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Sample records for additional detailed studies

  1. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    PubMed Central

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m−3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  2. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell--A detailed study.

    PubMed

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-01-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m(-3) per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments. PMID:26611142

  3. Additive Manufacturing of a Microbial Fuel Cell—A detailed study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calignano, Flaviana; Tommasi, Tonia; Manfredi, Diego; Chiolerio, Alessandro

    2015-11-01

    In contemporary society we observe an everlasting permeation of electron devices, smartphones, portable computing tools. The tiniest living organisms on Earth could become the key to address this challenge: energy generation by bacterial processes from renewable stocks/waste through devices such as microbial fuel cells (MFCs). However, the application of this solution was limited by a moderately low efficiency. We explored the limits, if any, of additive manufacturing (AM) technology to fabricate a fully AM-based powering device, exploiting low density, open porosities able to host the microbes, systems easy to fuel continuously and to run safely. We obtained an optimal energy recovery close to 3 kWh m-3 per day that can power sensors and low-power appliances, allowing data processing and transmission from remote/harsh environments.

  4. DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    DETAIL OF PLAQUE WITH ADDITIONAL DESIGN AND CONSTRUCTION INFORMATION, SOUTHEAST ABUTMENT - Connecticut Avenue Bridge, Spans Rock Creek & Potomac Parkway at Connecticut Avenue, Washington, District of Columbia, DC

  5. 12. INTERIOR EAST ADDITION DETAIL VIEW, FACING SOUTH. ROLLUP DOOR ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. INTERIOR EAST ADDITION DETAIL VIEW, FACING SOUTH. ROLL-UP DOOR ADDITION. ROLL-UP DOOR AND MECHANISM, OFFICE AND MAIN BUILDING SPACE ACCESS VISIBLE. - NASA Industrial Plant, Maintenance Facility, 12214 Lakewood Boulevard, Downey, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    19. WINDOW DETAIL, NORTH WALL OF GARAGE ADDITION. VIEW SHOWS CONCRETE BLOCK CONSTRUCTION OF ADDITION. - Chollas Heights Naval Radio Transmitting Facility, Transmitter Building, 6410 Zero Road, San Diego, San Diego County, CA

  7. 14. INTERIOR DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    14. INTERIOR DETAIL, FIRST FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL OF TOILET ROOM, SHOWING ORNATE PAINTED RADIATOR AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WAINSCOTING. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  8. 4. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION. DETAIL OF BUTTRESS ADDITION ON NORTHEAST WING ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DOWNSTREAM ELEVATION. DETAIL OF BUTTRESS ADDITION ON NORTHEAST WING WALL. - Core Creek County Bridge, Spanning Core Creek, approximately 1 mile South of State Route 332 (Newtown Bypass), Newtown, Bucks County, PA

  9. 6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. SIDE ELEVATION, DETAIL SHOWING ORIGINAL LOG CONSTRUCTION, CLAPBOARD ADDITION AND CHIMNEY STACK - Shinn-Curtis Log Cabin, 23 Washington Street (moved from Rancocas Boulevard), Mount Holly, Burlington County, NJ

  10. 10. DETAIL OF KITCHEN ADDITION, SHOWING SIDING COPED TO FIT ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    10. DETAIL OF KITCHEN ADDITION, SHOWING SIDING COPED TO FIT LOG WALL OF MAIN HOUSE - Whitcomb Cabin, BZ Corners, Glenwood County Road (Conboy Lake National Wildlife Refuge), Glenwood, Klickitat County, WA

  11. Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, external parabolic antenna (later addition). Note how waveguide was cut to remove active portion of antenna. - Western Union Telegraph Company, Jennerstown Relay, Laurel Summit Road off U.S. 30, Laughlintown, Westmoreland County, PA

  12. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  13. 7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    7. Detail, window, northwest facade, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to southeast (135mm lens). - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  14. 16. INTERIOR DETAIL, SECOND FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    16. INTERIOR DETAIL, SECOND FLOOR OF ADDITION AT SOUTH WALL OF TOILET ROOM, SHOWING LARGER, DIFFERENT STYLE RADIATOR THAN AT FIRST FLOOR, AND TONGUE AND GROOVE WAINSCOTING WITH WOOD CAP TRIM. - Mills Hall, Mills College, 5000 MacArthur Boulevard, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  15. 4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST CORNER, SHOWING RECENT ADDITION OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    4. DETAIL VIEW OF EAST CORNER, SHOWING RECENT ADDITION OF WINDOWS TO SOUTHEAST SIDE AND RECENT CLADDING IN CONTRAST TO ORIGINAL SHIPLAP SIDING INTACT ON NORTHEAST SIDE - Oakland Army Base, Transit Shed, East of Dunkirk Street & South of Burma Road, Oakland, Alameda County, CA

  16. 18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    18. Interior detail, windows, original Library, addition, Engine Stores Building, Southern Pacific Railroad Carlin Shops, view to north-northwest (90mm lens). Note the milled tongue-and-groove ceiling, and deterioration of bricks near floor level due to rising damp. - Southern Pacific Railroad, Carlin Shops, Engine Stores Building, Foot of Sixth Street, Carlin, Elko County, NV

  17. 15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    15. DETAILED VIEW OF ENRICHED URANIUM STORAGE TANK. THE ADDITION OF THE GLASS RINGS SHOWN AT THE TOP OF THE TANK HELPS PREVENT THE URANIUM FROM REACHING CRITICALITY LIMITS. (4/12/62) - Rocky Flats Plant, General Manufacturing, Support, Records-Central Computing, Southern portion of Plant, Golden, Jefferson County, CO

  18. 8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    8. MACHINERY SHED STORAGE ROOM ADDITION DETAIL SHOWING MATRIX OF NAILS USED TO ADHERE PORTLAND CEMENT PLASTER, SOUTH ADOBE WALL ADJACENT TO WINDOW Note: Photographs Nos. AZ-159-A-9 through AZ-159-A-10 are photocopies of photographs. The original prints and negatives are located in the SCS Tucson Plant Materials Center, Tucson, Arizona. Photographer Ted F. Spaller. - Tucson Plant Material Center, Machinery Shed, 3241 North Romero Road, Tucson, Pima County, AZ

  19. Details Of Collision-Avoidance Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chappell, Sheryl L.; Billings, Charles E.; Olsen, M. Christine; Scott, Barry C.; Tuttell, Robert J.; Kozon, Thomas E.

    1990-01-01

    Report provides background information on and detailed description of study of pilots' use of traffic-alert and collision-avoidance system (TCAS II) in simulated flights. Described in article, "Evaluation of an Aircraft-Collision-Avoidance System" (ARC-12367). Plans, forms, training narratives, scripts, questionnaires, and other information compiled.

  20. DETAILED STUDIES OF ELECTRON COOLING FRICTION FORCE.

    SciTech Connect

    FEDOTOV, A.V.; BRUHWILER, D.L.; ABELL, D.T.; SIDORIN, A.O.

    2005-09-18

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORFAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  1. Detailed Studies of Electron Cooling Friction Force

    SciTech Connect

    Fedotov, A. V.; Bruhwiler, D. L.; Abell, D. T.; Sidorin, A. O.

    2006-03-20

    High-energy electron cooling for RHIC presents many unique features and challenges. An accurate estimate of the cooling times requires detailed simulation of the electron cooling process. The first step towards such calculations is to have an accurate description of the cooling force. Numerical simulations are being used to explore various features of the friction force which appear due to several effects, including the anisotropy of the electron distribution in velocity space and the effect of a strong solenoidal magnetic field. These aspects are being studied in detail using the VORPAL code, which explicitly resolves close binary collisions. Results are compared with available asymptotic and empirical formulas and also, using the BETACOOL code, with direct numerical integration of less approximate expressions over the specified electron distribution function.

  2. 37. Roof Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Sections,and Details. Addition to ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    37. Roof Plan, Ground Floor Plan, Sections,and Details. Addition to Bacteriology Laboratory at Letterman General Hospital, San Francisco, Cal. June 1915. BUILDING 1006. - Presidio of San Francisco, Letterman General Hospital, Building No. 27, Letterman Hospital Complex, Edie Road, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  3. A patch-based cross masking model for natural images with detail loss and additive defects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yucheng; Allebach, Jan P.

    2015-03-01

    Visual masking is an effect that contents of the image reduce the detectability of a given target signal hidden in the image. The effect of visual masking has found its application in numerous image processing and vision tasks. In the past few decades, numerous research has been conducted on visual masking based on models optimized for artificial targets placed upon unnatural masks. Over the years, there is a tendency to apply masking model to predict natural image quality and detection threshold of distortion presented in natural images. However, to our knowledge few studies have been conducted to understand the generalizability of masking model to different types of distortion presented in natural images. In this work, we measure the ability of natural image patches in masking three different types of distortion, and analyse the performance of conventional gain control model in predicting the distortion detection threshold. We then propose a new masking model, where detail loss and additive defects are modeled in two parallel vision channels and interact with each other via a cross masking mechanism. We show that the proposed cross masking model has better adaptability to various image structures and distortions in natural scenes.

  4. Brown Dwarfs: Discovery and Detailed Studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kulkarni, Shrinivas R.

    2001-01-01

    We obtained the optical and IR spectra of Gliese 229B and identified Cs, I, and CO features - as expected in theoretical models. Our optical IR spectrum showed that most of the refractory metals have condensed out of the atmosphere and the presence of Cs, I and CO shows evidence for disequilibrium chemistry. We reported orbital evidence for Gliese 229B. The HST measured optical magnitudes provide additional evidence for the absence of dust in the atmosphere of this cool object. The luminosity of brown dwarfs depend on their masses and ages and in order to interpret the results of the survey we have carried out an extensive Monte Carlo analysis. Our conclusion is that warm brown dwarfs are rare, as companions in the orbital period range beyond approximately 30 - 50 AU. The Palomer survey poses no constraint for brown dwarfs in planetary orbits similar to those of the outer planets. We have just started a program of imaging nearby stars with the newly commissioned AO system at Palomar and Keck and have already found a brown dwarf candidate.

  5. Details Matter: Designing Skin Microbiome Studies.

    PubMed

    Kong, Heidi H

    2016-05-01

    The use of genomic sequencing to investigate microbes has expanded, yet it has also raised questions regarding optimal approaches to studying the skin microbiome. Meisel et al. show that while whole genome shotgun metagenomic sequences were most similar to expected microbial profiles, sequencing of the hypervariable regions V1-V3 of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene had greater accuracy than sequencing of the hypervariable region V4 in determining genus and species level classifications of prominent skin bacteria. PMID:27107375

  6. Addition polyimide end cap study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    The characterization of addition polyimides with various end caps for adhesive applications at 120-250 C environments is discussed. Oligometric polyimides were prepared from 3,3',4,4'-benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and 3,3'-methylenedianiline which were end-capped with functionally reactive moities which cause crosslinking when the oligomers are heated to 200-400 C. The syntheses of the oligomers are outlined. The thermolysis of the oligomers was studied by differential scanning calorimetry and the resulting polymers were characterized by differential thermal analysis and adhesive performance. The adhesive data include lap shear strengths on titanium 6-4 adherends both before and after aging for 1000 hours at 121 C and/or 232 C.

  7. Detailed kinetic modeling study of n-pentanol oxidation

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Heufer, K. Alexander; Sarathy, S. Mani; Curran, Henry J.; Davis, Alexander C.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.

    2012-09-28

    To help overcome the world’s dependence upon fossil fuels, suitable biofuels are promising alternatives that can be used in the transportation sector. Recent research on internal combustion engines shows that short alcoholic fuels (e.g., ethanol or n-butanol) have reduced pollutant emissions and increased knock resistance compared to fossil fuels. Although higher molecular weight alcohols (e.g., n-pentanol and n-hexanol) exhibit higher reactivity that lowers their knock resistance, they are suitable for diesel engines or advanced engine concepts, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), where higher reactivity at lower temperatures is necessary for engine operation. The present study presents a detailedmore » kinetic model for n-pentanol based on modeling rules previously presented for n-butanol. This approach was initially validated using quantum chemistry calculations to verify the most stable n-pentanol conformation and to obtain C–H and C–C bond dissociation energies. In addition, the proposed model has been validated against ignition delay time data, speciation data from a jet-stirred reactor, and laminar flame velocity measurements. Overall, the model shows good agreement with the experiments and permits a detailed discussion of the differences between alcohols and alkanes.« less

  8. A detailed approach to study the antibacterial mechanisms of nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Fang; Fang, Xuan; Li, Jinhua; Wei, Zhipeng; Wang, Xin; Wang, Xiaohua

    2012-03-01

    To overcome the limitations of the conventional inhibition method for mechanism study, here we developed a combined CLSM technique as an alternative approach to evaluate and explain the antibacterial process of nanostructure at single cell level. Three different nanostructures (dumbbell-shaped ZnO, rod-shaped ZnO and ZnO/Ag composites) were examined here as a model system. Their antibacterial processes against Escherichia coli (E. coli) were quantitatively studied in detail. According to the obtained time-dependent mean fluorescence intensity (MFI) decay dynamics, an interesting two-step cellular disruption process was observed and discussed for the first time. The combined CLSM technique described here is superior to standard growth method for they can provide a more detailed and reliable description of cell-nanostructure interactions.

  9. 48. Interior detail, study, doublehung sash in the south wall. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    48. Interior detail, study, double-hung sash in the south wall. Most of the windows in the John Bartram House were replaced sometime in the first decades of the nineteenth century. This window contains a slightly wider muntin profile than the later sash and is probably representative of the windows used in phase III construction (Mid-1750's-1770). - John Bartram House & Garden, House, 54th Street & Lindbergh Boulevard, Philadelphia, Philadelphia County, PA

  10. The anterior talofibular ligament: A detailed morphological study.

    PubMed

    Khawaji, Bader; Soames, Roger

    2015-09-01

    The anterior talofibular ligament (ATFL) is commonly injured and may result in ankle instability. Good results from ATFL reconstruction have been reported; however complications and movement restrictions have also been observed. ATFL differences have been reported; however details of its precise bony attachment are lacking. This study provides a detailed morphology of the ATFL with respect to surgical and clinical applications. ATFL morphology, number of bands and the exact insertion points were studied in 50 formaldehyde embalmed feet. ATFL length was measured in different joint positions to assess its functional role: ATFL length varied from 18.81 mm in dorsiflexion to 21.06 mm in plantarflexion: mid-length width and thickness were 4.97 mm and 1.01 mm respectively. The bony attachment lengths were also measured: mean proximal and distal bony attachment lengths were 4.68 mm and 3.1mm respectively, while 13.04 mm had no bony attachment. One (22.9%), two (56.3%) and three (20.8%) band morphologies were observed originating 10.37 mm anterosuperior to the lateral malleolar tip and inserting 3.92 mm anterior to the anterior lateral malleolar line (ALML). Detailed morphology of the ATFL may help in restoring injured ATFL function by appropriate ligament reconstruction, as well as aid the understanding of the mechanism of ligament injury. PMID:26205996

  11. A thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine: detailed study

    PubMed

    Backhaus; Swift

    2000-06-01

    A new type of thermoacoustic engine based on traveling waves and ideally reversible heat transfer is described. Measurements and analysis of its performance are presented. This new engine outperforms previous thermoacoustic engines, which are based on standing waves and intrinsically irreversible heat transfer, by more than 50%. At its most efficient operating point, it delivers 710 W of acoustic power to its resonator with a thermal efficiency of 0.30, corresponding to 41% of the Carnot efficiency. At its most powerful operating point, it delivers 890 W to its resonator with a thermal efficiency of 0.22. The efficiency of this engine can be degraded by two types of acoustic streaming. These are suppressed by appropriate tapering of crucial surfaces in the engine and by using additional nonlinearity to induce an opposing time-averaged pressure difference. Data are presented which show the nearly complete elimination of the streaming convective heat loads. Analysis of these and other irreversibilities show which components of the engine require further research to achieve higher efficiency. Additionally, these data show that the dynamics and acoustic power flows are well understood, but the details of the streaming suppression and associated heat convection are only qualitatively understood. PMID:10875360

  12. A thermoacoustic-Stirling heat engine: Detailed study

    SciTech Connect

    Backhaus, S.; Swift, G. W.

    2000-06-01

    A new type of thermoacoustic engine based on traveling waves and ideally reversible heat transfer is described. Measurements and analysis of its performance are presented. This new engine outperforms previous thermoacoustic engines, which are based on standing waves and intrinsically irreversible heat transfer, by more than 50%. At its most efficient operating point, it delivers 710 W of acoustic power to its resonator with a thermal efficiency of 0.30, corresponding to 41% of the Carnot efficiency. At its most powerful operating point, it delivers 890 W to its resonator with a thermal efficiency of 0.22. The efficiency of this engine can be degraded by two types of acoustic streaming. These are suppressed by appropriate tapering of crucial surfaces in the engine and by using additional nonlinearity to induce an opposing time-averaged pressure difference. Data are presented which show the nearly complete elimination of the streaming convective heat loads. Analysis of these and other irreversibilities show which components of the engine require further research to achieve higher efficiency. Additionally, these data show that the dynamics and acoustic power flows are well understood, but the details of the streaming suppression and associated heat convection are only qualitatively understood. (c) 2000 Acoustical Society of America.

  13. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1972-01-01

    The results achieved during a study of the Detail Content of Apollo Orbital Photography are reported. The effect of residual motion smear or image reproduction processes upon the detail content of lunar surface imagery obtained from the orbiting command module are assessed. Data and conclusions obtained from the Apollo 8, 12, 14 and 15 missions are included. For the Apollo 8, 12 and 14 missions, the bracket-mounted Hasselblad camera had no mechanism internal to the camera for motion compensation. If the motion of the command module were left totally uncompensated, these photographs would exhibit a ground smear varying from 12 to 27 meters depending upon the focal length of the lens and the exposure time. During the photographic sequences motion compensation was attempted by firing the attitude control system of the spacecraft at a rate to compensate for the motion relative to the lunar surface. The residual smear occurring in selected frames of imagery was assessed using edge analyses methods to obtain and achieved modulation transfer function (MTF) which was compared to a baseline MTF.

  14. A detailed spectroscopic study of an Italian fresco

    SciTech Connect

    Barilaro, Donatella; Crupi, Vincenza; Majolino, Domenico; Barone, Germana; Ponterio, Rosina

    2005-02-15

    In the present work we characterized samples of plasters and pictorial layers taken from a fresco in the Acireale Cathedral. The fresco represents the Coronation of Saint Venera, patron saint of this Ionian town. By performing a detailed spectroscopic analysis of the plaster preparation layer by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD), and of the painting layer by FTIR and confocal Raman microspectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy+energy dispersive x-ray spectroscopy, and XRD, we were able to identify the pigments and the binders present. In particular, Raman investigation was crucial to the characterization of the pigments thanks to the high resolution of the confocal apparatus used. It is worth stressing that the simultaneous use of complementary techniques was able to provide more complete information for the conservation of the artifact we studied.

  15. Study of the detail content of Apollo orbital photography

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kinzly, R. E.

    1974-01-01

    The development and application of image evaluation methods for assessing the detail content of Apollo orbital photography was demonstrated. Edge analysis using shadow to sunlight edges interior to craters was successfully used to evaluate the fine detail content of Apollo 15, 16, and 17 imagery. A method for evaluating tone quality was developed using a gain factor as a function of object contrast and average exposure level that can be related to object detectability.

  16. Detailed pharmacognostical studies on Berberis aristata DC plant

    PubMed Central

    Rathi, Bhawana; Sahu, Juhi; Koul, Sameksha; Kosha, R. L.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Berberis aristata DC (Berberidaceae) commonly known in Hindi as “Dāruhaldi” and “Citra,” is an important medicinal herb native to Northern Himalaya region. The plant is used traditionally in Indian system of medicine as an antibacterial, antiperiodic, antidiarrheal and anticancer and it is also used in the treatment of ophthalmic infections. Its root, stem and leaves also find their use in treatment of various ailments and hence is used extensively in Ayurveda. Materials and Methods: Samples of the whole plants of B. aristata were collected and identified. Hand and microtome sections were taken, stained and mounted and the cell content and cell wall structure were studied according to the method described by Kay and Johansen. Representative sketches were made with the help of camera Lucida. Methods for determining the quantitative values were the same as described elsewhere. For fluorescence analysis, the powder of the root, stem and leaf were examined under ultraviolet light. Total ash, acid insoluble ash and water-soluble ash values and water- and alcohol-soluble extractives were determined. Results: The detailed investigations carried on the pharmacognosy of the root; stem and leaf of B. aristata have brought out some salient diagnostic features, which allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. The determination of quantitative values, fluorescence analysis and the use of lycopodium spore analysis has specifically contributed to this differentiation. Conclusion: From the foregoing observation on the pharmacognosy of root, stem and leaf of B. aristata DC, the salient diagnostic characters of three parts have been presented, which can allow one to differentiate it from other substitutes and or adulterants. PMID:24991073

  17. A detailed study of ice nucleation by feldspar minerals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Whale, T. F.; Murray, B. J.; Wilson, T. W.; Carpenter, M. A.; Harrison, A.; Holden, M. A.; Vergara Temprado, J.; Morris, J.; O'Sullivan, D.

    2015-12-01

    Immersion mode heterogeneous ice nucleation plays a crucial role in controlling the composition of mixed phase clouds, which contain both supercooled liquid water and ice particles. The amount of ice in mixed phase clouds can affect cloud particle size, lifetime and extent and so affects radiative properties and precipitation. Feldspar minerals are probably the most important minerals for ice nucleation in mixed phase clouds because they nucleate ice more efficiently than other components of atmospheric mineral dust (Atkinson et al. 2013). The feldspar class of minerals is complex, containing numerous chemical compositions, several crystal polymorphs and wide variations in microscopic structure. Here we present the results of a study into ice nucleation by a wide range of different feldspars. We found that, in general, alkali feldspars nucleate ice more efficiently than plagioclase feldspars. However, we also found that particular alkali feldspars nucleate ice relatively inefficiently, suggesting that chemical composition is not the only important factor that dictates the ice nucleation efficiency of feldspar minerals. Ice nucleation by feldspar is described well by the singular model and is probably site specific in nature. The alkali feldspars that do not nucleate ice efficiently possess relatively homogenous structure on the micrometre scale suggesting that the important sites for nucleation are related to surface topography. Ice nucleation active site densities for the majority of tested alkali feldspars are similar to those found by Atkinson et al (2013), meaning that the validity of global aerosol modelling conducted in that study is not affected. Additionally, we have found that ice nucleation by feldspars is strongly influenced, both positively and negatively, by the solute content of droplets. Most other nucleants we have tested are unaffected by solutes. This provides insight into the mechanism of ice nucleation by feldspars and could be of importance

  18. A detailed study of patent system for protection of inventions.

    PubMed

    Tulasi, G Krishna; Rao, B Subba

    2008-09-01

    Creations of brain are called intellect. Since these creations have good commercial value, are called as property. Inventions are intellectual property and can be protected by patents provided the invention is novel, non-obvious, useful and enabled. To have fare trade among member countries, World Trade Organisation proposed TRIPS agreement. India had taken necessary initiation by signing the World Trade Organisation agreement and transformed to global needs. The aim of this article is to enlighten pharmaceutical professionals especially in the field of research and development about planning inventions by thorough review of prior-art, which saves time and money. A thorough understanding is made possible by providing details of origin; present governing bodies, their role along with the Act that is safeguarding the patent system. PMID:21394248

  19. A Detailed Study of Patent System for Protection of Inventions

    PubMed Central

    Tulasi, G. Krishna; Rao, B. Subba

    2008-01-01

    Creations of brain are called intellect. Since these creations have good commercial value, are called as property. Inventions are intellectual property and can be protected by patents provided the invention is novel, non-obvious, useful and enabled. To have fare trade among member countries, World Trade Organisation proposed TRIPS agreement. India had taken necessary initiation by signing the World Trade Organisation agreement and transformed to global needs. The aim of this article is to enlighten pharmaceutical professionals especially in the field of research and development about planning inventions by thorough review of prior-art, which saves time and money. A thorough understanding is made possible by providing details of origin; present governing bodies, their role along with the Act that is safeguarding the patent system. PMID:21394248

  20. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  1. Orbital transfer vehicle launch operations study. Volume 2: Detailed summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    A series of Operational Design Drivers were identified. Several of these could have significant impact(s) on program costs. These recommendations, for example, include such items as: complete factory assembly and checkout prior to shipment to the ground launch site to make significant reductions in time required at the launch site as well as overall manpower required to do this work; minimize use of nonstandard equipment when orbiter provided equipment is available; and require commonality (or interchangeability) of subsystem equipment elements that are common to the space station, Orbit Maneuvering Vehicles, and/or Orbit Transfer Vehicles. Several additional items were identified that will require a significant amount of management attention (and direction) to resolve. Key elements of the space based processing plans are discussed.

  2. 77 FR 8892 - Detailed Planning To Consider Additional Land Protection on the Missouri River From Fort Randall...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-02-15

    ... old, wider river valley contains important habitat for at least 60 native and 26 sport fish. In addition, the riparian woodlands and island complexes are important for approximately 25 year-round bird..., important habitats still remain, for a rich diversity of plants and animals. The dynamic nature of...

  3. A detailed study on Catchment delineation for Urban areas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, B.; B M, A.; Lohani, B.; Jain, A.

    2015-12-01

    Urban flood modelling is carried out for predicting, analysing and planning of floods in urban areas. Catchment information is an important input for urban flood modelling. Automatic catchment delineation at gully gratings for urban areas using appropriate software packages/methods along with an appropriate set of input data and parameters is still a research challenge. Considering the above, the aim of this study is to (i) identify the best suitable software for automatic catchment delineation by considering gully grating as outlet (ii) understand the effect of resolution of DEM on catchments delineated (iii) understand whether to consider DEM or DSM for catchment delineation (iv) study the effect of grid based and TIN based DEM. In this study catchment delineation has been investigated considering IIT Kanpur as a study site. LiDAR data are used to generate DEM/DSM of the study area. A comparative study of catchment delineation has been carried out between ArcHydro 10.1, BASINS 4.1, ArcSWAT, WMS 7.1, and HEC-GeoHMS approaches. Catchments have been delineated for different drainage threshold areas using gully grating points as outlets and their effects have been compared for the aforementioned software. In order to understand the effect of resolution of data, DEMs of 1m and 5m resolution have been generated and compared against each other. Effects of building ridge lines and their contribution to catchment delineation has been studied by generating a DSM of 1m resolution, and comparing the results with catchments delineated using 1m DEM. In order to assess the effects of the types of DEM over catchment delineation, a grid based DEM and TIN based DEM are compared against each other using WMS 7.1 software. The results for the catchment delineation using various software illustrate that ArcHydro 10.1 performs better than any other aforementioned software. Also, it is noted that varied drainage threshold area parameters, resolutions of DEM, selection of DEM

  4. A detailed study of magnetization reversal in individual Ni nanowires

    SciTech Connect

    Vilanova Vidal, Enrique; Ivanov, Yurii P.; Mohammed, Hanan; Kosel, Jürgen

    2015-01-19

    Magnetic nanowires have emerged as essential components for a broad range of applications. In many cases, a key property of these components is the switching field, which is studied as a function of the angle between the field and the nanowire. We found remarkable differences of up to 100% between the switching fields of different nanowires from the same fabrication batch. Our experimental results and micromagnetic simulations indicate that the nanowires exhibit a single domain behavior and that the switching mechanism includes vortex domain wall motion across the nanowire. The differences between the switching fields are attributed to different cross-sections of the nanowires, as found by electron microscopy. While a circular cross-section yields the smallest switching field values, any deviation from this shape results in an increase of the switching field. The shape of the nanowires' cross-sections is thus a critical parameter that has not been previously taken into account.

  5. Additional EIPC Study Analysis. Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W; Gotham, Douglas J.; Luciani, Ralph L.

    2014-12-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 14 topics was developed for further analysis. This paper brings together the earlier interim reports of the first 13 topics plus one additional topic into a single final report.

  6. Photoheliograph thermal concepts study. Volume 2: Detailed analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The photoheliograph thermal concepts study which was to define and compare the performance of thermal subsystem concepts for each of three photoheliograph designs oriented toward unique solar observation missions is reported. These design and missions are categorized as: (1) A 150-centimeter photoheliograph for large solar observatory (LSO) missions. This design is intended for multiyear orbital operations as a part of a complement of solar telescopes in a free-flying LSO configuration. (2) A 100-centimeter photoheliograph for shuttle sorties. This design is intended for observation periods of up to 2 weeks while mounted in the cargo bay of the shuttle orbiter vehicle. (3) A 100-centimeter photoheliograph for balloon missions. This design is intended to be a design verification unit and precursor to the orbital flight designs. Mission duration is on the order of a single day at an altitude of approximately 24.4 kilometers. For each of these photoheliograph designs, the basic thermal environments, boundary conditions, and applicable thermal control concepts were defined and the interactions between concepts and environments were determined. A baseline thermal control concept was selected for the three classes of photoheliographs described.

  7. Introducing DeBRa: a detailed breast model for radiological studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Andy K. W.; Gunn, Spencer; Darambara, Dimitra G.

    2009-07-01

    Currently, x-ray mammography is the method of choice in breast cancer screening programmes. As the mammography technology moves from 2D imaging modalities to 3D, conventional computational phantoms do not have sufficient detail to support the studies of these advanced imaging systems. Studies of these 3D imaging systems call for a realistic and sophisticated computational model of the breast. DeBRa (Detailed Breast model for Radiological studies) is the most advanced, detailed, 3D computational model of the breast developed recently for breast imaging studies. A DeBRa phantom can be constructed to model a compressed breast, as in film/screen, digital mammography and digital breast tomosynthesis studies, or a non-compressed breast as in positron emission mammography and breast CT studies. Both the cranial-caudal and mediolateral oblique views can be modelled. The anatomical details inside the phantom include the lactiferous duct system, the Cooper ligaments and the pectoral muscle. The fibroglandular tissues are also modelled realistically. In addition, abnormalities such as microcalcifications, irregular tumours and spiculated tumours are inserted into the phantom. Existing sophisticated breast models require specialized simulation codes. Unlike its predecessors, DeBRa has elemental compositions and densities incorporated into its voxels including those of the explicitly modelled anatomical structures and the noise-like fibroglandular tissues. The voxel dimensions are specified as needed by any study and the microcalcifications are embedded into the voxels so that the microcalcification sizes are not limited by the voxel dimensions. Therefore, DeBRa works with general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. Furthermore, general-purpose Monte Carlo codes allow different types of imaging modalities and detector characteristics to be simulated with ease. DeBRa is a versatile and multipurpose model specifically designed for both x-ray and γ-ray imaging studies.

  8. Palladium(0)/NHC-Catalyzed Reductive Heck Reaction of Enones: A Detailed Mechanistic Study.

    PubMed

    Raoufmoghaddam, Saeed; Mannathan, Subramaniyan; Minnaard, Adriaan J; de Vries, Johannes G; Reek, Joost N H

    2015-12-14

    We have studied the mechanism of the palladium-catalyzed reductive Heck reaction of para-substituted enones with 4-iodoanisole by using N,N-diisopropylethylamine (DIPEA) as the reductant. Kinetic studies and in situ spectroscopic analysis have provided a detailed insight into the reaction. Progress kinetic analysis demonstrated that neither catalyst decomposition nor product inhibition occurred during the catalysis. The reaction is first order in the palladium and aryl iodide, and zero order in the activated alkene, N-heterocyclic carbene (NHC) ligand, and DIPEA. The experiments with deuterated solvent ([D7]DMF) and deuterated base ([D15]Et3N) supported the role of the amine as a reductant in the reaction. The palladium complex [Pd(0)(NHC)(1)] has been identified as the resting state. The kinetic experiments by stopped-flow UV/Vis also revealed that the presence of the second substrate, benzylideneacetone 1, slows down the oxidative addition of 4-iodoanisole through its competing coordination to the palladium center. The kinetic and mechanistic studies indicated that the oxidative addition of the aryl iodide is the rate-determining step. Various scenarios for the oxidative addition step have been analyzed by using DFT calculations (bp86/def2-TZVP) that supported the inhibiting effect of substrate 1 by formation of resting state [Pd(0)(NHC)(1)] species at the cost of further increase in the energy barrier of the oxidative addition step. PMID:26561034

  9. Structure Property Studies for Additively Manufactured Parts

    SciTech Connect

    Milenski, Helen M; Schmalzer, Andrew Michael; Kelly, Daniel

    2015-08-17

    Since the invention of modern Additive Manufacturing (AM) processes engineers and designers have worked hard to capitalize on the unique building capabilities that AM allows. By being able to customize the interior fill of parts it is now possible to design components with a controlled density and customized internal structure. The creation of new polymers and polymer composites allow for even greater control over the mechanical properties of AM parts. One of the key reasons to explore AM, is to bring about a new paradigm in part design, where materials can be strategically optimized in a way that conventional subtractive methods cannot achieve. The two processes investigated in my research were the Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM) process and the Direct Ink Write (DIW) process. The objectives of the research were to determine the impact of in-fill density and morphology on the mechanical properties of FDM parts, and to determine if DIW printed samples could be produced where the filament diameter was varied while the overall density remained constant.

  10. Modeled and measured infiltration: Phase II. A detailed case study of three homes; Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Palmiter, L.; Bond, T.

    1994-01-01

    The primary purpose of this work was to investigate the impacts of wind, temperature and mechanical systems on infiltration in real homes, with a view toward resolving infiltration modeling problems raised in recent studies. This report contains results from the second phase of an ongoing project. In Phase I, detailed infiltration and pressure measurements were made by Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory on four homes in the Pacific Northwest. In this phase, similar measurements were made on an additional three homes, chosen for maximal wind exposure. For the reader`s convenience the summary tables in this report contain data from all seven homes in a uniform format. The predictions of two natural infiltration models (LBL and AIM-2) were compared in detail with one another and the measured data. An improved method of calculating the height parameter for both models is proposed. A modification of the LBL wind model is also proposed. A simple model is presented to incorporate the infiltration effects of exhaust and supply ventilation systems and unbalanced flows due to duct leakage. An unbalanced flow to the conditioned space induces approximately one-half of its magnitude in additional infiltration when it is small relative to natural infiltration. Forced-air distribution systems were investigated in detail. Air handlers and associated duct leakage can have large effects on living-zone infiltration rates; for these homes the median increase in overall infiltration was 21%, based on a runtime of six hours per day. Closing even a single bedroom door can cause a major increase in infiltration when the air handler runs. The bias due to use of a time-averaged concentration tracer technique (i.e., the perfluorocarbon (PFT) method) was assessed and found to be small for the living zones, and large for the wind-dominated, ventilated crawl space and attic zones.

  11. Study of ignition and detonation of hydrocarbon-air mixtures with detailed and reduced chemical mechanisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varatharajan, Balachandar

    Uncertainties in the chemical-kinetic processes that take place in detonations lead to difficulties in obtaining fundamental knowledge about detonations and in facilitating investigations of practical devices like Pulse Detonation Engines. This research is focused on reducing the chemical-kinetic uncertainties and developing simplified chemical-kinetic descriptions for use in detonation studies. The fuels investigated are acetylene, ethylene and JP-10. Conditions addressed cover initial (post-shock) temperatures between 1000 K and 2500 K, pressures between 0.5 bar and 100 bar and equivalence ratios between 0.5 and 2. An existing detailed mechanism is extended to 175 steps among 37 chemical species by evaluating the rates of several additional reactions relevant for acetylene, ethylene and JP-10 combustion. This mechanism is tested extensively with data from shock-tube studies and flame-speed measurements. Based on the detailed mechanism, short mechanisms are derived for ignition and detonation of acetylene and ethylene in air. Application of steady-state and partial-equilibrium approximations leads to further systematic reduction. A seven-step reduced mechanism is obtained for acetylene detonations, four of which are important during the induction stage and the remaining three are important for the slower carbon-monoxide oxidation and radical-recombination processes that follow the induction stage. The theory of chain-branching thermal explosions is developed using activation-energy asymptotics and is applied for acetylene ignition, leading to an expression for ignition time. For ethylene, the strong dependence of the chemistry on initial temperatures and pressures complicates analysis and leads to identification of separate reduced mechanisms for high and low temperatures. Expressions for ignition time in terms of the elementary reaction rates are also derived. For JP-10 ignition, a reaction set including 27 additional reactions is proposed, which involves overall

  12. Soybean peroxidase-mediated degradation of an azo dye– a detailed mechanistic study

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Peroxidases are emerging as an important class of enzymes that can be used for the efficient degradation of organic pollutants. However, detailed studies identifying the various intermediates produced and the mechanisms involved in the enzyme-mediated pollutant degradation are not widely published. Results In the present study, the enzymatic degradation of an azo dye (Crystal Ponceau 6R, CP6R) was studied using commercially available soybean peroxidase (SBP) enzyme. Several operational parameters affecting the enzymatic degradation of dye were evaluated and optimized, such as initial dye concentration, H2O2 dosage, mediator amount and pH of the solution. Under optimized conditions, 40 ppm dye solution could be completely degraded in under one minute by SBP in the presence of H2O2 and a redox mediator. Dye degradation was also confirmed using HPLC and TOC analyses, which showed that most of the dye was being mineralized to CO2 in the process. Conclusions Detailed analysis of metabolites, based on LC/MS results, showed that the enzyme-based degradation of the CP6R dye proceeded in two different reaction pathways- via symmetric azo bond cleavage as well as asymmetric azo bond breakage in the dye molecule. In addition, various critical transformative and oxidative steps such as deamination, desulfonation, keto-oxidation are explained on an electronic level. Furthermore, LC/MS/MS analyses confirmed that the end products in both pathways were small chain aliphatic carboxylic acids. PMID:24308857

  13. A Detailed Study of Two Optically Selected, High-Redshift Clusters of Galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lubin, Lori M.

    2000-01-01

    We are obtaining detailed X-ray spectral and structural data for two distant, optically-selected clusters of galaxies which are known X-ray emitters, CL1324+3011 at z = 0.76 and CL,1604+4304 at z = 0.90. These observations will allow us to place accurate constraints on the temperature, surface-brightness profile, and mass fraction of the intracluster medium in rich, optically-selected clusters at very high redshift. The two target clusters are the most well-studied systems at z greater than 0.7 in the optical and infrared regimes; therefore, with the addition of the XMM data, we plan to study the specifies of the relationship between the X-ray and optical properties and their implications for galaxy and cluster evolution.

  14. The Effects of Four Study Strategies on Main Idea and Detail Comprehension of Sixth Grade Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spiegel, Dixie Lee; And Others

    A study compared the effects of four study strategies on at-risk sixth-grade students' comprehension and retention of main ideas and details in considerate and less considerate social studies text. The four strategies investigated consisted of the following two pairs: (1) mapping with and without instruction in identifying important details; and…

  15. Detailed Study of Emergency Diesel Generator Performance Using EPIX/RADS Database

    SciTech Connect

    Steven Eide; Thomas Wierman; Dale Rasmuson

    2008-09-01

    A recent report was published by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission – Industry-Average Performance for Components and Initiating Events at U.S. Commercial Nuclear Power Plants, NUREG/CR-6928. That report characterized industry performance (generally covering 1998 – 2002) for 51 component types found in commercial nuclear power plants. For example, for emergency diesel generators, three failure modes were identified: fail to start and reach rated speed and voltage, fail to load and run for one hour, and fail to run beyond one hour. Data from the U.S. industry contained in the Equipment Performance and Information Exchange (EPIX) database maintained by The Institute for Nuclear Power Operations were used to evaluate the failure probabilities and rates for these failure modes, covering 1998 – 2002. The software package Reliability and Availability Database System (RADS) was used to search and process the EPIX data. In addition, train test and maintenance unavailability was characterized for 34 train types. As a follow-on effort to this report, several components will be analyzed in more detail each year. These detailed studies include more recent data and analyze various subcategories such as manufacturer, system, size and type (as applicable). In addition, engineering insights such as piece part contribution to each failure mode and failure cause will be determined. This paper summarizes the preliminary results for emergency diesel generators. EPIX data coverage was expanded to include 1998 – 2007 and reliability results were compared with unplanned demand performance (bus under voltage events requiring the emergency diesel generator to start, load and run) over the same period. In addition, performance by manufacturer was evaluated. Finally, piece part contributions and failure causes were determined for each failure mode.

  16. A detailed lithologic study of glacially buried valley in central Champaign County, Ohio

    SciTech Connect

    Schilling, D.J.; Dominic, D.F. . Dept. of Geological Sciences)

    1994-04-01

    Previous subsurface mapping in this area has identified a bedrock valley (Teays), which trends southeast to northwest and has a maximum depth of 135 m and width of 7 km. The valley is largely filled with outwash and is flanked on the east by moraines. This study focuses on the details of the sedimentary fill in the valley; it was spurred by proposed highway construction and its possible effects on a nearby fen. In addition to the surficial geology map of the county, lithologic interpretations were based on logs of water wells, and lithologic logs of 43 wells drilled by Wright State University to evaluate the stratigraphy of the valley, together with 26 gamma logs of these holes. The well logs were interpreted in terms of seven standardized lithologies and then correlated as depositional units on cross sections.

  17. Detailed kinetic modeling study of n-pentanol oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Heufer, K. Alexander; Sarathy, S. Mani; Curran, Henry J.; Davis, Alexander C.; Westbrook, Charles K.; Pitz, William J.

    2012-09-28

    To help overcome the world’s dependence upon fossil fuels, suitable biofuels are promising alternatives that can be used in the transportation sector. Recent research on internal combustion engines shows that short alcoholic fuels (e.g., ethanol or n-butanol) have reduced pollutant emissions and increased knock resistance compared to fossil fuels. Although higher molecular weight alcohols (e.g., n-pentanol and n-hexanol) exhibit higher reactivity that lowers their knock resistance, they are suitable for diesel engines or advanced engine concepts, such as homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI), where higher reactivity at lower temperatures is necessary for engine operation. The present study presents a detailed kinetic model for n-pentanol based on modeling rules previously presented for n-butanol. This approach was initially validated using quantum chemistry calculations to verify the most stable n-pentanol conformation and to obtain C–H and C–C bond dissociation energies. In addition, the proposed model has been validated against ignition delay time data, speciation data from a jet-stirred reactor, and laminar flame velocity measurements. Overall, the model shows good agreement with the experiments and permits a detailed discussion of the differences between alcohols and alkanes.

  18. Evaluation of streams in selected communities for the application of limited-detail study methods for flood-insurance studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cobb, Ernest D.

    1986-01-01

    The U.S. Geological Survey evaluated 2,349 communities in 1984 for the application of limited-detail flood-insurance study methods, that is, methods with a reduced effort and cost compared to the detailed studies. Limited-detail study methods were found to be appropriate for 1,705 communities, while detailed studies were appropriate for 62 communities and no studies were appropriate for 582 communities. The total length of streams for which limited-detail studies are recommended is 9 ,327 miles with a corresponding cost of $23,007,000. This results in average estimated costs for conducting limited-detail studies of $2,500 per mile of studied stream length. The purpose of the report is to document the limited-detail study methods and the results of the evaluation. (USGS)

  19. Detailed Studies on the Structure and Dynamics of Reacting Dusty Flows at Normal and Microgravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andac, M. Gurhan; Cracchiola, Brad; Egolfopoulos, Fokion N.; Campbell, Charles S.

    1999-01-01

    Dusty reacting flows are of particular interest for a wide range of applications. Inert particles can alter the flammability and extinction limits of a combustible mixture. Reacting particles can release substantial amount of heat and can be used either for power generation or propulsion. Accumulation of combustible particles in air can result in explosions which, for example, can occur in grain elevators, during lumber milling and in mine galleries. Furthermore, inert particles are used as flow velocity markers in reacting flows, and their velocity is measured by non-intrusive laser diagnostic techniques. Despite their importance, dusty reacting flows have been less studied and understood compared to gas phase as well as sprays. The addition of solid particles in a flowing gas stream can lead to strong couplings between the two phases, which can be of dynamic, thermal, and chemical nature. The dynamic coupling between the two phases is caused by the inertia that causes the phases to move with different velocities. Furthermore, gravitational, thermophoretic, photophoretic, electrophoretic, diffusiophoretic, centrifugal, and magnetic forces can be exerted on the particles. In general, magnetic, electrophoretic, centrifugal, photophoretic, and diffusiophoretic can be neglected. On the other hand, thermophoretic forces, caused by steep temperature gradients, can be important. The gravitational forces are almost always present and can affect the dynamic response of large particles. Understanding and quantifying the chemical coupling between two phases is a challenging task. However, all reacting particles begin this process as inert particles, and they must be heated before they participate in the combustion process. Thus, one must first understand the interactions of inert particles in a combustion environment. The in-detail understanding of the dynamics and structure of dusty flows can be only advanced by considering simple flow geometries such as the opposed

  20. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... 158633.html Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study Neither extra chemotherapy drug nor add-on ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Additional treatments for locally advanced pancreatic cancer don't appear to boost survival, a new ...

  1. Vadose zone transport field study: Detailed test plan for simulated leak tests

    SciTech Connect

    AL Ward; GW Gee

    2000-06-23

    : identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford's waste disposal sites; reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; develop a detailed and accurate database of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. This plan provides details for conducting field tests during FY 2000 to accomplish these objectives. Details of additional testing during FY 2001 and FY 2002 will be developed as part of the work planning process implemented by the Integration Project.

  2. Detailed study of null and timelike geodesics in the Alcubierre warp spacetime

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Müller, Thomas; Weiskopf, Daniel

    2012-02-01

    The geodesic equation of the Alcubierre warp spacetime is converted into its non-affinely parametrized form for a detailed discussion of the motion of particles and the visual effects as observed by a traveller inside the warp bubble or a person looking from outside. To include gravitational lensing for point-like light sources, we present a practical approach using the Jacobi equation and the Sachs bases. Additionally, we consider the dragging and geodesic precession of particles due to the warp bubble.

  3. Detailed Mechanistic Study of the Non-enzymatic Formation of the Discoipyrrole Family of Natural Products.

    PubMed

    Colosimo, Dominic A; MacMillan, John B

    2016-02-24

    Discoipyrroles A-D (DPA-DPD) are recently discovered natural products produced by the marine bacterium Bacillus hunanensis that exhibit anticancer properties in vitro. Initial biosynthetic studies demonstrated that DPA is formed in the liquid fermentation medium of B. hunanensis from three secreted metabolites through an unknown but protein-independent mechanism. The increased identification of natural products that depend on non-enzymatic steps creates a significant need to understand how these different reactions can occur. In this work, we utilized (15)N-labeled starting materials and continuous high-sensitivity (1)H-(15)N HMBC NMR spectroscopy to resolve scarce reaction intermediates of the non-enzymatic discoipyrrole reaction as they formed in real time. This information guided supplemental experiments using (13)C- and (18)O-labeled materials to elucidate the details of DPA's non-enzymatic biosynthesis, which features a highly concerted pyrrole formation and necessary O2-mediated oxidation. We have illustrated a novel way of using isotopically enhanced two-dimensional NMR spectroscopy to interrogate reaction mechanisms as they occur. In addition, these findings add to our growing knowledge of how multicomponent non-enzymatic reactions can occur through inherently reactive bacterial metabolites. PMID:26824832

  4. A Study of Additional Costs of Second Language Instruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwen, Nelly

    A study was conducted whose primary aim was to identify and explain additional costs incurred by Alberta, Canada school jurisdictions providing second language instruction in 1980. Additional costs were defined as those which would not have been incurred had the second language program not been in existence. Three types of additional costs were…

  5. Detailed Knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who Knows What? A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Green, B. Lee; Li, Lin; Morris, J. Fontain; Gluzman, Rima; Davis, Jenna L.; Wang, Min Qi; Katz, Ralph V.

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the level of detailed knowledge about the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) among 848 Blacks and Whites in three U.S. cities across an array of demographic variables. The Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Questionnaire was used, which was designed to explore the willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical studies. A…

  6. Model gases for the detailed study of microscopic chemical nonequilibrium in diatomic gas flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kunc, Joseph A.; Muntz, E. Phillip; Weaver, David P.

    1990-01-01

    It is shown that chlorine (Cl2) and iodine (I2) are suitable model diatomic gases to use in theoretical studies of chemical nonequilibrium that account for rotational and vibrational as well as electronic processes in a gas. Because of the low temperature at which significant dissociation can be achieved in iodine, it is a particularly attractive candidate for the study of relatively low temperature chemically reacting flows, permitting detailed knowledge of the nonequilibrium populations of translational, rotational, vibrational and electronic energy levels. A preliminary investigation indicates that a useful iodine flow facility can be constructed and that diagnostic techniques are available to validate in detail prediction techniques for nonequilibrium flows.

  7. Evidence, Interpretation, and Qualification from Multiple Reports of Long-Term Outcomes in the Multimodal Treatment Study of Children with ADHD (MTA): Part II--Supporting Details

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Swanson, James; Arnold, L. Eugene; Kraemer, Helena; Hechtman, Lily; Molina, Brooke; Hinshaw, Stephen; Vitiello, Benedetto; Jensen, Peter; Steinhoff, Ken; Lerner, Marc; Greenhill, Laurence; Abikoff, Howard; Wells, Karen; Epstein, Jeffery; Elliott, Glen; Newcorn, Jeffrey; Hoza, Betsy; Wigal, Timothy

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To review and provide details about the primary and secondary findings from the Multimodal Treatment study of ADHD (MTA) published during the past decade as three sets of articles. Method: In the second of a two part article, we provide additional background and detail required by the complexity of the MTA to address confusion and…

  8. Dynamism & Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannery, Maura C.

    2004-01-01

    New material discovered in the study of cell research is presented for the benefit of biology teachers. Huge amounts of data are being generated in fields like cellular dynamics, and it is felt that people's understanding of the cell is becoming much more complex and detailed.

  9. A detailed systematic anatomical study of monocephalic conjoined symmetric twin lambs

    PubMed Central

    Kamali, Y.; Khaksar, Z.; Sharaki, A.R.; Rasouli, B.; Kajbafi, M.

    2014-01-01

    A case of conjoined twins with monocephalus, thoracopagus, partial abdominopagus, tetrabrachius and tetrascelus in lambs complicated with several defects of skeletal, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, and urogenital systems is reported. The twins were dead and delivered by cesarean section. This case report highlights the detailed anatomical study of defects in different systems due to an abnormal birth defect. PMID:26623352

  10. Hypersensitivity Pneumonitis by a Cool-Mist Vaporizer a Detailed Microbiologic and Immunologic Study

    PubMed Central

    Chung, Jae Chun; Choi, Jin Myung; Lee, Hyun Woo; Hong, Suhk; Kim, Chung Sook

    1989-01-01

    A patient with hypersensitivity pneumonitis caused by a contaminated cool-mist vaporizer was evaluated. A detailed microbiologic and immunologic study was done, and a Pseudomonas species was isolated as the possible causative organism by inhalational provocative and serologic tests. PMID:2486849

  11. A National Study Assessing the Teaching & Learning of Introductory Astronomy: A Detailed Analysis of the Demographics, Gender, & Topic Domains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlingman, Wayne M.; Rudolph, A. L.; Prather, E. E.; Brissenden, G.; CATS

    2009-01-01

    We conducted a national study on the teaching and learning of astronomy taught in general education, non-science major, introductory astronomy courses (Astro 101). Nearly 4000 students enrolled in 69 sections of Astro 101 taught at 30 institutions around the United States completed (pre- and post-instruction) the Light and Spectroscopy Concept Inventory (LSCI) from Fall 2006 to Fall 2007 (see Rudolph et al., this meeting). This poster will provide detailed information on the demographics of the student population who participated in this study. In addition we provide details on our analysis of the relationship between participants’ gender and their normalized gains for each class section. Our analysis will also examine the normalized gains of the individual classrooms for the specific subject domains of the LSCI. We would like to thank the NSF for funding under Grant No. 0715517, a CCLI Phase III Grant for the Collaboration of Astronomy Teaching Scholars (CATS) Program.

  12. A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raykova, Plamena; Solakov, Dimcho; Simeonova, Stela; Dimitrova, Liliya

    2014-05-01

    A detailed study of the Pernik (Bulgaria) seismic sequence of 2012 D.Solakov, S.Simeonova ,I. Georgiev, P.Raykova, L.Dimitrova and V.Protopopova National Institute of Geophysics, Geodesy and Geography-BAS, Sofia, Bulgaria The spatial and temporal clustering of aftershocks is the dominant non-random element of seismicity, so that when aftershocks are removed, the remaining activity can be modelled (as first approximation) as a Poisson process. The properties of aftershock sequences (distinct cluster, for example; even aftershocks can have aftershocks) allow time-dependent prediction of aftershock probabilities. Consideration of recent earthquake sequences suggests that aftershocks to large earthquakes although they are still, by definition, smaller events, can be very damaging and should be addressed in emergence planning scenarios. Because of the factors such as location and radiation pattern and the cumulative nature of building damage, aftershocks can cause more damage than the main shock. An earthquake of moment magnitude 5.6 hit Sofia seismic zone, on May 22nd, 2012. The earthquake occurred in the vicinity of Pernik city, at about 25 km south west of the city of Sofia (the capital of Bulgaria). The event was followed by intensive activity. The active area is situated in the central part of western Bulgaria. That is the most populated (more than 1.2 mil. inhabitants), industrial and cultural region of Bulgaria. Seismicity in the zone is related to the marginal neotectonic faults of Sofia graben. The boundaries of the graben are represented by SE-NW fault system with expressive neotectonic activity. This zone is characterized by shallow earthquakes. The strongest known event in the region is the 1858 quake with intensity I0=9-10 MSK. The 1858 earthquake caused heavy destruction in the city of Sofia and the appearance of thermal spring. It is worth mentioning that the seismic sequence of May 2912 occurred in an area characterized by a long quiescence (of 95 years

  13. Combustion of n-heptane in a shock tube and in a stirred reactor: A detailed kinetic modeling study

    SciTech Connect

    Gaffuri, P.; Curran, H.J.; Pitz, W.J.; Westbrook, C.K.

    1995-04-13

    A detailed chemical kinetic reaction mechanism is used to study the oxidation of n-heptane under several classes of conditions. Experimental results from ignition behind reflected shock waves and in a rapid compression machine were used to develop and validate the reaction mechanism at relatively high temperatures, while data from a continuously stirred tank reactor (cstr) were used to refine the low temperature portions of the reaction mechanism. In addition to the detailed kinetic modeling, a global or lumped kinetic mechanism was used to study the same experimental results. The lumped model was able to identify key reactions and reaction paths that were most sensitive in each experimental regime and provide important guidance for the detailed modeling effort. In each set of experiments, a region of negative temperature coefficient (NTC) was observed. Variation in pressure from 5 to 40 bars were found to change the temperature range over which the NTC region occurred. Both the lumped and detailed kinetic models reproduced the measured results in each type of experiments, including the features of the NTC region, and the specific elementary reactions and reaction paths responsible for this behavior were identified and rate expressions for these reactions were determined.

  14. Additional short-term plutonium urinary excretion data from the 1945-1947 plutonium injection studies

    SciTech Connect

    Moss, W.D.; Gautier, M.A.

    1986-01-01

    The amount of plutonium excreted per day following intravenous injection was shown to be significantly higher than predicted by the Langham power function model. Each of the Los Alamos National Laboratory notebooks used to record the original analytical data was studied for details that could influence the findings. It was discovered there were additional urine excretion data for case HP-3. This report presents the additional data, as well as data on case HP-6. (ACR)

  15. Study on detailed geological modelling for fluvial sandstone reservoir in Daqing oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao Hanqing; Fu Zhiguo; Lu Xiaoguang

    1997-08-01

    Guided by the sedimentation theory and knowledge of modern and ancient fluvial deposition and utilizing the abundant information of sedimentary series, microfacies type and petrophysical parameters from well logging curves of close spaced thousands of wells located in a large area. A new method for establishing detailed sedimentation and permeability distribution models for fluvial reservoirs have been developed successfully. This study aimed at the geometry and internal architecture of sandbodies, in accordance to their hierarchical levels of heterogeneity and building up sedimentation and permeability distribution models of fluvial reservoirs, describing the reservoir heterogeneity on the light of the river sedimentary rules. The results and methods obtained in outcrop and modem sedimentation studies have successfully supported the study. Taking advantage of this method, the major producing layers (PI{sub 1-2}), which have been considered as heterogeneous and thick fluvial reservoirs extending widely in lateral are researched in detail. These layers are subdivided into single sedimentary units vertically and the microfacies are identified horizontally. Furthermore, a complex system is recognized according to their hierarchical levels from large to small, meander belt, single channel sandbody, meander scroll, point bar, and lateral accretion bodies of point bar. The achieved results improved the description of areal distribution of point bar sandbodies, provide an accurate and detailed framework model for establishing high resolution predicting model. By using geostatistic technique, it also plays an important role in searching for enriched zone of residual oil distribution.

  16. A ground reference site for detailed studies of remote sensing of soil moisture

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hornbuckle, B.; Krajewski, W. F.; Kaleita-Forbes, A.; Kruger, A.; Eichinger, W. E.

    2006-12-01

    The authors discuss establishment of an experimental site for studies of passive microwave remote sensing technologies and their applicability to observe components of the water cycle. Despite their apparent usefulness, the quantitative aspects of these observations are not well known. There is wide consensus within the scientific and engineering communities that validation of these technologies is an important challenge. To improve the quantitative value of remotely-sensed observations of the water cycle the authors plan developing and using innovative validation techniques. The cornerstone of these efforts is development of a small (~1 km2) prototype experimental validation site. The site will be extensively instrumented with both in-situ and remote sensors so that the complete water cycle and important ancillary data can be carefully characterized at several spatial scales for long periods of time. Initially the focus will be on validating remotely-sensed observations of soil moisture. The site will be fully characterized with respect to topography, soil types, and vegetation. The authors will collect detailed precipitation data using a cluster of rain gauges and NEXRAD information. Atmospheric data such as air temperature, humidity, pressure, wind direction and velocity, and solar radiation will be provides by sensors placed on two towers within the site. These will include eddy covariance evapotranspiration observing systems. Soil moisture and soil temperature vertical profile data will be collected at numerous points of several clusters of wirelessly connected small-scale networks using time- domain reflectometry. These fixed measurements will be complemented by measurements of greater spatial extent made periodically with soil moisture impedance probes. Vegetation measurements will be provided on a systematic basis. Remote sensing data will be provided by a dual-polarized L-band microwave radiometer on both a tower and a mobile platform. Evaporation, dew

  17. Detailed Knowledge of the Tuskegee Syphilis Study: Who Knows What? A Framework for Health Promotion Strategies

    PubMed Central

    Green, B. Lee; Li, Lin; Morris, J. Fontain; Gluzman, Rima; Davis, Jenna L.; Wang, Min Qi; Katz, Ralph V.

    2011-01-01

    This report explores the level of detailed knowledge about the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) among 848 Blacks and Whites in three U.S. cities across an array of demographic variables. The Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Questionnaire was used, which was designed to explore the willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical studies. A component of the TLP Questionnaire, the TSS Facts & Myths Quiz, consisting of seven yes/no factual questions, was used to establish respondents’ level of detailed knowledge on the TSS. Both Blacks and Whites had similar very low mean quiz score on the 7-point scale, with Blacks’ scores being slightly higher than Whites (1.2 vs. 0.9, p = .003). When analyzing the level of knowledge between racial groups by various demographic variables, several patterns emerged: (a) higher education levels were associated with higher levels of detailed knowledge and (b) for both Blacks and Whites, 30 to 59 years old knew the most about TSS compared with younger and older adult age groups. The findings show that much of the information that circulates in the Black and White communities about the TSS is false, often minimizing or understating the most egregious injustices that occurred. Health promotion and educational implications of these findings are offered and conclude that the findings should be used as a catalyst to explore local realities and sentiments regarding participation in biomedical research within the research philosophy and framework of community-based participatory research. PMID:21482701

  18. Detailed knowledge of the Tuskegee syphilis study: who knows what? A framework for health promotion strategies.

    PubMed

    Green, B Lee; Li, Lin; Morris, J Fontain; Gluzman, Rima; Davis, Jenna L; Wang, Min Qi; Katz, Ralph V

    2011-12-01

    This report explores the level of detailed knowledge about the Tuskegee Syphilis Study (TSS) among 848 Blacks and Whites in three U.S. cities across an array of demographic variables. The Tuskegee Legacy Project (TLP) Questionnaire was used, which was designed to explore the willingness of minorities to participate in biomedical studies. A component of the TLP Questionnaire, the TSS Facts & Myths Quiz, consisting of seven yes/no factual questions, was used to establish respondents' level of detailed knowledge on the TSS. Both Blacks and Whites had similar very low mean quiz score on the 7-point scale, with Blacks' scores being slightly higher than Whites (1.2 vs. 0.9, p = .003). When analyzing the level of knowledge between racial groups by various demographic variables, several patterns emerged: (a) higher education levels were associated with higher levels of detailed knowledge and (b) for both Blacks and Whites, 30 to 59 years old knew the most about TSS compared with younger and older adult age groups. The findings show that much of the information that circulates in the Black and White communities about the TSS is false, often minimizing or understating the most egregious injustices that occurred. Health promotion and educational implications of these findings are offered and conclude that the findings should be used as a catalyst to explore local realities and sentiments regarding participation in biomedical research within the research philosophy and framework of community-based participatory research. PMID:21482701

  19. Detailed analysis of a quench bomb for the study of aluminum agglomeration in solid propellants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gallier, S.; Kratz, J.-G.; Quaglia, N.; Fouin, G.

    2016-07-01

    A standard quench bomb (QB) - widely used to characterize condensed phase from metalized solid propellant combustion - is studied in detail. Experimental and numerical investigations proved that collected particles are mostly unburned aluminum (Al) agglomerates despite large quenching distances. Particles are actually found to quench early as propellant surface is swept by inert pressurant. Further improvements of the QB are proposed which allow measuring both Al agglomerates and alumina residue with the same setup. Finally, the results obtained on a typical aluminized ammonium perchlorate (AP) / hydroxyl-terminated polybutadiene (HTPB) propellant are briefly discussed.

  20. Au-chains grown on Ge(100): A detailed SPA-LEED study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lichtenstein, T.; Teiken, H.; Pfnür, H.; Wollschläger, J.; Tegenkamp, C.

    2015-02-01

    Au-induced wire structures grown on Ge(100) were shown to exhibit spectroscopic signatures of strong electronic correlation. However, the atomistic structure of these wires is still controversially discussed. In this study the morphology has been investigated by means of low energy electron diffraction (SPA-LEED). The detailed analysis of diffraction profiles favors strongly to the model of an Au-induced giant missing row (GMR) structure rather than the heterodimer model. Systematic variation of the initial Au-coverage has revealed further that approximately 0.25 ML of the deposited Au coverage penetrates into subsurface positions stabilizing the adsorbate-induced surface structure.

  1. Numerical Study for Detailed Flow Fields and Performance of the Savonius-Type Rotor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Tong; Rempfer, Dietmar

    2011-11-01

    The Savonius-type rotor is simple in structure, has good starting characteristics, relatively low operating speeds, and an ability to accept wind from any direction, although it has a lower efficiency than other vertical axis wind turbines. So far a number of experimental investigations have been carried out to study the performance of the Savonius rotor, however, there is a lack of detailed descriptions of the flow field. The aim of this paper is to numerically explore the non-linear two-dimensional unsteady flow over a Savonius rotor and develop a simulation method for predicting its aerodynamic performance. The simulations are based on Star CCM+. The motion of the blades is solved by using a moving mesh. Different turbulence models are compared. Parameters such as mesh density, wall y+, and boundary conditions will be discussed. Numerical simulation results are compared with experimental data. Separation of the flow at the blade tips is well modeled. The characteristics of flow fields details are studied, including boundary layer, moment coefficient, and pressure distribution. The wall shear on each surface of the blades is studied to look into the position of the separation point. Computational fluid dynamics is proven to be an effective approach for the investigation of the Savonius-type rotor, on the premise of proper theory and reasonable assumption. It also provides a basis for optimization of the Savonius wind turbine.

  2. Connected Mathematics and the Texas Assessment of Academic Skills. What Works Clearinghouse Detailed Study Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    What Works Clearinghouse, 2004

    2004-01-01

    Schneider found no statistically significant differences between the intervention and comparison groups on the school-level Texas Assessment of Academic Skills (TAAS) analyzed in the study. The findings may have been affected by only three schools implementing more than one-third of the total math problems in each year and grade. In addition, the…

  3. Co-Simulation of Detailed Whole Building with the Power System to Study Smart Grid Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Fuller, Jason C.; Srivastava, Viraj; Ciraci, Selim; Daily, Jeffrey A.

