. High Frequency Over Constraint (HFOC) increases stiffness without risk of oil film failure. It was used successfully on the Magellan 6.5 Meter Telescopes. GMT will employ this and two additional methods to enhance stiffness at frequencies from DC wind up through the telescope primary mode frequencies of ~11 Hz. This will be achieved without excessive hydrostatic bearing pad forces. Detailed discussion of GMT's hydrostatic constraints, azimuth track and optics support structure (OSS) runner bearing illustrations, and performance criteria are provided for the design.

  13. 40 CFR 267.1103 - What additional design and operating standards apply if liquids will be in my containment building?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... the migration of hazardous constituents into the barrier (for example, a geomembrane covered by a... containment system, including a secondary barrier designed and constructed to prevent migration of...

  14. 75 FR 27784 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-18

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore... Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in Livermore, California from January 1, 1950 through December...

  15. 76 FR 33762 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from Vitro Manufacturing, Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, as an... who worked at Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, from January 1, 1958 through...

  16. 76 FR 72928 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-28

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, as an... worked at Vitro Manufacturing in Canonsburg, Pennsylvania, from January 1, 1960 through September...

  17. Superresolution via sparsity constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Donoho, David L.

    1992-01-01

    The problem of recovering a measure mu supported on a lattice of span Delta is considered under the condition that measurements are only available concerning the Fourier Transform at frequencies of Omega or less. If Omega is much smaller than the Nyquist frequency pi/Delta and the measurements are noisy, then stable recovery of mu is generally impossible. It is shown here that if, in addition, it is known that mu satisfies certain sparsity constraints, then stable recovery is possible. This finding validates practical efforts in spectroscopy, seismic prospecting, and astronomy to provide superresolution by imposing support limitations in reconstruction.

  18. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  19. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  20. 46 CFR 160.151-17 - Additional requirements for design and performance of SOLAS A and SOLAS B inflatable liferafts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... elliptical shape is acceptable. (2) Each liferaft manufactured under this subpart must have water-containing... deducting the volume of any objects inside the appendage. No opening designed to close as water is forced... formation of air pockets under the inflatable liferaft. (vi) The appendages must be designed to...

  1. 75 FR 51817 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Final Effect of Designation of a...: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of...

  2. 75 FR 51816 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Final Effect of Designation of a...: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of...

  3. 77 FR 5254 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-02

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health Final Effect of Designation of a...: HHS gives notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of...

  4. 77 FR 15759 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-16

    ... Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy... to the SEC: All Atomic Weapons Employees who worked in any area at the Linde Ceramics Plant...

  5. D-OPTIMAL EXPERIMENTAL DESIGNS TO TEST FOR DEPARTURE FROM ADDITIVITY IN A FIXED-RATIO RAY MIXTURE.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Risk assessors are becoming increasingly aware of the importance of assessing interactions between chemicals in a mixture. Most traditional designs for evaluating interactions are prohibitive when the number of chemicals in the mixture is large. However, evaluation of interacti...

  6. 77 FR 38835 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-06-29

    ... notice concerning the final effect of the HHS decision to designate a class of employees from the Sandia... their contractors and subcontractors who worked in any area at Sandia National Laboratories...

  7. 76 FR 59701 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-27

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from the Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, New Mexico... at the Sandia National Laboratories in Albuquerque, New Mexico, from January 1, 1949 through...

  8. 76 FR 33762 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-06-09

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, as an... worked at the Linde Ceramics Plant in Tonawanda, New York, from January 1, 1954 through December 31,...

  9. 76 FR 7852 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... decision to designate a class of employees from Simonds Saw and Steel Co., Lockport, New York, as an... who worked at Simonds Saw and Steel Co. from January 1, 1948 through December 31, 1957, for a...

  10. Foundations of support constraint machines.

    PubMed

    Gnecco, Giorgio; Gori, Marco; Melacci, Stefano; Sanguineti, Marcello

    2015-02-01

    The mathematical foundations of a new theory for the design of intelligent agents are presented. The proposed learning paradigm is centered around the concept of constraint, representing the interactions with the environment, and the parsimony principle. The classical regularization framework of kernel machines is naturally extended to the case in which the agents interact with a richer environment, where abstract granules of knowledge, compactly described by different linguistic formalisms, can be translated into the unified notion of constraint for defining the hypothesis set. Constrained variational calculus is exploited to derive general representation theorems that provide a description of the optimal body of the agent (i.e., the functional structure of the optimal solution to the learning problem), which is the basis for devising new learning algorithms. We show that regardless of the kind of constraints, the optimal body of the agent is a support constraint machine (SCM) based on representer theorems that extend classical results for kernel machines and provide new representations. In a sense, the expressiveness of constraints yields a semantic-based regularization theory, which strongly restricts the hypothesis set of classical regularization. Some guidelines to unify continuous and discrete computational mechanisms are given so as to accommodate in the same framework various kinds of stimuli, for example, supervised examples and logic predicates. The proposed view of learning from constraints incorporates classical learning from examples and extends naturally to the case in which the examples are subsets of the input space, which is related to learning propositional logic clauses. PMID:25380338

  11. 75 FR 51816 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-23

    ... Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for... Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation Program Act of 2000. On July 13... parameters established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure...

  12. 78 FR 3897 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-17

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Centers for Disease Control... Metals, Inc. facility in West Concord, Massachusetts, as an addition to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC... established for one or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort....

  13. 76 FR 7852 - Final Effect of Designation of a Class of Employees for Addition to the Special Exposure Cohort

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-11

    ... Cohort AGENCY: National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), Department of Health and... to the Special Exposure Cohort (SEC) under the Energy Employees Occupational Illness Compensation... or more other classes of employees included in the Special Exposure Cohort. This designation...

  14. 76 FR 6056 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-03

    ... Protection Agency FR Federal Register NAAQS National Ambient Air Quality Standards NTTAA National Technology... (74 FR 58688), EPA deferred designations for three areas to evaluate further the reason for their high... November 13, 2009 notice (74 FR 58688), we also announced that our review of 2006-2008 monitoring data...

  15. 77 FR 65310 - Additional Air Quality Designations for the 2006 24-Hour Fine Particle National Ambient Air...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-10-26

    ... the 2006 24-hour Fine Particle (PM 2.5 ) National Ambient Air Quality Standards,'' 74 FR 58688... Federal Regulations DC District of Columbia EO Executive Order EPA Environmental Protection Agency FR... EPA finalized designations for the 2006 24-hour PM 2.5 NAAQS (74 FR 58688, November 13, 2009), the...

  16. Data assimilation with inequality constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thacker, W. C.

    If values of variables in a numerical model are limited to specified ranges, these restrictions should be enforced when data are assimilated. The simplest option is to assimilate without regard for constraints and then to correct any violations without worrying about additional corrections implied by correlated errors. This paper addresses the incorporation of inequality constraints into the standard variational framework of optimal interpolation with emphasis on our limited knowledge of the underlying probability distributions. Simple examples involving only two or three variables are used to illustrate graphically how active constraints can be treated as error-free data when background errors obey a truncated multi-normal distribution. Using Lagrange multipliers, the formalism is expanded to encompass the active constraints. Two algorithms are presented, both relying on a solution ignoring the inequality constraints to discover violations to be enforced. While explicitly enforcing a subset can, via correlations, correct the others, pragmatism based on our poor knowledge of the underlying probability distributions suggests the expedient of enforcing them all explicitly to avoid the computationally expensive task of determining the minimum active set. If additional violations are encountered with these solutions, the process can be repeated. Simple examples are used to illustrate the algorithms and to examine the nature of the corrections implied by correlated errors.

  17. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  18. Constraint monitoring in TOSCA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beck, Howard

    1992-01-01

    The Job-Shop Scheduling Problem (JSSP) deals with the allocation of resources over time to factory operations. Allocations are subject to various constraints (e.g., production precedence relationships, factory capacity constraints, and limits on the allowable number of machine setups) which must be satisfied for a schedule to be valid. The identification of constraint violations and the monitoring of constraint threats plays a vital role in schedule generation in terms of the following: (1) directing the scheduling process; and (2) informing scheduling decisions. This paper describes a general mechanism for identifying constraint violations and monitoring threats to the satisfaction of constraints throughout schedule generation.

  19. Integrity Constraint Monitoring in Software Development: Proposed Architectures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fernandez, Francisco G.

    1997-01-01

    In the development of complex software systems, designers are required to obtain from many sources and manage vast amounts of knowledge of the system being built and communicate this information to personnel with a variety of backgrounds. Knowledge concerning the properties of the system, including the structure of, relationships between and limitations of the data objects in the system, becomes increasingly more vital as the complexity of the system and the number of knowledge sources increases. Ensuring that violations of these properties do not occur becomes steadily more challenging. One approach toward managing the enforcement or system properties, called context monitoring, uses a centralized repository of integrity constraints and a constraint satisfiability mechanism for dynamic verification of property enforcement during program execution. The focus of this paper is to describe possible software architectures that define a mechanism for dynamically checking the satisfiability of a set of constraints on a program. The next section describes the context monitoring approach in general. Section 3 gives an overview of the work currently being done toward the addition of an integrity constraint satisfiability mechanism to a high-level program language, SequenceL, and demonstrates how this model is being examined to develop a general software architecture. Section 4 describes possible architectures for a general constraint satisfiability mechanism, as well as an alternative approach that, uses embedded database queries in lieu of an external monitor. The paper concludes with a brief summary outlining the, current state of the research and future work.

  20. Viscosity modification of high-oleic sunflower oil with polymeric additives for the design of new biolubricant formulations.

