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Sample records for additional diagnostic tools

  1. Rig Diagnostic Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Soileau, Kerry M.; Baicy, John W.

    2008-01-01

    Rig Diagnostic Tools is a suite of applications designed to allow an operator to monitor the status and health of complex networked systems using a unique interface between Java applications and UNIX scripts. The suite consists of Java applications, C scripts, Vx- Works applications, UNIX utilities, C programs, and configuration files. The UNIX scripts retrieve data from the system and write them to a certain set of files. The Java side monitors these files and presents the data in user-friendly formats for operators to use in making troubleshooting decisions. This design allows for rapid prototyping and expansion of higher-level displays without affecting the basic data-gathering applications. The suite is designed to be extensible, with the ability to add new system components in building block fashion without affecting existing system applications. This allows for monitoring of complex systems for which unplanned shutdown time comes at a prohibitive cost.

  2. The modified ultrasound pattern sum score mUPSS as additional diagnostic tool for genetically distinct hereditary neuropathies.

    PubMed

    Grimm, Alexander; Rasenack, Maria; Athanasopoulou, Ioanna M; Dammeier, Nele Maria; Lipski, Christina; Wolking, Stefan; Vittore, Debora; Décard, Bernhard F; Axer, Hubertus

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study is to evaluate the nerve ultrasound characteristics in genetically distinct inherited neuropathies, the value of the modified ultrasound pattern sum score (mUPSS) to differentiate between the subtypes and the correlation of ultrasound with nerve conduction studies (NCS), disease duration and severity. All patients underwent a standardized neurological examination, ultrasound, and NCS. In addition, genetic testing was performed. Consequently, mUPSS was applied, which is a sum-score of cross-sectional areas (CSA) at predefined anatomical points in different nerves. 31 patients were included (10xCharcot-Marie-Tooth (CMT)1a, 3xCMT1b, 3xCMTX, 9xCMT2, 6xHNPP [Hereditary neuropathy with liability to pressure palsies]). Generalized, homogeneous nerve enlargement and significantly increased UPS scores emphasized the diagnosis of demyelinating neuropathy, particularly CMT1a and CMT1b. The amount of enlargement did not depend on disease duration, symptom severity, height and weight. In CMTX the nerves were enlarged, as well, however, only in the roots and lower limbs, most prominent in men. In CMT2 no significant enlargement was detectable. In HNPP the CSA values were increased at entrapped sites, and not elsewhere. However, a distinction from CMT1, which also showed enlarged CSA values at entrapment sites, was only possible by calculating the entrapment ratios and entrapment score. The mUPSS allowed distinction between CMT1a (increased UPS scores, entrapment ratios <1.0) and HNPP (low UPS scores, entrapment ratios >1.4), while CMT1b and CMTX showed intermediate UPS types and entrapment ratios <1.0. Although based on few cases, ultrasound revealed consistent and homogeneous nerve alteration in certain inherited neuropathies. The modified UPSS is a quantitative tool, which may provide useful information for diagnosis, differentiation and follow-up evaluation in addition to NCS and molecular testing.

  3. New diagnostic tools in schistosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Utzinger, J; Becker, S L; van Lieshout, L; van Dam, G J; Knopp, S

    2015-06-01

    Schistosomiasis is a water-based parasitic disease that affects over 250 million people. Control efforts have long been in vain, which is one reason why schistosomiasis is considered a neglected tropical disease. However, since the new millennium, interventions against schistosomiasis are escalating. The initial impetus stems from a 2001 World Health Assembly resolution, urging member states to scale-up deworming of school-aged children with the anthelminthic drug praziquantel. Because praziquantel is safe, efficacious and inexpensive when delivered through the school platform, diagnosis before drug intervention was deemed unnecessary and not cost-effective. Hence, there was little interest in research and development of novel diagnostic tools. With the recent publication of the World Health Organization (WHO) Roadmap to overcome the impact of neglected tropical diseases in 2020, we have entered a new era. Elimination of schistosomiasis has become the buzzword and this has important ramifications for diagnostic tools. Indeed, measuring progress towards the WHO Roadmap and whether local elimination has been achieved requires highly accurate diagnostic assays. Here, we introduce target product profiles for diagnostic tools that are required for different stages of a schistosomiasis control programme. We provide an update of the latest developments in schistosomiasis diagnosis, including microscopic techniques, rapid diagnostic tests for antigen detection, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assays and proxy markers for morbidity assessments. Particular emphasis is placed on challenges and solutions for new technologies to enter clinical practice.

  4. Diagnostic tools in Rhinology EAACI position paper

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    This EAACI Task Force document aims at providing the readers with a comprehensive and complete overview of the currently available tools for diagnosis of nasal and sino-nasal disease. We have tried to logically order the different important issues related to history taking, clinical examination and additional investigative tools for evaluation of the severity of sinonasal disease into a consensus document. A panel of European experts in the field of Rhinology has contributed to this consensus document on Diagnostic Tools in Rhinology. PMID:22410181

  5. Diagnostic Tools for Learning Organizations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moilanen, Raili

    2001-01-01

    The Learning Organization Diamond Tool was designed for holistic analysis of 10 learning organization elements at the individual and organizational levels. A test in 25 Finnish organizations established validity. Comparison with existing tools showed that differences derive from their different purposes. (Contains 33 references.) (SK)

  6. [Diagnostic tools of inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Hébuterne, Xavier

    2014-11-01

    The diagnosis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is based on the association of clinical, biological, radiological, endoscopic, and histological parameters. This article focuses on the different diagnostic and prognostic tools used in IBD. PMID:25638857

  7. [Diagnostic tools for canine parvovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Proksch, A L; Hartmann, K

    2015-01-01

    Canine parvovirus (CPV) infection is one of the most important and common infectious diseases in dogs, in particular affecting young puppies when maternal antibodies have waned and vaccine-induced antibodies have not yet developed. The mortality rate remains high. Therefore, a rapid and safe diagnostic tool is essential to diagnose the disease to 1) provide intensive care treatment and 2) to identify virus-shedding animals and thus prevent virus spread. Whilst the detection of antibodies against CPV is considered unsuitable to diagnose the disease, there are several different methods to directly detect complete virus, virus antigen or DNA. Additionally, to test in commercial laboratories, rapid in-house tests based on ELISA are available worldwide. The specificity of the ELISA rapid in-house tests is reported to be excellent. However, results on sensitivity vary and high numbers of false-negative results are commonly reported, which potentially leads to misdiagnosis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) is a very sensitive and specific diagnostic tool. It also provides the opportunity to differentiate vaccine strains from natural infection when sequencing is performed after PCR.

  8. Diagnostic Tools of Pleural Effusion

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Pleural effusion is not a rare disease in Korea. The diagnosis of pleural effusion is very difficult, even though the patients often complain of typical symptoms indicating of pleural diseases. Pleural effusion is characterized by the pleural cavity filled with transudative or exudative pleural fluids, and it is developed by various etiologies. The presence of pleural effusion can be confirmed by radiological studies including simple chest radiography, ultrasonography, or computed tomography. Identifying the causes of pleural effusions by pleural fluid analysis is essential for proper treatments. This review article provides information on the diagnostic approaches of pleural effusions and further suggested ways to confirm their various etiologies, by using the most recent journals for references. PMID:24920946

  9. Aura photography: mundane physics or diagnostic tool?

    PubMed

    Stanwick, M

    Kirlian photography is often associated with the paranormal. Many people believe it records the auras of living objects and that it can be used as a diagnostic tool. This paper argues against these beliefs and maintains that there is a simple, scientific explanation of the Kirlian effect. PMID:8718173

  10. Innovative diagnostic tools for early detection of Alzheimer's disease.

    PubMed

    Laske, Christoph; Sohrabi, Hamid R; Frost, Shaun M; López-de-Ipiña, Karmele; Garrard, Peter; Buscema, Massimo; Dauwels, Justin; Soekadar, Surjo R; Mueller, Stephan; Linnemann, Christoph; Bridenbaugh, Stephanie A; Kanagasingam, Yogesan; Martins, Ralph N; O'Bryant, Sid E

    2015-05-01

    Current state-of-the-art diagnostic measures of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are invasive (cerebrospinal fluid analysis), expensive (neuroimaging) and time-consuming (neuropsychological assessment) and thus have limited accessibility as frontline screening and diagnostic tools for AD. Thus, there is an increasing need for additional noninvasive and/or cost-effective tools, allowing identification of subjects in the preclinical or early clinical stages of AD who could be suitable for further cognitive evaluation and dementia diagnostics. Implementation of such tests may facilitate early and potentially more effective therapeutic and preventative strategies for AD. Before applying them in clinical practice, these tools should be examined in ongoing large clinical trials. This review will summarize and highlight the most promising screening tools including neuropsychometric, clinical, blood, and neurophysiological tests.

  11. Web100-based Network Diagnostic Tool

    2003-03-20

    NDT is a client/server based network diagnostic tool developed to aid in finding network performance and configuration problems. The tool measures data transfer rates between two internet hosts (client and server). It also gathers detailed TCP statistical variable counters supplied by the Web100 modified server and uses these TCP variables to compute the theoretical performance rate between the two internet hosts. It then compares these analytical results with the measured results to determine if performancemore » or configuration problems exist and translates these results into plain text messages to aid users and network operators in resolving reported problems.« less

  12. Biophotonic Tools in Cell and Tissue Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Brownstein, Michael; Hoffman, Robert A.; Levenson, Richard; Milner, Thomas E.; Dowell, M. L.; Williams, P. A.; White, G. S.; Gaigalas, A. K.; Hwang, J. C.

    2007-01-01

    In order to maintain the rapid advance of biophotonics in the U.S. and enhance our competitiveness worldwide, key measurement tools must be in place. As part of a wide-reaching effort to improve the U.S. technology base, the National Institute of Standards and Technology sponsored a workshop titled “Biophotonic tools for cell and tissue diagnostics.” The workshop focused on diagnostic techniques involving the interaction between biological systems and photons. Through invited presentations by industry representatives and panel discussion, near- and far-term measurement needs were evaluated. As a result of this workshop, this document has been prepared on the measurement tools needed for biophotonic cell and tissue diagnostics. This will become a part of the larger measurement road-mapping effort to be presented to the Nation as an assessment of the U.S. Measurement System. The information will be used to highlight measurement needs to the community and to facilitate solutions. PMID:27110461

  13. Molecular beacons: a novel optical diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Han, Su-Xia; Jia, Xi; Ma, Jin-lu; Zhu, Qing

    2013-04-01

    As a result of the efforts of the Human Genome Project and the rise in demand for molecular diagnostic assays, the development and optimization of novel hybridization probes have focused on speed, reliability, and accuracy in the identification of nucleic acids. Molecular beacons (MBs) are single-stranded, fluorophore-labeled nucleic acid probes that are capable of generating a fluorescent signal in the presence of target, but are dark in the absence of target. Because of the high specificity and sensitivity characteristics, MBs have been used in variety of fields. In this review, MBs are introduced and discussed as diagnostic tools in four sections: several technologies of MBs will be illustrated primarily; the limitation of MBs next; the third part is new fashions of MBs; and the last one is to present the application of MBs in disease diagnosis.

  14. Additive manufacturing of tools for lapping glass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2013-09-01

    Additive manufacturing technologies have the ability to directly produce parts with complex geometries without the need for secondary processes, tooling or fixtures. This ability was used to produce concave lapping tools with a VFlash 3D printer from 3D Systems. The lapping tools were first designed in Creo Parametric with a defined constant radius and radial groove pattern. The models were converted to stereolithography files which the VFlash used in building the parts, layer by layer, from a UV curable resin. The tools were rotated at 60 rpm and used with 120 grit and 220 grit silicon carbide lapping paste to lap 0.750" diameter fused silica workpieces. The samples developed a matte appearance on the lapped surface that started as a ring at the edge of the workpiece and expanded to the center. This indicated that as material was removed, the workpiece radius was beginning to match the tool radius. The workpieces were then cleaned and lapped on a second tool (with equivalent geometry) using a 3000 grit corundum aluminum oxide lapping paste, until a near specular surface was achieved. By using lapping tools that have been additively manufactured, fused silica workpieces can be lapped to approach a specified convex geometry. This approach may enable more rapid lapping of near net shape workpieces that minimize the material removal required by subsequent polishing. This research may also enable development of new lapping tool geometry and groove patterns for improved loose abrasive finishing.

  15. [Diagnostic tools in inflammatory bowel diseases].

    PubMed

    Bouhnik, Yoram

    2005-05-15

    The two major inflammatory bowel diseases, Crohn's disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC), represent clinicopathologic entities that traditionally have been diagnosed on the basis of a combination of clinical, radiologic, endoscopic, and histologic features. The presence of an inflammatory syndrome associated with typical clinical manifestations must lead to perform endoscopic examinations. Ileocolonoscopy plays an integral role in establishing the diagnosis, excluding other etiologies, distinguishing Crohn's disease from ulcerative colitis, defining the patterns, extent, and activity of mucosal inflammation, and obtaining mucosal tissue for histologic evaluation of inflammatory bowel disease. Small bowel follow through is still a major examination. However, the role of CT and MRI (using enteroclysis) in the imaging of inflammatory bowel disease has also increased in importance. Capsule endoscopy could be a valuable diagnostic tool in patients with suspected Crohn's disease that has not been confirmed using standard imaging techniques. Serum perinuclear antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (pANCA) and anti-Saccharomyces cerevisiae antibodies (ASCA) have recently been added to our diagnostic armamentarium. Serology may prove to be useful in predicting the evolution of indeterminate colitis. Substantial progress could come from the improving of serologic and genetic tests in the future. PMID:16052968

  16. Procrustes rotation as a diagnostic tool for projection pursuit analysis.

    PubMed

    Wentzell, Peter D; Hou, Siyuan; Silva, Carolina Santos; Wicks, Chelsi C; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda

    2015-06-01

    Projection pursuit (PP) is an effective exploratory data analysis tool because it optimizes the projection of high dimensional data using distributional characteristics rather than variance or distance metrics. The recent development of fast and simple PP algorithms based on minimization of kurtosis for clustering data has made this powerful tool more accessible, but under conditions where the sample-to-variable ratio is small, PP fails due to opportunistic overfitting of random correlations to limiting distributional targets. Therefore, some kind of variable compression or data regularization is required in these cases. However, this introduces an additional parameter whose optimization is manually time consuming and subject to bias. The present work describes the use of Procrustes analysis as diagnostic tool that can be used to evaluate the results of PP analysis in an efficient manner. Through Procrustes rotation, the similarity of different PP projections can be examined in an automated fashion with "Procrustes maps" to establish regions of stable projections as a function of the parameter to be optimized. The application of this diagnostic is demonstrated using principal components analysis to compress FTIR spectra from ink samples of ten different brands of pen, and also in conjunction with regularized PP for soybean disease classification. PMID:26002210

  17. Comparison of emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-04-06

    Diagnostic software tools for large commercial buildings are being developed to help detect and diagnose energy and other performance problems with building operations. These software applications utilize energy management control system (EMCS) trend log data. Due to the recent development of diagnostic tools, there has been little detailed comparison among the tools and a limited awareness of tool capabilities by potential users. Today, these diagnostic tools focus mainly on air handlers, but the opportunity exists for broadening the scope of the tools to include all major parts of heating, cooling, and ventilation systems in more detail. This paper compares several tools in the following areas: (1) Scope, intent, and background; (2) Data acquisition, pre-processing, and management; (3) Problems detected; (4) Raw data visualization; (5) Manual and automated diagnostic methods and (6) Level of automation. This comparison is intended to provide practitioners and researchers with a picture of the current state of diagnostic tools. There is tremendous potential for these tools to help improve commercial building energy and non-energy performance.