    2014-12-24

    Modernization of the power system in a way that ensures a sustainable energy system is arguably one of the most pressing concerns of our time. Buildings are important components in the power system. First, they are the main consumers of electricity and secondly, they do not have constant energy demand. Conventionally, electricity has been difficult to store and should be consumed as it is generated. Therefore, maintaining the demand and supply is critical in the power system. However, to reduce the complexity of power models, buildings (i.e., end-use loads) are traditionally modeled and represented as aggregated “dumb” nodes in the power system. This means we lack effective detailed whole building energy models that can support requirements and emerging technologies of the smart power grid. To gain greater insight into the relationship between building energy demand and power system performance, it is important to constitute a co-simulation framework to support detailed building energy modeling and simulation within the power system to study capabilities promised by the modern power grid. This paper discusses ongoing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory and presents underlying tools and framework needed to enable co-simulation of building, building energy systems and their control in the power system to study applications such as demand response, grid-based HVAC control, and deployment of buildings for ancillary services. The optimal goal is to develop an integrated modeling and simulation platform that is flexible, reusable, and scalable. Results of this work will contribute to future building and power system studies, especially those related to the integrated ‘smart grid’. Results are also expected to advance power resiliency and local (micro) scale grid studies where several building and renewable energy systems transact energy directly. This paper also reviews some applications that can be supported and studied using the framework introduced

  4. A detailed comparative study between chemical and bioactive properties of Ganoderma lucidum from different origins.

    PubMed

    Stojković, Dejan S; Barros, Lillian; Calhelha, Ricardo C; Glamočlija, Jasmina; Ćirić, Ana; van Griensven, Leo J L D; Soković, Marina; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2014-02-01

    A detailed comparative study on chemical and bioactive properties of wild and cultivated Ganoderma lucidum from Serbia (GS) and China (GCN) was performed. This species was chosen because of its worldwide use as medicinal mushroom. Higher amounts of sugars were found in GS, while higher amounts of organic acids were recorded in GCN. Unsaturated fatty acids predominated over saturated fatty acids. GCN revealed higher antioxidant activity, while GS exhibited inhibitory potential against human breast and cervical carcinoma cell lines. No cytotoxicity in non-tumour liver primary cell culture was observed for the different samples. Both samples possessed antibacterial and antifungal activities, in some cases even better than the standard antimicrobial drugs. This is the first study reporting a comparison of chemical compounds and bioactivity of G. lucidum samples from different origins. PMID:24020451

  5. Numerical Study on a Detailed Air Flows in an Urban Area Using a CFD model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwon, A.

    2014-12-01

    In this study, detailed air flows in an urban area were analyzed using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. For this model buildings used as the surface boundary in the model were constructed using Los Angeles Region Imagery Acquisition Consortium 2 Geographic Information System (LARIAC2 GIS) data. Three target areas centered at the cross roads of Broadway & 7th St., Olive & 12th St., and Wilshire blvd. & Carondelet, Los Angeles, California were considered. The size of each numerical domain is 400 m, 400 m, and 200 m in the x‒, y‒, and z‒directions, respectively. The grid sizes in the x‒, y‒, and z‒directions are 2 m, 2 m, and 2 m, respectively. Based on the inflow wind data provided by California Air Resources Board, detailed flow characteristics were investigated for each target area. Descending air flow were developed at the leeward area of tall building and ascending air current were occurred on the windward area of tall building. Vertically rotating vortices were formed in spaces between buildings, so-called, street canyons and horizontally rotating vortices appeared near cross roads. When flows came into narrow street canyon from wide street canyon, channeling effects appeared and flow speed increased for satisfying mass continuity.

  6. Electrostatic Levitation for Studies of Additive Manufactured Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Tramel, Terri

    2014-01-01

    The electrostatic levitation (ESL) laboratory at NASA's Marshall Space Flight Center is a unique facility for investigators studying high temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified. Electrostatic levitation minimizes gravitational effects and allows materials to be studied without contact with a container or instrumentation. The lab also has a high temperature emissivity measurement system, which provides normal spectral and normal total emissivity measurements at use temperature. The ESL lab has been instrumental in many pioneering materials investigations of thermophysical properties, e.g., creep measurements, solidification, triggered nucleation, and emissivity at high temperatures. Research in the ESL lab has already led to the development of advanced high temperature materials for aerospace applications, coatings for rocket nozzles, improved medical and industrial optics, metallic glasses, ablatives for reentry vehicles, and materials with memory. Modeling of additive manufacturing materials processing is necessary for the study of their resulting materials properties. In addition, the modeling of the selective laser melting processes and its materials property predictions are also underway. Unfortunately, there is very little data for the properties of these materials, especially of the materials in the liquid state. Some method to measure thermophysical properties of additive manufacturing materials is necessary. The ESL lab is ideal for these studies. The lab can provide surface tension and viscosity of molten materials, density measurements, emissivity measurements, and even creep strength measurements. The ESL lab can also determine melting temperature, surface temperatures, and phase transition temperatures of additive manufactured materials. This presentation will provide background on the ESL lab and its capabilities, provide an approach to using the ESL

  7. Triblock copolymer P104 detailed behavior through a density, sound velocity and DLS study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bravo-Anaya, L. M.; Fierro-Castro, C.; Rharbi, Y.; Martínez, J. F. A. Soltero

    2014-05-01

    Pluronic triblock copolymers usually present complex phase behavior depending on the number of PEO and PPO blocks contained in the polymer. They have a great dependence to temperature and concentration, both considered as key factors in the pluronic phase behavior. The evaluation of physicochemical properties such as densimetry and sound velocity, as well as the determination of the size distribution profile of particles of P-104/water in solution allow obtaining a detailed temperature-concentration behavior of the system. In this work we present a study of P104/water behavior through density, ultrasound velocity and dynamic slight scattering (DLS) measurements in a wide range of temperatures. The critical micellar temperature (CMT) and the sphere-to-rod micelle transition temperature (GMT) were determinate as a function of concentration.

  8. Contrast to Noise Ratio and Contrast Detail Analysis in Mammography:A Monte Carlo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Metaxas, V.; Delis, H.; Kalogeropoulou, C.; Zampakis, P.; Panayiotakis, G.

    2015-09-01

    The mammographic spectrum is one of the major factors affecting image quality in mammography. In this study, a Monte Carlo (MC) simulation model was used to evaluate image quality characteristics of various mammographic spectra. The anode/filter combinations evaluated, were those traditionally used in mammography, for tube voltages between 26 and 30 kVp. The imaging performance was investigated in terms of Contrast to Noise Ratio (CNR) and Contrast Detail (CD) analysis, by involving human observers, utilizing a mathematical CD phantom. Soft spectra provided the best characteristics in terms of both CNR and CD scores, while tube voltage had a limited effect. W-anode spectra filtered with k-edge filters demonstrated an improved performance, that sometimes was better compared to softer x-ray spectra, produced by Mo or Rh anode. Regarding the filter material, k-edge filters showed superior performance compared to Al filters.

  9. A detailed kinetic modeling study of aromatics formation in laminar premixed acetylene and ethylene flames

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, H.; Frenklach, M.

    1997-07-01

    A computational study was performed for the formation and growth of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in laminar premixed acetylene and ethylene flames. A new detailed reaction mechanism describing fuel pyrolysis and oxidation, benzene formation, and PAH mass growth and oxidation is presented and critically tested. It is shown that the reaction model predicts reasonably well the concentration profiles of major and intermediate species and aromatic molecules in a number of acetylene and ethylene flames reported in the literature. It is demonstrated that reactions of n-C{sub 4}H{sub x} + C{sub 2}H{sub 2} leading to the formation of one-ring aromatics are as important as the propargyl recombination, and hence must be included in kinetic modeling of PAH formation in hydrocarbon flames. It is further demonstrated that the mass growth of PAHs can be accounted for by the previously proposed H-abstraction-C{sub 2}H{sub 2}-addiction mechanism.

  10. A detailed study of mean-flow solutions for stability analysis of transitional flows

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ramakrishnan, R.; Vatsa, V.; Otto, J.; Kumar, A.

    1993-01-01

    A finite-volume upwind-difference parabolized Navier-Stokes code is utilized to obtain laminar mean-flow solutions at Mach 3.5 on a half-angle cone of 5 deg at an angle-of-attack of 2 deg. A detailed study is conducted on this configuration; the main focus is the velocity profiles in the leeward and windward symmetry planes at various axial locations. Comparisons of the solution profiles are made with both a central-difference code that incorporates scalar and matrix dissipation models and another state-of-the-art upwind-difference finitevolume code. The results obtained emphasize the importance of using matrix dissipation models for schemes that require explicit artificial dissipation. These results also illustrate the accuracy and efficiency of the planeby-plane marching procedure for computing mean-flow solutions for predicting the onset of transition with linear instability.

  11. BIG FROG WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITIONS, TENNESSEE AND GEORGIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Slack, John F.; Gazdik, Gertrude C.

    1984-01-01

    A mineral-resource survey was made of the Big Frog Wilderness Study Area and additions, Tennessee-Georgia. Geochemical sampling found traces of gold, zinc, copper, and arsenic in rocks, stream sediments, and panned concentrates, but not in sufficient quantities to indicate the presence of deposits of these metals. The results of the survey indicate that there is little promise for the occurrence of metallic mineral deposits within the study area. The only apparent resources are nonmetallic commodities including rock suitable for construction materials, and small amounts of sand and gravel; however, these commodities are found in abundance outside the study area. A potential may exist for oil and natural gas at great depths, but this cannot be evaluated by the present study.

  12. Recommended Protocol for Round Robin Studies in Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Moylan, Shawn; Brown, Christopher U.; Slotwinski, John

    2016-01-01

    One way to improve confidence and encourage proliferation of additive manufacturing (AM) technologies and parts is by generating more high quality data describing the performance of AM processes and parts. Many in the AM community see round robin studies as a way to generate large data sets while distributing the cost among the participants, thereby reducing the cost to individual users. The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) has conducted and participated in several of these AM round robin studies. While the results of these studies are interesting and informative, many of the lessons learned in conducting these studies concern the logistics and methods of the study and unique issues presented by AM. Existing standards for conducting interlaboratory studies of measurement methods, along with NIST’s experience, form the basis for recommended protocols for conducting AM round robin studies. The role of round robin studies in AM qualification, some of the limitations of round robin studies, and the potential benefit of less formal collaborative experiments where multiple factors, AM machine being only one, are varied simultaneously are also discussed. PMID:27274602

  13. Detailed Studies of Pixelated CZT Detectors Grown with the Modified Horizontal Bridgman Method

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jung, I.; Krawczynski, H.; Burger, A.; Guo, M.; Groza, M.

    2007-01-01

    The detector material Cadmium Zinc Telluride (CZT) achieves excellent spatial resolution and good energy resolution over a broad energy range, several keV up to some MeV. Presently, there are two main methods to grow CZT crystals, the Modified High-Pressure Bridgman (MHB) and the High-Pressure Bridgman (HPB) process. The study presented in this paper is based on MHB CZT substrates from the company Orbotech Medical Solutions Ltd. [Orbotech Medical Solutions Ltd., 10 Plaut St., Park Rabin, P.O. Box 2489, Rehovot, Israel, 76124]. Former studies have shown that high-work-function materials on the cathode side reduce the leakage current and, therefore, improve the energy resolution at lower energies. None of the studies have emphasized on the anode contact material. Therefore, we present in this paper the result of a detailed study in which for the first time the cathode material was kept constant and the anode material was varied. We used four different anode materials: Indium, Titanium, Chromium and Gold, metals with work-functions between 4.1 eV and 5.1 eV. The detector size was 2.0 x 2.0 x 0.5 cu cm with 8 x 8 pixels and a pitch of 2.46 mm. The best performance was achieved with the low-work-function materials Indium and Titanium with energy resolutions of 2.0 keV (at 59 keV) and 1.9 keV (at 122 keV) for Titanium and 2.1 keV (at 59 keV) and 2.9 keV (at 122 keV) for Indium. Taking into account the large pixel pitch of 2.46 mm, these resolutions are very competitive in comparison to those achieved with detectors made of material produced with the more expensive conventional HPB method. We present a detailed comparison of our detector response with 3D simulations. The latter comparisons allow us to determine the mobility-lifetime-products (mu tau-products) for electrons and holes. Finally, we evaluated the temperature dependency of the detector performance and ls-products. For many applications temperature dependence is important, therefore, we extended the scope of

  14. Anatomically Detailed and Large-Scale Simulations Studying Synapse Loss and Synchrony Using NeuroBox.

    PubMed

    Breit, Markus; Stepniewski, Martin; Grein, Stephan; Gottmann, Pascal; Reinhardt, Lukas; Queisser, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic, or reconstruction) to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio) and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g., new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations. PMID:26903818

  15. Fracture Network Characteristics Informed by Detailed Studies of Chlorinated Solvent Plumes in Sedimentary Rock Aquifers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parker, B. L.; Chapman, S.

    2015-12-01

    Various numerical approaches have been used to simulate contaminant plumes in fractured porous rock, but the one that allows field and laboratory measurements to be most directly used as inputs to these models is the Discrete Fracture Network (DFN) Approach. To effectively account for fracture-matrix interactions, emphasis must be placed on identifying and parameterizing all of the fractures that participate substantially in groundwater flow and contaminated transport. High resolution plume studies at four primary research sites, where chlorinated solvent plumes serve as long-term (several decades) tracer tests, provide insight concerning the density of the fracture network unattainable by conventional methods. Datasets include contaminant profiles from detailed VOC subsampling informed by continuous core logs, hydraulic head and transmissivity profiles, packer testing and sensitive temperature logging methods in FLUTe™ lined holes. These show presence of many more transmissive fractures, contrasting observations of only a few flow zones per borehole obtained from conventional hydraulic tests including flow metering in open boreholes. Incorporating many more fractures with a wider range of transmissivities is key to predicting contaminant migration. This new understanding of dense fracture networks combined with matrix property measurements have informed 2-D DFN flow and transport modelling using Fractran and HydroGeosphere to simulate plume characteristics ground-truthed by detailed field site plume characterization. These process-based simulations corroborate field findings that plumes in sedimentary rock after decades of transport show limited plume front distances and strong internal plume attenuation by diffusion, transverse dispersion and slow degradation. This successful application of DFN modeling informed by field-derived parameters demonstrates how the DFN Approach can be applied to other sites to inform plume migration rates and remedial efficacy.

  16. Anatomically Detailed and Large-Scale Simulations Studying Synapse Loss and Synchrony Using NeuroBox

    PubMed Central

    Breit, Markus; Stepniewski, Martin; Grein, Stephan; Gottmann, Pascal; Reinhardt, Lukas; Queisser, Gillian

    2016-01-01

    The morphology of neurons and networks plays an important role in processing electrical and biochemical signals. Based on neuronal reconstructions, which are becoming abundantly available through databases such as NeuroMorpho.org, numerical simulations of Hodgkin-Huxley-type equations, coupled to biochemical models, can be performed in order to systematically investigate the influence of cellular morphology and the connectivity pattern in networks on the underlying function. Development in the area of synthetic neural network generation and morphology reconstruction from microscopy data has brought forth the software tool NeuGen. Coupling this morphology data (either from databases, synthetic, or reconstruction) to the simulation platform UG 4 (which harbors a neuroscientific portfolio) and VRL-Studio, has brought forth the extendible toolbox NeuroBox. NeuroBox allows users to perform numerical simulations on hybrid-dimensional morphology representations. The code basis is designed in a modular way, such that e.g., new channel or synapse types can be added to the library. Workflows can be specified through scripts or through the VRL-Studio graphical workflow representation. Third-party tools, such as ImageJ, can be added to NeuroBox workflows. In this paper, NeuroBox is used to study the electrical and biochemical effects of synapse loss vs. synchrony in neurons, to investigate large morphology data sets within detailed biophysical simulations, and used to demonstrate the capability of utilizing high-performance computing infrastructure for large scale network simulations. Using new synapse distribution methods and Finite Volume based numerical solvers for compartment-type models, our results demonstrate how an increase in synaptic synchronization can compensate synapse loss at the electrical and calcium level, and how detailed neuronal morphology can be integrated in large-scale network simulations. PMID:26903818

  17. VUV PHOTOLYSIS OF CO ICES AT 10 K- A Detailed Study Employing Different Light Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, C. Y. R.; Judge, D. L.; Chen, Y.; Yih, T.

    2006-09-01

    Experimental results on the VUV photolysis of pure CO ices at 10 K have been obtained by employing a narrow bandwidth (fwhm = 1.1 nm) synchrotron radiation light source at the National Synchrotron Radiation Research Center, Hsinchu, Taiwan, and a microwave discharge hydrogen-flow lamp in our laboratory to provide the 121.6 nm radiation. The microwave discharge hydrogen-flow lamp is known to provide intense photon intensity at the hydrogen Lyman-α line (121.6 nm). However, it is also known that its photon flux and the spectral distributions strongly depend on the operating conditions, namely the microwave power output and, especially, the hydrogen pressure. Different experimental results on the photolysis of ice systems at low temperatures have been reported by various research groups. In the present study we have used pure CO ices as a case study and have measured the production yields of photon-induced chemical products and the destruction yield of the parent CO molecules using Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometry. The results obtained in this study are compared with previously reported values. We show that the disagreements among the reported values have been mainly caused by the different outputs of the microwave discharge lamp. The detailed results of this work will be presented. This research is based on work supported by the NSF Planetary Astronomy Program under Grant AST-0604455 and the NASA Planetary Atmospheres Program under Grant NAG5-11960.

  18. A detailed MSn study for the molecular identification of a dimer formed from oxidation of pinene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beck, Martin; Hoffmann, Thorsten

    2016-04-01

    Dimeric products formed in the oxidation of α- and β-pinene have been frequently observed in laboratory and field studies of biogenic SOA formation. While their existence is undoubted, their exact chemical structures remain unclear. This study uses a combined two step approach aiming on the molecular identification of the most important of the various dimers that have been observed in biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, a dimer with the molecular weight 358 g mol-1. The first step is the application of a functional group derivatization technique (esterification) to quantify the number of carboxylic acid groups in the target molecule. Based on the detailed interpretation of the MSn spectra (up to n = 7) of the derivatized product further information about the exact structure of the compound of interest is compiled. To increase the intensity of precursor ions for the MSn-studies and especially to facilitate successive fragmentation of the target molecule, which yields structurally informative product spectra, cationization reagents (Li+, NH4+) are introduced. The results clearly point to the formation of a dimer containing three carboxylic acid groups and a structure containing a terpenylic acid building block and a pinic acid building block, strongly supporting a structure suggestion by Claeys and coworkers (Yasmeen et al., 2010).

  19. Genotoxicity studies of the food additive ester gum.

    PubMed

    Mukherjee, A; Agarwal, K; Chakrabarti, J

    1992-07-01

    Ester gum (EG) is used in citrus oil-based beverage flavourings as a weighting or colouring agent. In the present study, concentrations of 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg body weight were administered orally to male Swiss albino mice, and sister chromatid exchange and chromosomal aberration were used as the cytogenetic endpoints to determine the genotoxic and clastogenic potential of the food additive. Although EG was weakly clastogenic and could induce a marginal increase in sister chromatid exchange frequencies, it was not a potential health hazard at the doses tested. PMID:1521837

  20. Making intelligent systems team players: Additional case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Malin, Jane T.; Schreckenghost, Debra L.; Rhoads, Ron W.

    1993-01-01

    Observations from a case study of intelligent systems are reported as part of a multi-year interdisciplinary effort to provide guidance and assistance for designers of intelligent systems and their user interfaces. A series of studies were conducted to investigate issues in designing intelligent fault management systems in aerospace applications for effective human-computer interaction. The results of the initial study are documented in two NASA technical memoranda: TM 104738 Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Case Studies and Design Issues, Volumes 1 and 2; and TM 104751, Making Intelligent Systems Team Players: Overview for Designers. The objective of this additional study was to broaden the investigation of human-computer interaction design issues beyond the focus on monitoring and fault detection in the initial study. The results of this second study are documented which is intended as a supplement to the original design guidance documents. These results should be of interest to designers of intelligent systems for use in real-time operations, and to researchers in the areas of human-computer interaction and artificial intelligence.

  1. Detailed Studies on Flame Extinction by Inert Particles in Normal- and Micro-gravity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andac, M. G.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Campbell, C. S.

    2001-01-01

    The combustion of dusty flows has been studied to lesser extent than pure gas phase flows and sprays. Particles can have a strong effect by modifying the dynamic response and detailed structure of flames through the dynamic, thermal, and chemical couplings between the two phases. A rigorous understanding of the dynamics and structure of two-phase flows can be attained in stagnation flow configurations, which have been used by others to study spray combustion as well as reacting dusty flows. In earlier studies on reacting dusty flows, the thermal coupling between the two phases as well as the effect of gravity on the flame response were not considered. However, in Ref. 6, the thermal coupling between chemically inert particles and the gas was addressed in premixed flames. The effects of gravity was also studied showing that it can substantially affect the profiles of the particle velocity, number density, mass flux, and temperature. The results showed a strong dynamic and thermal dependence of reacting dusty flows to particle number density. However, the work was only numerical and limited to twin-flames, stagnation, premixed flames. In Ref. 7 the effects of chemically inert particle clouds on the extinction of strained premixed and non-premixed flames were studied both experimentally and numerically at 1-g. It was shown and explained that large particles can cause more effective flame cooling compared to smaller particles. The effects of flame configuration and particle injection orientation were also addressed. The complexity of the coupling between the various parameters in such flows was demonstrated and it was shown that it was impossible to obtain a simple and still meaningful scaling that captured all the pertinent physics.

  2. Mortality in vegetarians and nonvegetarians: detailed findings from a collaborative analysis of 5 prospective studies.

    PubMed

    Key, T J; Fraser, G E; Thorogood, M; Appleby, P N; Beral, V; Reeves, G; Burr, M L; Chang-Claude, J; Frentzel-Beyme, R; Kuzma, J W; Mann, J; McPherson, K

    1999-09-01

    We combined data from 5 prospective studies to compare the death rates from common diseases of vegetarians with those of nonvegetarians with similar lifestyles. A summary of these results was reported previously; we report here more details of the findings. Data for 76172 men and women were available. Vegetarians were those who did not eat any meat or fish (n = 27808). Death rate ratios at ages 16-89 y were calculated by Poisson regression and all results were adjusted for age, sex, and smoking status. A random-effects model was used to calculate pooled estimates of effect for all studies combined. There were 8330 deaths after a mean of 10.6 y of follow-up. Mortality from ischemic heart disease was 24% lower in vegetarians than in nonvegetarians (death rate ratio: 0.76; 95% CI: 0.62, 0.94; P<0.01). The lower mortality from ischemic heart disease among vegetarians was greater at younger ages and was restricted to those who had followed their current diet for >5 y. Further categorization of diets showed that, in comparison with regular meat eaters, mortality from ischemic heart disease was 20% lower in occasional meat eaters, 34% lower in people who ate fish but not meat, 34% lower in lactoovovegetarians, and 26% lower in vegans. There were no significant differences between vegetarians and nonvegetarians in mortality from cerebrovascular disease, stomach cancer, colorectal cancer, lung cancer, breast cancer, prostate cancer, or all other causes combined. PMID:10479225

  3. Use of Observation-Based Aerosol Fields for Detailed Cloud-Scale Modeling Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fridlind, A. M.; Vogelmann, A. M.; Ackerman, A. S.; Endo, S.

    2014-12-01

    Within the realm of detailed large-eddy simulation studies with size-resolved microphysics, substantial uncertainties exist regarding the ability of any given model to accurately reproduce basic aspects of cloud microphysics that interact with ambient aerosol properties, such as precipitation formation and evolution. Modeling studies intended to reproduce specific observed cloud fields must also to some degree simplify the complexity of aerosol conditions, and usually lack sufficient measurements to well constrain the most relevant aerosol properties. Here we describe derivation and use of spatiotemporally varying fields of multi-modal aerosol size distributions for 60-hour simulations of boundary-layer clouds observed over Oklahoma during the RACORO campaign. Cases include forced as well as freely convecting shallow clouds, and some warm precipitation. We investigate the sensitivity of simulations to observation-derived aerosol inputs, including hygroscopicity parameter and size distribution properties. Sensitivity is examined in the context of the ability of the simulations to accurately reproduce relevant macrophysical and microphysical cloud properties observed, including droplet size dispersion.

  4. RAMSEYS DRAFT WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND ADDITION, VIRGINIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lesure, Frank G.; Mory, Peter C.

    1984-01-01

    Mineral-resource surveys of the Ramseys Draft Wilderness Study Area and adjoining roadless area addition in George Washington National Forest in the western valley and ridge province, Augusta and Highland Counties, Virginia, were done. The surveys outlined three small areas containing anomalous amounts of copper, lead, and zinc related to stratabound red-bed copper mineralization, but these occurrences are not large and are not considered as having mineral-resource potential. The area contains abundant sandstone suitable for construction materials and shale suitable for making brick, tile, and other low-grade ceramic products, but these commodities occur in abundance outside the wilderness study area. Structural conditions are probably favorable for the accumulation of natural gas, but exploratory drilling has not been done sufficiently near the area to evaluate the gas potential.

  5. A Detailed Study of the Elemental Abundances of Metal-Weak Thick Disk Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmerer, J.

    2004-12-01

    Studies of the existing stellar components of the Galaxy offer a fossil record of its formation history. Of the various populations (bulge, halo, thin disk,and thick disk), the thick disk in particular is still difficult to characterize. Although the metallicity distributions of the two Galactic populations overlap, thick disk stars appear to be much older than thin disk stars, as they are enhanced in alpha-capture and rapid process neutron-capture elements relative to thin disk stars. Recent studies have also indicated that the thick disk includes stars as metal-poor as [Fe/H]=-2.2, well into the ``pure halo'' metallicity regime. Explanations for the origin of this metal-weak thick disk (MWTD) invoke either a long formation time scale (essentially coeval with the halo) or suggest the capture of dwarf galaxies, from which low-metallicity stars have been subsumed. In order to help distinguish between formation scenarios, high-resolution, high-S/N spectra of a large sample of MWTD stars identified by Chiba & Beers (2000) and Beers et al. (2002) have been gathered and analyzed. These objects are kinematically associated with the thick disk, but are far more iron-poor than previously studied thick-disk stars. A detailed abundance analysis will confirm whether these stars are truly metal-poor, and whether they are chemically related to the halo, the canonical thick disk, the thin disk, or none of these. This work has been supported in part by NSF grant AST 03-07495.

  6. Vadose Zone Transport Field Study: Detailed Test Plan for Simulated Leak Tests

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, Anderson L.; Gee, Glendon W.

    2000-06-23

    This report describes controlled transport experiments at well-instrumented field tests to be conducted during FY 2000 in support of DOE?s Vadose Zone Transport Field Study (VZTFS). The VZTFS supports the Groundwater/Vadose Zone Integration Project Science and Technology Initiative. The field tests will improve understanding of field-scale transport and lead to the development or identification of efficient and cost-effective characterization methods. These methods will capture the extent of contaminant plumes using existing steel-cased boreholes. Specific objectives are to 1) identify mechanisms controlling transport processes in soils typical of the hydrogeologic conditions of Hanford?s waste disposal sites; 2) reduce uncertainty in conceptual models; 3) develop a detailed and accurate data base of hydraulic and transport parameters for validation of three-dimensional numerical models; and 4) identify and evaluate advanced, cost-effective characterization methods with the potential to assess changing conditions in the vadose zone, particularly as surrogates of currently undetectable high-risk contaminants. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) manages the VZTFS for DOE.

  7. Detailed study of heat generation in porous LiCoO2 electrodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heubner, C.; Schneider, M.; Michaelis, A.

    2016-03-01

    In this work the heat generation in porous LiCoO2 based electrodes for lithium ion batteries is studied in detail. Irreversible heat generation rates due to ohmic resistance, charge transfer and mass transport limitations as well as the reversible heat of the electrode reaction are determined from electrochemical measurements as a function of the C-rate, the temperature and the lithium concentration in the active material. The results show that all the individual heat sources contribute significantly to the total heat generation in the electrode. The heat sources are functions of the C-rate and the temperature as well as the lithium concentration in the active material. The reversible heat contribution was found to be most significant at higher temperatures und lower C-rates, which tend to reduce kinetic limitations and irreversible heats, respectively. The heat generation rate due to mass transport limitations is most influential among the irreversible heats, whereas the ohmic contribution shows a minor impact. The total heat generation was found to increase with increasing C-rate and decreasing temperature. Furthermore, the heat generation is significantly reduced for charging compared to discharging due to the intrinsic asymmetry of the reversible heat and larger kinetic limitations for lithiation compared to delithiation of LiCoO2.

  8. A detailed study of the high-mass clump interacting with the bubble N10

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yingxiu; Zhou, Jianjun; Esimbek, Jarken; Ji, Weiguang; Wu, Gang; Yuan, Ye

    2013-06-01

    We performed a detailed study of the high-mass clump interacting with bubble N10 based on the spectral lines 12CO(3-2), HCO+(4-3), N2H+(4-3) and CH3OH(7(0,7)-6(0,6)) and continuum emission data at 450 μm and 850 μm released by CADC and Spitzer. A blue-shifted optically thick line 12CO(3-2) seems to indicate that the outer envelope of the high-mass clump is still falling toward the center. Detection of CH3OH(7(0,7)-6(0,6)) suggests that a hot core has formed around YSO N10-7. The position-velocity diagram of N2H+(4-3) indicates that the cold dense core of the clump has not been destroyed by the star formation activities. The mass of N10-7 is about 27.44 M ⊙. The ratio HCO+(4-3)/N2H+(4-3) in the outer part of the clump is larger than that in the inner part of it. The reason may be that the CO abundance relative to N2H+(4-3) is increased in the outer part of the high-mass clump, and more N2H+(4-3) were converted into HCO+(4-3).

  9. Detailed Study of Emission Structures in the Vicinity of LkHα 198

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gevorgyan, M. H.; Movsessian, T. A.; Andreasyan, H. R.; Magakian, T. Yu.

    2016-09-01

    Results from a study of collimated flows near the star LkHα 198 are reported. Observations were made using the VAGR multipupil spectrograph installed on the 2.6-m telescope at the Byurakan Astrophysical Observatory. The morphology and kinematics of emission structures in the vicinity of LkHα 198, including HH 161, were studied and electron density charts obtained. Besides the HH 161 object, our data revealed an arc-shaped emission structure with LkHα 198 at its apex. A shape of this kind is usually a direct indication of the presence of a cavity in a dark cloud blown out by a directed outflow. In addition, a faint "tail" extending in the direction of the central star is observed in HH 161. A comparison of these results with radio frequency observations shows that the probable source of HH 161 is the binary system LkHα 198.

  10. Do Learner Characteristics Moderate the Seductive-Details-Effect? A Cognitive-Load-Study Using Eye-Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Park, Babette; Korbach, Andreas; Brünken, Roland

    2015-01-01

    The present study examines whether the seductive-details effect is moderated by spatial ability and prior knowledge, which are two of the most relevant learner characteristics in multimedia learning. It is assumed that the seductive-details effect with an increase in extraneous cognitive load and a decrease in perceptual processing and learning…

  11. A Detailed Study of the Structure of the Nested Planetary Nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka Nebula

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C.

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H2 (2.1214 μm), and Brγ (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H2 emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Brγ recombination lines. The H2 emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ~30 km s-1. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Brγ emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at <=30 km s-1. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Brγ emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ~ ± 40 km s-1.

  12. Experimental Study of Additives on Viscosity biodiesel at Low Temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fajar, Berkah; Sukarno

    2015-09-01

    An experimental investigation was performed to find out the viscosity of additive and biodiesel fuel mixture in the temperature range from 283 K to 318 K. Solutions to reduce the viscosity of biodiesel is to add the biodiesel with some additive. The viscosity was measured using a Brookfield Rheometer DV-II. The additives were the generic additive (Diethyl Ether/DDE) and the commercial additive Viscoplex 10-330 CFI. Each biodiesel blends had a concentration of the mixture: 0.0; 0.25; 0.5; 0.75; 1.0; and 1.25% vol. Temperature of biodiesel was controlled from 40°C to 0°C. The viscosity of biodiesel and additive mixture at a constant temperature can be approximated by a polynomial equation and at a constant concentration by exponential equation. The optimum mixture is at 0.75% for diethyl ether and 0.5% for viscoplex.

  13. Rotor systems research aircraft predesign study. Volume 4: Preliminary draft detail specification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, A. N.; Linden, A. W.

    1972-01-01

    The RSRA requirements are presented in a detail specification format. Coverage of the requirements includes the following headings: (1) aircraft characteristics, (2) general features of design and construction, (3) aerodynamics, (4) structural design criteria, (5) flight control system, (6) propulsion subsystem, and (7) secondary power and distribution subsystem.

  14. A STUDY OF GAS-PHASE MERCURY SPECIATION USING DETAILED CHEMICAL KINETICS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mercury (Hg) speciation in combustion-generated flue gas is modeled using a detailed chemical mechanism consisting of 60 reactions and 21 species. This speciation model accounts for chlorination and oxidation of key flue-gas components, including elemental mercury. Results indica...

  15. Probing interactions of neurotransmitters with twin tailed anionic surfactant: A detailed physicochemical study.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Rajwinder; Sanan, Reshu; Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar

    2016-05-01

    Keeping in view the role of neurotransmitters (NTs) in central nervous system diseases and in controlling various physiological processes, present study is aimed to study the binding of neurotransmitters (NTs) such as norepinephrine hydrochloride (NE) and serotonin hydrochloride (5-HT) with twin tailed surfactant sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl)sulfosuccinate (AOT). Spectroscopic and electrochemical measurements combined with microcalorimetric measurements were used to characterize the interactions between AOT and NTs. Meteoric modifications to emission profile and absorption spectra of NTs upon addition of AOT are indicative of the binding of NTs with AOT. Distinct interactional states such as formation of ion-pairs, induced and regular micelles with adsorbed NTs molecules have been observed in different concentration regimes of AOT. The formation of ion-pairs from oppositely charged NTs and AOT is confirmed by the reduced absorbance, quenched fluorescence intensity and decrease in peak current (ipa) as well as shifts in peak potential (Epa) values. The stoichiometry and formation of the NTs-AOT complexes has been judged and the extent of interactions is quantitatively discussed in terms of binding constant (K) and free energy of binding (ΔG°). The enthalpy (ΔH°mic) and free energy of micellization (ΔG°mic) for AOT in presence and absence of NTs are determined from the enthalpy curves. PMID:26866888

  16. Additive Manufacturing in Production: A Study Case Applying Technical Requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ituarte, Iñigo Flores; Coatanea, Eric; Salmi, Mika; Tuomi, Jukka; Partanen, Jouni

    Additive manufacturing (AM) is expanding the manufacturing capabilities. However, quality of AM produced parts is dependent on a number of machine, geometry and process parameters. The variability of these parameters affects the manufacturing drastically and therefore standardized processes and harmonized methodologies need to be developed to characterize the technology for end use applications and enable the technology for manufacturing. This research proposes a composite methodology integrating Taguchi Design of Experiments, multi-objective optimization and statistical process control, to optimize the manufacturing process and fulfil multiple requirements imposed to an arbitrary geometry. The proposed methodology aims to characterize AM technology depending upon manufacturing process variables as well as to perform a comparative assessment of three AM technologies (Selective Laser Sintering, Laser Stereolithography and Polyjet). Results indicate that only one machine, laser-based Stereolithography, was feasible to fulfil simultaneously macro and micro level geometrical requirements but mechanical properties were not at required level. Future research will study a single AM system at the time to characterize AM machine technical capabilities and stimulate pre-normative initiatives of the technology for end use applications.

  17. Stereotactic body radiotherapy for metastatic spinal sarcoma: a detailed patterns-of-failure study.

    PubMed

    Leeman, Jonathan E; Bilsky, Mark; Laufer, Ilya; Folkert, Michael R; Taunk, Neil K; Osborne, Joseph R; Arevalo-Perez, Julio; Zatcky, Joan; Alektiar, Kaled M; Yamada, Yoshiya; Spratt, Daniel E

    2016-07-01

    OBJECTIVE The aim of this study was to report the first detailed analysis of patterns of failure within the spinal axis of patients treated with stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) for sarcoma spine metastases. METHODS Between 2005 and 2012, 88 consecutive patients with metastatic sarcoma were treated with SBRT for 120 spinal lesions. Seventy-one percent of patients were enrolled on prospective institutional protocols. For patients who underwent routine posttreatment total-spine MRI (64 patients, 88 lesions), each site of progression within the entire spinal axis was mapped in relation to the treated lesion. Actuarial rates of local-, adjacent-, and distant-segment failure-free survival (FFS) were calculated using the Kaplan-Meier method. RESULTS The median follow-up for the cohort was 14.4 months, with 81.7% of patients followed up until death. The 12-month actuarial rate of local FFS was 85.9%; however, 83.3% of local failures occurred in conjunction with distant-segment failures. The 12-month actuarial rates of isolated local-, adjacent-, and distant-segment FFS were 98.0%, 97.8%, and 74.7%, respectively. Of patients with any spinal progression (n = 55), only 25.5% (n = 14) had progression at a single vertebral level, with 60.0% (n = 33) having progression at ≥ 3 sites within the spine simultaneously. Linear regression analysis revealed a relationship of decreasing risk of failure with increasing distance from the treated index lesion (R(2) = 0.87), and 54.1% of failures occurred ≥ 5 vertebral levels away. Treatment of the index lesion with a lower biological effective dose (OR 3.2, 95% CI 1.1-9.2) and presence of local failure (OR 18.0, 95% CI 2.1-152.9) independently predicted for distant spine failure. CONCLUSIONS Isolated local- and adjacent-segment failures are exceptionally rare for patients with metastatic sarcoma to the spine treated with SBRT, thereby affirming the treatment of the involved level only. The majority of progression within the spinal

  18. A detailed study of the structure of the nested planetary nebula, Hb 12, the Matryoshka nebula

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, D. M.; López, J. A.; Edwards, M. L.; Winge, C. E-mail: jal@astrosen.unam.mx E-mail: cwinge@gemini.edu

    2014-11-01

    We present near-IR, integral field spectroscopic observations of the planetary nebula (PN) Hb 12 using Near-infrared Integral Field Spectrograph (NIFS) on Gemini-North. Combining NIFS with the adaptive optics system Altair, we provide a detailed study of the core and inner structure of this PN. We focus the analysis in the prominent emission lines [Fe II] (1.6436 μm), He I (2.0585 μm), H{sub 2} (2.1214 μm), and Br{sub γ} (2.16553 μm). We find that the [Fe II] emission traces a tilted system of bipolar lobes, with the northern lobe being redshifted and the southern lobe blueshifted. The [Fe II] emission is very faint at the core and only present close to the systemic velocity. There is no H{sub 2} emission in the core, whereas the core is prominent in the He I and Br{sub γ} recombination lines. The H{sub 2} emission is concentrated in equatorial arcs of emission surrounding the core and expanding at ∼30 km s{sup –1}. These arcs are compared with Hubble Space Telescope images and shown to represent nested loops belonging to the inner sections of a much larger bipolar structure that replicates the inner one. The He I and Br{sub γ} emission from the core clearly show a cylindrical central cavity that seems to represent the inner walls of an equatorial density enhancement or torus. The torus is 0.''2 wide (≡200 AU radius at a distance of 2000 pc) and expanding at ≤30 km s{sup –1}. The eastern wall of the inner torus is consistently more intense than the western wall, which could indicate the presence of an off-center star, such as is observed in the similar hourglass PN, MyCn 18. A bipolar outflow is also detected in Br{sub γ} emerging within 0.''1 from the core at ∼ ± 40 km s{sup –1}.

  19. Detailed studies of shock-cloud interaction toward the young supernova remnants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sano, H.; Fukui, Y.

    2016-06-01

    In young supernova remnants (SNRs; ˜2000 yrs), the study of the interaction between the shock waves and the inhomogeneous interstellar gas is a key element in understanding the SNR evolution, cosmic-ray acceleration, and multi-wavelength emission. In particular, TeV γ-ray and synchrotron X-ray bright SNRs, RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, and N132D have been considered good candidates for an efficient cosmic-ray accelerator via shock-cloud interaction (Sano et al. 2013, 2015a; Fukui 2013). In RXJ1713, we performed imaging and spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-rays and compared it with the interstellar gas distribution (Sano et al. 2013; 2015b). The shock interaction with dense gas clumps enhances turbulence and magnetic fields up to mG around the clumps, which was observed as limb-brightening of the synchrotron X-rays and hard spectra with photon indexes of less than 2.4. Moreover, turbulence and magnetic field amplifications may promote an additional acceleration of cosmic-ray electrons. In contrast, the synchrotron X-rays also become bright toward diffuse gas regions due to the high shock velocity. In this talk, we introduce the recent results of shock-cloud interaction toward RX J1713.7-3946, RX J0852.0-4622, and N132D using the Suzaku, XMM-Newton, Chandra X-rays, and interstellar gas datasets.

  20. Test-retest effects in treatment studies of reading disability: the devil is in the detail.

    PubMed

    McArthur, Genevieve

    2007-11-01

    Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78-96) claim to show that the 'dyslexia dyspraxia attention-deficit treatment' (DDAT) benefits children with reading difficulties. However, Rack, Snowling, Hulme, and Gibbs (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 97-104) argue that because this study did not include an untrained control group then 'all that needs to be postulated to explain the results reported is that children improve their scores on the DST screening tests simply as a result of repeated testing on the same activities' (p. 102). How likely is it that the linguistic gains reported by Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78-96) are due to test-retest effects? The results of previous exercise- and auditory-based treatment studies that included an untrained control group suggest that test-retest effects explain gains on around 50% of real-word reading tests, 33% of phonological recoding tests, 33% of phonological awareness tests, 17-25% of spoken language tests, and 15% of spelling tests. In addition, longer periods of time between test and retest sessions are associated with test-retest effects on measures of reading but not spoken language. These findings suggest that two of the four linguistic gains reported by Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78-96) are due to test-retest effects (phonemic segmentation and working memory). The remaining two tests are measures of spoken language and not reading. Hence, the data reported by Reynolds and Nicolson (Dyslexia, 2007; 13: 78-96) are not sufficient to support DDAT as an effective treatment for children with reading difficulties. PMID:17948880

  1. A Detailed Geochemical Study of Island Arc Crust: The Talkeetna Arc Section, South-central Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Greene, A. R.; Debari, S. M.; Kelemen, P. B.; Clift, P. D.; Blusztajn, J.

    2002-12-01

    The Talkeetna arc section in south-central Alaska is recognized as the exposed upper mantle and crust of an accreted, Late Triassic to Middle Jurassic island arc. Detailed geochemical studies of layered gabbronorite from the middle and lower crust of this arc and a diverse suite of volcanic and plutonic rocks from the middle and upper crust provide crucial data for understanding arc magma evolution. We also present new data on parental magma compositions for the arc. The deepest level of the arc section consists of residual mantle and ultramafic cumulates adjacent to garnet gabbro and basal gabbronorite interlayered with pyroxenite. The middle crust is primarily layered gabbronorite, ranging from anorthosite to pyroxenite in composition, and is the most widespread plutonic lithology. The upper mid crust is a heterogenous assemblage of dioritic to tonalitic rocks mixed with gabbro and intruded by abundant mafic dikes and chilled pillows. The upper crust of the arc is comprised of volcanic rocks of the Talkeetna Formation ranging from basalt to rhyolite. Most of these volcanic rocks have evolved compositions (<5% MgO, Mg# <60) and overlap the composition of intermediate to felsic plutonic rocks (<3.5% MgO, Mg# <45). However, several chilled mafic rocks and one basalt have primitive characteristics (>8% MgO, Mg# >60). Ion microprobe analyses of clinopyroxene in mid-crustal layered gabbronorites have parallel REE patterns with positive-sloping LREE segments (La/Sm(N)=0.05-0.17; mean 0.11) and flat HREE segments (5-25xchondrite; mean 10xchondrite). Liquids in REE equilibrium with the clinopyroxene in these gabbronorite cumulates were calculated in order to constrain parental magmas. These calculated liquids(La/Sm(N)=0.77-1.83; mean 1.26) all fall within the range of dike and volcanic rock(La/Sm(N)=0.78-2.12; mean 1.23) compositions. However, three lavas out of the 44 we have analyzed show strong HREE depletion, which is not observed in any of the liquid compositions

  2. Detail isotopic stratigraphy of snowpack - case study from Julian Alps (Slovenia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vreča, P.; Brenčič, M.; Sinjur, I.; Sokratov, S.

    2012-04-01

    In temperate humid catchments the storage of precipitation in snowpack, and the subsequent melting, both highly variable in space and time, substantially impacts the water cycle. Recent climate warming and changes in atmospheric circulation patterns have resulted in reductions in the duration of the snow cover season, the amount of water stored in the snowpack, as well as a widespread trend toward earlier melt. Comparison of water balance for periods 1961-90 and 1971-2000 showed that in Slovenia average precipitation amount remained the same in both periods while runoff decreased and the evaporation increased recently. The area of Julian Alps (NW Slovenia) represents the upper catchment area of river Sava. The area is locally characterised as one with the highest annual precipitation amount in Europe, rapid runoffs and low evaporation. Snow cover is regular, starts to accumulate in late autumn and lasts more than 100 days, at the upper tree line usually more than 150 days. Due to positive air temperature trend snow cover period is changing and consequently the discharge regime is affected. Spatial and temporal variability of snow, as well as snow cover contribution to the water balance in Julian Alps remains poorly investigated. Isotopes of O and H have been used to study snow deposition and the subsequent alteration of snowpack and its influence on runoff. Despite their potential, environmental isotopes were only rarely used in investigations of water cycle in mountain areas of Slovenia in the past. To improve the knowledge on snowpack isotope characteristics and processes in it, and consequently to enable better understanding of water balance with emphasize on recharge of important Slovene aquifers, in 2011 at selected site in the area of Triglav National Park (Planina Javornik) the first isotope research of snowpack has been started. We performed detail sampling of snowpack at two locations with different canopy structures (e.g. clearing and forest stand

  3. Health studies indicate MTBE is safe gasoline additive

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, E.V.

    1993-09-01

    Implementation of the oxygenated fuels program by EPA in 39 metropolitan areas, including Fairbanks and Anchorage, Alaska, in the winter of 1992, encountered some unexpected difficulties. Complaints of headaches, dizziness, nausea, and irritated eyes started in Fairbanks, jumped to Anchorage, and popped up in various locations in the lower 48 states. The suspected culprit behind these complaints was the main additive for oxygenation of gasoline is methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE). A test program, hastily organized in response to these complaints, has indicated that MTBE is a safe gasoline additive. However, official certification of the safety of MTBE is still awaited.

  4. Academic detailing.

    PubMed

    Shankar, P R; Jha, N; Piryani, R M; Bajracharya, O; Shrestha, R; Thapa, H S

    2010-01-01

    There are a number of sources available to prescribers to stay up to date about medicines. Prescribers in rural areas in developing countries however, may not able to access some of them. Interventions to improve prescribing can be educational, managerial, and regulatory or use a mix of strategies. Detailing by the pharmaceutical industry is widespread. Academic detailing (AD) has been classically seen as a form of continuing medical education in which a trained health professional such as a physician or pharmacist visits physicians in their offices to provide evidence-based information. Face-to-face sessions, preferably on an individual basis, clear educational and behavioural objectives, establishing credibility with respect to objectivity, stimulating physician interaction, use of concise graphic educational materials, highlighting key messages, and when possible, providing positive reinforcement of improved practices in follow-up visits can increase success of AD initiatives. AD is common in developed countries and certain examples have been cited in this review. In developing countries the authors have come across reports of AD in Pakistan, Sudan, Argentina and Uruguay, Bihar state in India, Zambia, Cuba, Indonesia and Mexico. AD had a consistent, small but potentially significant impact on prescribing practices. AD has much less resources at its command compared to the efforts by the industry. Steps have to be taken to formally start AD in Nepal and there may be specific hindering factors similar to those in other developing nations. PMID:21209521

  5. The Gas-rich Circumbinary Disk of HR 4049. II. A Detailed Study of the Near-infrared Spectrum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J.

    2014-10-01

    HR 4049 is a peculiar evolved binary surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Mid-infrared observations show that the disk is rich in molecular gas and radially extended. To study the properties of this disk, we re-analyzed a set of near-infrared observations at high spectral resolution obtained with Gemini-Phoenix. These data cover absorption lines originating from the first overtone of CO and from H2O in the 2.3 μm region as well as more complex emission-absorption profiles from H2O and the fundamental mode of CO near 4.6 μm. By using an excitation diagram and from modeling the spectrum, we find that most of the CO overtone and H2O absorption originates from hot gas (T ex ≈ 1000 K) with high column densities, consistent with the mid-infrared data. The strong emission in the wavelength range of the CO fundamental furthermore suggests that there is a significant quantity of gas in the inner cavity of the disk. In addition, there is a much colder component in the line of sight to the disk. A detailed analysis of the overtone line profiles reveals variations in the line widths that are consistent with a radially extended disk in Keplerian rotation with hotter gas closer to the central star. We estimate the mass of the primary to be ~0.34 M ⊙ and discuss the implications for its evolutionary status.

  6. A detailed experimental study of n-propylcyclohexane autoignition in lean conditions

    SciTech Connect

    Crochet, M.; Minetti, R.; Ribaucour, M.; Vanhove, G.

    2010-11-15

    The autoignition chemistry of lean n-propylcyclohexane/''air'' mixtures ({phi} = 0.3, 0.4, 0.5) was investigated in a rapid compression machine at compressed gas temperatures ranging from 620 to 930 K and pressures ranging from 0.45 to 1.34 MPa. Cool flame and ignition delay times were measured. Cool flame delay times were found to follow an Arrhenius behavior, and a correlation including pressure and equivalence ratio dependences was deduced. The present ignition delay data were compared with recent experimental results and simulations from the available thermokinetic models in the literature. Negative temperature coefficient zones were observed when plotting ignition delay times versus compressed gas temperature. The oxidation products were identified and quantified during the ignition delay period. Formation pathways for the C{sub 9} bicyclic ethers and conjugate alkenes are proposed. The experimental data provide an extensive database to test detailed thermokinetic oxidation models. (author)

  7. NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - ROBERT E POST - STUDYING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF A GENERAL ELECTRIC GE ION

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1963-01-01

    NEW EMPLOYEE ON THE JOB - ROBERT E POST - STUDYING CONSTRUCTION DETAILS OF A GENERAL ELECTRIC GE ION EXCHANGE MEMBRANE FUEL CELL - THIS IS ONE OF SEVERAL TYPES OF FUEL CELLS BEING STUDIED AT NASA LEWIS RESEARCH CENTER FOR SUITABILITY FOR USE IN THE

  8. A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame

    PubMed Central

    Tian, Zhenyu; Pitz, William J.; Fournet, René; Glaude, Pierre-Alexander; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique

    2013-01-01

    An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C4 + C2 species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C6H4CH3 radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a methyl C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C6H4CH3 radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics. PMID:23762016

  9. A detailed gravity study of the Chattolanee Baltimore Gneiss Dome, Maryland, U.S.A.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kodama, Kenneth P.; Chapin, David A.

    1984-05-01

    A detailed gravity survey over the Chattolanee Baltimore Gneiss Dome in the Maryland Piedmont suggests that the dome is an arched recumbent fold. The Baltimore Gneiss, which cores the dome, has a negative density contrast with the surrounding Cambro-Ordovician marbles and schists and is coincident with a large minimum in the simple Bouguer gravity. Three north-south profiles, which cut across the east-west-trending surface exposure of the dome were modeled two-dimensionally. The models suggest that the Baltimore Gneiss is thickest and tightly folded in an inverted V shape to the east and thinner and broadly arched to the west. It is also possible to fit the gravity data with a mushroom-shaped body at the easternmost profile, which could suggest a diapiric origin for the dome, but this interpretation is not favored based on geological arguments. The Baltimore Mafic Complex, located to the south of the Chattolanee Dome, can be modeled as an approximately 1 km thick slab with a subhorizontal base, suggesting that it is a thrust sheet. By analogy with the Phoenix Baltimore Gneiss Dome, mapped by Crowley [2], the Cambro-Ordovician sediments surrounding the Chattolanee Dome may also be involved in the recumbent folding which would suggest that the dome was formed during the Ordovician Taconic orogeny.

  10. A detailed kinetic modeling study of toluene oxidation in a premixed laminar flame

    SciTech Connect

    Tian, Z; Pitz, W J; Fournet, R; Glaude, P; Battin-Leclerc, F

    2009-12-18

    An improved chemical kinetic model for the toluene oxidation based on experimental data obtained in a premixed laminar low-pressure flame with vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) photoionization and molecular beam mass spectrometry (MBMS) techniques has been proposed. The present mechanism consists of 273 species up to chrysene and 1740 reactions. The rate constants of reactions of toluene, decomposition, reaction with oxygen, ipso-additions and metatheses with abstraction of phenylic H-atom are updated; new pathways of C{sub 4} + C{sub 2} species giving benzene and fulvene are added. Based on the experimental observations, combustion intermediates such as fulvenallene, naphtol, methylnaphthalene, acenaphthylene, 2-ethynylnaphthalene, phenanthrene, anthracene, 1-methylphenanthrene, pyrene and chrysene are involved in the present mechanism. The final toluene model leads to an overall satisfactory agreement between the experimentally observed and predicted mole fraction profiles for the major products and most combustion intermediates. The toluene depletion is governed by metathese giving benzyl radicals, ipso-addition forming benzene and metatheses leading to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals. A sensitivity analysis indicates that the unimolecular decomposition via the cleavage of a C-H bond has a strong inhibiting effect, while decomposition via C-C bond breaking, ipso-addition of H-atom to toluene, decomposition of benzyl radicals and reactions related to C{sub 6}H{sub 4}CH{sub 3} radicals have promoting effect for the consumption of toluene. Moreover, flow rate analysis is performed to illustrate the formation pathways of mono- and polycyclic aromatics.

  11. A study of detailed dosimetry records for a selected group of workers included in the Hanford mortality study

    SciTech Connect

    Gilbert, E.S.

    1990-09-01

    Detailed dosimetry data from microfiche and microfilm in source records for the years 1944--1978 for 139 Hanford workers were examined. Information on these records was compared with computerized dose equivalent estimates used in mortality analyses. Because of difficulties in reading some early source records, and because of variation in the format of records and in algorithms for calculating whole body dose, this validation was difficult. However, apparent discrepancies in cumulative dose were less than 0.1 rem for 88% of the workers in this study, never exceeded 1.5 rem, and would be unlikely to distort conclusions of dose-response analyses. Most discrepancies occurred in early years of Hanford operations, especially 1944--46, with very few problems with dose estimates from the 1960's and 1970's. The study also provided data dosimetry practices, by calendar year, on frequency of monitoring, the number and proportion of dosimeters yielding positive results, and the magnitude of doses recorded for individual dosimeters. 7 refs., 5 figs., 13 tabs.

  12. A high temperature and atmospheric pressure experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2-methyl furan oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Kieran P.; Simmie, John M.; Gillespie, Fiona; Burke, Ultan; Connolly, Jessica; Metcalfe, Wayne K.; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Curran, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    An experimental ignition delay time study for the promising biofuel 2-methyl furan (2MF) was performed at equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 for mixtures of 1% fuel in argon in the temperature range 1200–1800 K at atmospheric pressure. Laminar burning velocities were determined using the heat-flux method for mixtures of 2MF in air at equivalence ratios of 0.55–1.65, initial temperatures of 298–398 K and atmospheric pressure. A detailed chemical kinetic mechanism consisting of 2059 reactions and 391 species has been constructed to describe the oxidation of 2MF and is used to simulate experiment. Accurate reproduction of the experimental data has been obtained over all conditions with the developed mechanism. Rate of production and sensitivity analyses have been carried out to identify important consumption pathways of the fuel and key kinetic parameters under these conditions. The reactions of hydrogen atom with the fuel are highlighted as important under all experimental conditions studied, with abstraction by the hydrogen atom promoting reactivity and hydrogen atom addition to the furan ring inhibiting reactivity. This work, to the authors knowledge, is the first to combine theoretical and experimental work to describe the oxidation of any of the alkylated furans. The mechanism developed herein to describe 2MF combustion should also function as a sub-mechanism to describe the oxidation of 2,5-dimethyl furan whilst also providing key insights into the oxidation of this similar biofuel candidate. PMID:23814505

  13. Detail studies of the physical properties in the outer regions of galaxy clusters using Suzaku observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babyk, Yu. V.

    2016-06-01

    A detailed physical analysis of five nearby galaxy clusters using Suzaku observationsis presented. The low and stable level of the instrumental background at large radii facilitate the determination of the main physical characteristics in clusters at the virial radius. The temperatures, metal abundances, and entropy profiles have been constructed out to the outskirts of the clusters. The temperature profiles all display the same shape, with a negative gradient towards to the center and a flat outer plateau. The strong temperature gradients in the central parts of the clusters are usually associated with strong peaks of the surface brightness profiles. The temperature systematically decrease outward from the central regions, by a factor of three at and slightly beyond the cluster outskirts. The temperature profiles are compared with profiles predicted by N-body and hydrodynamical simulations obtained using several numerical algorithms. The slopes in the observed and simulated temperature profiles are consistent with each other in the cluster outskirts. The central regions of the clusters are characterized by low entropy and high metallicity. The possible influence of cool cores on the cluster outskirts is also discussed. The total mass profiles were determined using the observed gas-density and temperature profiles, assuming hydrostatic equilibriumand spherical symmetry. The gas-density profiles were fitted using an improved three-dimensional model to fit the inner and outer regions of the cluster independently. The total mass profiles were described using an NFW model out to R 200. The measurements show clear evidence for universality of the total mass distribution. The scaled mass profiles in units of R 200 and M 200 display a dispersion of ~15% at 0.1 R 200. The fraction of gas out to R 200 was also found.

  14. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    SciTech Connect

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Smith, M.F.; Jonasson, I.R.

    1994-06-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85{degree}49 feet W and 85{degree} 55 feet W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens` equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (<10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems. 50 refs., 10 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Detailed study of the nuclear dependence of the EMC effect and short-range correlations

    SciTech Connect

    Arrington, J.; Daniel, A.; Day, D. B.; Fomin, N.; Gaskell, D.; Solvignon, P.

    2012-12-01

    Background: The density of the nucleus has been important in explaining the nuclear dependence of the quark distributions, also known as the EMC effect, as well as the presence of high-momentum nucleons arising from short-range correlations (SRCs). Recent measurements of both of these effects on light nuclei have shown a clear deviation from simple density-dependent models. Purpose: A better understanding of the nuclear quark distributions and short-range correlations requires a careful examination of the experimental data on these effects to constrain models that attempt to describe these phenomena. Methods: We present a detailed analysis of the nuclear dependence of the EMC effect and the contribution of SRCs in nuclei, comparing to predictions and simple scaling models based on different pictures of the underlying physics. We also make a direct, quantitative comparison of the two effects to further examine the connection between these two observables related to nuclear structure. Results: We find that, with the inclusion of the new data on light nuclei, neither of these observables can be well explained by common assumptions for the nuclear dependence. The anomalous behavior of both effects in light nuclei is consistent with the idea that the EMC effect is driven by either the presence of high-density configurations in nuclei or the large virtuality of the high-momentum nucleons associated with these configurations. Conclusions: The unexpected nuclear dependence in the measurements of the EMC effect and SRC contributions appear to suggest that the local environment of the struck nucleon is the most relevant quantity for explaining these results. The common behavior suggests a connection between the two seemingly disparate phenomena, but the data do not yet allow for a clear preference between models which aim to explain this connection.

  16. Hydrothermal alteration in oceanic ridge volcanics: A detailed study at the Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ridley, W.I.; Perfit, M.R.; Josnasson, I.R.; Smith, M.F.

    1994-01-01

    The Galapagos Fossil Hydrothermal Field is composed of altered oceanic crust and extinct hydrothermal vents within the eastern Galapagos Rift between 85??49???W and 85??55???W. The discharge zone of the hydrothermal system is revealed along scarps, thus providing an opportunity to examine the uppermost mineralized, and highly altered interior parts of the crust. Altered rocks collected in situ by the submersible ALVIN show complex concentric alteration zones. Microsamples of individual zones have been analysed for major/minor, trace elements, and strontium isotopes in order to describe the complex compositional details of the hydrothermal alteration. Interlayered chlorite-smectite and chlorite with disequilibrium compositions dominate the secondary mineralogy as replacement phases of primary glass and acicular pyroxene. Phenocrysts and matrix grains of plagioclase are unaffected during alteration. Using a modification of the Gresens' equation we demonstrate that the trivalent rare earth elements (REEs) are relatively immobile, and calculate degrees of enrichment and depletion in other elements. Strontium isotopic ratios increase as Sr concentrations decrease from least-altered cores to most-altered rims and cross-cutting veins in individual samples, and can be modeled by open system behaviour under low fluid-rock ratio (< 10) conditions following a period of lower-temperature weathering of volcanics within the rift zone. The complex patterns of element enrichment and depletion and strontium isotope variations indicate mixing between pristine seawater and ascending hot fluids to produce a compositional spectrum of fluids. The precipitation of base-metal sulfides beneath the seafloor is probably a result of fluid mixing and cooling. If, as suggested here, the discharge zone alteration occurred under relatively low fluid-rock ratios, then this shallow region must play an important role in determining the exit composition of vent fluids in marine hydrothermal systems

  17. Additional Treatments Offer Little Benefit for Pancreatic Cancer: Study

    MedlinePlus

    ... of gastroenterology-pancreatology at Beaujon Hospital, in Clichy, France. The study was funded by the pharmaceutical company ... D., department of gastroenterology-pancreatology, Beaujon Hospital, Clichy, France; Deborah Schrag, M.D., M.P.H., chief ...

  18. NMR relaxometry study of plaster mortar with polymer additives

    SciTech Connect

    Jumate, E.; Manea, D.; Moldovan, D.; Fechete, R.

    2013-11-13

    The cement mixed with water forms a plastic paste or slurry which stiffness in time and finally hardens into a resistant stone. The addition of sand aggregates, polymers (Walocel) and/or calcium carbonate will modify dramatically the final mortar mechanic and thermal properties. The hydration processes can be observed using the 1D NMR measurements of transverse T{sub 2} relaxation times distributions analysed by a Laplace inversion algorithm. These distributions were obtained for mortar pasta measured at 2 hours after preparation then at 3, 7 and 28 days after preparation. Multiple components are identified in the T{sub 2} distributions. These can be associated with the proton bounded chemical or physical to the mortar minerals characterized by a short T{sub 2} relaxation time and to water protons in pores with three different pore sizes as observed from SEM images. The evaporation process is faster in the first hours after preparation, while the mortar hydration (bonding of water molecules to mortar minerals) can be still observed after days or months from preparation. Finally, the mechanic resistance was correlated with the transverse T{sub 2} relaxation rates corresponding to the bound water.

  19. Molecular Details of Olfactomedin Domains Provide Pathway to Structure-Function Studies

    PubMed Central

    Hill, Shannon E.; Donegan, Rebecca K.; Nguyen, Elaine; Desai, Tanay M.; Lieberman, Raquel L.

    2015-01-01

    Olfactomedin (OLF) domains are found within extracellular, multidomain proteins in numerous tissues of multicellular organisms. Even though these proteins have been implicated in human disorders ranging from cancers to attention deficit disorder to glaucoma, little is known about their structure(s) and function(s). Here we biophysically, biochemically, and structurally characterize OLF domains from H. sapiens olfactomedin-1 (npoh-OLF, also called noelin, pancortin, OLFM1, and hOlfA), and M. musculus gliomedin (glio-OLF, also called collomin, collmin, and CRG-L2), and compare them with available structures of myocilin (myoc-OLF) recently reported by us and R. norvegicus glio-OLF and M. musculus latrophilin-3 (lat3-OLF) by others. Although the five-bladed β-propeller architecture remains unchanged, numerous physicochemical characteristics differ among these OLF domains. First, npoh-OLF and glio-OLF exhibit prominent, yet distinct, positive surface charges and copurify with polynucleotides. Second, whereas npoh-OLF and myoc-OLF exhibit thermal stabilities typical of human proteins near 55°C, and most myoc-OLF variants are destabilized and highly prone to aggregation, glio-OLF is nearly 20°C more stable and significantly more resistant to chemical denaturation. Phylogenetically, glio-OLF is most similar to primitive OLFs, and structurally, glio-OLF is missing distinguishing features seen in OLFs such as the disulfide bond formed by N- and C- terminal cysteines, the sequestered Ca2+ ion within the propeller central hydrophilic cavity, and a key loop-stabilizing cation-π interaction on the top face of npoh-OLF and myoc-OLF. While deciphering the explicit biological functions, ligands, and binding partners for OLF domains will likely continue to be a challenging long-term experimental pursuit, we used structural insights gained here to generate a new antibody selective for myoc-OLF over npoh-OLF and glio-OLF as a first step in overcoming the impasse in detailed

  20. Molecular Details of Olfactomedin Domains Provide Pathway to Structure-Function Studies.

    PubMed

    Hill, Shannon E; Donegan, Rebecca K; Nguyen, Elaine; Desai, Tanay M; Lieberman, Raquel L

    2015-01-01

    Olfactomedin (OLF) domains are found within extracellular, multidomain proteins in numerous tissues of multicellular organisms. Even though these proteins have been implicated in human disorders ranging from cancers to attention deficit disorder to glaucoma, little is known about their structure(s) and function(s). Here we biophysically, biochemically, and structurally characterize OLF domains from H. sapiens olfactomedin-1 (npoh-OLF, also called noelin, pancortin, OLFM1, and hOlfA), and M. musculus gliomedin (glio-OLF, also called collomin, collmin, and CRG-L2), and compare them with available structures of myocilin (myoc-OLF) recently reported by us and R. norvegicus glio-OLF and M. musculus latrophilin-3 (lat3-OLF) by others. Although the five-bladed β-propeller architecture remains unchanged, numerous physicochemical characteristics differ among these OLF domains. First, npoh-OLF and glio-OLF exhibit prominent, yet distinct, positive surface charges and copurify with polynucleotides. Second, whereas npoh-OLF and myoc-OLF exhibit thermal stabilities typical of human proteins near 55°C, and most myoc-OLF variants are destabilized and highly prone to aggregation, glio-OLF is nearly 20°C more stable and significantly more resistant to chemical denaturation. Phylogenetically, glio-OLF is most similar to primitive OLFs, and structurally, glio-OLF is missing distinguishing features seen in OLFs such as the disulfide bond formed by N- and C- terminal cysteines, the sequestered Ca2+ ion within the propeller central hydrophilic cavity, and a key loop-stabilizing cation-π interaction on the top face of npoh-OLF and myoc-OLF. While deciphering the explicit biological functions, ligands, and binding partners for OLF domains will likely continue to be a challenging long-term experimental pursuit, we used structural insights gained here to generate a new antibody selective for myoc-OLF over npoh-OLF and glio-OLF as a first step in overcoming the impasse in detailed

  1. NASA TLA workload analysis support. Volume 1: Detailed task scenarios for general aviation and metering and spacing studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sundstrom, J. L.