    PubMed

    Quinchia, L A; Delgado, M A; Valencia, C; Franco, J M; Gallegos, C

    2009-03-15

    Although most common lubricants contain mineral or synthetic oils as basestocks, new environmental regulations are demanding environmentally friendly lubricants. In this sense, vegetable oils represent promising alternatives to mineral-based lubricants because of their high biodegradability, good lubricity, and low volatility. However, their poor thermooxidative stability and the small range of viscosity represent a clear disadvantage to be used as suitable biolubricants. The main objective of this work was to develop new environmentally friendly lubricant formulations with improved kinematic viscosity values and viscosity thermal susceptibility. With this aim, a high-oleic sunflower oil (HOSO) was blended with polymeric additives, such as ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA) and styrene-butadiene-styrene (SBS) copolymers, at different concentrations (0.5-5% w/w). Dynamic viscosity and density measurements were performed in a rotational rheometer and capillary densimeter, respectively, in a temperature range between 25 and 120 degrees C. An Arrhenius-like equation fits the evolution of viscosity with temperature fairly well. Both EVA and SBS copolymers may be satisfactorily used as additives to increase the viscosity of HOSO, thus improving the low viscosity values of this oil. HOSO viscosity increases with polymer concentration. Specifically, EVA/HOSO blends exhibit higher viscosity values, which are needed for applications such as lubrication of bearings and four-stroke engines. On the other hand, viscositythermal susceptibility of HOSO samples increases with EVA or SBS concentration. PMID:19368214

  1. Evidence-Based Communication Practices for Children with Visual Impairments and Additional Disabilities: An Examination of Single-Subject Design Studies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parker, Amy T.; Grimmett, Eric S.; Summers, Sharon

    2008-01-01

    This review examines practices for building effective communication strategies for children with visual impairments, including those with additional disabilities, that have been tested by single-subject design methodology. The authors found 30 studies that met the search criteria and grouped intervention strategies to align any evidence of the…

  2. Design of Selective Gas Sensors Using Additive-Loaded In2O3 Hollow Spheres Prepared by Combinatorial Hydrothermal Reactions

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sun-Jung; Hwang, In-Sung; Kang, Yun Chan; Lee, Jong-Heun

    2011-01-01

    A combinatorial hydrothermal reaction has been used to prepare pure and additive (Sb, Cu, Nb, Pd, and Ni)-loaded In2O3 hollow spheres for gas sensor applications. The operation of Pd- and Cu-loaded In2O3 sensors at 371 °C leads to selective H2S detection. Selective detection of CO and NH3 was achieved by the Ni-In2O3 sensor at sensing temperatures of 371 and 440 °C, respectively. The gas responses of six different sensors to NH3, H2S, H2, CO and CH4 produced unique gas sensing patterns that can be used for the artificial recognition of these gases. PMID:22346661

  3. Design and Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the Addition of an Antenna Array (WIOBSS-AA)

    PubMed Central

    Cui, Xiao; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin; Song, Huan; Gong, Wanlin

    2016-01-01

    The Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the addition of an antenna array (WIOBSS-AA) is the newest member of the WIOBSS family. It is a multi-channel radio system using phased-array antenna technology. The transmitting part of this radio system applies an array composed of five log-periodic antennas to form five beams that span an area to the northwest of the radar site. The hardware and the antenna array of the first multi-channel ionosonde in the WIOBSS family are introduced in detail in this paper. An ionospheric detection experiment was carried out in Chongyang, Hubei province, China on 16 March 2015 to examine the performance of WIOBSS-AA. The radio system demonstrated its ability to obtain ionospheric electron density information over a wide area. The observations indicate that during the experiment, the monitored large-area ionospheric F2-layer was calm and electron density increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:27314360

  4. Design and Application of Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the Addition of an Antenna Array (WIOBSS-AA).

    PubMed

    Cui, Xiao; Chen, Gang; Wang, Jin; Song, Huan; Gong, Wanlin

    2016-01-01

    The Wuhan Ionospheric Oblique Backscattering Sounding System with the addition of an antenna array (WIOBSS-AA) is the newest member of the WIOBSS family. It is a multi-channel radio system using phased-array antenna technology. The transmitting part of this radio system applies an array composed of five log-periodic antennas to form five beams that span an area to the northwest of the radar site. The hardware and the antenna array of the first multi-channel ionosonde in the WIOBSS family are introduced in detail in this paper. An ionospheric detection experiment was carried out in Chongyang, Hubei province, China on 16 March 2015 to examine the performance of WIOBSS-AA. The radio system demonstrated its ability to obtain ionospheric electron density information over a wide area. The observations indicate that during the experiment, the monitored large-area ionospheric F2-layer was calm and electron density increased with decreasing latitude. PMID:27314360

  5. Tandem Solar Cells Using GaAs Nanowires on Si: Design, Fabrication, and Observation of Voltage Addition.

    PubMed

    Yao, Maoqing; Cong, Sen; Arab, Shermin; Huang, Ningfeng; Povinelli, Michelle L; Cronin, Stephen B; Dapkus, P Daniel; Zhou, Chongwu

    2015-11-11

    Multijunction solar cells provide us a viable approach to achieve efficiencies higher than the Shockley-Queisser limit. Due to their unique optical, electrical, and crystallographic features, semiconductor nanowires are good candidates to achieve monolithic integration of solar cell materials that are not lattice-matched. Here, we report the first realization of nanowire-on-Si tandem cells with the observation of voltage addition of the GaAs nanowire top cell and the Si bottom cell with an open circuit voltage of 0.956 V and an efficiency of 11.4%. Our simulation showed that the current-matching condition plays an important role in the overall efficiency. Furthermore, we characterized GaAs nanowire arrays grown on lattice-mismatched Si substrates and estimated the carrier density using photoluminescence. A low-resistance connecting junction was obtained using n(+)-GaAs/p(+)-Si heterojunction. Finally, we demonstrated tandem solar cells based on top GaAs nanowire array solar cells grown on bottom planar Si solar cells. The reported nanowire-on-Si tandem cell opens up great opportunities for high-efficiency, low-cost multijunction solar cells. PMID:26502060

  6. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  7. Design and analysis of a piezoelectric material based touch screen with additional pressure and its acceleration measurement functions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Xiang-Cheng; Liu, Jia-Yi; Gao, Ren-Long; Chang, Jie; Li, Long-Tu

    2013-12-01

    Touch screens are becoming more and more prevalent in everyday environments due to their convenience and humanized operation. In this paper, a piezoelectric material based touch screen is developed and investigated. Piezoelectric ceramics arrayed under the touch panel at the edges or corners are used as tactile sensors to measure the touch positioning point similarly to conventional touch screens. However, additional touch pressure and its acceleration performance can also be obtained to obtain a higher-level human-machine interface. The piezoelectric ceramics can also be added to a traditional touch screen structure, or they can be used independently to construct a novel touch screen with a high light transmittance approach to a transparent glass. The piezoelectric ceramics were processed from PZT piezoelectric ceramic powder into a round or rectangular shape. According to the varied touch position and physical press strength of a finger, or even a gloved hand or fingernail, the piezoelectric tactile sensors will have different output voltage responses. By calculating the ratio of different piezoelectric tactile sensors’ responses and summing up all piezoelectric tactile sensors’ output voltages, the touch point position, touch pressure and touch force acceleration can be detected. A prototype of such a touch screen is manufactured and its position accuracy, touch pressure and response speed are measured in detail. The experimental results show that the prototype has many advantages such as high light transmittance, low energy cost and high durability.

  8. The Development of Mathematical Prediction Model to Predict Resilient Modulus for Natural Soil Stabilized by Pofa-Opc Additive for the Use in Unpaved Road Design

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gamil, Y. M. R.; Bakar, I. H.

    2016-07-01

    Resilient Modulus (Mr) is considered one of the most important parameters in the design of road structure. This paper describes the development of the mathematical model to predict resilient modulus of organic soil stabilized by the mix of Palm Oil Fuel Ash - Ordinary Portland Cement (POFA-OPC) soil stabilization additives. It aims to optimize the use of the use of POFA in soil stabilization. The optimization models enable to eliminate the arbitrary selection and its associated disadvantages in determination of the optimum additive proportion. The model was developed based on Scheffe regression theory. The mix proportions of the samples in the experiment were adopted from similar studies reported in the literature Twenty five samples were designed, prepared and then characterized for each mix proportion based on the MR in 28 days curing. The results are used to develop the mathematical prediction model. The model was statistically analyzed and verified for its adequacy and validity using F-test.

  9. TRACON Aircraft Arrival Planning and Optimization Through Spatial Constraint Satisfaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bergh, Christopher P.; Krzeczowski, Kenneth J.; Davis, Thomas J.; Denery, Dallas G. (Technical Monitor)

    1995-01-01

    A new aircraft arrival planning and optimization algorithm has been incorporated into the Final Approach Spacing Tool (FAST) in the Center-TRACON Automation System (CTAS) developed at NASA-Ames Research Center. FAST simulations have been conducted over three years involving full-proficiency, level five air traffic controllers from around the United States. From these simulations an algorithm, called Spatial Constraint Satisfaction, has been designed, coded, undergone testing, and soon will begin field evaluation at the Dallas-Fort Worth and Denver International airport facilities. The purpose of this new design is an attempt to show that the generation of efficient and conflict free aircraft arrival plans at the runway does not guarantee an operationally acceptable arrival plan upstream from the runway -information encompassing the entire arrival airspace must be used in order to create an acceptable aircraft arrival plan. This new design includes functions available previously but additionally includes necessary representations of controller preferences and workload, operationally required amounts of extra separation, and integrates aircraft conflict resolution. As a result, the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm produces an optimized aircraft arrival plan that is more acceptable in terms of arrival procedures and air traffic controller workload. This paper discusses the current Air Traffic Control arrival planning procedures, previous work in this field, the design of the Spatial Constraint Satisfaction algorithm, and the results of recent evaluations of the algorithm.

  10. Highly irregular quantum constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klauder, John R.; Little, J. Scott

    2006-05-01

    Motivated by a recent paper of Louko and Molgado, we consider a simple system with a single classical constraint R(q) = 0. If ql denotes a generic solution to R(q) = 0, our examples include cases where R'(ql) ≠ 0 (regular constraint) and R'(ql) = 0 (irregular constraint) of varying order as well as the case where R(q) = 0 for an interval, such as a <= q <= b. Quantization of irregular constraints is normally not considered; however, using the projection operator formalism we provide a satisfactory quantization which reduces to the constrained classical system when planck → 0. It is noteworthy that irregular constraints change the observable aspects of a theory as compared to strictly regular constraints.