  18. Diagnostics Tools Identify Faults Prior to Failure

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2013-01-01

    Through the SBIR program, Rochester, New York-based Impact Technologies LLC collaborated with Ames Research Center to commercialize the Center s Hybrid Diagnostic Engine, or HyDE, software. The fault detecting program is now incorporated into a software suite that identifies potential faults early in the design phase of systems ranging from printers to vehicles and robots, saving time and money.

  19. Current and nano-diagnostic tools for dengue infection.

    PubMed

    Peh, Alister En Kai; Leo, Yee-Sin; Toh, Chee Seng

    2011-01-01

    Dengue is one of the infectious diseases that is widespread over global regions with yearly occurrence of epidemics and could be deadly in some cases. Thus the developments of rapid and specific diagnostic tools which can achieve early detection of dengue infection for disease control during epidemic situations and before complications occur are deemed highly desirable. This paper describes the current and advanced methods for diagnosis of dengue infection and discusses the advantages and disadvantages of these methods in terms of their analytical performances and clinical applicabilities. The current methods discussed herein include enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction. In addition, recent instrumental methods such as quartz crystal microbalance, surface plasmon resonance, photonic crystal and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy have shown promising results. Interesting developments in detection of dengue infection using nanosized materials including liposomes, nanowires and nanopores, coupled to conventional fluorescence, potentiometry and voltammetry methods are also described and could possibly point the way forward for the development of inexpensive diagnostic tools for use at point-of-care and in events of epidemic scale.

  20. Saliva as a potential diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Deepa, T; Thirrunavukkarasu, N

    2010-07-01

    Saliva is a complex fluid consisting of secretions from the major and minor salivary glands. Gland-specific saliva can be used to diagnose any pathology from the specific major salivary gland. Whole saliva has serum constituents that are derived from the local vasculature of the salivary glands and gingival crevicular fluid. Saliva, as a diagnostic fluid, has distinctive advantages over serum as whole saliva can be collected non-invasively by individuals with limited training using simple equipments. This review aimed to explore the diagnostic applications of saliva in systemic and oral diseases. Analysis of saliva can offer a cost-effective approach to screen for a larger population. Salivary analysis may be useful for diagnosing systemic oral disorders, as well as for monitoring hormone and therapeutic levels of drug.

  1. Merits and Pitfalls of Currently Used Diagnostic Tools in Mycetoma

    PubMed Central

    van de Sande, Wendy W. J.; Fahal, Ahmed H.; Goodfellow, Michael; Mahgoub, El Sheikh; Welsh, Oliverio; Zijlstra, Ed E.

    2014-01-01

    Treatment of mycetoma depends on the causative organism and since many organisms, both actinomycetes (actinomycetoma) and fungi (eumycetoma), are capable of producing mycetoma, an accurate diagnosis is crucial. Currently, multiple diagnostic tools are used to determine the extent of infections and to identify the causative agents of mycetoma. These include various imaging, cytological, histopathological, serological, and culture techniques; phenotypic characterisation; and molecular diagnostics. In this review, we summarize these techniques and identify their merits and pitfalls in the identification of the causative agents of mycetoma and the extent of the disease. We also emphasize the fact that there is no ideal diagnostic tool available to identify the causative agents and that future research should focus on the development of new and reliable diagnostic tools. PMID:24992636

  2. PICADAR: a diagnostic predictive tool for primary ciliary dyskinesia

    PubMed Central

    Behan, Laura; Dimitrov, Borislav D.; Kuehni, Claudia E.; Hogg, Claire; Carroll, Mary; Evans, Hazel J.; Goutaki, Myrofora; Harris, Amanda; Packham, Samantha; Walker, Woolf T.

    2016-01-01

    Symptoms of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) are nonspecific and guidance on whom to refer for testing is limited. Diagnostic tests for PCD are highly specialised, requiring expensive equipment and experienced PCD scientists. This study aims to develop a practical clinical diagnostic tool to identify patients requiring testing. Patients consecutively referred for testing were studied. Information readily obtained from patient history was correlated with diagnostic outcome. Using logistic regression, the predictive performance of the best model was tested by receiver operating characteristic curve analyses. The model was simplified into a practical tool (PICADAR) and externally validated in a second diagnostic centre. Of 641 referrals with a definitive diagnostic outcome, 75 (12%) were positive. PICADAR applies to patients with persistent wet cough and has seven predictive parameters: full-term gestation, neonatal chest symptoms, neonatal intensive care admittance, chronic rhinitis, ear symptoms, situs inversus and congenital cardiac defect. Sensitivity and specificity of the tool were 0.90 and 0.75 for a cut-off score of 5 points. Area under the curve for the internally and externally validated tool was 0.91 and 0.87, respectively. PICADAR represents a simple diagnostic clinical prediction rule with good accuracy and validity, ready for testing in respiratory centres referring to PCD centres. PMID:26917608

  3. Using Automated Diagnostic Tools to Provide Energy Services

    SciTech Connect

    Brambley, Michael R.; Pratt, Robert G.

    2000-06-01

    Recently, a small number of automated diagnostic tools for building systems have become commercially available. These tools distinguish themselves from analytic software and trouble-shooting tools by automating the actual process of reaching conclusions from empirical data. Their distinction is that they produce easily-used information from (raw) data. These tools can be contrasted with tools that provide assistance in diagnosis, for example, by plotting data in various ways so performance problems can be detected and diagnosed by a knowledgeable expert. The availability of such expertise is limited and applying it manually takes considerable time. Automation reduces the time required for performance-problem detection and the associated costs.

  4. Progress and limits of TSE diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Grassi, Jacques; Maillet, Séverine; Simon, Stéphanie; Morel, Nathalie

    2008-01-01

    Following the two "mad cow" crises of 1996 and 2000, there was an urgent need for rapid and sensitive diagnostic methods to identify animals infected with the bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE) agent. This stimulated research in the field of prion diagnosis and led to the establishment of numerous so-called "rapid tests" which have been in use in Europe since 2001 for monitoring at-risk populations (rendering plants) and animals slaughtered for human consumption (slaughterhouse). These rapid tests have played a critical role in the management of the mad cow crisis by allowing the removal of prion infected carcasses from the human food chain, and by allowing a precise epidemiological monitoring of the BSE epizootic. They are all based on the detection of the abnormal form of the prion protein (PrP(Sc) or PrP(res)) in brain tissues and consequently are only suitable for post-mortem diagnosis. Since it is now very clear that variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (vCJD) can be transmitted by blood transfusion, the development of a blood test for the diagnosis of vCJD is a top priority. Although significant progress has been made in this direction, including the development of the protein misfolding cyclic amplification (PMCA) technology, at the time this paper was written, this objective had not yet been achieved. This is the most important challenge for the years to come in this field of prion research. PMID:18284910

  5. Saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral and systemic diseases

    PubMed Central

    Javaid, Mohammad A.; Ahmed, Ahad S.; Durand, Robert; Tran, Simon D.

    2015-01-01

    Early disease detection is not only vital to reduce disease severity and prevent complications, but also critical to increase success rate of therapy. Saliva has been studied extensively as a potential diagnostic tool over the last decade due to its ease and non-invasive accessibility along with its abundance of biomarkers, such as genetic material and proteins. This review will update the clinician on recent advances in salivary biomarkers to diagnose autoimmune diseases (Sjogren's syndrome, cystic fibrosis), cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, HIV, oral cancer, caries and periodontal diseases. Considering their accuracy, efficacy, ease of use and cost effectiveness, salivary diagnostic tests will be available in dental offices. It is expected that the advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines and results following rigorous testing will allow salivary diagnostics to be used as chair-side tests for several oral and systemic diseases in the near future. PMID:26937373

  6. Trichoscopy in Trichotillomania: A Useful Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Ankad, Balachandra S; Naidu, M Varna; Beergouder, Savitha L; Sujana, L

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Trichotillomania (TTM) is characterized by patchy alopecia of hair bearing areas. This is because of compulsive urge to pull the hair. Scalp is the most common site for pulling hair. Usually, patients may have only small areas of baldness, in severe forms, tonsure pattern of baldness is observed. Diagnosis is by history and clinical examination. However, it is difficult to differentiate from other causes of noncicatricial alopecia. Here, authors observed trichoscopic patterns and evaluated their importance in the diagnosis of TTM. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in S. Nijalingappa Medical College, Bagalkot, from January 2014 to July 2014. Ten patients with clinically suspected TTM were included in the study. Informed consent was taken and ethical clearance was obtained. Dermlite3 dermoscope was used with Sony camera attachment to save the images. Histopathological examination was conducted in all the patients to confirm the diagnosis. Results: Ten patients were included in the study. Mean age of the patients was 34 years. Most common symptom was patchy loss of hair in the frontal area (100%). Common trichoscopic feature was decreased hair density and broken hairs. Trichoptilosis (split ends) and irregular coiled hairs were seen in 80% patients. Novel diagnostic signs like black dots, flame hair, v-sign, follicular hemorrhages, were seen in 30% each. Tulip hair and hair powder were observed in 10% of patients. All patients had the noninflammatory alopecia with distorted and collapsed inner root sheath in histopathology. Conclusion: Trichotillomania is often chronic and difficult to treat. Hence, early diagnosis and treatment is necessary. Authors believe that the trichoscopy plays a vital role in the diagnosis of this condition by demonstrating specific trichoscopic patterns. PMID:25368471

  7. DEVICE CONTROL TOOL FOR CEBAF BEAM DIAGNOSTICS SOFTWARE

    SciTech Connect

    Pavel Chevtsov

    2008-02-11

    Continuously monitoring the beam quality in the CEBAF accelerator, a variety of beam diagnostics software created at Jefferson Lab makes a significant contribution to very high availability of the machine for nuclear physics experiments. The interface between this software and beam instrumentation hardware components is provided by a device control tool, which is optimized for beam diagnostics tasks. As a part of the device/driver development framework at Jefferson Lab, this tool is very easy to support and extend to integrate new beam instrumentation components. All device control functions are based on the configuration (ASCII text) files that completely define the used hardware interface standards (CAMAC, VME, RS-232, GPIB, etc.) and communication protocols. The paper presents the main elements of the device control tool for beam diagnostics software at Jefferson Lab.

  8. Hair: A Diagnostic Tool to Complement Blood Serum and Urine.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Maugh, Thomas H., II

    1978-01-01

    Trace elements and some drugs can be identified in hair and it seems likely that other organic chemicals will be identifiable in the future. Since hair is so easily collected, stored, and analyzed it promises to be an ideal complement to serum and urine analysis as a diagnostic tool. (BB)

  9. A Tool for Helping Veterinary Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Bender, Holly S.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Lockee, Barbara B.

    2003-01-01

    Describes the result of implementing the Problem List Generator, a computer-based tool designed to help clinical pathology veterinary students learn diagnostic problem solving. Findings suggest that student problem solving ability improved, because students identified all relevant data before providing a solution. (MES)

  10. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology.

    PubMed

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease.

  11. Diagnosis demystified: CT as diagnostic tool in endodontics

    PubMed Central

    Shruthi, Nagaraja; Sreenivasa Murthy, B V; Sundaresh, K J; Mallikarjuna, Rachappa

    2013-01-01

    Diagnosis in endodontics is usually based on clinical and radiographical presentations, which are only empirical methods. The role of healing profession is to apply knowledge and skills towards maintaining and restoring the patient's health. Recent advances in imaging technologies have added to correct interpretation and diagnosis. CT is proving to be an effective tool in solving endodontic mysteries through its three-dimensional visualisation. CT imaging offers many diagnostic advantages to produce reconstructed images in selected projection and low-contrast resolution far superior to that of all other X-ray imaging modalities. This case report is an endeavour towards effective treatment planning of cases with root fracture, root resorption using spiral CT as an adjuvant diagnostic tool. PMID:23814212

  12. Polymerase chain reaction: A molecular diagnostic tool in periodontology

    PubMed Central

    Maheaswari, Rajendran; Kshirsagar, Jaishree Tukaram; Lavanya, Nallasivam

    2016-01-01

    This review discusses the principles of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and its application as a diagnostic tool in periodontology. The relevant MEDLINE and PubMed indexed journals were searched manually and electronically by typing PCR, applications of PCR, PCR in periodontics, polymorphism studies in periodontitis, and molecular techniques in periodontology. The searches were limited to articles in English language and the articles describing PCR process and its relation to periodontology were collected and used to prepare a concise review. PCR has now become a standard diagnostic and research tool in periodontology. Various studies reveal that its sensitivity and specificity allow it as a rapid, efficient method of detecting, identifying, and quantifying organism. Different immune and inflammatory markers can be identified at the mRNA expression level, and also the determination of genetic polymorphisms, thus providing the deeper insight into the mechanisms underlying the periodontal disease. PMID:27143822

  13. Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

    SciTech Connect

    Friedman, Hannah; Piette, Mary Ann

    2001-05-01

    This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.

  14. The diagnostic path, a useful visualisation tool in virtual microscopy

    PubMed Central

    Schrader, Thomas; Niepage, Sonja; Leuthold, Thomas; Saeger, Kai; Schluns, Karsten; Hufnagl, Peter; Kayser, Klaus; Dietel, Manfred

    2006-01-01

    Background The Virtual Microscopy based on completely digitalised histological slide. Concerning this digitalisation many new features in mircoscopy can be processed by the computer. New applications are possible or old, well known techniques of image analyses can be adapted for routine use. Aims A so called diagnostic path observes in the way of a professional sees through a histological virtual slide combined with the text information of the dictation process. This feature can be used for image retrieval, quality assurance or for educational purpose. Materials and methods The diagnostic path implements a metadata structure of image information. It stores and processes the different images seen by a pathologist during his "slide viewing" and the obtained image sequence ("observation path"). Contemporary, the structural details of the pathology reports were analysed. The results were transferred into an XML structure. Based on this structure, a report editor and a search function were implemented. The report editor compiles the "diagnostic path", which is the connection from the image viewing sequence ("observation path") and the oral report sequence of the findings ("dictation path"). The time set ups of speech and image viewing serve for the link between the two sequences. The search tool uses the obtained diagnostic path. It allows the user to search for particular histological hallmarks in pathology reports and in the corresponding images. Results The new algorithm was tested on 50 pathology reports and 74 attached histological images. The creation of a new individual diagnostic path is automatically performed during the routine diagnostic process. The test prototype experienced an insignificant prolongation of the diagnosis procedure (oral case description and stated diagnosis by the pathologist) and a fast and reliable retrieval, especially useful for continuous education and quality control of case description and diagnostic work. Discussion The Digital

  15. Tomography as a promising diagnostic tool for plasma turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, A.; Nagashima, Y.; Inagaki, S.; Onchi, T.; Ohshima, S.; Shimizu, A.