    1980-01-01

    The techniques required to produce and validate six detailed task timeline scenarios for crew workload studies are described. Specific emphasis is given to: general aviation single pilot instrument flight rules operations in a high density traffic area; fixed path metering and spacing operations; and comparative workload operation between the forward and aft-flight decks of the NASA terminal control vehicle. The validation efforts also provide a cursory examination of the resultant demand workload based on the operating procedures depicted in the detailed task scenarios.

  2. The gas-rich circumbinary disk of HR 4049. II. A detailed study of the near-infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J. E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca

    2014-10-20

    HR 4049 is a peculiar evolved binary surrounded by a circumbinary disk. Mid-infrared observations show that the disk is rich in molecular gas and radially extended. To study the properties of this disk, we re-analyzed a set of near-infrared observations at high spectral resolution obtained with Gemini-Phoenix. These data cover absorption lines originating from the first overtone of CO and from H{sub 2}O in the 2.3 μm region as well as more complex emission-absorption profiles from H{sub 2}O and the fundamental mode of CO near 4.6 μm. By using an excitation diagram and from modeling the spectrum, we find that most of the CO overtone and H{sub 2}O absorption originates from hot gas (T {sub ex} ≈ 1000 K) with high column densities, consistent with the mid-infrared data. The strong emission in the wavelength range of the CO fundamental furthermore suggests that there is a significant quantity of gas in the inner cavity of the disk. In addition, there is a much colder component in the line of sight to the disk. A detailed analysis of the overtone line profiles reveals variations in the line widths that are consistent with a radially extended disk in Keplerian rotation with hotter gas closer to the central star. We estimate the mass of the primary to be ∼0.34 M {sub ☉} and discuss the implications for its evolutionary status.

  3. A comprehensive experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2,5-dimethylfuran pyrolysis and oxidation

    PubMed Central

    Somers, Kieran P.; Simmie, John M.; Gillespie, Fiona; Conroy, Christine; Black, Gráinne; Metcalfe, Wayne K.; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Dagaut, Philippe; Togbé, Casimir; Yasunaga, Kenji; Fernandes, Ravi X.; Lee, Changyoul; Tripathi, Rupali; Curran, Henry J.

    2013-01-01

    unexplored intermediate temperature combustion pathways of 25DMF. Hydroxyl radical addition to the furan ring is highlighted as an important fuel consuming reaction, leading to the formation of methyl vinyl ketone and acetyl radical. The chemically activated recombination of HȮ2 or CH3Ȯ2 with the 5-methyl-2-furanylmethyl radical, forming a 5-methyl-2-furylmethanoxy radical and ȮH or CH3Ȯ radical is also found to exhibit significant control over ignition delay times, as well as being important reactions in the prediction of species profiles in a JSR. Kinetics for the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the alkyl side-chain of the fuel by molecular oxygen and HȮ2 radical are found to be sensitive in the estimation of ignition delay times for fuel-air mixtures from temperatures of 820–1200 K. At intermediate temperatures, the resonantly stabilised 5-methyl-2-furanylmethyl radical is found to predominantly undergo bimolecular reactions, and as a result sub-mechanisms for 5-methyl-2-formylfuran and 5-methyl-2-ethylfuran, and their derivatives, have also been developed with consumption pathways proposed. This study is the first to attempt to simulate the combustion of these species in any detail, although future refinements are likely necessary. The current study illustrates both quantitatively and qualitatively the complex chemical behavior of what is a high potential biofuel. Whilst the current work is the most comprehensive study on the oxidation of 25DMF in the literature to date, the mechanism cannot accurately reproduce laminar burning velocity measurements over a suitable range of unburnt gas temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios, although discrepancies in the experimental literature data are highlighted. Resolving this issue should remain a focus of future work. PMID:24273333

  4. A comprehensive experimental and detailed chemical kinetic modelling study of 2,5-dimethylfuran pyrolysis and oxidation.

    PubMed

    Somers, Kieran P; Simmie, John M; Gillespie, Fiona; Conroy, Christine; Black, Gráinne; Metcalfe, Wayne K; Battin-Leclerc, Frédérique; Dirrenberger, Patricia; Herbinet, Olivier; Glaude, Pierre-Alexandre; Dagaut, Philippe; Togbé, Casimir; Yasunaga, Kenji; Fernandes, Ravi X; Lee, Changyoul; Tripathi, Rupali; Curran, Henry J

    2013-11-01

    intermediate temperature combustion pathways of 25DMF. Hydroxyl radical addition to the furan ring is highlighted as an important fuel consuming reaction, leading to the formation of methyl vinyl ketone and acetyl radical. The chemically activated recombination of HȮ2 or CH3Ȯ2 with the 5-methyl-2-furanylmethyl radical, forming a 5-methyl-2-furylmethanoxy radical and ȮH or CH3Ȯ radical is also found to exhibit significant control over ignition delay times, as well as being important reactions in the prediction of species profiles in a JSR. Kinetics for the abstraction of a hydrogen atom from the alkyl side-chain of the fuel by molecular oxygen and HȮ2 radical are found to be sensitive in the estimation of ignition delay times for fuel-air mixtures from temperatures of 820-1200 K. At intermediate temperatures, the resonantly stabilised 5-methyl-2-furanylmethyl radical is found to predominantly undergo bimolecular reactions, and as a result sub-mechanisms for 5-methyl-2-formylfuran and 5-methyl-2-ethylfuran, and their derivatives, have also been developed with consumption pathways proposed. This study is the first to attempt to simulate the combustion of these species in any detail, although future refinements are likely necessary. The current study illustrates both quantitatively and qualitatively the complex chemical behavior of what is a high potential biofuel. Whilst the current work is the most comprehensive study on the oxidation of 25DMF in the literature to date, the mechanism cannot accurately reproduce laminar burning velocity measurements over a suitable range of unburnt gas temperatures, pressures and equivalence ratios, although discrepancies in the experimental literature data are highlighted. Resolving this issue should remain a focus of future work. PMID:24273333

  5. Additional EIPC Study Analysis: Interim Report on High Priority Topics

    SciTech Connect

    Hadley, Stanton W

    2013-11-01

    Between 2010 and 2012 the Eastern Interconnection Planning Collaborative (EIPC) conducted a major long-term resource and transmission study of the Eastern Interconnection (EI). With guidance from a Stakeholder Steering Committee (SSC) that included representatives from the Eastern Interconnection States Planning Council (EISPC) among others, the project was conducted in two phases. Phase 1 involved a long-term capacity expansion analysis that involved creation of eight major futures plus 72 sensitivities. Three scenarios were selected for more extensive transmission- focused evaluation in Phase 2. Five power flow analyses, nine production cost model runs (including six sensitivities), and three capital cost estimations were developed during this second phase. The results from Phase 1 and 2 provided a wealth of data that could be examined further to address energy-related questions. A list of 13 topics was developed for further analysis; this paper discusses the first five.

  6. Functionalized gold nanoparticles: a detailed in vivo multimodal microscopic brain distribution study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Fernanda; Mandal, Subhra; Garrovo, Chiara; Astolfo, Alberto; Bonifacio, Alois; Latawiec, Diane; Menk, Ralf Hendrik; Arfelli, Fulvia; Huewel, Sabine; Legname, Giuseppe; Galla, Hans-Joachim; Krol, Silke

    2010-12-01

    In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex.In the present study, the in vivo distribution of polyelectrolyte multilayer coated gold nanoparticles is shown, starting from the living animal down to cellular level. The coating was designed with functional moieties to serve as a potential nano drug for prion disease. With near infrared time-domain imaging we followed the biodistribution in mice up to 7 days after intravenous injection of the nanoparticles. The peak concentration in the head of mice was detected between 19 and 24 h. The precise particle distribution in the brain was studied ex vivo by X-ray microtomography, confocal laser and fluorescence microscopy. We found that the particles mainly accumulate in the hippocampus, thalamus, hypothalamus, and the cerebral cortex. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Fig. S1-S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00345j

  7. Test-Retest Effects in Treatment Studies of Reading Disability: The Devil Is in the Detail

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McArthur, Genevieve

    2007-01-01

    Reynolds and Nicolson ("Dyslexia," 2007; 13: 78-96) claim to show that the "dyslexia dyspraxia attention-deficit treatment" (DDAT) benefits children with reading difficulties. However, Rack, Snowling, Hulme, and Gibbs ("Dyslexia," 2007; 13: 97-104) argue that because this study did not include an untrained control group then "all that needs to be…

  8. A study of design details of rocket engine swirl injection elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hutt, John Joseph

    2000-10-01

    The performance of a tangential-entry swirl injection element was studied based on the efficiency of the design in converting injector pressure drop into propellant momentum for mixing. For swirl injection, the most efficient use of the pressure drop favors configurations that maximize the transverse components of momentum as opposed to the axial component. Designs were tested that utilize up to 70% of the available pressure drop for producing dynamic pressure with up to 28% of the pressure drop converted into the transverse components of momentum. This compares quite favorably with the liquid flow of a shear-coaxial injector that uses nominally 15% of the pressure drop as axial dynamic pressure with 0% in the transverse components. For the geometries studied a turndown ratio of approximately 1.1 (ratio of upstream flow diameter to exit diameter) and a tangential inlet area 87% of the injector post upstream cross-sectional area produced the highest efficiency. These design parameters can be applied to any system by changing the inlet width to accommodate available system pressure drop without affecting overall efficiency with only small reductions in the transverse efficiency with reduced pressure drop. Studies were conducted to determine the parameters that controlled element efficiency and the relative importance of each controlling parameter. These studies included both an analytical and experimental investigation. Experiments were conducted using water as a propellant simulant flowing into open air. The injector elements studied were constructed of acrylic to allow flow visualization and measurements of the internal flow structure. The analytical model extended inviscid theory to include wall friction through friction factors. As part of the model development, it was necessary to review and clarify discrepancies in the literature concerning the inviscid treatment of the problem. The inviscid theory of the "choked" behavior of the flow was supported in this

  9. On the nature of sn stars. I. A detailed abundance study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saffe, C.; Levato, H.

    2014-02-01

    The sn stars were first discoved by Abt & Levato when studying the spectral types in different open clusters. These stars present sharp Balmer lines, sharp metallic lines (C II, Si II, Ca II, Ti II, Fe II), and broad coreless He I lines. Some of the sn stars seem to be related to CP stars. Initially Abt & Levato proposed a shell-like nature to explain the sn stars, although this scenario was subsequently questioned. There is no general agreement about their origin. We aim to derive abundances for a sample of 9 stars, including sn and non-sn stars, to determine the possible relation between sn and CP stars and compare their chemical abundances. That most sn stars belong to open clusters allows us to search for a possible relation with fundamental parameters, including the age and rotation. We also study the possible contribution of different effects to the broad He I lines observed in these stars, such as Stark broadening and the possible He-stratification. Effective temperature and gravity were estimated by Strömgren photometry and then refined by requiring ionization and excitation equilibrium of Fe lines. We derived the abundances by fitting the observed spectra with synthetic spectra using an iterative procedure with the SYNTHE and ATLAS9 codes. We derived metallic abundances of 23 different chemical elements for 9 stars and obtained low projected rotational velocities for the sn stars in our sample (vsini up to 69 km s-1). We also compared 5 stars that belong to the same cluster (NGC 6475) and show that the sn characteristics appear in the 3 stars with the lower rotational velocity. However, the apparent preference of sn stars for objects with the lower vsini values should be taken with caution due to the small number of objects studied here. We analysed the photospheric chemical composition of sn stars and show that approximately ~40% of them display chemical peculiarities (such as He-weak and HgMn stars) within a range of temperature of 10 300 K-14 500 K

  10. Recent changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation in detailed case studies of northern aapa mires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahvanainen, Teemu; Kumpula, Timo; Tolonen, Kimmo

    2016-04-01

    Aapa mires are northern mire complexes with typical patterned central fen areas and relatively thin peat layers. In principle, aapa mires could develop into raised bogs either 1) through autogenic succession, given enough time for peat accumulation or 2) through allogenic mechanism triggered by hydrological change. Climate change models predict that the climatic envelop of aapa mires will move north and, indeed, that hydrology may change sufficiently to cause allogenic change pressure. Potential resilience or pace of ecosystem-scale responses are poorly understood, however, in the case of aapa mires. We studied recent (ca. 60 years) changes in vegetation, hydrotopography and peat accumulation of two aapa mires at their southern limit of distribution in eastern Finland. We used repeated sampling after 60 years combined with peat stratigraphy and time-series of aerial images in a multi-proxy approach. The study site at the Valkeasuo mire was affected by extensive drainage activities in its catchment, while the aapa mire area itself was not drained. This resulted in the loss of minerotrophic hydrology that lead to rapid changes over the whole patterned fen area. Wet minerotrophic sedge fen vegetation was almost totally covered by ombrotrophic Sphagnum mosses within few decades. Even up to 50 cm high hummocks emerged on the patterned fen strings in an abrupt response that could be precisely dated by simultaneous encroachment of pine seedlings and from the aerial images. The recent apparent rate of carbon accumulation of the new Sphagnum peat was ca. 100 g m-2 -a. The other study site in the Ilajansuo aapa mire persists in a more pristine setting without significant disturbance in its catchment area. Here the mineral-water limit was studied across a transition between a bog zone and an aapa mire zone of the mire complex. We were able to exactly locate a 100 x 300-m special study area and repeat e.g. mapping of all trees, of all topographic patterns (hummocks, hollows

  11. A detailed study of the magnetic phase transition in CuCrO2.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, G; Podlesnyak, A A; Frontzek, M; Freitas, R S; Ghivelder, L; Gardner, J S; Shiryaev, S V; Barilo, S

    2013-12-11

    The phase transition in CuCrO2 to an ordered magnetic state is studied with bulk measurements and elastic and inelastic neutron scattering techniques. The reported onset of spontaneous electric polarization at T = 23.5 K coincides with the appearance, on cooling, of elastic magnetic scattering. At higher temperatures long range magnetic correlations gradually develop but they are dynamic. The ground state is characterized by three-dimensional long range magnetic ordering but along the c direction the correlation length remains limited to ∼200 Å. PMID:24214902

  12. In detail.

    PubMed

    Segal, Nancy L

    2003-06-01

    Two families with twins - one in which adult DZ twins continue to face the risk of frontotemporal dementia, and the other in which a mother copes with brittle bones in a newborn infant MZ pair - are featured. The nature and progress of the disorders are reviewed and personal perspectives from the twins and other family members are variously provided. Next, four current twin studies are briefly summarized. Topics include sex differences in social support systems, new reproductive technologies, comparative twin-singleton frequencies of placenta previa, and the nature and complications of heterotopic pregnancies. This article concludes with a brief sampling of human interest stories involving twins: a different looking DZ pair, newborn sextuplets, conjoined twins and opposite-sex twin athletes. PMID:12855074

  13. Total human environmental exposure study (THEES) of benzo(a)pyrene: Details of chemical analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Greenberg, A.; Liang, C.; Suyi Luo; Chen, S.; Ouyang Zheng ); Butler, J. ); Waldman, J.; Lioy, P. )

    1988-09-01

    The THEES project is being conducted in Phillipsburg, New Jersey, population approximately 16,500, in the rural western part of the State. A major smoke stack industry in the center of town, a grey iron pipe manufacturing company, has existed since 1856. Other major local outdoor sources are space heating and motor vehicle traffic. BaP is an attractive subject for this study because a simple, sensitive analysis, based upon thin layer chromatography (TLC) and plate-scanning fluorescence. The TLC-fluorescence technique is sensitive enough to allow it to be employed for indoor and even personal samples. One other attractive feature to BaP relates to the knowledge of its metabolites. One feature of the present program is their attempt to relate exposure levels to the amounts of BaP metabolites found in body fluids and excretion and elimination products. A clever simplified analysis for PAH metabolites based upon reverse metabolism was developed by Becher and Bjorseth. They reduce, in principle, a 1,000-2,000 PAH metabolite problem to a 100-200 PAH problem. They have attempted further reduction to a one PAH problem. However, they have also studied the PAH-metabolite reduction reaction in more depth.

  14. Detailed studies of selected, well-exposed fracture zones in the Adirondack Mountains dome, New York

    SciTech Connect

    Wiener, R.W.; Isachsen, Y.W.

    1987-01-01

    The Adirondack Mountains constitute a relatively young (Mesozoic, Cenozoic) dome on the craton. The dome is undergoing contemporary uplift, based on geodetic releveling, and is seismically active. The breached dome provides a very large window through Paleozoic cover and thus permits ground study of the fracture systems that characterize the seismogenic basement and influence the patterns of brittle deformation that are found in overlying Paleozoic rocks of the platform. The predominant fracture zones are linear valleys that trend NNE to NE, parallel to the long axis of the dome. The 36 field studies of the lineament segments discussed in this report suggest that the prominent NE to NNE fracture systems in the eastern Adirondacks are dominantly high angle faults down-stepped to the east, whereas those in the central Adirondacks are dominantly zero-displacement crackle zones. The origin of these features is related to the rapid uplift of the Adirondack dome. Similar features can be expected to be found in other areas of domal uplift or rapid regional uplift.

  15. A new software package for detailed study of cosmic rays transport trough the Earth atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maurchev, Eugene; Vashenyuk, Eduard; Balabin, Yury

    To study cosmic rays (CR) in the Earth atmosphere there are great number of methods both experimental and numerical. As an example, for the first can give balloon measurements, a neutron monitor research, a muon telescope research, etc. All of these experiments provide information about a particle fluxes in a given field space and have several limitations. For example, CR intensity can be estimated with using different tube counters, but in some problems it is needed to know the spectral and angular characteristics of particles in depend on altitude. This problem can be solved by numerical models of the cosmic rays propagation through the Earth atmosphere. At the present day, there are a many variations of models for a CR characteristic study, with each has its highs and lows. This paper describes a software package created in the Apatity CR laboratory. A comparison of one with similar programs and a usage examples are carried out. The important point here is result verification. As mentioned above, the experimental and numerical methods in this case only complement each other. For example, to verify the calculation results of galactic CR propagation through the Earth atmosphere a balloon experiment data is used. Another way is using a comparison with a neutron monitor data. In this work we consider this possibility, and make results.

  16. Detailed Study of Seismic Wave Attenuation in Carbonate Rocks: Application on Abu Dhabi Oil Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bouchaala, F.; Ali, M. Y.; Matsushima, J.

    2015-12-01

    Seismic wave attenuation is a promising attribute for the petroleum exploration, thanks to its high sensitivity to physical properties of subsurface. It can be used to enhance the seismic imaging and improve the geophysical interpretation which is crucial for reservoir characterization. However getting an accurate attenuation profile is not an easy task, this is due to complex mechanism of this parameter, although that many studies were carried out to understand it. The degree of difficulty increases for the media composed of carbonate rocks, known to be highly heterogeneous and with complex lithology. That is why few attenuation studies were done successfully in carbonate rocks. The main objectives of this study are, Getting an accurate and high resolution attenuation profiles from several oil fields. The resolution is very important target for us, because many reservoirs in Abu Dhabi oil fields are tight.Separation between different modes of wave attenuation (scattering and intrinsic attenuations).Correlation between the attenuation profiles and other logs (Porosity, resistivity, oil saturation…), in order to establish a relationship which can be used to detect the reservoir properties from the attenuation profiles.Comparison of attenuation estimated from VSP and sonic waveforms. Provide spatial distribution of attenuation in Abu Dhabi oil fields.To reach these objectives we implemented a robust processing flow and new methodology to estimate the attenuation from the downgoing waves of the compressional VSP data and waveforms acquired from several wells drilled in Abu Dhabi. The subsurface geology of this area is primarily composed of carbonate rocks and it is known to be highly fractured which complicates more the situation, then we separated successfully the intrinsic attenuation from the scattering. The results show that the scattering is significant and cannot be ignored. We found also a very interesting correlation between the attenuation profiles and the

  17. Hydrophobizing coatings for cultural heritage. A detailed study of resin/stone surface interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fermo, P.; Cappelletti, G.; Cozzi, N.; Padeletti, G.; Kaciulis, S.; Brucale, M.; Merlini, M.

    2014-07-01

    Conservation of historical buildings is an important issue and the environmental conditions seriously affect the monument's stones. The protection of cultural heritage buildings and monuments by surface treatment with polymers is a common practice due to their ability to form a protective layer on the monument's surface as well as to control the transport of different fluids from the surface to the monument's interior. In this work, three different substrates were used: Carrara marble, Botticino limestone, and Angera stone. A commercially available Si-based resin (Alpha®SI30) was used as protective agent to improve the hydrophobicity features of the different tested materials. The surface properties of the coating and the relative interaction with the adopted stones were studied using different techniques such as contact angle measurements, electron microscope coupled with an energy dispersive spectrometer, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy, and attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy.

  18. A detailed rock-magnetic and archeomagnetic study of lime-plasters from central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soler-Arechalde, A. M.; Rodriguez, M.; Ramirez, O.; Gogichaishvili, A.; Caballero-Miranda, C.; Hueda-Tanabe, Y.; Urrutia-Fucugauchi, J.

    2003-04-01

    We carried out a reconnaissance rock-magnetic and archeomagnetic investigations of lime-plasters at some most important pre-Hispanic sites in Central Mexico. Both burned and unburned lime plasters (in total 30 samples) were analyzed from Teotihuacan, Tlatelolco, Santa Cruz Atizapan and Pañhu. The characteristic directions determined in this study are considered to be of primary origin. Thermomagnetic investigation show that the remanence is carried in most cases by magnetite or Ti-poor titanomagnetite. Unblocking temperature spectra and relatively high coercivity point to 'small' pseudo-single domain magnetic structure grains as responsible for remanent magnetization. Single-component, linear demagnetization plots were observed in most of cases. The mean site directions are consistent with the available reference master curve for Mesoamerica.

  19. Detailed sedimentological study in deltaic upper sequence of the Thrace Basin, northwest Turkey

    SciTech Connect

    Aksoy, M.Z. )

    1990-05-01

    The Thrace basin forms one of the largest Tertiary sedimentary basins in Turkey. Paleontological and sedimentological evidence suggests that sedimentation and basin formation commenced by a major transgression from the southwest in the middle to late middle Eocene. Sedimentological studies indicate that two major depositional cycles prevailed during the formation of the Thrace basin. The lower sequence of sediments (first cycle) was deposited in deep marine environments by turbidity currents as submarine fans (approximately 3,500 m thick). The upper sequence of sediments (second cycle) was deposited in various subenvironments, of which deltaic depositional conditions were the most prominent and 2,600 m thick sediments were deposited. The total sedimentary thickness (6,100 m), deposited until the end of the Oligocene, indicates that rates of subsidence and deposition were quite high. Deltaic deposition started in the beginning of the Oligocene when the rate of subsidence slowed. At this time, the Thrace basin was relatively filled to its maximum capacity and shallow-marine conditions became prevalent. It is seen that initially the rate of sedimentation was higher than the rate of subsidence. Sedimentation in the basin continued from the beginning of the middle Eocene to the end of the Oligocene, with no break in sedimentation. The depositional environment changed from deep marine fan deposits to deltas. Geometry and sand-body thickness along with the sand/shale ratio throughout the delta sequence have been determined using data obtained from 29 wells. Based on this study, deltaic sand bodies in the Thrace basin are now among the major hydrocarbon exploration targets.

  20. Studies of the reduction and protonation behavior of tetraheme cytochromes using atomic detail.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, Vitor H; Soares, Cláudio M; Baptista, António M

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study of tetraheme cytochrome c3 molecules from several species was carried out using recently developed theoretical methods based on continuum electrostatics. The binding joint equilibrium of electrons and protons was simulated, revealing the complete thermodynamic aspects of electron-proton coupling in these molecules. The method yields excellent accuracy in terms of midpoint potentials, giving the correct reduction orders in all molecules examined, except for one heme site. The coupling between electrons and protons is shown to be present and significant at physiological pH in all cases. This phenomenon, known as the redox-Bohr effect, though of thermodynamic nature, is shown to have an intrinsic "dynamic" character at the molecular level (in the sense of the empty/occupied fluctuations at the microscopic level), with the binding states of redox and protonatable sites displaying both correlated averages and correlated fluctuations. The protonatable sites more directly involved in the redox-Bohr effect are identified using, among other properties, the statistical correlation between pairs of sites, which automatically reflects indirect effects mediated by other sites. Several sites are identified in this analysis. Propionate D of heme I seems to be the most interesting, generally showing a high correlation not only with its own heme, but also with heme II, corresponding to an indirect stabilization of the reduced forms of both hemes. Other interesting sites are the free histidines of two of the cytochromes and propionate D of heme IV, the latter being potentially associated with redox-induced structural changes. Among the set of cytochromes c3 analyzed in this study, significant differences are observed for several properties of the acidic cytochrome included in the set, from Desulfovibrio africanus, supporting the hypothesis of a different functional role. PMID:11862556

  1. Photodetachment neutralizer development: Laser window design study: Volume 2, Window design details: Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-01-01

    During 1983, TRW conducted a photodetachment neutralizer development (PDN) - Laser Resonator study. The emphasis of this contract was to assess a technology base of the PDN concept. Three technology assessments were conducted: Mirror Technology assessments, Window Engineering Analysis/Technology assessment, and COIL medium modeling with emphasis on PDN issues. Based on the results of these technology assessments the follow-on contract was funded to develop a technology verification. Due to funding limitations this technology verification program was divided into two separate follow-on contracts. Under this follow-on contract, the following tasks were performed: Measure Attenuation Coefficient of 3M FC-104, FC-77, FC-43 with temperature and attenuation coefficient of sapphire, generate finite element/finite difference thermal/structural model of the HEX double window, determine thermal/structural response from the proposed operating conditions, develop option response data from the deflection/stress inputs, recommend design and operating parameters for demonstrator and operational HEX double window, generate Level 1 layouts and drawings of double paned demonstrator window and window mount/manifold, and generate preliminary layout drawings of shutter. Thermal and structural analyses were conducted for both the operational and demonstrator window heat exchanger (HEX) designs and operating conditions.

  2. a Detailed Study about Digital Surface Model Generation Using High Resolution Satellite Stereo Imagery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gong, K.; Fritsch, D.

    2016-06-01

    Photogrammetry is currently in a process of renaissance, caused by the development of dense stereo matching algorithms to provide very dense Digital Surface Models (DSMs). Moreover, satellite sensors have improved to provide sub-meter or even better Ground Sampling Distances (GSD) in recent years. Therefore, the generation of DSM from spaceborne stereo imagery becomes a vivid research area. This paper presents a comprehensive study about the DSM generation of high resolution satellite data and proposes several methods to implement the approach. The bias-compensated Rational Polynomial Coefficients (RPCs) Bundle Block Adjustment is applied to image orientation and the rectification of stereo scenes is realized based on the Project-Trajectory-Based Epipolarity (PTE) Model. Very dense DSMs are generated from WorldView-2 satellite stereo imagery using the dense image matching module of the C/C++ library LibTsgm. We carry out various tests to evaluate the quality of generated DSMs regarding robustness and precision. The results have verified that the presented pipeline of DSM generation from high resolution satellite imagery is applicable, reliable and very promising.

  3. Detailed study of oxidation/wear mechanism in lox turbopump bearings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chase, T. J.; Mccarty, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    Wear of 440C angular contact ball bearings of the phase 2 high pressure oxygen turbopump (HPOTP) of the space shuttle main engine (SSME) has been studied by means of various advanced nondestructive techniques (NDT) and modeled with reference to all known material, design, and operation variables. Three modes dominating the wear scenario were found to be the adhesive/sheer peeling (ASP), oxidation, and abrasion. Bearing wear was modeled in terms of the three modes. Lacking a comprehensive theory of rolling contact wear to date, each mode is modeled after well-established theories of sliding wear, while sliding velocity and distance are related to microsliding in ball-to-ring contacts. Microsliding, stress, temperature, and other contact variables are evaluated with analytical software packages of SHABERTH(TM)/SINDA(TM) and ADORE(TM). Empirical constants for the models are derived from NIST experiments by applying the models to the NIST wear data. The bearing wear model so established precisely predicts quite well the average ball wear rate for the HPOTP bearings. The wear rate has been statistically determined for the entire population of flight and development bearings based on Rocketdyne records to date. Numerous illustrations are given.

  4. Detailed Anatomy for the Transoral Approach to the Craniovertebral Junction: An Exposure and Safety Study

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Zhiyun; Xia, Hong; Wu, Zenghui; Ai, Fuzhi; Xu, Junjie; Yin, Qingshui

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to demonstrate the anatomical structures of the transoral approach to the craniovertebral junction. We evaluated the necessary exposure field and the safety of this approach. Methods Surgical operations with the transoral approach were performed on 36 cadaver specimens. The special anatomical structures were measured surrounding the exposure field with priorities given to measurements relating to the vertebral artery (VA). The anatomical relationships between the VA and nerves were observed. Results The exposure field partly covered the vertebral basilar system confluent. The middle clivus to upper C3 vertebral body can be exposed by transoral approach. Cranial nerves and cervical nerves emerged from the caudal of vertebrobasilar artery and circumambulated anterolaterally, and some abnormalities were observed in the intracranial segment of vertebrobasilar artery. The safe field was in an inverted trapezoid shape, of which the widest point was 25.5 ± 4.5 mm to the midline at C1 transverse process level; the narrowest point was 11.2 ± 1.5 mm to the midline at the C2–3 level. Conclusion Because the VA is the landmark of the safe field in this approach, surgeons should be very careful to avoid injuries of the VA and nerves while operating in the intracranial field or at the C2–3 level. PMID:24719800

  5. Chemical details on nucleolipid supramolecular architecture: molecular modeling and physicochemical studies.

    PubMed

    Taib, Nada; Aimé, Ahissan; Houmadi, Said; Castano, Sabine; Barthélémy, Philippe; Laguerre, Michel; Bestel, Isabelle

    2012-05-15

    Nucleolipids are currently under investigation as vectors for oligonucleotides (ON) delivery thanks to their supramolecular organization properties and their ability to develop specific interactions (i.e., stacking and potential Watson and Crick hydrogen bonds) for lipoplexes formation. To investigate the factors that govern the interaction events at a molecular level and optimize nucleolipid chemical structures, physicochemical experiments (tensiometry, AFM, BAM, and ellipsometry) combined with molecular dynamics simulation were performed on a series of zwitterionic nucleolipids (PUPC, DPUPC, PAPC) featuring a phosphocholine chain (PC). After construction and initial equilibration, simulations of pure nucleolipid bilayers were run for 100 ns at constant temperature and pressure, and their properties were compared to experimental data and to natural dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayers. Nucleolipid-based membranes are significantly more ordered and compact than DPPC bilayers mainly due to the presence of many intermolecular interactions between nucleoside polar heads. The hydrophilic phosphocholine moieties connected to the 5' hydroxyls are located above the bilayers, penalizing nucleic bases accessibility for further interactions with ON. Hence, a neutral nucleolipid (PUOH) without hydrophilic phosphocholine was inserted in the membranes. Simulations and experimental analysis of nucleolipid membranes in interaction with a single strand RNA structure indicate that PUOH interacts with ON in the subphase. This study demonstrates that molecular modeling can be used to determine the interactions between oligonucleotide and nucleolipids. PMID:22482866

  6. Nocardial infections in the immunocompromised host: A detailed study in a defined population.

    PubMed

    Simpson, G L; Stinson, E B; Egger, M J; Remington, J S

    1981-01-01

    A retrospective, clinical, epidemiologic, and risk-factor analysis was performed on 21 recipients of cardiac allografts who had experienced nocardiosis since the inception of the cardiac transplantation program at Stanford University Medical Center in 1968. The lung was the primary and only detectable site of infection in 17 (81%) of 21 patients, and there were three cases of disseminated disease. Presenting symptoms were either nonspecific (dry cough and fever) or absent (in 40%). The time of onset of infection following transplantation was variable (range, 43-982 days), and there was no period of peak incidence. Epidemiologic and risk-factor analysis failed to identify a nosocomial point-source or specific parameters that predisposed a patient to nocardial infection. Nocardiosis was not associated with the onset of primary infection with cytomegalovirus following transplantation. However, an association between pulmonary nocardiosis and subsequent development of nontuberculous mycobacteriosis was established in five of the 21 patients. All patients with nocardiosis were treated primarily with sulfisoxazole (6-12 g per day) for a mean of 13.2 months. No deaths were attributable to nocardial infection, nor could acquisition of the infection be shown to affect overall survival. The results of the study support an aggressive approach to diagnosis of infections in the immunocompromised host and suggest that a favorable therapeutic outcome may be anticipated in such individuals who sustain nocardiosis if the diagnosis is made early in the course of the infection and if appropriate antimicrobial therapy is instituted. PMID:7025149

  7. Detailed study of an axial volcanic ridge using TOBI sidescan sonar and phase bathymetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeo, I. A.; Achenbach, K. L.; Searle, R. C.; Le Bas, T.; Cann, J. R.

    2011-12-01

    A recent survey obtained TOBI sidescan and acoustic phase data at ~ 10 m resolution over a complete axial volcanic ridge (AVR) on the Mid-Atlantic Ridge at 45 degrees N. We have updated earlier software to process the phase data to high resolution bathymetry, including renavigating the data by superposition of common features seen on overlapping swaths. We obtained high quality phase bathymetry over approximately 50% [?} of the AVR. Since we now have precisely co-registered sidescan and bathymetry, we calculated angles of incidence for the sidescan. Comparing this with the recorded backscatter provides a backscatter- versus angle of incidence law. This approximates, but does not exactly fit, a cosine squared relation. By correcting for the varying angle of incidence we obtain an approximation of absolute backscatter levels independent of seafloor slope, and use these to estimate average sediment cover. Since the AVR lies entirely within the Brunhes normal chron, we use the sediment distribution to infer an approximation for crustal age. The sidescan data reveal ~3000 small, probably monogenetic volcanic hummocks within the AVR. With average diameters of ~150 m and heights ~50 m these are barely resolved by ship-based multibeam bathymetry. By combining the sidescan and phase bathymetry data we carry out a statistical study of the hummock shapes, dimensions and distribution.

  8. A Detailed Study of Contamination in Deep Rapid Searches for Gravitational Wave Optical Counterparts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cowperthwaite, Philip; Berger, Edo; Chornock, Ryan; Fong, Wen-fai

    2015-01-01

    The first direct detection of gravitational waves (GW) by the Advanced LIGO/VIRGO (aLIGO/VIRGO) collaboration is expected to occur within the next few years. In order to maximize the science gains from such a detection it is essential that we identify an electromagnetic counterpart. One of the most promising counterparts is the so-called 'kilonovae,' a fast-evolving (t ~ days) and faint (z ~ 24 AB mag) optical transient powered by the radioactive decay of r-process elements generated in the merger. However, the poor initial localization of aLIGO/VIRGO (~ 100 sq. deg.) demand the use of wide-field telescopes. Furthermore, the cadences and depths used by current and future wide-field optical surveys (e.g. PTF/ZTF, PANStarrs, LSST) are sub-optimal for kilonovae detection. We present our attempts to tackle these issues by investigating the theoretical and practical issues associated with optical follow-up of an aLIGO/VIRGO GW event. This includes a systematic study of the potential contaminant population and their impact on kilonovae detectability in simulated observations. We show that kilonovae can remain separated from contaminants by the virtue of their red colors (i - z > 0.5) and short timescales. This theoretical analysis will be tested against observations obtained by the DECam wide-field imager on the CTIO Blanco 4m telescope. These data attempt to simulate the wide area coverage (~ 70 sq. deg.) and rapid cadence (two visits per night in i,z) necessary for targeted GW follow-up and will provide an excellent test bed for understanding the practical issues associated with this endeavor. This work is supported in part by the NSF GRFP grant DGE1144152.

  9. A Detailed Study of Debris Flow Source Areas in the Northern Colorado Front Range.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arana-Morales, A.; Baum, R. L.; Godt, J.

    2014-12-01

    Nearly continuous, heavy rainfall occurred during 9-13 September 2013 causing flooding and widespread landslides and debris flows in the northern Colorado Front Range. Whereas many recent studies have identified erosion as the most common process leading to debris flows in the mountains of Colorado, nearly all of the debris flows mapped in this event began as small, shallow landslides. We mapped the boundaries of 415 September 2013 debris flows in the Eldorado Springs and Boulder 7.5-minute quadrangles using 0.5-m-resolution satellite imagery. We characterized the landslide source areas of six debris flows in the field as part of an effort to identify what factors controlled their locations. Four were on a dip slope in sedimentary rocks in the Pinebrook Hills area, near Boulder, and the other two were in granitic rocks near Gross Reservoir. Although we observed no obvious geomorphic differences between the source areas and surrounding non-landslide areas, we noted several characteristics that the source areas all had in common. Slopes of the source areas ranged from 28° to 35° and most occurred on planar or slightly concave slopes that were vegetated with grass, small shrubs, and sparse trees. The source areas were shallow, irregularly shaped, and elongated downslope: widths ranged from 4 to 9 m, lengths from 6 to 40 m and depths ranged from 0.7 to 1.2 m. Colluvium was the source material for all of the debris flows and bedrock was exposed in the basal surface of all of the source areas. We observed no evidence for concentrated surface runoff upslope from the sources. Local curvature and roughness of bedrock and surface topography, and depth distribution and heterogeneity of the colluvium appear to have controlled the specific locations of these shallow debris-flow source areas. The observed distribution and characteristics of the source areas help guide ongoing efforts to model initiation of the debris flows.

  10. A detailed study of the optical attenuation of gamma-ray bursts in the Swift era

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Littlejohns, O. M.; Butler, N. R.; Cucchiara, A.; Watson, A. M.; Fox, O. D.; Lee, W. H.; Kutyrev, A. S.; Richer, M. G.; Klein, C. R.; Prochaska, J. X.; Bloom, J. S.; Troja, E.; Ramirez-Ruiz, E.; de Diego, J. A.; Georgiev, L.; González, J.; Román-Zúñiga, C. G.; Gehrels, N.; Moseley, H.

    2015-05-01

    We present optical and near-infrared (NIR) photometry of 28 gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) detected by the Swift satellite and rapidly observed by the Reionization and Transients Infrared/Optical (RATIR) camera. We compare the optical flux at fiducial times of 5.5 and 11 h after the high-energy trigger to that in the X-ray regime to quantify optical darkness. 46 ± 9 per cent (13/28) of all bursts in our sample and 55 ± 10 per cent (13/26) of long GRBs are optically dark, which is statistically consistently with previous studies. Fitting RATIR optical and NIR spectral energy distributions of 19 GRBs, most (6/7) optically dark GRBs either occur at high redshift (z > 4.5) or have a high dust content in their host galaxies (AV > 0.3). Performing Kolmogorov-Smirnov tests, we compare the RATIR sample to those previously presented in the literature, finding our distributions of redshift, optical darkness, host dust extinction and X-ray-derived column density to be consistent. The one reported discrepancy is with host galaxy dust content in the BAT6 sample, which appears inconsistent with our sample and other previous literature. Comparing X-ray-derived host galaxy hydrogen column densities to host galaxy dust extinction, we find that GRBs tend to occur in host galaxies with a higher metal-to-dust ratio than our own Galaxy, more akin to the Large and Small Magellanic Clouds. Finally, to mitigate time evolution of optical darkness, we measure βOX, rest at a fixed rest-frame time, trest = 1.5 h and fixed rest-frame energies in the X-ray and optical regimes. Choosing to evaluate optical flux at λrest = 0.25 μm, we remove high redshift as a source of optical darkness, demonstrating that optical darkness must result from either high redshift, dust content in the host galaxy along the GRB sight line, or a combination of the two.

  11. Detailed paleomagnetic study of two volcanic polarity transitions recorded in eastern Iceland

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herrero-Bervera, Emilio; Walker, George P. L.; Harrison, Christopher G. A.; Garcia, Jose Guerrero; Kristjansson, Leo

    1999-09-01

    (66°N) profiles studied have several persistent transitional paleofield features that are uniquely observed at those sites particularly when compared to other volcanic records located at lower latitudes.

  12. Detailed Seismic Study of A Gas Hydrate Deposit Offshore Costa Rica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, C.; Boennemann, C.; Neben, S.

    gas. Due to the lack of any well control in the immediate vicinity of the main study area, semblance-based velocity analyses constrained AVA modeling. Observed amplitudes at the BSR are restored by explicitly considering source and receiver di- rectivities. Amplitude analyses performed at selected points with high S/N ratio BSR reflections reveal strong negative zero-offset reflection coefficients that increase with offset. In combination with forward modeling a differentiation between locations char- acterized by the solely presence of hydrate and locations characterized by the solely presence of free gas or free gas associated with gas hydrate is provided.

  13. A detailed study of the L1641N star formation region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gâlfalk, M.; Olofsson, G.

    2008-10-01

    Aims: We search for young stellar objects (YSOs) in the L1641N cluster and characterize the star formation activity through determination of the age distribution, mass function, spatial distribution, and the star formation history. Methods: Multi-wavelength broad band photometry both from space and the ground are used to look for IR excess in order to separate field stars from YSOs and to sample the spectral energy distributions. Space-based observations were obtained using the ISO satellite (ISOCAM) in two filters, centred at 6.7 and 14.3 μm, and Spitzer (IRAC) at 3.6, 4.5, 5.8, and 8.0 μm. Our ground-based observations were made with the Nordic Optical Telescope (NOT) using ALFOSC (I band), NOTCam (J, KS and 2.12 μm H2), and SIRCA (L'). More than 50 of the brightest I-band sources were then studied with follow-up optical spectroscopy (5780-8340 Å) to check for signs of accretion (Hα in emission) and youth (Li I λ6707 in absorption) and to determine their effective temperatures. By comparing theoretical evolution tracks with our YSO sample in the H-R diagram, we calculated an age, luminosity, and mass distribution. Results: We detect a total of 216 (Spitzer or I band) sources in L1641N, 89 of which are YSO candidates. Most of the spectra are of M-type with Hα strongly in emission, and many have Li 6707 in absorption. The four brightest I band sources (F and G stars) are suggested as foreground stars, and the L1641N IRAS source is shown to be the combined flux of at least four sources. We find that the interstellar extinction is well-fit in the optical and near-IR by a power law with an exponent of 1.58, although in the mid-IR the Spitzer observations show a higher extinction than expected from theory. The median age of the YSO sample is ~1 Myr and the resulting MF has a flat distribution for low masses down to the completeness limit. There is evidence of a constant star formation rate of one star in 3.7 × 104 yr during the past few Myr. We find 11 sources

  14. A new approach to the study of detail perception in Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD): investigating visual feedforward, horizontal and feedback processing.

    PubMed

    Vandenbroucke, Myriam W G; Scholte, H Steven; van Engeland, Herman; Lamme, Victor A F; Kemner, Chantal

    2009-05-01

    Enhanced detail processing is a characteristic of ASD. However, previous studies could not yet provide a neural explanation of this trait. Since the balance between visual feedforward and feedback processing is probably essential for the character of visual perception, we conjectured that this balance is disturbed in ASD. Using a new texture discrimination task, where surface segregation was varied independently from orientation boundaries, we showed that subjects with ASD scored lower than controls, probably caused by enhanced feedback. Interestingly, performance improved in the ASD group when repeating the task two additional times, indicating a compensation for the imbalance between feedforward and feedback processing. PMID:18267323

  15. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K.; Dey, B.; Aston, D.; Leith, D.W.G.S.; Ratcliff, B.; Roberts, D.; Ruckman, L.; Shtol, D.; Varner, G.S.; Va'vra, J.; Vavra, Jerry; /SLAC

    2012-07-30

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from {approx}450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of {approx}2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with {approx}1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of E{sub muon} > 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  16. A Detailed Study of FDIRC Prototype with Waveform Digitizing Electronics in Cosmic Ray Telescope Using 3D Tracks.

    SciTech Connect

    Nishimura, K

    2012-07-01

    We present a detailed study of a novel Cherenkov imaging detector called the Focusing DIRC (FDIRC) with waveform digitizing electronics. In this test study, the FDIRC prototype has been instrumented with seven Hamamatsu H-8500 MaPMTs. Waveforms from ~450 pixels are digitized with waveform sampling electronics based on the BLAB2 ASIC, operating at a sampling speed of ~2.5 GSa/s. The FDIRC prototype was tested in a large cosmic ray telescope (CRT) providing 3D muon tracks with ~1.5 mrad angular resolution and muon energy of Emuon greater than 1.6 GeV. In this study we provide a detailed analysis of the tails in the Cherenkov angle distribution as a function of various variables, compare experimental results with simulation, and identify the major contributions to the tails. We demonstrate that to see the full impact of these tails on the Cherenkov angle resolution, it is crucial to use 3D tracks, and have a full understanding of the role of ambiguities. These issues could not be fully explored in previous FDIRC studies where the beam was perpendicular to the quartz radiator bars. This work is relevant for the final FDIRC prototype of the PID detector at SuperB, which will be tested this year in the CRT setup.

  17. Detailed studies of the electron lateral distribution in extensive air showers with energies around 10(16) eV

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dzikowski, T.; Wdowczyk, J.; Gawin, J.

    1984-01-01

    Detailed studies have been performed of the electron lateral distribution in extensive air showers using the Lodz extensive air shower array. The showers were grouped according to their particle densities around 20 m from the core. The grouping was made in very narrow intervals of the densities. For every group of showers and for every distance interval /changing by 5 m/ histograms of the numbers of electron counters discharged have been obtained. The trays of G.M counters were located at following distances from the center of the triggering detectors array: 16 m, 76 m, 117 m, 137 m, 141 m and 147 m.

  18. A Mechanistic Study of Halogen Addition and Photoelimination from π-Conjugated Tellurophenes.

    PubMed

    Carrera, Elisa I; Lanterna, Anabel E; Lough, Alan J; Scaiano, Juan C; Seferos, Dwight S

    2016-03-01

    The ability to drive reactivity using visible light is of importance for many disciplines of chemistry and has significant implications for sustainable chemistry. Identifying photochemically active compounds and understanding photochemical mechanisms is important for the development of useful materials for synthesis and catalysis. Here we report a series of photoactive diphenyltellurophene compounds bearing electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents synthesized by alkyne coupling/ring closing or palladium-catalyzed ipso-arylation chemistry. The redox chemistry of these compounds was studied with respect to oxidative addition and photoelimination of bromine, which is of importance for energy storage reactions involving X2. The oxidative addition reaction mechanism was studied using density functional theory, the results of which support a three-step mechanism involving the formation of an initial η(1) association complex, a monobrominated intermediate, and finally the dibrominated product. All of the tellurophene derivatives undergo photoreduction using 430, 447, or 617 nm light depending on the absorption properties of the compound. Compounds bearing electron-withdrawing substituents have the highest photochemical quantum efficiencies in the presence of an alkene trap, with efficiencies of up to 42.4% for a pentafluorophenyl-functionalized tellurophene. The photoelimination reaction was studied in detail through bromine trapping experiments and laser flash photolysis, and a mechanism is proposed. The photoreaction, which occurs by release of bromine radicals, is competitive with intersystem crossing to the triplet state of the brominated species, as evidenced by the formation of singlet oxygen. These findings should be useful for the design of new photochemically active compounds supported by main-group elements. PMID:26853739

  19. Detailed diesel exhaust characteristics including particle surface area and lung deposited dose for better understanding of health effects in human chamber exposure studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wierzbicka, Aneta; Nilsson, Patrik T.; Rissler, Jenny; Sallsten, Gerd; Xu, Yiyi; Pagels, Joakim H.; Albin, Maria; Österberg, Kai; Strandberg, Bo; Eriksson, Axel; Bohgard, Mats; Bergemalm-Rynell, Kerstin; Gudmundsson, Anders

    2014-04-01

    Several diesel exhaust (DE) characteristics, comprising both particle and gas phase, recognized as important when linking with health effects, are not reported in human chamber exposure studies. In order to understand effects of DE on humans there is a need for better characterization of DE when performing exposure studies. The aim of this study was to determine and quantify detailed DE characteristics during human chamber exposure. Additionally to compare to reported DE properties in conducted human exposures. A wide battery of particle and gas phase measurement techniques have been used to provide detailed DE characteristics including the DE particles (DEP) surface area, fraction and dose deposited in the lungs, chemical composition of both particle and gas phase such as NO, NO2, CO, CO2, volatile organic compounds (including aldehydes, benzene, toluene) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Eyes, nose and throat irritation effects were determined. Exposure conditions with PM1 (<1 μm) mass concentration 280 μg m-3, number concentration 4 × 105 cm-3 and elemental to total carbon fraction of 82% were generated from a diesel vehicle at idling. When estimating the lung deposited dose it was found that using the size dependent effective density (in contrast to assuming unity density) reduced the estimated respiratory dose by 132% by mass. Accounting for agglomerated structure of DEP prevented underestimation of lung deposited dose by surface area by 37% in comparison to assuming spherical particles. Comparison of DE characteristics reported in conducted chamber exposures showed that DE properties vary to a great extent under the same DEP mass concentration and engine load. This highlights the need for detailed and standardized approach for measuring and reporting of DE properties. Eyes irritation effects, most probably caused by aldehydes in the gas phase, as well as nose irritation were observed at exposure levels below current occupational exposure limit

  20. Ecological Optimization and Parametric Study of an Irreversible Regenerative Modified Brayton Cycle with Isothermal Heat Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tyagi, Sudhir K.; Kaushik, Subhash C.; Tiwari, Vivek

    2003-12-01

    An ecological optimization along with a detailed parametric study of an irreversible regenerative Brayton heat engine with isothermal heat addition have been carried out with external as well as internal irreversibilities. The ecological function is defined as the power output minus the power loss (irreversibility) which is ambient temperature times the entropy generation rate. The external irreversibility is due to finite temperature difference between the heat engine and the external reservoirs while the internal irreversibilities are due to nonisentropic compression and expansion processes in the compressor and the turbine respectively and the regenerative heat loss. The ecological function is found to be an increasing function of the isothermal-, sink- and regenerative-side effectiveness, isothermal-side inlet temperature, component efficiencies and sink-side temperature while it is found to be a decreasing function of the isobaric-side temperature and effectiveness and the working fluid heat capacitance rate. The effects of the isobaric-side effectiveness are found to be more than those of the other parameters and the effects of turbine efficiency are found to be more than those of the compressor efficiency on all the performance parameters of the cycle.

  1. TERSSE: Definition of the Total Earth Resources System for the Shuttle Era. Volume 5: Detailed system requirements: Two case studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    Major resource management missions to be performed by the TERSSE are examined in order to develop an understanding of the form and function of a system designed to perform an operational mission. Factors discussed include: resource manager (user) functions, methods of performing their function, the information flows and information requirements embodied in their function, and the characteristics of the observation system which assists in the management of the resource involved. The missions selected for study are: world crop survey and land resources management. These missions are found to represent opposite ends of the TERSSE spectrum and to support the conclusion that different missions require different systems and must be analyzed in detail to permit proper system development decisions.

  2. Study of wood plastic composite in the presence of nitrogen containing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ali, K. M. Idriss; Khan, Mubarak A.; Husain, M. M.

    1994-10-01

    Effect of nitrogen-containing additives in the study of wood plastic composites of MMA with simul and mango wood of Bangladesh has been investigated. Nine different additives were used and the additives containing carboamide group induce the highest tensile strength to the composite.

  3. Detailed Studies of Projection Effects, Radio Power Selection Effects, and Key Physical Parameters of Classical Double Radio Sources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wan, Lin

    1998-11-01

    A sample of classical double radio sources with redshifts between zero and two was compiled to study the properties of these sources and their gaseous environments. A detailed theoretical investigation of projection effects shows that different derived parameters have different sensitivities to the projection angle /theta, but in general, projection effects are not significant for θsbsp~>60o. Several potential diagnoses of the projection angle are provided by the theoretical studies. Results obtained using one of these methods suggest that the projection angle of Cygnus A is greater than ~40o to 55o, consistent with independent estimates; and the projection angles of other sources in the sample are likely to be greater than 30o to 40o. This is consistent with independent results obtained here by comparing radio galaxies with radio-loud quasars. The data also suggest that low-redshift radio-loud quasars have lower radio surface brightness and non-thermal pressure than radio galaxies, which cannot be explained by pure projection effects. Detailed studies of radio power selection effects suggest that these selection effects are unlikely to be significant for most derived parameters, such as the ambient gas density of the radio source. Results on several key parameters of FRII sources are presented. Studies of the beam power suggest that it remains roughly constant over a source's lifetime. An increase of the beam power with redshift is observed, and it appears that radio power is not an accurate measure of the beam power. Thermal pressures typical of clusters of galaxies are found for the gaseous environments of the FRII sources, which would lead to an appreciable amount of microwave diminution from some of these clusters. The data hint of different pressure gradients at high and low redshift, which may be explained by an increase of cluster core radius with redshift. Preliminary results on the gravitational mass of the surrounding cluster are presented. The redshift

  4. Detailed Analysis of the Binding Mode of Vanilloids to Transient Receptor Potential Vanilloid Type I (TRPV1) by a Mutational and Computational Study.

    PubMed

    Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mori, Yoshikazu; Ogawa, Kazuo; Warabi, Eiji; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Hirokawa, Takatsugu

    2016-01-01

    Transient receptor potential vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) is a non-selective cation channel and a multimodal sensor protein. Since the precise structure of TRPV1 was obtained by electron cryo-microscopy, the binding mode of representative agonists such as capsaicin and resiniferatoxin (RTX) has been extensively characterized; however, detailed information on the binding mode of other vanilloids remains lacking. In this study, mutational analysis of human TRPV1 was performed, and four agonists (capsaicin, RTX, [6]-shogaol and [6]-gingerol) were used to identify amino acid residues involved in ligand binding and/or modulation of proton sensitivity. The detailed binding mode of each ligand was then simulated by computational analysis. As a result, three amino acids (L518, F591 and L670) were newly identified as being involved in ligand binding and/or modulation of proton sensitivity. In addition, in silico docking simulation and a subsequent mutational study suggested that [6]-gingerol might bind to and activate TRPV1 in a unique manner. These results provide novel insights into the binding mode of various vanilloids to the channel and will be helpful in developing a TRPV1 modulator. PMID:27606946

  5. A detailed study of the site effects in the volcanic area of Campi Flegrei using empirical approaches

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tramelli, Anna; Galluzzo, Danilo; Del Pezzo, Edoardo; Di Vito, Mauro A.

    2010-08-01

    Campi Flegrei is a highly populated active caldera in the south of Italy. Several hundred thousand people live within this area, which is characterized by seismicity and ground deformation episodes, known as `bradyseism'. For this reason, this area falls into a high-risk category and thus the Italian Civil Defence requires a detailed site-effect estimation. To determine the local amplification of the seismic waves for a high number of sites, we have analysed the seismic recordings of three seismic networks that have been deployed in the Campi Flegrei area over different time periods. The first network was deployed during the bradyseismic crisis of 1982-1984. We selected 22 of the highest magnitude earthquakes that were recorded during this crisis. An additional 22 seismic events were selected from those recorded by the mobile seismic network that has been in operation in the Campi Flegrei area since 2006. The third data set comprises noise recorded by 34 seismic stations that were deployed during the active SERAPIS experiment in 2001 September. The generalized inversion technique and the H/V spectral ratio method were applied to the S waves and coda waves of the earthquakes recorded by the first two seismic networks, to determine the site-transfer functions of the recording stations. The seismic noise recorded by the third network was analysed using the Nakamura's technique. The results show that the high topographical and geological heterogeneity of the sites located inside the caldera has an important influence on the seismic-wave amplification. Consequently, the site-transfer functions can be different even at sites close to each other. The transfer functions of the sites located outside the caldera are much more regular, apparently due to the more regular topography and geology.

  6. Detailed study of SNR G306.3-0.9 using XMM-Newton and Chandra observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Combi, J. A.; García, F.; Suárez, A. E.; Luque-Escamilla, P. L.; Paron, S.; Miceli, M.

    2016-08-01

    Aims: We aim to study the spatial distribution of the physical and chemical properties of the X-ray emitting plasma of the supernova remnant (SNR) G306.3-0.9 in detail to obtain constraints on its ionization stage, the progenitor supernova explosion, and the age of the remnant. Methods: We used combined data from XMM-Newton and Chandra observatories to study the X-ray morphology of G306.3-0.9 in detail. A spatially resolved spectral analysis was used to obtain physical and geometrical parameters of different regions of the remnant. Spitzer infrared observations, available in the archive, were also used to constrain the progenitor supernova and study the environment in which the remnant evolved. Results: The X-ray morphology of the remnant displays a non-uniform structure of semi-circular appearance, with a bright southwest region and very weak or almost negligible X-ray emission in its northern part. These results indicate that the remnant is propagating in a non-uniform environment as the shock fronts are encountering a high-density medium, where enhanced infrared emission is detected. The X-ray spectral analysis of the selected regions shows distinct emission-line features of several metal elements, confirming the thermal origin of the emission. The X-ray spectra are well represented by a combination of two absorbed thermal plasma models: one in equilibrium ionization (VAPEC) with a mean temperature of ~0.19 keV, and another out of equilibrium ionization (VNEI) at a higher temperature of ~1.1 or 1.6-1.9 keV. For regions located in the northeast, central, and southwest part of the SNR, we found elevated abundances of Si, S, Ar, Ca, and Fe, typical of ejecta material. The outer regions located northwest and south show values of the abundances above solar but lower than to those found in the central regions. This suggests that the composition of the emitting outer parts of the SNR is a combination of ejecta and shocked material of the interstellar medium. The

  7. Detailed optical studies of the galactic supersoft X-ray source QR And (RX J0019.8 +2156)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deufel, B.; Barwig, H.; Šimić , D.; Wolf, S.; Drory, N.

    1999-03-01

    We present high-speed long term photometric observations from 1992 to 1996 \\em(UBVRI), as well as recently obtained (1997) spectrophotometric and high resolution spectroscopic studies of the bright galactic supersoft X-ray source RX J0019.8 +2156. Our photometry reveals a highly variable object. The shortest observed quasi-periodic variations are humps with a period of ~1.8 h. The timings of the main minimum are not exactly regular and occur on average around phase phi = 0.0. With our new data set we calculated an update of the orbital period. Our simultaneous spectroscopic and spectrophotometric studies from 1997 give an even more detailed insight: blue and red shifted satellite lines at He Ii λ 4686 and at the strong Balmer lines, which are interpreted as high velocity outflows, can clearly be detected. We also present for the first time an analysis of this supersoft source by means of Doppler tomography. The lines of He Ii (lambda lambda 4542, 4686), H_α and H_β show no emission from an accretion disk. These emission lines originate in regions within the binary system with very low velocities. The spatial origin of the emitting material is not quite clear and will be investigated in a follow-up paper. Based on observations at the German-Spanish Astronomical Center, Calar Alto, Spain and at the Wendelstein Observatory, Germany

  8. Detailed clinical and molecular study of 20 females with Xq deletions with special reference to menstruation and fertility.

    PubMed

    Mercer, Catherine L; Lachlan, Katherine; Karcanias, Alexandra; Affara, Nabeel; Huang, Shuwen; Jacobs, Patricia A; Thomas, N Simon

    2013-01-01

    Integrity of the long arm of the X chromosome is important for maintaining female fertility and several critical regions for normal ovarian function have been proposed. In order to understand further the importance of specific areas of the X chromosome, we describe a series of 20 previously unreported patients missing part of Xq in whom detailed phenotypic information has been gathered as well as precise chromosome mapping using array Comparative Genomic Hybridization. Features often associated with Turner syndrome were not common in our study and excluding puberty, menarche and menstruation, the phenotypes observed were present in only a minority of women and were not specific to the X chromosome. The most frequently occurring phenotypic features in our patients were abnormalities of menstruation and fertility. Larger terminal deletions were associated with a higher incidence of primary ovarian failure, occurring at a younger age; however patients with similar or even identical deletions had discordant menstrual phenotypes, making accurate genetic counselling difficult. Nevertheless, large deletions are likely to be associated with complete skewing of X inactivation so that the resulting phenotypes are relatively benign given the amount of genetic material missing, even in cases with unbalanced X;autosome translocations. Some degree of ovarian dysfunction is highly likely, especially for terminal deletions extending proximal to Xq27. In conjunction with patient data from the literature, our study suggests that loss of Xq26-Xq28 has the most significant effect on ovarian function. PMID:23059468

  9. A detailed Auger electron spectroscopy study of the first stages of the growth of C60 thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vidal, R. A.; Ferrón, J.

    2015-11-01

    In this work we take advantage of the large sensitivity and in-depth resolution of Auger electron spectroscopy (AES) to study in a detailed way the growth of C60 over different substrates, namely Cu(1 1 1), Si(1 0 0) and graphene. The ability of AES, as compared to more local probes like STM or AFM, to follow the process in a dynamic way, allows us to study the growth of C60 below and over one ML, including the change of C60 over either Si or Cu to the growth of C60 over a C60 film. We found that the growth always proceeds layer by layer. This result shows that differences in diffusion barriers are not as important as one may think following the idea of diffusion by a jumping mechanism. We propose that the sticking coefficient, governed by the adsorption energy, is responsible for the differences observed between Cu and Si. Our results also point to a different charge transfer among fullerene molecules and these surfaces. The same result is suggested in the case of C60 over graphene, but in this case our conclusion comes from the variable temperature experiments.

  10. A Detailed Study of the Amino Acids Produced from the Vacuum UV Irradiation of Interstellar Ice Analogs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nuevo, Michel; Auger, Geneviève; Blanot, Didier; D'Hendecourt, Louis

    2008-02-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the variety, quantity and distribution of the amino acids detected in organic residues after acid hydrolysis. Such organic residues are produced in the laboratory after the vacuum ultraviolet (VUV) irradiation of several astrophysically relevant ice mixtures containing H2O, CO, CO2, CH3OH, CH4 and NH3 at low temperature (10-80 K), and subsequent warm-up to room temperature. We explore five experimental parameters: the irradiation time, the temperature, the ice mixture composition, the photon dose per molecule and the substrate for the ice deposition. The amino acids were detected and identified by ex-situ liquid chromatography analysis of the organic residues formed after warming the photolysed ices up to room temperature. This study shows that in all experiments amino acids are formed. Their total quantities and distribution depend slightly on the experimental parameters explored in the present work, the important requirement to form such molecules being that the starting ice mixtures must contain the four elements C, H, O and N. We also discuss the effects of the chemical treatment needed to detect and identify the amino acids in the organic residues. Finally, these results are compared with meteoritic amino acid data from the carbonaceous chondrite Murchison, and the formation processes of such compounds under astrophysical conditions are discussed.

  11. Spectral features of the quasielastic line in amorphous solids and supercooled liquids: a detailed low-frequency Raman scattering study.

    PubMed

    Yannopoulos, S N; Kastrissios, D Th

    2002-02-01

    The spectral features of the quasielastic light scattering in amorphous solids and supercooled liquids are investigated through a combined Stokes and antiStokes low-frequency Raman scattering study. Emphasis is given on the specific spectral details of the quasielastic line rather than on elucidating its microscopic origin. Our approach is quite general since it includes glass formers with a strong, an intermediate, and a fragile dynamic character. The results suggest that the quasielastic contribution is a symmetric spectral feature around the laser line. This finding makes possible the separation of the quasielastic line and the Boson peak. It further raises certain skepticism concerning reduction schemes followed up in the literature for the analysis of low-frequency Raman data and for models that combine these two contributions. The limiting (omega-->0) behavior of the product of the vibrational density of states and the Raman coupling coefficient has also been extracted. The validity of some phenomenological approaches is also discussed in light of the experimental facts presented in this paper and some suggestions are being advanced. PMID:11863533

  12. Detailed structural study of β-artemether: Density functional theory (DFT) calculations of Infrared, Raman spectroscopy, and vibrational circular dichroism

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Chen, Jianchao; Li, Linwei; Zhou, Zhixu; Geng, Yiding; Sun, Tiemin

    2015-10-01

    In this study, the experimental and theoretical studies on the structure of β-artemether are presented. The optimized molecular structure, Mulliken atomic charges, vibrational spectra (IR, Raman and vibrational circular dichroism), and molecular electrostatic potential have been calculated by density functional theory (DFT) using B3LYP method with the 6-311++G (2d, p) basis set. Reliable vibrational assignments for Artemether have been made on the basis of potential energy distribution (PED). The vibrational circular dichroism (VCD) has been explored by ab initio calculations, and then was used to compare with the experimental VCD. The consistence between them confirmed the absolute configuration of Artemether. In addition, HOMO-LUMO of the title compound as well as thermo-dynamical parameters has illustrated the stability of β-artemether.

  13. A near-infrared spectroscopic study of young field ultracool dwarfs: additional analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allers, K. N.; Liu, M. C.

    We present additional analysis of the classification system presented in \\citet{allers13}. We refer the reader to \\citet{allers13} for a detailed discussion of our near-IR spectral type and gravity classification system. Here, we address questions and comments from participants of the Brown Dwarfs Come of Age meeting. In particular, we examine the effects of binarity and metallicity on our classification system. We also present our classification of Pleiades brown dwarfs using published spectra. Lastly, we determine SpTs and calculate gravity-sensitive indices for the BT-Settl atmospheric models and compare them to observations.