  11. Temporal Constraint Reasoning With Preferences

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Khatib, Lina; Morris, Paul; Morris, Robert; Rossi, Francesca

    2001-01-01

    A number of reasoning problems involving the manipulation of temporal information can naturally be viewed as implicitly inducing an ordering of potential local decisions involving time (specifically, associated with durations or orderings of events) on the basis of preferences. For example. a pair of events might be constrained to occur in a certain order, and, in addition. it might be preferable that the delay between them be as large, or as small, as possible. This paper explores problems in which a set of temporal constraints is specified, where each constraint is associated with preference criteria for making local decisions about the events involved in the constraint, and a reasoner must infer a complete solution to the problem such that, to the extent possible, these local preferences are met in the best way. A constraint framework for reasoning about time is generalized to allow for preferences over event distances and durations, and we study the complexity of solving problems in the resulting formalism. It is shown that while in general such problems are NP-hard, some restrictions on the shape of the preference functions, and on the structure of the preference set, can be enforced to achieve tractability. In these cases, a simple generalization of a single-source shortest path algorithm can be used to compute a globally preferred solution in polynomial time.

  12. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  13. Creating Positive Task Constraints

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mally, Kristi K.

    2006-01-01

    Constraints are characteristics of the individual, the task, or the environment that mold and shape movement choices and performances. Constraints can be positive--encouraging proficient movements or negative--discouraging movement or promoting ineffective movements. Physical educators must analyze, evaluate, and determine the effect various…

  14. Constraint Reasoning Over Strings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koga, Dennis (Technical Monitor); Golden, Keith; Pang, Wanlin

    2003-01-01

    This paper discusses an approach to representing and reasoning about constraints over strings. We discuss how many string domains can often be concisely represented using regular languages, and how constraints over strings, and domain operations on sets of strings, can be carried out using this representation.

  15. Credit Constraints in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lochner, Lance; Monge-Naranjo, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    We review studies of the impact of credit constraints on the accumulation of human capital. Evidence suggests that credit constraints have recently become important for schooling and other aspects of households' behavior. We highlight the importance of early childhood investments, as their response largely determines the impact of credit…

  16. Constraints in Quantum Geometrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gentle, Adrian P.; George, Nathan D.; Miller, Warner A.; Kheyfets, Arkady

    We compare different treatments of the constraints in canonical quantum gravity. The standard approach on the superspace of 3-geometries treats the constraints as the sole carriers of the dynamic content of the theory, thus rendering the traditional dynamical equations obsolete. Quantization of the constraints in both the Dirac and ADM square root Hamiltonian approaches leads to the well known problems of time evolution. These problems of time are of both an interpretational and technical nature. In contrast, the geometrodynamic quantization procedure on the superspace of the true dynamical variables separates the issues of quantization from the enforcement of the constraints. The resulting theory takes into account states that are off-shell with respect to the constraints, and thus avoids the problems of time. We develop, for the first time, the geometrodynamic quantization formalism in a general setting and show that it retains all essential features previously illustrated in the context of homogeneous cosmologies.

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. Fast, cheap and out of control--Insights into thermodynamic and informatic constraints on natural protein sequences from de novo protein design.

    PubMed

    Brisendine, Joseph M; Koder, Ronald L

    2016-05-01

    The accumulated results of thirty years of rational and computational de novo protein design have taught us important lessons about the stability, information content, and evolution of natural proteins. First, de novo protein design has complicated the assertion that biological function is equivalent to biological structure - demonstrating the capacity to abstract active sites from natural contexts and paste them into non-native topologies without loss of function. The structure-function relationship has thus been revealed to be either a generality or strictly true only in a local sense. Second, the simplification to "maquette" topologies carried out by rational protein design also has demonstrated that even sophisticated functions such as conformational switching, cooperative ligand binding, and light-activated electron transfer can be achieved with low-information design approaches. This is because for simple topologies the functional footprint in sequence space is enormous and easily exceeds the number of structures which could have possibly existed in the history of life on Earth. Finally, the pervasiveness of extraordinary stability in designed proteins challenges accepted models for the "marginal stability" of natural proteins, suggesting that there must be a selection pressure against highly stable proteins. This can be explained using recent theories which relate non-equilibrium thermodynamics and self-replication. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled Biodesign for Bioenergetics--The design and engineering of electronc transfer cofactors, proteins and protein networks, edited by Ronald L. Koder and J.L. Ross Anderson. PMID:26498191

  19. Reliability Assessment of a Robust Design Under Uncertainty for a 3-D Flexible Wing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gumbert, Clyde R.; Hou, Gene J. -W.; Newman, Perry A.

    2003-01-01

    The paper presents reliability assessment results for the robust designs under uncertainty of a 3-D flexible wing previously reported by the authors. Reliability assessments (additional optimization problems) of the active constraints at the various probabilistic robust design points are obtained and compared with the constraint values or target constraint probabilities specified in the robust design. In addition, reliability-based sensitivity derivatives with respect to design variable mean values are also obtained and shown to agree with finite difference values. These derivatives allow one to perform reliability based design without having to obtain second-order sensitivity derivatives. However, an inner-loop optimization problem must be solved for each active constraint to find the most probable point on that constraint failure surface.

  20. Constraints on a synthetic-noise source for Johnson noise thermometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    White, D. R.; Benz, S. P.

    2008-02-01

    Conventional Johnson noise thermometers based on switching correlators have conflicting matching requirements for the sensing resistance. To mitigate distortion effects in the correlator, the RT products of the two sensors must be the same, and to mitigate frequency-response errors in nominally identical input circuits, the two sensing resistances should be the same. A noise thermometer using synthetic noise for the primary reference signal overcomes this conflict because the output voltage and output resistance are independent. This paper presents the rationale and design constraints for a noise thermometer using a synthetic-noise source based on Josephson junctions. The quantized voltage noise source developed at NIST produces tunable waveforms with a spectral density composed of a comb of frequencies of equal amplitude and random phase. In addition to the conventional noise-power and impedance constraints, it has additional constraints relating to the number of tones and the tone spacing.

  1. Seismological Constraints on Geodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lomnitz, C.

    2004-12-01

    Earth is an open thermodynamic system radiating heat energy into space. A transition from geostatic earth models such as PREM to geodynamical models is needed. We discuss possible thermodynamic constraints on the variables that govern the distribution of forces and flows in the deep Earth. In this paper we assume that the temperature distribution is time-invariant, so that all flows vanish at steady state except for the heat flow Jq per unit area (Kuiken, 1994). Superscript 0 will refer to the steady state while x denotes the excited state of the system. We may write σ 0=(J{q}0ṡX{q}0)/T where Xq is the conjugate force corresponding to Jq, and σ is the rate of entropy production per unit volume. Consider now what happens after the occurrence of an earthquake at time t=0 and location (0,0,0). The earthquake introduces a stress drop Δ P(x,y,z) at all points of the system. Response flows are directed along the gradients toward the epicentral area, and the entropy production will increase with time as (Prigogine, 1947) σ x(t)=σ 0+α {1}/(t+β )+α {2}/(t+β )2+etc A seismological constraint on the parameters may be obtained from Omori's empirical relation N(t)=p/(t+q) where N(t) is the number of aftershocks at time t following the main shock. It may be assumed that p/q\\sim\\alpha_{1}/\\beta times a constant. Another useful constraint is the Mexican-hat geometry of the seismic transient as obtained e.g. from InSAR radar interferometry. For strike-slip events such as Landers the distribution of \\DeltaP is quadrantal, and an oval-shaped seismicity gap develops about the epicenter. A weak outer triggering maxiμm is found at a distance of about 17 fault lengths. Such patterns may be extracted from earthquake catalogs by statistical analysis (Lomnitz, 1996). Finally, the energy of the perturbation must be at least equal to the recovery energy. The total energy expended in an aftershock sequence can be found approximately by integrating the local contribution over

  2. Relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on Taiwanese breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Participation in leisure activities strongly associates with health and well-being. Little research has explored the relationship between participation in leisure activities and constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities. The purposes of this study are: 1) to investigate constraints on breastfeeding mothers during leisure activities and participation in leisure activities; 2) to investigate the differences between preferences for leisure activities and actual participation by breastfeeding mothers; 3) to segment breastfeeding mothers with similar patterns, using a cluster analysis based on the delineated participation in leisure activities and leisure preferences; 4) to explore any differences between clusters of breastfeeding mothers with respect to socio-demographic characteristics, breastfeeding behaviours and leisure constraints. Methods This study has a cross-sectional design using an online survey conducted among mothers having breastfeeding experiences of more than four months. The questionnaire includes demographic variables, breastfeeding behaviours, preferences for leisure activities participation, and constraints on leisure activities. Collection of data occurred between March and July 2011, producing 415 valid responses for analysis. Results For breastfeeding mothers, this study identifies constraints on breastfeeding related to leisure activities in addition to the three traditional factors for constraints in the model. This study demonstrates that reports of constraints related to children, family, and nursing environments are the most frequent. Breastfeeding mothers in Taiwan participate regularly in family activities or activities related to their children. Cluster analysis classified breastfeeding mothers into Action and Contemplation groups, and found that mothers within the latter group participate less in leisure activities and experienced more constraints related to breastfeeding. Conclusions Implications provide

  3. Fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems, Supplement I : additional information on MIL-F-7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several fuel oils

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Barnett, Henry C; Hibbard, Robert R

    1953-01-01

    Since the release of the first NACA publication on fuel characteristics pertinent to the design of aircraft fuel systems (NACA-RM-E53A21), additional information has become available on MIL-F7914(AER) grade JP-5 fuel and several of the current grades of fuel oils. In order to make this information available to fuel-system designers as quickly as possible, the present report has been prepared as a supplement to NACA-RM-E53A21. Although JP-5 fuel is of greater interest in current fuel-system problems than the fuel oils, the available data are not as extensive. It is believed, however, that the limited data on JP-5 are sufficient to indicate the variations in stocks that the designer must consider under a given fuel specification. The methods used in the preparation and extrapolation of data presented in the tables and figures of this supplement are the same as those used in NACA-RM-E53A21.