    2016-02-01

    A system for plasma turbulence tomography has been developed in a linear cylindrical plasma as a prototype with aiming at future application on toroidal plasma of higher temperature. This paper describes the diagnostic system in both aspects of the soft- and hardware, and reports the first results of tomographic reconstruction that can successfully produce local emission and its fluctuations. In the reconstruction process, two dimensional view of plasma is obtained for approximately 0.6 ms in every sampling time of 1 μs using parallel processing of 120 cores with 10 personal computers. The results include the steady state analysis of local fluctuation power spectra using fast Fourier transform, analysis of temporal behavior of fluctuation power spectra with wavelet transform, and analyses of the structural deformation or pattern of local plasma emission, demonstrating that the success of tomography as a promising diagnostic tool for plasma turbulence.

  16. Molecular diagnostic and surveillance tools for global malaria control.

    PubMed

    Erdman, Laura K; Kain, Kevin C

    2008-01-01

    Malaria is the most devastating parasitic infection in the world, annually causing over 1 million deaths and extensive morbidity. The global burden of malaria has increased over the last several decades, as have rates of imported malaria into non-endemic regions. Rapid and accurate diagnostics are a crucial component of malaria control strategies, and epidemiological surveillance is required to monitor trends in malaria prevalence and antimalarial drug resistance. Conventional malaria diagnostic and surveillance tools can be cumbersome and slow with limitations in both sensitivity and specificity. New molecular techniques have been developed in an attempt to overcome these restrictions. These molecular techniques are discussed with regard to their technical advantages and disadvantages, with an emphasis on the practicality of implementation in malaria-endemic and non-endemic regions.

  17. [Echocardiography as primary diagnostic tool for valvular heart diseases].

    PubMed

    Nabauer, M

    2013-10-01

    Echocardiography is the method of choice for diagnostics and decision making in valvular heart diseases. It is a universally available diagnostic tool not limited by radiation exposure or toxicity of contrast agents. It is capable of displaying cardiac anatomy, function and blood flow allowing an integrative approach to diagnosing valvular heart diseases. Quantification of stenotic valve lesions by calculating the valve opening area is well established. On the other hand, quantification of valve regurgitation is more difficult as it relies on simplifications and assumptions on geometry of the regurgitation orifice and its boundaries. Three dimensional assessments of the regurgitation orifice and flow may improve the accuracy of grading of cardiac valve regurgitation. PMID:24129985

  18. Development of Doppler Global Velocimetry as a Flow Diagnostics Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyers, James F.

    1995-01-01

    The development of Doppler global velocimetry is described from its inception to its use as a flow diagnostics tool. Its evolution is traced from an elementary one-component laboratory prototype, to a full three-component configuration operating in a wind tunnel at focal distances exceeding 15 m. As part of the developmental process, several wind tunnel flow field investigations were conducted. These included supersonic flow measurements about an oblique shock, subsonic and supersonic measurements of the vortex flow above a delta wing, and three-component measurements of a high-speed jet.

  19. Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale: Additional Evidence of Reliability and Validity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stice, Eric; Fisher, Melissa; Martinez, Erin

    2004-01-01

    The authors conducted 4 studies investigating the reliability and validity of the Eating Disorder Diagnostic Scale (HDDS; E. Stice, C. F. Telch, & S. L. Rizvi, 2000), a brief self-report measure for diagnosing anorexia nervosa, bulimia nervosa, and binge eating disorder. Study 1 found that the HDDS showed criterion validity with interview-based…

  20. New V and V Tools for Diagnostic Modeling Environment (DME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pecheur, Charles; Nelson, Stacy; Merriam, Marshall (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to provide correctness and reliability criteria for verification and validation (V&V) of Second Generation Reusable Launch Vehicle (RLV) Diagnostic Modeling Environment, describe current NASA Ames Research Center tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning systems, and discuss the applicability of Advanced V&V to DME. This report is divided into the following three sections: (1) correctness and reliability criteria; (2) tools for V&V of Model Based Reasoning; and (3) advanced V&V applicable to DME. The Executive Summary includes an overview of the main points from each section. Supporting details, diagrams, figures, and other information are included in subsequent sections. A glossary, acronym list, appendices, and references are included at the end of this report.

  1. Diagnostic tools for mixing models of stream water chemistry

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hooper, R.P.

    2003-01-01

    Mixing models provide a useful null hypothesis against which to evaluate processes controlling stream water chemical data. Because conservative mixing of end-members with constant concentration is a linear process, a number of simple mathematical and multivariate statistical methods can be applied to this problem. Although mixing models have been most typically used in the context of mixing soil and groundwater end-members, an extension of the mathematics of mixing models is presented that assesses the "fit" of a multivariate data set to a lower dimensional mixing subspace without the need for explicitly identified end-members. Diagnostic tools are developed to determine the approximate rank of the data set and to assess lack of fit of the data. This permits identification of processes that violate the assumptions of the mixing model and can suggest the dominant processes controlling stream water chemical variation. These same diagnostic tools can be used to assess the fit of the chemistry of one site into the mixing subspace of a different site, thereby permitting an assessment of the consistency of controlling end-members across sites. This technique is applied to a number of sites at the Panola Mountain Research Watershed located near Atlanta, Georgia.

  2. Insulator-based dielectrophoretic diagnostic tool for babesiosis.

    PubMed

    Adekanmbi, Ezekiel O; Ueti, Massaro W; Rinaldi, Brady; Suarez, Carlos E; Srivastava, Soumya K

    2016-05-01

    Babesia species are obligate intraerythrocytic tick-borne protozoan parasites that are the etiologic agents of babesiosis, a potentially life-threatening, malaria-like illness in humans and animals. Babesia-infected people have been known to suffer from complications including liver problems, severe hemolytic anemia, and kidney failure. As reported by the Food and Drug Administration, 38% of mortality cases observed in transfusion recipients were associated with transfusion transmitted diseases of which babesiosis is the chief culprit. As of now, no tests have been licensed yet for screening blood donors for babesiosis. Current diagnostic tools for babesiosis including enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, fluorescence in situ hybridization, and polymerase chain reaction are expensive and burdened with multifarious shortcomings. In this research, a low-cost, high-specificity, quick, and easy-to-use insulator-based dielectrophoretic diagnostic tool is developed for characterizing and concentrating Babesia-infected cells in their homogenous mixture with healthy cell population. In this work, a mixture of Babesia-infected (varying parasitemia) and healthy red blood cells (RBCs or erythrocytes) was exposed to non-uniform electric fields in a fabricated microfluidic platform to manipulate and sort the Babesia-infected cells within a minute. At DC voltage configurations of 10 V and 0/6 V in the inlet and the two outlet channels, respectively, the diseased cells were seen to flow in a direction different from the healthy RBCs. Bright field and fluorescence microscopy were utilized to present qualitative differentiation of the healthy erythrocytes from the infected cells. The proposed micro device platform was able to enrich RBCs from 0.1% to ∼70% parasitemia. This device, when finally developed into a point-of-care diagnostic chip, would enhance the detection of Babesia-infected erythrocytes and as well serve as a precursor to babesiosis vaccine development. PMID

  3. An early diagnostic tool for diabetic peripheral neuropathy in rats.

    PubMed

    Kambiz, Shoista; van Neck, Johan W; Cosgun, Saniye G; van Velzen, Marit H N; Janssen, Joop A M J L; Avazverdi, Naim; Hovius, Steven E R; Walbeehm, Erik T

    2015-01-01

    The skin's rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the skin rewarming rate in diabetic rats is related to microvascular changes and whether this is accompanied by changes observed in classical diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats' hind paws. Peripheral neuropathy was determined by the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), mechanical sensitivity, and electrophysiological recordings. Data were obtained in diabetic rats at four, six, and eight weeks after the induction of diabetes and in controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, a delayed rewarming rate, decreased skin blood flow and decreased density of IENFs were observed. However, the mechanical hyposensitivity and decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) developed 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our study shows that the skin rewarming rate is related to microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Moreover, the skin rewarming rate is a non-invasive method that provides more information for an earlier diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy than the classical monofilament test and MNCV in STZ induced diabetic rats.

  4. An Early Diagnostic Tool for Diabetic Peripheral Neuropathy in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kambiz, Shoista; van Neck, Johan W.; Cosgun, Saniye G.; van Velzen, Marit H. N.; Janssen, Joop A. M. J. L.; Avazverdi, Naim; Hovius, Steven E. R.; Walbeehm, Erik T.

    2015-01-01

    The skin’s rewarming rate of diabetic patients is used as a diagnostic tool for early diagnosis of diabetic neuropathy. At present, the relationship between microvascular changes in the skin and diabetic neuropathy is unclear in streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether the skin rewarming rate in diabetic rats is related to microvascular changes and whether this is accompanied by changes observed in classical diagnostic methods for diabetic peripheral neuropathy. Computer-assisted infrared thermography was used to assess the rewarming rate after cold exposure on the plantar skin of STZ diabetic rats’ hind paws. Peripheral neuropathy was determined by the density of intra-epidermal nerve fibers (IENFs), mechanical sensitivity, and electrophysiological recordings. Data were obtained in diabetic rats at four, six, and eight weeks after the induction of diabetes and in controls. Four weeks after the induction of diabetes, a delayed rewarming rate, decreased skin blood flow and decreased density of IENFs were observed. However, the mechanical hyposensitivity and decreased motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) developed 6 and 8 weeks after the induction of diabetes. Our study shows that the skin rewarming rate is related to microvascular changes in diabetic rats. Moreover, the skin rewarming rate is a non-invasive method that provides more information for an earlier diagnosis of peripheral neuropathy than the classical monofilament test and MNCV in STZ induced diabetic rats. PMID:25984949

  5. Laser metrology — a diagnostic tool in automotive development processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beeck, Manfred-Andreas; Hentschel, Werner

    2000-08-01

    Laser measurement techniques are widely used in automotive development processes. Applications at Volkswagen are presented where laser metrology works as a diagnostic tool for analysing and optimising complex coupled processes inside and between automotive components and structures such as the reduction of a vehicle's interior or outer acoustic noise, including brake noise, and the combustion analysis for diesel and gasoline engines to further reduce fuel consumption and pollution. Pulsed electronic speckle pattern interferometry (ESPI) and holographic interferometry are used for analysing the knocking behaviour of modern engines and for correct positioning of knocking sensors. Holographic interferometry shows up the vibrational behaviour of brake components and their interaction during braking, and allows optimisation for noise-free brake systems. Scanning laser vibrometry analyses structure-born noise of a whole car body for the optimisation of its interior acoustical behaviour.Modern engine combustion concepts such as in direct-injection (DI) gasoline and diesel engines benefit from laser diagnostic tools which permit deeper insight into the in-cylinder processes such as flow generation, fuel injection and spray formation, atomisation and mixing, ignition and combustion, and formation and reduction of pollutants. The necessary optical access inside a cylinder is realised by so-called 'transparent engines' allowing measurements nearly during the whole engine cycle. Measurement techniques and results on double-pulse particle image velocimetry (PIV) with a frequency-doubled YAG laser for in-cylinder flow analysis are presented, as well as Mie-scattering on droplets using a copper vapour laser combined with high-speed filming, and laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) with an excimer laser for spray and fuel vapour analysis.

  6. New advanced radio diagnostics tools for Space Weather Program

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krankowski, A.; Rothkaehl, H.; Atamaniuk, B.; Morawski, M.; Zakharenkova, I.; Cherniak, I.; Otmianowska-Mazur, K.

    2013-12-01

    To give a more detailed and complete understanding of physical plasma processes that govern the solar-terrestrial space, and to develop qualitative and quantitative models of the magnetosphere-ionosphere-thermosphere coupling, it is necessary to design and build the next generation of instruments for space diagnostics and monitoring. Novel ground- based wide-area sensor networks, such as the LOFAR (Low Frequency Array) radar facility, comprising wide band, and vector-sensing radio receivers and multi-spacecraft plasma diagnostics should help solve outstanding problems of space physics and describe long-term environmental changes. The LOw Frequency ARray - LOFAR - is a new fully digital radio telescope designed for frequencies between 30 MHz and 240 MHz located in Europe. The three new LOFAR stations will be installed until summer 2015 in Poland. The LOFAR facilities in Poland will be distributed among three sites: Lazy (East of Krakow), Borowiec near Poznan and Baldy near Olsztyn. All they will be connected via PIONIER dedicated links to Poznan. Each site will host one LOFAR station (96 high-band+96 low-band antennas). They will most time work as a part of European network, however, when less charged, they can operate as a national network The new digital radio frequency analyzer (RFA) on board the low-orbiting RELEC satellite was designed to monitor and investigate the ionospheric plasma properties. This two-point ground-based and topside ionosphere-located space plasma diagnostic can be a useful new tool for monitoring and diagnosing turbulent plasma properties. The RFA on board the RELEC satellite is the first in a series of experiments which is planned to be launched into the near-Earth environment. In order to improve and validate the large scales and small scales ionospheric structures we will used the GPS observations collected at IGS/EPN network employed to reconstruct diurnal variations of TEC using all satellite passes over individual GPS stations and the

  7. Laser-scan cytometry: a new tool for clinical diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maerz, Holger K.; Baumgartner, Adolf; Hambsch, Joerg; Hennig, Bert; Nuesse, Michael; Schmid, Thomas; Schneider, Peter; Zotz, Rainer; Tarnok, Attila

    1999-04-01

    The common usage of flow cytometry (FCM) in research and clinical diagnostic is limited by the lack visualizing the fluorescence labelled cells. The Laser Scanning Cytometer (LSC) enables multicolor cytometric measurements on a slide featuring relocation of single cells for further investigation via brightfield and fluorescence microscopy. Additionally, it is possible to capture these images for documentation. In a FISH application, the LSC was successfully used for automated scoring techniqeus for evaluating the frequency of aneuploid sperm in humans and mice. In just 30 minutes, we were able to acquire more than 15,000 sperms, a task which normally takes more than a day. After relocation, genetic defects were identified and confirmed via fluorescence microscopy. In an on going study, we investigate via the LSC the remain of a new radiopaque material for high resolution echocardiography in the blood circulation. At first the result exhibited that the radiopaque material is endocysed by leukocytes just after application but is still detectable via echocardiography for up to 40 minutes. In conclusion, with the additional data acquisition by the LSC, it is possible to perform further detailed information from very small samples. Therefore, we are working up to now on developing new methods to introduce the LSC in our clinical diagnostic of neonates undergoing cardiac surgery.