  14. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  15. Detailed homogeneous abundance studies of 14 Galactic s-process enriched post-AGB stars: In search of lead (Pb)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Smedt, K.; Van Winckel, H.; Kamath, D.; Siess, L.; Goriely, S.; Karakas, A. I.; Manick, R.

    2016-03-01

    Context. This paper is part of a larger project in which we systematically study the chemical abundances of Galactic and extragalactic post-asymptotic giant branch (post-AGB) stars. The goal at large is to provide improved observational constraints to the models of the complex interplay between the AGB s-process nucleosynthesis and the associated mixing processes. Aims: Lead (Pb) is the final product of the s-process nucleosynthesis and is predicted to have large overabundances with respect to other s-process elements in AGB stars of low metallicities. However, Pb abundance studies of s-process enriched post-AGB stars in the Magellanic Clouds show a discrepancy between observed and predicted Pb abundances. The determined upper limits based on spectral studies are much lower than what is predicted. In this paper, we focus specifically on the Pb abundance of 14 Galactic s-process enhanced post-AGB stars to check whether the same discrepancy is present in the Galaxy as well. Among these 14 objects, two were not yet subject to a detailed abundance study in the literature. We apply the same method to obtain accurate abundances for the 12 others. Our homogeneous abundance results provide the input of detailed spectral synthesis computations in the spectral regions where Pb lines are located. Methods: We used high-resolution UVES and HERMES spectra for detailed spectral abundance studies of our sample of Galactic post-AGB stars. None of the sample stars display clear Pb lines, and we only deduced upper limits of the Pb abundance by using spectrum synthesis in the spectral ranges of the strongest Pb lines. Results: We do not find any clear evidence of Pb overabundances in our sample. The derived upper limits are strongly correlated with the effective temperature of the stars with increasing upper limits for increasing effective temperatures. We obtain stronger Pb constraints on the cooler objects. Moreover, we confirm the s-process enrichment and carbon enhancement of two

  16. Supramolecular polymerisation in water; elucidating the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bond interactions† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization by IR and UV spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering, video files of optical microscopy imaging. See DOI: 10.1039/c5sm02843d Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file. Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leenders, Christianus M. A.; Baker, Matthew B.; Pijpers, Imke A. B.; Lafleur, René P. M.; Albertazzi, Lorenzo

    2016-01-01

    Understanding the self-assembly of small molecules in water is crucial for the development of responsive, biocompatible soft materials. Here, a family of benzene-1,3,5-tricarboxamide (BTA) derivatives that comprise a BTA moiety connected to an amphiphilic chain is synthesised with the aim to elucidate the role of hydrophobic and hydrogen-bonding interactions in the self-assembly of these BTAs. The amphiphilic chain consists of an alkyl chain with a length of 10, 11, or 12 methylene units, connected to a tetraethylene glycol (at the periphery). The results show that an undecyl spacer is the minimum length required for these BTAs to self-assemble into supramolecular polymers. Interestingly, exchange studies reveal only minor differences in exchange rates between BTAs containing undecyl or dodecyl spacers. Additionally, IR spectroscopy provides the first experimental evidence that hydrogen-bonding is operative and contributes to the stabilisation of the supramolecular polymers in water. PMID:26892482

  17. EpiReumaPt- the study of rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases in Portugal: a detailed view of the methodology.

    PubMed

    Rodrigues, Ana M; Gouveia, Nélia; da Costa, Leonor Pereira; Eusébio, Mónica; Ramiro, Sofia; Machado, Pedro; Mourão, Ana Filipa; Silva, Inês; Laires, Pedro; Sepriano, Alexandre; Araújo, Filipe; Coelho, Pedro Simões; Gonçalves, Sónia; Zhao, Ana; Fonseca, João Eurico; de Almeida, J M Caldas; Tavares, Viviana; da Silva, José António Pereira; Barros, Henrique; Cerol, Jorge; Mendes, Jorge; Carmona, Loreto; Canhão, Helena; Branco, Jaime C

    2015-01-01

    Rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMD) are prevalent and leading causes of disability and consumption of healthcare and social resources. EpiReumaPt is a national population-based survey developed by the Portuguese Society of Rheumatology that aimed to estimate the prevalence of RMDs and determine their impact on function, quality of life, mental health and use of healthcare resources. This article describes in detail the design, methodology and planned analyses of EpiReumaPt. Recruitment started in September 2011 and finished in December 2013. This study involved a three-stage approach. The first step was a face-to-face survey performed by trained interviewers at the household of 10,661 subjects who where randomly selected by a stratified multistage sampling. A highly sensitive screening questionnaire for RMDs was used. Secondly, participants who screened positive (64%) for at least one RMD as well as 20% of individuals with a negative screening were invited for assessment by a rheumatologist. In total, 3,877 subjects participated in this second phase, where they were also invited to donate a blood sample to be stored at the Biobanco-IMM. History and physical examination, followed by appropriate laboratory and imaging tests were performed. At the end of the visit, the rheumatologist established a diagnosis. Finally, a team of three experienced rheumatologists reviewed all the clinical data and defined the diagnoses according to previously validated criteria. The EpiReumaPt dataset, containing data from several questionnaires, various clinical measurements and information from laboratory and imaging tests, comprises an invaluable asset for research. The large amount of information collected from each participant and the large number of participants, with a wide age range covering and being representative of the adults from the entire country, makes EpiReumaPt the largest study of RMDs performed in Portugal. PMID:26219965

  18. Enhanced flux pinning in MOCVD-YBCO films through Zr-additions:Systematic feasibility studies

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, Tolga; Paranthaman, Mariappan Parans; Specht, Eliot D; Kim, Kyunghoon; Zhang, Yifei; Cantoni, Claudia; Zuev, Yuri L; Goyal, Amit; Christen, David K; Maroni, Victor A.

    2009-01-01

    Systematic effects of Zr additions on the structural and flux pinning properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated. Detailed characterization, conducted by coordinated transport, x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses, and imaging Raman microscopy have revealed trends in the resulting property/performance correlations of these films with respect to varying mole percentages (mol%) of added Zr. For compositions {le} 7.5 mol%, Zr additions lead to improved in-field critical current density, as well as extra correlated pinning along the c-axis direction of the YBCO films via the formation of columnar, self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} nanodots.

  19. Enhanced flux pinning in MOCVD-YBCO films through Zr additions : systematic feasibility studies.

    SciTech Connect

    Aytug, T.; Paranthaman, M.; Specht, E. D.; Zhang, Y.; Kim, K.; Zuev, Y. L.; Cantoni, C.; Goyal, A.; Christen, D. K.; Maroni, V. A.; Chen, Y.; Selvamanickam, V.; ORNL; SuperPower, Inc.

    2010-01-01

    Systematic effects of Zr additions on the structural and flux pinning properties of YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} (YBCO) films deposited by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) have been investigated. Detailed characterization, conducted by coordinated transport, x-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy analyses, and imaging Raman microscopy have revealed trends in the resulting property/performance correlations of these films with respect to varying mole percentages (mol%) of added Zr. For compositions {le} 7.5 mol%, Zr additions lead to improved in-field critical current density, as well as extra correlated pinning along the c-axis direction of the YBCO films via the formation of columnar, self-assembled stacks of BaZrO{sub 3} nanodots.

  20. 13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    13. DETAIL VIEW OF BRIDGE, LOOKING SOUTH FROM ROADWAY. DETAIL VIEW OF THE PIERS AND LIGHTING FIXTURES ON THE COLORADO STREET BRIDGE. THIS VIEW SHOWS A PORTION OF THE BRIDGE ALONG THE SOUTH SIDE OF THE ROADWAY. EACH FIXTURE ALSO ORIGINALLY HAD FOUR ADDITIONAL GLOBES, WHICH EXTENDED FROM THE COLUMN BELOW THE MAIN GLOBE. THE 'REFUGE' SEATING AREAS ARE ORIGINAL, WHILE THE RAILING IS A LATER ADDITION. - Colorado Street Bridge, Spanning Arroyo Seco at Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. Early Archean spherule beds of possible impact origin from Barberton, South Africa: A detailed mineralogical and geochemical study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koeberl, Christian; Reimold, Wolf Uwe; Boer, Rudolf H.

    1992-01-01

    The Barberton Greenstone belt is a 3.5- to 3.2-Ga-old formation situated in the Swaziland Supergroup near Barberton, northeast Transvaal, South Africa. The belt includes a lower, predominantly volcanic sequence, and an upper sedimentary sequence (e.g., the Fig Tree Group). Within this upper sedimentary sequence, Lowe and Byerly identified a series of different beds of spherules with diameters of around 0.5-2 mm. Lowe and Byerly and Lowe et al. have interpreted these spherules to be condensates of rock vapor produced by large meteorite impacts in the early Archean. We have collected a series of samples from drill cores from the Mt. Morgan and Princeton sections near Barberton, as well as samples taken from underground exposures in the Sheba and Agnes mines. These samples seem much better preserved than the surface samples described by Lowe and Byerly and Lowe et al. Over a scale of just under 30 cm, several well-defined spherule beds are visible, interspaced with shales and/or layers of banded iron formation. Some spherules have clearly been deposited on top of a sedimentary unit because the shale layer shows indentions from the overlying spherules. Although fresher than the surface samples (e.g., spherule bed S-2), there is abundant evidence for extensive alteration, presumably by hydrothermal processes. In some sections of the cores sulfide mineralization is common. For our mineralogical and petrographical studies we have prepared detailed thin sections of all core and underground samples (as well as some surface samples from the S-2 layer for comparison). For geochemical work, layers with thicknesses in the order of 1-5 mm were separated from selected core and underground samples. The chemical analyses are being performed using neutron activation analysis in order to obtain data for about 35 trace elements in each sample. Major elements are being determined by XRF and plasma spectrometry. To clarify the history of the sulfide mineralization, sulfur isotopic

  2. On the structure and dynamics of Ellerman bombs. Detailed study of three events and modelling of Hα

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bello González, N.; Danilovic, S.; Kneer, F.

    2013-09-01

    Aims: We study the structure and dynamics of three Ellerman bombs (EBs) observed in an evolving active region. Methods: The active region NOAA 11271 was observed with the Vacuum Tower Telescope at Observatorio del Teide/Tenerife on August 18, 2011. We used the two-dimensional Triple Etalon SOlar Spectrometer (TESOS) to obtain time sequences of the active region and of EBs in Hα at a cadence of 15 s. Simultaneously, we obtained full Stokes profiles with the Tenerife Infrared Polarimeter (TIP II) in the two magnetically sensitive Fe i infrared lines (IR) at 1.56 μ, scanning spatial sections of the area with cadences of 28-46 s. The Hα data were reconstructed with speckle methods to study the evolution of the atmospheric stratification. Two methods were used to extract magnetic field information from the IR Stokes profiles: 1) fitting of the (Q,U,V) profiles by Gaussians; and 2) applying the Milne-Eddington approximation, assuming two separate magnetic structures in the resolution element and fitting by trial and error some profiles from the EB areas. Data from SDO-HMI and -AIA were also used. We performed two-dimensional (2D) non-LTE radiative transfer calculations of Hα in parameterised models of EBs. Results: The three EBs studied in detail occurred in a complex active region near sunspots. They were very bright with a factor of 1.5-2.8 brighter than the nearby area. They lived for 1/2 h and longer. They were related to broadband faculae, but the latter were not the brightest features in the field of view. The EBs occurred in magnetic field configurations with opposite polarity close together. One EB was located at the outskirts of a penumbra of a complex sunspot and showed repeated "flaring" in SDO-AIA data. Another was close to a strong field patch and moved into this during the end of its lifetime. The third EB showed clear changes of field structure during the time it was observed. We obtained from the 2D modelling that heating and increase in Hα opacity

  3. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  4. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  5. Detailed Debunking of Denial

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Enting, I. G.; Abraham, J. P.

    2012-12-01

    The disinformation campaign against climate science has been compared to a guerilla war whose tactics undermine the traditional checks and balances of science. One comprehensive approach has to been produce archives of generic responses such as the websites of RealClimate and SkepticalScience. We review our experiences with an alternative approach of detailed responses to a small number of high profile cases. Our particular examples were Professor Ian Plimer and Christopher Monckton, the Third Viscount Monckton of Brenchley, each of whom has been taken seriously by political leaders in our respective countries. We relate our experiences to comparable examples such as John Mashey's analysis of the Wegman report and the formal complaints about Lomborg's "Skeptical Environmentalist" and Durkin's "Great Global Warming Swindle". Our two approaches used contrasting approaches: an on-line video of a lecture vs an evolving compendium of misrepresentations. Additionally our approaches differed in the emphasis. The analysis of Monckton concentrated on the misrepresentation of the science, while the analysis of Plimer concentrated on departures from accepted scientific practice: fabrication of data, misrepresentation of cited sources and unattributed use of the work of others. Benefits of an evolving compendium were the ability to incorporate contributions from members of the public who had identified additional errors and the scope for addressing new aspects as they came to public attention. `Detailed debunking' gives non-specialists a reference point for distinguishing non-science when engaging in public debate.

  6. A detailed radiobiological and dosimetric analysis of biochemical outcomes in a case-control study of permanent prostate brachytherapy patients

    SciTech Connect

    Butler, Wayne M.; Stewart, Renee R.; Merrick, Gregory S.

    2009-03-15

    the harmonic mean and expressions of the generalized EUD. In this case-control study of prostate brachytherapy biochemical failures and nonfailures, there were no radiobiological parameters derived from detailed DVH-based analysis that predicted for biochemical control. This may indicate that in our approach, implant dosimetry is at or near the limits of clinically effective dose escalation.

  7. Water masers in Compton-thick AGN. I. Detailed study of the new water megamaser in IRAS 15480-0344

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castangia, P.; Tarchi, A.; Caccianiga, A.; Severgnini, P.; Della Ceca, R.

    2016-02-01

    Context. A relationship between the water maser detection rate and large nuclear column densities in AGN has often been cited in the literature. Indeed, detailed studies of luminous water masers, typically associated with the nuclear activity, allow us to investigate the innermost regions of AGN, with an impact on the still debated Unified Model for this class of objects. Aims: We have recently entertained a search for maser emission in a well-defined sample of Compton-thick AGN aimed at investigating, on firm statistical bases, the aforementioned relationship. While the survey is still ongoing, and is the subject of a forthcoming publication, a new luminous water maser has been detected in the lenticular (field) S0 galaxy IRAS 15480-0344, whose origin, associated with an accretion disc or a nuclear outflow/jet, needs to be assessed. Methods: Multi-epoch single-dish observations and VLBI measurements were performed to investigate the distribution, spatial extension, and variability of the maser emission in order to infer the main characteristics of the water megamaser. Results: The new detection in IRAS 15480-0344 is reported: a megamaser with a total single-dish isotropic luminosity of ~200 L⊙ and a profile composed of two main features, a broad line with a full width to half maximum (FWHM) linewidth of ~90 km s-1 and a narrow (FWHM< 1 km s-1) one. We performed a follow-up to the detection with the Very Long Baseline Array (VLBA) and confidently detected only the narrow component, which is coincident with the nuclear radio continuum emission detected with the Very Large Array at 8.4 GHz. A weak narrow feature has also been detected in the velocity range of the broad feature and is located 15 pc to the north-west with respect to the stronger component. Neither maser spot is associated with the compact radio continuum sources derived from the same VLBA dataset. Conclusions: The different line profiles and the spatial separation between the two features in the

  8. A direct anatomical study of additional renal arteries in a Colombian mestizo population.

    PubMed

    Saldarriaga, B; Pérez, A F; Ballesteros, L E

    2008-05-01

    Traditional anatomy describes each kidney as receiving irrigation from a single renal artery. However, current literature reports great variability in renal blood supply, the number of renal arteries mentioned being the most frequently found variation. Such variation has great implications when surgery is indicated, such as in renal transplants, uroradiological procedures, renovascular hypertension, renal trauma and hydronephrosis. This article pretends to determine the frequency of additional renal arteries and their morphological expression in Colombian population in a cross-sectional study. A total of 196 of renal blocks were analysed from autopsies carried out in the Bucaramanga Institute of Forensic Medicine, Colombia; these renal blocks were processed by the injection- corrosion technique. The average age of the people being studied was 33.8 +/- 15.6 years; 85.4% of them were male and the rest female. An additional renal artery was found in 22.3% of the whole population and two additional ones were found in 2.6% of the same sample. The additional renal artery was most frequently found on the left side. The additional artery arose from the aorta's lateral aspect (52.4%); these additional arteries usually entered the renal parenchyma through the hilum. No difference was established according to gender. Nearly a third of the Colombian population presents one additional renal artery and about 3% of the same population presents two additional renal arteries. Most of them reached the kidney through its hilar region. PMID:18521812

  9. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Rivera, Mick

    1993-01-01

    This report contains physical, chemical, and biological data associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area collected during the late 1980's. The data were collected in support of the u.S. Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program in the Western United States to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxics in irrigation-induced drainage. The data have been used to support interpretations in several recent publications. This data report is the companion to a comprehensive U.S. Geological Survey interpretive report that describes the geochemical and biological pathways of potential toxics, especially selenium, in the study area. The report contains data on concentra- tions of a broad suite of trace elements in soil, irrigation (Colorado River) water, drainwater, surface water (including the Salton Sea), ground- water, aquatic plants, invertebrates, amphibians, reptiles, fish, birds, bird eggs, and turtle eggs. Included, also, are light stable isotope (hydrogen, oxygen, carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur), tritium, and radiocarbon data for selected aqueous samples and organochlorine-pesticide concentrations in biota. Geochemical samples were collected from more than 100 drainwater-collection sites, several surface- water locations, 15 fields, 3 multiple-depth lysimeter and piezometer installations, and the Alamo River Delta on the southeastern shore of the Salton Sea, and from laboratory evaporations of Colorado River water. Biological samples were collected from 39 sites, including 16 Salton Sea shore locations, 5 streams, 7 freshwater impound- ments, 11 drainwater ditches, and 2 additional locations in the Imperial Valley. (USGS)

  10. A COMPREHENSIVE NEW DETECTOR FOR DETAILED STUDY OF THE QGP, INITIAL CONDITION AND SPIN PHYSICS AT RHIC II.

    SciTech Connect

    HARRIS, J.W.; BELLWIED, R.; SMIRNOV, N.; STEINBERG, P.; SURROW, B.; ULLRICH, T.

    2004-03-15

    A case is presented for compelling physics at a high luminosity RHIC II collider. A comprehensive new detector system is introduced to address this physics. The experimental focus is on detailed jet tomography of the quark gluon plasma (QGP); measuring gluon saturation in the nucleus, investigating the color glass condensate, measuring effects of the QCD vacuum on particle masses, determining the structure and dynamics within the proton and possible new phenomena. The physics and detector capabilities are introduced.

  11. On the Origin of the High Lava Plains Volcanic Track: A Detailed Tomographic Study and Multidisciplinary Interpretation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    James, D. E.; Fouch, M. J.; Wagner, L. S.; Carlson, R. W.; Eagar, K. C.; Roth, J. B.

    2011-12-01

    , submitted, 2011). We interpret the new body wave tomography in relationship to both crustal structure and recently published regional 3-D surface wave inversions of the crust and uppermost mantle (e.g., Wagner et al., EPSL, vol. 299, 273-284, 2010): The crustal studies reveal zones of abnormally high Poisson's ratios and low seismic velocities in the crust beneath northcentral and southern Oregon, marking the likely presence of partial melt adjacent to, but not within, the main HLP lineament. The surface wave results likewise show an apparent lack of correlation between low S-wave velocities in the uppermost mantle and the track of the HLP lineament itself. We will present detailed cross-sectional and map images that help better define the relationship between uppermost mantle structure and the on-going HLP volcanism. Finally, we will present and assess arguments as to subduction vs. plume origins of the HLP and the surrounding tectonic terranes.

  12. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253...

  13. Evaluating Drugs and Food Additives for Public Use: A Case Studies Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Merritt, Sheridan V.

    1980-01-01

    Described is a case study used in an introductory college biology course that provides a basis for generating debate on an issue concerning the regulation of controversial food additives and prescription drugs. The case study contained within this article deals with drug screening, specifically with information related to thalidomide. (CS)

  14. Detailed study and mean field interpretation of {sup 16}O+{sup 12}C elastic scattering at seven medium energies

    SciTech Connect

    Nicoli, M. P.; Haas, F.; Freeman, R. M.; Szilner, S.; Basrak, Z.; Morsad, A.; Satchler, G. R.; Brandan, M. E.

    2000-03-01

    Detailed measurements of the elastic scattering of {sup 16}O ions from {sup 12}C have been carried out at seven energies from 62 to 124 MeV, at center-of-mass angles from about 10 degree sign to about 145 degree sign . A coherent optical model analysis of these data has been performed using both the Woods-Saxon and the folding-model potentials. The extracted results are consistent with analyses of data at higher energies for this and similar light heavy-ion systems. Some model-independent spline forms for the real potentials were also investigated. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  15. Nursing Home Ownership Trends and Their Impact on Quality of Care: A Study Using Detailed Ownership Data from Texas

    PubMed Central

    Stevenson, David G.; Bramson, Jeffrey S.; Grabowski, David C.

    2016-01-01

    The role of ownership in the provision of nursing home care has long been a challenging issue for policymakers and researchers. Although much of the focus historically has been on differences between for-profit and not-for-profit facilities, this simple distinction has become less useful in recent years as companies have employed more complicated ownership and management structures. Using detailed ownership data from the State of Texas, we describe the evolution of nursing home corporate structures from 2000–2007, analyze the effect of these structures on quality of care and staffing in nursing homes, and discuss the policy implications of these changes. PMID:23256557

  16. Detailed Study of the Angular Correlations in the Prompt Neutron Emission in Spontaneous Fission of 252Cf

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kopatch, Yu.; Chietera, A.; Stuttgé, L.; Gönnenwein, F.; Mutterer, M.; Gagarski, A.; Guseva, I.; Chernysheva, E.; Dorvaux, O.; Hambsch, F.-J.; Hanappe, F.; Mezentseva, Z.; Telezhnikov, S.

    An experiment has been performed at IPHC Strasbourg, aimed at the detailed investigation of angular correlations in the neutron emission from spontaneous fission of 252Cf. Fission fragments were measured by the angle-sensitive double ionization chamber CODIS while neutrons were detected by a set of 60 DEMON scintillator counters. The main aim of the experiment is the observation of the correlation between the fragment spins and neutron emission anisotropy. Preliminary results, based on the Monte-Carlo simulations, as well as the preliminary analysis of the experimental data are shown.

  17. Molecular jets driven by high-mass protostars: a detailed study of the IRAS 20126+4104 jet

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caratti o Garatti, A.; Froebrich, D.; Eislöffel, J.; Giannini, T.; Nisini, B.

    2008-07-01

    Context: Protostellar jets from intermediate- and high-mass protostars provide an excellent opportunity to understand the mechanisms responsible for intermediate- and high-mass star-formation. A crucial question is if they are scaled-up versions of their low-mass counterparts. Such high-mass jets are relatively rare and, usually, they are distant and highly embedded in their parental clouds. The IRAS 20126+4104 molecular jet, driven by a 10^4 L⊙ protostar, represents a suitable target to investigate. Aims: We present here an extensive analysis of this protostellar jet, deriving the kinematical, dynamical, and physical conditions of the H2 gas along the flow. Methods: The jet was investigated by means of near-IR H2 and [Fe II] narrow-band imaging, high-resolution spectroscopy of the 1-0 S(1) line (2.12 μm), NIR (0.9-2.5 μm) low-resolution spectroscopy, along with ISO-SWS and LWS spectra (from 2.4 to 200 μm). Results: The flow shows a complex morphology. In addition to the large-scale jet precession presented in previous studies, we detect a small-scale wiggling close to the source, which may indicate the presence of a multiple system. The peak radial velocities of the H2 knots range from -42 to -14 km s-1 in the blue lobe, and from -8 to 47 km s-1 in the red lobe. The low-resolution spectra are rich in H2 emission, and relatively faint [Fe II] (NIR), [O I] and [C II] (FIR) emission is observed in the region close to the source. A warm H2 gas component has an average excitation temperature that ranges between 2000 K and 2500 K. Additionally, the ISO-SWS spectrum reveals a cold component (520 K) that strongly contributes to the radiative cooling of the flow and plays a major role in the dynamics of the flow. The estimated L_H2 of the jet is 8.2 ± 0.7 L⊙, suggesting that IRAS 20126+4104 has a significantly increased accretion rate compared to low-mass YSOs. This is also supported by the derived mass flux rate from the H2 lines (dot{M}_out(H2)˜ 7.5× 10-4 M

  18. Influences on physicians' adoption of electronic detailing (e-detailing).

    PubMed

    Alkhateeb, Fadi M; Doucette, William R

    2009-01-01

    E-detailing means using digital technology: internet, video conferencing and interactive voice response. There are two types of e-detailing: interactive (virtual) and video. Currently, little is known about what factors influence physicians' adoption of e-detailing. The objectives of this study were to test a model of physicians' adoption of e-detailing and to describe physicians using e-detailing. A mail survey was sent to a random sample of 2000 physicians practicing in Iowa. Binomial logistic regression was used to test the model of influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. On the basis of Rogers' model of adoption, the independent variables included relative advantage, compatibility, complexity, peer influence, attitudes, years in practice, presence of restrictive access to traditional detailing, type of specialty, academic affiliation, type of practice setting and control variables. A total of 671 responses were received giving a response rate of 34.7%. A total of 141 physicians (21.0%) reported using of e-detailing. The overall adoption model for using either type of e-detailing was found to be significant. Relative advantage, peer influence, attitudes, type of specialty, presence of restrictive access and years of practice had significant influences on physician adoption of e-detailing. The model of adoption of innovation is useful to explain physicians' adoption of e-detailing. PMID:19306198

  19. Fitting additive hazards models for case-cohort studies: a multiple imputation approach.

    PubMed

    Jung, Jinhyouk; Harel, Ofer; Kang, Sangwook

    2016-07-30

    In this paper, we consider fitting semiparametric additive hazards models for case-cohort studies using a multiple imputation approach. In a case-cohort study, main exposure variables are measured only on some selected subjects, but other covariates are often available for the whole cohort. We consider this as a special case of a missing covariate by design. We propose to employ a popular incomplete data method, multiple imputation, for estimation of the regression parameters in additive hazards models. For imputation models, an imputation modeling procedure based on a rejection sampling is developed. A simple imputation modeling that can naturally be applied to a general missing-at-random situation is also considered and compared with the rejection sampling method via extensive simulation studies. In addition, a misspecification aspect in imputation modeling is investigated. The proposed procedures are illustrated using a cancer data example. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26194861

  20. [TG-FTIR study on pyrolysis of wheat-straw with abundant CaO additives].

    PubMed

    Han, Long; Wang, Qin-Hui; Yang, Yu-Kun; Yu, Chun-Jiang; Fang, Meng-Xiang; Luo, Zhong-Yang

    2011-04-01

    Biomass pyrolysis in presence of abundant CaO additives is a fundamental process prior to CaO sorption enhanced gasification in biomass-based zero emission system. In the present study, thermogravimetric Fourier transform infrared (TG-FTIR) analysis was adopted to examine the effects of CaO additives on the mass loss process and volatiles evolution of wheat-straw pyrolysis. Observations from TG and FTIR analyses simultaneously demonstrated a two-stage process for CaO catalyzed wheat-straw pyrolysis, different from the single stage process for pure wheat-straw pyrolysis. CaO additives could not only absorb the released CO2 but also reduce the yields of tar species such as toluene, phenol, and formic acid in the first stage, resulting in decreased mass loss and maximum mass loss rate in this stage with an increase in CaO addition. The second stage was attributed to the CaCO3 decomposition and the mass loss and maximum mass loss rate increased with increasing amount of CaO additives. The results of the present study demonstrated the great potential of CaO additives to capture CO2 and reduce tars yields in biomass-based zero emission system. The gasification temperature in the system should be lowered down to avoid CaCO3 decomposition. PMID:21714234

  1. A uniform field ion mobility study of melittin and implications of low-field mobility for resolving fine cross-sectional detail in peptide and protein experiments.

    PubMed

    May, Jody C; McLean, John A

    2015-08-01

    An experimental investigation of protonated melittin was undertaken using uniform field ion mobility-mass spectrometry (IM-MS) to measure helium-based collision cross sections (CCS). Upon varying the electrospray solvent from aqueous to methanol, the [M + 2H](2+) species was observed to shift from a compact to an extended CCS, suggesting a gas-phase structural transition which depends on initial solvent conditions. The [M + 3H](3+), [M + 4H](4+), and [M + 5H](5+) species exhibited peak broadening in response to the organic solvent, but retained their CCS, suggesting these are locked into a stable gas-phase structure. The CCS of the stable [M + 3H](3+) and [M + 4H](4+) species were found to be similar, suggesting these ions adopt structurally similar features in the gas phase, which, based on previous studies, likely retains α-helical characteristics. We also report on the resolution of additional low-abundance ion mobility peak features which are sensitive to the magnitude of the drift field. We observe a loss in the peptide ion mobility resolution above ca. eight Townsends, suggesting that the ability to resolve subtle structural details is inherently related to conducting ion mobility measurements at low field and under conditions which minimize ion heating. PMID:25884242

  2. SHEEP MOUNTAIN WILDERNESS STUDY AREA AND CUCAMONGA WILDERNESS AND ADDITIONS, CALIFORNIA.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Evans, James G.; Ridenour, James

    1984-01-01

    The Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and Cucamonga Wilderness and additions encompass approximately 104 sq mi of the eastern San Gabriel Mountains, Los Angeles and San Bernardino Counties, California. A mineral survey indicates areas of probable and substantiated tungsten and gold resource potential for parts of the Sheep Mountain Wilderness Study Area and an area of probable tungsten and gold resource potential in the Cucamonga Wilderness and additions. The rugged topography, withdrawal of lands from mineral entry to protect watershed, and restricted entry of lands during periods of high fire danger have contributed to the continuing decline in mineral exploration. The geologic setting precludes the presence of energy resources.

  3. Influence of Polarization on Carbohydrate Hydration: A Comparative Study Using Additive and Polarizable Force Fields.

    PubMed

    Pandey, Poonam; Mallajosyula, Sairam S

    2016-07-14

    Carbohydrates are known to closely modulate their surrounding solvent structures and influence solvation dynamics. Spectroscopic investigations studying far-IR regions (below 1000 cm(-1)) have observed spectral shifts in the libration band (around 600 cm(-1)) of water in the presence of monosaccharides and polysaccharides. In this paper, we use molecular dynamics simulations to gain atomistic insight into carbohydrate-water interactions and to specifically highlight the differences between additive (nonpolarizable) and polarizable simulations. A total of six monosaccharide systems, α and β anomers of glucose, galactose, and mannose, were studied using additive and polarizable Chemistry at HARvard Macromolecular Mechanics (CHARMM) carbohydrate force fields. Solvents were modeled using three additive water models TIP3P, TIP4P, and TIP5P in additive simulations and polarizable water model SWM4 in polarizable simulations. The presence of carbohydrate has a significant effect on the microscopic water structure, with the effects being pronounced for proximal water molecules. Notably, disruption of the tetrahedral arrangement of proximal water molecules was observed due to the formation of strong carbohydrate-water hydrogen bonds in both additive and polarizable simulations. However, the inclusion of polarization resulted in significant water-bridge occupancies, improved ordered water structures (tetrahedral order parameter), and longer carbohydrate-water H-bond correlations as compared to those for additive simulations. Additionally, polarizable simulations also allowed the calculation of power spectra from the dipole-dipole autocorrelation function, which corresponds to the IR spectra. From the power spectra, we could identify spectral signatures differentiating the proximal and bulk water structures, which could not be captured from additive simulations. PMID:27266974

  4. Space shuttle/food system study. Volume 2, Appendix G: Ground support system analysis. Appendix H: Galley functional details analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1974-01-01

    The capabilities for preflight feeding of flight personnel and the supply and control of the space shuttle flight food system were investigated to determine ground support requirements; and the functional details of an onboard food system galley are shown in photographic mockups. The elements which were identified as necessary to the efficient accomplishment of ground support functions include the following: (1) administration; (2) dietetics; (3) analytical laboratories; (4) flight food warehouse; (5) stowage module assembly area; (6) launch site module storage area; (7) alert crew restaurant and disperse crew galleys; (8) ground food warehouse; (9) manufacturing facilities; (10) transport; and (11) computer support. Each element is discussed according to the design criteria of minimum cost, maximum flexibility, reliability, and efficiency consistent with space shuttle requirements. The galley mockup overview illustrates the initial operation configuration, food stowage locations, meal assembly and serving trays, meal preparation configuration, serving, trash management, and the logistics of handling and cleanup equipment.

  5. Detailed geochemical study of the Dan River-Danville Triassic Basin, North Carolina and Virginia. National Uranium Resource Evaluation Program

    SciTech Connect

    Thayer, P. A.; Cook, J. R.

    1982-08-01

    This abbreviated data report presents results of surface geochemical reconnaissance in the Dan River-Danville Triassic Basin of north-central North Carolina and south-central Virginia. Unweathered rock samples were collected at 380 sites within the basin at a nominal sampling density of one site per square mile. Field measurements and observations are reported for each site; analytical data and field measurements are presented in tables and maps. A detailed four-channel spectrometric survey was conducted, and the results are presented as a series of symbol plot maps for eU, eTh, and eU/eTh. Data from rock sample sites (on microfiche in pocket) include rock type and color and elemental analyses for U, Th, Hf, Al, Ce, Dy, Eu, Fe, La, Lu, Mn, Na, Sc, Sm, Ti, V, and Yb. Elemental uranium in 362 sedimentary rock samples from the Dan River-Danville Basin ranges from a low of 0.1 to a maximum of 13.3 parts per million (ppM). The log mean uranium concentration for these same samples is 0.37 ppM, and the log standard deviation is 0.24 ppM. Elemental uranium in 10 diabase dike samples from within the basin is in the range 0.1 to 0.7 ppM. The log mean uranium concentration for diabase samples is -.65 ppM, and the log standard deviation is 0.27. This report is issued in draft form, without detailed technical and copy editing. This was done to make the report available to the public before the end of the NURE program.

  6. Numerical study on the influence of hydrogen addition on soot formation in a laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame

    SciTech Connect

    Guo, Hongsheng; Liu, Fengshan; Smallwood, Gregory J.; Guelder, OEmer L.

    2006-04-15

    The influence of hydrogen addition to the fuel of an atmosphere pressure coflow laminar ethylene-air diffusion flame on soot formation was studied by numerical simulation. A detailed gas-phase reaction mechanism, which includes aromatic chemistry up to four rings, and complex thermal and transport properties were used. The fully coupled elliptic governing equations were solved. The interactions between soot and gas-phase chemistry were taken into account. Radiation heat transfer from CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}O, and soot was calculated using the discrete-ordinates method coupled to a statistical narrow-band-correlated K-based wide-band model. The predicted results were compared with the available experimental data and analyzed. It is indicated that the addition of hydrogen to the fuel in an ethylene-air diffusion flame suppresses soot formation through the effects of dilution and chemistry. This result is in agreement with available experiments. The simulations further suggest that the chemically inhibiting effect of hydrogen addition on soot formation is due to the decrease of hydrogen atom concentration in soot surface growth regions and higher concentration of molecular hydrogen in the lower flame region. (author)

  7. A detailed magnetic and mineralogical study of self-reversed dacitic pumices from the 1991 Pinatubo eruption (Philippines)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bina, M.; Tanguy, J. C.; Hoffmann, V.; Prévot, M.; Listanco, E. L.; Keller, R.; Fehr, K. Th.; Goguitchaïchvili, A. T.; Punongbayan, R. S.

    1999-07-01

    39 dacitic pumice and lithic samples from the 1991 eruption of Mount Pinatubo were investigated through both magnetic and mineralogical means. As in a previous study, natural remanent magnetization (NRM) is found to be reversed for most of the samples, with respect to the direction of the actual geomagnetic field direction. A few samples, amongst them ancient lithics transported by pyroclastic flows, show scattered NRM directions. From thermal demagnetization of these particular samples it is concluded that their orientation changed after emplacement. The emplacement temperature is estimated to be more than 460 degC from thermal demagnetization of lithic samples. Two magnetic minerals with large grain sizes are observed under the optical microscope: titanomagnetite (TM) and haemo-ilmenite (hem-ilm). Microprobe analyses yield x~0.10 for TM and y~0.52 and y~0.54 for two hem-ilm phases, in agreement with the observed Curie temperatures (~480 degC for TM and ~250 degC for hem-ilm). The hem-ilm particles display chemical zonation, which seems to be correlated with a change of the domain structure: typically, a ferrimagnetic (FM) phase with slightly higher titanium content is observed in the central part whilst the crystal margin, which is weakly ferromagnetic (WF, due to spin-canted antiferromagnetism) is slightly poorer in titanium. Two different mechanisms for the origin and formation of the two observed phases are discussed: (1) chemical zonation of hem-ilm crystals due to a change in conditions in the magma chamber shortly before eruption; (2) similar to the microstructures observed from synthetic samples, this zonation in the large natural hem-ilm could be the result of migration of the WF phase towards the grain boundary during residence below the order-disorder transition temperature in the magmatic chamber. The room temperature hysteresis loop, which seems to be dominated by TM, provides multidomain (MD)-like parameters: J_rs/J_s=0.01 and H_cr/H_c=20. The large

  8. Generating Scenarios of Addition and Subtraction: A Study of Japanese University Students

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kinda, Shigehiro

    2013-01-01

    Students are presented with problems involving three scenario types of addition and subtraction in elementary mathematics: one dynamic ("Change") and two static ("Combine, Compare"). Previous studies have indicated that the dynamic type is easier for school children, whereas the static types are more difficult and comprehended only gradually…

  9. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  10. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity. 1710.253 Section 1710.253 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL AND PRE-LOAN POLICIES AND PROCEDURES COMMON TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND...

  11. Experimental study of combustion of decane, dodecane and hexadecane with polymeric and nano-particle additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghamari, Mohsen; Ratner, Albert

    2015-11-01

    Recent studies have shown that adding combustible nano-particles could have promising effects on increasing burning rate of liquid fuels. Combustible nano-particles could enhance the heat conduction and mixing within the droplet. Polymers have also higher burning rate than regular hydrocarbon fuels because of having the flame closer to the droplet surface. Therefore adding polymeric additive could have the potential to increase the burning rate. In this study, combustion of stationary fuel droplets of n-Decane, n-Dodecane and n-Hexadecane doped with different percentages of a long chain polymer and also a very fine nano carbon was examined and compared with the pure hydrocarbon behavior. In contrast with hydrocarbon droplets with no polymer addition, several zones of combustion including a slow and steady burning zone, a strong swelling zone and a final fast and fairly steady combustion zone were also detected. In addition, increasing polymer percentage resulted in a more extended swelling zone and shorter slow burning zone in addition to a shorter total burning time. Addition of nano-particles also resulted in an overall increased burning rate and shortened burning time which is due to enhanced heat conduction within the droplet.

  12. A detailed picture of the origin of the Australian dingo, obtained from the study of mitochondrial DNA.

    PubMed

    Savolainen, Peter; Leitner, Thomas; Wilton, Alan N; Matisoo-Smith, Elizabeth; Lundeberg, Joakim

    2004-08-17

    To determine the origin and time of arrival to Australia of the dingo, 582 bp of the mtDNA control region were analyzed in 211 Australian dingoes sampled in all states of Australia, 676 dogs from all continents, and 38 Eurasian wolves, and 263 bp were analyzed in 19 pre-European archaeological dog samples from Polynesia. We found that all mtDNA sequences among dingoes were either identical to or differing by a single substitution from a single mtDNA type, A29. This mtDNA type, which was present in >50% of the dingoes, was found also among domestic dogs, but only in dogs from East Asia and Arctic America, whereas 18 of the 19 other types were unique to dingoes. The mean genetic distance to A29 among the dingo mtDNA sequences indicates an origin approximately 5,000 years ago. From these results a detailed scenario of the origin and history of the dingo can be derived: dingoes have an origin from domesticated dogs coming from East Asia, possibly in connection with the Austronesian expansion into Island Southeast Asia. They were introduced from a small population of dogs, possibly at a single occasion, and have since lived isolated from other dog populations. PMID:15299143

  13. A detailed study of the photo-injection annealing of thermally diffused InP solar cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walters, R. J.; Summers, G. P.; Bruening, J.

    1993-01-01

    A detailed analysis of the annealing of thermally diffused InP solar cells fabricated by the Nippon Mining Co. is presented. The cells were irradiated with 1 MeV electrons, and the induced degradation is measured using deep level transient spectroscopy and low temperature (86 K) IV measurements. Clear recovery of the photovoltaic parameters is observed during low temperature (T is less than 300 K) solar illuminations (1 sun, AMO) with further recovery at higher temperatures (300 less than T less than 500 K). For example, the output of a cell which was irradiated up to a fluence of 1 x 10(exp 16) cm(sup -2) was observed to recover to within 5 percent of the pre-irradiation output. An apparent correlation between the recovery of I(sub sc) and the annealing of the H4 defect and of the minority carrier trapping centers is observed. An apparent correlation between the recovery of VO, and the annealing of the H5 defect is also observed. These apparent correlations are used to develop a possible model for the mechanism of the recovery of the solar cells.

  14. The gas-rich circumbinary disk of HR 4049. I. A detailed study of the mid-infrared spectrum

    SciTech Connect

    Malek, S. E.; Cami, J. E-mail: jcami@uwo.ca

    2014-01-01

    We present a detailed analysis of the mid-infrared spectrum of the peculiar evolved object HR 4049. The full Spitzer-IRS high-resolution spectrum shows a wealth of emission with prominent features from CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O and possible contributions from HCN and OH. We model the molecular emission and find that it originates from a massive (M ≳ 8 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉}), warm (T {sub ex} ≈ 500 K) and radially extended gas disk that is optically thick at infrared wavelengths. We also report less enrichment in {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O than previously found and a comparison of the Spitzer observations to earlier data obtained by the Short Wavelength Spectrometer on board the Infrared Space Observatory reveals that the CO{sub 2} flux has more than doubled in 10 yr time, indicating active and ongoing chemical evolution in the circumbinary disk. If the gas originates from interaction between the stellar wind and the dust, this suggests that the dust could be oxygen-rich in nature. The molecular gas plays a crucial role in the thermal properties of the circumbinary disk by allowing visible light to heat the dust and then trapping the infrared photons emitted by the dust. This results in higher temperatures and a more homogeneous temperature structure in the disk.

  15. Anatomically ordered tapping interferes more with one-digit addition than two-digit addition: a dual-task fMRI study.

    PubMed

    Soylu, Firat; Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-02-01

    Fingers are used as canonical representations for numbers across cultures. In previous imaging studies, it was shown that arithmetic processing activates neural resources that are known to participate in finger movements. Additionally, in one dual-task study, it was shown that anatomically ordered finger tapping disrupts addition and subtraction more than multiplication, possibly due to a long-lasting effect of early finger counting experiences on the neural correlates and organization of addition and subtraction processes. How arithmetic task difficulty and tapping complexity affect the concurrent performance is still unclear. If early finger counting experiences have bearing on the neural correlates of arithmetic in adults, then one would expect anatomically and non-anatomically ordered tapping to have different interference effects, given that finger counting is usually anatomically ordered. To unravel these issues, we studied how (1) arithmetic task difficulty and (2) the complexity of the finger tapping sequence (anatomical vs. non-anatomical ordering) affect concurrent performance and use of key neural circuits using a mixed block/event-related dual-task fMRI design with adult participants. The results suggest that complexity of the tapping sequence modulates interference on addition, and that one-digit addition (fact retrieval), compared to two-digit addition (calculation), is more affected from anatomically ordered tapping. The region-of-interest analysis showed higher left angular gyrus BOLD response for one-digit compared to two-digit addition, and in no-tapping conditions than dual tapping conditions. The results support a specific association between addition fact retrieval and anatomically ordered finger movements in adults, possibly due to finger counting strategies that deploy anatomically ordered finger movements early in the development. PMID:26410214

  16. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  17. Microstructural Study Of Zinc Hot Dip Galvanized Coatings with Titanium Additions In The Zinc Melt

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Konidaris, S.; Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.; Pavlidou, E.; Stergiou, A.; Stergioudis, G.; Polychroniadis, E. K.

    2007-04-01

    Zinc hot-dip galvanizing is a method for protecting iron and steel against corrosion. Galvanizing with pure Zn or Zn with additions like Ni, Al, Pb and Bi has been extensively studied, but there is a lack of scientific information about other additions. The present work examines the effect of a 0.5 wt% Ti addition in the Zn melt. The samples were exposed to accelerated corrosion in a salt spray chamber (SSC). The microstructure and chemical composition of the coatings were determined by Optical Microscopy, XRD and SEM associated with an EDS Analyzer. The results indicate that the coatings have a typical morphology, while Zn-Ti phases were also detected.

  18. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-01-01

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. The observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys. PMID:26446425

  19. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    SciTech Connect

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused by a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.

  20. Detailed study of the plasma-activated catalytic generation of ammonia in N2-H2 plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Helden, J. H.; Wagemans, W.; Yagci, G.; Zijlmans, R. A. B.; Schram, D. C.; Engeln, R.; Lombardi, G.; Stancu, G. D.; Röpcke, J.

    2007-02-01

    We investigated the efficiency and formation mechanism of ammonia generation in recombining plasmas generated from mixtures of N2 and H2 under various plasma conditions. In contrast to the Haber-Bosch process, in which the molecules are dissociated on a catalytic surface, under these plasma conditions the precursor molecules, N2 and H2, are already dissociated in the gas phase. Surfaces are thus exposed to large fluxes of atomic N and H radicals. The ammonia production turns out to be strongly dependent on the fluxes of atomic N and H radicals to the surface. By optimizing the atomic N and H fluxes to the surface using an atomic nitrogen and hydrogen source ammonia can be formed efficiently, i.e., more than 10% of the total background pressure is measured to be ammonia. The results obtained show a strong similarity with results reported in literature, which were explained by the production of ammonia at the surface by stepwise addition reactions between adsorbed nitrogen and hydrogen containing radicals at the surface and incoming N and H containing radicals. Furthermore, our results indicate that the ammonia production is independent of wall material. The high fluxes of N and H radicals in our experiments result in a passivated surface, and the actual chemistry, leading to the formation of ammonia, takes place in an additional layer on top of this passivated surface.

  1. A new debate for Turkish physicians: e-detailing.

    PubMed

    Ventura, Keti; Baybars, Miray; Dedeoglu, Ayla Ozhan

    2012-01-01

    The study presents an empirical analysis of the attitudes of Turkish physicians towards e-detailing practices compared to face-to-face detailing. The findings reveal that although physicians have positive attitudes toward e-detailing, on some points they are still undecided and/or have doubts. The structural model revealed that affect, convenience, and informative content influence their attitude in a positive manner, whereas the personal interaction was found to be a negative factor. Physicians' age and frequency of calls received from representatives are moderators. The present study can be seen as an addition to pharmaceutical marketing, an underresearched study field in Turkey, and e-detailing particularly. PMID:23210675

  2. Summary of Previous Chamber or Controlled Anthrax Studies and Recommendations for Possible Additional Studies

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F.; Amidan, Brett G.; Morrow, Jayne B.

    2010-12-29

    This report and an associated Excel file(a) summarizes the investigations and results of previous chamber and controlled studies(b) to characterize the performance of methods for collecting, storing and/or transporting, extracting, and analyzing samples from surfaces contaminated by Bacillus anthracis (BA) or related simulants. This report and the Excel are the joint work of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) for the Department of Homeland Security, Science and Technology Directorate. The report was originally released as PNNL-SA-69338, Rev. 0 in November 2009 with limited distribution, but was subsequently cleared for release with unlimited distribution in this Rev. 1. Only minor changes were made to Rev. 0 to yield Rev. 1. A more substantial update (including summarizing data from other studies and more condensed summary tables of data) is underway

  3. Studies of levels of biogenic amines in meat samples in relation to the content of additives.

    PubMed

    Jastrzębska, Aneta; Kowalska, Sylwia; Szłyk, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The impact of meat additives on the concentration of biogenic amines and the quality of meat was studied. Fresh white and red meat samples were fortified with the following food additives: citric and lactic acids, disodium diphosphate, sodium nitrite, sodium metabisulphite, potassium sorbate, sodium chloride, ascorbic acid, α-tocopherol, propyl 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoate (propyl gallate) and butylated hydroxyanisole. The content of spermine, spermidine, putrescine, cadaverine, histamine, tyramine, tryptamine and 2-phenylethylamine was determined by capillary isotachophoretic methods in meat samples (fresh and fortified) during four days of storage at 4°C. The results were applied to estimate the impact of the tested additives on the formation of biogenic amines in white and red meat. For all tested meats, sodium nitrite, sodium chloride and disodium diphosphate showed the best inhibition. However, cadaverine and putrescine were characterised by the biggest changes in concentration during the storage time of all the additives. Based on the presented data for the content of biogenic amines in meat samples analysed as a function of storage time and additives, we suggest that cadaverine and putrescine have a significant impact on meat quality. PMID:26515667

  4. Mutual sensitization of the oxidation of nitric oxide and a natural gas blend in a JSR at elevated pressure: experimental and detailed kinetic modeling study.

    PubMed

    Dagaut, Philippe; Dayma, Guillaume

    2006-06-01

    The mutual sensitization of the oxidation of NO and a natural gas blend (methane-ethane 10:1) was studied experimentally in a fused silica jet-stirred reactor operating at 10 atm, over the temperature range 800-1160 K, from fuel-lean to fuel-rich conditions. Sonic quartz probe sampling followed by on-line FTIR analyses and off-line GC-TCD/FID analyses were used to measure the concentration profiles of the reactants, the stable intermediates, and the final products. A detailed chemical kinetic modeling of the present experiments was performed yielding an overall good agreement between the present data and this modeling. According to the proposed kinetic scheme, the mutual sensitization of the oxidation of this natural gas blend and NO proceeds through the NO to NO2 conversion by HO2, CH3O2, and C2H5O2. The detailed kinetic modeling showed that the conversion of NO to NO2 by CH3O2 and C2H5O2 is more important at low temperatures (ca. 820 K) than at higher temperatures where the reaction of NO with HO2 controls the NO to NO2 conversion. The production of OH resulting from the oxidation of NO by HO2, and the production of alkoxy radicals via RO2 + NO reactions promotes the oxidation of the fuel. A simplified reaction scheme was delineated: NO + HO2 --> NO2 + OH followed by OH + CH4 --> CH3 + H2O and OH + C2H6 --> C2H5 + H2O. At low-temperature, the reaction also proceeds via CH3 + O2 (+ M) --> CH3O2 (+ M); CH3O2 + NO --> CH3O + NO2 and C2H5 + O2 --> C2H5O2; C2H5O2 + NO --> C2H5O + NO2. At higher temperature, methoxy radicals are produced via the following mechanism: CH3 + NO2 --> CH3O + NO. The further reactions CH3O --> CH2O + H; CH2O + OH --> HCO + H2O; HCO + O2 --> HO2 + CO; and H + O2 + M --> HO2 + M complete the sequence. The proposed model indicates that the well-recognized difference of reactivity between methane and a natural gas blend is significantly reduced by addition of NO. The kinetic analyses indicate that in the NO-seeded conditions, the main production

  5. Numerical study of the effect of water addition on gas explosion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Yuntao; Zeng, Wen

    2010-02-15

    Through amending the SENKIN code of CHEMKIN III chemical kinetics package, a computational model of gas explosion in a constant volume bomb was built, and the detailed reaction mechanism (GRI-Mech 3.0) was adopted. The mole fraction profiles of reactants, some selected free radicals and catastrophic gases in the process of gas explosion were analyzed by this model. Furthermore, through the sensitivity analysis of the reaction mechanism of gas explosion, the dominant reactions that affect gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were found out. At the same time, the inhibition mechanisms of water on gas explosion and the formation of catastrophic gases were analyzed. The results show that the induced explosion time is prolonged, and the mole fractions of reactant species such as CH(4), O(2) and catastrophic gases such as CO, CO(2) and NO are decreased as water is added to the mixed gas. With the water fraction in the mixed gas increasing, the sensitivities of the dominant reactions contributing to CH(4), CO(2) are decreased and the sensitivity coefficients of CH(4), CO and NO mole fractions are also decreased. The inhibition of gas explosion with water addition can be ascribed to the significant decrease of H, O and OH in the process of gas explosion due to the water presence. PMID:19811873

  6. a Study on the Role of Sintering Additives for Fabrication of sic Ceramic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Han Ki; Lee, Young Ju; Cho, Ho Jun; Kim, Tae Gyu

    Silicon carbide (SiC) materials have been extensively studied for high temperature components in advanced energy system and advanced gas turbine. The SiC ceramics have been fabricated by a NITE (Nano Infiltration Transient Eutectic Phase) Process, using Nano-SiC powder. The sintering additives used for forming liquid phase under sintering process, used the sintering additives ratios were an Al2O3-Y2O3 system or add SiO2 contents. A major R&D focus for the SiC ceramics is the production to obtain high purity SiC ceramics. In this study, we investigated roles of the sintering additives(Al2O3:Y2O3) to fabrication of the SiC ceramics. The effects of SiO2 contents and density properties of the SiC ceramics were also investigated. To investigate the effects of SiO2, Al2O3/Y2O3 composition were fixed and then SiO2 ratios were changed as several kinds, and to confirm the effects of sintering additives ratios (Al2O3:Y2O3) they were changed between 4:6 and 6:4 in x wt.%.

  7. An interferometric study of the Fomalhaut inner debris disk. III. Detailed models of the exozodiacal disk and its origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lebreton, J.; van Lieshout, R.; Augereau, J.-C.; Absil, O.; Mennesson, B.; Kama, M.; Dominik, C.; Bonsor, A.; Vandeportal, J.; Beust, H.; Defrère, D.; Ertel, S.; Faramaz, V.; Hinz, P.; Kral, Q.; Lagrange, A.-M.; Liu, W.; Thébault, P.

    2013-07-01

    Context. Debris disks are thought to be extrasolar analogs to the solar system planetesimal belts. The star Fomalhaut harbors a cold debris belt at 140 AU comparable to the Edgeworth-Kuiper belt, as well as evidence of a warm dust component, unresolved by single-dish telescopes, which is suspected of being a bright analog to the solar system's zodiacal dust. Aims: Interferometric observations obtained with the VLTI/VINCI instrument and the Keck Interferometer Nuller have identified near- and mid-infrared excesses attributed respectively to hot and warm exozodiacal dust residing in the inner few AU of the Fomalhaut environment. We aim to characterize the properties of this double inner dust belt and to unveil its origin. Methods: We performed parametric modeling of the exozodiacal disk ("exozodi") using the GRaTeR radiative transfer code to reproduce the interferometric data, complemented by mid- to far-infrared photometric measurements from Spitzer and Herschel. A detailed treatment of sublimation temperatures was introduced to explore the hot population at the size-dependent sublimation rim. We then used an analytical approach to successively testing several source mechanisms for the dust and suspected parent bodies. Results: A good fit to the multiwavelength data is found by two distinct dust populations: (1) a population of very small (0.01 to 0.5 μm), hence unbound, hot dust grains confined in a narrow region (~0.1-0.3 AU) at the sublimation rim of carbonaceous material; (2) a population of bound grains at ~2 AU that is protected from sublimation and has a higher mass despite its fainter flux level. We propose that the hot dust is produced by the release of small carbon grains following the disruption of dust aggregates that originate in the warm component. A mechanism, such as gas braking, is required to further confine the small grains for a long enough time. In situ dust production could hardly be ensured for the age of the star, so we conclude that the

  8. A detailed study of the Cobb Offset of the Juan de Fuca Ridge: Evolution of a propagating rift

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, H. Paul; Karsten, Jill L.; Delaney, John R.; Davis, Earl E.; Currie, Ralph G.; Chase, Richard L.

    1983-03-01

    The Cobb Offset on the northern portion of the Juan de Fuca Ridge has been identified as the tip of a northward propagating rift [Hey and Wilson, 1982]. Map compilations of magnetic and seismic data from four new cruises define the present locus of spreading and volcanism on the two ridge segments abutting the Offset and permit detailed modeling of the recent evolution within this transform zone. The axis of recent spreading on the southern ridge segment bends from the normal ridge trend (N20°E) to a N-S trend, north of 47°15'N. The spreading axis on the northern ridge segment generally defines a N20°E trend, except at the southern terminus, where the spreading center is offset slightly to the east. The two spreading centers overlap by about 33 km in the Offset vicinity, and there is evidence of recent volcanism on both segments. Present ridge axis morphology exhibits a transitional sequence from a symmetrical, axial high along the more `normal' portions of each ridge segment to a grabenlike depression as the tip is approached. The magnetic anomaly patterns observed in the Cobb Offset vicinity are not consistent with the patterns predicted by models of continuous, northward propagation. The magnetic anomaly patterns of the Brunhes Epoch require an event of rapid northward propagation about 0.7 m.y. B.P., followed by a more gradual southward propagation in the middle Brunhes Epoch; most recently, the spreading center on the southern ridge has extended northward to its present configuration. Prior to the Brunhes Epoch, modeling of the magnetic anomaly patterns does not indicate a unique solution; however, net propagation has been northward. We present alternative models for the period beginning 1.7 m.y. B.P. In the first model, the Cobb Offset has evolved by a series of northward and southward events of propagation, with net advance to the north. In the second model, stable asymmetric spreading from overlapping ridge segments has evolved into a transform fault

  9. Using epidemiology to regulate food additives: saccharin case-control studies.

    PubMed

    Cordle, F; Miller, S A

    1984-01-01

    The increasing use of nonnutritive sweeteners and the widely publicized 1969 ban on cyclamate led to additional investigations in rodents of the carcinogenic potential of saccharin. Preliminary results of a long-term feeding study indicated formation of bladder tumors in rodents, and collective experimental evidence has demonstrated that high doses of the synthetic sweetener saccharin can cause bladder cancer in rodents. Based on the results of that and other rodent studies indicating an increased risk of bladder cancer associated with saccharin, the Commissioner of the Food and Drug Administration announced the agency's intention to propose a ban on saccharin. This intention was made known in April 1977 under the Delaney Clause of the Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act. The clause essentially states that no additive shall be deemed safe if it is found to induce cancer in man or animals, or if it is found, after tests appropriate for the evaluation of the safety of food additives, to induce cancer in man or animals. Also in 1977, a group of epidemiologists began to assess the available epidemiologic information to determine the potential human risk. This report describes the assessment of several human epidemiologic studies available then and the results of more recent epidemiologic studies. PMID:6431484

  10. A Detailed Summary of the Oregon and Stanford Studies of Team-Organized Elementary Schools, circa 1970. Project MITT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Charters, W. W., Jr.

    This report summarizes two studies conducted during the late 1960s on effects of team instructional organization upon elementary teachers' decision-making influence in educational affairs and their job satisfaction. The first study, by University of Oregon researchers, compared interview and questionnaire data from Wisconsin teachers in four…

  11. Study of asphalt/asphaltene precipitation during addition of solvents to West Sak crude

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, J.C.; Patil, S.L.; Kamath, V.A. )

    1990-07-01

    In this study, experimental data on the amount of asphalt and asphaltene precipitation due to addition of solvents to West Sak crude were gathered. The first set of tests were conducted for two types of West Sak stock tank oils. Solvents used include: ethane, carbon dioxide, propane, n-butane, n-pentane, n-heptane, Prudhoe Bay natural gas (PBG) and natural gas liquids (NGL). Effect of solvent to oil dilution ratio on the amount of precipitation was studied. Alteration of crude oil composition due to asphalt precipitation was measured using gas-liquid chromatography. A second set of experiments were conducted to measure asphaltene precipitation due to addition of CO{sub 2} to live (recombined) West Sak crude.

  12. Systematic Features of the Doubly-Even N=90 Nuclei: Detailed Experimental Study of a Collective Transition Region.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kulp, W. D.; Wood, J. L.; Garrett, P. E.

    2004-10-01

    The N=90 region has long been a focus of collective nuclear model investigations. We report on a program of study which involves both systematic investigations (of ^150Nd, ^152Sm, ^154Gd, and ^156Dy to date) and multi-spectroscopy investigations (radioactive decay, (n,n'γ), (α, 2nγ) and multi-Coulex) of ^152Sm. These studies provide both ``horizontal'' and ``vertical'' extensions of our spectroscopic knowledge of these widely-studied nuclei. We report on the identification of the systematic occurrence of a low-energy 0^+ ``pairing isomer'' band [1], a K^π = 2^+ ``βγ'' band, a ``hexadecapole'' band, and a broad family of ``octupole'' bands. The radioactive decay studies have been done using the 8π spectrometer (both at LBNL and TRIUMF-ISAC). The multi-Coulex studies have been made using Gammasphere-CHICO (at LBNL). The (α, 2nγ) studies have been carried out at the University of Cologne tandem. The (n,n'γ) studies were made at the University of Kentucky Van de Graaff. [1] W. D. Kulp et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 91, 102501 (2003).

  13. A Study of Aluminum Combustion in Solids, Powders, Foams, Additively-Manufactured Lattices, and Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Black, James; Trammell, Norman; Batteh, Jad; Curran, Nicholas; Rogers, John; Littrell, Donald

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the fireball characteristics, blast parameters, and combustion efficiency of explosively-shocked aluminum-based materials. The materials included structural and non-structural aluminum forms - such as solid cylinders, foams, additively-manufactured lattices, and powders - and some polytetrafluoroethylene-aluminum (PTFE-Al) composites. The materials were explosively dispersed in a small blast chamber, and the blast properties and products were measured with pressure transducers, thermocouples, slow and fast ultraviolet/visible spectrometers, and high-speed video.

  14. Spectra-temporal patterns underlying mental addition: an ERP and ERD/ERS study.

    PubMed

    Ku, Yixuan; Hong, Bo; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2010-03-12

    Functional neuroimaging data have shown that mental calculation involves fronto-parietal areas that are composed of different subsystems shared with other cognitive functions such as working memory and language. Event-related potential (ERP) analysis has also indicated sequential information changes during the calculation process. However, little is known about the dynamic properties of oscillatory networks in this process. In the present study, we applied both ERP and event-related (de-)synchronization (ERS/ERD) analyses to EEG data recorded from normal human subjects performing tasks for sequential visual/auditory mental addition. Results in the study indicate that the late positive components (LPCs) can be decomposed into two separate parts. The earlier element LPC1 (around 360ms) reflects the computing attribute and is more prominent in calculation tasks. The later element LPC2 (around 590ms) indicates an effect of number size and appears larger only in a more complex 2-digit addition task. The theta ERS and alpha ERD show modality-independent frontal and parietal differential patterns between the mental addition and control groups, and discrepancies are noted in the beta ERD between the 2-digit and 1-digit mental addition groups. The 2-digit addition (both visual and auditory) results in similar beta ERD patterns to the auditory control, which may indicate a reliance on auditory-related resources in mental arithmetic, especially with increasing task difficulty. These results coincide with the theory of simple calculation relying on the visuospatial process and complex calculation depending on the phonological process. PMID:20105450

  15. Mineral resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, Sweetwater County, Wyoming

    SciTech Connect

    Gibbons, A.B.; Barbon, H.N.; Kulik, D.M. ); McDonnell, J.R. Jr. )

    1990-01-01

    The authors present a study to assess the potential for undiscovered mineral resources and appraise the identified resources of the Buffalo Hump and Sand Dunes Addition Wilderness Study Areas, southwestern Wyoming, There are no mines, prospects, or mineralized areas nor any producing oil or gas wells; however, there are occurrences of coal, claystone and shale, and sand. There is a moderate resource potential for oil shale and natural gas and a low resource potential for oil, for metals, including uranium, and for geothermal sources.

  16. Crowdsourcing detailed flood data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walliman, Nicholas; Ogden, Ray; Amouzad*, Shahrzhad

    2015-04-01

    Over the last decade the average annual loss across the European Union due to flooding has been 4.5bn Euros, but increasingly intense rainfall, as well as population growth, urbanisation and the rising costs of asset replacements, may see this rise to 23bn Euros a year by 2050. Equally disturbing are the profound social costs to individuals, families and communities which in addition to loss of lives include: loss of livelihoods, decreased purchasing and production power, relocation and migration, adverse psychosocial effects, and hindrance of economic growth and development. Flood prediction, management and defence strategies rely on the availability of accurate information and flood modelling. Whilst automated data gathering (by measurement and satellite) of the extent of flooding is already advanced it is least reliable in urban and physically complex geographies where often the need for precise estimation is most acute. Crowdsourced data of actual flood events is a potentially critical component of this allowing improved accuracy in situations and identifying the effects of local landscape and topography where the height of a simple kerb, or discontinuity in a boundary wall can have profound importance. Mobile 'App' based data acquisition using crowdsourcing in critical areas can combine camera records with GPS positional data and time, as well as descriptive data relating to the event. This will automatically produce a dataset, managed in ArcView GIS, with the potential for follow up calls to get more information through structured scripts for each strand. Through this local residents can provide highly detailed information that can be reflected in sophisticated flood protection models and be core to framing urban resilience strategies and optimising the effectiveness of investment. This paper will describe this pioneering approach that will develop flood event data in support of systems that will advance existing approaches such as developed in the in the UK

  17. Detailed Review of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Educational Technology-Related Studies Based on Rogers' Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    The process of adopting new innovations has been studied for over 30 years, and one of the most popular adoption models is described by Rogers in his book, "Diffusion of Innovations" (Sherry & Gibson, 2002). Much research from a broad variety of disciplines has used the model as a framework. Dooley (1999) and Stuart (2000) mentioned…

  18. A Detailed Study of the Learning Behaviors of In-Service Teachers Learning To Use Two New Models of Teaching.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dodd, Jennifer

    The major objective of this study was to observe the learning behaviors of teachers selected by their school districts to attend a training institute to learn some new ways of teaching. The teachers expected to use these new ways of teaching themselves and also to conduct training for other teachers in their own districts. This presentation…

  19. Detailed Review of Rogers' Diffusion of Innovations Theory and Educational Technology-Related Studies Based on Rogers' Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sahin, Ismail

    2006-01-01

    The process of adopting new innovations has been studied for over 30 years, and one of the most popular adoption models is described by Rogers in his book, "Diffusion of Innovations" (Sherry & Gibson, 2002). Much research from a broad variety of disciplines has used the model as a framework. Dooley (1999) and Stuart (2000) mentioned several of…

  20. Detailed Experimental Study of Ion Acceleration by Interaction of an Ultra-Short Intense Laser with an Underdense Plasma.