  4. Robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle with input constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Gang; Wang, Jinzhi; Wang, Xianghua

    2014-12-01

    The focus of this paper is on the design and simulation of robust tracking control for an air-breathing hypersonic vehicle (AHV), which is affected by high nonlinearity, uncertain parameters and input constraints. The linearisation method is employed for the longitudinal AHV model about a specific trim condition, and then considering the additive uncertainties of three parameters, the linearised model is just in the form of affine parameter dependence. From this point, the linear parameter-varying method is applied to design the desired controller. The poles for the closed-loop system of the linearised model are placed into a desired vertical strip, and the quadratic stability of the closed-loop system is guaranteed. Input constraints of the AHV are addressed by additional linear matrix inequalities. Finally, the designed controller is evaluated on the nonlinear AHV model and simulation results demonstrate excellent tracking performance with good robustness.

  5. Some design constraints required for the use of generic software in embedded systems: Packages which manage abstract dynamic structures without the need for garbage collection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson, Charles S.

    1986-01-01

    The embedded systems running real-time applications, for which Ada was designed, require their own mechanisms for the management of dynamically allocated storage. There is a need for packages which manage their own internalo structures to control their deallocation as well, due to the performance implications of garbage collection by the KAPSE. This places a requirement upon the design of generic packages which manage generically structured private types built-up from application-defined input types. These kinds of generic packages should figure greatly in the development of lower-level software such as operating systems, schedulers, controllers, and device driver; and will manage structures such as queues, stacks, link-lists, files, and binary multary (hierarchical) trees. Controlled to prevent inadvertent de-designation of dynamic elements, which is implicit in the assignment operation A study was made of the use of limited private type, in solving the problems of controlling the accumulation of anonymous, detached objects in running systems. The use of deallocator prodecures for run-down of application-defined input types during deallocation operations during satellites.

  6. Direct handling of equality constraints in multilevel optimization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Renaud, John E.; Gabriele, Gary A.

    1990-01-01

    In recent years there have been several hierarchic multilevel optimization algorithms proposed and implemented in design studies. Equality constraints are often imposed between levels in these multilevel optimizations to maintain system and subsystem variable continuity. Equality constraints of this nature will be referred to as coupling equality constraints. In many implementation studies these coupling equality constraints have been handled indirectly. This indirect handling has been accomplished using the coupling equality constraints' explicit functional relations to eliminate design variables (generally at the subsystem level), with the resulting optimization taking place in a reduced design space. In one multilevel optimization study where the coupling equality constraints were handled directly, the researchers encountered numerical difficulties which prevented their multilevel optimization from reaching the same minimum found in conventional single level solutions. The researchers did not explain the exact nature of the numerical difficulties other than to associate them with the direct handling of the coupling equality constraints. The coupling equality constraints are handled directly, by employing the Generalized Reduced Gradient (GRG) method as the optimizer within a multilevel linear decomposition scheme based on the Sobieski hierarchic algorithm. Two engineering design examples are solved using this approach. The results show that the direct handling of coupling equality constraints in a multilevel optimization does not introduce any problems when the GRG method is employed as the internal optimizer. The optimums achieved are comparable to those achieved in single level solutions and in multilevel studies where the equality constraints have been handled indirectly.

  7. Constraint Based Modeling Going Multicellular

    PubMed Central

    Martins Conde, Patricia do Rosario; Sauter, Thomas; Pfau, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Constraint based modeling has seen applications in many microorganisms. For example, there are now established methods to determine potential genetic modifications and external interventions to increase the efficiency of microbial strains in chemical production pipelines. In addition, multiple models of multicellular organisms have been created including plants and humans. While initially the focus here was on modeling individual cell types of the multicellular organism, this focus recently started to switch. Models of microbial communities, as well as multi-tissue models of higher organisms have been constructed. These models thereby can include different parts of a plant, like root, stem, or different tissue types in the same organ. Such models can elucidate details of the interplay between symbiotic organisms, as well as the concerted efforts of multiple tissues and can be applied to analyse the effects of drugs or mutations on a more systemic level. In this review we give an overview of the recent development of multi-tissue models using constraint based techniques and the methods employed when investigating these models. We further highlight advances in combining constraint based models with dynamic and regulatory information and give an overview of these types of hybrid or multi-level approaches. PMID:26904548

  8. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  9. Effectiveness: N(sub TU) relationships for the design and performance evaluation of additional shell-and-tube heat exchanger geometries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1988-11-01

    This Data Item 88021, an addition to the Sub-series on Heat Transfer, complements ESDU 86018 by extending the range of configurations covered there and in particular considering the effect of using small numbers of baffles for E- and J-shells and the use of J-shells in series. It also explores the limitations of the assumptions associated with the effectiveness - N(sub TU) method and shows where those assumptions break down. The curves presented for each exchanger geometry show the locus of designs for which a temperature cross may occur and the locus of 95 percent heat transfer effectiveness which indicates the region of uneconomic design. The method assumes a linear temperature/enthalpy relationship (constant specific heat capacity) for both streams. It applies to boiling or condensing flow of a single component with no temperature change, or boiling and condensing flow of a mixture that is always two-phase. It excludes conditions in which transition from single- to two-phase flow occurs. However, by use of average property values, it is possible to extend the method to apply to cases where there is some variation of physical and thermodynamic properties with temperature.

  10. Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jonsson, Ari; Frank, Jeremy

    2013-01-01

    In this paper we describe Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm, based on temporal intervals and attributes. We then show how the plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and show that the process of planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we de ne compatibilities, a compact mechanism for describing planning domains. We describe how this framework can incorporate the use of constraint reasoning technology to improve planning. Finally, we describe EUROPA, an implementation of the CAIP framework.

  11. A novel implementation of method of optimality criterion in synthesizing spacecraft structures with natural frequency constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wang, Bo Ping; Chu, F. H.

    1989-01-01

    In the design of spacecraft structures, fine tuning the structure to achieve minimum weight with natural frequency constraints is a time consuming process. Here, a novel implementation of the method of optimality criterion (OC) is developed. In this new implementation of OC, the free vibration analysis results are used to compute the eigenvalue sensitivity data required for the formulation. Specifically, the modal elemental strain and kinetic energies are used. Additionally, normalized design parameters are introduced as a second level linking that allows design variables of different values to be linked together. With the use of this novel formulation, synthesis of structures with natural frequency constraint can be carried out manually using modal analysis results. Design examples are presented to illustrate this novel implementation of the optimality criterion method.

  12. Killing symmetries as Hamiltonian constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lusanna, Luca

    2016-02-01

    The existence of a Killing symmetry in a gauge theory is equivalent to the addition of extra Hamiltonian constraints in its phase space formulation, which imply restrictions both on the Dirac observables (the gauge invariant physical degrees of freedom) and on the gauge freedom. When there is a time-like Killing vector field only pure gauge electromagnetic fields survive in Maxwell theory in Minkowski space-time, while in ADM canonical gravity in asymptotically Minkowskian space-times only inertial effects without gravitational waves survive.

  13. Challenges of Designing a 13-Hz High-Load Vibration Isolation System with Tight Volume Constraints: Lessons Learned and Path Forward

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dearing, Stella; Ruebsamen, Dale

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the design of a passive isolation system using D-struts (Registered TradeMark) to isolate an optical payload from aircraft-borne jitter with challenging stroke per volume requirements. It discusses the use of viscoelastic-coated D-struts® that meet the customer performance and outgassing specification, NASA-1124. The result was a relatively soft isolation system, (where the first mode was 13 Hz), with each individual strut capable of withstanding loads on the order of magnitude of 623 N (140 lbf), weighing less than 910 g (2 lbm), fitting in a volume 5.1 cm (2 inches) in diameter and 12-cm (4.7-inches) long and capable of performing up to 1000 Hz without nonlinearities.

  14. Constraints in Genetic Programming

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Janikow, Cezary Z.

    1996-01-01

    Genetic programming refers to a class of genetic algorithms utilizing generic representation in the form of program trees. For a particular application, one needs to provide the set of functions, whose compositions determine the space of program structures being evolved, and the set of terminals, which determine the space of specific instances of those programs. The algorithm searches the space for the best program for a given problem, applying evolutionary mechanisms borrowed from nature. Genetic algorithms have shown great capabilities in approximately solving optimization problems which could not be approximated or solved with other methods. Genetic programming extends their capabilities to deal with a broader variety of problems. However, it also extends the size of the search space, which often becomes too large to be effectively searched even by evolutionary methods. Therefore, our objective is to utilize problem constraints, if such can be identified, to restrict this space. In this publication, we propose a generic constraint specification language, powerful enough for a broad class of problem constraints. This language has two elements -- one reduces only the number of program instances, the other reduces both the space of program structures as well as their instances. With this language, we define the minimal set of complete constraints, and a set of operators guaranteeing offspring validity from valid parents. We also show that these operators are not less efficient than the standard genetic programming operators if one preprocesses the constraints - the necessary mechanisms are identified.

  15. On Matrix Representations of Participation Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hartmann, Sven; Leck, Uwe; Link, Sebastian

    We discuss the existence of matrix representations for generalised and minimum participation constraints which are frequently used in database design and conceptual modelling. Matrix representations, also known as Armstrong relations, have been studied in literature e.g. for functional dependencies and play an important role in example-based design and for the implication problem of database constraints. The major tool to achieve the results in this paper is a theorem of Hajnal and Szemerédi on the occurrence of clique graphs in a given graph.

  16. The "Myth" of the Minimum SAR Antenna Area Constraint

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Freeman, A.; Johnson, W. T. K.; Huneycutt, B.; Jordan, R.; Hensley, S.; Siqueira, P.; Curlander, J.

    1998-01-01

    A design constraint traceable ot the early days of spaceborne Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) is known as the minimum antenna area constraint for SAR. In this paper, it is confirmed that this constraint strictly applies only to the case where both the best possible resolution and the widest possible swath are the design goals. SAR antennas with area smaller than the constraint allows are shown to be possible, have been used on spaceborne SAR missions in the past, and should permit further, lower-cost SAR mission in the future.