  8. Note: cavity enhanced self-absorption spectroscopy: a new diagnostic tool for light emitting matter.

    PubMed

    Walsh, Anton J; Zhao, Dongfeng; Linnartz, Harold

    2013-02-01

    We introduce the concept of Cavity Enhanced Self-Absorption Spectroscopy (CESAS), a new sensitive diagnostic tool for analyzing light-emitting samples. The technique works without an additional light source and its implementation is straight forward. In CESAS, a sample (plasma, flame, or combustion source) is located in an optically stable cavity consisting of two high reflectivity mirrors, and here it acts both as light source and absorbing medium. A modest portion of the emitted light is trapped inside the cavity, making 10(4)-10(5) cavity round trips while crossing the sample and an artificial augmentation of the path length of the absorbing medium occurs as the light transverses the cavity. Light leaking out of the cavity simultaneously provides emission and absorption features. The performance is illustrated by CESAS results on supersonically expanding pulsed hydrocarbon plasma. We expect CESAS to become a generally applicable analytical tool for real time and in situ diagnostics.

  9. Social network diagnostics: a tool for monitoring group interventions

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Many behavioral interventions designed to improve health outcomes are delivered in group settings. To date, however, group interventions have not been evaluated to determine if the groups generate interaction among members and how changes in group interaction may affect program outcomes at the individual or group level. Methods This article presents a model and practical tool for monitoring how social ties and social structure are changing within the group during program implementation. The approach is based on social network analysis and has two phases: collecting network measurements at strategic intervention points to determine if group dynamics are evolving in ways anticipated by the intervention, and providing the results back to the group leader to guide implementation next steps. This process aims to initially increase network connectivity and ultimately accelerate the diffusion of desirable behaviors through the new network. This article presents the Social Network Diagnostic Tool and, as proof of concept, pilot data collected during the formative phase of a childhood obesity intervention. Results The number of reported advice partners and discussion partners increased during program implementation. Density, the number of ties among people in the network expressed as a percentage of all possible ties, increased from 0.082 to 0.182 (p < 0.05) in the advice network, and from 0.027 to 0.055 (p > 0.05) in the discussion network. Conclusions The observed two-fold increase in network density represents a significant shift in advice partners over the intervention period. Using the Social Network Tool to empirically guide program activities of an obesity intervention was feasible. PMID:24083343

  10. Feasibility of streamlining an interactive Bayesian-based diagnostic support tool designed for clinical practice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Po-Hao; Botzolakis, Emmanuel; Mohan, Suyash; Bryan, R. N.; Cook, Tessa

    2016-03-01

    In radiology, diagnostic errors occur either through the failure of detection or incorrect interpretation. Errors are estimated to occur in 30-35% of all exams and contribute to 40-54% of medical malpractice litigations. In this work, we focus on reducing incorrect interpretation of known imaging features. Existing literature categorizes cognitive bias leading a radiologist to an incorrect diagnosis despite having correctly recognized the abnormal imaging features: anchoring bias, framing effect, availability bias, and premature closure. Computational methods make a unique contribution, as they do not exhibit the same cognitive biases as a human. Bayesian networks formalize the diagnostic process. They modify pre-test diagnostic probabilities using clinical and imaging features, arriving at a post-test probability for each possible diagnosis. To translate Bayesian networks to clinical practice, we implemented an entirely web-based open-source software tool. In this tool, the radiologist first selects a network of choice (e.g. basal ganglia). Then, large, clearly labeled buttons displaying salient imaging features are displayed on the screen serving both as a checklist and for input. As the radiologist inputs the value of an extracted imaging feature, the conditional probabilities of each possible diagnosis are updated. The software presents its level of diagnostic discrimination using a Pareto distribution chart, updated with each additional imaging feature. Active collaboration with the clinical radiologist is a feasible approach to software design and leads to design decisions closely coupling the complex mathematics of conditional probability in Bayesian networks with practice.

  11. Telomerase components as a diagnostic tool in human oral lesions.

    PubMed

    Sumida, T; Hamakawa, H; Sogawa, K; Sugita, A; Tanioka, H; Ueda, N

    1999-01-01

    Telomerase activity is considered to be a diagnostic marker of malignancy since most malignant cells express this activity and most somatic cells do not. However, the detection of telomerase activity is rather complicated and is affected by many factors. Recently, human telomerase components were cloned and found to consist of 3 subunits. We assessed which component of telomerase best correlates with malignancy in order to study the possibilities for developing a new diagnostic marker. Telomerase activity was measured by a telomeric repeat amplification protocol (TRAP) assay, and the telomerase components hTR, hTRT-mRNA and TP1-mRNA were detected by the reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Twenty-five of 26 oral malignant lesions, 9 of 22 benign lesions and none of 19 normal control tissues exhibited distinct telomerase activity. hTR and TP1-mRNA expression levels were detected in all malignant lesions and normal control tissues and had no significant correlation with the telomerase activity results. In contrast, hTRT-mRNA expression was closely associated with telomerase activity. All lesions expressing hTRT were telomerase positive. In addition, some samples of dysplastic lesions, benign tumors, lichen planus and normal mucosa exhibiting poor telomerase activity revealed weak expression of hTRT. Expression levels of hTRT-mRNA positively correlated with clinical and pathological findings. Detection of hTRT-mRNA by RT-PCR appeared to be more sensitive for telomerase than measurement of telomerase activity by the TRAP assay. Detection of hTRT-mRNA may provide information useful in the diagnosis of oral malignancies.

  12. Saliva as a non-invasive diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance

    PubMed Central

    Desai, Gauri S; Mathews, Suresh T

    2014-01-01

    Saliva has been progressively studied as a non-invasive and relatively stress-free diagnostic alternative to blood. Currently, saliva testing is used for clinical assessment of hormonal perturbations, detection of HIV antibodies, DNA analysis, alcohol screening, and drug testing. Recently, there has been increasing interest in evaluating the diagnostic potential of saliva in obesity, inflammation, and insulin-resistance. Current literature has demonstrated elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers including C-reactive protein, tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-6, and interferon-γ in saliva of obese/overweight children and adults. Salivary antioxidant status has also been studied as a measure of oxidative stress in individuals with type 2 diabetes. Further, several studies have demonstrated correlations of salivary markers of stress and insulin resistance including cortisol, insulin, adiponectin, and resistin with serum concentrations. These findings suggest the potential diagnostic value of saliva in health screening and risk stratification studies, particularly in the pediatric population, with implications for inflammatory, metabolic and cardiovascular conditions. However, additional studies are required to standardize saliva collection and storage procedures, validate analytical techniques for biomarker detection, and establish reference ranges for routine clinical use. The purpose of this review is to summarize and evaluate recent advancements in using saliva as a diagnostic tool for inflammation and insulin-resistance. PMID:25512775

  13. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil contaminants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella

    2014-05-01

    Urbanization has become one of the major forces of change around the globe. Land use transformation, especially urbanization has the most profound influences of human activities because it affects so many of the planet's physical and biological systems. Land use changes directly impact the ability of the earth to continue to provide ecological services to human society and the other occupants of the ecosystems. The urban process gradually degrades and transforms agricultural and natural ecosystems into built environments. The urban environment includes cities, suburbs, peri-urban areas and towns. Urban ecosystems are highly heterogeneous due to the variety of land covers and land purposes. Thus, the choices on managing the extent and arranging the land cover patches (e.g., lawns) assist to shape the emergent structure and function of the urban ecosystems. As a result of ecological conditions and current management status the urban soils show substantial spatial heterogeneity. Whereas, adverse effects of pollutants on ecosystems have been demonstrated, one important need for environmental impact assessment have been defined as maintenance of long-term monitoring systems, which can enable to improve monitoring, modelling and assessment of various stressors in agriculture environment. Diffuse reflectance spectroscopy and diffuse reflectance Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy across visible-near- short- mid- and long- wave infrared (0.4-14μm) has the potential to meet this demand. Relationships between spectral reflectance and soil properties, such as grain size distribution, moisture, iron oxides, carbonate content, and organic matter, have already been established in many studies (Krishnan et al. 1980, Ben-Dor and Banin 1995, Jarmer et al. 2008, Richter et al. 2009). The aims of this study are to develop diagnostic tool for heavy metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, asbestos and other anthropogenic contaminants in urban soil using spectroscopy

  14. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication.

  15. Clinical consequences of new diagnostic tools for intestinal parasites.

    PubMed

    van Lieshout, L; Roestenberg, M

    2015-06-01

    Following the success of nucleic acid-based detection in virology and bacteriology, multiplex real-time PCRs are increasingly used as first-line diagnostics in clinical parasitology, replacing microscopy. The detection and quantification of parasite-specific DNA in faeces is highly sensitive and specific and allows for cost-effective high-throughput screening. In this paper we discuss the clinical consequences of this radical change in diagnostic approach, as well as its potential drawbacks. In the Netherlands, routine diagnostic laboratories have been pioneering the implementation of multiplex real-time PCR for the detection of pathogenic intestinal protozoa and this has resulted in increased detection rates of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. As a consequence of this new diagnostic approach, expertise in the field of parasite morphology by conventional light microscopy seems to be disappearing in most of the high-throughput microbiological laboratories. As a result, to maintain a high standard of care, a formalized exchange of critical information between clinicians and laboratory staff is necessary to determine the most appropriate testing either in local laboratories or in reference centres, based on clinical signs and symptoms, exposure and immune status. If such a diagnostic algorithm is lacking, important infections in travellers, immigrants and immunocompromised patients may be missed.

  16. Aptamers as a novel tool for diagnostics and therapy.

    PubMed

    Kadioglu, Onat; Malczyk, Anna Helena; Greten, Henry Johannes; Efferth, Thomas

    2015-04-01

    Aptamers are short single-stranded DNA or RNA oligonucleotides that are capable of binding small molecules, proteins, or nucleotides with high specificity. They show a stable conformation and high binding affinity for their target molecules. There are numerous applications for aptamers in biotechnology, molecular diagnostics and targeted therapy of diseases. Their production is cheap, and they generally display lower immunogenicity than monoclonal antibodies. In the present review, we give an introduction to the preparation of aptamers and provide examples for their use in biotechnology, diagnostics and therapy of diseases. PMID:25637166

  17. Microarray-based genomic profiling as a diagnostic tool in acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Simons, Annet; Stevens-Kroef, Marian; El Idrissi-Zaynoun, Najat; van Gessel, Sabine; Weghuis, Daniel Olde; van den Berg, Eva; Waanders, Esmé; Hoogerbrugge, Peter; Kuiper, Roland; van Kessel, Ad Geurts

    2011-12-01

    In acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) specific genomic abnormalities provide important clinical information. In most routine clinical diagnostic laboratories conventional karyotyping, in conjunction with targeted screens using e.g., fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), is currently considered as the gold standard to detect such aberrations. Conventional karyotyping, however, is limited in its resolution and yield, thus hampering the genetic diagnosis of ALL. We explored whether microarray-based genomic profiling would be feasible as an alternative strategy in a routine clinical diagnostic setting. To this end, we compared conventional karyotypes with microarray-deduced copy number aberration (CNA) karyotypes in 60 ALL cases. Microarray-based genomic profiling resulted in a CNA detection rate of 90%, whereas for conventional karyotyping this was 61%. In addition, many small (< 5 Mb) genetic lesions were encountered, frequently harboring clinically relevant ALL-related genes such as CDKN2A/B, ETV6, PAX5, and IKZF1. From our data we conclude that microarray-based genomic profiling serves as a robust tool in the genetic diagnosis of ALL, outreaching conventional karyotyping in CNA detection both in terms of sensitivity and specificity. We also propose a practical workflow for a comprehensive and objective interpretation of CNAs obtained through microarray-based genomic profiling, thereby facilitating its application in a routine clinical diagnostic setting.

  18. Super-Resolution Microscopy of Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers as a Tool for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Zhang, William I; Antonios, Gregory; Rabano, Alberto; Bayer, Thomas A; Schneider, Anja; Rizzoli, Silvio O

    2015-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is neuropathologically characterized by aggregates of amyloid-β peptides (Aβ) and tau proteins. The consensus in the AD field is that Aβ and tau should serve as diagnostic biomarkers for AD. However, their aggregates have been difficult to investigate by conventional fluorescence microscopy, since their size is below the diffraction limit (∼200 nm). To solve this, we turned to a super-resolution imaging technique, stimulated emission depletion (STED) microscopy, which has a high enough precision to allow the discrimination of low- and high-molecular weight aggregates prepared in vitro. We used STED to analyze the structural organization of Aβ and tau in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from 36 AD patients, 11 patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and 21 controls. We measured the numbers of aggregates in the CSF samples, and the aggregate sizes and intensities. These parameters enabled us to distinguish AD patients from controls with a specificity of ∼87% and a sensitivity of ∼79% . In addition, the aggregate parameters determined with STED microscopy correlated with the severity of cognitive impairment in AD patients. Finally, these parameters may be useful as predictive tools for MCI cases. The STED parameters of two MCI patients who developed AD during the course of the study, as well as of MCI patients whose Aβ ELISA values fall within the accepted range for AD, placed them close to the AD averages. We suggest that super-resolution imaging is a promising tool for AD diagnostics.

  19. Whole-exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool in a family with episodic ataxia type 1.

    PubMed

    Tacik, Pawel; Guthrie, Kimberly J; Strongosky, Audrey J; Broderick, Daniel F; Riegert-Johnson, Douglas L; Tang, Sha; El-Khechen, Dima; Parker, Alexander S; Ross, Owen A; Wszolek, Zbigniew K

    2015-03-01

    Complex neurologic phenotypes are inherently difficult to diagnose. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) is a new tool in the neurologist's diagnostic armamentarium. Whole-exome sequencing can be applied to investigate the "diagnostic odyssey" cases. These cases involve patients with rare diseases that likely have a genetic etiology but have failed to be diagnosed by clinical evaluation and targeted gene testing. We describe such a case, a 22-year-old man who had mild intellectual developmental disability and episodes of jerking ataxic movements that affected his whole body. He underwent numerous multidisciplinary and multicentric evaluations throughout his life that failed to establish a clear diagnosis. Following his visit to Mayo Clinic in Jacksonville, Florida, WES was applied for genetic determination of the unknown disorder in the proband and his biological parents and sister. Additional clinical evaluation, magnetic resonance neuroimaging, electromyography, and electroencephalography of the proband were performed to verify the phenotype after the WES results were available. To our knowledge, this is the first report of the application of WES to facilitate the diagnosis of episodic ataxia type 1. This case illustrates that WES supported by clinical data is a useful and time-saving tool in the evaluation of patients with rare and complex hereditary disorders.