    PubMed

    Kahaly, S; Sylla, F; Lifschitz, A; Flacco, A; Veltcheva, M; Malka, V

    2016-01-01

    Ion acceleration from intense (Iλ(2) > 10(18) Wcm(-2) μm(2)) laser-plasma interaction is experimentally studied within a wide range of He gas densities. Focusing an ultrashort pulse (duration  ion plasma period) on a newly designed submillimetric gas jet system, enabled us to inhibit total evacuation of electrons from the central propagation channel reducing the radial ion acceleration associated with ponderomotive Coulomb explosion, a mechanism predominant in the long pulse scenario. New ion acceleration mechanism have been unveiled in this regime leading to non-Maxwellian quasi monoenergetic features in the ion energy spectra. The emitted nonthermal ion bunches show a new scaling of the ion peak energy with plasma density. The scaling identified in this new regime differs from previously reported studies. PMID:27531755

  1. Detailed Experimental Study of Ion Acceleration by Interaction of an Ultra-Short Intense Laser with an Underdense Plasma

    PubMed Central

    Kahaly, S.; Sylla, F.; Lifschitz, A.; Flacco, A.; Veltcheva, M.; Malka, V.

    2016-01-01

    Ion acceleration from intense (Iλ2 > 1018 Wcm−2 μm2) laser-plasma interaction is experimentally studied within a wide range of He gas densities. Focusing an ultrashort pulse (duration  ion plasma period) on a newly designed submillimetric gas jet system, enabled us to inhibit total evacuation of electrons from the central propagation channel reducing the radial ion acceleration associated with ponderomotive Coulomb explosion, a mechanism predominant in the long pulse scenario. New ion acceleration mechanism have been unveiled in this regime leading to non-Maxwellian quasi monoenergetic features in the ion energy spectra. The emitted nonthermal ion bunches show a new scaling of the ion peak energy with plasma density. The scaling identified in this new regime differs from previously reported studies. PMID:27531755

  2. Additional Treatment Services in a Cocaine Treatment Study: Level of Services Obtained and Impact on Outcome

    PubMed Central

    Worley, Matthew; Gallop, Robert; Gibbons, Mary Beth Connolly; Ring-Kurtz, Sarah; Present, Julie; Weiss, Roger D.; Crits-Christoph, Paul

    2009-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the level of additional treatment services obtained by patients enrolled in the NIDA Cocaine Collaborative Study, a multi-center efficacy trial of four treatments for cocaine dependence, and to determine whether these services impact treatment outcome. Cocaine-dependent patients (N = 487) were recruited at five sites and randomly assigned to six months of one of four psychosocial treatments. Assessments were made at baseline, monthly during treatment, and at follow-ups at 9, 12, 15, and 18 months post-randomization. On average, patients received little or no additional treatment services during active treatment (first 6 months), but the rate of obtaining most services increased during the follow-up phase (month 7 to 18). In general, the treatment groups did not differ in the rates of obtaining non-protocol services. For all treatment groups, patients with greater psychiatric severity received more medical and psychiatric services during active treatment and follow-up. Use of treatment services was unrelated to drug use outcomes during active treatment. However, during the follow-up period, increased use of psychiatric medication, 12-step attendance, and 12-step participation was related to less drug use. The results suggest that during uncontrolled follow-up phases, additional non-protocol services may potentially confound the interpretation of treatment group comparisons in drug use outcomes. PMID:18463998

  3. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Jose D; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S; Rotter, Jerome I; Post, Wendy S; Polak, Joseph F; Budoff, Matthew J; Bluemke, David A

    2016-06-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included. PMID:26958643

  4. Detailed analysis of association between common single nucleotide polymorphisms and subclinical atherosclerosis: The Multi-ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis

    PubMed Central

    Vargas, Jose D.; Manichaikul, Ani; Wang, Xin-Qun; Rich, Stephen S.; Rotter, Jerome I.; Post, Wendy S.; Polak, Joseph F.; Budoff, Matthew J.; Bluemke, David A.

    2016-01-01

    Previously identified single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in genome wide association studies (GWAS) of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in participants of mostly European descent were tested for association with subclinical cardiovascular disease (sCVD), coronary artery calcium score (CAC) and carotid intima media thickness (CIMT) in the Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis (MESA). The data in this data in brief article correspond to the article Common Genetic Variants and Subclinical Atherosclerosis: The Multi-Ethnic Study of Atherosclerosis [1]. This article includes the demographic information of the participants analyzed in the article as well as graphical displays and data tables of the association of the selected SNPs with CAC and of the meta-analysis across ethnicities of the association of CIMT-c (common carotid), CIMT-I (internal carotid), CAC-d (CAC as dichotomous variable with CAC>0) and CAC-c (CAC as continuous variable, the log of the raw CAC score plus one) and CVD. The data tables corresponding to the 9p21 fine mapping experiment as well as the power calculations referenced in the article are also included. PMID:26958643

  5. Study to Determine Adequate Margins in Radiotherapy Planning for Esophageal Carcinoma by Detailing Patterns of Recurrence After Definitive Chemoradiotherapy

    SciTech Connect

    Button, Michael R. Morgan, Carys A.; Croydon, Elizabeth S.; Roberts, S. Ashley; Crosby, Thomas D.L.

    2009-03-01

    Purpose: To ascertain the adequacy of radiotherapy (RT) margins by studying the relapse patterns after definitive chemoradiotherapy for carcinoma of the esophagus. Methods and Materials: We performed a retrospective study assessing the first site of disease relapse after definitive chemoradiotherapy that included four 3-weekly cycles of cisplatin and continuous infusion 5-fluorouracil, with conformal RT (50 Gy in 25 fractions) concurrent with Cycles 3 and 4. The RT planning target volume was the endoscopic ultrasonography/computed tomography-defined gross tumor volume with 1.5-cm lateral and 3-cm superoinferior margins. Results: A total of 145 patients were included. Their average age was 65.4 years, 45% had adenocarcinoma, 61% had lower third esophageal tumors, and 75% had Stage III-IVA disease. After RT, of 142 patients, 85 (60%) had evidence of relapse at a median follow-up of 18 months. The relapse was local (within the RT field) in 55; distant (metastatic) in 13, and a combination of local and distant in 14. The local relapse rates were not influenced by tumor stage, lymph node status, or disease length. Three patients developed a relapse in regions adjacent to the RT fields; however, it is unlikely that larger field margins would have been clinically acceptable or effective in these cases. The median overall survival was 15 months. Conclusion: The gross tumor volume-planning target volume margins in this study appeared adequate. Future efforts to improve outcomes using definitive chemoradiotherapy should be directed toward reducing the high rates of in-field and distant relapses.

  6. The effect of UV intensities and curing time on polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) display: A detailed analysis study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmad, Farzana; Jamil, Muhammad; Lee, Jin Woo; Kim, Seo Rok; Jeon, Young Jae

    2016-08-01

    In current study polymer dispersed liquid crystal (PDLC) films whose composition based on nematic liquid crystal (LC) E7 and prepolymeric NOA65 were formed via the photo induced phase separation method, in a wide intensity range of the UV light (I = 0.33-1.8 mW/cm2) and curing duration (t = 120-600 sec). The PDLC characteristics were monitored by surface morphology, electro optical studies, as well as by phase separation process through measuring the FTIR absorption of the composite layers. Increase of curing light intensity accelerates the phase separation and drastically influences the final morphology of LC droplets inside PDLCs. Likewise by widening the curing duration the enhancement in phase separation was observed. Increase of light intensity from 0.89 mW/cm2 and duration t = 120-240 sec resulted into transition from large LC domains of irregular shape (due to aggregation of droplets) to fine mono dispersed LC droplets. This morphology caused increase in optical scattering on zero voltage and high driving voltage. However unexpectedly, this response was not directly related with the curing conditions (intensity and time). These findings extend the potential applications of thiol-ene based PDLCs. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Genome-wide association study on detailed profiles of smoking behavior and nicotine dependence in a twin sample

    PubMed Central

    Loukola, Anu; Wedenoja, Juho; Keskitalo-Vuokko, Kaisu; Broms, Ulla; Korhonen, Tellervo; Ripatti, Samuli; Sarin, Antti-Pekka; Pitkäniemi, Janne; He, Liang; Häppölä, Anja; Heikkilä, Kauko; Chou, Yi-Ling; Pergadia, Michele L; Heath, Andrew C; Montgomery, Grant W; Martin, Nicholas G; Madden, Pamela AF; Kaprio, Jaakko

    2013-01-01

    Smoking is a major risk factor for several somatic diseases, and is also emerging as a causal factor for neuropsychiatric disorders. Genome-wide association (GWA) and candidate gene studies for smoking behavior and nicotine dependence (ND) have disclosed too few predisposing variants to account for the high estimated heritability. Prior large-scale GWA studies have had very limited phenotypic definitions of relevance to smoking-related behavior, which has likely impeded the discovery of genetic effects. We performed genome-wide association analyses on 1114 adult twins ascertained for ever smoking from the population-based Finnish Twin Cohort study. The availability of 17 smoking-related phenotypes allowed us to comprehensively portray the dimensions of smoking behavior, clustered into the domains of smoking initiation, amount smoked, and ND. Our results highlight a locus on 16p12.3, with several SNPs in the vicinity of CLEC19A showing association (P<1×10−6) with smoking quantity. Interestingly, CLEC19A is located close to a previously reported attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) linkage locus and an evident link between ADHD and smoking has been established. Intriguing preliminary association (P<1×10−5) was detected between DSM-IV ND diagnosis and several SNPs in ERBB4, coding for a Neuregulin receptor, on 2q33. The association between ERBB4 and DSM-IV ND diagnosis was replicated in an independent Australian sample. Interestingly, in the paper by Turner et al., significant increase in ErbB4 and Neuregulin 3 (Nrg3) expression was revealed following chronic nicotine exposure and withdrawal in mice. Turner et al. also detected an association between NRG3 SNPs and smoking cessation success in a clinical trial. ERBB4 has previously been associated with schizophrenia; further, it is located within an established schizophrenia linkage locus and within a linkage locus for a smoker phenotype identified in this sample. As a conclusion, we disclose novel

  8. Synthesis of Stable Diarylpalladium(II) Complexes: Detailed Study of the Aryl-Aryl Bond-Forming Reductive Elimination.

    PubMed

    Gensch, Tobias; Richter, Nils; Theumer, Gabriele; Kataeva, Olga; Knölker, Hans-Joachim

    2016-08-01

    The synthesis of diarylpalladium(II) complexes by twofold aryl C-H bond activation was developed. These intermediates of oxidative cyclization reactions are stabilized by chelation with acetyl groups while still maintaining sufficient reactivity to study their reductive elimination. Four distinct triggers were found for the reductive elimination of these complexes to dibenzofurans and carbazoles. Thermal elimination occurs at very high temperatures, whereas ligand-promoted and oxidatively induced reductive eliminations proceed readily at room temperature. Under these conditions, no isomerization occurs. In contrast, weak Brønsted acids, such as acetic acid, lead to a sequence of proto-demetalation, isomerization to a κ(3) -diarylpalladium(II) complex, and reductive elimination to non-symmetrical cyclization products. PMID:27309346

  9. Risk Assessment Studies: Detailed Host Range Testing of Wild-Type Cabbage Moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), Nuclear Polyhedrosis Virus

    PubMed Central

    Doyle, Cathy J.; Hirst, Mark L.; Cory, Jenny S.; Entwistle, Philip F.

    1990-01-01

    The host range of a multiply enveloped nuclear polyhedrosis virus (NPV) (Baculoviridae) isolated from the cabbage moth, Mamestra brassicae (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), was determined by challenging a wide range of insect species with high (106 polyhedral inclusion bodies) and low (103 polyhedral inclusion bodies) doses of the virus. The identity of the progeny virus was confirmed by dot blotting. Analysis of 50% lethal dose was carried out on selected species, and the progeny virus was identified by using restriction enzyme analysis and Southern blotting. Other than the Lepidoptera, none of the species tested was susceptible to M. brassicae NPV. Within the Lepidoptera, M. brassicae NPV was infective to members of four families (Noctuidae, Geometridae, Yponomeutidae, and Nymphalidae). Of 66 lepidopterous species tested, M. brassicae NPV was cross-infective to 32 of them; however, 91% of the susceptible species were in the Noctuidae. The relevance of host range data in risk assessment studies is discussed. Images PMID:16348279

  10. A detailed perceptive on the growth and characterization studies of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) single crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sathesh Kumar, K.; Srinivasan, P.; Mahadevan Pillai, V. P.

    2014-11-01

    Single crystals of para amino hippuric acid (PAHA) were grown by slow evaporation technique. The spectral and its structural properties of the crystals were studied by FT-IR, micro-Raman and factor group analysis. The optical transparency in the UV-Visible regions was found to be good for non-linear optics (NLO) applications. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) showed that the compound decomposes beyond 300 °C. The dielectric behavior of the compound predicts low dielectric loss at high frequency applied whereas in the case of mechanical behavior of the specimen hardness increases with increasing applied load. After certain weight increase, hardness gets saturated in the region of ⩾110. Relative second harmonic efficiency of the compound is found to be 1.8 times greater than that of potassium di-phosphate reference.

  11. A detailed study on Gd2SiO5 scintillators: recovery from increased photon yield following irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sako, T.; Sugiura, Y.; Zhou, Q.; Makino, Y.; Matsubayashi, E.; Kawade, K.; Menjo, H.; Masuda, K.

    2015-06-01

    Increased light intensity and recovery of GSO scintillators following irradiation were studied by using accelerator beams of 290 MeV/n carbon nuclei. This is the first measurement of recovery phase by using accelerator beams. The obtained results were consistent with previous results obtained by using 60Co gamma rays and UV excitation. We confirmed a 23% increase in light intensity following irradiation with 7.4 kGy as well as exponential recovery on a time scale of 104s. The temporal profile of recovery was fitted by a single exponential with an asymptotic increase of 13±1% relative to the light intensity before irradiation. Active recovery was attempted by exposing an irradiated GSO sample to infrared light with intensity up to 8.3 kW/cm2, but no indication of accelerated recovery was observed.

  12. A detailed study on the transition from the blocked to the superparamagnetic state of reduction-precipitated iron oxide nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witte, K.; Bodnar, W.; Mix, T.; Schell, N.; Fulda, G.; Woodcock, T. G.; Burkel, E.

    2016-04-01

    Magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles were prepared by salt-assisted solid-state chemical precipitation method with alternating fractions of the ferric iron content. The physical properties of the precipitated nanoparticles mainly consisting of magnetite were investigated by means of transmission electron microscopy, high energy X-ray diffraction, vibrating sample magnetometry and Mössbauer spectroscopy. With particle sizes ranging from 16.3 nm to 2.1 nm, a gradual transition from the blocked state to the superparamagnetic state was observed. The transition was described as a dependence of the ferric iron content used during the precipitation. Composition, mean particle size, coercivity, saturation polarisation, as well as hyperfine interaction parameters and their evolution were studied systematically over the whole series of iron oxide nanoparticles.

  13. Chemical Data for Detailed Studies of Irrigation Drainage in the Salton Sea Area, California, 1995?2001

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, Roy A.

    2004-01-01

    The primary purpose of this report is to present all chemical data from the Salton Sea area collected by the U.S. Geological Survey between 1995 and 2001. The data were collected primarily for the Department of the Interior's National Irrigation Water Quality Program (NIWQP). The report also contains a brief summary and citation to investigations done for the NIWQP between 1992 and 1995. The NIWQP began studies in the Salton Sea area in 1986 to evaluate effects on the environment from potential toxins, especially selenium, in irrigation-induced drainage. This data report is a companion to several reports published from the earlier studies and to interpretive publications that make use of historical and recent data from this area. Data reported herein are from five collection studies. Water, bottom material, and suspended sediment collected in 1995-96 from the New River, the lower Colorado River, and the All-American Canal were analyzed for elements, semi-volatile (extractable) organic compounds, and organochlorine compounds. Sufficient suspended sediment for chemical analyses was obtained by tangential-flow filtration. A grab sample of surficial bottom sediment collected from near the deepest part of the Salton Sea in 1996 was analyzed for 44 elements and organic and inorganic carbon. High selenium concentration confirmed the effective transfer (sequestration) of selenium into the bottom sediment. Similar grab samples were collected 2 years later (1998) from 11 locations in the Salton Sea and analyzed for elements, as before, and also for nutrients, organochlorine compounds, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. Nutrients were measured in bottom water, and water-column profiles were obtained for pH, conductance, temperature, and dissolved oxygen. Element and nutrient concentrations were obtained in 1999 from cores at 2 of the above 11 sites, in the north subbasin of the Salton Sea. The most-recent study reported herein was done in 2001 and contains element data on

  14. A synchrotron study of microstructure gradient in laser additively formed epitaxial Ni-based superalloy

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Xue, Jiawei; Zhang, Anfeng; Li, Yao; Qian, Dan; Wan, Jingchun; Qi, Baolu; Tamura, Nobumichi; Song, Zhongxiao; Chen, Kai

    2015-10-08

    Laser additive forming is considered to be one of the promising techniques to repair single crystal Ni-based superalloy parts to extend their life and reduce the cost. Preservation of the single crystalline nature and prevention of thermal mechanical failure are two of the most essential issues for the application of this technique. Here we employ synchrotron X-ray microdiffraction to evaluate the quality in terms of crystal orientation and defect distribution of a Ni-based superalloy DZ125L directly formed by a laser additive process rooted from a single crystalline substrate of the same material. We show that a disorientation gradient caused bymore » a high density of geometrically necessary dislocations and resultant subgrains exists in the interfacial region between the epitaxial and stray grains. This creates a potential relationship of stray grain formation and defect accumulation. In conclusion, the observation offers new directions on the study of performance control and reliability of the laser additive manufactured superalloys.« less

  15. Isomeric Selective Studies of the Dominant Addition Channel in OH Initiated Oxidation of Isoprene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, B.; Bugarin, A.; Connell, B.; North, S. W.

    2009-12-01

    We report the first isomeric selective study of the dominant isomeric pathway in the OH initiated oxidation of isoprene in the presence of O2 and NO using the Laser Photolysis-Laser Induced Fluorescence (LP-LIF) technique. The photolysis of monodeuterated/non deuterated 2-iodo-2-methyl-but-3-en-1-ol results exclusively in the dominant OH-isoprene addition product, providing important insight into the oxidation mechanism. Based on kinetic analysis of OH cycling experiments we have determined the rate constant for O2 addition to the hydroxy alkyl radical to be (1.0±0.5) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) and we find a value of (8.05±2.3) × 10^(-12) cm^(3) s^(-1) for the overall reaction rate constant of the hydroxy peroxy radical with NO. We also report the first clear experimental evidence of the (E-) form of the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel through isotopic labeling experiments and quantify its branching ratio to be 0.1±0.025. Since it corresponds to missing carbon balance in isoprene oxidation, we have been able to identify some of the missing carbon balance. Since our measured isomeric selective rate constants for the dominant outer channel in OH initiated isoprene chemistry are similar to the overall rate constants derived from non isomeric kinetics, we predict that the remaining outer addition channel will have similar reactivity. We have extended this study to the OH initiated oxidation of 1,3-butadiene. We have obtained isomeric selective rate constants on the dominant channel of the butadiene oxidation chemistry and measured the branching ratio for the δ-hydroxyalkoxy channel. These results on butadiene studies will be discussed.

  16. Preoperative prediction of potentially preventable morbidity after fast-track hip and knee arthroplasty: a detailed descriptive cohort study

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Morten Aa; Kehlet, Henrik

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Construction of a simple preoperative risk score for patients in high risk of potentially preventable ‘medical’ complications. Secondary objectives were to construct simple preoperative risk scores for ‘severe medical’, ‘surgical’ and ‘total’ potentially preventable complications. Design Prospective observational study. Setting Elective primary unilateral total hip and knee arthroplasty with prospectively collected preoperative patient characteristics; similar standardised fast-track protocols; evaluation of complications through discharge and medical records; and complete 90 days follow-up through nationwide databases. Participants 8373 consecutive unselected total hip arthroplasty (THA) and knee arthroplasty from January 2010 to November 2012. Results There were 557 procedures (6.4%) followed by potentially preventable complications resulting in hospitalisation >4 days or readmission. Of 22 preoperative characteristics, 7 were associated with 379 (4.2%) potentially preventable ‘medical’ complications. Patients with ≥2 of the following, age ≥80 years, anticoagulant therapy, pulmonary disease, pharmacologically treated psychiatric disorder, anaemia and walking aids, composed 19.1% of the procedures; 55.7% constituted potentially preventable ‘medical’ complications that were mainly falls, mobilisation issues, pneumonias and cardiac arrhythmias. The number needed to be treated for a hypothetical intervention leading to 25% reduction in potentially preventable ‘medical’ complications was 34. THA, use of walking aids and cardiac disease were associated with 189 (2.2%) ‘surgical’ complications, but no clinically relevant preoperative prediction was possible. Conclusions Preoperative identification of patients at high risk of preventable ‘medical’, but not ‘surgical’, complications is statistically possible. However, clinical relevance is limited. Future risk indices should differ between ‘medical’ and

  17. Immunotoxic effects of the color additive caramel color III: immune function studies in rats.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Vos, J G; Van Loveren, H

    1993-01-01

    Administration of the color additive caramel color III (AC) may cause a reduction in total white blood cell counts in rats due to reduced lymphocyte counts. Beside lymphopenia, several other effects in rat have been described. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-(1,2,3,4-tetrahydroxybutyl)imidazole (THI) and occur in rats fed a diet low in vitamin B6. In the present paper, immune function studies on AC and THI with rats fed a diet low, but not deficient in vitamin B6 are presented and discussed. Rats were exposed to 0.4 or 4% AC or to 5.72 ppm THI in drinking water during and for 28 days prior to the start of immune function assays. Resistance to Trichinella spiralis was examined in an oral infection model and clearance of Listeria monocytogenes upon an intravenous infection was studied. In addition, natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity of splenic and nonadherent peritoneal cells and the antibody response to sheep red blood cells were studied. From the results it is concluded that exposure of rats to AC or THI influenced various immune function parameters. Thymus-dependent immunity was suppressed, while parameters of the nonspecific resistance were also affected, as shown by a decreased natural cell-mediated cytotoxicity in the spleen and an enhanced clearance of L. monocytogenes. PMID:8432426

  18. Improving wound care simulation with the addition of odor: a descriptive, quasi-experimental study.

    PubMed

    Roberson, Donna W; Neil, Janice A; Bryant, Elizabeth T

    2008-08-01

    Improving problem-solving skills and expertise in complex clinical care provision requires engaging students in the learning process--a challenging goal when clinical practicums and supervisors are limited. High-fidelity simulation has created many new opportunities for educating healthcare professionals. Because addressing malodorous wounds is a common problem that may be difficult to "teach," a descriptive, quasi-experimental simulation study was conducted. Following completion of a wound care simulation and Laerdal's Simulation Experience Evaluation Tool by 137 undergraduate nursing students, 50 control subjects were randomly selected and 49 volunteer students (experimental group) participated in a wound care simulation after one of three cheeses with a strong odor was added to simulate a malodorous wound. Compared to the control group, study group responses were significantly better (P <0.001) for eight of the 12 survey variables tested and indicated the addition of odor was beneficial in enhancing the perceived realism and value of the simulation. Students responded that the addition of odor in the simulation laboratory improved realism and they felt better prepared to handle malodorous wounds in a clinical setting. An unanticipated outcome was the enhanced feeling of involvement associated with paired care teams as opposed to working in larger groups. The results of this study indicate that wound care education outcomes improve when nursing students are able to practice using a multi-sensorial wound care simulation model. PMID:18716340

  19. SN 2013dx associated with GRB 130702A: a detailed photometric and spectroscopic monitoring and a study of the environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Elia, V.; Pian, E.; Melandri, A.; D'Avanzo, P.; Della Valle, M.; Mazzali, P. A.; Piranomonte, S.; Tagliaferri, G.; Antonelli, L. A.; Bufano, F.; Covino, S.; Fugazza, D.; Malesani, D.; Møller, P.; Palazzi, E.

    2015-05-01

    Aims: Long-duration gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) and broad-line, type Ic supernovae (SNe) are strongly connected. We aim at characterizing SN 2013dx, which is associated with GRB 130702A, through a sensitive and extensive ground-based observational campaign in the optical-IR band. Methods: We monitored the field of the Swift GRB 130702A (redshift z = 0.145) using the 8.2 m VLT, the 3.6 m TNG and the 0.6 m REM telescopes during the time interval between 4 and 40 days after the burst. Photometric and spectroscopic observations revealed the associated type Ic SN 2013dx. Our multiband photometry allowed constructing a bolometric light curve. Results: The bolometric light curve of SN 2013dx resembles that of 2003dh (associated with GRB 030329), but is ~10% faster and ~25% dimmer. From this we infer a synthesized 56Ni mass of ~0.2 M⊙. The multi-epoch optical spectroscopy shows that the SN 2013dx behavior is best matched by SN 1998bw, among the other well-known low-redshift SNe associated with GRBs and XRFs, and by SN 2010ah, an energetic type Ic SN not associated with any GRB. The photospheric velocity of the ejected material declines from ~2.7 × 104 km s-1 at 8 rest frame days from the explosion, to ~3.5 × 103 km s-1 at 40 days. These values are extremely close to those of SN1998bw and 2010ah. We deduce for SN 2013dx a kinetic energy of ~35 × 1051 erg and an ejected mass of ~7 M⊙. This suggests that the progenitor of SN2013dx had a mass of ~25-30 M⊙, which is 15-20% less massive than that of SN 1998bw. Finally, we studied the SN 2013dx environment through spectroscopy of the closeby galaxies: 9 out of the 14 inspected galaxies lie within 0.03 in redshift from z = 0.145, indicating that the host of GRB 130702A/SN 2013dx belongs to a group of galaxies, an unprecedented finding for a GRB-associated SN and, to our knowledge, for long GRBs in general. Based on observations collected at the Italian 3.6-m Telescopio Nazionale Galileo (TNG), operated on the island of La

  20. NOSS Altimeter Detailed Algorithm specifications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hancock, D. W.; Mcmillan, J. D.

    1982-01-01

    The details of the algorithms and data sets required for satellite radar altimeter data processing are documented in a form suitable for (1) development of the benchmark software and (2) coding the operational software. The algorithms reported in detail are those established for altimeter processing. The algorithms which required some additional development before documenting for production were only scoped. The algorithms are divided into two levels of processing. The first level converts the data to engineering units and applies corrections for instrument variations. The second level provides geophysical measurements derived from altimeter parameters for oceanographic users.

  1. A water soluble additive to suppress respirable dust from concrete-cutting chainsaws: a case study.

    PubMed

    Summers, Michael P; Parmigiani, John P

    2015-01-01

    Respirable dust is of particular concern in the construction industry because it contains crystalline silica. Respirable forms of silica are a severe health threat because they heighten the risk of numerous respirable diseases. Concrete cutting, a common work practice in the construction industry, is a major contributor to dust generation. No studies have been found that focus on the dust suppression of concrete-cutting chainsaws, presumably because, during normal operation water is supplied continuously and copiously to the dust generation points. However, there is a desire to better understand dust creation at low water flow rates. In this case study, a water-soluble surfactant additive was used in the chainsaw's water supply. Cutting was performed on a free-standing concrete wall in a covered outdoor lab with a hand-held, gas-powered, concrete-cutting chainsaw. Air was sampled at the operator's lapel, and around the concrete wall to simulate nearby personnel. Two additive concentrations were tested (2.0% and 0.2%), across a range of fluid flow rates (0.38-3.8 Lpm [0.1-1.0 gpm] at 0.38 Lpm [0.1 gpm] increments). Results indicate that when a lower concentration of additive is used exposure levels increase. However, all exposure levels, once adjusted for 3 hours of continuous cutting in an 8-hour work shift, are below the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) of 5 mg/m(3). Estimates were made using trend lines to predict the fluid flow rates that would cause respirable dust exposure to exceed both the OSHA PEL and the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH®) threshold limit value (TLV). PMID:25714034

  2. Augmenting a Waste Glass Mixture Experiment Study with Additional Glass Components and Experimental Runs

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, Gregory F. ); Cooley, Scott K. ); Peeler, David K.; Vienna, John D. ); Edwards, Tommy B.

    2002-01-01

    A glass composition variation study (CVS) for high-level waste (HLW) stored in Idaho is being statistically designed and performed in phases over several years. The purpose of the CVS is to investigate and model how HLW-glass properties depend on glass composition. The resulting glass property-composition models will be used to develop desirable glass formulations and for other purposes. Phases 1 and 2 of the CVS have been completed and are briefly described. This paper focuses on the CVS Phase 3 experimental design, which was chosen to augment the Phase 1 and 2 data with additional data points, as well as to account for additional glass components not studied in Phases 1 and/or 2. In total, 16 glass components were varied in the Phase 3 experimental design. The paper describes how these Phase 3 experimental design augmentation challenges were addressed using the previous data, preliminary property-composition models, and statistical mixture experiment and optimal experimental design methods and software.

  3. Role of sulfite additives in wine induced asthma: single dose and cumulative dose studies

    PubMed Central

    Vally, H; Thompson, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Wine appears to be a significant trigger for asthma. Although sulfite additives have been implicated as a major cause of wine induced asthma, direct evidence is limited. Two studies were undertaken to assess sulfite reactivity in wine sensitive asthmatics. The first study assessed sensitivity to sulfites in wine using a single dose sulfited wine challenge protocol followed by a double blind, placebo controlled challenge. In the second study a cumulative dose sulfited wine challenge protocol was employed to establish if wine sensitive asthmatics as a group have an increased sensitivity to sulfites.
METHODS—In study 1, 24 asthmatic patients with a strong history of wine induced asthma were screened. Subjects showing positive responses to single blind high sulfite (300 ppm) wine challenge were rechallenged on separate days in a double blind, placebo controlled fashion with wines of varying sulfite levels to characterise their responses to these drinks. In study 2, wine sensitive asthmatic patients (n=12) and control asthmatics (n=6) were challenged cumulatively with wine containing increasing concentrations of sulfite in order to characterise further their sensitivity to sulfites in wine.
RESULTS—Four of the 24 self-reporting wine sensitive asthmatic patients were found to respond to sulfite additives in wine when challenged in a single dose fashion (study 1). In the double blind dose-response study all four had a significant fall in forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) (>15% from baseline) following exposure to wine containing 300 ppm sulfite, but did not respond to wines containing 20, 75 or 150 ppm sulfite. Responses were maximal at 5 minutes (mean (SD) maximal decline in FEV1 28.7 (13)%) and took 15-60 minutes to return to baseline levels. In the cumulative dose-response study (study 2) no significant difference was observed in any of the lung function parameters measured (FEV1, peak expiratory flow (PEF), mid phase forced expiratory

  4. Characterization studies on the additives mixed L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP) crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haja Hameed, A. S.; Karthikeyan, C.; Ravi, G.; Rohani, S.

    2011-04-01

    L-arginine phosphate monohydrate (LAP), potassium thiocyanate (KSCN) mixed LAP (LAP:KSCN) and sodium sulfite (Na 2SO 3) mixed LAP (LAP:Na 2SO 3) single crystals were grown by slow cooling technique. The effect of microbial contamination and coloration on the growth solutions was studied. The crystalline powders of the grown crystals were examined by X-ray diffraction and the lattice parameters of the crystals were estimated. From the FTIR spectroscopic analysis, various functional group frequencies associated with the crystals were assigned. Vickers microhardness studies were done on {1 0 0} faces for pure and additives mixed LAP crystals. From the preliminary surface second harmonic generation (SHG) results, it was found that the SHG intensity at (1 0 0) face of LAP:KSCN crystal was much stronger than that of pure LAP.

  5. The guanidine and maleic acid (1:1) complex. The additional theoretical and experimental studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drozd, Marek; Dudzic, Damian

    2012-04-01

    On the basis of experimental literature data the theoretical studies for guanidinium and maleic acid complex with using DFT method are performed. In these studies the experimental X-ray data for two different forms of investigated crystal were used. During the geometry optimization process one equilibrium structure was found, only. According to this result the infrared spectrum for one theoretical molecule was calculated. On the basis of potential energy distribution (PED) analysis the clear-cut assignments of observed bands were performed. For the calculated molecule with energy minimum the highest occupied molecular orbital (HOMO) and the lowest unoccupied molecular orbital (LUMO) were obtained and graphically illustrated. The energy difference (GAP) between HOMO and LUMO was analyzed. Additionally, the nonlinear properties of this molecule were calculated. The α and β (first and second order) hyperpolarizability values are obtained. On the basis of these results the title crystal was classified as new second order NLO generator.

  6. Prazosin addition to fluvoxamine: A preclinical study and open clinical trial in OCD.

    PubMed

    Feenstra, Matthijs G P; Klompmakers, André; Figee, Martijn; Fluitman, Sjoerd; Vulink, Nienke; Westenberg, Herman G M; Denys, Damiaan

    2016-02-01

    The efficacy of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SRIs) in psychiatric disorders may be "augmented" through the addition of atypical antipsychotic drugs. A synergistic increase in dopamine (DA) release in the prefrontal cortex has been suggested to underlie this augmentation effect, though the mechanism of action is not clear yet. We used in vivo microdialysis in rats to study DA release following the administration of combinations of fluvoxamine (10 mg/kg) and quetiapine (10 mg/kg) with various monoamine-related drugs. The results confirmed that the selective 5-HT1A antagonist WAY-100635 (0.05 mg/kg) partially blocked the fluvoxamine-quetiapine synergistic effect (maximum DA increase dropped from 325% to 214%). A novel finding is that the α1-adrenergic blocker prazosin (1 mg/kg), combined with fluvoxamine, partially mimicked the effect of augmentation (maximum DA increase 205%; area-under-the-curve 163%). As this suggested that prazosin augmentation might be tested in a clinical study, we performed an open clinical trial of prazosin 20 mg addition to SRI in therapy-resistant patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder applying for neurosurgery. A small, non-significant reduction in Yale Brown Obsessive Compulsive Scale (Y-BOCS) scores was observed in 10 patients and one patient was classified as a responder with a reduction in Y-BOCS scores of more than 25%. We suggest that future clinical studies augmenting SRIs with an α1-adrenergic blocker in less treatment resistant cases should be considered. The clinical trial "Prazosin in combination with a serotonin reuptake inhibitor for patients with Obsessive Compulsive disorder: an open label study" was registered at 24/05/2011 under trial number ISRCTN61562706: http://www.controlled-trials.com/ISRCTN61562706. PMID:26712326

  7. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  8. A combined toxicity study of zinc oxide nanoparticles and vitamin C in food additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yanli; Yuan, Lulu; Yao, Chenjie; Ding, Lin; Li, Chenchen; Fang, Jie; Sui, Keke; Liu, Yuanfang; Wu, Minghong

    2014-11-01

    At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the cytotoxicity significantly compared with that of the ZnO only NPs. When the cells were exposed to ZnO NPs at a concentration less than 15 mg L-1, or to Vc at a concentration less than 300 mg L-1, there was no significant cytotoxicity, both in the case of gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and neural stem cells (NSCs). However, when 15 mg L-1 of ZnO NPs and 300 mg L-1 of Vc were introduced to cells together, the cell viability decreased sharply indicating significant cytotoxicity. Moreover, the significant increase in toxicity was also shown in the in vivo experiments. The dose of the ZnO NPs and Vc used in the in vivo study was calculated according to the state of food and nutrition enhancer standard. After repeated oral exposure to ZnO NPs plus Vc, the injury of the liver and kidneys in mice has been indicated by the change of these indices. These findings demonstrate that the synergistic toxicity presented in a complex system is essential for the toxicological evaluation and safety assessment of nanofood.At present, safety evaluation standards for nanofood additives are made based on the toxic effects of a single additive. Since the size, surface properties and chemical nature influence the toxicity of nanomaterials, the toxicity may have dramatically changed when nanomaterials are used as food additives in a complex system. Herein, we investigated the combined toxicity of zinc oxide nanoparticles (ZnO NPs) and vitamin C (Vc, ascorbic acid). The results showed that Vc increased the

  9. A study of pyrazines in cigarettes and how additives might be used to enhance tobacco addiction

    PubMed Central

    Alpert, Hillel R; Agaku, Israel T; Connolly, Gregory N

    2016-01-01

    Background Nicotine is known as the drug that is responsible for the addicted behaviour of tobacco users, but it has poor reinforcing effects when administered alone. Tobacco product design features enhance abuse liability by (A) optimising the dynamic delivery of nicotine to central nervous system receptors, and affecting smokers’ withdrawal symptoms, mood and behaviour; and (B) effecting conditioned learning, through sensory cues, including aroma, touch and visual stimulation, to create perceptions of pending nicotine reward. This study examines the use of additives called ‘pyrazines’, which may enhance abuse potential, their introduction in ‘lights’ and subsequently in the highly market successful Marlboro Lights (Gold) cigarettes and eventually many major brands. Methods We conducted internal tobacco industry research using online databases in conjunction with published scientific literature research, based on an iterative feedback process. Results Tobacco manufacturers developed the use of a range of compounds, including pyrazines, in order to enhance ‘light’ cigarette products’ acceptance and sales. Pyrazines with chemosensory and pharmacological effects were incorporated in the first ‘full-flavour, low-tar’ product achieving high market success. Such additives may enhance dependence by helping to optimise nicotine delivery and dosing and through cueing and learned behaviour. Conclusions Cigarette additives and ingredients with chemosensory effects that promote addiction by acting synergistically with nicotine, increasing product appeal, easing smoking initiation, discouraging cessation or promoting relapse should be regulated by the US Food and Drug Administration. Current models of tobacco abuse liability could be revised to include more explicit roles with regard to non-nicotine constituents that enhance abuse potential. PMID:26063608

  10. Detailed finite element analysis and preliminary study of the effects of friction and fastener pre-tension on the mechanical behavior of fastened built-up members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bonachera Martin, Francisco Javier

    The characterization of fatigue resistance is one of the main concerns in structural engineering, a concern that is particularly important in the evaluation of existing bridge members designed or erected before the development of fatigue design provisions. The ability of a structural member to develop alternate load paths after the failure of a component is known as member-level or internal redundancy. In fastened built-up members, these alternate load paths are affected by the combination of fastener pre-tension and friction between the structural member components in contact. In this study, a finite element methodology to model and analyze riveted and bolted built-up members was developed in ABAQUS and validated with experimental results. This methodology was used to created finite element models of three fastened plates subjected to tension, in which the middle plate had failed, in order to investigate the fundamental effects of combined fastener pre-tension and friction on their mechanical behavior. Detailed finite element models of riveted and bolted built-up flexural members were created and analyze to understand the effect of fastener pre-tension in member-level redundancy and resistance to fatigue and fracture. The obtained results showed that bolted members are able to re-distribute a larger portion of the load away from the failing component into the rest of the member than riveted members, and that this transfer of load also took place over a smaller length. Superior pre-tension of bolts, in comparison to rivets, results in larger frictional forces that develop at the contact interfaces between components and constitute additional alternate load paths that increase member-level redundancy which increase the fatigue and fracture resistance of the structural member during the failure of one of its components. Although fatigue and fracture potential may be mitigated by compressive stresses developing around the fastener hole due to fastener pre-tension, it

  11. Additional follow-up telephone counselling and initial smoking relapse: a longitudinal, controlled study

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Lei; He, Yao; Jiang, Bin; Zuo, Fang; Liu, Qinghui; Zhang, Li; Zhou, Changxi

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Smoking cessation services can help smokers to quit; however, many smoking relapse cases occur over time. Initial relapse prevention should play an important role in achieving the goal of long-term smoking cessation. Several studies have focused on the effect of extended telephone support in relapse prevention, but the conclusions remain conflicting. Design and setting From October 2008 to August 2013, a longitudinal, controlled study was performed in a large general hospital of Beijing. Participants The smokers who sought treatment at our smoking cessation clinic were non-randomised and divided into 2 groups: face-to-face individual counselling group (FC group), and face-to-face individual counselling plus telephone follow-up counselling group (FCF group). No pharmacotherapy was offered. Outcomes The timing of initial smoking relapse was compared between FC and FCF groups. Predictors of initial relapse were investigated during the first 180 days, using the Cox proportional hazards model. Results Of 547 eligible male smokers who volunteered to participate, 457 participants (117 in FC group and 340 in FCF group) achieved at least 24 h abstinence. The majority of the lapse episodes occurred during the first 2 weeks after the quit date. Smokers who did not receive the follow-up telephone counselling (FC group) tended to relapse to smoking earlier than those smokers who received the additional follow-up telephone counselling (FCF group), and the log-rank test was statistically significant (p=0.003). A Cox regression model showed that, in the FCF group, being married, and having a lower Fagerström test score, normal body mass index and doctor-diagnosed tobacco-related chronic diseases, were significantly independent protective predictors of smoking relapse. Conclusions Within the limitations of this study, it can be concluded that additional follow-up telephone counselling might be an effective strategy in preventing relapse. Further research is still

  12. A Detailed Chandra Archive Study of the Young O-Rich Supernova Remnant 1E 0102.2-7219 in the Small Magellanic Cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alan, Neslihan; Bilir, Selçuk; Park, Sangwook; Schenck, Andrew

    2016-07-01

    Based on the deep 273 ks archival Chandra data we performed detailed spatially-resolved spectral analysis of the oxygen-rich supernova remnant (SNR) 1E 0102.2-7219 (E0102) in the Small Magellanic Cloud. Our aim in this study is to reveal spatial and chemical structures of this remnant in unprecedented details. We examined radial and azimuthal structures in the electron temperature, ionization timescale, emission measure, and elemental abundances. We estimate the progenitor's mass (˜40 M _{sun}) based on O, Ne, and Mg abundance ratios. We estimate the Sedov age (˜3500 yr) and explosion energy (˜1.8x10 ^{51} erg) for E0102. We shortly discuss the implications of our results on the geometrical structure of the remnant, its circumstellar medium and the nature of the progenitor star.

  13. Study of mandible reconstruction using a fibula flap with application of additive manufacturing technology

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background This study aimed to establish surgical guiding techniques for completing mandible lesion resection and reconstruction of the mandible defect area with fibula sections in one surgery by applying additive manufacturing technology, which can reduce the surgical duration and enhance the surgical accuracy and success rate. Methods A computer assisted mandible reconstruction planning (CAMRP) program was used to calculate the optimal cutting length and number of fibula pieces and design the fixtures for mandible cutting, registration, and arrangement of the fibula segments. The mandible cutting and registering fixtures were then generated using an additive manufacturing system. The CAMRP calculated the optimal fibula cutting length and number of segments based on the location and length of the defective portion of the mandible. The mandible cutting jig was generated according to the boundary surface of the lesion resection on the mandible STL model. The fibular cutting fixture was based on the length of each segment, and the registered fixture was used to quickly arrange the fibula pieces into the shape of the defect area. In this study, the mandibular lesion was reconstructed using registered fibular sections in one step, and the method is very easy to perform. Results and conclusion The application of additive manufacturing technology provided customized models and the cutting fixtures and registered fixtures, which can improve the efficiency of clinical application. This study showed that the cutting fixture helped to rapidly complete lesion resection and fibula cutting, and the registered fixture enabled arrangement of the fibula pieces and allowed completion of the mandible reconstruction in a timely manner. Our method can overcome the disadvantages of traditional surgery, which requires a long and different course of treatment and is liable to cause error. With the help of optimal cutting planning by the CAMRP and the 3D printed mandible resection jig and

  14. Resources allocation in healthcare for cancer: a case study using generalised additive mixed models.

    PubMed

    Musio, Monica; Sauleau, Erik A; Augustin, Nicole H

    2012-11-01

    Our aim is to develop a method for helping resources re-allocation in healthcare linked to cancer, in order to replan the allocation of providers. Ageing of the population has a considerable impact on the use of health resources because aged people require more specialised medical care due notably to cancer. We propose a method useful to monitor changes of cancer incidence in space and time taking into account two age categories, according to healthcar general organisation. We use generalised additive mixed models with a Poisson response, according to the methodology presented in Wood, Generalised additive models: an introduction with R. Chapman and Hall/CRC, 2006. Besides one-dimensional smooth functions accounting for non-linear effects of covariates, the space-time interaction can be modelled using scale invariant smoothers. Incidence data collected by a general cancer registry between 1992 and 2007 in a specific area of France is studied. Our best model exhibits a strong increase of the incidence of cancer along time and an obvious spatial pattern for people more than 70 years with a higher incidence in the central band of the region. This is a strong argument for re-allocating resources for old people cancer care in this sub-region. PMID:23242683

  15. Covalent binding of aniline to humic substances. 2. 15N NMR studies of nucleophilic addition reactions

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thorn, K.A.; Pettigrew, P.J.; Goldenberg, W.S.; Weber, E.J.

    1996-01-01

    Aromatic amines are known to undergo covalent binding with humic substances in the environment. Although previous studies have examined reaction conditions and proposed mechanisms, there has been no direct spectroscopic evidence for the covalent binding of the amines to the functional groups in humic substances. In order to further elucidate the reaction mechanisms, the Suwannee River and IHSS soil fulvic and humic acids were reacted with 15N-labeled aniline at pH 6 and analyzed using 15N NMR spectrometry. Aniline underwent nucleophilic addition reactions with the quinone and other carbonyl groups in the samples and became incorporated in the form of anilinohydroquinone, anilinoquinone, anilide, imine, and heterocyclic nitrogen, the latter comprising 50% or more of the bound amine. The anilide and anilinohydroquinone nitrogens were determined to be susceptible to chemical exchange by ammonia. In the case of Suwannee River fulvic acid, reaction under anoxic conditions and pretreatment with sodium borohydride or hydroxylamine prior to reaction under oxic conditions resulted in a decrease in the proportion of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen incorporated. The relative decrease in the incorporation of anilinohydroquinone nitrogen with respect to anilinoquinone nitrogen under anoxic conditions suggested that inter- or intramolecular redox reactions accompanied the nucleophilic addition reactions.

  16. Toxicogenomics concepts and applications to study hepatic effects of food additives and chemicals

    SciTech Connect

    Stierum, Rob . E-mail: stierum@voeding.tno.nl; Heijne, Wilbert; Kienhuis, Anne; Ommen, Ben van; Groten, John

    2005-09-01

    Transcriptomics, proteomics and metabolomics are genomics technologies with great potential in toxicological sciences. Toxicogenomics involves the integration of conventional toxicological examinations with gene, protein or metabolite expression profiles. An overview together with selected examples of the possibilities of genomics in toxicology is given. The expectations raised by toxicogenomics are earlier and more sensitive detection of toxicity. Furthermore, toxicogenomics will provide a better understanding of the mechanism of toxicity and may facilitate the prediction of toxicity of unknown compounds. Mechanism-based markers of toxicity can be discovered and improved interspecies and in vitro-in vivo extrapolations will drive model developments in toxicology. Toxicological assessment of chemical mixtures will benefit from the new molecular biological tools. In our laboratory, toxicogenomics is predominantly applied for elucidation of mechanisms of action and discovery of novel pathway-supported mechanism-based markers of liver toxicity. In addition, we aim to integrate transcriptome, proteome and metabolome data, supported by bioinformatics to develop a systems biology approach for toxicology. Transcriptomics and proteomics studies on bromobenzene-mediated hepatotoxicity in the rat are discussed. Finally, an example is shown in which gene expression profiling together with conventional biochemistry led to the discovery of novel markers for the hepatic effects of the food additives butylated hydroxytoluene, curcumin, propyl gallate and thiabendazole.

  17. Assessment of Nano Cellulose from Peach Palm Residue as Potential Food Additive: Part II: Preliminary Studies.

    PubMed

    Andrade, Dayanne Regina Mendes; Mendonça, Márcia Helena; Helm, Cristiane Vieira; Magalhães, Washington L E; de Muniz, Graciela Ines Bonzon; Kestur, Satyanarayana G

    2015-09-01

    High consumption of dietary fibers in the diet is related to the reduction of the risk of non-transmitting of chronic diseases, prevention of the constipation etc. Rich diets in dietary fibers promote beneficial effects for the metabolism. Considering the above and recognizing the multifaceted advantages of nano materials, there have been many attempts in recent times to use the nano materials in the food sector including as food additive. However, whenever new product for human and animal consumption is developed, it has to be tested for their effectiveness regarding improvement in the health of consumers, safety aspects and side effects. However, before it is tried with human beings, normally such materials would be assessed through biological tests on a living organism to understand its effect on health condition of the consumer. Accordingly, based on the authors' finding reported in a previous paper, this paper presents body weight, biochemical (glucose, cholesterol and lipid profile in blood, analysis of feces) and histological tests carried out with biomass based cellulose nano fibrils prepared by the authors for its possible use as food additive. Preliminary results of the study with mice have clearly brought out potential of these fibers for the said purpose. PMID:26344977

  18. Comparative study of dimensional accuracy of different impression techniques using addition silicone impression material.

    PubMed

    Penaflor, C F; Semacio, R C; De Las Alas, L T; Uy, H G

    1998-01-01

    This study compared dimensional accuracy of the single, double with spacer, double with cut-out and double mix impression technique using addition silicone impression material. A typhodont containing Ivorine teeth model with six (6) full-crown tooth preparations were used as the positive control. Two stone replication models for each impression technique were made as test materials. Accuracy of the techniques were assessed by measuring four dimensions on the stone dies poured from the impression of the Ivorine teeth model. Results indicated that most of the measurements for the height, width and diameter slightly decreased and a few increased compared with the Ivorine teeth model. The double with cut-out and double mix technique presents the least difference from the master model as compared to the two latter impression techniques. PMID:10202524

  19. Spectroscopic studies of nucleic acid additions during seed-mediated growth of gold nanoparticles

    PubMed Central

    Tapp, Maeling; Sullivan, Rick; Dennis, Patrick; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2015-01-01

    The effect of adding nucleic acids to gold seeds during the growth stage of either nanospheres or nanorods was investigated using UV-Vis spectroscopy to reveal any oligonucleotide base or structure-specific effects on nanoparticle growth kinetics or plasmonic signatures. Spectral data indicate that the presence of DNA duplexes during seed ageing drastically accelerated nanosphere growth while the addition of single-stranded polyadenine at any point during seed ageing induces nanosphere aggregation. For seeds added to a gold nanorod growth solution, single-stranded polythymine induces a modest blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength. Moreover, a particular sequence comprised of 50% thymine bases was found to induce a faster, more dramatic blue-shift in the longitudinal peak wavelength compared to any of the homopolymer incubation cases. Monomeric forms of the nucleic acids, however, do not yield discernable spectral differences in any of the gold suspensions studied. PMID:25960601

  20. Study on Friction and Wear Properties of Silver Matrix Brush Material with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Xiaoli; Wang, Wenfang; Hong, Yu; Wu, Yucheng

    2013-07-01

    Friction and wear processes of AgCuX (G, CF and AlN) composites-CuAgV alloy friction pair and effects of different additive content in silver based composite on friction and wear behavior are studied in this paper. The microstructure of the brush wear surface is observed by SEM. The results show that when graphite content is up to 9 wt.%, Ag-Cu-CF-G composite exhibits the best wear properties; when the content of aluminum nitride is up to 0.5 wt.%, Ag-Cu-AlN-G composites has the most comprehensive performance. The wear loss of both composites arises with the increase of both pressure and speed, but when speed reaches a critical value, the increased amplitude of wear loss tends to be steady.

  1. Genetic assessment of additional endophenotypes from the Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study.

    PubMed

    Greenwood, Tiffany A; Lazzeroni, Laura C; Calkins, Monica E; Freedman, Robert; Green, Michael F; Gur, Raquel E; Gur, Ruben C; Light, Gregory A; Nuechterlein, Keith H; Olincy, Ann; Radant, Allen D; Seidman, Larry J; Siever, Larry J; Silverman, Jeremy M; Stone, William S; Sugar, Catherine A; Swerdlow, Neal R; Tsuang, Debby W; Tsuang, Ming T; Turetsky, Bruce I; Braff, David L

    2016-01-01

    The Consortium on the Genetics of Schizophrenia Family Study (COGS-1) has previously reported our efforts to characterize the genetic architecture of 12 primary endophenotypes for schizophrenia. We now report the characterization of 13 additional measures derived from the same endophenotype test paradigms in the COGS-1 families. Nine of the measures were found to discriminate between schizophrenia patients and controls, were significantly heritable (31 to 62%), and were sufficiently independent of previously assessed endophenotypes, demonstrating utility as additional endophenotypes. Genotyping via a custom array of 1536 SNPs from 94 candidate genes identified associations for CTNNA2, ERBB4, GRID1, GRID2, GRIK3, GRIK4, GRIN2B, NOS1AP, NRG1, and RELN across multiple endophenotypes. An experiment-wide p value of 0.003 suggested that the associations across all SNPs and endophenotypes collectively exceeded chance. Linkage analyses performed using a genome-wide SNP array further identified significant or suggestive linkage for six of the candidate endophenotypes, with several genes of interest located beneath the linkage peaks (e.g., CSMD1, DISC1, DLGAP2, GRIK2, GRIN3A, and SLC6A3). While the partial convergence of the association and linkage likely reflects differences in density of gene coverage provided by the distinct genotyping platforms, it is also likely an indication of the differential contribution of rare and common variants for some genes and methodological differences in detection ability. Still, many of the genes implicated by COGS through endophenotypes have been identified by independent studies of common, rare, and de novo variation in schizophrenia, all converging on a functional genetic network related to glutamatergic neurotransmission that warrants further investigation. PMID:26597662

  2. Serum Potassium and Glucose Regulation in the ADDITION-Leicester Screening Study

    PubMed Central

    Carter, Patrice; Bodicoat, Danielle H.; Quinn, Lauren M.; Zaccardi, Francesco; Webb, David R.; Khunti, Kamlesh; Davies, Melanie J.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Previous observational studies have shown conflicting results between plasma K+ concentrations and risk of type 2 diabetes. To help clarify the evidence we aimed to determine whether an association existed between serum K+ and glucose regulation within a UK multiethnic population. Methods. Participants were recruited as part of the ADDITION Leicester study, a population based screening study. Individuals from primary care between the age of 40 and 75 years if White European or 25 and 75 years if South Asian or Afro Caribbean were recruited. Tests for associations between baseline characteristics and K+ quartiles were conducted using linear regression models. Results. Data showed individuals in the lowest K+ quartile had significantly greater 2-hour glucose levels (0.53 mmol/L, 95% CI: 0.36 to 0.70, P ≤ 0.001) than those in the highest K+ quartile. This estimation did not change with adjustment for potential confounders. Conversely, participants in the lowest K+ quartile had a 0.14% lower HbA1c (95% CI −0.19 to −0.10: P ≤ 0.001) compared to those in the highest K+ quartile. Conclusion. This cross-sectional analysis demonstrated that lower K+ was associated with greater 2 hr glucose. The data supports the possibility that K+ may influence glucose regulation and further research is warranted. PMID:25883988

  3. Study of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive for high voltage lithium-ion cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, J.; Madec, L.; Ma, L.; Ellis, L. D.; Qiu, W.; Nelson, K. J.; Lu, Z.; Dahn, J. R.

    2015-11-01

    The role of triallyl phosphate as an electrolyte additive in Li(Ni0.42Mn0.42Co0.16)O2/graphite pouch cells was studied using ex-situ gas measurements, ultra high precision coulometry, automated storage experiments, electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, long-term cycling and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Cells containing triallyl phosphate produced less gas during formation, cycling and storage than control cells. The use of triallyl phosphate led to higher coulombic efficiency and smaller charge endpoint capacity slippage during ultra high precision charger testing. Cells containing triallyl phosphate showed smaller potential drop during 500 h storage at 40 °C and 60 °C and the voltage drop decreased as the triallyl phosphate content in the electrolyte increased. However, large amounts of triallyl phosphate (>3% by weight in the electrolyte) led to large impedance after cycling and storage. Symmetric cell studies showed large amounts of triallyl phosphate (5% or more) led to significant impedance increase at both negative and positive electrodes. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy studies suggested that the high impedance came from the polymerization of triallyl phosphate molecules which formed thick solid electrolyte interphase films at the surfaces of both negative and positive electrodes. An optimal amount of 2%-3% triallyl phosphate led to better capacity retention during long term cycling.

  4. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  5. Evidence of Rapidly Warming Rivers in the UK from an Extensive Additive Modelling Study at the National Scale Using R

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simpson, G. L.

    2011-12-01

    River water temperature data exhibit non-linear behaviour over the past 50 or so years. Standard techniques for identifying and quantifying trends have centred around the use of linear regression and Mann-Kendall and Thiel-Sen procedures. Observational data from UK rivers suggest that temperatures are far more variable then assumed under these statistical models. In a national-scale assessment of the response of riverine systems to global climatic change, an additive model framework was employed to model patterns in water temperatures from a large database of temporal observational data. Models were developed using R, which allowed for the deployment of cutting-edge additive modelling techniques to describe trends at 2773 sites across England and Wales, UK. At a subset of sites, additive models were used to model long-term trends, trends within seasons and the long-term variation in the seasonal pattern of water temperatures. Changes in water temperature have important consequences for aquatic ecology, with some species being particularly sensitive even to small shifts in temperature during some or all of their lifecycle. While there are many studies reporting increasing regional and global air temperatures, evidence for changes in river water temperature has thus far been site specific and/or from sites heavily influenced by human activities that could themselves lead to warming. Here I present selected results from a national-scale assessment of changing river water temperatures, covering the whole of England and Wales, comprising data from 2,773 locations. Positive trends in water temperature were observed at 86% of sites. At a subset of sites, seasonal trend models were developed, which showed that 90% of locations demonstrated statistically significant increases in water temperature during Autumn and Winter periods. Multivariate smoothers, that allow for within-year and longer-term trend interactions in time, suggest that periods of warmer waters now extend

  6. Experimental Study of Disruption of Columnar Grains During Rapid Solidification in Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manogharan, Guha; Yelamanchi, Bharat; Aman, Ronald; Mahbooba, Zaynab

    2016-03-01

    Over the years, many studies have been conducted to study and analyze the grain structures of metal alloys during additive manufacturing to improve mechanical properties. In particular, columnar grains are observed predominantly during rapid solidification of molten metal. This leads to lower mechanical properties and requires expensive secondary heat-treatment processes. This study is aimed at disrupting the formation of columnar grain growth during rapid solidification using ultrasonic vibration and analyzes the effects on grain structure and mechanical properties. A gas-metal arc welder mounted on a Rep-Rap-based low-cost metal 3 Dimension printer was used to deposit ER70S-6 mild steel layers on a plate. A contact-type ultrasonic transducer with a control system to vary the frequency and power of the vibration was used. The effects of ultrasonic vibration were determined from the statistical analysis of microstructure and micro-indentation techniques on the deposited layer and heat-affected zone. It was found that both frequency and interaction between frequency and power had significant impact on the refinement of average grain size up to 10.64% and increased the number of grains by approximately 41.78%. Analysis of micro-indentation tests showed that there was an increase of approximately 14.30% in micro-hardness due to the applied frequency during rapid solidification. A pole diagram shows that application of vibration causes randomization of grain orientation. Along with the results from this study, further efforts in modeling and experimentation of multi-directional vibrations would lead to a better understanding of disrupting columnar grains in applications that use mechanical vibrations, such as welding, directed energy deposition, brazing, etc.

  7. Synthesis, Characterization, Molecular Modeling, and DNA Interaction Studies of Copper Complex Containing Food Additive Carmoisine Dye.

    PubMed

    Shahabadi, Nahid; Akbari, Alireza; Jamshidbeigi, Mina; Khodarahmi, Reza

    2016-06-01

    A copper complex of carmoisine dye; [Cu(carmoisine)2(H2O)2]; was synthesized and characterized by using physico-chemical and spectroscopic methods. The binding of this complex with calf thymus (ct) DNA was investigated by circular dichroism, absorption studies, emission spectroscopy, and viscosity measurements. UV-vis results confirmed that the Cu complex interacted with DNA to form a ground-state complex and the observed binding constant (2× 10(4) M(-1)) is more in keeping with the groove bindings with DNA. Furthermore, the viscosity measurement result showed that the addition of complex causes no significant change on DNA viscosity and it indicated that the intercalation mode is ruled out. The thermodynamic parameters are calculated by van't Hoff equation, which demonstrated that hydrogen bonds and van der Waals interactions played major roles in the reaction. The results of circular dichroism (CD) suggested that the complex can change the conformation of DNA from B-like form toward A-like conformation. The cytotoxicity studies of the carmoisine dye and its copper complex indicated that both of them had anticancer effects on HT-29 (colon cancer) cell line and they may be new candidates for treatment of the colon cancer. PMID:27152751

  8. Percutaneous Dorsal Instrumentation of Vertebral Burst Fractures: Value of Additional Percutaneous Intravertebral Reposition—Cadaver Study

    PubMed Central

    Krüger, Antonio; Schmuck, Maya; Noriega, David C.; Ruchholtz, Steffen; Baroud, Gamal; Oberkircher, Ludwig

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. The treatment of vertebral burst fractures is still controversial. The aim of the study is to evaluate the purpose of additional percutaneous intravertebral reduction when combined with dorsal instrumentation. Methods. In this biomechanical cadaver study twenty-eight spine segments (T11-L3) were used (male donors, mean age 64.9 ± 6.5 years). Burst fractures of L1 were generated using a standardised protocol. After fracture all spines were allocated to four similar groups and randomised according to surgical techniques (posterior instrumentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation; posterior instrumentation + intravertebral reduction device without cement; and intravertebral reduction device + cement augmentation). After treatment, 100000 cycles (100–600 N, 3 Hz) were applied using a servohydraulic loading frame. Results. Overall anatomical restoration was better in all groups where the intravertebral reduction device was used (p < 0.05). In particular, it was possible to restore central endplates (p > 0.05). All techniques decreased narrowing of the spinal canal. After loading, clearance could be maintained in all groups fitted with the intravertebral reduction device. Narrowing increased in the group treated with dorsal instrumentation. Conclusions. For height and anatomical restoration, the combination of an intravertebral reduction device with dorsal instrumentation showed significantly better results than sole dorsal instrumentation. PMID:26137481

  9. Density functional theory study of the effects of alloying additions on sulfur adsorption on nickel surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malyi, Oleksandr I.; Chen, Zhong; Kulish, Vadym V.; Bai, Kewu; Wu, Ping

    2013-01-01

    Reactions of hydrogen sulfide (H2S) with Nickel/Ytrria-doped zirconia (Ni/YDZ) anode materials might cause degradation of the performance of solid oxide fuel cells when S containing fuels are used. In this paper, we employ density functional theory to investigate S adsorption on metal (M)-doped and undoped Ni(0 0 1) and Ni(1 1 1) surfaces. Based on the performed calculations, we analyze the effects of 12 alloying additions (Ag, Au, Al, Bi, Cd, Co, Cu, Fe, Sn, Sb, V, and Zn) on the temperature of transition between clean (S atoms do not adsorb on the surfaces) and contaminated (S atoms can adsorb on the surfaces spontaneously) M-doped Ni surfaces for different concentrations of H2S in the fuel. Predicted results are consistent with many experimental studies relevant to S poisoning of both Ni/YDZ and M-doped Ni/YDZ anode materials. This study is important to understand S poisoning phenomena and to develop new S tolerant anode materials.

  10. Detailed study of geodesics in the Kerr-Newman-(A)dS spacetime and the rotating charged black hole spacetime in f (R ) gravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soroushfar, Saheb; Saffari, Reza; Kazempour, Sobhan; Grunau, Saskia; Kunz, Jutta

    2016-07-01

    We perform a detailed study of the geodesic equations in the spacetime of the static and rotating charged black hole corresponding to the Kerr-Newman-(A)dS spacetime. We derive the equations of motion for test particles and light rays and present their solutions in terms of the Weierstrass ℘ , ζ , and σ functions as well as the Kleinian σ function. With the help of parametric diagrams and effective potentials, we analyze the geodesic motion and classify the possible orbit types. This spacetime is also a solution of f (R ) gravity with a constant curvature scalar.

  11. Using laser diagnostics for studying the injection of a dry additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tokunov, Iu. M.; Zhilin, V. G.; Liuliukin, V. I.; Mostinskii, I. L.; Putin, Iu. A.

    1987-02-01

    In MHD generators using an ionizing additive, the uniform injection of the additive into the combustion chamber and the dispersity of the injected particles are important. Some of the problems associated with the injection of an ionizing additive can be alleviated by using dry additives. In the experiment reported here, an He-Ne laser was used to monitor the injection of potash powder with an average size of 40 microns. It is shown that laser diagnostics can be successfully used to determine the mean particle diameter and variation of the powder flow rate with time.