  17. Experimental and Numerical Investigations of Constraint Effect on Deformation Behavior of Tailor-Welded Blanks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Yanhua; Lin, Jianping

    2015-08-01

    Tailor-welded blanks (TWBs) have been considered as a productive sheet forming method in automotive industries. However, formability of TWBs is reduced due to different properties or thicknesses of the blanks and is a challenge for manufacturing designers. The plastic capacity of TWBs is decreased even when the material and thickness are the same. The constraint effect of the laser weld (including weld and heat-affected zone) material in the forming process of similar TWBs is a key problem to be solved in the research, development and application of thin-sheet TWBs. In this paper, uniaxial tensile tests with full-field strain measurement by digital image correlation and Erichsen tests are performed to investigate the constraint effect on deformation behavior and explore the mechanism of decreasing formability of similar TWBs. In addition, finite element models are conducted under ABAQUS code to further reveal the phenomenal behavior of the constraint effect. The results of the base material and welded blanks are compared for characterizing the differences. Furthermore, in order to better understand this mechanism, theoretical and numerical investigations are employed and compared to interpret the constraint effect of laser weld on the deformation behavior of TWBs. An index is proposed to quantify the constraint effect. Results show that the constraint effect of laser weld appears in both stretch forming and drawing of TWBs. Strain paths are approaching the plane strain condition as compared to the monolithic blank due to the constraint effect. Constraint effect is a major factor affecting the formability of TWBs when the failure occurs away from the weld seam.

  18. NMR Constraints Analyser: a web-server for the graphical analysis of NMR experimental constraints.

    PubMed

    Heller, Davide Martin; Giorgetti, Alejandro

    2010-07-01

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy together with X-ray crystallography, are the main techniques used for the determination of high-resolution 3D structures of biological molecules. The output of an NMR experiment includes a set of lower and upper limits for the distances (constraints) between pairs of atoms. If the number of constraints is high enough, there will be a finite number of possible conformations (models) of the macromolecule satisfying the data. Thus, the more constraints are measured, the better defined these structures will be. The availability of a user-friendly tool able to help in the analysis and interpretation of the number of experimental constraints per residue, is thus of valuable importance when assessing the levels of structure definition of NMR solved biological macromolecules, in particular, when high-quality structures are needed in techniques such as, computational biology approaches, site-directed mutagenesis experiments and/or drug design. Here, we present a free publicly available web-server, i.e. NMR Constraints Analyser, which is aimed at providing an automatic graphical analysis of the NMR experimental constraints atom by atom. The NMR Constraints Analyser server is available from the web-page http://molsim.sci.univr.it/constraint. PMID:20513646

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  1. General constraints on the Viking biology investigation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klein, H. P.

    1976-01-01

    The paper discusses some of the constraints pertaining to the Viking mission for detection of life on Mars, within which the Viking experiments were conceived, designed, and developed. The most important limitation to the entire study is the complete information about the nature of Mars, such as the chemical composition of the surface material of Mars and the exact identification of the constituents of that planet. Ways in which celestial mechanics places severe limitations on the Viking biology investigation are discussed. Major engineering constraints are examined relative to the accomodation of biology instrument inside the Viking lander and to the design of the instrument itself. Other constraints discussed concern the operational aspects of the mission and the testing program.

  2. Total System Performance Assessment-License Application Design Selection (LADS) Phase 1 Analysis of Surface Modification Consisting of Addition of Alluvium (Feature 23a)

    SciTech Connect

    N. Erb

    1999-06-11

    The objective of this report is to document the analysis that was conducted to evaluate the effect of a potential change to the TSPA-VA base case design that could improve long-term repository performance. The design feature evaluated in this report is a modification of the topographic surface of Yucca Mountain. The modification consists of covering the land surface immediately above the repository foot-print with a thick layer of unconsolidated material utilizing rip-rap and plants to mitigate erosion. This surface modification is designated as Feature 23a or simply abbreviated as F23a. The fundamental aim of F23a is to reduce the net infiltration into the unsaturated zone by enhancing the potential for evapotranspiratiration at the surface; such a change would, in turn, reduce the seepage flux and the rate of radionuclide releases from the repository. Field and modeling studies of water movement in the unsaturated zone have indicated that shallow infiltration at the surface is almost negligible in locations where the bedrock is covered by a sufficiently thick soil layer. In addition to providing storage for meteoric water, a thick soil layer would slow the downward movement of soil moisture to such an extent that evaporation and transpiration could easily transfer most of the soil-water back to the atmosphere. Generic requirements for the effectiveness of this design feature are two-fold. First, the soil layer above the repository foot-print must be thick enough to provide sufficient storage of meteoric water (from episodic precipitation events) and accommodate plant roots. Second, the added soil layer must be engineered so as to mitigate thinning by erosional processes and have sufficient thickness to accommodate the roots of common desert plants. Under these two conditions, it is reasonable to expect that modification would be effective for a significant time period and the net infiltration and deep percolation flux would be reduced by orders of magnitude lower

  3. Balancing Science Objectives and Operational Constraints: A Mission Planner's Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weldy, Michelle

    1996-01-01

    The Air Force minute sensor technology integration (MSTI-3) satellite's primary mission is to characterize Earth's atmospheric background clutter. MSTI-3 will use three cameras for data collection, a mid-wave infrared imager, a short wave infrared imager, and a visible imaging spectrometer. Mission science objectives call for the collection of over 2 million images within the one year mission life. In addition, operational constraints limit camera usage to four operations of twenty minutes per day, with no more than 10,000 data and calibrating images collected per day. To balance the operational constraints and science objectives, the mission planning team has designed a planning process to e event schedules and sensor operation timelines. Each set of constraints, including spacecraft performance capabilities, the camera filters, the geographical regions, and the spacecraft-Sun-Earth geometries of interest, and remote tracking station deconflictions has been accounted for in this methodology. To aid in this process, the mission planning team is building a series of tools from commercial off-the-shelf software. These include the mission manifest which builds a daily schedule of events, and the MSTI Scene Simulator which helps build geometrically correct scans. These tools provide an efficient, responsive, and highly flexible architecture that maximizes data collection while minimizing mission planning time.

  4. Solving the Big Data (BD) Problem in Advanced Manufacturing (Subcategory for work done at Georgia Tech. Study Process and Design Factors for Additive Manufacturing Improvement)

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Brett W.; Diaz, Kimberly A.; Ochiobi, Chinaza Darlene; Paynabar, Kamran

    2015-09-01

    3D printing originally known as additive manufacturing is a process of making 3 dimensional solid objects from a CAD file. This ground breaking technology is widely used for industrial and biomedical purposes such as building objects, tools, body parts and cosmetics. An important benefit of 3D printing is the cost reduction and manufacturing flexibility; complex parts are built at the fraction of the price. However, layer by layer printing of complex shapes adds error due to the surface roughness. Any such error results in poor quality products with inaccurate dimensions. The main purpose of this research is to measure the amount of printing errors for parts with different geometric shapes and to analyze them for finding optimal printing settings to minimize the error. We use a Design of Experiments framework, and focus on studying parts with cone and ellipsoid shapes. We found that the orientation and the shape of geometric shapes have significant effect on the printing error. From our analysis, we also determined the optimal orientation that gives the least printing error.

  5. Design of Phosphonium-Type Zwitterion as an Additive to Improve Saturated Water Content of Phase-Separated Ionic Liquid from Aqueous Phase toward Reversible Extraction of Proteins

    PubMed Central

    Ito, Yoritsugu; Kohno, Yuki; Nakamura, Nobuhumi; Ohno, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-01

    We designed phosphonium-type zwitterion (ZI) to control the saturated water content of separated ionic liquid (IL) phase in the hydrophobic IL/water biphasic systems. The saturated water content of separated IL phase, 1-butyl-3-methyimidazolium bis(trifluoromethanesulfonyl)imide, was considerably improved from 0.4 wt% to 62.8 wt% by adding N,N,N-tripentyl-4-sulfonyl-1-butanephosphonium-type ZI (P555C4S). In addition, the maximum water content decreased from 62.8 wt% to 34.1 wt% by increasing KH2PO4/K2HPO4 salt content in upper aqueous phosphate buffer phase. Horse heart cytochrome c (cyt.c) was dissolved selectively in IL phase by improving the water content of IL phase, and spectroscopic analysis revealed that the dissolved cyt.c retained its higher ordered structure. Furthermore, cyt. c dissolved in IL phase was re-extracted again from IL phase to aqueous phase by increasing the concentration of inorganic salts of the buffer solution. PMID:24013379

  6. Adaptive laser link reconfiguration using constraint propagation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crone, M. S.; Julich, P. M.; Cook, L. M.