  20. Characteristics of a Cognitive Tool That Helps Students Learn Diagnostic Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Danielson, Jared A.; Mills, Eric M.; Vermeer, Pamela J.; Preast, Vanessa A.; Young, Karen M.; Christopher, Mary M.; George, Jeanne W.; Wood, R. Darren; Bender, Holly S.

    2007-01-01

    Three related studies replicated and extended previous work (J.A. Danielson et al. (2003), "Educational Technology Research and Development," 51(3), 63-81) involving the Diagnostic Pathfinder (dP) (previously Problem List Generator [PLG]), a cognitive tool for learning diagnostic problem solving. In studies 1 and 2, groups of 126 and 113…

  1. ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth system models in CMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, Veronika; Righi, Mattia; Lauer, Axel; Evaldsson, Martin; Wenzel, Sabrina; Jones, Colin; Anav, Alessandro; Andrews, Oliver; Cionni, Irene; Davin, Edouard L.; Deser, Clara; Ehbrecht, Carsten; Friedlingstein, Pierre; Gleckler, Peter; Gottschaldt, Klaus-Dirk; Hagemann, Stefan; Juckes, Martin; Kindermann, Stephan; Krasting, John; Kunert, Dominik; Levine, Richard; Loew, Alexander; Mäkelä, Jarmo; Martin, Gill; Mason, Erik; Phillips, Adam S.; Read, Simon; Rio, Catherine; Roehrig, Romain; Senftleben, Daniel; Sterl, Andreas; van Ulft, Lambertus H.; Walton, Jeremy; Wang, Shiyu; Williams, Keith D.

    2016-05-01

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth system models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected essential climate variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases, and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within CMIP and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

  2. ESMValTool (v1.0) - a community diagnostic and performance metrics tool for routine evaluation of Earth System Models in CMIP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eyring, V.; Righi, M.; Evaldsson, M.; Lauer, A.; Wenzel, S.; Jones, C.; Anav, A.; Andrews, O.; Cionni, I.; Davin, E. L.; Deser, C.; Ehbrecht, C.; Friedlingstein, P.; Gleckler, P.; Gottschaldt, K.-D.; Hagemann, S.; Juckes, M.; Kindermann, S.; Krasting, J.; Kunert, D.; Levine, R.; Loew, A.; Mäkelä, J.; Martin, G.; Mason, E.; Phillips, A.; Read, S.; Rio, C.; Roehrig, R.; Senftleben, D.; Sterl, A.; van Ulft, L. H.; Walton, J.; Wang, S.; Williams, K. D.

    2015-09-01

    A community diagnostics and performance metrics tool for the evaluation of Earth System Models (ESMs) has been developed that allows for routine comparison of single or multiple models, either against predecessor versions or against observations. The priority of the effort so far has been to target specific scientific themes focusing on selected Essential Climate Variables (ECVs), a range of known systematic biases common to ESMs, such as coupled tropical climate variability, monsoons, Southern Ocean processes, continental dry biases and soil hydrology-climate interactions, as well as atmospheric CO2 budgets, tropospheric and stratospheric ozone, and tropospheric aerosols. The tool is being developed in such a way that additional analyses can easily be added. A set of standard namelists for each scientific topic reproduces specific sets of diagnostics or performance metrics that have demonstrated their importance in ESM evaluation in the peer-reviewed literature. The Earth System Model Evaluation Tool (ESMValTool) is a community effort open to both users and developers encouraging open exchange of diagnostic source code and evaluation results from the CMIP ensemble. This will facilitate and improve ESM evaluation beyond the state-of-the-art and aims at supporting such activities within the Coupled Model Intercomparison Project (CMIP) and at individual modelling centres. Ultimately, we envisage running the ESMValTool alongside the Earth System Grid Federation (ESGF) as part of a more routine evaluation of CMIP model simulations while utilizing observations available in standard formats (obs4MIPs) or provided by the user.

  3. METABOLOMICS AS A DIAGNOSTIC TOOL FOR SMALL FISH TOXICOLOGY RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Metabolomics involves the application of advanced analytical and statistical tools to profile changes in levels of endogenous metabolites in tissues and biofluids resulting from disease onset or stress. While certain metabolites are being specifically targeted in these studies, w...

  4. Additive manufacture (3d printing) of plasma diagnostic components and assemblies for fusion experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sieck, Paul; Woodruff, Simon; Stuber, James; Romero-Talamas, Carlos; Rivera, William; You, Setthivoine; Card, Alexander

    2015-11-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) is now becoming sufficiently accurate with a large range of materials for use in printing sensors needed universally in fusion energy research. Decreasing production cost and significantly lowering design time of energy subsystems would realize significant cost reduction for standard diagnostics commonly obtained through research grants. There is now a well-established set of plasma diagnostics, but these expensive since they are often highly complex and require customization, sometimes pace the project. Additive manufacturing (3D printing) is developing rapidly, including open source designs. Basic components can be printed for (in some cases) less than 1/100th costs of conventional manufacturing. We have examined the impact that AM can have on plasma diagnostic cost by taking 15 separate diagnostics through an engineering design using Conventional Manufacturing (CM) techniques to determine costs of components and labor costs associated with getting the diagnostic to work as intended. With that information in hand, we set about optimizing the design to exploit the benefits of AM. Work performed under DOE Contract DE-SC0011858.

  5. Guided MHD waves as a coronal diagnostic tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    A description is provided of how fast magnetoacoustic waves are ducted along regions of low Alfven velocity (high density) in the corona, exhibiting a distinctive wave signature which may be used as a diagnostic probe of in situ coronal conditions (magnetic field strength, density inhomogeneity, etc.). Some observational knowledge of the start time of the impulsive wave source, possibly a flare, the start and end times of the generated wave event, and the frequency of the pulsations in that event permits a seismological deduction of the physical properties of the coronal medium in which the wave propagated. With good observations the theory offers a new means of probing the coronal atmosphere.

  6. Saliva-based biosensors: noninvasive monitoring tool for clinical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Malon, Radha S P; Sadir, Sahba; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers.

  7. Saliva-Based Biosensors: Noninvasive Monitoring Tool for Clinical Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Malon, Radha S. P.; Balakrishnan, Malarvili; Córcoles, Emma P.

    2014-01-01

    Saliva is increasingly recognised as an attractive diagnostic fluid. The presence of various disease signalling salivary biomarkers that accurately reflect normal and disease states in humans and the sampling benefits compared to blood sampling are some of the reasons for this recognition. This explains the burgeoning research field in assay developments and technological advancements for the detection of various salivary biomarkers to improve clinical diagnosis, management, and treatment. This paper reviews the significance of salivary biomarkers for clinical diagnosis and therapeutic applications, with focus on the technologies and biosensing platforms that have been reported for screening these biomarkers. PMID:25276835

  8. Usefulness of anterior uveitis as an additional tool for diagnosing incomplete Kawasaki disease

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Kyu Jin; Kim, Hyo Jin; Kim, Min Jae; Yoon, Ji Hong; Lee, Eun Jung; Lee, Jae Young; Oh, Jin Hee; Lee, Soon Ju; Lee, Kyung Yil

    2016-01-01

    Purpose There are no specific tests for diagnosing Kawasaki disease (KD). Additional diagnostic criteria are needed to prevent the delayed diagnosis of incomplete Kawasaki disease (IKD). This study compared the frequency of coronary artery lesions (CALs) in IKD patients with and without anterior uveitis (AU) and elucidated whether the finding of AU supported the diagnosis of IKD. Methods This study enrolled patients diagnosed with IKD at The Catholic University of Korea, Uijeongbu St. Mary's Hospital from January 2010 to December 2014. The patients were divided into 2 groups: group 1 included patients with IKD having AU; and group 2 included patients with IKD without AU. We analyzed the demographic and clinical data (age, gender, duration of fever, and the number of diagnostic criteria), laboratory results, and echocardiographic findings. Results Of 111 patients with IKD, 41 had uveitis (36.98%, group 1) and 70 did not (63.02%, group 2). Patients in group 1 had received a diagnosis and treatment earlier, and had fewer CALs (3 of 41, 1.7%) than those in group 2 (20 of 70, 28.5%) (P=0.008). All 3 patients with CALs in group 1 had coronary dilatation, while patients with CALs in group 2 had CALs ranging from coronary dilatation to giant aneurysm. Conclusion The diagnosis of IKD is challenging but can be supported by the presence of features such as AU. Group 1 had a lower risk of coronary artery disease than group 2. Therefore, the presence of AU is helpful in the early diagnosis and treatment of IKD and can be used as an additional diagnostic tool. PMID:27186227

  9. Time series as a diagnostic tool for EKG

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Erkal, Cahit; Cecen, Aydin

    2007-11-01

    A preliminary analysis of heart rate variability (peak-to-peak intervals based on EKG) will be presented using the tools of nonlinear dynamics and chaos. We show that uncertainty determination of the most commonly used invariant-the correlation dimension- and a proper implementation of time series analysis tools are necessary to differentiate between the healthy and unhealthy state of the heart. We present an example analysis based on normal and atrial fibrillation EKGs and point of some pitfalls that may give rise to misleading conclusions.

  10. Diagnostic tools for post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia.

    PubMed

    Emous, M; Ubels, F L; van Beek, A P

    2015-10-01

    In spite of its evident success, several late complications can occur after gastric bypass surgery. One of these is post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia. No evidence-based guidelines exist in the literature on how to confirm the presence of this syndrome. This study aims to describe and compare the tests aimed at making a diagnosis of post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia and to provide a diagnostic approach based upon the available evidence. A search was conducted in PubMed, Cochrane and Embase. A few questionnaires have been developed to measure the severity of symptoms in post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia but none has been validated. The gold standard for provocation of a hypoglycaemic event is the oral glucose tolerance test or the liquid mixed meal tolerance test. Both show a high prevalence of hypoglycaemia in post-gastric bypass patients with and without hypoglycaemic complaints as well as in healthy volunteers. No uniformly established cut-off values for glucose concentrations are defined in the literature for the diagnosis of post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia. For establishing an accurate diagnosis of post-gastric bypass hypoglycaemia, a validated questionnaire, in connection with the diagnostic performance of provocation tests, is the most important thing missing. Given these shortcomings, we provide recommendations based upon the current literature.

  11. A diagnostic tool for malaria based on computer software.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas; Uthaisar, Kwuntida; Phunphuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil

    2015-11-12

    Nowadays, the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis is a staining of thick and thin blood film examined by expert laboratorists. It requires well-trained laboratorists, which is a time consuming task, and is un-automated protocol. For this study, Maladiag Software was developed to predict malaria infection in suspected malaria patients. The demographic data of patients, examination for malaria parasites, and complete blood count (CBC) profiles were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to create the equation for the malaria diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters of the equation were tested on 4,985 samples (703 infected and 4,282 control samples). The equation indicated 81.2% sensitivity and 80.3% specificity for predicting infection of malaria. The positive likelihood and negative likelihood ratio were 4.12 (95% CI = 4.01-4.23) and 0.23 (95% CI = 0.22-0.25), respectively. This parameter also had odds ratios (P value < 0.0001, OR = 17.6, 95% CI = 16.0-19.3). The equation can predict malaria infection after adjust for age, gender, nationality, monocyte (%), platelet count, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%), and the RBC count of patients. The diagnostic accuracy was 0.877 (Area under curve, AUC) (95% CI = 0.871-0.883). The system, when used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, might improve malaria diagnoses and enhance prompt treatment.

  12. A diagnostic tool for malaria based on computer software.

    PubMed

    Kotepui, Manas; Uthaisar, Kwuntida; Phunphuech, Bhukdee; Phiwklam, Nuoil

    2015-01-01

    Nowadays, the gold standard method for malaria diagnosis is a staining of thick and thin blood film examined by expert laboratorists. It requires well-trained laboratorists, which is a time consuming task, and is un-automated protocol. For this study, Maladiag Software was developed to predict malaria infection in suspected malaria patients. The demographic data of patients, examination for malaria parasites, and complete blood count (CBC) profiles were analyzed. Binary logistic regression was used to create the equation for the malaria diagnosis. The diagnostic parameters of the equation were tested on 4,985 samples (703 infected and 4,282 control samples). The equation indicated 81.2% sensitivity and 80.3% specificity for predicting infection of malaria. The positive likelihood and negative likelihood ratio were 4.12 (95% CI = 4.01-4.23) and 0.23 (95% CI = 0.22-0.25), respectively. This parameter also had odds ratios (P value < 0.0001, OR = 17.6, 95% CI = 16.0-19.3). The equation can predict malaria infection after adjust for age, gender, nationality, monocyte (%), platelet count, neutrophil (%), lymphocyte (%), and the RBC count of patients. The diagnostic accuracy was 0.877 (Area under curve, AUC) (95% CI = 0.871-0.883). The system, when used in combination with other clinical and microscopy methods, might improve malaria diagnoses and enhance prompt treatment. PMID:26559606

  13. A modelling framework to support the selection and implementation of new tuberculosis diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Lin, H-H; Langley, I; Mwenda, R; Doulla, B; Egwaga, S; Millington, K A; Mann, G H; Murray, M; Squire, S B; Cohen, T

    2011-08-01

    Efforts to stimulate technological innovation in the diagnosis of tuberculosis (TB) have resulted in the recent introduction of several novel diagnostic tools. As these products come to market, policy makers must make difficult decisions about which of the available tools to implement. This choice should depend not only on the test characteristics (e.g., sensitivity and specificity) of the tools, but also on how they will be used within the existing health care infrastructure. Accordingly, policy makers choosing between diagnostic strategies must decide: 1) What is the best combination of tools to select? 2)Who should be tested with the new tools? and 3)Will these tools complement or replace existing diagnostics? The best choice of diagnostic strategy will likely vary between settings with different epidemiology (e.g., levels of TB incidence, human immunodeficiency virus co-infection and drug-resistant TB) and structural and resource constraints (e.g., existing diagnostic pathways, human resources and laboratory capacity). We propose a joint modelling framework that includes a tuberculosis (TB) transmission component (a dynamic epidemiological model) and a health system component (an operational systems model) to support diagnostic strategy decisions. This modelling approach captures the complex feedback loops in this system: new diagnostic strategies alter the demands on and performance of health systems that impact TB transmission dynamics which, in turn, result in further changes to demands on the health system. We demonstrate the use of a simplified model to support the rational choice of a diagnostic strategy based on health systems requirements, patient outcomes and population-level TB impact.