  12. Evaluation of additional head of biceps brachii: a study with autopsy material.

    PubMed

    Ballesteros, L E; Forero, P L; Buitrago, E R

    2014-05-01

    Additional head of the biceps brachii (AHBB) has been reported in different population groups with a frequency of 1-25%. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence and morphologic expression of the AHBB as determined in a sample of the Colombian population. An exploration was conducted with 106 arms corresponding to unclaimed corpses autopsied at Institute of Legal and Forensic Medicine of Bucaramanga, Colombia. Using medial incision involvingskin, subcutaneous tissue, and brachial fascia, the heads of the biceps and their innervating branches were visualised. One AHBB was observed in 21 (19.8%) of the arms evaluated, with non-significant difference (p = 0.568) per side of presentation: 11 (52.4%) cases on the right side and 10 (47.6%) on the left side. All AHBBs were originated in the infero-medial segment of the humerus, with a mean thickness of 17.8 ± 6.8 mm. In 4 (19%) cases the fascicle was thin, less than 10 mm; in 7 (33.3%) cases it was of medium thickness, between 11 and 20 mm, whereas in 47.6% it was longer than 20 mm. The length of the AHBB was 118.3 ± 26.8 mm; its motor point supplied by the musculocutaneous nerve was located at 101.3 ± 20.9 mm of the bi-epicondylar line. The incidence of AHBB in this study is located at the upper segment of what has been reportedin the literature and could be a morphologic trait of the Colombian population; in agreement with prior studies, the origin was the infero-medial surface of the humerus. PMID:24902098

  13. Increased Risk of Additional Cancers Among Patients with Gastrointestinal Stromal Tumors: A Population-Based Study

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, James D.; Ma, Grace L.; Baumgartner, Joel M.; Madlensky, Lisa; Burgoyne, Adam M.; Tang, Chih-Min; Martinez, Maria Elena; Sicklick, Jason K.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are considered non-hereditary or sporadic. However, single-institution studies suggest that GIST patients develop additional malignancies with increased frequencies. We hypothesized that we could gain greater insight into possible associations between GIST and other malignancies using a national cancer database inquiry. Methods Patients diagnosed with GIST (2001–2011) in the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results database were included. Standardized prevalence ratios (SPRs) and standardized incidence ratios (SIRs) were used to quantify cancer risks incurred by GIST patients before and after GIST diagnoses, respectively, when compared with the general U.S. population. Results Of 6,112 GIST patients, 1,047 (17.1%) had additional cancers. There were significant increases in overall cancer rates: 44% (SPR=1.44) before diagnosis and 66% (SIR=1.66) after GIST diagnoses. Malignancies with significantly increased occurrence both before/after diagnoses included other sarcomas (SPR=5.24/SIR=4.02), neuroendocrine-carcinoid tumors (SPR=3.56/SIR=4.79), non-Hodgkin’s lymphoma (SPR=1.69/SIR=1.76), and colorectal adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.51/SIR=2.16). Esophageal adenocarcinoma (SPR=12.0), bladder adenocarcinoma (SPR=7.51), melanoma (SPR=1.46), and prostate adenocarcinoma (SPR=1.20) were significantly more common only before GIST. Ovarian carcinoma (SIR=8.72), small intestine adenocarcinoma (SIR=5.89), papillary thyroid cancer (SIR=5.16), renal cell carcinoma (SIR=4.46), hepatobiliary adenocarcinomas (SIR=3.10), gastric adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.70), pancreatic adenocarcinoma (SIR=2.03), uterine adenocarcinoma (SIR=1.96), non-small cell lung cancer (SIR=1.74), and transitional cell carcinoma of the bladder (SIR=1.65) were significantly more common only after GIST. Conclusion This is the first population-based study to characterize the associations and temporal relationships between GIST and other cancers, both by site and

  14. Additional Language Teaching within the International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme: A Comparative Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lebreton, Marlène

    2014-01-01

    The International Baccalaureate Primary Years Programme supports the learning of languages and cultures, but the role of the additional language within this programme is often unclear. There remains a great variability in schools regarding the frequency of lessons and the way that the additional language is taught within the Primary Years…

  15. Beyond the Call of Duty: A Qualitative Study of Teachers' Additional Responsibilities Related to Sexuality Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Marla E.; Madsen, Nikki; Oliphant, Jennifer A.; Resnick, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Seven focus groups were conducted with sexuality educators in Minnesota to explore ways that teaching sexuality education differs from teaching other health education content and to determine if additional supports or resources are needed for sexuality educators. Teachers described many specific additional responsibilities or concerns related to…

  16. Experimental study of combustion characteristics of nanoscale metal and metal oxide additives in biofuel (ethanol)

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    An experimental investigation of the combustion behavior of nano-aluminum (n-Al) and nano-aluminum oxide (n-Al2O3) particles stably suspended in biofuel (ethanol) as a secondary energy carrier was conducted. The heat of combustion (HoC) was studied using a modified static bomb calorimeter system. Combustion element composition and surface morphology were evaluated using a SEM/EDS system. N-Al and n-Al2O3 particles of 50- and 36-nm diameters, respectively, were utilized in this investigation. Combustion experiments were performed with volume fractions of 1, 3, 5, 7, and 10% for n-Al, and 0.5, 1, 3, and 5% for n-Al2O3. The results indicate that the amount of heat released from ethanol combustion increases almost linearly with n-Al concentration. N-Al volume fractions of 1 and 3% did not show enhancement in the average volumetric HoC, but higher volume fractions of 5, 7, and 10% increased the volumetric HoC by 5.82, 8.65, and 15.31%, respectively. N-Al2O3 and heavily passivated n-Al additives did not participate in combustion reactively, and there was no contribution from Al2O3 to the HoC in the tests. A combustion model that utilized Chemical Equilibrium with Applications was conducted as well and was shown to be in good agreement with the experimental results. PMID:21711760

  17. A theoretical study of wave dispersion and thermal conduction for HMX/additive interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Long, Yao; Chen, Jun

    2014-04-01

    The wave dispersion rule for non-uniform material is useful for ultrasonic inspection and engine life prediction, and also is key in achieving an understanding of the energy dissipation and thermal conduction properties of solid material. On the basis of linear response theory and molecular dynamics, we derive a set of formulas for calculating the wave dispersion rate of interface systems, and study four kinds of interfaces inside plastic bonded explosives: HMX/{HMX, TATB, F2312, F2313}. (HMX: octahydro-1,3,5,7-tetranitro-1,3,5,7-tetrazocine; TATB: 1,3,5-triamino-2,4,6-trinitrobenzene; F2312, F2313: fluoropolymers). The wave dispersion rate is obtained over a wide frequency range from kHz to PHz. We find that at low frequency, the rate is proportional to the square of the frequency, and at high frequency, the rate couples with the molecular vibration modes at the interface. By using the results, the thermal conductivities of HMX/additive interfaces are derived, and a physical model is built for describing the total thermal conductivity of mixture explosives, including HMX multi-particle systems and {TATB, F2312, F2313}-coated HMX.

  18. Addition reaction of alkyl radical to C60 fullerene: Density functional theory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachikawa, Hiroto; Kawabata, Hiroshi

    2016-02-01

    Functionalized fullerenes are known as a high-performance molecules. In this study, the alkyl-functionalized fullerenes (denoted by R-C60) have been investigated by means of the density functional theory (DFT) method to elucidate the effects of functionalization on the electronic states of fullerene. Also, the reaction mechanism of alkyl radicals with C60 was investigated. The methyl, ethyl, propyl, and butyl radicals (denoted by n = 1-4, where n means the number of carbon atoms in the alkyl radical) were examined as alkyl radicals. The DFT calculation showed that the alkyl radical binds to the carbon atom of C60 at the on-top site, and a strong C-C single bond is formed. The binding energies of alkyl radicals to C60 were distributed in the range of 31.8-35.1 kcal mol-1 at the CAM-B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level. It was found that the activation barrier exists before alkyl addition, the barrier heights were calculated to be 2.1-2.8 kcal mol-1. The electronic states of R-C60 complexes were discussed on the basis of the theoretical results.

  19. Theoretical study of addition reactions of carbene, silylene, and germylene to carbon nanotubes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Ying-Ying; Su, Ming-Der

    2004-08-01

    A theoretical study of the mechanism of the reaction of a single-walled carbon nanotube (SWCNT) with carbene (H 2C), silylene (H 2Si), and germylene (H 2Ge) has been carried out using a two-layered ONIOM(B3LYP/6-311G ∗:PM3) approach. The main findings are as follows: (1) The computational results based on the method used in this work are in good agreement with recent theoretical findings [Angew. Chem. Int. Ed. 41 (2002) 1853]. That is, SWCNTs with H 2C, H 2Si, and H 2Ge addends favor opened structures rather than three-membered rings. (2) The greater the atomic number of the carbene center, the larger the activation energy and the less exothermic (or the more endothermic) the cycloaddition reaction becomes. Therefore, addition to the C dbnd C bond of a SWCNT is more difficult the heavier the carbene center. (3) The theoretical observations suggest that the singlet-triplet splitting of a carbene can be used as a guide to its reactivity during the SWCNT cycloaddition process.

  20. Reporting standards of studies and papers on the prevention and management of foot ulcers in diabetes: required details and markers of good quality.

    PubMed

    Jeffcoate, William J; Bus, Sicco A; Game, Frances L; Hinchliffe, Robert J; Price, Patricia E; Schaper, Nicolaas C

    2016-09-01

    The evidence base for many aspects of the management of foot ulcers in people with diabetes is weak, and good-quality research, especially relating to studies of direct relevance to routine clinical care, is needed. In this paper, we summarise the core details required in the planning and reporting of intervention studies in the prevention and management of diabetic foot ulcers, including studies that focus on off-loading, stimulation of wound healing, peripheral artery disease, and infection. We highlight aspects of trial design, conduct, and reporting that should be taken into account to minimise bias and improve quality. We also provide a 21-point checklist for researchers and for readers who assess the quality of published work. PMID:27177729

  1. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  2. Detail One Half of Wood Truss, Detail One Quarter Plan ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail One Half of Wood Truss, Detail One Quarter Plan of Floor Beams & Bottom Truss Cord, Detail at A Plan, Detail at B Plan - Covered Bridge, Spanning Darby Creek, North Lewisburg, Champaign County, OH

  3. Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & CrossBracing Joint Details; ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Chord Splicing & Joining Detail; Chord & Cross-Bracing Joint Details; Cross Bracing Center Joint Detail; Chord & Diagonal Joint Detail - Vermont Covered Bridge, Highland Park, spanning Kokomo Creek at West end of Deffenbaugh Street (moved to), Kokomo, Howard County, IN

  4. Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Arch & Chord Joint Detail; Crossbracing Center Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Diagonal Brace Joint Detail; Chord, Panel Post, Tie & Crossbracing Joint Detail - Dunlapsville Covered Bridge, Spanning East Fork Whitewater River, Dunlapsville, Union County, IN

  5. Early Stages of Hyaline Membrane Formation Detected in Alveolar Mouths in Diffuse Alveolar-Damage-Associated Diseases: A Detailed Immunohistochemical Study.

    PubMed

    Ohtsuki, Yuji; Fujita, Jiro; Yoshinouchi, Takeo; Enzan, Hideaki; Iguchi, Mitsuko; Lee, Gang-Hong; Furihata, Mutsuo

    2015-10-01

    To study the early stages of hyaline membrane (HM) formation, diffuse alveolar damage (DAD) was thoroughly investigated using immunohistochemical methods in 15 autopsy cases, which consisted of various types of interstitial pneumonias and pulmonary diseases derived from nonmalignant or malignant diseases. Alveolar mouths (AMs) that were presumed to be normal were ultrastructurally examined in detail, by using pulmonary tissues in the pneumothorax. It is interesting to note that during the initial stages of HM formation in AMs, fragmented eosinophilic masses were closely attached to AMs as irregular fragments or by a cap-like structure. The ultrastructure revealed some distance between the capillary spaces and surface epithelium of the AMs, indicating that the epithelial cells at the AMs might be often easily damaged even by minor stimuli; they can be considered as "locus minoris resistentiae." HMs were found to be formed initially at the site of AMs derived from fragmented eosinophilic masses in not only pulmonary but also extrapulmonary diseases, including both nonmalignant and malignant diseases. These irregular eosinophilic masses, representing the early shape of HMs, were immunohistochemically positive for the epithelial membrane antigens, namely, surfactant protein A and factor VIII antigen, and occasionally for KL-6 and cytokeratins. These results suggested that fragmented irregular masses represent the initial phase of HM formation. Five of 15 cases were focally negative for KL-6 at the initial irregular mass of HMs. Because KL-6 is one of the fundamental components of pulmonary surface elements, it needs to be studied further by detailed clinicopathological examination. PMID:26183849

  6. A detailed study of Langmuir waves observed during extended intervals of waveform captures by the Cassini Wideband Receiver in the Saturn's foreshock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pisa, David; Hospodarsky, George B.; Kurth, William S.; Gurnett, Donald A.; Santolik, Ondrej; Soucek, Jan; Masters, Adam; Coates, Andrew J.

    2015-04-01

    The upstream region magnetically linked to the planetary bowshock is called the foreshock. In this region energetic electrons reflected by the bowshock create beams streaming along the field lines to the solar wind flow. These electrons beams can generate electrostatic Langmuir waves via a beam instability. Langmuir waves can be identified as narrowband intense emission at a frequency very close to the local plasma frequency, usually observed close to the foreshock boundary, and weaker broadband waves below and above the plasma frequency typically observed deeper in the foreshock. A process of wave generation highly depends on beam properties. Unfortunately due to instrumental limitations, it is often difficult to identify these beams. We present a detailed study of Langmuir waves in the upstream of the Saturnian bowshock. For the detailed study we used data from the Radio and Plasma Wave Science (RWPS), Magnetometer (MAG) and Cassini Plasma Science (CAPS) instruments. We have analyzed several periods from the extended waveform captures by the Cassini Wideband Receiver. We show Langmuir waves as a bursty emission highly controlled by variations in solar wind conditions. The properties of the Langmuir wave packets along the satellite path through the foreshock are also discussed.

  7. Fortification of yogurts with different antioxidant preservatives: A comparative study between natural and synthetic additives.

    PubMed

    Caleja, Cristina; Barros, Lillian; Antonio, Amilcar L; Carocho, Márcio; Oliveira, M Beatriz P P; Ferreira, Isabel C F R

    2016-11-01

    Consumers demand more and more so-called "natural" products and, therefore, the aim of this work was to compare the effects of natural versus synthetic antioxidant preservatives in yogurts. Matricaria recutita L. (chamomile) and Foeniculum vulgare Mill. (fennel) decoctions were tested as natural additives, while potassium sorbate (E202) was used as a synthetic additive. The fortification of yogurts with natural and synthetic antioxidants did not cause significant changes in the yoghurt pH and nutritional value, in comparison with control samples (yogurt without any additive). However, the fortified yogurts showed higher antioxidant activity, mainly the yogurts with natural additives (and among these, the ones with chamomile decoction). Overall, it can be concluded that plant decoctions can be used to develop novel yogurts, by replacing synthetic preservatives and improving the antioxidant properties of the final product, without changing the nutritional profile. PMID:27211646

  8. ALUM ADDITION AND STEP-FEED STUDIES IN OXYGEN-ACTIVATED SLUDGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    A plug flow, O2-activated sludge process was operated with alum addition to remove phosphorus and with lime addition to prevent the process pH from decreasing below 6.4. The O2 reactor was operated at F/M ratios between 0.18 to 0.24 gm of BOD5/gm of MLVSS/day in a typical co-curr...

  9. Chemostat Studies of TCE-Dehalogenating Anaerobic Consortia under Excess and Limited Electron Donor Addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semprini, L.; Azizian, M.; Green, J.; Mayer-Blackwell, K.; Spormann, A. M.

    2015-12-01

    Two cultures - the Victoria Strain (VS) and the Evanite Strain (EV), enriched with the organohalide respiring bacteria Dehalococcoides mccartyi - were grown in chemostats for more than 4 years at a mean cell residence time of 50 days. The slow doubling rate represents growth likely experienced in the subsurface. The chemostats were fed formate as an electron donor and trichloroethene (TCE) as the terminal electron acceptor. Under excess formate conditions, stable operation was observed with respect to TCE transformation, steady-state hydrogen (H2) concentrations (40 nM), and the structure of the dehalogenating community. Both cultures completely transformed TCE to ethene, with minor amounts of vinyl chloride (VC) observed, along with acetate formation. When formate was limited, TCE was transformed incompletely to ethene (40-60%) and VC (60- 40%), and H2 concentrations ranged from 1 to 3 nM. The acetate concentration dropped below detection. Batch kinetic studies of TCE transformation with chemostat harvested cells found transformation rates of c-DCE and VC were greatly reduced when the cells were grown with limited formate. Upon increasing formate addition to the chemostats, from limited to excess, essentially complete transformation of TCE to ethene was achieved. The increase in formate was associated with an increase in H2 concentration and the production of acetate. Results of batch kinetic tests showed increases in transformation rates for TCE and c-DCE by factors of 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, while VC rates increased by factors of 33 to 500, over a six month period. Molecular analysis of chemostat samples is being performed to quantify the changes in copy numbers of reductase genes and to determine whether shifts in the strains of Dehalococcoides mccartyi where responsible for the observed rate increases. The results demonstrate the importance of electron donor supply for successful in-situ remediation.

  10. A study of the electrochemistry of nickel hydroxide electrodes with various additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Wen-Hua; Ke, Jia-Jun; Yu, Hong-Mei; Zhang, Deng-Jun

    Nickel composite electrodes (NCE) with various additives are prepared by a chemical impregnation method from nitrate solutions on sintered porous plaques. The electrochemical properties, such as utilization of active material, swelling and the discharge potential of the nickel oxide electrode (NOE) are determined mainly through the composition of the active material and the characteristics of nickel plaques. Most additives (Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba, Zn, Cd, Co, Li and Al hydroxide) exert effects on the discharge potential and swelling of the NOE. Chemical co-precipitation with the addition of calcium, zinc, magnesium and barium hydroxide increases the discharge potential by more than 20 mV, but that with zinc hydroxide results in an obvious decrease of active-material utilization and that with calcium and magnesium hydroxide produces a larger increase of electrode thickness. The effects of anion additives are also examined. Less than 1% mol of NiS in the active material increases the discharge potential. Cadmium, cobalt and zinc hydroxide are excellent additives for preventing swelling of the NCE. Slow voltammetry (0.2 mV s -1) in 6 M KOH is applied to characterize the oxygen-evolving potential of the NCE. The difference between the oxygen-evolution potential and the potential of the oxidation peak for the NCE with additives of calcium, lithium, barium and aluminium hydroxide is at least + 60 mV.

  11. 78 FR 68461 - Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-14

    ... Guidance for Industry: Studies to Evaluate the Utility of Anti-Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration Guidance for Industry: Studies To Evaluate the Utility of Anti- Salmonella Chemical Food Additives in Feeds; Request for Comments AGENCY: Food and...

  12. Inner Ear Morphology in the Atlantic Molly Poecilia mexicana—First Detailed Microanatomical Study of the Inner Ear of a Cyprinodontiform Species

    PubMed Central

    Schulz-Mirbach, Tanja; Heß, Martin; Plath, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Background Fishes show an amazing diversity in hearing abilities, inner ear structures, and otolith morphology. Inner ear morphology, however, has not yet been investigated in detail in any member of the diverse order Cyprinodontiformes. We, therefore, studied the inner ear of the cyprinodontiform freshwater fish Poecilia mexicana by analyzing the position of otoliths in situ, investigating the 3D structure of sensory epithelia, and examining the orientation patterns of ciliary bundles of the sensory hair cells, while combining μ-CT analyses, scanning electron microscopy, and immunocytochemical methods. P. mexicana occurs in different ecotypes, enabling us to study the intra-specific variability (on a qualitative basis) of fish from regular surface streams, and the Cueva del Azufre, a sulfidic cave in southern Mexico. Results The inner ear of Poecilia mexicana displays a combination of several remarkable features. The utricle is connected rostrally instead of dorso-rostrally to the saccule, and the macula sacculi, therefore, is very close to the utricle. Moreover, the macula sacculi possesses dorsal and ventral bulges. The two studied ecotypes of P. mexicana showed variation mainly in the shape and curvature of the macula lagenae, in the curvature of the macula sacculi, and in the thickness of the otolithic membrane. Conclusions Our study for the first time provides detailed insights into the auditory periphery of a cyprinodontiform inner ear and thus serves a basis—especially with regard to the application of 3D techniques—for further research on structure-function relationships of inner ears within the species-rich order Cyprinodontiformes. We suggest that other poeciliid taxa, or even other non-poeciliid cyprinodontiforms, may display similar inner ear morphologies as described here. PMID:22110746

  13. A sedimentological approach to hydrologic characterization: A detailed three-dimensional study of an outcrop of the Sierra Ladrones Formation, Albuquerque basin

    SciTech Connect

    Lohmann, R.C.

    1992-01-01

    Three-dimensional geologic outcrop studies which quantitatively describe the geologic architecture of deposits of a specific depositional environment are a necessary requirement for characterization of the permeability structure of an aquifer. The objective of this study is to address this need for quantitative, three-dimensional outcrop studies. For this study, a 10,000 m{sup 2} by 25 m high outcrop of Pliocene-Pleistocene Sierra Ladrones Formation located near Belen, New Mexico was mapped in detail, and the geologic architecture was quantified using geostatistical variogram analysis. In general, the information contained in this study should be useful for hydrologists working on the characterization of aquifers from similar depositional environments such as this one. However, for the permeability correlation study to be truly useful, the within-element correlation structure needs to be superimposed on the elements themselves instead of using mean log (k) values, as was done for this study. Such information is derived from outcrop permeability sampling such as the work of Davis (1990) and Goggin et al. (1988).

  14. Seductive Details in Multimedia Messages

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rey, Gunter Daniel

    2011-01-01

    The seductive detail principle asserts that people learn more deeply from a multimedia presentation when interesting but irrelevant adjuncts are excluded rather than included. However, critics could argue that studies about this principle contain methodological problems. The recent experiment attempts to overcome these problems. Students (N = 108)…

  15. Maltreated children's representations of mother and an additional caregiver: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Manashko, Shany; Besser, Avi; Priel, Beatriz

    2009-04-01

    In the current longitudinal investigation, we explored the continuity of and changes in the mental representations of the mother and an additional caregiver among forty-five 9- to 11-year-old children who had been severely maltreated and subsequently placed in long-term residential care as well as the relationships between the content and structure of these representations and teacher's assessments of the child's externalizing and internalizing symptoms. At Time 1, a nonmaltreated comparison group was assessed concomitantly. Compared to nonmaltreated children, maltreated children scored higher for externalizing and internalizing symptoms, and their maternal representations were found to be significantly less benevolent and integrated and more punitive. In addition, among the maltreated children, the additional caregiver representations were found to be more benevolent and integrated, and less punitive, than the maternal representations. After 30 months, the maltreated children's levels of externalizing and internalizing symptoms diminished, their maternal representations become more benevolent and less punitive, and the additional caregiver representations became less benevolent. Moreover, the Benevolence of the additional caregiver representation was found to predict these children's changes in externalizing symptoms beyond the effects of their symptomatology and its associations with the Benevolence of these representations at Time 1. PMID:19220720

  16. LF460 detail design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1971-01-01

    This is the final technical report documenting the detail design of the LF460, and advanced turbotip lift fan intended for application with the YJ97-GE-100 turbojet jet generator to a V/STOL transport research aircraft. Primary objective of the design was to achieve a low noise level while maintaining the high thrust/weight ratio capability of a high pressure ratio lift fan. Report covers design requirements and summarizes activities and final results in the areas of aerodynamic and mechanical design, component and system performance, acoustic features and final noise predictions.

  17. Details of meiosis

    SciTech Connect

    1993-12-31

    Chapter 18, discusses the details of meiosis, beginning with the structure and number of chiasmata, i.e., the cytological term for two homologous chromosomes forming a bivalent which begin to repel each other until they are held together only at the point of crossing-over. The synaptonemal complex which consists of two lateral elements which contain protein and RNA is also discussed. The chapter concludes with a description of meiosis in polyploids, human meiosis, and the behavior of X and Y chromosomes. 28 refs., 8 figs.

  18. A numerical study of a two-dimensional H{sub 2}-O{sub 2}-Ar detonation using a detailed chemical reaction model

    SciTech Connect

    Oran, E.S.; Weber, J.W. Jr.; Stefaniw, E.I.; Lefebvre, M.H.; Anderson, J.D. Jr.

    1998-04-01

    Two-dimensional computations of the propagation of a detonation in a low-pressure, argon-diluted mixture of hydrogen and oxygen were performed using a detailed chemical reaction mechanism. Cellular structure developed after an initial perturbation was applied to a one-dimensional solution placed on a two-dimensional grid. The energy-release pattern in a detonation cell showed that, in addition to the primary release of energy behind the Mach stem, there is a secondary energy release that starts about two-thirds of the way through the cell. Reignition, which occurs as transverse waves collide, results in an explosion that spreads over a region and releases a considerable amount of energy.Resolution tests showed convergence of the detonation mode (number of triple points or transverse waves) reached at the end of the computations, as well as global and local energy release. The computations were performed on massively parallel Connection Machines for which new approaches were developed to maximize the speed and efficiency of integrations.

  19. Mechanical characterization of filler sandcretes with rice husk ash additions. Study applied to Senegal

    SciTech Connect

    Cisse, I.K.; Laquerbe, M.

    2000-01-01

    To capitalize on the local materials of Senegal (agricultural and industrial wastes, residual fines from crushing process, sands from dunes, etc.), rise husk ash and residues of industrial and agricultural wastes have been used as additions in sandcretes. The mechanical resistance of sandcrete blocks obtained when unground ash (and notably the ground ash) is added reveals that there is an increase in performance over the classic mortar blocks. In addition, the use of unground rice husk ash enables production of a lightweight sandcrete with insulating properties, at a reduced cost. The ash pozzolanic reactivity explains the high strengths obtained.

  20. Formation of porous SnS nanoplate networks from solution and their application in hybrid solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Details to performed experiments and characterisation methods, additional XRD data, absorption spectra, TAS data and SEM images. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc03125g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gury, L.; Sánchez-Molina, I.; Martínez, L.

    2015-01-01

    Herein, we present a facile solution-based route towards nanostructured, hybrid absorber layers based on tin mono-sulfide (SnS), an emerging, non-toxic absorber material for low-cost and large-scale PV applications. Charge photogeneration properties in the hybrid system are studied using transient absorption spectroscopy and fabricated solar cells show efficient photocurrent generation over a broad spectral range. PMID:26016404

  1. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  2. Study on automatic optical element addition or deletion in lens optimization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cheng, Xuemin; Wang, Yongtian; Hao, Qun

    2002-09-01

    Two lens form parameters, quantifying the symmetry of the optical system and the optical power distribution among the individual lens elements, are used as the criteria for automatic element addition or deletion in lens optimization. The scheme based on the criteria is described in this paper. Design examples are provided, which demonstrate that the scheme is practicable.

  3. Teaching Young Children Decomposition Strategies to Solve Addition Problems: An Experimental Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cheng, Zi-Juan

    2012-01-01

    The ability to count has traditionally been considered an important milestone in children's development of number sense. However, using counting (e.g., counting on, counting all) strategies to solve addition problems is not the best way for children to achieve their full mathematical potential and to prepare them to develop more complex and…

  4. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines.

    PubMed

    Gansäuer, Andreas; Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca; Grimme, Stefan

    2013-01-01

    The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol(-1) and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG (‡) and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  5. Vector generalized additive models for extreme rainfall data analysis (study case rainfall data in Indramayu)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Utami, Eka Putri Nur; Wigena, Aji Hamim; Djuraidah, Anik

    2016-02-01

    Rainfall pattern are good indicators for potential disasters. Global Circulation Model (GCM) contains global scale information that can be used to predict the rainfall data. Statistical downscaling (SD) utilizes the global scale information to make inferences in the local scale. Essentially, SD can be used to predict local scale variables based on global scale variables. SD requires a method to accommodate non linear effects and extreme values. Extreme value Theory (EVT) can be used to analyze the extreme value. One of methods to identify the extreme events is peak over threshold that follows Generalized Pareto Distribution (GPD). The vector generalized additive model (VGAM) is an extension of the generalized additive model. It is able to accommodate linear or nonlinear effects by involving more than one additive predictors. The advantage of VGAM is to handle multi response models. The key idea of VGAM are iteratively reweighted least square for maximum likelihood estimation, penalized smoothing, fisher scoring and additive models. This works aims to analyze extreme rainfall data in Indramayu using VGAM. The results show that the VGAM with GPD is able to predict extreme rainfall data accurately. The prediction in February is very close to the actual value at quantile 75.

  6. Studies on the Food Additive Propyl Gallate: Synthesis, Structural Characterization, and Evaluation of the Antioxidant Activity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garrido, Jorge; Garrido, E. Manuela; Borges, Fernanda

    2012-01-01

    Antioxidants are additives largely used in industry for delaying, retarding, or preventing the development of oxidative deterioration. Propyl gallate (E310) is a phenolic antioxidant extensively used in the food, cosmetics, and pharmaceutical industries. A series of lab experiments have been developed to teach students about the importance and…

  7. Detail of Triton

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    This color photo of Neptune's large satellite Triton was obtained on Aug. 24 1989 at a range of 530,000 kilometers (330,000 miles). The resolution is about 10 kilometers (6.2 miles), sufficient to begin to show topographic detail. The image was made from pictures taken through the green, violet and ultraviolet filters. In this technique, regions that are highly reflective in the ultraviolet appear blue in color. In reality, there is no part of Triton that would appear blue to the eye. The bright southern hemisphere of Triton, which fills most of this frame, is generally pink in tone as is the even brighter equatorial band. The darker regions north of the equator also tend to be pink or reddish in color. JPL manages the Voyager project for NASA's Office of Space Science, Washington, DC.

  8. Cydonia Region - detail

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1998-01-01

    Detail cut out of PIA01235, Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image of a 4.42 by 82.94 km area of the Cydonia Region. The left image is raw, the right has been filtered and contrast enhanced.

    Orbit: 220

    Range: 444.21 km

    Resolution: 4.32 m/pixel

    Emission angle: 44.66 degrees

    Incidence angle: 64.96 degrees

    Phase angle: 61.97 degrees

    Scan rate: 0.1 degree/sec

    Start time: periapsis + 375 sec

    Sequence submitted to JPL: Sat 04/04/98 15:15 PST

    Image acquired by MOC: Sun 04/05/98 00:39:37 PST

    Data retrieved from JPL: Mon 04/06/98 09:05 PDT

  9. South Polar Details

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    22 September 2005 This Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) Mars Orbiter Camera (MOC) image shows details among some of the eroded layer outcrops of the martian south polar region. Much of the south polar region of Mars is covered by a thick unit of layered material. For decades, the layers have been assumed to consist of a mixture of dust and ice, but it is equally possible that the materials are sedimentary rocks. This image was captured during southern spring, at a time when some of the surface was still covered by seasonal carbon dioxide (CO2) frost.

    Location near: 86.5oS, 116.6oW Image width: width: 3 km (1.9 mi) Illumination from: upper left Season: Southern Spring

  10. A laboratory study of the perceived benefit of additional noise attenuation by houses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Flindell, I. H.

    1983-01-01

    Two Experiments were conducted to investigate the perceived benefit of additional house attenuation against aircraft flyover noise. First, subjects made annoyance judgments in a simulated living room while an operative window with real and dummy storm windows was manipulated in full view of those subjects. Second, subjects made annoyance judgments in an anechoic audiometric test chamber of frequency shaped noise signals having spectra closely matched to those of the aircraft flyover noises reproduced in the first experiment. These stimuli represented the aircraft flyover noises in levels and spectra but without the situational and visual cues present in the simulated living room. Perceptual constancy theory implies that annoyance tends to remain constant despite reductions in noise level caused by additional attenuation of which the subjects are fully aware. This theory was supported when account was taken for a reported annoyance overestimation for certain spectra and for a simulated condition cue overreaction.

  11. Indolyne Experimental and Computational Studies: Synthetic Applications and Origins of Selectivities of Nucleophilic Additions

    PubMed Central

    Im, G-Yoon J.; Bronner, Sarah M.; Goetz, Adam E.; Paton, Robert S.; Cheong, Paul H.-Y.; Houk, K. N.; Garg, Neil K.

    2010-01-01

    Efficient syntheses of 4,5-, 5,6-, and 6,7-indolyne precursors beginning from commercially available hydroxyindole derivatives are reported. The synthetic routes are versatile and allow access to indolyne precursors that remain unsubstituted on the pyrrole ring. Indolynes can be generated under mild fluoride-mediated conditions, trapped by a variety of nucleophilic reagents, and used to access a number of novel substituted indoles. Nucleophilic addition reactions to indolynes proceed with varying degrees of regioselectivity; distortion energies control regioselectivity and provide a simple model to predict the regioselectivity in the nucleophilic additions to indolynes and other unsymmetrical arynes. This model has led to the design of a substituted 4,5-indolyne that exhibits enhanced nucleophilic regioselectivity. PMID:21114321

  12. Peer academic detailing on use of antibiotics in acute respiratory tract infections. A controlled study in an urban Norwegian out-of-hours service

    PubMed Central

    Dyrkorn, Roar; Gjelstad, Svein; Espnes, Ketil Arne; Lindbæk, Morten

    2016-01-01

    Objective To analyse if peer academic detailing by experienced general practitioners (GPs) could be a useful way to change Medical Doctors, (MDs) prescription of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) in out-of-hours service. Method An educational Intervention study based on prescription data among MDs working in an out-of-hours service from June 2006 through October 2008. Specially trained GPs lectured a peer educational program (3 × 45 minutes) about use of antibiotics for ARTIs according to national recommendations. Outcome measures The type and frequency of antibiotics prescribed for different ARTIs before and after intervention comparing the intervention group with the control group. Subjects 22 MDs in the intervention group and 31 MDs in the control group. Results The intervention group showed an overall statistically significantly absolute increase in the use of penicillin V (Penicillin V) of 9.8% (95% CI: 2.3%–17.4% p < 0.05), and similarly an statistically significantly absolute decrease in the use of macrolides and lincosamides of 8.8% (95% CI: 2.6%–14.9.2% p < 0.05) for all diagnoses. For subgroups of ARTIs we found a significant increase in the use of Penicillin V for acute otitis media, sinusitis, pneumonia and upper ARTIs. There was no significant changes in total prescription rates in the two groups. 41% of all consultations with respiratory tract infections resulted in antibiotic prescription. Conclusions Using trained GPs to give peer academic detailing to colleagues in combination with open discussion on prescription, showed a significant change in prescription of antibiotics towards national guidelines. Key pointsPhenoxymethylpenicillin is the first choice for the most of respiratory tract infections when indicated.Despite the guidelines for the choice of antibiotics in Norway, general practitioners’ choice often differs from these.We showed that a session of three times 45 min of peer academic detailing

  13. Structural changes in gluten protein structure after addition of emulsifier. A Raman spectroscopy study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferrer, Evelina G.; Gómez, Analía V.; Añón, María C.; Puppo, María C.

    2011-06-01

    Food protein product, gluten protein, was chemically modified by varying levels of sodium stearoyl lactylate (SSL); and the extent of modifications (secondary and tertiary structures) of this protein was analyzed by using Raman spectroscopy. Analysis of the Amide I band showed an increase in its intensity mainly after the addition of the 0.25% of SSL to wheat flour to produced modified gluten protein, pointing the formation of a more ordered structure. Side chain vibrations also confirmed the observed changes.

  14. A design study for the addition of higher order parametric discrete elements to NASTRAN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stanton, E. L.

    1972-01-01

    The addition of discrete elements to NASTRAN poses significant interface problems with the level 15.1 assembly modules and geometry modules. Potential problems in designing new modules for higher-order parametric discrete elements are reviewed in both areas. An assembly procedure is suggested that separates grid point degrees of freedom on the basis of admissibility. New geometric input data are described that facilitate the definition of surfaces in parametric space.

  15. Load bearing and stiffness tailored NiTi implants produced by additive manufacturing: a simulation study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rahmanian, Rasool; Shayesteh Moghaddam, Narges; Haberland, Christoph; Dean, David; Miller, Michael; Elahinia, Mohammad

    2014-03-01

    Common metals for stable long-term implants (e.g. stainless steel, Titanium and Titanium alloys) are much stiffer than spongy cancellous and even stiffer than cortical bone. When bone and implant are loaded this stiffness mismatch results in stress shielding and as a consequence, degradation of surrounding bony structure can lead to disassociation of the implant. Due to its lower stiffness and high reversible deformability, which is associated with the superelastic behavior, NiTi is an attractive biomaterial for load bearing implants. However, the stiffness of austenitic Nitinol is closer to that of bone but still too high. Additive manufacturing provides, in addition to the fabrication of patient specific implants, the ability to solve the stiffness mismatch by adding engineered porosity to the implant. This in turn allows for the design of different stiffness profiles in one implant tailored to the physiological load conditions. This work covers a fundamental approach to bring this vision to reality. At first modeling of the mechanical behavior of different scaffold designs are presented as a proof of concept of stiffness tailoring. Based on these results different Nitinol scaffolds can be produced by additive manufacturing.

  16. Magnetic Force Microscopy Study of Zr2Co11 -Based Nanocrystalline Materials: Effect of Mo Addition

    DOE PAGESBeta

    Yue, Lanping; Jin, Yunlong; Zhang, Wenyong; Sellmyer, David J.

    2015-01-01

    Tmore » he addition of Molybdenum was used to modify the nanostructure and enhance coercivity of rare-earth-free Zr2Co11-based nanocrystalline permanent magnets. he effect of Mo addition on magnetic domain structures of melt spun nanocrystalline Zr16Co84-xMox(x=0, 0.5, 1, 1.5, and 2.0) ribbons has been investigated. It was found that magnetic properties and local domain structures are strongly influenced by Mo doping. he coercivity of the samples increases with the increase in Mo content (x≤1.5). he maximum energy product(BH)maxincreases with increasingxfrom 0.5 MGOe forx=0to a maximum value of 4.2 MGOe forx=1.5. he smallest domain size with a relatively short magnetic correlation length of 128 nm and largest root-mean-square phase shiftΦrmsvalue of 0.66° are observed for thex=1.5. he optimal Mo addition promotes magnetic domain structure refinement and thus leads to a significant increase in coercivity and energy product in this sample.« less

  17. Parameters and pitfalls to consider in the conduct of food additive research, Carrageenan as a case study.

    PubMed

    Weiner, Myra L

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides guidance on the conduct of new in vivo and in vitro studies on high molecular weight food additives, with carrageenan, the widely used food additive, as a case study. It is important to understand the physical/chemical properties and to verify the identity/purity, molecular weight and homogeneity/stability of the additive in the vehicle for oral delivery. The strong binding of CGN to protein in rodent chow or infant formula results in no gastrointestinal tract exposure to free CGN. It is recommended that doses of high Mw non-caloric, non-nutritive additives not exceed 5% by weight of total solid diet to avoid potential nutritional effects. Addition of some high Mw additives at high concentrations to liquid nutritional supplements increases viscosity and may affect palatability, caloric intake and body weight gain. In in vitro studies, the use of well-characterized, relevant cell types and the appropriate composition of the culture media are necessary for proper conduct and interpretation. CGN is bound to media protein and not freely accessible to cells in vitro. Interpretation of new studies on food additives should consider the interaction of food additives with the vehicle components and the appropriateness of the animal or cell model and dose-response. PMID:26615870

  18. Cheese peptidomics: a detailed study on the evolution of the oligopeptide fraction in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from curd to 24 months of aging.

    PubMed

    Sforza, S; Cavatorta, V; Lambertini, F; Galaverna, G; Dossena, A; Marchelli, R

    2012-07-01

    In this work, we performed a detailed evaluation of the evolution of the oligopeptide fractions in samples of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese from the curd up to 24 mo of aging. The samples were taken from wheels produced the same day, in the same factory, from the same milk, during the same caseification process, thus simplifying the natural variability of a whey-based starter fermentation. This unique and homogeneous sampling plan, never reported before in the literature, provided a detailed study of the peptides produced by enzymatic events during Parmigiano-Reggiano aging. Given the large dimensions of the 35-kg wheels of Parmigiano-Reggiano, samples were taken from both the internal and external parts of the cheese, to evidence eventual differences in the oligopeptide composition of the different parts. Fifty-seven peptides were considered, being among the most abundant during at least one of the periods of ripening considered, and their semiquantification indicated that the peptide fraction of Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese constantly evolves during the aging period. Five trends in its evolution were outlined, which could be clearly correlated to the enzymatic activities present in the cheese, making it possible to discriminate cheeses according to their aging time. Several known bioactive peptides were also found to be present in Parmigiano-Reggiano cheese samples, and for the first time, the age at which they are most abundant has been identified. Aged cheeses have been shown to be dominated by nonproteolytic aminoacyl derivatives, a new class of peptide-like molecules recently reported. Finally, the changing peptide pattern may be related to the changing enzymatic activities occurring inside the cheeses during the aging period, which, in turn, are also related to the microbiological composition. PMID:22720910

  19. Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Horizontal Cross Bracing Detail, Vertical Cross Bracing Detail, Horizontal Cross Bracing Joint, Vertical Cross Bracing End Detail - Ceylon Covered Bridge, Limberlost Park, spanning Wabash River at County Road 900 South, Geneva, Adams County, IN

  20. Early Additional Immune-Modulators for Mycoplasma pneumoniae Pneumonia in Children: An Observation Study

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sung-Churl; Rhim, Jung-Woo; Shin, Myung-Seok; Kang, Jin-Han

    2014-01-01

    Background Mycoplasma pneumoniae (MP) pneumonia is a self-limiting disease, but some patients complain of progressive pneumonia, despite of appropriate antibiotic treatment. We aimed to introduce the role of immune-modulators (corticosteroid and/or intravenous immunoglobulin, IVIG) treatment for childhood MP pneumonia based on previous our experiences. Materials and Methods A retrospective case series analysis for 183 children with MP pneumonia was performed. MP pneumonia patients were diagnosed by two Immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests: the micro-particle agglutination method (≥1:40) and the cold agglutination test (≥1:4), and were examined twice at the initial admission and at discharge. Among 183 MP pneumonia patients, 90 patients with persistent fever for over 48 hours after admission or those with severe respiratory symptoms and signs received additional prednisolone (82 patients, 1 mg/kg/day) or intravenous methylprednisolone (8 patients, 5-10 mg/kg/day) with antibiotics. Four patients with aggravated clinical symptoms and chest radiographic findings after corticosteroid treatment received IVIG (1 g/kg/day, 1-2 doses). Results Mean age of 183 patients was 5.5 ± 3.2 years (6 months-15 years), and the male: female ratio was 1.1:1 (96:87). Fifty-seven patients (31%) were seroconverters and 126 seropositive patients showed increased diagnostic IgM antibody titres during admission (over 4 folds). The majority of the patients who received corticosteroids (86/90 cases) showed rapid defervescence within 48 hours with improved clinical symptoms, regardless of the used antibiotics. Also, 4 patients who received additional IVIG improved both clinically and radiographically within 2 days without adverse reaction. Conclusions In the era of macrolide-resistant MP strains, early additional immune-modulator therapy with antibiotics might prevent from the disease progression and reduce the disease morbidity without adverse reaction. PMID:25566403

  1. Strategic Petroleum Reserve (SPR) additional geologic site characterization studies, Bryan Mound Salt Dome, Texas

    SciTech Connect

    Neal, J.T.; Magorian, T.R.; Ahmad, S.

    1994-11-01

    This report revises the original report that was published in 1980. Some of the topics covered in the earlier report were provisional and it is now practicable to reexamine them using new or revised geotechnical data and that obtained from SPR cavern operations, which involves 16 new caverns. Revised structure maps and sections show interpretative differences as compared with the 1980 report and more definition in the dome shape and caprock structural contours, especially a major southeast-northwest trending anomalous zone. The original interpretation was of westward tilt of the dome, this revision shows a tilt to the southeast, consistent with other gravity and seismic data. This interpretation refines the evaluation of additional cavern space, by adding more salt buffer and allowing several more caverns. Additional storage space is constrained on this nearly full dome because of low-lying peripheral wetlands, but 60 MMBBL or more of additional volume could be gained in six or more new caverns. Subsidence values at Bryan Mound are among the lowest in the SPR system, averaging about 11 mm/yr (0.4 in/yr), but measurement and interpretation issues persist, as observed values are about the same as survey measurement accuracy. Periodic flooding is a continuing threat because of the coastal proximity and because peripheral portions of the site are at elevations less than 15 ft. This threat may increase slightly as future subsidence lowers the surface, but the amount is apt to be small. Caprock integrity may be affected by structural features, especially the faulting associated with anomalous zones. Injection wells have not been used extensively at Bryan Mound, but could be a practicable solution to future brine disposal needs. Environmental issues center on the areas of low elevation that are below 15 feet above mean sea level: the coastal proximity and lowland environment combined with the potential for flooding create conditions that require continuing surveillance.

  2. Brain Regions Involved in the Retrieval of Spatial and Episodic Details Associated with a Familiar Environment: An fMRI Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hirshhorn, Marnie; Grady, Cheryl; Rosenbaum, R. Shayna; Winocur, Gordon; Moscovitch, Morris

    2012-01-01

    Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) was used to compare brain activity during the retrieval of coarse- and fine-grained spatial details and episodic details associated with a familiar environment. Long-time Toronto residents compared pairs of landmarks based on their absolute geographic locations (requiring either coarse or fine…

  3. Exploring the Milky Way stellar disk. A detailed elemental abundance study of 714 F and G dwarf stars in the solar neighbourhood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bensby, T.; Feltzing, S.; Oey, M. S.

    2014-02-01

    Aims: The aim of this paper is to explore and map the age and abundance structure of the stars in the nearby Galactic disk. Methods: We have conducted a high-resolution spectroscopic study of 714 F and G dwarf and subgiant stars in the Solar neighbourhood. The star sample has been kinematically selected to trace the Galactic thin and thick disks to their extremes, the metal-rich stellar halo, sub-structures in velocity space such as the Hercules stream and the Arcturus moving group, as well as stars that cannot (kinematically) be associated with either the thin disk or the thick disk. The determination of stellar parameters and elemental abundances is based on a standard analysis using equivalent widths and one-dimensional, plane-parallel model atmospheres calculated under the assumption of local thermodynamical equilibrium (LTE). The spectra have high resolution (R = 40 000-110 000) and high signal-to-noise (S/N = 150-300) and were obtained with the FEROS spectrograph on the ESO 1.5 m and 2.2 m telescopes, the SOFIN and FIES spectrographs on the Nordic Optical Telescope, the UVES spectrograph on the ESO Very Large Telescope, the HARPS spectrograph on the ESO 3.6 m telescope, and the MIKE spectrograph on the Magellan Clay telescope. The abundances from individual Fe i lines were were corrected for non-LTE effects in every step of the analysis. Results: We present stellar parameters, stellar ages, kinematical parameters, orbital parameters, and detailed elemental abundances for O, Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, Cr, Fe, Ni, Zn, Y, and Ba for 714 nearby F and G dwarf stars. Our data show that there is an old and α-enhanced disk population, and a younger and less α-enhanced disk population. While they overlap greatly in metallicity between -0.7 < [Fe/H] ≲ +0.1, they show a bimodal distribution in [α/Fe]. This bimodality becomes even clearer if stars where stellar parameters and abundances show larger uncertainties (Teff ≲ 5400 K) are discarded, showing that it is

  4. roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail Chopawamsic Recreational ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    roof truss detail, historic strap hinge detail - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Main Arts and Crafts Lodge, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  5. double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    double hung window details, hall window details, entrance door profiles - Chopawamsic Recreational Demonstration Area - Cabin Camp 1, Help's Quarters, Prince William Forest Park, Triangle, Prince William County, VA

  6. The influence of bioaugmentation and biosurfactant addition on bioremediation efficiency of diesel-oil contaminated soil: feasibility during field studies.

    PubMed

    Szulc, Alicja; Ambrożewicz, Damian; Sydow, Mateusz; Ławniczak, Łukasz; Piotrowska-Cyplik, Agnieszka; Marecik, Roman; Chrzanowski, Łukasz

    2014-01-01

    The study focused on assessing the influence of bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids on diesel oil biodegradation efficiency during field studies. Initial laboratory studies (measurement of emitted CO2 and dehydrogenase activity) were carried out in order to select the consortium for bioaugmentation as well as to evaluate the most appropriate concentration of rhamnolipids. The selected consortium consisted of following bacterial taxa: Aeromonas hydrophila, Alcaligenes xylosoxidans, Gordonia sp., Pseudomonas fluorescens, Pseudomonas putida, Rhodococcus equi, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Xanthomonas sp. It was established that the application of rhamnolipids at 150 mg/kg of soil was most appropriate in terms of dehydrogenase activity. Based on the obtained results, four treatment methods were designed and tested during 365 days of field studies: I) natural attenuation; II) addition of rhamnolipids; III) bioaugmentation; IV) bioaugmentation and addition of rhamnolipids. It was observed that bioaugmentation contributed to the highest diesel oil biodegradation efficiency, whereas the addition of rhamnolipids did not notably influence the treatment process. PMID:24291585

  7. Kaolinite flocculation induced by smectite addition - a transmission X-ray microscopic study.

    PubMed

    Zbik, Marek S; Song, Yen-Fang; Frost, Ray L

    2010-09-01

    The influence of smectite addition on kaolinite suspensions in water was investigated by transmission X-ray microscopy (TXM) and Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Sedimentation test screening was also conducted. Micrographs were processed by the STatistic IMage Analysing (STIMAN) program and structural parameters were calculated. From the results of the sedimentation tests important influences of small smectite additions to about 3wt.% on kaolinite suspension flocculation has been found. In order to determine the reason for this smectite impact on kaolinite suspension, macroscopic behaviour micro-structural examination using Transmission X-ray Microscope (TXM) and SEM has been undertaken. TXM & SEM micrographs of freeze-dried kaolinite-smectite suspensions with up to 20% smectite showed a high degree of orientation of the fabric made of highly oriented particles and greatest density when 3wt.% of smectite was added to the 10wt.% dense kaolinite suspension. In contrast, suspensions containing pure kaolinite do not show such platelet mutual orientation but homogenous network of randomly oriented kaolinite platelets. This suggests that in kaolinite-smectite suspensions, smectite forms highly oriented basic framework into which kaolinite platelets may bond in face to face preferential contacts strengthening structure and allowing them to show plastic behaviour which is cause of platelets orientation. PMID:20621806

  8. Professional Competence Development of the Social Work Specialists in the Period of Study in the System of Additional Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Davletkaliev, Denis Kuanyshevich; Zueva, Natalia Konstantinovna; Lebedeva, Natalya Vasilevna; Mkrtumova, Irina Vladimirovna; Timofeeva, Olga

    2015-01-01

    The goal of this work is the study of psychological-pedagogical approaches to the understanding of the idea of professional competence of social work specialists as well as the role of study in the system of additional educations in professional-personal development of the listeners. In the process of study of this problem we define main…

  9. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    SciTech Connect

    Abdullah, Yusof Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Ahmad, Sahrim; Hamid, Roszilah; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-12

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  10. A study of the effects of an additional sound source on RASS performance

    SciTech Connect

    Coulter, R.L.

    1998-12-31

    The Southern Great Plains (SGP) Cloud and Radiation Testbed (CART) site of the Atmospheric Radiation Measurements (ARM) Program continuously operates a nine panel 915 MHz wind profiler with Radio Acoustic Sounding System (RASS), measuring wind profiles for 50 minutes and virtual temperature profiles for the remaining 10 minutes during each hour. It is well recognized that one of the principal limits on RASS performance is high horizontal wind speed that moves the acoustic wave front sufficiently to prevent the microwave energy produced by the radar and scattered from the acoustic wave from being reflected back t the radar antenna. With this limitation in mind, the ARM program purchased an additional, portable acoustic source that could be mounted on a small trailer and placed in strategic locations to enhance the RASS performance (when it was not being used for spare parts). A test of the resulting improvement in RASS performance was performed during the period 1995--1997.

  11. THERMODYNAMIC STUDY OF THE NICKEL ADDITION IN ZINC HOT-DIP GALVANIZING BATHS

    SciTech Connect

    Pistofidis, N.; Vourlias, G.

    2010-01-21

    A usual practice during zinc hot-dip galvanizing is the addition of nickel in the liquid zinc which is used to inhibit the Sandelin effect. Its action is due to the fact that the zeta(zeta) phase of the Fe-Zn system is replaced by the TAU(tau) phase of the Fe-Zn-Ni system. In the present work an attempt is made to explain the formation of the TAU phase with thermodynamics. For this reason the Gibbs free energy changes for TAU and zeta phases were calculated. The excess free energy for the system was calculated with the Redlich-Kister polyonyme. From this calculation it was deduced that the Gibbs energy change for the tau phase is negative. As a result its formation is spontaneous.

  12. Preliminary study of neutron absorption by concrete with boron carbide addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abdullah, Yusof; Ariffin, Fatin Nabilah Tajul; Hamid, Roszilah; Yusof, Mohd Reusmaazran; Zali, Nurazila Mat; Ahmad, Megat Harun Al Rashid Megat; Yazid, Hafizal; Ahmad, Sahrim; Mohamed, Abdul Aziz

    2014-02-01

    Concrete has become a conventional material in construction of nuclear reactor due to its properties like safety and low cost. Boron carbide was added as additives in the concrete construction as it has a good neutron absorption property. The sample preparation for concrete was produced with different weight percent of boron carbide powder content. The neutron absorption rate of these samples was determined by using a fast neutron source of Americium-241/Be (Am-Be 241) and detection with a portable backscattering neutron detector. Concrete with 20 wt % of boron carbide shows the lowest count of neutron transmitted and this indicates the most neutrons have been absorbed by the concrete. Higher boron carbide content may affect the concrete strength and other properties.

  13. Sulphur diffusion in β-NiAl and effect of Pt additive: an ab initio study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Kuiying

    2016-02-01

    Diffusivities of detrimental impurity sulfur (S) in stoichiometric and Pt doped β-NiAl were evaluated using density functional theory calculations. The apparent activation energy and the pre-exponential factor of diffusivity via the next nearest neighbour (NNN) and interstitial jumps were evaluated to identify possible preferred diffusion mechanism(s). By calculating the electron localization function (ELF), the bonding characteristics of S with its surrounding atoms were assessed for the diffusion process. By comparison with the experimental results, the S diffusion through the NNN vacancy-mediated mechanism is found to be favoured. Addition of Pt in β-NiAl was found to significantly reduce the S diffusivity, and an associated electronic effect was explored. The elucidation of the above mechanisms may shed light on the development of new Pt-modified doped β-NiAl bond coats that can extend the life of oxidation resistant and thermal barrier coatings.

  14. "PACS Efficiency : A Detailed Quantitative Study Of The Distribution Process Of Films In A Clinical Environment In The Utrecht University Hospital"

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    ter Haar Romeny, B. M.; van der Wielen, J. M. M.; Achterberg, A. J.; Barneveld Binkhuysen, F. H.; Zuiderveld, K. J.; Andriessen, J. H. T. H.; Bakker, A. R.

    1989-05-01

    One of the goals of the Dutch PACS-project (a collaborative effort of the Utrecht University Hospital (UUH), Philips Medical Systems and BAZIS Central Development and Support Group Hospital Information Systems) is to perform a clinical evaluation and equipment testing at the UUH. In earlier publications a setup for this clinical evaluation is presented. A target ward, a subdivision of the department of Internal Medicine (IM) with a total number of 15 beds, is selected to be treated fully digital. Two other wards, similar to the target ward, were not digitally treated and served as control group. To exploit the efficiency potential of PACS, a comparison will be made between current procedures and PACS procedures. From February 1st until June 1st 1988, a detailed timing and logistic study of examinations and folder tracking has been carried out for all patients of the 3 wards of Internal Medicine, mentioned above. The first part of the study regarding the conventional distribution process is now completed. For this purpose time-registration forms were added to the patients application-forms for radiological examinations. These forms were required to be filled in by all personnel involved (receptionist, archive, technologist, radiologist, etc.). A total number of 500 usable time-registration forms were gathered. One of the results, indicated that the mean time interval for examinations to cover the total conventional distribu-tion process comes to 53.9 hours. An analysis of the number of disturbances in the conventional distribution process indicated that in 24.1 % of all examinations, some exponent was lacking (missing, loaned, delayed, etc.). These disturbances are analyzed in relation to time-intervals. Data were analyzed statistically by means of the SPSS statistical package. This paper describes and explains in detail: - frequencies and means of the total distribution time and different parts of the current distribution process - total number of disturbances in

  15. Sensitization to Food Additives in Patients with Allergy: A Study Based on Skin Test and Open Oral Challenge.

    PubMed

    Moghtaderi, Mozhgan; Hejrati, Zinatosadat; Dehghani, Zahra; Dehghani, Faranak; Kolahi, Niloofar

    2016-06-01

    There has been a great increase in the consumption of various food additives in recent years. The purpose of this study was to identify the incidence of sensitization to food additives by using skin prick test in patients with allergy and to determine the concordance rate between positive skin tests and oral challenge in hypersensitivity to additives. This cross-sectional study included 125 (female 71, male 54) patients aged 2-76 years with allergy and 100 healthy individuals. Skin tests were performed in both patient and control groups with 25 fresh food additives. Among patients with allergy, 22.4% showed positive skin test at least to one of the applied materials. Skin test was negative to all tested food additives in control group. Oral food challenge was done in 28 patients with positive skin test, in whom 9 patients showed reaction to culprit (Concordance rate=32.1%). The present study suggested that about one-third of allergic patients with positive reaction to food additives showed positive oral challenge; it may be considered the potential utility of skin test to identify the role of food additives in patients with allergy. PMID:27424134

  16. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  17. Spectroscopic Evidence for Covalent Binding of Sulfadiazine to Natural Soils via 1,4-nucleophilic addition (Michael Type Addition) studied by Spin Labeling ESR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, Olga

    2015-04-01

    Among different classes of veterinary pharmaceuticals, Sulfadiazine (SDZ) is widely used in animal husbandry. Its residues were detected in different environmental compartments. However, soil is a hot spot for SDZ as it receives a large portion of excreted compounds through the application of manure during soil fertilization. Ample studies on the fate of SDZ in soils showed that a large portion forms nonextractable residues (NER) along with transformation products and a low mineralization (Mueller et al., 2013). A common observation was an initially fast formation of NER up to 10% of the applied amount promptly after the application of SDZ to soil, and this portion increased up to 50% within a few days (Mueller et al., 2013; Nowak et al., 2011). A common finding for SDZ, as for other sulfonamides, was biphasic kinetics of the formation of NER, which was attributed to the occurrence of two reaction processes: a rapid, often reversible process and a slower, irreversible process (Weber et al., 1996). A single-phase reaction process was also established under anaerobic treatment (Gulkowska et al., 2014). A major focus of this work is to elucidate a reaction mechanism of covalent binding of SDZ to soil that is currently required to estimate a risk of NER formed by SDZ in soils for human health. Taking into account a key role of the amine functional groups of SDZ on its reactivity in soil, nitroxide radicals with the sewed aromatic or aliphatic amines labeled soil samples and then, were investigated by means of ESR spectroscopy. 2,5,5-Trimethyl-2-(3-aminophenyl)pyrrolidin-1-yloxy and 4-amino-2,2,6,6-Tetramethylpiperidin-1-oxyl modeled decomposition products of SDZ with the aromatic and aliphatic amines, respectively. The application of the defined combination of both spin labels (SL) to different soils well simulated a change of a paramagnetic signal of soil organic radicals interacted with SDZ. After their application to soil, SL were found in soil sites characterized

  18. Te Rita Papesch: Case Study of an Exemplary Learner of Maori as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ratima, Matiu Tai; Papesch, Te Rita

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a case study of the life experiences of one exemplar adult second language Maori learner--Te Rita Papesch. Te Rita was one of 17 participants who were interviewed as a part of the first author's PhD study which sought to answer the question: what factors lead to the development of proficiency in te reo Maori amongst adult…

  19. Study of NiO cathode modified by ZnO additive for MCFC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Bo; Li, Fei; Yu, Qing-chun; Chen, Gang; Zhao, Bin-yuan; Hu, Ke-ao

    The preparation and subsequent oxidation of nickel cathodes modified by impregnation with zinc oxide (ZnO) were evaluated by surface and bulk analysis. The electrochemical behaviors of ZnO impregnated NiO cathodes was also evaluated in a molten 62 mol% Li 2CO 3 + 38 mol% K 2CO 3 eutectic at 650 °C by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) as a function of ZnO content and immersion time. The ZnO impregnated nickel cathodes showed the similar porosity, pore size distribution and morphology to the reference nickel cathode. The stability tests of ZnO impregnated NiO cathodes showed that the ZnO additive could dramatically reduce the solubility of NiO in a eutectic carbonate mixture under the standard cathode gas condition. The impedance spectra for cathode materials show important variations during the 100 h of immersion. The incorporation of lithium in its structure and the low dissolution of nickel oxide and zinc oxide are responsible of these changes. After that, the structure reaches a stable state. The cathode material having 2 mol% of ZnO showed a very low dissolution and a good catalytic efficiency close to the NiO value. We thought that 2 mol% ZnO/NiO materials would be able to adapt as alternative cathode materials for MCFCs.

  20. Generalized linear and generalized additive models in studies of species distributions: Setting the scene

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Guisan, A.; Edwards, T.C., Jr.; Hastie, T.

    2002-01-01

    An important statistical development of the last 30 years has been the advance in regression analysis provided by generalized linear models (GLMs) and generalized additive models (GAMs). Here we introduce a series of papers prepared within the framework of an international workshop entitled: Advances in GLMs/GAMs modeling: from species distribution to environmental management, held in Riederalp, Switzerland, 6-11 August 2001. We first discuss some general uses of statistical models in ecology, as well as provide a short review of several key examples of the use of GLMs and GAMs in ecological modeling efforts. We next present an overview of GLMs and GAMs, and discuss some of their related statistics used for predictor selection, model diagnostics, and evaluation. Included is a discussion of several new approaches applicable to GLMs and GAMs, such as ridge regression, an alternative to stepwise selection of predictors, and methods for the identification of interactions by a combined use of regression trees and several other approaches. We close with an overview of the papers and how we feel they advance our understanding of their application to ecological modeling. ?? 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Chromosome studies in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: A brief review with additional records

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Myanmar (Burma) constitutes a significant component of the Indo-Myanmar biodiversity hotspot, with elements of the Indian, the Indochina, and the Sino-Japanese floristic regions, yet thus far only a few reliable sources of the country's flora have been available. As a part of a contribution for the floristic inventory of Myanmar, since it is important in a floristic survey to obtain as much information as possible, in addition to previous two reports, here we present three more chromosome counts in the aquatic monocots of Myanmar: Limnocharis flava with 2n = 20, Sagittaria trifolia with 2n = 22 (Alismataceae), and Potamogeton distinctus × Potamogeton nodosus with 2n = 52 (Potamogetonaceae); the third one is new to science. A brief review of cytological researches in the floristic regions' 45 non-hybrid aquatic monocots plus well investigated two inter-specific hybrids that are recorded in Myanmar is given, indicating that the further works with a focus on species in Myanmar that has infra-specific chromosome variation in the floristic regions will address the precise evolutionary history of the aquatic flora of Myanmar. PMID:24891826

  2. Exploratory studies of extended storage of apheresis platelets in a platelet additive solution (PAS).

    PubMed

    Slichter, Sherrill J; Corson, Jill; Jones, Mary Kay; Christoffel, Todd; Pellham, Esther; Bailey, S Lawrence; Bolgiano, Doug

    2014-01-01

    To evaluate the poststorage viability of apheresis platelets stored for up to 18 days in 80% platelet additive solution (PAS)/20% plasma, 117 healthy subjects donated platelets using the Haemonetics MCS+, COBE Spectra (Spectra), or Trima Accel (Trima) systems. Control platelets from the same subjects were compared with their stored test PAS platelets by radiolabeling their stored and control platelets with either (51)chromium or (111)indium. Trima platelets met Food and Drug Administration poststorage platelet viability criteria for only 7 days vs almost 13 days for Haemonetics platelets; ie, platelet recoveries after these storage times averaged 44 ± 3% vs 49 ± 3% and survivals were 5.4 ± 0.3 vs 4.6 ± 0.3 days, respectively. The differences in storage duration are likely related to both the collection system and the storage bag. The Spectra and Trima platelets were hyperconcentrated during collection, and PAS was added, whereas the Haemonetics platelets were elutriated with PAS, which may have resulted in less collection injury. When Spectra and Trima platelets were stored in Haemonetics' bags, poststorage viability was significantly improved. Platelet viability is better maintained in vitro than in vivo, allowing substantial increases in platelet storage times. However, implementation will require resolution of potential bacterial overgrowth during storage. PMID:24258816

  3. A detailed radiation heat transfer study of a dish-Stirling receiver: The impact of cavity wall radiation properties and cavity shapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garrido, Jorge; Wang, Wujun; Nilsson, Martin; Laumert, Björn

    2016-05-01

    A detailed 3-D radiation analysis of a dish-Stirling cavity receiver is carried out to estimate the cavity steady-state temperatures in order to assess the receiver integrity, lifetime and efficiency performance. For this purpose, a parabolic dish was modeled with 5.2 m focal length, 8.85 m aperture diameter and 2 mrad surface error. Three generic cavity shapes (cylindrical, diamond-shaped and reverse-conical) with three different emissivities (0.2, 0.4 and 0.7) are studied. Worst-case scenario heat generations (total absorbed radiation), maximum steady-state temperatures and energy balances of the cavities are calculated to evaluate the receiver performance. The results show that reverse-conical cavities can significantly reduce cavity wall peak temperatures (by 40-120 K), improve the temperature evenness and decrease the radiation losses by 4-5%. Regarding radiation properties, low reflectivities present lower steady-state temperatures even for low/moderate direct solar fluxes. Due to the lower temperatures, lower total thermal losses are also expected.