    1993-01-01

    This paper describes Harris AI research performed on the Adaptive Link Reconfiguration (ALR) study for Rome Lab, and focuses on the application of constraint propagation to the problem of link reconfiguration for the proposed space based Strategic Defense System (SDS) Brilliant Pebbles (BP) communications system. According to the concept of operations at the time of the study, laser communications will exist between BP's and to ground entry points. Long-term links typical of RF transmission will not exist. This study addressed an initial implementation of BP's based on the Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS) SDI mission. The number of satellites and rings studied was representative of this problem. An orbital dynamics program was used to generate line-of-site data for the modeled architecture. This was input into a discrete event simulation implemented in the Harris developed COnstraint Propagation Expert System (COPES) Shell, developed initially on the Rome Lab BM/C3 study. Using a model of the network and several heuristics, the COPES shell was used to develop the Heuristic Adaptive Link Ordering (HALO) Algorithm to rank and order potential laser links according to probability of communication. A reduced set of links based on this ranking would then be used by a routing algorithm to select the next hop. This paper includes an overview of Constraint Propagation as an Artificial Intelligence technique and its embodiment in the COPES shell. It describes the design and implementation of both the simulation of the GPALS BP network and the HALO algorithm in COPES. This is described using a 59 Data Flow Diagram, State Transition Diagrams, and Structured English PDL. It describes a laser communications model and the heuristics involved in rank-ordering the potential communication links. The generation of simulation data is described along with its interface via COPES to the Harris developed View Net graphical tool for visual analysis of communications

  7. Design of the SHAPE-2 study: the effect of physical activity, in addition to weight loss, on biomarkers of postmenopausal breast cancer risk

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Physical inactivity and overweight are two known risk factors for postmenopausal breast cancer. Former exercise intervention studies showed that physical activity influences sex hormone levels, known to be related to postmenopausal breast cancer, mainly when concordant loss of body weight was achieved. The question remains whether there is an additional beneficial effect of physical activity when weight loss is reached. The aim of this study is to investigate the effect attributable to exercise on postmenopausal breast cancer risk biomarkers, when equivalent weight loss is achieved compared with diet-induced weight loss. Design The SHAPE-2 study is a three-armed, multicentre trial. 243 sedentary, postmenopausal women who are overweight or obese (BMI 25–35 kg/m2) are enrolled. After a 4-6 week run-in period, wherein a baseline diet is prescribed, women are randomly allocated to (1) a diet group, (2) an exercise group or (3) a control group. The aim of both intervention groups is to lose an amount of 5–6 kg body weight in 10–14 weeks. The diet group follows an energy restricted diet and maintains the habitual physical activity level. The exercise group participates in a 16-week endurance and strength training programme of 4 hours per week. Furthermore, they are prescribed a moderate caloric restriction. The control group is asked to maintain body weight and continue the run-in baseline diet. Measurements include blood sampling, questionnaires, anthropometrics (weight, height, waist and hip circumference), maximal cycle exercise test (VO2peak), DEXA-scan (body composition) and abdominal MRI (subcutaneous and visceral fat). Primary outcomes are serum levels of oestradiol, oestrone, testosterone and sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG). Discussion This study will give insight in the potential attributable effect of physical activity on breast cancer risk biomarkers and whether this effect is mediated by changes in body composition, in postmenopausal

  8. Study Design and Percent Recoveries of Anthropogenic Organic Compounds With and Without the Addition of Ascorbic Acid to Preserve Water Samples Containing Free Chlorine, 2004-06

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Valder, Joshua F.; Delzer, Gregory C.; Price, Curtis V.; Sandstrom, Mark W.

    2008-01-01

    The National Water-Quality Assessment (NAWQA) Program of the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) began implementing Source Water-Quality Assessments (SWQAs) in 2002 that focus on characterizing the quality of source water and finished water of aquifers and major rivers used by some of the larger community water systems in the United States. As used for SWQA studies, source water is the raw (ambient) water collected at the supply well prior to water treatment (for ground water) or the raw (ambient) water collected from the river near the intake (for surface water). Finished water is the water that is treated, which typically involves, in part, the addition of chlorine or other disinfection chemicals to remove pathogens, and is ready to be delivered to consumers. Finished water is collected before the water enters the distribution system. This report describes the study design and percent recoveries of anthropogenic organic compounds (AOCs) with and without the addition of ascorbic acid to preserve water samples containing free chlorine. The percent recoveries were determined by using analytical results from a laboratory study conducted in 2004 by the USGS's National Water Quality Laboratory (NWQL) and from data collected during 2004-06 for a field study currently (2008) being conducted by the USGS's NAWQA Program. The laboratory study was designed to determine if preserving samples with ascorbic acid (quenching samples) adversely affects analytical performance under controlled conditions. During the laboratory study, eight samples of reagent water were spiked for each of five analytical schedules evaluated. Percent recoveries from these samples were then compared in two ways: (1) four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0 were compared with four quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 7 or 14, and (2) the combined eight quenched reagent spiked samples analyzed on day 0, 7, or 14 were compared with eight laboratory reagent spikes (LRSs). Percent

  9. Reduction of Constraints: Applicability of the Homogeneity Constraint for Macrobatch 3

    SciTech Connect

    Peeler, D.K.

    2001-02-15

    The Product Composition Control System (PCCS) is used to determine the acceptability of each batch of Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) melter feed in the Slurry Mix Evaporator (SME). This control system imposes several constraints on the composition of the contents of the SME to define acceptability. These constraints relate process or product properties to composition via prediction models. A SME batch is deemed acceptable if its sample composition measurements lead to acceptable property predictions after accounting for modeling, measurement and analytic uncertainties. The baseline document guiding the use of these data and models is ''SME Acceptability Determination for DWPF Process Control (U)'' by Brown and Postles [1996]. A minimum of three PCCS constraints support the prediction of the glass durability from a given SME batch. The Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) is reviewing all of the PCCS constraints associated with durability. The purpose of this review is to revisit these constraints in light of the additional knowledge gained since the beginning of radioactive operations at DWPF and to identify any supplemental studies needed to amplify this knowledge so that redundant or overly conservative constraints can be eliminated or replaced by more appropriate constraints.

  10. Covariant constraints in ghost free massive gravity

    SciTech Connect

    Deffayet, C.; Mourad, J.; Zahariade, G. E-mail: mourad@apc.univ-paris7.fr

    2013-01-01

    We show that the reformulation of the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley massive gravity theory using vielbeins leads to a very simple and covariant way to count constraints, and hence degrees of freedom. Our method singles out a subset of theories, in the de Rham-Gabadadze-Tolley family, where an extra constraint, needed to eliminate the Boulware Deser ghost, is easily seen to appear. As a side result, we also introduce a new method, different from the Stuckelberg trick, to extract kinetic terms for the polarizations propagating in addition to those of the massless graviton.

  11. Balancing Flexible Constraints and Measurement Precision in Computerized Adaptive Testing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moyer, Eric L.; Galindo, Jennifer L.; Dodd, Barbara G.

    2012-01-01

    Managing test specifications--both multiple nonstatistical constraints and flexibly defined constraints--has become an important part of designing item selection procedures for computerized adaptive tests (CATs) in achievement testing. This study compared the effectiveness of three procedures: constrained CAT, flexible modified constrained CAT,…

  12. ECOLOGICAL AND EVOLUTIONARY CONSTRAINTS TO HERBIVORE RESISTANCE IN A NATIVE PLANT-MULTIPLE HERBIVORE COMMUNITY

    EPA Science Inventory

    This research project will reveal that novel constraints on resistance emerge with a consideration of more than one herbivore species. These constraints include genetic correlations in resistance to different herbivores, ecological interactions among the herbivores, non-addit...

  13. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  14. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1993-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint-based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all the inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocation for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its application to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  15. Constraint-based scheduling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zweben, Monte

    1991-01-01

    The GERRY scheduling system developed by NASA Ames with assistance from the Lockheed Space Operations Company, and the Lockheed Artificial Intelligence Center, uses a method called constraint based iterative repair. Using this technique, one encodes both hard rules and preference criteria into data structures called constraints. GERRY repeatedly attempts to improve schedules by seeking repairs for violated constraints. The system provides a general scheduling framework which is being tested on two NASA applications. The larger of the two is the Space Shuttle Ground Processing problem which entails the scheduling of all inspection, repair, and maintenance tasks required to prepare the orbiter for flight. The other application involves power allocations for the NASA Ames wind tunnels. Here the system will be used to schedule wind tunnel tests with the goal of minimizing power costs. In this paper, we describe the GERRY system and its applications to the Space Shuttle problem. We also speculate as to how the system would be used for manufacturing, transportation, and military problems.

  16. A Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frank, Jeremy; Jonsson, Ari; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    In this paper we introduce Constraint-based Attribute and Interval Planning (CAIP), a new paradigm for representing and reasoning about plans. The paradigm enables the description of planning domains with time, resources, concurrent activities, mutual exclusions among sets of activities, disjunctive preconditions and conditional effects. We provide a theoretical foundation for the paradigm using a mapping to first order logic. We also show that CAIP plans are naturally expressed by networks of constraints, and that planning maps directly to dynamic constraint reasoning. In addition, we show how constraint templates are used to provide a compact mechanism for describing planning domains.

  17. Verification of Pointing Constraints for the Dawn Spacecraft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vanelli, C. Anthony; Swenka, Edward; Smith, Brett

    2008-01-01

    NASA's Dawn spacecraft, an ion-thrust science mission to Vesta and Ceres, has numerous pointing constraints critical for safe operation. Onboard software automatically chooses target attitudes but enforces only a simplified constraint set at slew endpoints. Onboard fault-protection also uses simplified constraints, and violations can result in safing events that dramatically consume mission margins for missed thrust. Lastly, for funding reasons the operations team is lean, forcing the development of month-long command sequences. These factors place a premium on reliable maneuver design, prediction, and verification against pointing constraints. This paper presents Slewth, a ground tool built to address these concerns.

  18. Hard Constraints in Optimization Under Uncertainty

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Crespo, Luis G.; Giesy, Daniel P.; Kenny, Sean P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper proposes a methodology for the analysis and design of systems subject to parametric uncertainty where design requirements are specified via hard inequality constraints. Hard constraints are those that must be satisfied for all parameter realizations within a given uncertainty model. Uncertainty models given by norm-bounded perturbations from a nominal parameter value, i.e., hyper-spheres, and by sets of independently bounded uncertain variables, i.e., hyper-rectangles, are the focus of this paper. These models, which are also quite practical, allow for a rigorous mathematical treatment within the proposed framework. Hard constraint feasibility is determined by sizing the largest uncertainty set for which the design requirements are satisfied. Analytically verifiable assessments of robustness are attained by comparing this set with the actual uncertainty model. Strategies that enable the comparison of the robustness characteristics of competing design alternatives, the description and approximation of the robust design space, and the systematic search for designs with improved robustness are also proposed. Since the problem formulation is generic and the tools derived only require standard optimization algorithms for their implementation, this methodology is applicable to a broad range of engineering problems.

  19. Structure Constraints in a Constraint-Based Planner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pang, Wan-Lin; Golden, Keith

    2004-01-01

    In this paper we report our work on a new constraint domain, where variables can take structured values. Earth-science data processing (ESDP) is a planning domain that requires the ability to represent and reason about complex constraints over structured data, such as satellite images. This paper reports on a constraint-based planner for ESDP and similar domains. We discuss our approach for translating a planning problem into a constraint satisfaction problem (CSP) and for representing and reasoning about structured objects and constraints over structures.