  14. Development of a High-Temperature Diagnostics-While-Drilling Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Blankenship, Douglas; Chavira, David; Henfling, Joseph; Hetmaniak, Chris; Huey, David; Jacobson, Ron; King, Dennis; Knudsen, Steve; Mansure, A. J.; Polsky, Yarom

    2009-01-01

    This report documents work performed in the second phase of the Diagnostics While-Drilling (DWD) project in which a high-temperature (HT) version of the phase 1 low-temperature (LT) proof-of-concept (POC) DWD tool was built and tested. Descriptions of the design, fabrication and field testing of the HT tool are provided.

  15. The Development of a Literacy Diagnostic Tool for Maltese Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xuereb, Rachael; Grech, Helen; Dodd, Barbara

    2011-01-01

    This article focuses on the development of a Literacy Assessment Battery for the diagnosis of Maltese children with specific learning difficulties. It forms part of a wider research study involving testing of 549 children in Malta as well as standardisation of the tool. Results of the children's performance and psychometric validation go beyond…

  16. Calprotectin as a diagnostic tool for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chatzikonstantinou, Marianthi; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Spyros; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Verikokos, Christos; Perrea, Despina; Dimitroulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal disorders caused by a number of factors, including external influences, intestinal microbiota and genetics. The two major clinically defined types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, each of which is characterized by relapses in the clinical course, thus patients must be under constant observation via regular endoscopies. As endoscopy, which has been used for direct evaluation and diagnosis of IBD, requires uncomfortable and expensive bowel preparation, a non-invasive test was required to reduce the number of patients undergoing unnecessary endoscopy. Calprotectin is a protein occurring in the cytosol of inflammatory cells and is released by the activation of leukocytes. As it is elevated and stable in the faeces of patients with IBD and can be reliably detected in faecal samples of <5 g, it may serve as an inexpensive, non-invasive diagnostic method for IBD. This is explored in the following review. PMID:27699005

  17. Nucleic Acid Aptamers: Research Tools in Disease Diagnostics and Therapeutics

    PubMed Central

    Yadava, Pramod K.

    2014-01-01

    Aptamers are short sequences of nucleic acid (DNA or RNA) or peptide molecules which adopt a conformation and bind cognate ligands with high affinity and specificity in a manner akin to antibody-antigen interactions. It has been globally acknowledged that aptamers promise a plethora of diagnostic and therapeutic applications. Although use of nucleic acid aptamers as targeted therapeutics or mediators of targeted drug delivery is a relatively new avenue of research, one aptamer-based drug “Macugen” is FDA approved and a series of aptamer-based drugs are in clinical pipelines. The present review discusses the aspects of design, unique properties, applications, and development of different aptamers to aid in cancer diagnosis, prevention, and/or treatment under defined conditions. PMID:25050359

  18. Phages of Listeria offer novel tools for diagnostics and biocontrol

    PubMed Central

    Hagens, Steven; Loessner, Martin J.

    2014-01-01

    Historically, bacteriophages infecting their hosts have perhaps been best known and even notorious for being a nuisance in dairy-fermentation processes. However, with the rapid progress in molecular microbiology and microbial ecology, a new dawn has risen for phages. This review will provide an overview on possible uses and applications of Listeria phages, including phage-typing, reporter phage for bacterial diagnostics, and use of phage as biocontrol agents for food safety. The use of phage-encoded enzymes such as endolysins for the detection and as antimicrobial agent will also be addressed. Desirable properties of candidate phages for biocontrol will be discussed. While emphasizing the enormous future potential for applications, we will also consider some of the intrinsic limitations dictated by both phage and bacterial ecology. PMID:24782847

  19. Aptamer–nanoparticle complexes as powerful diagnostic and therapeutic tools

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Hunho; Ban, Changill

    2016-01-01

    Correct diagnosis and successful therapy are extremely important to enjoy a healthy life when suffering from a disease. To achieve these aims, various cutting-edge technologies have been designed and fabricated to diagnose and treat specific diseases. Among these technologies, aptamer–nanomaterial hybrids have received considerable attention from scientists and doctors because they have numerous advantages over other methods, such as good biocompatibility, low immunogenicity and controllable selectivity. In particular, aptamers, oligonucleic acids or peptides that bind to a specific target molecule, are regarded as outstanding biomolecules. In this review, several screening techniques for aptamers, also called systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) methods, are introduced, and diagnostic and therapeutic aptamer applications are also presented. Furthermore, we describe diverse aptamer–nanomaterial conjugate designs and their applications for diagnosis and therapy. PMID:27151454

  20. Calprotectin as a diagnostic tool for inflammatory bowel diseases

    PubMed Central

    Chatzikonstantinou, Marianthi; Konstantopoulos, Panagiotis; Stergiopoulos, Spyros; Kontzoglou, Konstantinos; Verikokos, Christos; Perrea, Despina; Dimitroulis, Dimitris

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal disorders caused by a number of factors, including external influences, intestinal microbiota and genetics. The two major clinically defined types of IBD are Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, each of which is characterized by relapses in the clinical course, thus patients must be under constant observation via regular endoscopies. As endoscopy, which has been used for direct evaluation and diagnosis of IBD, requires uncomfortable and expensive bowel preparation, a non-invasive test was required to reduce the number of patients undergoing unnecessary endoscopy. Calprotectin is a protein occurring in the cytosol of inflammatory cells and is released by the activation of leukocytes. As it is elevated and stable in the faeces of patients with IBD and can be reliably detected in faecal samples of <5 g, it may serve as an inexpensive, non-invasive diagnostic method for IBD. This is explored in the following review.

  1. Continued Development of Expert System Tools for NPSS Engine Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lewandowski, Henry

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this grant were to work with previously developed NPSS (Numerical Propulsion System Simulation) tools and enhance their functionality; explore similar AI systems; and work with the High Performance Computing Communication (HPCC) K-12 program. Activities for this reporting period are briefly summarized and a paper addressing the implementation, monitoring and zooming in a distributed jet engine simulation is included as an attachment.

  2. Supramaximal Stimulus Intensity as a Diagnostic Tool in Chronic Demyelinating Neuropathy

    PubMed Central

    Parker, Vivien; Warman Chardon, Jodi; Mills, Julie; Goldsmith, Claire; Bourque, Pierre R.

    2016-01-01

    Objective. The ability to correctly identify chronic demyelinating neuropathy can have important therapeutic and prognostic significance. The stimulus intensity value required to obtain a supramaximal compound muscle action potential amplitude is a commonly acquired data point that has not been formally assessed as a diagnostic tool in routine nerve conduction studies to identify chronic neuropathies. We postulated that this value was significantly elevated in chronic demyelinating neuropathy. Methods. We retrospectively reviewed electrophysiology laboratory records to compare the stimulus intensity values recorded during median and ulnar motor nerve conduction studies. The groups studied included normal controls (n = 42) and the following diagnostic categories: chronic inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (CIDP) (n = 20), acquired inflammatory demyelinating neuropathy (AIDP) (n = 13), Charcot Marie Tooth (CMT) type 1 or 4C (n = 15), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) (n = 11), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) (n = 18). Results. Supramaximal intensities were significantly higher in patients with CMT (median nerve: 43.4 mA) and CIDP (median nerve: 38.9 mA), whereas values similar to normal controls (median nerve: 25.3 mA) were obtained in ALS, CTS, and AIDP. Conclusions. Supramaximal stimulus intensity may be used as an additional criterion to identify the pathophysiology of neuropathy. We postulate that endoneurial hypertrophic changes may increase electrical impedance and thus the threshold of excitation at nodes of Ranvier. PMID:27413732

  3. Facebook: can it be a diagnostic tool for neurologists?

    PubMed Central

    Mittal, Manoj K; Sloan, Jeff A; Rabinstein, Alejandro A

    2012-01-01

    A 56-year-old woman presented with acute ischaemic stroke with NIHSS 13. She had right eye ptosis and miosis. She and her husband were not sure if her facial features were different than usual. With her consent, we compared her face with her pictures on Facebook. In the absence of any ptosis or miosis in her pictures, she was diagnosed with acute Horner syndrome. Facebook may be a useful tool for the neurologists to define the timing of facial neurological signs. PMID:22914235

  4. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy

    PubMed Central

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as “water immersion” and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  5. Dyspepsia and celiac disease: Prevalence, diagnostic tools and therapy.

    PubMed

    Petrarca, Laura; Nenna, Raffaella; Mastrogiorgio, Gerarda; Florio, Matteo; Brighi, Manuela; Pontone, Stefano

    2014-09-26

    The prevalence of dyspepsia is up to 40% in population-based study. Functional dyspepsia is an exclusion diagnosis and it is classified as a chronic abdominal pain-related functional disorder, characterized by the presence of persistent or recurrent pain or discomfort centered in the upper abdomen, neither relief by defecation, nor association with the onset of a change in stool frequency or form. Celiac disease (CD) is a common autoimmune enteropathy, with a prevalence around 1% in the general population. Its diagnosis includes a serological screening and an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy with multiple biopsies. Gluten-free diet is the only effective treatment. CD diagnosis is often delayed in asymptomatic patients or in individuals with less clinical gastrointestinal symptoms. Several studies performed coeliac disease screening in patients with symptoms suggestive of dyspepsia, showing a biopsy-proved prevalence that ranged from 0.5% to 2%. The typical endoscopic markers of villous atrophy are not sufficiently sensitive, so some endoscopic techniques, such as "water immersion" and confocal endomicroscopy were proposed to improve the diagnostic sensitivity and target biopsies. A recent meta-analysis estimated that the prevalence of CD was higher in patients with dyspepsia, but not in a statistically significant way. However this assumption should be confirmed further larger studies. PMID:25332916

  6. New diagnostic and prognostic tools in bladder cancer.

    PubMed

    Tiguert, Rabi; Fradet, Yves

    2002-05-01

    Many efforts have been made to increase the detection rates and to predict the outcome of bladder cancer. Although to date cystoscopy remains the gold standard method for the detection of new or recurrent bladder cancer, its limitations were emphasized by the results of studies using fluorescence endoscopy that showed an increased detection rate and decreased recurrence after tumor resection. Urine cytology has high specificity and is used routinely as an adjunct to cystoscopy to detect invisible tumors. However, to improve on the low sensitivity of urine cytology, a number of marker tests have been developed. Optimal diagnostic accuracy appears to result from the synergistic combination of cytological markers with urine cytology. The evaluation of new and previously reported markers remains a very active field, but is still limited to inconclusive studies. Tissue and DNA microarrays represent a technological step forward for the analysis of a large number of markers and cohorts of patients that will be required definitively to establish the clinical utility of prognostic tests.

  7. Non invasive ventilation as an additional tool for exercise training.

    PubMed

    Ambrosino, Nicolino; Cigni, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    Recently, there has been increasing interest in the use of non invasive ventilation (NIV) to increase exercise capacity. In individuals with COPD, NIV during exercise reduces dyspnoea and increases exercise tolerance. Different modalities of mechanical ventilation have been used non-invasively as a tool to increase exercise tolerance in COPD, heart failure and lung and thoracic restrictive diseases. Inspiratory support provides symptomatic benefit by unloading the ventilatory muscles, whereas Continuous Positive Airway Pressure (CPAP) counterbalances the intrinsic positive end-expiratory pressure in COPD patients. Severe stable COPD patients undergoing home nocturnal NIV and daytime exercise training showed some benefits. Furthermore, it has been reported that in chronic hypercapnic COPD under long-term ventilatory support, NIV can also be administered during walking. Despite these results, the role of NIV as a routine component of pulmonary rehabilitation is still to be defined. PMID:25874110

  8. A Quantitative Tool for Producing DNA-Based Diagnostic Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Tom J. Whitaker

    2008-07-11

    The purpose of this project was to develop a precise, quantitative method to analyze oligodeoxynucleotides (ODNs) on an array to enable a systematic approach to quality control issues affecting DNA microarrays. Two types of ODN's were tested; ODN's formed by photolithography and ODN's printed onto microarrays. Initial work in Phase I, performed in conjunction with Affymetrix, Inc. who has a patent on a photolithographic in situ technique for creating DNA arrays, was very promising but did seem to indicate that the atomization process was not complete. Soon after Phase II work was under way, Affymetrix had further developed fluorescent methods and indicated they were no longer interested in our resonance ionization technique. This was communicated to the program manager and it was decided that the project would continue and be focused on printed ODNs. The method being tested is called SIRIS, Sputter-Initiated Resonance Ionization Spectroscopy. SIRIS has been shown to be a highly sensitive, selective, and quantitative tool for atomic species. This project was aimed at determining if an ODN could be labeled in such a way that SIRIS could be used to measure the label and thus provide quantitative measurements of the ODN on an array. One of the largest problems in this study has been developing a method that allows us to know the amount of an ODN on a surface independent of the SIRIS measurement. Even though we could accurately determine the amount of ODN deposited on a surface, the amount that actually attached to the surface is very difficult to measure (hence the need for a quantitative tool). A double-labeling procedure was developed in which 33P and Pt were both used to label ODNs. The radioactive 33P could be measured by a proportional counter that maps the counts in one dimension. This gave a good measurement of the amount of ODN remaining on a surface after immobilization and washing. A second label, Pt, was attached to guanine nucleotides in the ODN. Studies

  9. Breath acetone analyzer: diagnostic tool to monitor dietary fat loss.

    PubMed

    Kundu, S K; Bruzek, J A; Nair, R; Judilla, A M

    1993-01-01

    Acetone, a metabolite of fat catabolism, is produced in excessive amounts in subjects on restricted-calorie weight-loss programs. Breath acetone measurements are useful as a motivational tool during dieting and for monitoring the effectiveness of weight-loss programs. We have developed a simple, easy-to-read method that quantifies the amount of acetone in a defined volume of exhaled breath after trapping the sample in a gas-analyzer column. The concentration of acetone, as measured by the length of a blue color zone in the analyzer column, correlates with results obtained by gas chromatography. Using the breath acetone analyzer to quantify breath acetone concentrations of dieting subjects, we established a correlation between breath acetone concentration and rate of fat loss (slope 52.2 nmol/L per gram per day, intercept 15.3 nmol/L, n = 78, r = 0.81). We also discussed the possibility of using breath acetone in diabetes management.