  4. Theoretical Study of L-Edge Resonant Inelastic X-ray Scattering in La2CuO4 on the Basis of Detailed Electronic Band Structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nomura, Takuji

    2015-09-01

    We study theoretically resonant inelastic x-ray scattering (RIXS) at the Cu L3-edge in a typical parent compound of high-Tc cuprate superconductors La2CuO4 on the basis of a detailed electronic band structure. We construct a realistic and precise tight-binding model by employing the maximally-localized Wannier functions derived from a first-principles electronic structure calculation, and then take account of the Coulomb repulsion between d electrons at each Cu site. The antiferromagnetic ground state is described within the Hartree-Fock approximation, and take account of electron correlations in the intermediate states of RIXS within the random-phase approximation (RPA). Calculated RIXS spectra agree well with the experimentally observed features including low-energy magnon excitation, d-d excitations, and charge-transfer excitations, over a wide excitation-energy range. In particular, we stress the importance of photon polarization dependence: the intensity of magnon excitation and the spectral structure of d-d excitations depend significantly not only on the polarization direction of incident incoming photons but also that of outgoing photons. It is demonstrated that the single-magnon excitation intensity is maximized when the polarization directions of incoming and outgoing photons are perpendicular to each other.

  5. Detailed study of water quality, bottom sediment, and biota associated with irrigation drainage in the Salton Sea area, California, 1988-90

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Setmire, J.G.; Schroeder, R.A.; Densmore, J.N.; Goodbred, S.O.; Audet, D.J.; Radke, W.R.

    1993-01-01

    Results of a detailed study by the National Irrigation Water-Quality Program (NIWQP), U.S. Department of the Interior, indicate that factors controlling contaminant concentrations in subsurface irrigation drainwater in the Imperial Valley are soil characteristics, hydrology, and agricultural practices. Higher contaminant concentrations commonly were associated with clayey soils, which retard the movement of irrigation water and thus increase the degree of evaporative concentration. Regression of hydrogen- and oxygen-isotope ratios in samples collected from sumps yields a linear drainwater evaporation line that extrapolates through the isotopic composition of Colorado River water, thus demonstrating that Colorado River water is the sole source of subsurface drainwater in the Imperial Valley. Ratios of selenium to chloride indicate that selenium present in subsurface drainwater throughout the Imperial Valley originates from the Colorado River. The selenium load discharged to the Salton Sea from the Alamo River, the largest contributor, is about 6.5 tons/yr. Biological sampling and analysis showed that drainwater contaminants, including selenium, boron, and DDE, are accumulating in tissues of migratory and resident birds that use food sources in the Imperial Valley and the Salton Sea. Selenium concentration in fish-eating birds, shorebirds, and the endangered Yuma clapper rail were at levels that could affect reproduction. Boron concentrations in migratory waterfowl and resident shorebirds were at levels that potentially could cause reduced growth in young. As a result of DDE contamination of food sources, waterfowl and fish-eating birds in the Imperial Valley may be experiencing reproductive impairment.

  6. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Klamath Basin, California and Oregon, 1990-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    MacCoy, D.E.

    1994-01-01

    Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected between 1990 and 1992 as part of a detailed study by the U.S. Department of Interior of the effects of irrigation drainage on aquatic resources in the Klamath Basin of California and Oregon. Most of the sites for data collection were in and around the upper and lower sump of Tule Lake, in the Tule Lake National Wildlife Refuge, and along major drains in Lower Klamath National Wildlife Refuge. The physical and chemical data consist of particle-size determinations and concentrations of carbon, mercury, arsenic, chlorophenoxy acid, and organochlorine, organophosphate, and carbamate pesticides in bottom sediment; and concentrations of organophosphate, carbamate, and pyrethroid pesticides, major and trace inorganic constituents, nitrogen, phosphorus, and organic carbon in water. Continuous dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conduc- tance, and temperature data from selected sites in 1991 and 1992 are presented in graphical form to summarize the diel water-quality conditions. The biological data consists of concentrations of inorganic constituents and organochlorine pesticides in tissue, invertebrate and fish population surveys, fish health surveys, frog call surveys, egg shell thickness of avian eggs, and in situ and static toxicity bioassay data collected in 1991 and 1992 using aquatic bacteria, plants, invertebrates, fish, and bird species as test organisms.

  7. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  8. Voice measures of workload in the advanced flight deck: Additional studies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schneider, Sid J.; Alpert, Murray

    1989-01-01

    These studies investigated acoustical analysis of the voice as a measure of workload in individual operators. In the first study, voice samples were recorded from a single operator during high, medium, and low workload conditions. Mean amplitude, frequency, syllable duration, and emphasis all tended to increase as workload increased. In the second study, NASA test pilots performed a laboratory task, and used a flight simulator under differing work conditions. For two of the pilots, high workload in the simulator brought about greater amplitude, peak duration, and stress. In both the laboratory and simulator tasks, high workload tended to be associated with more statistically significant drop-offs in the acoustical measures than were lower workload levels. There was a great deal of intra-subject variability in the acoustical measures. The results suggested that in individual operators, increased workload might be revealed by high initial amplitude and frequency, followed by rapid drop-offs over time.

  9. Additional Study of Water Droplet Median Volume Diameter (MVD) Effects on Ice Shapes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tsao, Jen-Ching; Anderson, David N.

    2005-01-01

    This paper reports the result of an experimental study in the NASA Glenn Icing Research Tunnel (IRT) to evaluate how well the MVD-independent effect identified previously might apply to SLD conditions in rime icing situations. Models were NACA 0012 wing sections with chords of 53.3 and 91.4 cm. Tests were conducted with a nominal airspeed of 77 m/s (150 kt) and a number of MVD's ranging from 15 to 100 m with LWC of 0.5 to 1 g/cu m. In the present study, ice shapes recorded from past studies and recent results at SLD and Appendix-C conditions are reviewed to show that droplet diameter is not important to rime ice shape for MVD of 30 microns or larger, but for less than 30 m drop sizes a rime ice shape transition from convex to wedge to spearhead type ice shape is observed.

  10. Study on Type C Coal Fly ash as an Additive to Molding Sand for Steel Casting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palaniappan, Jayanthi

    2016-05-01

    Study of physio-chemical properties studies such as granulometric analysis, moisture, X ray fluorescence etc. were performed with Type C coal—combustion fly ash to investigate their potential as a distinct option for molding sand in foundry, thereby reducing the dependency on latter. Technological properties study such as compressive strength, tensile strength, permeability and compaction of various compositions of fly ash molding sand (10, 20 and 30 % fly ash substitute to chemically bonded sand) were performed and compared with silica molding sand. Steel casting production using this fly ash molding sand was done and the casting surface finish and typical casting parameters were assessed. It was noted that a good quality steel casting could be produced using type C fly ash molding sand, which effectively replaced 20 % of traditional molding sand and binders thereby providing greater financial profits to the foundry and an effective way of fly ash utilization (waste management).

  11. In situ vitrification and the effects of soil additives; A mixture experiment case study

    SciTech Connect

    Piepel, G.F.; Shade, J.W. )

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents a case study involving in situ vitrification (ISV), a process for immobilizing chemical or nuclear wastes in soil by melting-dissolving the contaminated soil into a glass block. One goal of the study was to investigate how viscosity and electrical conductivity were affected by mixing CaO and Na{sub 2}O with soil. A three-component constrained-region mixture experiment design was generated and the viscosity and electrical conductivity data collected. Several second-order mixture models were considered, and the Box-Cox transformation technique was applied to select property transformations. The fitted models were used to produce contour and component effects plots.

  12. A review of approaches to the study of turbulence modification by means of non-Newtonian additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vlassopoulos, Dimitris; Schowalter, William R.

    1987-12-01

    The addition of small amounts of polymers to Newtonian liquids under conditions of turbulent flow results in substantial reduction of skin friction. This phenomenon has been observed experimentally. It can be attributed to the unusual behavior of dilute polymer solutions in turbulent flows. A condensed review of topics relevent to theoretical study of drag reduction by non-Newtonian additives is presented. In addition, the techniques and results of experimental investigations of this phenomenon are examined. It is proposed that dilute solutions of polymers or surfactants can be rheologically characterized by measuring the secondary flow characteristics that occur in the neighborhood of an oscillating cylinder. Plans for conducting these measurements are presented.

  13. A Study of the Effect of Additional Reading Assistance on Student Achievement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gillan-Sanderson, Nicole A.

    2012-01-01

    This study describes a procedure one school district used to increase students' reading abilities through reviewing data and adjusting the instruction to give students intensive services, as needed. This school worked in a problem-solving team approach to develop a comprehensive team that followed the progression of student achievement.…

  14. Genome-Wide Association Study of Intelligence: Additive Effects of Novel Brain Expressed Genes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loo, Sandra K.; Shtir, Corina; Doyle, Alysa E.; Mick, Eric; McGough, James J.; McCracken, James; Biederman, Joseph; Smalley, Susan L.; Cantor, Rita M.; Faraone, Stephen V.; Nelson, Stanley F.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: The purpose of the present study was to identify common genetic variants that are associated with human intelligence or general cognitive ability. Method: We performed a genome-wide association analysis with a dense set of 1 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and quantitative intelligence scores within an ancestrally…

  15. Nahuatl as a Classical, Foreign, and Additional Language: A Phenomenological Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Felice, Dustin

    2012-01-01

    In this study, participants learning an endangered language variety shared their experiences, thoughts, and feelings about the often complex and diverse language-learning process. I used phenomenological interviews in order to learn more about these English or Spanish language speakers' journey with the Nahuatl language. From first encounter to…

  16. CNV-based genome wide association study reveals additional variants contributing to meat quality in swine

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Pork quality is important both to the meat processing industry and consumers’ purchasing attitudes. Copy number variation (CNV) is a burgeoning kind of variant that may influence meat quality. Herein, a genome-wide association study (GWAS) was performed between CNVs and meat quality traits in swine....

  17. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  18. Thermal analysis studies of Ge additive of Se-Te glasses

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohamed, M.; Abdel-Rahim, M. A.

    2016-04-01

    Ge x Se50Te50- x ( x = 5, 15, 20, 35 at.%) bulk glasses were synthesized by the melt quenching method. The amorphous nature of the investigated glasses was determined by X-ray diffraction. Results of differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) of the studied compositions under non-isothermal conditions were reported and discussed. The glass transition temperature ( T g), onset crystallization temperature ( T c), and crystallization peak temperature ( T p) were determined from DSC traces at different heating rates. It was found that the values of T g, T c, and T p rely on both composition and heating rate. A double crystallization stages were observed in the DSC results. Various kinetics parameters such as the glass transition energy ( E g), crystallization activation energy ( E c), and rate constant ( K p) were calculated. The glass-forming ability of the studied compositions was discussed as function of the determined kinetics parameters.

  19. Comparative study of glycine single crystals with additive of potassium nitrate in different concentration ratios

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujarati, Vivek P.; Deshpande, M. P.; Patel, Kamakshi R.; Chaki, S. H.

    2016-05-01

    Semi-organic crystals of Glycine Potassium Nitrate (GPN) with potential applications in Non linear optics (NLO) were grown using slow evaporation technique. Glycine and Potassium Nitrate were taken in three different concentration ratios of 3:1, 2:1 and 1:1 respectively. We checked the solubility of the material in distilled water at different temperatures and could observe the growth of crystals in 7 weeks time. Purity of the grown crystals was confirmed by Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis (EDAX) and CHN analysis. GSN Powder X-ray diffraction pattern was recorded to confirm the crystalline nature. To confirm the applications of grown crystals in opto-electronics field, UV-Vis-NIR study was carried out. Dielectric properties of the samples were studied in between the frequency range 1Hz to 100 KHz.

  20. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Riegel Dam, Trion, Georgia

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-10

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Riegel Dam near Trion, Georgia for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 17 ft., was built in 1900 for supplying hydroelectric power for a textile mill, and currently provides cooling water to the mill. The study of environmental, institutional, safety and economic factors showed that hydroelectric power development at this site would require new generating equipment and that such retrofitting appears to be economically feasible. (LCL)

  1. Brief reconnaissance study for the addition of hydropower for Carr Fork Dam, Sassafras, Kentucky

    SciTech Connect

    Gebhard, T.G. Jr.

    1982-05-24

    The feasibility of retrofitting the Carr Fork Dam near Hazard, KY for power generation was examined. This dam has a developable head of 80 ft and was built in 1975 to provide flood protection. The study of environmental, institutional, safety, and economic factors showed that the total investment cost would be $909,600 and that hydroelectric power development at this site is not feasible unless a higher price could be obtained for the power sold. (LCL)

  2. A clinical comparative study of Cadiax Compact II and intraoral records using wax and addition silicone.

    PubMed

    Torabi, Kianoosh; Pour, Sasan Rasaei; Ahangari, Ahmad Hassan; Ghodsi, Safoura

    2014-01-01

    Evaluation of mandibular movements is necessary to form the occlusal anatomical contour, analyze the temporomandibular joint status, and evaluate the patient's occlusion. This clinical study was conducted to compare the mandibular recording device Cadiax Compact II with routine intraoral records for measuring condylar inclinations. The results showed that the differences between Cadiax and intraoral records were statistically significant for all measurements. Cadiax measurements had a stronger correlation with silicone records. The quantities of recorded Bennett angles were lower and the values of sagittal condylar inclination were higher with Cadiax than with routine intraoral records. PMID:25390868

  3. [Chewing gum as an additional agent in maintaining oral hygiene versus smoking status--preliminary study].

    PubMed

    Nakonieczna-Rudnicka, Marta; Strycharz-Dudziak, Małgorzata; Bachanek, Teresa

    2012-01-01

    Nowadays chewing gum is widely used in different age groups, so complying with proper duration and frequency of chewing is an important factor influencing the state of masticatory system. The study involved 112 dental students of the Medical University of Lublin. Everyday use of chewing gum declared 47,32% of cases. Chewing time up to 10 minutes was stated in 23,08% of respondents, 11-20 minutes in 40,38% of interviewees. Among the examined students 17,3% smoked cigarettes. In smokers group 83,33% of questioned chewed the gum every day, while among non-smokers - 43,37%. Chewing time shorter than 10 minutes declared 22,22% of smokers and 23,26% of non-smokers, while chewing time between 11-20 minutes - 27,78% i 44,35% of smokers and non-smokers respectively. Obtained results indicate the need of carrying out further studies aimed at the nicotine influence on saliva parameters with respect to development of diseases of hard tooth tissues. PMID:23421028

  4. Study on the interaction of the toxic food additive carmoisine with serum albumins: a microcalorimetric investigation.

    PubMed

    Basu, Anirban; Kumar, Gopinatha Suresh

    2014-05-30

    The interaction of the synthetic azo dye and food colorant carmoisine with human and bovine serum albumins was studied by microcalorimetric techniques. A complete thermodynamic profile of the interaction was obtained from isothermal titration calorimetry studies. The equilibrium constant of the complexation process was of the order of 10(6)M(-1) and the binding stoichiometry was found to be 1:1 with both the serum albumins. The binding was driven by negative standard molar enthalpy and positive standard molar entropy contributions. The binding affinity was lower at higher salt concentrations in both cases but the same was dominated by mostly non-electrostatic forces at all salt concentrations. The polyelectrolytic forces contributed only 5-8% of the total standard molar Gibbs energy change. The standard molar enthalpy change enhanced whereas the standard molar entropic contribution decreased with rise in temperature but they compensated each other to keep the standard molar Gibbs energy change almost invariant. The negative standard molar heat capacity values suggested the involvement of a significant hydrophobic contribution in the complexation process. Besides, enthalpy-entropy compensation phenomenon was also observed in both the systems. The thermal stability of the serum proteins was found to be remarkably enhanced on binding to carmoisine. PMID:24742664

  5. Combined ab initio molecular dynamics and experimental studies of carbon atom addition to benzene.

    PubMed

    McKee, Michael L; Reisenauer, Hans Peter; Schreiner, Peter R

    2014-04-17

    Car-Parrinello molecular dynamics was used to explore the reactions between triplet and singlet carbon atoms with benzene. The computations reveal that, in the singlet C atom reaction, products are very exothermic where nearly every collision yields a product that is determined by the initial encounter geometry. The singlet C atom reaction does not follow the minimum energy path because the bimolecular reaction is controlled by dynamics (i.e., initial orientation of encounter). On the other hand, in a 10 K solid Ar matrix, ground state C((3)P) atoms do tend to follow RRKM kinetics. Thus, ab initio molecular dynamics (AIMD) results indicate that a significant fraction of C-H insertion occurs to form phenylcarbene whereas, in marked contrast to previous theoretical and experimental conclusions, the Ar matrix isolation studies indicate a large fraction of direct cycloheptatetraene formation, without the intermediacy of phenylcarbene. The AIMD calculations are more consistent with vaporized carbon atom experiments where labeling studies indicate the initial formation of phenylcarbene. This underlines that the availability of thermodynamic sinks can completely alter the observed reaction dynamics. PMID:24661002

  6. Shelf Life and Quality Study of Minced Tilapia with Nori and Hijiki Seaweeds as Natural Additives

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  7. Shelf life and quality study of minced tilapia with Nori and Hijiki seaweeds as natural additives.

    PubMed

    Ribeiro, Ingridy Simone; Shirahigue, Ligianne Din; Ferraz de Arruda Sucasas, Lia; Anbe, Lika; da Cruz, Pedro Gomes; Gallo, Cláudio Rosa; Carpes, Solange Teresinha; Marques, Marcos José; Oetterer, Marília

    2014-01-01

    The extraction of mechanically separated meat has emerged as an attractive process. However, it increases the incorporation of oxygen and, consequently, of flavors due to rancidity. Thus, preservatives must be added. The objective of this study was to evaluate the shelf life of minced tilapia to replace synthetic preservatives with Hijiki and Nori seaweeds extracts. The application of the extracts had no effect on the chemical composition of the minced tilapia. The seaweed extracts had inhibitory effect on total volatile base nitrogen. The minced tilapia complied with the microbiological standard set by Brazilin law. The panelists detected no differences in the rancid aroma and only minor differences were detected in the color of the products. It can be concluded that the minced tilapia with added seaweed extracts were within quality standards during frozen storage. PMID:25478593

  8. l-carnitine as a Potential Additive in Blood Storage Solutions: A Study on Erythrocytes.

    PubMed

    Soumya, R; Carl, H; Vani, R

    2016-09-01

    Erythrocytes undergo various changes during storage (storage lesion) that in turn reduces their functioning and survival. Oxidative stress plays a major role in the storage lesion and antioxidants can be used to combat this stress. This study elucidates the effects of l-carnitine (LC) on erythrocytes of stored blood. Blood was obtained from male Wistar rats and stored (4 °C) for 20 days in CPDA-1 (citrate phosphate dextrose adenine) solution. Samples were divided into-(i) controls (ii) LC 10 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 10 mM) (iii) LC 30 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 30 mM) and (iv) LC 60 (l-carnitine at a concentration of 60 mM). Every fifth day, the biomarkers (haemoglobin, hemolysis, antioxidant enzymes, lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation products) were analysed in erythrocytes. Hemoglobin and protein sulfhydryls were insignificant during storage indicative of the maintenance of hemoglobin and sulfhydryls in all groups. Superoxide dismutase and malondialdehyde levels increased initially and decreased towards the end of storage. The levels of catalase and glutathione peroxidase were lower in experimentals than controls during storage. l-carnitine assisted the enzymes by scavenging the reactive oxygen species produced. Hemolysis increased in all groups with storage, elucidating that l-carnitine could not completely protect lipids and proteins from oxidative stress. Hence, this study opens up new avenues of using l-carnitine as a component of storage solutions with combinations of antioxidants in order to maintain efficacy of erythrocytes. PMID:27429526

  9. Biological effect of food additive titanium dioxide nanoparticles on intestine: an in vitro study.

    PubMed

    Song, Zheng-Mei; Chen, Ni; Liu, Jia-Hui; Tang, Huan; Deng, Xiaoyong; Xi, Wen-Song; Han, Kai; Cao, Aoneng; Liu, Yuanfang; Wang, Haifang

    2015-10-01

    Titanium dioxide nanoparticles (TiO2 NPs) are widely found in food-related consumer products. Understanding the effect of TiO2 NPs on the intestinal barrier and absorption is essential and vital for the safety assessment of orally administrated TiO2 NPs. In this study, the cytotoxicity and translocation of two native TiO2 NPs, and these two TiO2 NPs pretreated with the digestion simulation fluid or bovine serum albumin were investigated in undifferentiated Caco-2 cells, differentiated Caco-2 cells and Caco-2 monolayer. TiO2 NPs with a concentration less than 200 µg ml(-1) did not induce any toxicity in differentiated cells and Caco-2 monolayer after 24 h exposure. However, TiO2 NPs pretreated with digestion simulation fluids at 200 µg ml(-1) inhibited the growth of undifferentiated Caco-2 cells. Undifferentiated Caco-2 cells swallowed native TiO2 NPs easily, but not pretreated NPs, implying the protein coating on NPs impeded the cellular uptake. Compared with undifferentiated cells, differentiated ones possessed much lower uptake ability of these TiO2 NPs. Similarly, the traverse of TiO2 NPs through the Caco-2 monolayer was also negligible. Therefore, we infer the possibility of TiO2 NPs traversing through the intestine of animal or human after oral intake is quite low. This study provides valuable information for the risk assessment of TiO2 NPs in food. PMID:26106068

  10. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-08-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of a similar magnitude, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity-dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  11. Mechanistic study of secondary organic aerosol components formed from nucleophilic addition reactions of methacrylic acid epoxide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Birdsall, A. W.; Miner, C. R.; Mael, L. E.; Elrod, M. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recently, methacrylic acid epoxide (MAE) has been proposed as a precursor to an important class of isoprene-derived compounds found in secondary organic aerosol (SOA): 2-methylglyceric acid (2-MG) and a set of oligomers, nitric acid esters, and sulfuric acid esters related to 2-MG. However, the specific chemical mechanisms by which MAE could form these compounds have not been previously studied with experimental methods. In order to determine the relevance of these processes to atmospheric aerosol, MAE and 2-MG have been synthesized and a series of bulk solution-phase experiments aimed at studying the reactivity of MAE using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy have been performed. The present results indicate that the acid-catalyzed MAE reaction is more than 600 times slower than a similar reaction of an important isoprene-derived epoxide, but is still expected to be kinetically feasible in the atmosphere on more acidic SOA. The specific mechanism by which MAE leads to oligomers was identified, and the reactions of MAE with a number of atmospherically relevant nucleophiles were also investigated. Because the nucleophilic strengths of water, sulfate, alcohols (including 2-MG), and acids (including MAE and 2-MG) in their reactions with MAE were found to be of similar magnitudes, it is expected that a diverse variety of MAE + nucleophile product species may be formed on ambient SOA. Thus, the results indicate that epoxide chain reaction oligomerization will be limited by the presence of high concentrations of non-epoxide nucleophiles (such as water); this finding is consistent with previous environmental chamber investigations of the relative humidity dependence of 2-MG-derived oligomerization processes and suggests that extensive oligomerization may not be likely on ambient SOA because of other competitive MAE reaction mechanisms.

  12. Mechanisms of cellulases and xylanases: a detailed kinetic study of the exo-beta-1,4-glycanase from Cellulomonas fimi.

    PubMed

    Tull, D; Withers, S G

    1994-05-24

    The exoglucanase/xylanase from Cellulomonas fimi (Cex) has been subjected to a detailed kinetic investigation with a range of aryl beta-D-glycoside substrates. This enzyme hydrolyzes its substrates with net retention of anomeric configuration, and thus it presumably follows a double-displacement mechanism. Values of kcat are found to be invariant with pH whereas kcat/Km is dependent upon two ionizations of pKa = 4.1 and 7.7. The substrate preference of the enzyme increases in the order glucosides < cellobiosides < xylobiosides, and kinetic studies with a range of aryl glucosides and cellobiosides have allowed construction of Broensted relationships for these substrate types. A strong dependence of both kcat (beta 1g = -1) and kcat/Km (beta 1g = -1) upon leaving group ability is observed for the glucosides, indicating that formation of the intermediate is rate-limiting. For the cellobiosides a biphasic, concave downward plot is seenj for kcat, indicating a change in rate-determining step across the series. Pre-steady-state kinetic experiments allowed construction of linear Broensted plots of log k2 and log (k2/Kd) for the cellobiosides of modest (beta 1g = -0.3) slope. These results are consistent with a double-displacement mechanism in which a glycosyl-enzyme intermediate is formed and hydrolyzed via oxocarbonium ion-like transition states. Secondary deuterium kinetic isotope effects and inactivation experiments provide further insight into transition-state structures and, in concert with beta 1g values, reveal that the presence of the distal sugar moiety in cellobiosides results in a less highly charged transition state.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8193153

  13. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, 1991-92

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Butler, D.L.; Wright, W.G.; Hahn, D.A.; Krueger, R.P.; Osmundson, B.C.

    1994-01-01

    Because of concerns about potential effects of irrigation drainage on fish and wildlife resources and on human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior initiated a program in 1985 to assess water-quality problems associated with Federal irrigation projects in the Western United States. Physical, chemical, and biological data were collected for a detailed study of irrigation drainage in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley, west-central Colorado, during 1991-92. This report lists onsite measurements and concen- trations of major constituents, trace elements, and stable isotopes for surface-water- and ground-water-sampling sites. Insecticide data collected in the Grand Valley are presented. Ranges of specific-conductance measurements and dissolved- oxygen concentrations for selected wells and a daily record of water-level altitude and specific conduc- tance for a well in the Grand Valley are presented. The report presents historical water-level and dissolved-solids data for two wells in the Grand Valley. Concentrations of trace elements, major constituents, total carbon, and organic carbon in bottom-sediment, bedrock, and in aquifer-sediment samples and semiquantitative data on clay and bulk mineralogy of samples of the Mancos Shale are presented. The report contains selenium-speciation data for selected water and bottom-sediment samples and selected aquifer-test results. Biological samples collected in the Uncompahgre Project area and in the Grand Valley included aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, fish, birds, and bird eggs. The report lists concentrations of trace elements in biological samples collected in 1991-92. A limited number of biological samples were analyzed for pesticides, PCB's, and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons.

  14. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study.

    PubMed

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  15. A digital process for additive manufacturing of occlusal splints: a clinical pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Salmi, Mika; Paloheimo, Kaija-Stiina; Tuomi, Jukka; Ingman, Tuula; Mäkitie, Antti

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to develop and evaluate a digital process for manufacturing of occlusal splints. An alginate impression was taken from the upper and lower jaws of a patient with temporomandibular disorder owing to cross bite and wear of the teeth, and then digitized using a table laser scanner. The scanned model was repaired using the 3Data Expert software, and a splint was designed with the Viscam RP software. A splint was manufactured from a biocompatible liquid photopolymer by stereolithography. The system employed in the process was SLA 350. The splint was worn nightly for six months. The patient adapted to the splint well and found it comfortable to use. The splint relieved tension in the patient's bite muscles. No sign of tooth wear or significant splint wear was detected after six months of testing. Modern digital technology enables us to manufacture clinically functional occlusal splints, which might reduce costs, dental technician working time and chair-side time. Maximum-dimensional errors of approximately 1 mm were found at thin walls and sharp corners of the splint when compared with the digital model. PMID:23614943

  16. Value addition of Palmyra palm and studies on the storage life.

    PubMed

    Chaurasiya, A K; Chakraborty, I; Saha, J

    2014-04-01

    Palmyra palm (Borassus flabellifer L.) belonging to the family Palmae is referred to as tree of life with several uses including food, beverage, fibre, medicinal and timber. Unfortunately, the nutritionally enriched pulp of ripened palm has limited commercial use. Extraction of pulp has been accomplished by using water and heat to ensure maximum pulp recovery. Different recipes were tried for the preparation of two uncommon value added products like palm spread and palm toffee. On the basis of biochemical composition, organoleptic scores, microbial estimation and storage study both under ambient and refrigerated conditions; the suitable recipe was selected with the maximum acceptability. Gradual increase in total soluble solid (TSS), total sugar and reducing sugar while decrease in ascorbic acid, pH, β-carotene and protein content of processed products have been observed irrespective of storage condition. The results obtained from sensory evaluation and microbial status revealed that palm spread and toffee remained acceptable up to 9 months and 8 months, respectively at ambient temperature. The income per rupee investment for these two products was found to be remunerative. PMID:24741173

  17. Mass analysis addition to the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, K. H., Jr.; Jolley, Richard

    1994-01-01

    The objective of this study is to develop a technique to measure the characteristics of space plasmas under highly disturbed conditions; e.g., non-Maxwellian plasmas with strong drifting populations and plasmas contaminated by spacecraft outgassing. The approach, conducted in conjunction with current MSFC activities, is to extend the capabilities of the Differential Ion Flux Probe (DIFP) to include a high throughput mass measurement that does not require either high voltage or contamination sensitive devices such as channeltron electron multipliers or microchannel plates. This will significantly reduce the complexity and expense of instrument fabrication, testing, and integration of flight hardware compared to classical mass analyzers. The feasibility of the enhanced DIFP has been verified by using breadboard test models in a controlled plasma environment. The ability to manipulate particles through the instrument regardless of incident angle, energy, or ionic component has been amply demonstrated. The energy analysis mode is differential and leads directly to a time-of-flight mass measurement. With the new design, the DIFP will separate multiple ion streams and analyze each stream independently for ion flux intensity, velocity (including direction of motion), mass, and temperature (or energy distribution). In particular, such an instrument will be invaluable on follow-on electrodynamic TSS missions and, possibly, for environmental monitoring on the space station.

  18. Additional weight load increases freezing of gait episodes in Parkinson's disease; an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Mensink, Senja H G; Nonnekes, Jorik; van Bon, Geert; Snijders, Anke H; Duysens, Jacques; Weerdesteyn, Vivian; Bloem, Bastiaan R; Oude Nijhuis, Lars B

    2014-05-01

    Freezing of gait is an episodic gait disorder,characterized by the inability to generate effective forward stepping movements. The pathophysiology underlying freezing of gait remains insufficiently understood, and this hampers the development of better treatment strategies.Preliminary evidence suggests that impaired force control during walking may contribute to freezing episodes, with difficulty to unload the swing leg and initiate the swing phase. Here, we used external loading to manipulate force control and to investigate its influence on freezing of gait.Twelve Parkinson's disease patients with freezing of gait performed three contrasting tasks: (1) loaded gait while wearing a belt fortified with lead weights; (2) weight supported gait using a parachute harness connected to a rigid metal cable running above the gait trajectory; and (3)normal gait. Gait tasks were used to provoke freezing episodes, including rapid 360° turns. Freezing episodes were quantified using blinded, videotaped clinical assessment. Furthermore, ground reaction forces and body kinematics were recorded. Loading significantly increased the mean number of freezing episodes per trial compared to the normal gait condition (P<0.05), but the effect of weight support was not consistent. Loading particularly increased the number of freezing episodes during rapid short steps. Step length was significantly smaller during loaded gait compared to normal gait (P<0.05), but changes in anticipatory postural adjustments were not different.Our results may point to impaired force control playing a key role in freezing of gait. Future studies should further investigate the mechanism, i.e., the contribution of deficient load feedback, and evaluate which forms of weight support might offer treatment opportunities. PMID:24658705

  19. Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail, Scandia Hotel, view to southwest showing details of balloon framing, including full two-story studs notched to carry girts supporting second story floor joists (210mm lens) - Scandia Hotel, 225 First Street, Eureka, Humboldt County, CA

  20. 56. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF WINDING SHEAVES: Detail of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    56. DETAIL OF SOUTH SIDE OF WINDING SHEAVES: Detail of south side of the winding sheaves. These sheaves drive the California Street cable. - San Francisco Cable Railway, Washington & Mason Streets, San Francisco, San Francisco County, CA

  1. Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail view of ornamental lighting detail of southwest corner of Sixth Street Bridge. Looking northeast - Sixth Street Bridge, Spanning 101 Freeway at Sixth Street, Los Angeles, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss attachment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Detail of pumps in troughs, detail of truss - attachment to the wall - as well as the troughs themselves. Interior of the main hatchery building, view to the east. - Prairie Creek Fish Hatchery, Hwy. 101, Orick, Humboldt County, CA

  3. 22. PIER NO. IV DETAIL, WITH DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST PORTAL ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    22. PIER NO. IV DETAIL, WITH DETAIL OF SOUTHWEST PORTAL AND SOUTHEAST WEB OF THROUGH TRUSS; VIEW TO NORTH - Nebraska City Bridge, Spanning Missouri River near Highway 2 between Nebraska & Iowa, Nebraska City, Otoe County, NE

  4. Neurobehavioral deficits in Persian Gulf veterans: additional evidence from a population-based study.

    PubMed

    Storzbach, D; Rohlman, D S; Anger, W K; Binder, L M; Campbell, K A

    2001-01-01

    Reports of low-concentration nerve gas exposures during the Gulf War (GW) have spurred concern about possible health consequences and symptoms reported by many returning veterans. The Portland Environmental Hazards Research Center is studying veterans from the northwest United States who report persistent, unexplained "Gulf War" symptoms (cases) and those who do not report those symptoms (controls). An epidemiological survey focused on exposures and symptoms was mailed to a random sample of GW veterans from Oregon and southwestern Washington. Volunteers recruited from survey respondents agreed to undergo a thorough medical examination and psychological and neurobehavioral assessment. Persistent symptoms with no medical explanation associated with Persian Gulf service (e.g., fatigue, muscle pain, memory deficits) beginning during or after the war qualified respondents as cases. The 239 cases with unexplained symptoms and the 112 controls without symptoms were administered a computerized assessment battery of 12 psychosocial and 6 neurobehavioral tests. Replicating and extending previous interim findings, a subgroup of veterans emerged from the initial analysis in the form of extreme outliers which produced a visually and quantitatively obvious bimodal distribution. This led, as it had previously, to analyses of the outliers as a separate group (labeled "slow ODTP"), which confirmed the initial findings of neurobehavioral differences between the outliers and the other cases and controls and provided more convincing evidence that the majority of cases who report neurobehavioral symptoms have no objective evidence of neurobehavioral deficits. However, the larger group of symptomatic veterans do have highly significant and compelling evidence of psychological distress based on scores from 11 separate psychological tests. Whereas the cases differed from the controls by poorer neurobehavioral test performance, extraction of the slow ODTP participants (almost all cases

  5. Ab initio study on the size effect of symmetric and asymmetric ferroelectric tunnel junctions: A comprehensive picture with regard to the details of electrode/ferroelectric interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, W. J.; Zheng, Yue; Luo, X.; Wang, B.; Woo, C. H.

    2013-08-01

    Ferroelectric size effect of BaTiO3 (BTO) tunnel junctions with metal Pt and/or oxide SrRuO3 (SRO) electrodes has been comprehensively investigated by the first-principle calculations. A vacuum layer is included in the supercell calculations, so that full-relaxation is achieved without artificial constraint on the supercell strains. We have constructed all of ten possible types of tunnel junctions with either symmetric or asymmetric geometries to systematically explore the influence of electrode/ferroelectric interfaces. The characteristics of atomic structure, polarization, charge density, and electrostatic potential for different geometries and sizes are revealed. It is found that the ferroelectric stability of a tunnel junction depends significantly on the details of the two electrode/ferroelectric interfaces, which present specific short- and long-range properties, e.g., local bonding environment, electronic screening, built-in field, etc. Result shows that Pt/BTO interfaces have strong coupling with ferroelectric distortion and thus play more dominant roles than the SRO/BTO interfaces in affecting the ferroelectric stability of the tunnel junctions. Particularly, it is found that Pt2/TiO2 interface can induce collective ferroelectric distortion in the initially non-distorted barrier. With a full-relaxation of the strains, an abnormal enhancement of ferroelectricity by Pt2/BaO interface due to Pt-O bonding effect is demonstrated, where a strong interfacial-bonding-related polarizing field is verified. Also importantly, polarization stability of asymmetric tunnel junctions is found dependent on direction, manifested with the appearing of a new critical thickness, below which the tunnel junction loses polarization bistability. Furthermore, it shows that the local features of a specific electrode/ferroelectric interface (e.g., the interfacial atomic structure, local polarization, charge transfer, and potential step) are well kept in different types of tunnel

  6. A detailed mechanistic study of the substitution behavior of an unusual seven-coordinate iron(III) complex in aqueous solution.

    PubMed

    Ivanovic-Burmazovic, Ivana; Hamza, Mohamed S A; van Eldik, Rudi

    2002-10-01

    A detailed mechanistic study of the substitution behavior of a 3d metal heptacoordinate complex, with a rare pentagonal-bipyramidal structure, was undertaken to resolve the solution chemistry of this system. The kinetics of the complex-formation reaction of [Fe(dapsox)(H(2)O)(2)]ClO(4) (H(2)dapsox = 2,6-diacetylpyridine-bis(semioxamazide)) with thiocyanate was studied as a function of thiocyanate concentration, pH, temperature, and pressure. The reaction proceeds in two steps, which are both base-catalyzed due to the formation of an aqua-hydroxo complex (pK(a1) = 5.78 +/- 0.04 and pK(a2) = 9.45 +/- 0.06 at 25 degrees C). Thiocyanate ions displace the first coordinated water molecule in a fast step, followed by a slower reaction in which the second thiocyanate ion coordinates trans to the N-bonded thiocyanate. At 25 degrees C and pH <4.5, only the first reaction step can be observed, and the kinetic parameters (pH 2.5: k(f(I)) = 2.6 +/- 0.1 M(-1) s(-1), DeltaH(#)(f(I)) = 62 +/- 3 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(#)(f(I)) = -30 +/- 10 J K(-1) mol(-1), and DeltaV(#)(f(I)) = -2.5 +/- 0.2 cm(3) mol(-1)) suggest the operation of an I(a) mechanism. In the pH range 2.5 to 5.2 this reaction step involves the participation of both the diaqua and aqua-hydroxo complexes, for which the complex-formation rate constants were found to be 2.19 +/- 0.06 and 1172 +/- 22 M(-1) s(-1) at 25 degrees C, respectively. The more labile aqua-hydroxo complex is suggested to follow an I(d) or D substitution mechanism on the basis of the reported kinetic data. At pH > or =4.5, the second substitution step also can be monitored (pH 5.5 and 25 degrees C: k(f(II)) = 21.1 +/- 0.5 M(-1) s(-1), DeltaH(#)(f(II)) = 60 +/- 2 kJ mol(-1), DeltaS(#)(f(II)) = -19 +/- 6 J K(-1) mol(-1), and DeltaV(#)(f(II)) = +8.8 +/- 0.3 cm(3) mol(-1)), for which an I(d) or D mechanism is suggested. The results are discussed in terms of known structural parameters and in comparison to relevant structural and kinetic data from the

  7. Clinical professional governance for detailed clinical models.

    PubMed

    Goossen, William; Goossen-Baremans, Anneke

    2013-01-01

    This chapter describes the need for Detailed Clinical Models for contemporary Electronic Health Systems, data exchange and data reuse. It starts with an explanation of the components related to Detailed Clinical Models with a brief summary of knowledge representation, including terminologies representing clinic relevant "things" in the real world, and information models that abstract these in order to let computers process data about these things. Next, Detailed Clinical Models are defined and their purpose is described. It builds on existing developments around the world and accumulates in current work to create a technical specification at the level of the International Standards Organization. The core components of properly expressed Detailed Clinical Models are illustrated, including clinical knowledge and context, data element specification, code bindings to terminologies and meta-information about authors, versioning among others. Detailed Clinical Models to date are heavily based on user requirements and specify the conceptual and logical levels of modelling. It is not precise enough for specific implementations, which requires an additional step. However, this allows Detailed Clinical Models to serve as specifications for many different kinds of implementations. Examples of Detailed Clinical Models are presented both in text and in Unified Modelling Language. Detailed Clinical Models can be positioned in health information architectures, where they serve at the most detailed granular level. The chapter ends with examples of projects that create and deploy Detailed Clinical Models. All have in common that they can often reuse materials from earlier projects, and that strict governance of these models is essential to use them safely in health care information and communication technology. Clinical validation is one point of such governance, and model testing another. The Plan Do Check Act cycle can be applied for governance of Detailed Clinical Models

  8. Anti cancer activity on Graviola, an exciting medicinal plant extract vs various cancer cell lines and a detailed computational study on its potent anti-cancerous leads.

    PubMed

    Paul, Jeno; Gnanam, R; Jayadeepa, R M; Arul, L

    2013-01-01

    Nature is the world's best chemist: Many naturally occurring compounds have very complicated structures that present great challenges to chemists wishing to determine their structures or replicate them. The plant derived herbal compounds have a long history of clinical use, better patient tolerance and acceptance. Their high ligand binding affinity to the target introduce the prospect of their use in chemo preventive applications; in addition they are freely available natural compounds that can be safely used to prevent various ailments. Plants became the basis of traditional medicine system throughout the world for thousands of years and continue to provide mankind with new remedies. Here, we present a research study on a medicinal plant, Graviola, a native of North America but rarely grown in India. It has a wide potent anticancerous agents coined as Acetogenins which play a key role towards many varieties of cancer, Acetogenins are potent inhibitors of NADH oxidase of the plasma membranes of cancer cells. Potent leads were taken for the study through literature survey, major types of cancer targets were identified, the natureceuticals and the cancer protein were subjected to docking analysis, further with the help of the dock score and other descriptor properties top ranked molecules were collected, commercial drug was also selected and identified as a Test compound for the study. Later, the phytochemicals were subjected to toxicity analysis. Those screened compounds were then considered for active site analysis and to find the best binding site for the study. R Programming library was used to find the best leads. Phytochemicals such as Anonaine, Friedelin, Isolaureline, Annonamine, Anomurine, Kaempferol, Asimilobine, Quercetin, Xylopine were clustered and the highly clustered compounds such as Annonamine , Kaempferol termed to be a potential lead for the study. Further study on experimental analysis may prove the potentiality of these compounds. In the

  9. A Pilot Study to Examine the Effect of Additional Structured Outdoor Playtime on Preschoolers' Physical Activity Levels

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alhassan, Sofiya; Nwaokelemeh, Ogechi; Lyden, Kate; Goldsby, TaShauna; Mendoza, Albert

    2013-01-01

    The impact of additional structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; physical activity (PA) level is unclear. The purpose of this pilot study was to explore the effects of increasing structured outdoor playtime on preschoolers'; PA levels. Eight full-day classrooms (n = 134 children) from two preschool programmes were randomised into a treatment…

  10. STUDY OF THE EFFECT OF CHLORINE ADDITION ON MERCURY OXIDATION BY SCR CATALYST UNDER SIMULATED SUBBITUMINOUS COAL FLUE GAS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An entrained flow reactor is used to study the effect of addition of chlorine-containing species on the oxidation of elemental mercury (Hgo)by a selective catalytic reduction (SCR) catalyst in simulated subbituminous coal combustion flue gas. The combustion flue gas was doped wit...

  11. What Can We Learn From a Detailed Study of the Temperature Dependence of Omega, the Width of the Pair Distribution Function?

    SciTech Connect

    Bridges, F.; Downward, L.; Jiang, Y.; O'Brien, T.

    2009-06-04

    In many systems there is a significant coupling between the local structure and other properties of the system such as magnetism, electrical and thermal transport, metal/insulator transitions etc. In such materials, a detailed temperature-dependent study of the width of the Pair Distribution Function (PDF), {sigma}, can separate different contributions and provide a connection between the observed macroscopic observations and the underlying atomic interactions that produce them. The usual model for simple systems is that the T-dependence of {sigma}{sup 2} is described by an Einstein or Correlated Debye model, with one characteristic temperature for the system; in such models {sigma}{sup 2}(T) increases smoothly with T and has a slowly increasing slope. However that is not always the case: in structures with large unit cells containing several types of atoms, some atoms in the crystal can have a low Einstein temperature while others have a very high correlated Debye temperature as observed in a number of thermoelectric systems (skutterudites and clathrates). In others systems such as the negative thermal expansion material ZrW{sub 2}O{sub 8}, the same atom cam be involved in both low and high temperature Einstein modes. Vibrations of atoms (or molecular unit) described by a low Einstein temperature often control/determine the lattice properties. In other systems there are deviations from the T-dependence expected for either the Einstein or correlated Debye models -- such as a small increase in {sigma}{sup 2} at low temperatures for the Ru-Ru pair in PrRu{sub 4}Sb{sub 12} which has a metal/insulator transition near 60K, or a very sharp step in {sigma}{sup 2}(T) observed in the bilayer colossal magnetoresistance system La{sub 2-2x}Sr{sub 1+2x}Mn{sub 2}O{sub 7} at the ferromagnetic transition. We discuss broadening of the PDF in more complex systems, show some simulations and then present several recent examples.

  12. Improving antibiotic prescribing in acute respiratory tract infections: cluster randomised trial from Norwegian general practice (prescription peer academic detailing (Rx-PAD) study)

    PubMed Central

    Høye, Sigurd; Straand, Jørund; Brekke, Mette; Dalen, Ingvild; Lindbæk, Morten

    2013-01-01

    Objective To assess the effects of a multifaceted educational intervention in Norwegian general practice aiming to reduce antibiotic prescription rates for acute respiratory tract infections and to reduce the use of broad spectrum antibiotics. Design Cluster randomised controlled study. Setting Existing continuing medical education groups were recruited and randomised to intervention or control. Participants 79 groups, comprising 382 general practitioners, completed the interventions and data extractions. Interventions The intervention groups had two visits by peer academic detailers, the first presenting the national clinical guidelines for antibiotic use and recent research evidence on acute respiratory tract infections, the second based on feedback reports on each general practitioner’s antibiotic prescribing profile from the preceding year. Regional one day seminars were arranged as a supplement. The control arm received a different intervention targeting prescribing practice for older patients. Main outcome measures Prescription rates and proportion of non-penicillin V antibiotics prescribed at the group level before and after the intervention, compared with corresponding data from the controls. Results In an adjusted, multilevel model, the effect of the intervention on the 39 intervention groups (183 general practitioners) was a reduction (odds ratio 0.72, 95% confidence interval 0.61 to 0.84) in prescribing of antibiotics for acute respiratory tract infections compared with the controls (40 continuing medical education groups with 199 general practitioners). A corresponding reduction was seen in the odds (0.64, 0.49 to 0.82) for prescribing a non-penicillin V antibiotic when an antibiotic was issued. Prescriptions per 1000 listed patients increased from 80.3 to 84.6 in the intervention arm and from 80.9 to 89.0 in the control arm, but this reflects a greater incidence of infections (particularly pneumonia) that needed treating in the intervention arm

  13. Detailed study of the effects of interface properties of ozone-based atomic layer deposited AlOx on the surface passivation of crystalline silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Hyunju; Sawamoto, Naomi; Ikeno, Norihiro; Arafune, Koji; Yoshida, Haruhiko; Satoh, Shin-ichi; Chikyow, Toyohiro; Ogura, Atsushi

    2014-01-01

    The effects of interface properties such as a negative fixed charge density and an interface trap density on the surface passivation of crystalline Si by O3-based batch ALD AlOx were studied. High-quality surface passivation with Smax of ˜10 cm/s was obtained from the AlOx samples deposited at 200 °C after annealing. This feature is attributed to the excellent field effect passivation by the high negative fixed charge density of ˜-5 × 1012 cm-2 and chemical passivation, which reduces the interface trap density to ˜1 × 1011 eV-1 cm-2. The annealed AlOx samples deposited at 200 °C also show high thermal stability during firing at 850 °C. Additionally, we found that the formation of a thin SiOx interlayer is essential for the formation of a high negative fixed charge density that induces strong field effect passivation, and that defect passivation at the Si/SiOx interface by diffused hydrogen from AlOx layers is the origin of chemical passivation.

  14. Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) in childhood: a case study emphasizing the relevance of detailed electrophysiological examination for suspected HNPP in the first decade.

    PubMed

    Bayrak, Ayşe Oytun; Battaloglu, Esra; Turker, Hande; Baris, Ibrahim; Oztas, Gurkan

    2009-06-01

    Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsy (HNPP) is an autosomal dominant disorder characterized by recurrent mono-neuropathies secondary to minor trauma or compression. Whilst typical episodes of palsy generally become apparent during the second and the third decades, HNPP is rarely diagnosed in the first decade. We present the case of a 6-year-old patient to draw attention to the possibility of HNPP attacks in the first decade and the importance of detailed electrophysiological examination. PMID:18760885

  15. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raguvarun, K.; Balasubramaniam, Krishnan; Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic; Kapoor, Ajay

    2015-03-01

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  16. A study of internal structure in components made by additive manufacturing process using 3 D X-ray tomography

    SciTech Connect

    Raguvarun, K. Balasubramaniam, Krishnan Rajagopal, Prabhu; Palanisamy, Suresh; Nagarajah, Romesh; Kapoor, Ajay; Hoye, Nicholas; Curiri, Dominic

    2015-03-31

    Additive manufacturing methods are gaining increasing popularity for rapidly and efficiently manufacturing parts and components in the industrial context, as well as for domestic applications. However, except when used for prototyping or rapid visualization of components, industries are concerned with the load carrying capacity and strength achievable by additive manufactured parts. In this paper, the wire-arc additive manufacturing (AM) process based on gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) has been examined for the internal structure and constitution of components generated by the process. High-resolution 3D X-ray tomography is used to gain cut-views through wedge-shaped parts created using this GTAW additive manufacturing process with titanium alloy materials. In this work, two different control conditions for the GTAW process are considered. The studies reveal clusters of porosities, located in periodic spatial intervals along the sample cross-section. Such internal defects can have a detrimental effect on the strength of the resulting AM components, as shown in destructive testing studies. Closer examination of this phenomenon shows that defect clusters are preferentially located at GTAW traversal path intervals. These results highlight the strong need for enhanced control of process parameters in ensuring components with minimal defects and higher strength.

  17. Studies on the effect of plasticiser and addition of toluene diisocyanate at different temperatures in composite propellant formulations.

    PubMed

    Jawalkar, S N; Mehilal; Ramesh, K; Radhakrishnan, K K; Bhattacharya, B

    2009-05-30

    Different composite propellant mixtures have been prepared using ammonium perchlorate, aluminium powder and hydroxyl terminated polybutadiene by varying the percentage of plasticiser and addition of toluene diisocyanate at different temperatures, and studied their different properties such as viscosity build-up, mechanical and ballistic properties and sensitivity. The data on different plasticiser level indicate that on decreasing the plasticiser content, there is a significant enhancement in end of mix viscosity, tensile strength and modulus while elongation decreases drastically. The data on sensitivity of the studied mixtures reveal that on decreasing the percentage of plasticiser, the sensitivity increases, accordingly. Further, the data on the effect of addition of TDI at different temperatures (35-60 degrees C) infer that on increasing the addition temperature of TDI there is a decrease in end of mix viscosity i.e. 800Pas at 35 degrees C to 448Pas at 60 degrees C. Moreover, there is no effect on mechanical and ballistic properties on higher temperature addition of TDI was observed. PMID:18835097

  18. Are there three main subgroups within the patellofemoral pain population? A detailed characterisation study of 127 patients to help develop targeted intervention (TIPPs)

    PubMed Central

    Selfe, James; Janssen, Jessie; Callaghan, Michael; Witvrouw, Erik; Sutton, Chris; Richards, Jim; Stokes, Maria; Martin, Denis; Dixon, John; Hogarth, Russell; Baltzopoulos, Vasilios; Ritchie, Elizabeth; Arden, Nigel; Dey, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Background Current multimodal approaches for the management of non-specific patellofemoral pain are not optimal, however, targeted intervention for subgroups could improve patient outcomes. This study explores whether subgrouping of non-specific patellofemoral pain patients, using a series of low cost simple clinical tests, is possible. Method The exclusivity and clinical importance of potential subgroups was assessed by applying à priori test thresholds (1 SD) from seven clinical tests in a sample of adult patients with non-specific patellofemoral pain. Hierarchical clustering and latent profile analysis, were used to gain additional insights into subgroups using data from the same clinical tests. Results 130 participants were recruited, 127 had complete data: 84 (66%) female, mean age 26 years (SD 5.7) and mean body mass index 25.4 (SD 5.83), median (IQR) time between onset of pain and assessment was 24 (7–60) months. Potential subgroups defined by the à priori test thresholds were not mutually exclusive and patients frequently fell into multiple subgroups. Using hierarchical clustering and latent profile analysis three subgroups were identified using 6 of the 7 clinical tests. These subgroups were given the following nomenclature: (1) ‘strong’, (2) ‘weak and tighter’ and (3) ‘weak and pronated foot’. Conclusions We conclude that three subgroups of patellofemoral patients may exist based on the results of six clinical tests which are feasible to perform in routine clinical practice. Further research is needed to validate these findings in other data sets and, if supported by external validation, to see if targeted interventions for these subgroups improve patient outcomes. PMID:26834185

  19. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of irrigation drainage in the San Juan River area, New Mexico, 1993-94, with supplemental data, 1991-95

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Thomas, C.L.; Lusk, J.D.; Bristol, R.S.; Wilson, R.M.; Shineman, A.R.

    1997-01-01

    In response to increasing concern about the quality of irrigation drainage and its potential effects on fish, wildlife, and human health, the U.S. Department of the Interior formed an interbureau task group to prepare a plan for investigating water- quality problems on irrigation projects sponsored by the Department of the Interior. The San Juan River area in northwestern New Mexico was one of the areas designated for study. Investigators collected water, bottom-sediment, soil, and biological samples at more than 50 sites in the San Juan River area during 1993-94. Sample sites included (1) sites located within Department of the Interior irrigation project service areas, or areas that receive drainage from irrigation projects; (2) reference sites for comparison with irrigation project sites; and (3) sites located within the reach of the San Juan River from Navajo Dam to 10 miles downstream from the dam. The types of habitat sampled included the main stem of the San Juan River, backwater areas adjacent to the San Juan River, tributaries to the San Juan River, ponds, seeps, irrigation-delivery canals, irrigation-drainage canals, a stock tank, and shallow ground water. The types of media sampled included water, bottom sediment, soil, aquatic plants, aquatic invertebrates, amphibians, and fish. Semipermeable-membrane devices were used as a surrogate medium to sample both air and water in some instances. Sample measurements included concentrations of major ions, trace elements, organochlorine pesticides, polychlorinated biphenyls, polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbon compounds, and stable isotopes of hydrogen and oxygen. This report presents tables of physical, chemical, and biological data collected for the U.S. Department of the Interior National Irrigation Water-Quality Program. Additionally, supplemental physical, chemical, and biological data collected in association with the Navajo Indian Irrigation Project are presented.

  20. Evaluating learning and attitudes on tissue engineering: a study of children viewing animated digital dome shows detailing the biomedicine of tissue engineering.

    PubMed

    Wilson, Anna C; Gonzalez, Laura L; Pollock, John A

    2012-03-01

    Informal science education creates opportunities for the general public to learn about complex health and science topics. Tissue engineering is a fast-growing field of medical science that combines advanced chemistries to create synthetic scaffolds, stem cells, and growth factors that individually or in combination can support the bodies own healing powers to remedy a range of maladies. Health literacy about this topic is increasingly important as our population ages and as treatments become more technologically advanced. We are using a science center planetarium as a projection space to engage and educate the public about the science and biomedical research that supports tissue engineering. The purpose of this study was to test the effectiveness of the films that we have produced for part of the science center planetarium demographic, specifically children ranging in age from 7 to 16 years. A two-group pre- and post-test design was used to compare children's learning and attitude changes in response to the two versions of the film. One version uses traditional voice-over narration; the other version uses dialog between two animated characters. The results of this study indicate that children demonstrated increases in knowledge of the topic with either film format, but preferred the animated character version. The percentage change in children's scores on the knowledge questions given before and after viewing the show exhibited an improvement from 23% correct to 61% correct on average. In addition, many of the things that the children reported liking were part of the design process of the art-science collaboration. Other results indicated that before viewing the shows 77% of the children had not even heard about tissue engineering and only 17% indicated that they were very interested in it, whereas after viewing the shows, 95% indicated that tissue engineering was a good idea. We also find that after viewing the show, 71% of the children reported that the show made

  1. Using a generalized additive model with autoregressive terms to study the effects of daily temperature on mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Generalized Additive Model (GAM) provides a flexible and effective technique for modelling nonlinear time-series in studies of the health effects of environmental factors. However, GAM assumes that errors are mutually independent, while time series can be correlated in adjacent time points. Here, a GAM with Autoregressive terms (GAMAR) is introduced to fill this gap. Methods Parameters in GAMAR are estimated by maximum partial likelihood using modified Newton’s method, and the difference between GAM and GAMAR is demonstrated using two simulation studies and a real data example. GAMM is also compared to GAMAR in simulation study 1. Results In the simulation studies, the bias of the mean estimates from GAM and GAMAR are similar but GAMAR has better coverage and smaller relative error. While the results from GAMM are similar to GAMAR, the estimation procedure of GAMM is much slower than GAMAR. In the case study, the Pearson residuals from the GAM are correlated, while those from GAMAR are quite close to white noise. In addition, the estimates of the temperature effects are different between GAM and GAMAR. Conclusions GAMAR incorporates both explanatory variables and AR terms so it can quantify the nonlinear impact of environmental factors on health outcome as well as the serial correlation between the observations. It can be a useful tool in environmental epidemiological studies. PMID:23110601

  2. Microstructural Development and Technical Challenges in Laser Additive Manufacturing: Case Study with a 316L Industrial Part

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marya, Manuel; Singh, Virendra; Marya, Surendar; Hascoet, Jean Yves

    2015-08-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) brings disruptive changes to the ways parts, and products are designed, fabricated, tested, qualified, inspected, marketed, and sold. These changes introduce novel technical challenges and concerns arising from the maturity and diversity of today's AM processes, feedstock materials, and process parameter interactions. AM bears a resemblance with laser and electron beam welding in the so-called conduction mode, which involves a multitude of dynamic physical events between the projected feedstock and a moving heat source that eventually influence AM part properties. For this paper, an air vent was selected for its thin-walled, hollow, and variable cross section, and limited size. The studied air vents, randomly selected from a qualification batch, were fabricated out of 316L stainless steel using a 4 kW fiber laser powder-fed AM system, referred to as construction laser additive direct (CLAD). These were systematically characterized by microhardness indentation, visual examination, optical and scanning electron microscopy, and electron-back-scattering diffraction in order to determine AM part suitability for service and also broadly discuss metallurgical phenomena. The paper then briefly expands the discussion to include additional engineering alloys and further analyze relationships between AM process parameters and AM part properties, consistently utilizing past experience with the same powder-fed CLAD 3D printer, the well-established science and technology of welding and joining, and recent publications on additive manufacturing.

  3. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  4. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  5. Effect of One Percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study

    PubMed Central

    Asokan, Sharath; John, J Baby; Priya, PR Geetha; Devi, Jagadeesan Gnana

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT Aim: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of addition of 1% chlorhexidine digluconate solution on the antibacterial activity and mechanical properties of glass ionomer and resin based sealant. Materials and methods: Conventional glass ionomer sealant (GIS) (Fuji VII, Japan) and resin sealant (Clinpro 3M ESPE, USA) were used in this study. Chlorhexidine digluconate (CHX) (20%) liquid was added to both the sealants, and the concentration of chlorhexidine in sealants was adjusted to 1%. The sealants were divided into four groups as: group A (GIS), group B (GIS + 1% CHX), group C (resin sealant), group D (resin sealant + 1% CHX). Five cylindrical specimens were prepared in each group. Their antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and Lactobacillus acidophilus, and their mechanical properties (compressive strength and diametrical tensile strength) were assessed. Mann-Whitney and Wilcoxon signed rank test were used appropriately for statistical analysis (SPSS version 19). Result: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine significantly increased the antibacterial activity of both the sealants. There was a significant difference between groups A and B (p < 0.009), and groups C and D (p < 0.008). There was no significant difference in the mechanical properties of the sealants. Conclusion: Addition of one percent chlorhexidine to the glass ionomer and resin based sealants provided sufficient antibacterial activity, without significantly affecting the mechanical property of the sealants. How to cite this article: Shanmugaavel AK, Asokan S, John JB, Geetha Priya PR, Gnana Devi J. Effect of one percent Chlorhexidine Addition on the Antibacterial Activity and Mechanical Properties of Sealants: An in vitro Study. Int J Clin Pediatr Dent 2015;8(3):196-201. PMID:26628854

  6. A study on the effect of halloysite nanoparticle addition on the strength of glass fiber reinforced plastic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Yun-Hae; Park, Soo-Jeong; Lee, Jin-Woo; Moon, Kyung-Man

    2015-03-01

    Halloysite nanotube, which has been used in the polymer, has been spotlighted as a useful functional materials in the improvement of mechanical properties. In the current study, we established the optimal nanoparticle dispersion and analyzed the mechanical characteristics and the behavior of composites reinforced by HNTs have been synthesized by dispersing HNTs to the unsaturated polyester resin (UPR) and their mechanical characteristics, especially the tensile strength, interlaminar shear strength have been analyzed. Additionally, the reinforcement effect and its variation according to the amount of HNTs was also studied.

  7. Physical, chemical, and biological data for detailed study of the Sun River Irrigation Project, Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area, and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge, west-central Montana, 1990-92, with selected data for 1987-89

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lambing, J.H.; Nimick, D.A.; Knapton, J.R.; Palawski, D.U.

    1994-01-01

    Physical chemical, and biological data were collected in the lower Sun River area of west-central Montana during 1990-92 as part of a U.S. Department of the Interior detailed study of the extent, magnitude, sources, and potential biological impacts of contaminants associated with irrigation drainage. Physical and chemical data were collected from areas within and near the Sun River Irrigation Project and from wetland areas receiving irrigation drainage. Biological data were collected from areas in and near Freezout Lake Wildlife Management Area and Benton Lake National Wildlife Refuge. Additional biological data were collected previously during 1987-89 as part of a U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service program. This report presents data for selenium and other potentially toxic constituents in solid-phase, water, and biological media. Data consist of concentrations of major and trace elements in soil and drill cores; concen- trations of major ions, nutrients, and trace elements in ground water and surface water; and trace-element concentrations in bottom sediment and biological tissue. Hydrogeologic data for domestic and test wells and daily streamflow data for selected sites also are included.

  8. Detailed Study of the Phase Diagram of Fe-based Superconductor Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 by Super High-Resolution Neutron Diffraction Measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ikeuchi, K.; Sato, M.; Li, S.; Toyoda, M.; Kobayashi, Y.; Itoh, M.; Miao, P.; Torii, S.; Ishikawa, Y.; Kamiyama, T.

    2015-03-01

    Temperature (T) dependence of Bragg reflections of Ba(Fe1-xCox)2As2 (x = 0, 0.02) have been measured in detail on assembled mm-size crystallites to avoid effects of surface and/or externally induced strains with the high-resolution neutron powder diffractometer, where we have found that the profile width of the (400)O/(040)O reflections with the orthorhombic indexing begin to increase, as T decreases, at ~270 K, much higher than the tetragonal (Tet)-orthorhombic (Ort) second order transition temperature TS (-147.5 K) without showing any indication of an phase change above TS. The coexistence of two Ort phases with different orthorhombicity exists in the region of ~140 K < T < 143 K). The profile widths of (hhl)O reflections are nearly T-independent in the entire temperature region studied here (130 K <= T <= 350 K). An additional broadening due to the Co-doping is clearly found. We discuss these results in relation to the breakdown of the 4-fold symmetry of static physical quantities found in the electrical resistivity and band splitting of the 3dyz and 3dzx and orbitals and conclude that the disappearance of the 4-fold symmetry even in the macroscopically tetragonal phase can be understood by the existence of orthorhombic domains induced by crystal defects and/or impurities.

  9. A fundamental study of the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels with propionaldehyde and DTBP as an additive

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, Rodney

    In an effort to combine the benefits of SI and CI engines, Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI) engines are being developed. HCCI combustion is achieved by controlling the temperature, pressure, and composition of the fuel and air mixture so that autoignition occurs in proper phasing with the piston motion. This control system is fundamentally more challenging than using a spark plug or fuel injector to determine ignition timing as in SI and CI engines, respectively. As a result, this is a technical barrier that must be overcome to make HCCI engines applicable to a wide range of vehicles and viable for high volume production. One way to tailor the autoignition timing is to use small amounts of ignition enhancing additives. In this study, the effect of the addition of DTBP and propionaldehyde on the autoignition behavior of SI primary reference fuels was investigated. The present work was conducted in a new research facility built around a single cylinder Cooperative Fuels Research (CFR) octane rating engine but modified to run in HCCI mode. It focused on the effect of select oxygenated hydrocarbons on hydrocarbon fuel oxidation, specifically, the primary reference fuels n-heptane and iso-octane. This work was conducted under HCCI operating conditions. Previously, the operating parameters for this engine were validated for stable combustion under a wide range of operating parameters such as engine speeds, equivalence ratios, compression ratios and inlet manifold temperature. The stable operating range under these conditions was recorded and used for the present study. The major focus of this study was to examine the effect of the addition of DTBP or propionaldehyde on the oxidation behavior of SI primary reference fuels. Under every test condition the addition of the additives DTBP and propionaldehyde caused a change in fuel oxidation. DTBP always promoted fuel oxidation while propionaldehyde promoted oxidation for lower octane number fuels and delayed

  10. A numerical study of the influence of ammonia addition on the auto-ignition limits of methane/air mixtures.

    PubMed

    Van den Schoor, F; Norman, F; Vandebroek, L; Verplaetsen, F; Berghmans, J

    2009-05-30

    In this study the auto-ignition limit of ammonia/methane/air mixtures is calculated based upon a perfectly stirred reactor model with convective heat transfer. The results of four different reaction mechanisms are compared with existing experimental data at an initial temperature of 723 K with ammonia concentrations of 0-20 mol.% and methane concentrations of 2.5-10 mol.%. It is found that the calculation of the auto-ignition limit pressure at constant temperature leads to larger relative deviations between calculated and experimental results than the calculation of the auto-ignition temperature at constant pressure. In addition to the calculations, a reaction path analysis is performed to explain the observed lowering of the auto-ignition limit of methane/air mixtures by ammonia addition. It is found that this decrease is caused by the formation of NO and NO(2), which enhance the oxidation of methane at low temperatures. PMID:18926632

  11. The influence of deposit control additives on nitrogen oxides emissions from spark ignition engines (case study: Tehran).