  20. Multi-point gradient calculation with constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Keyser, Johan

    Multi-spacecraft missions resolve the space-time ambiguity inherent in single-spacecraft in situ measurements. One particularly useful technique is the computation of the gradients (spaceand time-derivatives) from multi-point observations of scalar and vector fields. Given the diffi- culties inherent in computing derivatives, we propose to improve the determination of gradients by imposing additional information in the form of constraints. We discuss geometric constraints on the orientation of the gradient vectors and physically-motivated constraints. For instance, imposing the divergence-free condition for the magnetic field leads to an improved curlometer. We describe the usefulness of such constrained least-squares gradient techniques as applied to magnetic field and plasma density observations by Cluster.

  1. Parametric constraints in multi-beam interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burrow, Guy M.; Gaylord, Thomas K.

    2012-10-01

    Multi-beam interference (MBI) represents a method of producing one-, two-, and three-dimensional submicron periodic optical-intensity distributions for applications including micro- and nano-electronics, photonic crystals, metamaterial, biomedical structures, optical trapping, and numerous other subwavelength structures. Accordingly, numerous optical configurations have been developed to implement MBI. However, these configurations typically provide limited ability to condition the key parameters of each interfering beam. Constraints on individual beam amplitudes and polarizations are systematically considered to understand their effects on lithographically useful MBI periodic patterning possibilities. A method for analyzing parametric constraints is presented and used to compare the optimized optical-intensity distributions for representative constrained systems. Case studies are presented for both square and hexagonal-lattices produced via three-beam interference. Results demonstrate that constraints on individual-beam polarizations significantly impact patterning possibilities and must be included in the systematic design of an MBI system.

  2. REDUCTION OF CONSTRAINTS FOR COUPLED OPERATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Raszewski, F.; Edwards, T.

    2009-12-15

    The homogeneity constraint was implemented in the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) Product Composition Control System (PCCS) to help ensure that the current durability models would be applicable to the glass compositions being processed during DWPF operations. While the homogeneity constraint is typically an issue at lower waste loadings (WLs), it may impact the operating windows for DWPF operations, where the glass forming systems may be limited to lower waste loadings based on fissile or heat load limits. In the sludge batch 1b (SB1b) variability study, application of the homogeneity constraint at the measurement acceptability region (MAR) limit eliminated much of the potential operating window for DWPF. As a result, Edwards and Brown developed criteria that allowed DWPF to relax the homogeneity constraint from the MAR to the property acceptance region (PAR) criterion, which opened up the operating window for DWPF operations. These criteria are defined as: (1) use the alumina constraint as currently implemented in PCCS (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 3 wt%) and add a sum of alkali constraint with an upper limit of 19.3 wt% ({Sigma}M{sub 2}O < 19.3 wt%), or (2) adjust the lower limit on the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} constraint to 4 wt% (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {ge} 4 wt%). Herman et al. previously demonstrated that these criteria could be used to replace the homogeneity constraint for future sludge-only batches. The compositional region encompassing coupled operations flowsheets could not be bounded as these flowsheets were unknown at the time. With the initiation of coupled operations at DWPF in 2008, the need to revisit the homogeneity constraint was realized. This constraint was specifically addressed through the variability study for SB5 where it was shown that the homogeneity constraint could be ignored if the alumina and alkali constraints were imposed. Additional benefit could be gained if the homogeneity constraint could be replaced by the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and sum of

  3. Asteroseismic constraints for Gaia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Creevey, O. L.; Thévenin, F.

    2012-12-01

    Distances from the Gaia mission will no doubt improve our understanding of stellar physics by providing an excellent constraint on the luminosity of the star. However, it is also clear that high precision stellar properties from, for example, asteroseismology, will also provide a needed input constraint in order to calibrate the methods that Gaia will use, e.g. stellar models or GSP_Phot. For solar-like stars (F, G, K IV/V), asteroseismic data delivers at the least two very important quantities: (1) the average large frequency separation < Δ ν > and (2) the frequency corresponding to the maximum of the modulated-amplitude spectrum ν_{max}. Both of these quantities are related directly to stellar parameters (radius and mass) and in particular their combination (gravity and density). We show how the precision in < Δ ν >, ν_{max}, and atmospheric parameters T_{eff} and [Fe/H] affect the determination of gravity (log g) for a sample of well-known stars. We find that log g can be determined within less than 0.02 dex accuracy for our sample while considering precisions in the data expected for V˜12 stars from Kepler data. We also derive masses and radii which are accurate to within 1σ of the accepted values. This study validates the subsequent use of all of the available asteroseismic data on solar-like stars from the Kepler field (>500 IV/V stars) in order to provide a very important constraint for Gaia calibration of GSP_Phot} through the use of log g. We note that while we concentrate on IV/V stars, both the CoRoT and Kepler fields contain asteroseismic data on thousands of giant stars which will also provide useful calibration measures.

  4. Practical Cleanroom Operations Constraints

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hughes, David; Ginyard, Amani

    2007-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the GSFC Cleanroom Facility i.e., Spacecraft Systems Development and Integration Facility (SSDIF) with particular interest in its use during the development of the Wide Field Camera 3 (WFC3). The SSDIF is described and a diagram of the SSDIF is shown. A Constraint Table was created for consistency within Contamination Control Team. This table is shown. Another table that shows the activities that were allowed during the integration under given WFC3 condition and activity location is presented. Three decision trees are shown for different phases of the work: (1) Hardware Relocation, Hardware Work, and Contamination Control Operations.

  5. Higher derivative theories with constraints: exorcising Ostrogradski's ghost

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Tai-jun; Lim, Eugene A.; Fasiello, Matteo; Tolley, Andrew J. E-mail: matte@case.edu E-mail: andrew.j.tolley@case.edu

    2013-02-01

    We prove that the linear instability in a non-degenerate higher derivative theory, the Ostrogradski instability, can only be removed by the addition of constraints if the original theory's phase space is reduced.

  6. Automated solar collector installation design

    DOEpatents

    Wayne, Gary; Frumkin, Alexander; Zaydman, Michael; Lehman, Scott; Brenner, Jules

    2014-08-26

    Embodiments may include systems and methods to create and edit a representation of a worksite, to create various data objects, to classify such objects as various types of pre-defined "features" with attendant properties and layout constraints. As part of or in addition to classification, an embodiment may include systems and methods to create, associate, and edit intrinsic and extrinsic properties to these objects. A design engine may apply of design rules to the features described above to generate one or more solar collectors installation design alternatives, including generation of on-screen and/or paper representations of the physical layout or arrangement of the one or more design alternatives.

  7. Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    James, Mark

    2006-01-01

    Version 3.1 of Symbolic Constraint Maintenance Grid (SCMG) is a software system that provides a general conceptual framework for utilizing pre-existing programming techniques to perform symbolic transformations of data. SCMG also provides a language (and an associated communication method and protocol) for representing constraints on the original non-symbolic data. SCMG provides a facility for exchanging information between numeric and symbolic components without knowing the details of the components themselves. In essence, it integrates symbolic software tools (for diagnosis, prognosis, and planning) with non-artificial-intelligence software. SCMG executes a process of symbolic summarization and monitoring of continuous time series data that are being abstractly represented as symbolic templates of information exchange. This summarization process enables such symbolic- reasoning computing systems as artificial- intelligence planning systems to evaluate the significance and effects of channels of data more efficiently than would otherwise be possible. As a result of the increased efficiency in representation, reasoning software can monitor more channels and is thus able to perform monitoring and control functions more effectively.

  8. Fluence map optimization (FMO) with dose-volume constraints in IMRT using the geometric distance sorting method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lan, Yihua; Li, Cunhua; Ren, Haozheng; Zhang, Yong; Min, Zhifang

    2012-10-01

    A new heuristic algorithm based on the so-called geometric distance sorting technique is proposed for solving the fluence map optimization with dose-volume constraints which is one of the most essential tasks for inverse planning in IMRT. The framework of the proposed method is basically an iterative process which begins with a simple linear constrained quadratic optimization model without considering any dose-volume constraints, and then the dose constraints for the voxels violating the dose-volume constraints are gradually added into the quadratic optimization model step by step until all the dose-volume constraints are satisfied. In each iteration step, an interior point method is adopted to solve each new linear constrained quadratic programming. For choosing the proper candidate voxels for the current dose constraint adding, a so-called geometric distance defined in the transformed standard quadratic form of the fluence map optimization model was used to guide the selection of the voxels. The new geometric distance sorting technique can mostly reduce the unexpected increase of the objective function value caused inevitably by the constraint adding. It can be regarded as an upgrading to the traditional dose sorting technique. The geometry explanation for the proposed method is also given and a proposition is proved to support our heuristic idea. In addition, a smart constraint adding/deleting strategy is designed to ensure a stable iteration convergence. The new algorithm is tested on four cases including head-neck, a prostate, a lung and an oropharyngeal, and compared with the algorithm based on the traditional dose sorting technique. Experimental results showed that the proposed method is more suitable for guiding the selection of new constraints than the traditional dose sorting method, especially for the cases whose target regions are in non-convex shapes. It is a more efficient optimization technique to some extent for choosing constraints than the dose

  9. Statistical Techniques to Explore the Quality of Constraints in Constraint-Based Modeling Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gálvez, Jaime; Conejo, Ricardo; Guzmán, Eduardo

    2013-01-01

    One of the most popular student modeling approaches is Constraint-Based Modeling (CBM). It is an efficient approach that can be easily applied inside an Intelligent Tutoring System (ITS). Even with these characteristics, building new ITSs requires carefully designing the domain model to be taught because different sources of errors could affect…

  10. Evidence-Based Design for Project-Based Learning: A Case Study for a 50,000 SF Addition Dedicated to the New Tech Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moretti, Richard D.; Conte, Philip R.