  10. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    When eutrophication is considered an important process to control it can be accomplished reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from both point and nonpoint sources and helping to assess the effectiveness of the pollution reduction strategy. HARP-NUT guidelines (Guidelines on Harmonized Quantification and Reporting Procedures for Nutrients) (Borgvang & Selvik, 2000) are presented by OSPAR as the best common quantification and reporting procedures for calculating the reduction of nutrient inputs. In 2000, OSPAR HARP-NUT guidelines on a trial basis. They were intended to serve as a tool for OSPAR Contracting Parties to report, in a harmonized manner, their different commitments, present or future, with regard to nutrients under the OSPAR Convention, in particular the "Strategy to Combat Eutrophication". HARP-NUT Guidelines (Borgvang and Selvik, 2000; Schoumans, 2003) were developed to quantify and report on the individual sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharges/losses to surface waters (Source Orientated Approach). These results can be compared to nitrogen and phosphorus figures with the total riverine loads measured at downstream monitoring points (Load Orientated Approach), as load reconciliation. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in river systems represents the connecting link between the "Source Orientated Approach" and the "Load Orientated Approach". Both approaches are necessary for verification purposes and both may be needed for providing the information required for the various commitments. Guidelines 2,3,4,5 are mainly concerned with the sources estimation. They present a set of simple calculations that allow the estimation of the origin of loads. Guideline 6 is a particular case where the application of a model is advised, in order to estimate the sources of nutrients from diffuse sources associated with land use/land cover. The model chosen for this was SWAT (Arnold & Fohrer, 2005) model because it is suggested in the guideline 6 and because it

  11. Watershed modeling tools and data for prognostic and diagnostic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chambel-Leitao, P.; Brito, D.; Neves, R.

    2009-04-01

    When eutrophication is considered an important process to control it can be accomplished reducing nitrogen and phosphorus losses from both point and nonpoint sources and helping to assess the effectiveness of the pollution reduction strategy. HARP-NUT guidelines (Guidelines on Harmonized Quantification and Reporting Procedures for Nutrients) (Borgvang & Selvik, 2000) are presented by OSPAR as the best common quantification and reporting procedures for calculating the reduction of nutrient inputs. In 2000, OSPAR HARP-NUT guidelines on a trial basis. They were intended to serve as a tool for OSPAR Contracting Parties to report, in a harmonized manner, their different commitments, present or future, with regard to nutrients under the OSPAR Convention, in particular the "Strategy to Combat Eutrophication". HARP-NUT Guidelines (Borgvang and Selvik, 2000; Schoumans, 2003) were developed to quantify and report on the individual sources of nitrogen and phosphorus discharges/losses to surface waters (Source Orientated Approach). These results can be compared to nitrogen and phosphorus figures with the total riverine loads measured at downstream monitoring points (Load Orientated Approach), as load reconciliation. Nitrogen and phosphorus retention in river systems represents the connecting link between the "Source Orientated Approach" and the "Load Orientated Approach". Both approaches are necessary for verification purposes and both may be needed for providing the information required for the various commitments. Guidelines 2,3,4,5 are mainly concerned with the sources estimation. They present a set of simple calculations that allow the estimation of the origin of loads. Guideline 6 is a particular case where the application of a model is advised, in order to estimate the sources of nutrients from diffuse sources associated with land use/land cover. The model chosen for this was SWAT (Arnold & Fohrer, 2005) model because it is suggested in the guideline 6 and because it

  12. A Novel Screening and Diagnostic Tool for Child and Adolescent Psychiatric Disorders for Telepsychiatry

    PubMed Central

    Malhotra, Savita; Chakrabarti, Subho; Shah, Ruchita; Mehta, Anurati; Gupta, Aarzoo; Sharma, Minali

    2015-01-01

    Background: A diagnostic tool designed as part of a telepsychiatry application for diagnosis and management of child and adolescent psychiatric disorders in India was developed considering the paucity of trained child psychiatrists and mental health professionals in India. Materials and Methods: The diagnostic tool consisted of screening and 10th revision of the International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (ICD-10) criteria-based diagnostic algorithms for 18 psychiatric disorders seen in childhood and adolescence. Accuracy of diagnoses and feasibility of use of the tool was examined by comparing it with detailed semi-structured clinical evaluations by a qualified psychiatrist with 50 psychiatric patients (children and adolescents). Statistical Analysis: Descriptive analyses and paired t-tests were conducted to compare the mean number of diagnosis generated by the two interviews. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values were computed for the screening and the diagnostic sub-modules of the tool, compared to the clinical diagnoses. Kappa coefficients were computed to assess agreement between the diagnoses generated by the diagnostic sub-module and the clinical diagnoses. Results: The screening sub-module had high sensitivity, high specificity and negative predictive values for all disorders. For the diagnostic sub-module, there was moderate (kappa-0.4–0.6) to substantial agreement (kappa > 0.6) for all the disorders, (except psychosis) and high sensitivity (barring a few disorders) and specificity for almost all the disorders. Positive predictive values were found to be acceptable to high for most disorders, with consistently high negative predictive values. Conclusion: The new tool was found to be comprehensive, reasonably short and feasible. Results showed acceptable level of accuracy in diagnosis generated by the tool. PMID:26424901

  13. In vivo fate of avidin-nucleic acid nanoassemblies as multifunctional diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Bigini, Paolo; Previdi, Sara; Casarin, Elisabetta; Silvestri, Davide; Violatto, Martina Bruna; Facchin, Sonia; Sitia, Leopoldo; Rosato, Antonio; Zuccolotto, Gaia; Realdon, Nicola; Fiordaliso, Fabio; Salmona, Mario; Morpurgo, Margherita

    2014-01-28

    This study describes the formulation optimization and body-cell distribution and clearance in mice of a dually fluorescent biodegradable poly avidin nanoassembly based on the novel Avidin-Nucleic-Acid-Nano-ASsembly (ANANAS) platform as a potential advancement of classic avidin/biotin-based targeted delivery. The nanoformulation circulates freely in the bloodstream; it is slowly captured by filter organs; it is efficiently cleared within 24-48 h, and it is poorly immunogenic. The system displays more favorable properties than its parent monomeric avidin and it is a promising tool for diagnostic purposes for future translational aims, for which free circulation in the bloodstream, safety, multifunctionality and high composition definition are all necessary requirements. In addition, the assembly shows a time-dependent cell penetration capability, suggesting it may also function as a NP-dependent drug delivery tool. The ease of preparation together with the possibility to fine-tune the surface composition makes it also an ideal candidate to understand if and how nanoparticle composition affects its localization.

  14. The MDP skull uptake test: A new diagnostic tool

    SciTech Connect

    Ell, P.J.; Jarritt, P.H.; Cullum, I.; Lui, D.

    1984-01-01

    An original approach to the measurement of bone turnover is presented. With SPECT, the authors have measured in pgr/ml, the uptake of MDP by the skull in man. The Cleon 710 scanner, ring phantoms and bone biopsies were used for ultimate in vivo/in vitro count recovery correlation and calibration. A normal range for 24 patients was found: 8.5 to 19.5 pgr/ml with a mean of 14. For patients with bony metastases (12), the values were: 22.5 to 50, mean of 30. For 5 patients with osteomalacia, the values were 46 to 68, mean of 62: for 12 patients with hyperparathyroidism, the values were 37 to 48.5, mean of 43. In 3 patients with Pagets disease, the values were 58.5 to 75, with a mean of 65. In 76 patients with metastatic disease to bone, the conventional wholebody bone scan was investigated against the following: 24h wholebody retention of MDP (WBR), skull uptake as described and GFR by Cr-51-DTPA. There is a correlation between GFR and WBR - r=0.67. There is a lesser correlation between GFR and skull uptake - r=0.3. There is no correlation between skull uptake and WBR - r=0.1. The comparison of skull uptake data with normal whole body bone scans leads to a significant proportion of cancer patients with positive skull uptake data. Monostotic disease (especially if metabolic in nature) expresses itself by abnormal skull uptake even if the clinical site of abnormality lies outside the skull. This new technique is ideal as a tool to investigate phosphonate concentration in bone. With it, the authors have shown the effect of specific activity of label on skull uptake, which increases as the specific activity of labelled MDP decreases.

  15. Geochemical study of black crusts as a diagnostic tool in cultural heritage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    La Russa, Mauro F.; Belfiore, Cristina M.; Comite, Valeria; Barca, Donatella; Bonazza, Alessandra; Ruffolo, Silvestro A.; Crisci, Gino M.; Pezzino, Antonino

    2013-12-01

    This contribution focuses on spectrometric analyses carried out on crust samples covering the stone surface of the boundary walls of the Tower of London. The main goal of this research is to investigate the degradation processes related to the environmental impact on cultural heritage. Specifically, the chemical contamination of stone substrate in the Tower of London due to the crust formation was examined through laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS). This technique allowed us to achieve a complete characterization of the damage layers in terms of trace elements. In addition, optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (SEM-EDS) and infrared spectroscopic techniques (FT-IR) were also used for an exhaustive characterization of the examined samples. Results obtained demonstrated that such a geochemical approach represents a powerful diagnostic tool in the study of black crusts, since it represents a reliable indicator of the environmental pollution. The higher concentrations of most heavy metals in black crusts with respect to the underlying stone suggest that crusts were greatly influenced by atmospheric inputs in their formation, mainly represented by mobile combustion sources. In addition, the possibility of analyzing in some samples the portion of altered substrate allowed us to hypothesize that some specific heavy metals tend to migrate from the crust to the unaltered substrate over time, becoming catalysts for the formation of new crust. Therefore, this research focuses on the role of diagnostics in order to plan suitable cleaning and consolidation intervention aimed at a better protection of the monument.

  16. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample. PMID:27609086

  17. Natriuretic peptides: diagnostic tools and predictors of heart failure outcome.

    PubMed

    Isakson, Susan R; Gardetto, Nancy J; Maisel, Alan S

    2006-11-01

    Congestive heart failure (CHF) is a progressive disease whose outcome largely depends on early, accurate and prompt diagnosis, accompanied by evidence-based treatment. The explosion of uptake of natriuretic peptides (NPs) in clinical practice belies an understanding of how peptides are used. The signal for NP release is the same signal that causes symptoms of CHF, such as increased wall stress. Thus, NPs can reliably add to the information a physician brings to the table as they attempt to diagnose the acutely dyspneic patient with CHF. Additionally, NPs have strong prognostic utility in the emergency room and the hospital. Monitoring of NPs during treatment for acute CHF may help manage the patient. In the future, it is possible that NPs will play a more prominent role in early detection of left ventricular dysfunction as well as guiding chronic CHF treatment. PMID:19804259

  18. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-01-01

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample. PMID:27609086

  19. Bacteriophages in clinical samples can interfere with microbiological diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Brown-Jaque, Maryury; Muniesa, Maite; Navarro, Ferran

    2016-09-09

    Bacteriophages are viruses that infect bacteria, and they are found everywhere their bacterial hosts are present, including the human body. To explore the presence of phages in clinical samples, we assessed 65 clinical samples (blood, ascitic fluid, urine, cerebrospinal fluid, and serum). Infectious tailed phages were detected in >45% of ascitic fluid and urine samples. Three examples of phage interference with bacterial isolation were observed. Phages prevented the confluent bacterial growth required for an antibiogram assay when the inoculum was taken from an agar plate containing lysis plaques, but not when taken from a single colony in a phage-free area. In addition, bacteria were isolated directly from ascitic fluid, but not after liquid enrichment culture of the same samples, since phage propagation lysed the bacteria. Lastly, Gram-negative bacilli observed in a urine sample did not grow on agar plates due to the high densities of infectious phages in the sample.

  20. Embedded Data Acquisition Tools for Rotorcraft Diagnostic Sensors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagoner, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Rotorcraft drive trains must withstand enormous pressure while operating continuously in extreme temperature and vibration environments. Captive components, such as planetary and spiral bevel gears, see enormous strain but are not accessible to fixed instrumentation, such as a piezoelectric transducer. Thus, it is difficult to directly monitor components that are most susceptible to damage. This innovation is a self-contained data processing unit within a specialized fixture that installs directly inside the rotating pinion gear in the gearbox. From this location, it detects and transmits high-resolution prognostic data to a fixed transceiver. The sensor is based on microelectromechanical systems (MEMS) technology and uses innovative circuit designs to capture high-bandwidth data and transmit it wirelessly from inside an operational helicopter transmission. With Ridgetop's advanced MEMS-based sensor, researchers have, for the first time, been able to extract high-resolution acoustic signatures wirelessly from sensors within the transmission that would otherwise be muffled by background gear noises. Ridgetop's innovative instrument will help researchers perform dynamic analysis of gear interaction and develop improved designs for gear components. In addition, data from this instrument can be used to validate new algorithms that detect and predict faults based on external acoustic signatures, for prognostic purposes. The result of this work will be an improvement in safety, performance, and cost for future generations of rotating components.

  1. Spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for urban soil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brook, Anna; Kopel, Daniella; Wittenberg, Lea

    2015-04-01

    Anthropogenic urban soil are the foundation of the urban green infrastructure, the green net quality is as good as each of its patches. In early days of pedology urban soil has been recognized with respect to contamination and the risks for human health but in study performed since the 70s, the importance of urban soil for the urban ecology became increasingly significant (Gómez-Baggethun and Barton 2013). Urban soils are highly disturbed land that was created by the process of urbanization. The dominant agent in the creation of urban soils is human activity which modifies the natural soil through mixing, filling or by contamination of land surfaces so as to create a layer of urban soil which can be more than 50 cm thick (Pavao-Zuckerman 2008). The objective of this study is to determine the extent to which field spectroscopy methods can be used to extend the knowledge of urban soils features and components. The majority of the studies on urban soils concentrate on identifying and mapping of pollution mostly heavy metals. In this study a top-down analysis is developed - a simple and intuitive spectral feature for detecting the presence of minerals, organic matter and pollutants in mixed soil samples. The developed method uses spectral activity (SA) detection in a structured hierarchical approach to quickly and, more importantly, correctly identify dominant spectral features. The developed method is adopted by multiple in-production tools including continuum removal normalization, guided by polynomial generalization, and spectral-likelihood algorithms: orthogonal subspace projection (OSP) and iterative spectral mixture analysis (ISMA) were compared to feature likelihood methods (Li et al. 2014). Results of the proposed top-down unmixing method suggest that the analysis is made very fast due to the simplified hierarchy which avoids the high-learning curve associated with unmixing algorithms showed that the most abundant components were coarse organic matter 12

  2. Surface tension in human pathophysiology and its application as a medical diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Fathi-Azarbayjani, Anahita; Jouyban, Abolghasem

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Pathological features of disease appear to be quite different. Despite this diversity, the common feature of various disorders underlies physicochemical and biochemical factors such as surface tension. Human biological fluids comprise various proteins and phospholipids which are capable of adsorption at fluid interfaces and play a vital role in the physiological function of human organs. Surface tension of body fluids correlates directly to the development of pathological states. Methods: In this review, the variety of human diseases mediated by the surface tension changes of biological phenomena and the failure of biological fluids to remain in their native state are discussed. Results: Dynamic surface tension measurements of human biological fluids depend on various parameters such as sex, age and changes during pregnancy or certain disease. It is expected that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional information and might become useful in medical practice. Theoretical background on surface tension measurement and surface tension values of reference fluids obtained from healthy and sick patients are depicted. Conclusion: It is well accepted that no single biomarker will be effective in clinical diagnosis. The surface tension measurement combined with routine lab tests may be a novel non-invasive method which can not only facilitate the discovery of diagnostic models for various diseases and its severity, but also be a useful tool for monitoring treatment efficacy. We therefore expect that studies of surface tension behavior of human biological fluids will provide additional useful information in medical practice. PMID:25901295

  3. Saliva specimen: a new laboratory tool for diagnostic and basic investigation.

    PubMed

    Chiappin, Silvia; Antonelli, Giorgia; Gatti, Rosalba; De Palo, Elio F

    2007-08-01

    The assay of saliva is an increasing area of research with implications for basic and clinical purposes. Although this biological fluid is easy to manipulate and collect, careful attention must be directed to limit variation in specimen integrity. Recently, the use of saliva has provided a substantial addition to the diagnostic armamentarium as an investigative tool for disease processes and disorders. In addition to its oral indications, the analysis of saliva provides important information about the functioning of various organs within the body. In this respect, endocrine research certainly occupies a central role. The present review considers the laboratory aspects of salivary assays with respect to the different analytes including ions, drugs and various non-protein/protein compounds such as hormones and immunoglobulins. This review also examines the consequences of preanalytical variation with respect to collection strategy and subsequent storage conditions. It is likely that the use of saliva in assays will continue to expand thus providing a new instrument of investigation for physiologic as well as pathophysiologic states.