    PubMed

    Bidhendi, Gholamreza Nabi; Zand, Ali Daryabeigi; Tabrizi, Alireza Mikaeili; Pezeshk, Hamid; Baghvand, Akbar

    2007-04-15

    In the present research, the influence of a deposit control additive on NOx emissions from two types of gasoline engine vehicles i.e., Peykan (base on Hillman) and Pride (South Korea Kia motors) was studied. Exhaust NOx emissions were measured in to stages, before decarbonization process and after that. Statistical analysis was conducted on the measurement results. Results showed that NOx emissions from Peykans increased 0.28% and NOx emissions from Pride automobiles decreased 6.18% on average, due to the elimination of engine deposits. The observed variations were not statistically and practically significant. The results indicated that making use of detergent additives is not an effective way to reduce the exhaust NOx emissions from gasoline engine vehicles. PMID:19069943

  12. A mechanistic study of the addition of alcohol to a five-membered ring silene via a photochemical reaction.

    PubMed

    Su, Ming-Der

    2016-03-21

    The mechanism for the photochemical rearrangement of a cyclic divinyldisilane (1-Si) in its first excited state ((1)π → (1)π*) is determined using the CAS/6-311G(d) and MP2-CAS/6-311++G(3df,3pd) levels of theory. The photoproduct, a cyclic silene, reacts with various alcohols to yield a mixture of cis- and trans- adducts. The two reaction pathways are denoted as the cis- addition path (path A) and the trans-addition path (path B). These model studies demonstrate that conical intersections play a crucial role in the photo-rearrangements of cyclic divinyldisilanes. The theoretical evidence also demonstrates that the addition of alcohol to a cyclic divinyldisilane follows the reaction path: cyclic divinyldisilane → Franck-Condon region → conical intersection → photoproduct (cyclic silene) → local intermediate (with alcohol) → transition state → cis- or trans-adduct. The theoretical studies demonstrate that the steric effects as well as the concentrations of CH3OH must have a dominant role in determining the yields of the final adducts by stereochemistry. The same mechanism for the carbon derivative (1-C) is also considered in this work. However, the theoretical results indicate that 1-C does not undergo a methanol addition reaction via the photochemical reaction pathway, since its energy of conical intersection (S1/S0-CI-C) is more than that of its FC (FC-C). The reason for these phenomena could be that the atomic radius of carbon is much smaller than that of silicon (77 and 117 pm, respectively). As a result, the conformation for 1-C is more sterically congested than that for 1-Si, along the 1,3-silyl-migration pathway. PMID:26928893

  13. The fine details of evolution.

    PubMed

    Laskowski, Roman A; Thornton, Janet M; Sternberg, Michael J E

    2009-08-01

    Charles Darwin's theory of evolution was based on studies of biology at the species level. In the time since his death, studies at the molecular level have confirmed his ideas about the kinship of all life on Earth and have provided a wealth of detail about the evolutionary relationships between different species and a deeper understanding of the finer workings of natural selection. We now have a wealth of data, including the genome sequences of a wide range of organisms, an even larger number of protein sequences, a significant knowledge of the three-dimensional structures of proteins, DNA and other biological molecules, and a huge body of information about the operation of these molecules as systems in the molecular machinery of all living things. This issue of Biochemical Society Transactions contains papers from oral presentations given at a Biochemical Society Focused Meeting to commemorate the 200th Anniversary of Charles Darwin's birth, held on 26-27 January 2009 at the Wellcome Trust Conference Centre, Cambridge. The talks reported on some of the insights into evolution which have been obtained from the study of protein sequences, structures and systems. PMID:19614583

  14. The Finer Details: Climate Modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2000-01-01

    If you want to know whether you will need sunscreen or an umbrella for tomorrow's picnic, you can simply read the local weather report. However, if you are calculating the impact of gas combustion on global temperatures, or anticipating next year's rainfall levels to set water conservation policy, you must conduct a more comprehensive investigation. Such complex matters require long-range modeling techniques that predict broad trends in climate development rather than day-to-day details. Climate models are built from equations that calculate the progression of weather-related conditions over time. Based on the laws of physics, climate model equations have been developed to predict a number of environmental factors, for example: 1. Amount of solar radiation that hits the Earth. 2. Varying proportions of gases that make up the air. 3. Temperature at the Earth's surface. 4. Circulation of ocean and wind currents. 5. Development of cloud cover. Numerical modeling of the climate can improve our understanding of both the past and, the future. A model can confirm the accuracy of environmental measurements taken. in, the past and can even fill in gaps in those records. In addition, by quantifying the relationship between different aspects of climate, scientists can estimate how a future change in one aspect may alter the rest of the world. For example, could an increase in the temperature of the Pacific Ocean somehow set off a drought on the other side of the world? A computer simulation could lead to an answer for this and other questions. Quantifying the chaotic, nonlinear activities that shape our climate is no easy matter. You cannot run these simulations on your desktop computer and expect results by the time you have finished checking your morning e-mail. Efficient and accurate climate modeling requires powerful computers that can process billions of mathematical calculations in a single second. The NCCS exists to provide this degree of vast computing capability.

  15. Computed tomography:the details.

    SciTech Connect

    Doerry, Armin Walter

    2007-07-01

    Computed Tomography (CT) is a well established technique, particularly in medical imaging, but also applied in Synthetic Aperture Radar (SAR) imaging. Basic CT imaging via back-projection is treated in many texts, but often with insufficient detail to appreciate subtleties such as the role of non-uniform sampling densities. Herein are given some details often neglected in many texts.

  16. Characteristics of Academic Detailing: Results of a Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Van Hoof, Thomas J.; Harrison, Lisa G.; Miller, Nicole E.; Pappas, Maryanne S.; Fischer, Michael A.

    2015-01-01

    Background Academic detailing is an evidence-based strategy to improve patient care. Efforts to understand the intervention and to use it strategically require an understanding of its important characteristics. A recent systematic review and a subsequent reporting framework call for more accurate and complete reporting of continuing medical education interventions. Objectives Building on a previously published systematic review of 69 studies, we sought to determine how an expanded set of 106 academic detailing studies, including many recently published articles, fared with respect to reporting of important data about this intervention. Methods We conducted a search of MEDLINE, the Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (clinical) database, and Scopus, from which we identified 38 additional randomized controlled trials published from August 2007 through March 2013. Including the original 69 studies, we abstracted 106 available English-language studies and quantitatively analyzed information about 4 important characteristics of academic detailing: content of visits, clinicians being visited, communication process underlying visits, and outreach workers making visits. Results We found considerable variation (36.5%-100%) in the extent of reporting intervention characteristics, especially about the communication process underlying visits and the outreach workers making visits. The best overall documentation of intervention characteristics of any single study was 68%. Results also demonstrate wide variation in the approach to academic detailing. Conclusions This study demonstrates the need for a standardized approach to collecting and reporting data about academic detailing interventions. Our findings also highlight opportunities for using academic detailing more effectively in research and quality-improvement efforts. PMID:26702333

  17. Effects of Additives and Impurity on the Adhesive Behavior of the NiAl(110)/Al2O3 (0001) Interface: An Ab Initio Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ozfidan, Isil; Chen, Kuiying; Fu, Ming

    2011-12-01

    Using ab initio density functional theory (DFT), the adhesive behavior of NiAl(110)/Al2O3(0001) interface in thermal barrier coatings was systematically studied with an emphasis on the effects of alloying additives and impurity elements. To reveal possible atomic-scale mechanisms, the separations between certain atoms at the interface, the electron localization function (ELF), and the electron density of states (DOS) are thoroughly investigated. First, effects of individual elements such as S, Pt, and Cr, and reactive elements (REs) Hf, Zr, and Y, on the work of separation, W sep, of the interface were examined. As expected, the segregation of S to the interface significantly degrades the adhesion, while the substitution of Pt for Ni adjacent to the interface does not enhance the W sep. Cr and RE addition to the interface individually result in a considerable increase of W sep. Second, the addition of Pt, Hf, and Cr to the S containing interface is shown to mitigate the detrimental effect of sulfur to some extent. Co doping the interface with a selected combination of (Pt, Hf), (Pt, Cr), (Cr, Hf), (Cr, Y), (Hf, Y), and (Y, Zr) was implemented to probe possible synergistic interactions between elements on W sep. Synergistic effects are detected on increasing W sep for (Hf, Y), (Hf, Zr) combinations. Co doping the interface with (Cr, Y) and (Cr, Hf), however, is found to weaken the adhesion. Through a detailed analysis of electronic structures in terms of ELF and DOS, four dominant bonds across the interface, RE-O, RE-Ni, Aloxide-Ni, and AlNiAl-O, are identified to play a decisive role in governing the adhesive strength of the interface.

  18. Effects of the colour additive caramel colour III on the immune system: a study with human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Houben, G F; Abma, P M; van den Berg, H; van Dokkum, W; van Loveren, H; Penninks, A H; Seinen, W; Spanhaak, S; Vos, J G; Ockhuizen, T

    1992-09-01

    Administration of the colour additive Caramel Colour III to rats has been associated with decreased numbers of lymphocytes and several other changes in the immune system, as well as in immune function parameters, specifically in animals fed a diet with a relatively low vitamin B6 content. The effects are caused by the imidazole derivative 2-acetyl-4(5)-tetrahydroxybutylimidazole (THI). Caramel Colour III is commonly used in food products such as bakery products, soya-bean sauces, brown sauces, gravies, soup aromas, brown (dehydrated) soups, brown malt caramel blend for various applications, vinegars and beers, and effects in humans on dietary intake cannot be excluded. Elderly male volunteers with a marginal deficit in vitamin B6 were considered a relevant and potentially sensitive group to study possible effects of Caramel Colour III on blood lymphocyte numbers (total and within subsets) or on proliferative responses of lymphocytes to mitogenic stimulation. In addition, several other haematological parameters, as well as serum immunoglobulin levels and immunoglobulin production in vitro by pokeweed mitogen-stimulated mononuclear blood cells were studied. The results of this double-blind intervention study demonstrated that in a selected test group of apparently healthy elderly male volunteers with a biochemically marginally deficient vitamin B6 status, Caramel Colour III containing 23 (commercial sample) or 143 (research sample) ppm THI and administered at the level of the current acceptable daily intake of 200 mg/kg body weight/day for 7 days did not affect any of the factors investigated. PMID:1427513

  19. A study on the effect of the polymeric additive HPMC on morphology and polymorphism of ortho-aminobenzoic acid crystals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simone, E.; Cenzato, M. V.; Nagy, Z. K.

    2016-07-01

    In the present study, the effect of Hydroxy Propyl Methyl Cellulose (HPMC) on the crystallization of ortho-aminobenzoic acid (OABA) was investigated by seeded and unseeded cooling crystallization experiments. The influence of HPMC on the induction time, crystal shape of Forms I and II of OABA and the polymorphic transformation time was studied. Furthermore, the capability of HPMC to inhibit growth of Form I was evaluated quantitatively and modeled using population balance equations (PBE) solved with the method of moments. The additive was found to strongly inhibit nucleation and growth of Form I as well as to increase the time for the polymorphic transformation from Form II to I. Solvent was also found to influence the shape of Form I crystals at equal concentrations of HPMC. In situ process analytical technology (PAT) tools, including Raman spectroscopy, focused beam reflectance measurement (FBRM) and attenuated total reflectance (ATR) UV-vis spectroscopy were used in combination with off-line techniques, such as optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Raman spectroscopy, Malvern Mastersizer and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) to study the crystals produced. The results illustrate how shape, size and stability of the two polymorphs of OABA can be controlled and tailored using a polymeric additive.

  20. Three new double-headed nucleotides with additional nucleobases connected to C-5 of pyrimidines; synthesis, duplex and triplex studies.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hansen, Jonas; Jedinak, Lukas; Reslow-Jacobsen, Charlotte; Hornum, Mick; Nielsen, Poul

    2016-02-15

    In the search for double-coding DNA-systems, three new pyrimidine nucleosides, each coded with an additional nucleobase anchored to the major groove face, are synthesized. Two of these building blocks carry a thymine at the 5-position of 2'-deoxyuridine through a methylene linker and a triazolomethylene linker, respectively. The third building block carries an adenine at the 6-position of pyrrolo-2'-deoxycytidine through a methylene linker. These double-headed nucleosides are introduced into oligonucleotides and their effects on the thermal stabilities of duplexes are studied. All studied double-headed nucleotide monomers reduce the thermal stability of the modified duplexes, which is partially compensated by using consecutive incorporations of the modified monomers or by flanking the new double-headed analogs with members of our former series containing propyne linkers. Also their potential in triplex-forming oligonucleotides is studied for two of the new double-headed nucleotides as well as the series of analogs with propyne linkers. The most stable triplexes are obtained with single incorporations of additional pyrimidine nucleobases connected via the propyne linker. PMID:26778611

  1. A SEARCH FOR ADDITIONAL PLANETS IN FIVE OF THE EXOPLANETARY SYSTEMS STUDIED BY THE NASA EPOXI MISSION

    SciTech Connect

    Ballard, Sarah; Charbonneau, David; Holman, Matthew J.; Christiansen, Jessie L.; Deming, Drake; Barry, Richard K.; Kuchner, Marc J.; Livengood, Timothy A.; Hewagama, Tilak; Hampton, Don L.; Lisse, Carey M.; Seager, Sara; Veverka, Joseph F.

    2011-05-01

    We present time series photometry and constraints on additional planets in five of the exoplanetary systems studied by the EPOCh (Extrasolar Planet Observation and Characterization) component of the NASA EPOXI mission: HAT-P-4, TrES-3, TrES-2, WASP-3, and HAT-P-7. We conduct a search of the high-precision time series for photometric transits of additional planets. We find no candidate transits with significance higher than our detection limit. From Monte Carlo tests of the time series using putative periods from 0.5 days to 7 days, we demonstrate the sensitivity to detect Neptune-sized companions around TrES-2, sub-Saturn-sized companions in the HAT-P-4, TrES-3, and WASP-3 systems, and Saturn-sized companions around HAT-P-7. We investigate in particular our sensitivity to additional transits in the dynamically favorable 3:2 and 2:1 exterior resonances with the known exoplanets: if we assume coplanar orbits with the known planets, then companions in these resonances with HAT-P-4b, WASP-3b, and HAT-P-7b would be expected to transit, and we can set lower limits on the radii of companions in these systems. In the nearly grazing exoplanetary systems TrES-3 and TrES-2, additional coplanar planets in these resonances are not expected to transit. However, we place lower limits on the radii of companions that would transit if the orbits were misaligned by 2.{sup 0}0 and 1.{sup 0}4 for TrES-3 and TrES-2, respectively.

  2. A DETAILED STUDY OF NON-THERMAL X-RAY PROPERTIES AND INTERSTELLAR GAS TOWARD THE γ-RAY SUPERNOVA REMNANT RX J1713.7–3946

    SciTech Connect

    Sano, H.; Fukuda, T.; Yoshiike, S.; Sato, J.; Horachi, H.; Kuwahara, T.; Torii, K.; Hayakawa, T.; Matsumoto, H.; Inutsuka, S.; Yamamoto, H.; Tachihara, K.; Tanaka, T.; Inoue, T.; Kawamura, A.; Okuda, T.; Mizuno, N.; Yamazaki, R.; Onishi, T.; Mizuno, A.; and others

    2015-02-01

    We have carried out a spectral analysis of the Suzaku X-ray data in the 0.4-12 keV range toward the shell-type very high-energy γ-ray supernova remnant (SNR) RX J1713.7–3946. The aims of this analysis are to estimate detailed X-rays spectral properties at a high angular resolution up to 2 arcmin and to compare them with the interstellar gas. The X-ray spectrum is non-thermal and used to calculate absorbing column density, photon index, and absorption-corrected X-ray flux. The photon index varies significantly from 2.1 to 2.9. It is shown that the X-ray intensity is well correlated with the photon index, especially in the west region, with a correlation coefficient of 0.81. The X-ray intensity tends to increase with the averaged interstellar gas density while the dispersion is relatively large. The hardest spectra, with photon indexes of less than 2.4, are found outside of the central 10 arcmin of the SNR, from the north to the southeast (∼430 arcmin{sup 2}) and from the southwest to the northwest (∼150 arcmin{sup 2}). The former region shows low interstellar gas density, while the latter shows high interstellar gas density. We present a discussion of possible scenarios that explain the distribution of the photon index and its relationship with the interstellar gas.

  3. State resolved photofragmentation of Ni(CO)4 at 193, 248, and 308 nm: A detailed study of the photodissociation dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schlenker, F. J.; Bouchard, F.; Waller, I. M.; Hepburn, J. W.

    1990-11-01

    The vibrational, rotational, and translational energy distributions for the CO photofragments from the 193, 248, and 308 nm photolysis of Ni(CO)4 in a supersonic molecular beam have been determined by vacuum ultraviolet laser-induced fluorescence. The measured product energy distributions appeared to be statistical, with equilibrium between the degrees of freedom investigated. The distributions were significantly colder than those calculated with a microcanonical statistical model using published bond energies. To model the measured distributions, it was necessary to postulate that the unsaturated nickel carbonyl products are formed in a stable electronically excited state. By using an excited state energy consistent with published fluorescence experiments, excellent agreement was obtained between the measured distributions and those calculated using a microcanonical statistical model. These results indicate that for 193 nm photolysis, essentially all of the Ni(CO)n products are electronically excited, with about 2.8 eV of electronic excitation. The Ni(CO)n products from 248 nm photolysis are formed in both the ground and excited states, with a 3:1 branching ratio. The data taken at 308 nm also indicate the presence of both channels, with the excited state channel still important. These results are consistent with predictions of earlier ab initio work, although the detailed mechanism is somewhat different. This earlier work is discussed in light of the present results.

  4. A Study of Power Systems Stability Enhancement Effects by Excitation Control of Superconducting Generator with High Response Excitation based on Detailed Excitation Circuit Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Guohong; Shirato, Hideyuki

    SCG (Superconducting Generator) has a superconducting field winding, which leads to many advantages such as small size, high generation efficiency, low impedance, and so on, and be considered as one of the candidates to meet the needs of high stability and high efficiency in the future power system networks. SCG with high response excitation is especially expected to be able to enhance the transient stability of power system by its SMES (Superconducting Magnetic Energy System) effect. The SMES effect of SCG is recognized that its behaviors are dominated by the structures and controls of its excitation system. For this reason, in order to verify exactly how the SMES effect of SCG influences on the power system stability, the electrical circuits of SCG high response excitation are modeled in detail for conducting digital simulation, and its influence on excitation voltage and active power output of SCG are discussed as well. The simulation results with a typical one machine - infinite bus power system model shows that the SMES effect can be certainly obtained when its exciting power is supplied from SCG terminal bus and may considerably lead to an improvement of power system transient stability.

  5. Detail study on ac-dc magnetic and dye absorption properties of Fe3O4 hollow spheres for biological and industrial application.

    PubMed

    Sarkar, Debasish; Mandal, Kalyan; Mandal, Madhuri

    2014-03-01

    Here solvo-thermal technique has been used to synthesize hollow-nanospheres of magnetite. We have shown that PVP plays an important role to control the particle size and also helps the particles to take the shape of hollow spheres. Structural analysis was done by XRD measurement and morphological measurements like SEM and TEM were performed to confirm the hollow type spherical particles formation and their shape and sizes were also investigated. The detail ac-dc magnetic measurements give an idea about the application of these nano spheres for hyperthermia therapy and spontaneous dye adsorption properties (Gibbs free energy deltaG0 = -0.526 kJ/mol for Eosin and -1.832 kJ/mol for MB) of these particles indicate its use in dye manufacturing company. Being hollow in structure and magnetic in nature such materials will also be useful in other application fields like in drug delivery, arsenic and heavy metal removal by adsorption technique, magnetic separation etc. PMID:24745226

  6. Can additional urban development have major impacts on streamflow of a peri-urban catchment? A case study from Portugal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ferreira, Carla; Walsh, Rory; Nunes, João; Steenhuis, Tammo; de Lima, João; Coelho, Celeste; Ferreira, António

    2016-04-01

    It is well known that urban development brings about changes in hydrological response. Relatively little, however, is known about impacts on streamflow during urban development in the Mediterranean climate. This paper examines changes in streamflow resulting from the construction of an enterprise park, a major road and apartment blocks in a small partially urbanized peri-urban catchment (6.2 km2) in central Portugal. These developments led to an increase in urban area from 32% to 40% over a five-year period (hydrological years 2008/09-2012/13). In the initial two-year period minor land-use changes increased impervious surfaces from 12.8% to 13.2%. The subsequent three-year period led to a further 17.2% increase in impervious area. Streamflow was recorded by a V-notch weir at the catchment outlet. Rainfall was recorded at a weather station 0.5km north of the catchment, and by five tipping-bucket raingauges installed in January 2011 within the study catchment. Annual runoff and storm runoff coefficients ranged from 14% to 21% and 9% to 14%, respectively, recorded in 2011/12 and 2012/13. Although these differences in runoff were caused in part by variation in rainfall, the comparison between 2009/10 (pre-) and 2012/13 (post-additional urban development), with broadly similar rainfall (887mm vs 947mm, respectively) and evapotranspiration (740mm vs 746mm), showed a 43% increase in storm runoff (from 90mm to 129mm), resulting from additional overland flow generated largely by the 4.4% increase in impervious surfaces. The additional urban development also led to changes in hydrograph parameters. The increase in storm runoff was not progressive over the study period, but regression lines of storm runoff against rainstorm parameters exhibited higher vertical positions in 2012/13 than 2008/09. Increasing peak flows, however, were more progressive over the study period, with annual regression lines displaying higher vertical positions, but with a clear distance between pre

  7. Efficient eco-friendly inverted quantum dot sensitized solar cells† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: TEM images of QDs, XPS spectra, UV-vis and PL spectra of the sensitized electrodes, details about photophysical characterization and IPCE spectra interpretation. See DOI: 10.1039/c5ta06769c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Park, Jinhyung; Sajjad, Muhammad T.; Jouneau, Pierre-Henri; Ruseckas, Arvydas; Faure-Vincent, Jérôme; Reiss, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Recent progress in quantum dot (QD) sensitized solar cells has demonstrated the possibility of low-cost and efficient photovoltaics. However, the standard device structure based on n-type materials often suffers from slow hole injection rate, which may lead to unbalanced charge transport. We have fabricated efficient p-type (inverted) QD sensitized cells, which combine the advantages of conventional QD cells with p-type dye sensitized configurations. Moreover, p-type QD sensitized cells can be used in highly promising tandem configurations with n-type ones. QDs without toxic Cd and Pb elements and with improved absorption and stability were successfully deposited onto mesoporous NiO electrode showing good coverage and penetration according to morphological analysis. Detailed photophysical charge transfer studies showed that high hole injection rates (108 s–1) observed in such systems are comparable with electron injection in conventional n-type QD assemblies. Inverted solar cells fabricated with various QDs demonstrate excellent power conversion efficiencies of up to 1.25%, which is 4 times higher than the best values for previous inverted QD sensitized cells. Attempts to passivate the surface of the QDs show that traditional methods of reduction of recombination in the QD sensitized cells are not applicable to the inverted architectures. PMID:27478616

  8. Study on the Reutilization of Clear Fracturing Flowback Fluids in Surfactant Flooding with Additives for Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR)

    PubMed Central

    Dai, Caili; Wang, Kai; Liu, Yifei; Fang, Jichao; Zhao, Mingwei

    2014-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to study the reutilization of clear fracturing flowback fluids composed of viscoelastic surfactants (VES) with additives in surfactant flooding, making the process more efficient and cost-effective. The clear fracturing flowback fluids were used as surfactant flooding system with the addition of α-olefin sulfonate (AOS) for enhanced oil recovery (EOR). The interfacial activity, emulsification activity and oil recovery capability of the recycling system were studied. The interfacial tension (IFT) between recycling system and oil can be reduced by 2 orders of magnitude to 10−3 mN/m, which satisfies the basic demand of surfactant flooding. The oil can be emulsified and dispersed more easily due to the synergetic effect of VES and AOS. The oil-wet surface of quartz can be easily converted to water-wet through adsorption of surfactants (VES/AOS) on the surface. Thirteen core plug flooding tests were conducted to investigate the effects of AOS concentrations, slug sizes and slug types of the recycling system on the incremental oil recovery. The investigations prove that reclaiming clear fracturing flowback fluids after fracturing operation and reuse it in surfactant flooding might have less impact on environment and be more economical. PMID:25409507

  9. A DFT study of addition reaction between fragment ion (CH₂) units and fullerene (C₆₀) molecule.

    PubMed

    Zaragoza, Irineo Pedro; Vergara, Jaime; Pérez-Manríquez, Liliana; Salcedo, Roberto

    2011-05-01

    The theoretical study of the interaction between CH(2) and fullerene (C(60)) suggests the existence of an addition reaction mechanism; this feature is studied by applying an analysis of electronic properties. Several different effects are evident in this interaction as a consequence of the particular electronic transfer which occurs during the procedure. The addition or insertion of the methylene group results in a process, where the inclusion of CH(2) into a fullerene bond produces the formation of several geometric deformations. A simulation of these procedures was carried out, taking advantage of the dynamic semi-classical Born-Oppenheimer approximation. Dynamic aspects were analyzed at different speeds, for the interaction between the CH(2) group and the two bonds: CC (6, 6) and CC (6, 5) respectively on the fullerene (C(60)) rings. All calculations which involved electrons employed DFT as well as exchange and functional correlation. The results indicate a tendency for the CH(2) fragment to attack the CC (6, 5) bond. PMID:20658255

  10. Experimental study on the characteristics of ventilated cavitation around an underwater navigating body influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, ChenXing; Li, FengChen

    2015-09-01

    In this study, a new control strategy for turbulent drag reduction involving ventilated cavitation is proposed. The configurational and hydrodynamic characteristics of ventilated cavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were experimentally studied in water tunnel. The test model was fixed in the water tunnel by a strut in the aft-part. Aqueous solutions of CTAC/NaSal (cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride/sodium salicylate) with weight concentrations of 100, 200, 400 and 600 ppm (part per million), respectively, were injected into the ventilated air cavity from the edge of the cavitator with accurate control by an injection pump. The cavity configurations were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. The hydrodynamic characteristics of the test model were measured by a six-component balance. Experimental results show that, within the presently tested cases, the lengths of cavity influenced by drag-reducing solution are smaller than normal condition (ventilated cavity) in water, but the asymmetry of the cavity is improved. The drag resisted by the test model is reduced dramatically (the maximum drag reduction can reach to 80%) and the re-entrant jet is more complex after the CTAC solution is injected into the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitating asymmetry and further drag reduction.

  11. [Study on the spectra of Au/CeO2 catalysts modified by La2O3 additive].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Qing; He, Zhen-Liang; Li, Jin-Wei; Zhan, Ying-Ying; Lin, Xing-Yi; Zheng, Qi

    2008-04-01

    For Au-ceria catalysts prepared by deposition-precipitation method, the catalytic performance of water gas shift reaction was studied with different La loadings. In the complete doping range, ceria retains with its cubic fluorite structures. XRD, HRTEM and UV-Vis-DRS, studies showed that La doping can improve the activity of Au-ceria catalyst by stabilizing ceria and modifying its morphology. In addition, the test of catalyst stability evaluation also proved, that a better stability performance of Au-ceria catalyst can be realized by appropriate La doping. The Au/CL5.0 sample with 5 at % La doping showed the best performance in WGS reaction. PMID:18619331

  12. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-05-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  13. Feasibility Study on 3-D Printing of Metallic Structural Materials with Robotized Laser-Based Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Yaoyu; Kovacevic, Radovan

    2016-07-01

    Metallic structural materials continue to open new avenues in achieving exotic mechanical properties that are naturally unavailable. They hold great potential in developing novel products in diverse industries such as the automotive, aerospace, biomedical, oil and gas, and defense. Currently, the use of metallic structural materials in industry is still limited because of difficulties in their manufacturing. This article studied the feasibility of printing metallic structural materials with robotized laser-based metal additive manufacturing (RLMAM). In this study, two metallic structural materials characterized by an enlarged positive Poisson's ratio and a negative Poisson's ratio were designed and simulated, respectively. An RLMAM system developed at the Research Center for Advanced Manufacturing of Southern Methodist University was used to print them. The results of the tensile tests indicated that the printed samples successfully achieved the corresponding mechanical properties.

  14. Structural Studies of Medicago truncatula Histidinol Phosphate Phosphatase from Inositol Monophosphatase Superfamily Reveal Details of Penultimate Step of Histidine Biosynthesis in Plants.

    PubMed

    Ruszkowski, Milosz; Dauter, Zbigniew

    2016-05-01

    The penultimate enzyme in the histidine biosynthetic pathway catalyzes dephosphorylation of l-histidinol 1-phosphate (HOLP) into l-histidinol. The recently discovered in Arabidopsis thaliana plant-type histidinol phosphate phosphatase (HPP) shares no homology with the two other HPP superfamilies known previously in prokaryotes and resembles myo-inositol monophosphatases (IMPases). In this work, identification of an HPP enzyme from a model legume, Medicago truncatula (MtHPP) was based on the highest sequence identity to A. thaliana enzyme. Biochemical assays confirmed that MtHPP was able to cleave inorganic phosphate from HOLP but not from d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate, the main substrate of IMPases. Dimers of MtHPP, determined by size exclusion chromatography, in the presence of CO2 or formaldehyde form mutual, methylene-bridged cross-links between Lys(158) and Cys(245) residues. Four high resolution crystal structures, namely complexes with HOLP (substrate), l-histidinol (product), and PO4 (3-) (by-product) as well as the structure showing the cross-linking between two MtHPP molecules, provide detailed structural information on the enzyme. Based on the crystal structures, the enzymatic reaction mechanism of IMPases is accustomed to fit the data for MtHPP. The enzymatic reaction, which requires Mg(2+) cations, is catalyzed mainly by amino acid residues from the N-terminal domain. The C-terminal domain, sharing little identity with IMPases, is responsible for the substrate specificity (i.e. allows the enzyme to distinguish between HOLP and d-myo-inositol-1-phosphate). Structural features, mainly the presence of a conserved Asp(246), allow MtHPP to bind HOLP specifically. PMID:26994138

  15. Hazard and risk assessment of a nanoparticulate cerium oxide-based diesel fuel additive - a case study.

    PubMed

    Park, Barry; Donaldson, Kenneth; Duffin, Rodger; Tran, Lang; Kelly, Frank; Mudway, Ian; Morin, Jean-Paul; Guest, Robert; Jenkinson, Peter; Samaras, Zissis; Giannouli, Myrsini; Kouridis, Haris; Martin, Patricia

    2008-04-01

    Envirox is a scientifically and commercially proven diesel fuel combustion catalyst based on nanoparticulate cerium oxide and has been demonstrated to reduce fuel consumption, greenhouse gas emissions (CO(2)), and particulate emissions when added to diesel at levels of 5 mg/L. Studies have confirmed the adverse effects of particulates on respiratory and cardiac health, and while the use of Envirox contributes to a reduction in the particulate content in the air, it is necessary to demonstrate that the addition of Envirox does not alter the intrinsic toxicity of particles emitted in the exhaust. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the safety in use of Envirox by addressing the classical risk paradigm. Hazard assessment has been addressed by examining a range of in vitro cell and cell-free endpoints to assess the toxicity of cerium oxide nanoparticles as well as particulates emitted from engines using Envirox. Exposure assessment has taken data from modeling studies and from airborne monitoring sites in London and Newcastle adjacent to routes where vehicles using Envirox passed. Data have demonstrated that for the exposure levels measured, the estimated internal dose for a referential human in a chronic exposure situation is much lower than the no-observed-effect level (NOEL) in the in vitro toxicity studies. Exposure to nano-size cerium oxide as a result of the addition of Envirox to diesel fuel at the current levels of exposure in ambient air is therefore unlikely to lead to pulmonary oxidative stress and inflammation, which are the precursors for respiratory and cardiac health problems. PMID:18444008

  16. In-situ study of the influence of additives on the growth behavior of copper electrodeposits on copper single crystal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Aiwen

    Trace organic additives are known to be essential in obtaining desired metal electrodeposits in the microelectronic industry, however, fundamental design principles for their use and a scientific understanding of their interaction during electrodeposition is lacking. In the present study we investigated electrodeposition of copper on the Cu(100) surface in air-saturated or dearated acid-sulfate plating solutions containing several combinations of chloride and additives benzotriazole (BTA) and 3-mercapto propane sulfonic acid (MPSA) under galvanostatic pulse-current conditions. The electrodeposition process was followed using in-situ atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM images were quantitatively analyzed by pattern-recognition and scaling procedures. In the absence of additives, copper deposits grew in a layer-by-layer mode from the earliest stage of deposition. The surface consisted of smooth terraces separated by steps. The scaling analysis result was consistent with a process dominated by surface diffusion and step growth. In chloride containing solutions, square-pyramidal mounds were initiated and grew to cover the surface. Mound slope increased with deposition time with no indication of reaching a steady-state value. This growth mode was consistent with a surface diffusion mechanism. The scaling result was similar to the additive-free system, but indicated that surface diffusion was more dominant in the presence of chloride. BTA inhibited the surface and produced nucleation-limited growth at hemispheroidal centers whose height to base radius aspect ratio increased linearly with deposition time. Nucleation and growth of three-dimensional nodules started randomly across the entire surface. The nodules were smaller in size than the mounds observed without BTA. The number and density of nodules were much higher than the mounds density. The deposit growth was dominated by a roughening mechanism that can be described by the random roughening term of a stochastic model

  17. A detailed photometric and spectroscopic study of the 2011 outburst of the recurrent nova T Pyxidis from 0.8 to 250 days after discovery

    SciTech Connect

    Surina, F.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Harman, D. J.; Hounsell, R. A.; Walter, F. M.

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the optical light curve of T Pyx during its 2011 outburst by compiling a database of Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and AAVSO observations. The SMEI light curve, providing unprecedented detail covering t = 1.5-49 days post-discovery, was divided into four phases based on the idealized nova optical light curve: the initial rise (1.5-3.3 days), the pre-maximum halt (3.3-13.3 days), the final rise (14.7-27.9 days), and the early decline (27.9+ days). The SMEI light curve contains a strongly detected period of 1.44 ± 0.05 days during the pre-maximum halt phase. These oscillations resemble those found in recent thermonuclear runaway models arising from instabilities in the expanding envelope. No spectral variations that mirror the light curve periodicity were found, however. The marked dip at t ∼ 22-24 days just before the light curve maximum at t = 27.9 days may represent the same (shorter duration) phenomenon seen in other novae observed by SMEI and present in some model light curves. The spectra from the 2 m Liverpool Telescope and SMARTS 1.5 m telescope were obtained from t = 0.8-80.7 and 155.1-249.9 days, covering the major phases of development. The nova was observed very early in its rise where a distinct high-velocity ejection phase was evident with initially derived V {sub ej} ∼ 4000 km s{sup –1}. A marked drop occurred at t = 5.7 days, and then a gradual increase in derived V {sub ej} to stabilize at ∼1500 km s{sup –1} at the pre-maximum halt. Here, we propose two different stages of mass loss, a short-lived phase occurring immediately after outburst and lasting ∼6 days, followed by a more steadily evolving and higher mass loss phase. The overall spectral development follows that typical of a classical nova and comparison with the photometric behavior reveals consistencies with the simple evolving pseudo-photosphere model of the nova outburst. Comparing optical spectra to X-ray and radio light curves, weak [Fe X] 6375

  18. A Detailed Photometric and Spectroscopic Study of the 2011 Outburst of the Recurrent Nova T Pyxidis from 0.8 to 250 Days after Discovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Surina, F.; Hounsell, R. A.; Bode, M. F.; Darnley, M. J.; Harman, D. J.; Walter, F. M.

    2014-05-01

    We investigated the optical light curve of T Pyx during its 2011 outburst by compiling a database of Solar Mass Ejection Imager (SMEI) and AAVSO observations. The SMEI light curve, providing unprecedented detail covering t = 1.5-49 days post-discovery, was divided into four phases based on the idealized nova optical light curve: the initial rise (1.5-3.3 days), the pre-maximum halt (3.3-13.3 days), the final rise (14.7-27.9 days), and the early decline (27.9+ days). The SMEI light curve contains a strongly detected period of 1.44 ± 0.05 days during the pre-maximum halt phase. These oscillations resemble those found in recent thermonuclear runaway models arising from instabilities in the expanding envelope. No spectral variations that mirror the light curve periodicity were found, however. The marked dip at t ~ 22-24 days just before the light curve maximum at t = 27.9 days may represent the same (shorter duration) phenomenon seen in other novae observed by SMEI and present in some model light curves. The spectra from the 2 m Liverpool Telescope and SMARTS 1.5 m telescope were obtained from t = 0.8-80.7 and 155.1-249.9 days, covering the major phases of development. The nova was observed very early in its rise where a distinct high-velocity ejection phase was evident with initially derived V ej ~ 4000 km s-1. A marked drop occurred at t = 5.7 days, and then a gradual increase in derived V ej to stabilize at ~1500 km s-1 at the pre-maximum halt. Here, we propose two different stages of mass loss, a short-lived phase occurring immediately after outburst and lasting ~6 days, followed by a more steadily evolving and higher mass loss phase. The overall spectral development follows that typical of a classical nova and comparison with the photometric behavior reveals consistencies with the simple evolving pseudo-photosphere model of the nova outburst. Comparing optical spectra to X-ray and radio light curves, weak [Fe X] 6375 Å emission was marginally detected before the

  19. [Study on chromosomes aberration in wheat-rye disomics addition lines induced by the gametocidal chromosome 2C].

    PubMed

    Sun, Zhong-Ping; Wang, Zhan-Bin; Xu, Xiang-Ling; Li, Ji-Lin

    2004-11-01

    In the present study,Chinese Spring-Imperial (1 R-7R) wheat-rye disomic addition lines were hybridized with Chinese Spring-2C (derived from Aegilops cylindrica) disomic addition lines. The F1 hybrids were examined by mitotic and meiotic analysis. There were observed abnormal chromosome configurations. A total of 430 F2 plants were obtained by self-pollination. Chromosomes aberrations, such as translocation, deletions, isobrachial and dicentromere chromosomes, are identified in F2 individual plants by C-banding combined with fluorescent in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, chromosome spontaneous substitutions such as 2C substituting for wheat chromosomes 2A, 2B and 2D were also observed. The rule and frequency of chromosome aberration in F2 are the following: 22 out of 430 F2 plants (5.11%) were found involving aberration rye chromosomes. Among them, 10 plants were identified as wheat-rye chromosome translocation lines comprising 2.3%. Rye chromosome deletions comprised 12 of them (2.79%). 3 isobrachial aberrations were detected (about 0.7%), too. Most of the translocation lines are with wheat centromere, only one of them is with rye centromere. Rye chromosome aberrations occurred unevenly among homoeologous groups. There were 5 in 1R, 3 in 2R, 1 in 3R, 3 in 4R, 6 in 5R and 4 in 6R. The majority of the translocation lines are terminal translocation. 54 out of the total 430 progenies are wheat deletions,and 27 are distributed in the A group, 20 in the B group and 7 in the D group respectively. Finally,we discussed the possible cause for the uneven chromosome aberration among homoeologous groups in wheat and rye as well as the effect characteristics of 2C on wheat and rye chromosome. PMID:15651680

  20. Study of sorption of two sulfonylurea type of herbicides and their additives on soils and soil components.

    PubMed

    Földényi, Rita; Tóth, Zoltán; Samu, Gyöngyi; Érsek, Csaba

    2013-01-01

    The sorption of two sulfonylurea type herbicides (chlorsulfuron: (1-(2-chlorophenylsulfonyl)-3-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)urea; tribenuron methyl: (methyl-2-[N-(4-methoxy-6-methyl-1,3,5-triazin-2-yl)-3-(methyl-ureido)-sulfonyl]-benzoate) was studied on sand and chernozem soil adsorbents. Experimental results for solutions prepared from the pure ingredients were compared to those prepared from the appropriate formulated commercial products. At small concentrations, the extent of adsorption of the active ingredient was higher than from the formulation containing solutions. Environmental fate and effects of the forming agents are less investigated because they rarely have concentration limits recommended by authorities. In addition to the adsorption of active ingredients, therefore, the sorption behavior of a widely used additive Supragil WP (sodium diisopropyl naphthalene sulphonate) was also studied. This dispersant is an anionic forming agent applied in a lot of pesticide formulations. Using three different soils (sand, brown forest, chernozem) as adsorbents two-step isotherms were obtained. The role of the soil organic matter (OM) was significant in the adsorption mechanism because the adsorbed amounts of the dispersant correlated with the specific surface area as well as with the total organic carbon (TOC) content of the soils. The sorption behavior indicates the operation of hydrophobic interaction mechanism between the soil OM and the dispersant. These results are supported by our further sorption experiments on clays, too. Zeta potential measurements seem to be promising for the interpretation of multi-step isotherms. The application of this technique proved that higher concentrations of the anionic forming agent assisted the peptization of soil organic matter (SOM) resulting in stable colloidal solution dominated by negative charges. Since the pesticides investigated are also anionic at the studied pH (7 and 8.3) the dissolved organics lead to the

  1. Expansion of the North Carolina Unemployment Insurance Individual Wage Report to Include Occupational Detail: A Study of a Consolidated Approach to Occupational Data Collection.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jurado, Eugene A.; Wolff, Warren W.

    A study examined the feasibility of adding employer-generated job titles to the North Carolina Unemployment Insurance Individual Wage Record as a means to providing a more comprehensive source of occupational data than has been possible with currently operating federal and state systems. During the study, researchers conducted structured…

  2. Prefrontal cortex activity during motor tasks with additional mental load requiring attentional demand: a near-infrared spectroscopy study.

    PubMed

    Mandrick, Kevin; Derosiere, Gérard; Dray, Gérard; Coulon, Denis; Micallef, Jean-Paul; Perrey, Stéphane

    2013-07-01

    Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is suitable for investigating cerebral oxygenation changes during motor and/or mental tasks. In the present study, we investigated how an additional mental load during a motor task at two submaximal loadings affects the fNIRS-measured brain activation over the right prefrontal cortex (PFC). Fifteen healthy males performed isometric grasping contractions at 15% and 30% of the maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) with or without an additional mental (i.e., arithmetic) task. Mental performance, force variability, fNIRS and subjective perception responses were measured in each condition. The performance of the mental task decreased significantly while the force variability increased significantly at 30% MVC as compared to 15% MVC, suggesting that performance of dual-task required more attentional resources. PFC activity increased significantly as the effort increased from 15% to 30% MVC (p<.001). Although a larger change in the deoxyhemoglobin was observed in dual-task conditions (p=.051), PFC activity did not change significantly as compared to the motor tasks alone. In summary, participants were unable to invest more attention and effort in performing the more difficult levels in order to maintain adequate mental performance. PMID:23665138

  3. A Thrust and Impulse Study of Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate as an Additive for Hybrid Rocket Fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patton, J.; Wright, A. M.; Dunn, L.; Alford, B.

    2000-03-01

    A thrust and impulse study of the hybrid rocket fuel additive Guanidinium Azo-Tetrazolate (GAT) was conducted at the University of Arkansas at Little Rock (UALR) Hybrid Rocket Facility. GAT is an organic salt with a high percentage of nitrogen. GAT was mixed with the standard hybrid rocket fuel, Hydroxyl-Terminated Polybutadiene (HTPB), in the concentration of 15%, by mass. The fuel grains with the GAT additive were fired for 4 second runs with the oxygen flows of 0.05, 0.07, 0.09, and 0.12 lbm/sec. For each run average thrust, total impulse, and specific impulse were measured. Average thrust, specific impulse, and total impulse vs. oxygen flow were plotted. Similar data was collected for plain HTPB/PAPI fuels for comparison. GAT was found to increase the thrust output when it was added to the standard hybrid rocket fuel, HTPB. GAT also increased the total impulse during the run. The thrust and total impulse were increased at all flows, but especially at the lower oxygen flow rates. Specific impulse only increased during the lower oxygen flow runs, and decreased slightly for the higher oxygen flow runs.

  4. Influence of CuO and ZnO addition on the multicomponent phosphate glasses: Spectroscopic studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Szumera, Magdalena; Wacławska, Irena; Sułowska, Justyna

    2016-06-01

    The spectra of phosphate-silicate glasses from the P2O5-SiO2-K2O-MgO-CaO system modified with the addition of CuO or ZnO have been studied by means of FTIR, Raman and 31P MAS NMR spectroscopy. All glasses were synthesized by the conventional melt-quenching technique and their homogeneous chemical composition was controlled and confirmed. By using the aforementioned research techniques, the presence of structural units with various degrees of polymerization was shown in the structure of analyzed phosphate-silicate glasses: Q3, Q2, Q1 and Q0. It was found that an increase in the content of CuO or ZnO in the composition of analyzed glasses, which are introduced at the expense of decreasing amounts of CaO and MgO, has a different influence on the phospho-oxygen network. It was shown that copper ions cause its gradual polymerization, while zinc ions cause its depolymerization. At the same time, polymerization of the silico-oxygen subnetwork was found. Additionally, in the case of glasses containing increasing amounts of ZnO, a change of the role of zinc ions in the vitreous matrix was confirmed (from the modifier to a structure-forming component).

  5. Photometry and spectroscopy of GRB 060526: a detailed study of the afterglow and host galaxy of a z = 3.2 gamma-ray burst

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thöne, C. C.; Kann, D. A.; Jóhannesson, G.; Selj, J. H.; Jaunsen, A. O.; Fynbo, J. P. U.; Akerlof, C. W.; Baliyan, K. S.; Bartolini, C.; Bikmaev, I. F.; Bloom, J. S.; Burenin, R. A.; Cobb, B. E.; Covino, S.; Curran, P. A.; Dahle, H.; Ferrero, A.; Foley, S.; French, J.; Fruchter, A. S.; Ganesh, S.; Graham, J. F.; Greco, G.; Guarnieri, A.; Hanlon, L.; Hjorth, J.; Ibrahimov, M.; Israel, G. L.; Jakobsson, P.; Jelínek, M.; Jensen, B. L.; Jørgensen, U. G.; Khamitov, I. M.; Koch, T. S.; Levan, A. J.; Malesani, D.; Masetti, N.; Meehan, S.; Melady, G.; Nanni, D.; Näränen, J.; Pakstiene, E.; Pavlinsky, M. N.; Perley, D. A.; Piccioni, A.; Pizzichini, G.; Pozanenko, A.; Roming, P. W. A.; Rujopakarn, W.; Rumyantsev, V.; Rykoff, E. S.; Sharapov, D.; Starr, D.; Sunyaev, R. A.; Swan, H.; Tanvir, N. R.; Terra, F.; de Ugarte Postigo, A.; Vreeswijk, P. M.; Wilson, A. C.; Yost, S. A.; Yuan, F.

    2010-11-01

    Aims: With this paper we want to investigate the highly variable afterglow light curve and environment of gamma-ray burst (GRB) 060526 at z = 3.221. Methods: We present one of the largest photometric datasets ever obtained for a GRB afterglow, consisting of multi-color photometric data from the ultraviolet to the near infrared. The data set contains 412 data points in total to which we add additional data from the literature. Furthermore, we present low-resolution high signal-to-noise spectra of the afterglow. The afterglow light curve is modeled with both an analytical model using broken power law fits and with a broad-band numerical model which includes energy injections. The absorption lines detected in the spectra are used to derive column densities using a multi-ion single-component curve-of-growth analysis from which we derive the metallicity of the host of GRB 060526. Results: The temporal behaviour of the afterglow follows a double broken power law with breaks at t = 0.090 ± 0.005 and t = 2.401 ± 0.061 days. It shows deviations from the smooth set of power laws that can be modeled by additional energy injections from the central engine, although some significant microvariability remains. The broadband spectral-energy distribution of the afterglow shows no significant extinction along the line of sight. The metallicity derived from S ii and Fe ii of [S/H] = -0.57 ± 0.25 and [Fe/H] = -1.09 ± 0.24 is relatively high for a galaxy at that redshift but comparable to the metallicity of other GRB hosts at similar redshifts. At the position of the afterglow, no host is detected to F775W(AB) = 28.5 mag with the HST, implying an absolute magnitude of the host M(1500 Å) > -18.3 mag which is fainter than most long-duration hosts, although the GRB may be associated with a faint galaxy at a distance of 11 kpc. Based in part on observations obtained with the European Southern Observatory's Very Large Telescope under proposals 077.D-0661 (PI: Vreeswijk) and 177.A-0591

  6. Formulation of detailed consumables management models for the development (preoperational) period of advanced space transportation system. Volume 3: Study of constraints/limitations for STS consumables management

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Newman, C. M.

    1976-01-01

    The constraints and limitations for STS Consumables Management are studied. Variables imposing constraints on the consumables related subsystems are identified, and a method determining constraint violations with the simplified consumables model in the Mission Planning Processor is presented.

  7. Linearity and additivity in cluster-induced sputtering: A molecular-dynamics study of van der Waals bonded systems

    SciTech Connect

    Anders, Christian; Urbassek, Herbert M.; Johnson, Robert E.

    2004-10-15

    Using molecular-dynamics simulation, we study sputtering of a condensed-gas solid induced by the impact of atomic clusters with sizes 1{<=}n{<=}10{sup 4}. Above a nonlinear onset regime, we find a linear increase of the sputter yield Y with the total energy E of the bombarding cluster. The fitting coefficients in the linear regime depend only on the cluster size n such that for fixed bombardment energy, sputtering decreases with increasing cluster size n. We find that to a good approximation the sputter yield in this regime obeys an additivity rule in cluster size n such that doubling the cluster size at the same cluster velocity amounts to doubling the sputter yield. The sputter-limiting energy {epsilon}{sub s} is introduced which separates erosion ({epsilon}>{epsilon}{sub s}) from growth ({epsilon}<{epsilon}{sub s}) under cluster impact.

  8. Study on the performance of polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers synthesized by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Binbin; Zeng, Zhong; Ren, Qinyu; Chen, Yang; Liang, Mei; Zou, Huawei

    2016-09-01

    A series of block type polycarboxylate-based superplasticizers (PCs) with different molecular architectures were synthesized with macromonomer butenyl alkylene polyoxyethylene-polyoxypropylene ether (BAPP) and acrylic acid (AA) by reversible addition-fragmentation chain transfer (RAFT) polymerization. Fourier-Transformed Infrared (FTIR) Spectroscopy and dynamic light scattering (DLS) were applied to investigate the PCs' molecular structure. The dispersion capacity of the PCs in cement were also measured, and the results showed that the polycarboxylic dispersing agents prepared by this method were suitable for portlant cement. It was found that the PCs could affect the hydration process, which was performed through retarding the generation of ettringite in the hydrated product. Our studies with X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and compressive strength measurement of hydrated production were all supporting this conclusion.

  9. Study on Antiwear and Repairing Performances about Mass of Nano-copper Lubricating Additives to 45 Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, X. L.; Yin, Y. L.; Zhang, G. N.; Wang, W. Y.; Zhao, K. K.

    Nano-copper usually serve for lubricating additives in tribology field. The antiwear and reducing friction performances both basic lubrication oil and basic lubrication oil with nano-copper in different mass were tested by friction wear test machine. The morphologies and the main elements of worn surfaces were analyzed by SEM. The results indicated that nano-copper could improve tribology performances of basic lubrication oil. Comparing with base lubrication oil, the mass is 0.15% of nano-copper, the friction coefficient and the worn trace width can be reduced 34% and 32% respectively. Nano-copper can form self-repairing film in lubrication oil which availably separates the friction materials in friction process. Therefore, nano-copper has wonderful antiwear, reducing friction and self-repairing performances. And the function mechanism of Cu nanoparticles is studied in the paper.

  10. Volume-averaged SAR in adult and child head models when using mobile phones: a computational study with detailed CAD-based models of commercial mobile phones.

    PubMed

    Keshvari, Jafar; Heikkilä, Teemu

    2011-12-01

    Previous studies comparing SAR difference in the head of children and adults used highly simplified generic models or half-wave dipole antennas. The objective of this study was to investigate the SAR difference in the head of children and adults using realistic EMF sources based on CAD models of commercial mobile phones. Four MRI-based head phantoms were used in the study. CAD models of Nokia 8310 and 6630 mobile phones were used as exposure sources. Commercially available FDTD software was used for the SAR calculations. SAR values were simulated at frequencies 900 MHz and 1747 MHz for Nokia 8310, and 900 MHz, 1747 MHz and 1950 MHz for Nokia 6630. The main finding of this study was that the SAR distribution/variation in the head models highly depends on the structure of the antenna and phone model, which suggests that the type of the exposure source is the main parameter in EMF exposure studies to be focused on. Although the previous findings regarding significant role of the anatomy of the head, phone position, frequency, local tissue inhomogeneity and tissue composition specifically in the exposed area on SAR difference were confirmed, the SAR values and SAR distributions caused by generic source models cannot be extrapolated to the real device exposures. The general conclusion is that from a volume averaged SAR point of view, no systematic differences between child and adult heads were found. PMID:22005524

  11. The junction of Hellenic and Cyprus arcs: a detailed study of the morphology and Neogene tectonic evolution of the Anaximander Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Aksu, A.; Hall, J.; Çifçi, G.; Dondurur, D.; Yaltırak, C.

    2009-04-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are enigmatic highs located at the complex corner that links the Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs in the eastern Mediterranean. They are made up of several different highs: Anaximander (sensu stricto), Anaxagoras and Anaximenes. Previous work had shown that rock samples from the Anaximander Mountain have affinity with rocks exposed on land nearby in southern Turkey. This had been explained by rifting of the Mountain away from Turkey. In contrast to that, our interpretation of around 1750 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in 2001 showed that Anaximander Mountain is part of a broadly south-verging Miocene thrust system associated with relative southward motion of the Tauride Mountains in southern Turkey. Post-Miocene motion also involves thrusting but is accompanied by transpression and rotation. The 3-dimensional nature of the geology makes mapping of the linkage of structures difficult, so we collected an additional 500 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in 2007, extending our 2001 survey further southwards into the Mediterranean Ridge. These new profiles are shot in a grid oblique to that obtained in 2001, such that the new profile intersections provide a basis for better correlation of the earlier data. We are testing our earlier interpretation through processing and interpretation of these new profiles. Here, we present examples of the new profiles and give first indications of how our earlier interpretation is broadly corroborated by the new data, but with minor adjustments. Anaximenes Mountain is imaged to the south of our previously-mapped area and is characterized as a large south-verging thrust lifting pre-Messinian strata by up to 2 km in a 12-km wide pop-up structure. Internally, Anaximenes is dissected by several splays from the bounding thrusts.

  12. The Junction of Hellenic and Cyprus Arcs: a Detailed Study of the Morphology and Neogene Tectonic Evolution of the Anaximander Mountains

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cranshaw, J.; Aksu, A.; Hall, J.; Cifci, G.; Dondurur, D.; Yaltirak, C.

    2009-05-01

    The Anaximander Mountains are enigmatic highs located at the complex corner that links the Cyprus and Hellenic Arcs in the eastern Mediterranean. They are made up of several different highs: Anaximander (sensu stricto), Anaxagoras and Anaximenes. Previous work had shown that rock samples from the Anaximander Mountain have affinity with rocks exposed on land nearby in southern Turkey. This had been explained by rifting of the Mountain away from Turkey. In contrast to that, our interpretation of around 1750 km of high-resolution multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in 2001 showed that Anaximander Mountain is part of a broadly south-verging Miocene thrust system associated with relative southward motion of the Tauride Mountains in southern Turkey. Post-Miocene motion also involves thrusting but is accompanied by transpression and rotation. The 3-dimensional nature of the geology makes mapping of the linkage of structures difficult, so we collected an additional 500 km of multi-channel seismic reflection data acquired in 2007, extending our 2001 survey further southwards into the Mediterranean Ridge. These new profiles are shot in a grid oblique to that obtained in 2001, such that the new profile intersections provide a basis for better correlation of the earlier data. We are testing our earlier interpretation through processing and interpretation of these new profiles. Here, we present examples of the new profiles and give first indications of how our earlier interpretation is broadly corroborated by the new data, but with minor adjustments. Anaximenes Mountain is imaged to the south of our previously- mapped area and is characterized as a large south-verging thrust lifting pre-Messinian strata by up to 2 km in a 12-km wide pop-up structure. Internally, Anaximenes is dissected by several splays from the bounding thrusts.

  13. A detailed experimental study of the flow in the vicinity of the slotted wall of a wind tunnel with applications to the homogeneous slotted-wall boundary condition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Everhart, J. L.

    1986-01-01

    The results of an experimental study of the flow in the vicinity of the slotted wall of a transonic wind tunnel are presented. A general description of the test setup and the wall configurations studied are given as are examples of the pressure data measured on the airfoil and the walls of the tunnel. The flow angles measured in the vicinity of the slot are examined with implications as to their use in the theory of homogeneous slotted walls. Preliminary values of the classical, homogeneous, slotted-wall boundary-condition coefficient are given and compared with theory.

  14. Targeting the endoplasmic reticulum with a membrane-interactive luminescent ruthenium(ii) polypyridyl complex† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Experimental details, characterization of 2 and Fig. S1–S6. See DOI: 10.1039/c3sc51725j Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Gill, Martin R.; Cecchin, Denis; Walker, Michael G.; Mulla, Raminder S.

    2013-01-01

    The characterization and bioactivity of the dinuclear ruthenium(ii) complex [(Ru(DIP)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (DIP = 4,7-diphenyl-1,10-phenanthroline and tpphz = tetrapyrido[3,2-a:2′,3′-c:3′′,2′′-h:2′′′,3′′′-j]phenazine) is reported. This new complex is found to be luminescent in acetonitrile, where excitation into MLCT (metal-to-ligand charge-transfer) bands in the visible area of the spectrum (λ ex = 450 nm, ε = 45 000 M–1 cm–1) result in red emission (λ em,max = 620 nm, Φ MLCT = 0.017). Aqueous in vitro binding studies indicate that this complex binds to duplex DNA with an affinity of 1.8 × 106 M–1 through a non-classical groove-binding interaction, however, unlike the parent complex [(Ru(phen)2)2(tpphz)]4+ (phen = 1,10-phenanthroline), it also displays an increase in MLCT luminescence on addition of liposomes. Confocal microscopy and TEM studies show that this lipophilic complex targets the endoplasmic reticulum of eukaryotic cells, where it functions as an imaging agent for this organelle, and cytotoxicity studies in human cancer cell lines indicate a comparable potency to the anti-cancer drug cisplatin. PMID:25580209

  15. A detailed microscopic study of the changes in the aorta of experimental model of postmenopausal rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil

    PubMed Central

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Das, Srijit; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2009-01-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia, increase in lipid peroxidation and hyperhomocysteinaemia may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to examine the effects of repeatedly heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on atherosclerosis in oestrogen-deficient postmenopausal rats. Ovariectomy causes disruption of tunica intima layer of the rat aorta simulating a postmenopausal condition in females. Twenty-four ovariectomized female Sprague–Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control group received 2% cholesterol diet without palm oil. A diet with 2% cholesterol content fortified with fresh, once-heated and five-times-heated palm oil was given to the other treatment groups. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 months of study and the aortic arch tissue was processed for histomorphometry and electron microscopy. On observation, there was disruption of the intimal layer of the ovariectomized rat aorta. There was no obvious ultrastructural change in the aorta of the rats fed with fresh palm oil. The ultrastructural changes were minimal with once-heated palm oil, in which there was a focal disruption of the endothelial layer. The focal disruption was more pronounced with five-times-heated palm oil. The results of this study show that the ingestion of fresh palm oil may have a protective effect on the aorta but such a protective action may be lost when the palm oil is repeatedly heated. The study may be clinically important for all postmenopausal women who are susceptible to atherosclerosis. PMID:19563614

  16. A Detailed Study of the Relationships between Teaching, Support, Supervision and Role Modelling in Clinical Areas, within the Context of the Project 2000 Courses.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    White, Edward; And Others

    A study examined the relationships between teaching, support, supervision, and role modeling in clinical areas in nursing education courses within the context of Britain's Project 2000, an educational reform initiative. The main data sources were semistructured interviews with a total of 53 students, 37 practitioners, and 15 tutors in 3 nurse…

  17. A detailed microscopic study of the changes in the aorta of experimental model of postmenopausal rats fed with repeatedly heated palm oil.

    PubMed

    Adam, Siti Khadijah; Das, Srijit; Jaarin, Kamsiah

    2009-06-01

    Hypercholesterolaemia, increase in lipid peroxidation and hyperhomocysteinaemia may contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. This study was performed to examine the effects of repeatedly heated palm oil mixed with 2% cholesterol diet on atherosclerosis in oestrogen-deficient postmenopausal rats. Ovariectomy causes disruption of tunica intima layer of the rat aorta simulating a postmenopausal condition in females. Twenty-four ovariectomized female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups. The control group received 2% cholesterol diet without palm oil. A diet with 2% cholesterol content fortified with fresh, once-heated and five-times-heated palm oil was given to the other treatment groups. The rats were sacrificed at the end of 4 months of study and the aortic arch tissue was processed for histomorphometry and electron microscopy. On observation, there was disruption of the intimal layer of the ovariectomized rat aorta. There was no obvious ultrastructural change in the aorta of the rats fed with fresh palm oil. The ultrastructural changes were minimal with once-heated palm oil, in which there was a focal disruption of the endothelial layer. The focal disruption was more pronounced with five-times-heated palm oil. The results of this study show that the ingestion of fresh palm oil may have a protective effect on the aorta but such a protective action may be lost when the palm oil is repeatedly heated. The study may be clinically important for all postmenopausal women who are susceptible to atherosclerosis. PMID:19563614

  18. CURRENT STATUS OF WATER QUALITY IN LONG, JOHANNA AND JOSEPHINE LAKES - A SUMMARY REPORT ON THE DETAILED EVALUATION STUDY OF THE LONG LAKE CHAIN OF LAKES IMPROVEMENT PROJECT

    EPA Science Inventory

    An evaluation of Long Lake, Minnesota was initiated by Ramsey County and Environmental Research Group, Inc. in February 1978 to determine the effectiveness of a demonstration project on lake restoration. The three-year evaluation study included continuous hydrologic monitoring to...

  19. A detailed study of cholinium chloride and levulinic acid deep eutectic solvent system for CO2 capture via experimental and molecular simulation approaches.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Ruh; Atilhan, Mert; Anaya, Baraa; Khraisheh, Majeda; García, Gregorio; ElKhattat, Ahmed; Tariq, Mohammad; Aparicio, Santiago

    2015-08-28

    Choline chloride + levulinic acid deep eutectic solvent is studied as a suitable material for CO2 capturing purposes. The most relevant physicochemical properties of this solvent are reported together with the CO2 solubility as a function of temperature. The corrosivity of this solvent is studied showing better performance than amine-based solvents. A theoretical study using both density functional theory and molecular dynamics approaches is carried out to analyze the properties of this fluid from the nanoscopic viewpoint, and their relationship with the macroscopic behavior of the system and its ability for CO2 capturing. The behavior of the liquid-gas interface is also studied and its role on the CO2 absorption mechanism is analyzed. The reported combined experimental and theoretical approach leads to a complete picture of the behavior of this new sorbent with regard to CO2, which together with its low cost, and the suitable environmental and toxicological properties of this solvent, lead to a promising candidate for CO2 capturing technological applications. PMID:26214080

  20. Abnormal calcium homeostasis in heart failure with preserved ejection fraction is related to both reduced contractile function and incomplete relaxation: an electromechanically detailed biophysical modeling study

    PubMed Central

    Adeniran, Ismail; MacIver, David H.; Hancox, Jules C.; Zhang, Henggui

    2015-01-01

    Heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) accounts for about 50% of heart failure cases. It has features of incomplete relaxation and increased stiffness of the left ventricle. Studies from clinical electrophysiology and animal experiments have found that HFpEF is associated with impaired calcium homeostasis, ion channel remodeling and concentric left ventricle hypertrophy (LVH). However, it is still unclear how the abnormal calcium homeostasis, ion channel and structural remodeling affect the electro-mechanical dynamics of the ventricles. In this study we have developed multiscale models of the human left ventricle from single cells to the 3D organ, which take into consideration HFpEF-induced changes in calcium handling, ion channel remodeling and concentric LVH. Our simulation results suggest that at the cellular level, HFpEF reduces the systolic calcium level resulting in a reduced systolic contractile force, but elevates the diastolic calcium level resulting in an abnormal residual diastolic force. In our simulations, these abnormal electro-mechanical features of the ventricular cells became more pronounced with the increase of the heart rate. However, at the 3D organ level, the ejection fraction of the left ventricle was maintained due to the concentric LVH. The simulation results of this study mirror clinically observed features of HFpEF and provide new insights toward the understanding of the cellular bases of impaired cardiac electromechanical functions in heart failure. PMID:25852567