    2012-01-01

    The Seaford School District, Seaford, Delaware, determined that a component of their "reinvention" of Seaford High School would be the creation of a New Tech Academy, affiliated with the New Tech Network and housed in an addition to that building. The New Tech Network, headquartered in Napa, California, is a rapidly growing association of New Tech…

  11. Observational constraints on K-inflation models

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Sheng; Liddle, Andrew R. E-mail: a.liddle@sussex.ac.uk

    2012-10-01

    We extend the ModeCode software of Mortonson, Peiris and Easther [1] to enable numerical computation of perturbations in K-inflation models, where the scalar field no longer has a canonical kinetic term. Focussing on models where the kinetic and potential terms can be separated into a sum, we compute slow-roll predictions for various models and use these to verify the numerical code. A Markov chain Monte Carlo analysis is then used to impose constraints from WMAP7 data on the addition of a term quadratic in the kinetic energy to the Lagrangian of simple chaotic inflation models. For a quadratic potential, the data do not discriminate against addition of such a term, while for a quartic (λφ{sup 4}) potential inclusion of such a term is actually favoured. Overall, constraints on such a term from present data are found to be extremely weak.

  12. Relative constraints and evolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochoa, Juan G. Diaz

    2014-03-01

    Several mathematical models of evolving systems assume that changes in the micro-states are constrained to the search of an optimal value in a local or global objective function. However, the concept of evolution requires a continuous change in the environment and species, making difficult the definition of absolute optimal values in objective functions. In this paper, we define constraints that are not absolute but relative to local micro-states, introducing a rupture in the invariance of the phase space of the system. This conceptual basis is useful to define alternative mathematical models for biological (or in general complex) evolving systems. We illustrate this concept with a modified Ising model, which can be useful to understand and model problems like the somatic evolution of cancer.

  13. Neural constraints on learning

    PubMed Central

    Sadtler, Patrick T.; Quick, Kristin M.; Golub, Matthew D.; Chase, Steven M.; Ryu, Stephen I.; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C.; Yu, Byron M.; Batista, Aaron P.

    2014-01-01

    Motor, sensory, and cognitive learning require networks of neurons to generate new activity patterns. Because some behaviors are easier to learn than others1,2, we wondered if some neural activity patterns are easier to generate than others. We asked whether the existing network constrains the patterns that a subset of its neurons is capable of exhibiting, and if so, what principles define the constraint. We employed a closed-loop intracortical brain-computer interface (BCI) learning paradigm in which Rhesus monkeys controlled a computer cursor by modulating neural activity patterns in primary motor cortex. Using the BCI paradigm, we could specify and alter how neural activity mapped to cursor velocity. At the start of each session, we observed the characteristic activity patterns of the recorded neural population. These patterns comprise a low-dimensional space (termed the intrinsic manifold, or IM) within the high-dimensional neural firing rate space. They presumably reflect constraints imposed by the underlying neural circuitry. We found that the animals could readily learn to proficiently control the cursor using neural activity patterns that were within the IM. However, animals were less able to learn to proficiently control the cursor using activity patterns that were outside of the IM. This result suggests that the existing structure of a network can shape learning. On the timescale of hours, it appears to be difficult to learn to generate neural activity patterns that are not consistent with the existing network structure. These findings offer a network-level explanation for the observation that we are more readily able to learn new skills when they are related to the skills that we already possess3,4. PMID:25164754

  14. Neural constraints on learning.

    PubMed

    Sadtler, Patrick T; Quick, Kristin M; Golub, Matthew D; Chase, Steven M; Ryu, Stephen I; Tyler-Kabara, Elizabeth C; Yu, Byron M; Batista, Aaron P

    2014-08-28

    Learning, whether motor, sensory or cognitive, requires networks of neurons to generate new activity patterns. As some behaviours are easier to learn than others, we asked if some neural activity patterns are easier to generate than others. Here we investigate whether an existing network constrains the patterns that a subset of its neurons is capable of exhibiting, and if so, what principles define this constraint. We employed a closed-loop intracortical brain-computer interface learning paradigm in which Rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) controlled a computer cursor by modulating neural activity patterns in the primary motor cortex. Using the brain-computer interface paradigm, we could specify and alter how neural activity mapped to cursor velocity. At the start of each session, we observed the characteristic activity patterns of the recorded neural population. The activity of a neural population can be represented in a high-dimensional space (termed the neural space), wherein each dimension corresponds to the activity of one neuron. These characteristic activity patterns comprise a low-dimensional subspace (termed the intrinsic manifold) within the neural space. The intrinsic manifold presumably reflects constraints imposed by the underlying neural circuitry. Here we show that the animals could readily learn to proficiently control the cursor using neural activity patterns that were within the intrinsic manifold. However, animals were less able to learn to proficiently control the cursor using activity patterns that were outside of the intrinsic manifold. These results suggest that the existing structure of a network can shape learning. On a timescale of hours, it seems to be difficult to learn to generate neural activity patterns that are not consistent with the existing network structure. These findings offer a network-level explanation for the observation that we are more readily able to learn new skills when they are related to the skills that we already

  15. A Quasi-Experimental Study of Two Selected Units of the Industrial Arts Curriculum Project Materials to Determine the Measurable Additive Effects of a Unit on Design in Manfacturing Technology upon a Similar Unit on Design in Construction Technology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuwik, Paul David

    The purpose of the study was to determine whether exposing junior high school students to a unit on design in construction technology and to a unit on design in manufacturing technology significantly affects their achievement on a test measuring "Technological Principles of Design" when compared to a group of junior high school students exposed…

  16. Nontrivial Ghosts and Second-Class Constraints

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chishtie, Farrukh; McKeon, D. G. C.

    In a model in which a vector gauge field Wμ a is coupled to an antisymmetric tensor field φ μ ν a possessing a pseudoscalar mass, it has been shown that all physical degrees of freedom reside in the vector field. Upon quantizing this model using the Faddeev-Popov procedure, explicit calculation of the two-point functions <ϕϕ> and at one-loop order seems to have yielded the puzzling result that the effective action generated by radiative effects has more physical degrees of freedom than the original classical action. In this paper we point out that this is not in fact a real effect, but rather appears to be a consequence of having ignored a "ghost" field arising from the contribution to the measure in the path integral arising from the presence of nontrivial second-class constraints. These ghost fields couple to the fields Wμ a and φ μ ν a, which makes them distinct from other models involving ghosts arising from second-class constraints (such as massive Yang-Mills (YM) models) that have been considered, as in these other models such ghosts decouple. As an alternative to dealing with second-class constraints, we consider introducing a "Stueckelberg field" to eliminate second-class constraints in favor of first-class constraints and examine if it is possible to then use the Faddeev-Popov quantization procedure. In the Proca model, introduction of the Stueckelberg vector is equivalent to the Batalin-Fradkin-Tyutin (BFT) approach to converting second-class constraints to being first-class through the introduction of new variables. However, introduction of a Stueckelberg vector is not equivalent to the BFT approach for the vector-tensor model. In an appendix, the BFT procedure is applied to the pure tensor model and a novel gauge invariance is found. In addition, we also consider extending the Hamiltonian so that half of the second-class constraints become first-class and the other half become associated gauge conditions. We also find for this tensor

  17. Planck 2015 constraints on reionization history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tristram, Matthieu

    2015-08-01

    On behalf of the Planck collaboration, we will show the tightest constraints on cosmic reionization extracted from the CMB polarization at low multipole by Planck.The CMB large scales polarization data can gives strong constraints on the reionization history through the measurement of the reionization optical depth. The Thomson optical depth measured is significantly smaller than previously estimated from CMB polarization data. This result reduces the tension between CMB based analyses and constraints from other astrophysical sources. It highlights the necessity of a deep revision of our view on the history of reionization and the dark age. We also combine constraints from low and high l, in particular from the amplitude of the kinetic Sunyaev Zeld’ovitch effect (kSZ), to derive the time and duration of the reionization epoch. In addition, using both a new two-stage parametrization of the ionization fraction, closer to recent self-regulated simulations, and a non parametric reconstruction, we estimate a more realistic beginning, end, and duration of Reionization.

  18. Sliding mode control based impact angle control guidance considering the seeker׳s field-of-view constraint.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xingliang; Zhang, Youan; Wu, Huali

    2016-03-01

    The problem of impact angle control guidance for a field-of-view constrained missile against non-maneuvering or maneuvering targets is solved by using the sliding mode control theory. The existing impact angle control guidance laws with field-of-view constraint are only applicable against stationary targets and most of them suffer abrupt-jumping of guidance command due to the application of additional guidance mode switching logic. In this paper, the field-of-view constraint is handled without using any additional switching logic. In particular, a novel time-varying sliding surface is first designed to achieve zero miss distance and zero impact angle error without violating the field-of-view constraint during the sliding mode phase. Then a control integral barrier Lyapunov function is used to design the reaching law so that the sliding mode can be reached within finite time and the field-of-view constraint is not violated during the reaching phase as well. A nonlinear extended state observer is constructed to estimate the disturbance caused by unknown target maneuver, and the undesirable chattering is alleviated effectively by using the estimation as a compensation item in the guidance law. The performance of the proposed guidance law is illustrated with simulations. PMID:26782929

  19. A linearized theory method of constrained optimization for supersonic cruise wing design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, D. S.; Carlson, H. W.; Middleton, W. D.

    1976-01-01

    A linearized theory wing design and optimization procedure which allows physical realism and practical considerations to be imposed as constraints on the optimum (least drag due to lift) solution is discussed and examples of application are presented. In addition to the usual constraints on lift and pitching moment, constraints are imposed on wing surface ordinates and wing upper surface pressure levels and gradients. The design procedure also provides the capability of including directly in the optimization process the effects of other aircraft components such as a fuselage, canards, and nacelles.

  20. Credit Constraints for Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Solis, Alex

    2012-01-01

    This paper exploits a natural experiment that produces exogenous variation on credit access to determine the effect on college enrollment. The paper assess how important are credit constraints to explain the gap in college enrollment by family income, and what would be the gap if credit constraints are eliminated. Progress in college and dropout…