  4. Dehydrin expression as a potential diagnostic tool for cold stress in white clover.

    PubMed

    Vaseva, Irina Ivanova; Anders, Iwona; Yuperlieva-Mateeva, Bistra; Nenkova, Rosa; Kostadinova, Anelia; Feller, Urs

    2014-05-01

    Cold acclimation is important for crop survival in environments undergoing seasonal low temperatures. It involves the induction of defensive mechanisms including the accumulation of different cryoprotective molecules among which are dehydrins (DHN). Recently several sequences coding for dehydrins were identified in white clover (Trifolium repens). This work aimed to select the most responsive to cold stress DHN analogues in search for cold stress diagnostic markers. The assessment of dehydrin transcript accumulation via RT-PCR and immunodetection performed with three antibodies against the conserved K-, Y-, and S-segment allowed to outline different dehydrin types presented in the tested samples. Both analyses confirmed that YnKn dehydrins were underrepresented in the controls but exposure to low temperature specifically induced their accumulation. Strong immunosignals corresponding to 37-40 kDa with antibodies against Y- and K-segment were revealed in cold-stressed leaves. Another 'cold-specific' band at position 52-55 kDa was documented on membranes probed with antibodies against K-segment. Real time RT-qPCR confirmed that low temperatures induced the accumulation of SKn and YnSKn transcripts in leaves and reduced their expression in roots. Results suggest that a YnKn dehydrin transcript with GenBank ID: KC247805 and the immunosignal at 37-40 kDa, obtained with antibodies against Y- and K-segment are reliable markers for cold stress in white clover. The assessment of SKn (GenBank ID: EU846208) and YnSKn (GenBank ID: KC247804) transcript levels in leaves could serve as additional diagnostic tools.

  5. Does Radar Technology Support the Diagnosis of Pneumothorax? PneumoScan—A Diagnostic Point-of-Care Tool

    PubMed Central

    Lindner, T.; Conze, M.; Albers, C. E.; Leidel, B. A.; Levy, P.; Kleber, C.; De Moya, M.; Exadaktylos, A.; Stoupis, C.

    2013-01-01

    Background. A nonrecognized pneumothorax (PTX) may become a life-threatening tension PTX. A reliable point-of-care diagnostic tool could help in reduce this risk. For this purpose, we investigated the feasibility of the use of the PneumoScan, an innovative device based on micropower impulse radar (MIR). Patients and Methods. addition to a standard diagnostic protocol including clinical examination, chest X-ray (CXR), and computed tomography (CT), 24 consecutive patients with chest trauma underwent PneumoScan testing in the shock trauma room to exclude a PTX. Results. The application of the PneumoScan was simple, quick, and reliable without functional disorder. Clinical examination and CXR each revealed one and PneumoScan three out of altogether four PTXs (sensitivity 75%, specificity 100%, positive predictive value 100%, and negative predictive value 95%). The undetected PTX did not require intervention. Conclusion. The PneumoScan as a point-of-care device offers additional diagnostic value in patient management following chest trauma. Further studies with more patients have to be performed to evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of the device. PMID:24187624

  6. Cancer-associated fibroblasts as target and tool in cancer therapeutics and diagnostics.

    PubMed

    De Vlieghere, Elly; Verset, Laurine; Demetter, Pieter; Bracke, Marc; De Wever, Olivier

    2015-10-01

    Cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) are drivers of tumour progression and are considered as a target and a tool in cancer diagnostic and therapeutic applications. An increased abundance of CAFs or CAF signatures are recognized as a bad prognostic marker in several cancer types. Tumour-environment biomimetics strongly improve our understanding of the communication between CAFs, cancer cells and other host cells. Several experimental drugs targeting CAFs are in clinical trials for multiple tumour entities; alternatively, CAFs can be exploited as a tool to characterize the functionality of circulating tumour cells or to capture them as a tool to prevent metastasis. The continuous interaction between tissue engineers, biomaterial experts and cancer researchers creates the possibility to biomimic the tumour-environment and provides new opportunities in cancer diagnostics and management.

  7. A Multicenter Evaluation of Diagnostic Tools to Define Endpoints for Programs to Eliminate Bancroftian Filariasis

    PubMed Central

    Gass, Katherine; Beau de Rochars, Madsen V. E.; Boakye, Daniel; Bradley, Mark; Fischer, Peter U.; Gyapong, John; Itoh, Makoto; Ituaso-Conway, Nese; Joseph, Hayley; Kyelem, Dominique; Laney, Sandra J.; Legrand, Anne-Marie; Liyanage, Tilaka S.; Melrose, Wayne; Mohammed, Khalfan; Pilotte, Nils; Ottesen, Eric A.; Plichart, Catherine; Ramaiah, Kapa; Rao, Ramakrishna U.; Talbot, Jeffrey; Weil, Gary J.; Williams, Steven A.; Won, Kimberly Y.; Lammie, Patrick

    2012-01-01

    Successful mass drug administration (MDA) campaigns have brought several countries near the point of Lymphatic Filariasis (LF) elimination. A diagnostic tool is needed to determine when the prevalence levels have decreased to a point that MDA campaigns can be discontinued without the threat of recrudescence. A six-country study was conducted assessing the performance of seven diagnostic tests, including tests for microfilariae (blood smear, PCR), parasite antigen (ICT, Og4C3) and antifilarial antibody (Bm14, PanLF, Urine SXP). One community survey and one school survey were performed in each country. A total of 8,513 people from the six countries participated in the study, 6,443 through community surveys and 2,070 through school surveys. Specimens from these participants were used to conduct 49,585 diagnostic tests. Each test was seen to have both positive and negative attributes, but overall, the ICT test was found to be 76% sensitive at detecting microfilaremia and 93% specific at identifying individuals negative for both microfilariae and antifilarial antibody; the Og4C3 test was 87% sensitive and 95% specific. We conclude, however, that the ICT should be the primary tool recommended for decision-making about stopping MDAs. As a point-of-care diagnostic, the ICT is relatively inexpensive, requires no laboratory equipment, has satisfactory sensitivity and specificity and can be processed in 10 minutes—qualities consistent with programmatic use. Og4C3 provides a satisfactory laboratory-based diagnostic alternative. PMID:22272369

  8. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1-<2 and >2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of

  9. Turkish validation of the premature ejaculation diagnostic tool and its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time.

    PubMed

    Serefoglu, E C; Cimen, H I; Ozdemir, A T; Symonds, T; Berktas, M; Balbay, M D

    2009-01-01

    There are uncertain issues on the diagnostic methods of premature ejaculation (PE). The premature ejaculation diagnostic tool (PEDT) was developed to systematically apply the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (DSM-IV) criteria in diagnosing PE and the aim of this study is to carry out the Turkish validation of the PEDT and to evaluate its association with intravaginal ejaculatory latency time (IELT). A total of 94 patients with a self-reported complaint of PE and 88 men without PE were enrolled into the study and requested to complete the nine-item PEDT, which was translated into Turkish. The patients were also requested to measure IELT. All participants were requested to come for a second visit to assess the PEDT's retest reliability; data from 78 men in the PE group and 69 men in the control group were collected. The IELT data of 35 patients were also recorded. The mean age of the PE group and the control group were 39.4+/-9.7 (24-65) and 30.1+/-5.7 (20-56), respectively, (P=0.068). Among the patients in the PE group, 24 (68.5%) reported life-long PE, whereas 11 (31.5%) reported acquired PE. The geometric mean IELT of the PE group was 59.7+/-46.2 (6.5-197.7) s. The number of men reporting IELTs of <1, 1-<2 and >2 min were 20 (57.1%), 11 (31.5) and 4 (11.4%), respectively. The factor analysis assessment showed that the five-item combination (questions 1, 2, 3, 4 and 8) explained 74.4% of the variance, there were no other combinations that explained the variance more effectively. Cronbach's alpha score of five-item combination was calculated as 0.77, showing adequate internal consistency. The overall Cronbach's alpha score did not increase if any item combination was deleted. The test-retest correlation coefficients of each item were higher than 0.80 and the correlation coefficient of the total score was 0.90. The PEDT and IELT showed an adequate correlation (rho=0.44). As a conclusion, the validated five-item Turkish version of

  10. Creating an automated chiller fault detection and diagnostics tool using a data fault library.

    PubMed

    Bailey, Margaret B; Kreider, Jan F

    2003-07-01

    Reliable, automated detection and diagnosis of abnormal behavior within vapor compression refrigeration cycle (VCRC) equipment is extremely desirable for equipment owners and operators. The specific type of VCRC equipment studied in this paper is a 70-ton helical rotary, air-cooled chiller. The fault detection and diagnostic (FDD) tool developed as part of this research analyzes chiller operating data and detects faults through recognizing trends or patterns existing within the data. The FDD method incorporates a neural network (NN) classifier to infer the current state given a vector of observables. Therefore the FDD method relies upon the availability of normal and fault empirical data for training purposes and therefore a fault library of empirical data is assembled. This paper presents procedures for conducting sophisticated fault experiments on chillers that simulate air-cooled condenser, refrigerant, and oil related faults. The experimental processes described here are not well documented in literature and therefore will provide the interested reader with a useful guide. In addition, the authors provide evidence, based on both thermodynamics and empirical data analysis, that chiller performance is significantly degraded during fault operation. The chiller's performance degradation is successfully detected and classified by the NN FDD classifier as discussed in the paper's final section. PMID:12858981

  11. [Plasma copeptin--a multi-purpose diagnostic tool for clinicians?].

    PubMed

    Koistinen, Heikki

    2012-01-01

    Measurement of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) is utilized in the diagnosis of hyponatremia and polyuria. However, determination of ADH is slow, and results may be unreliable. Copeptin is a glycopeptide of 39 amino acid residues that is cleaved from a precursor of ADH and secreted to the circulation in an equimolar manner with ADH. Determination of the copeptin level is quick and reliable, and improves the diagnostics of osmotic disorders. Copeptin seems to be a promising diagnostic tool also in acute coronary syndrome and may have prognostic significance in cardiac insufficiency, stroke or septicaemia, too.

  12. The impact of layer thickness on the performance of additively manufactured lapping tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Williams, Wesley B.

    2015-10-01

    Lower cost additive manufacturing (AM) machines which have emerged in recent years are capable of producing tools, jigs, and fixtures that are useful in optical fabrication. In particular, AM tooling has been shown to be useful in lapping glass workpieces. Various AM machines are distinguished by the processes, materials, build times, and build resolution they provide. This research investigates the impact of varied build resolution (specifically layer resolution) on the lapping performance of tools built using the stereolithographic assembly (SLA) process in 50 μm and 100 μm layer thicknesses with a methacrylate photopolymer resin on a high resolution desktop printer. As with previous work, the lapping tools were shown to remove workpiece material during the lapping process, but the tools themselves also experienced significant wear on the order of 2-3 times the mass loss of the glass workpieces. The tool wear rates for the 100 μm and 50 μm layer tools were comparable, but the 50 μm layer tool was 74% more effective at removing material from the glass workpiece, which is attributed to some abrasive particles being trapped in the coarser surface of the 100 um layer tooling and not being available to interact with the glass workpiece. Considering the tool wear, these additively manufactured tools are most appropriate for prototype tooling where the low cost (<$45) and quick turnaround make them attractive when compared to a machined tool.

  13. Development of a high-temperature diagnostics-while-drilling tool.

    SciTech Connect

    Chavira, David J.; Huey, David; Hetmaniak, Chris; Polsky, Yarom; King, Dennis K.; Jacobson, Ronald David; Blankenship, Douglas Alan; Knudsen, Steven Dell; Henfling, Joseph Anthony; Mansure, Arthur James

    2009-01-01

    The envisioned benefits of Diagnostics-While-Drilling (DWD) are based on the principle that high-speed, real-time information from the downhole environment will promote better control of the drilling process. Although in practice a DWD system could provide information related to any aspect of exploration and production of subsurface resources, the current DWD system provides data on drilling dynamics. This particular set of new tools provided by DWD will allow quicker detection of problems, reduce drilling flat-time and facilitate more efficient drilling (drilling optimization) with the overarching result of decreased drilling costs. In addition to providing the driller with an improved, real-time picture of the drilling conditions downhole, data generated from DWD systems provides researchers with valuable, high fidelity data sets necessary for developing and validating enhanced understanding of the drilling process. Toward this end, the availability of DWD creates a synergy with other Sandia Geothermal programs, such as the hard-rock bit program, where the introduction of alternative rock-reduction technologies are contingent on the reduction or elimination of damaging dynamic effects. More detailed descriptions of the rationale for the program and early development efforts are described in more detail by others [SAND2003-2069 and SAND2000-0239]. A first-generation low-temperature (LT) DWD system was fielded in a series of proof-of-concept tests (POC) to validate functionality. Using the LT system, DWD was subsequently used to support a single-laboratory/multiple-partner CRADA (Cooperative Research and Development Agreement) entitled Advanced Drag Bits for Hard-Rock Drilling. The drag-bit CRADA was established between Sandia and four bit companies, and involved testing of a PDC bit from each company [Wise, et al., 2003, 2004] in the same lithologic interval at the Gas Technology Institute (GTI) test facility near Catoosa, OK. In addition, the LT DWD system has

  14. MALDI TOF imaging mass spectrometry in clinical pathology: a valuable tool for cancer diagnostics (review).

    PubMed

    Kriegsmann, Jörg; Kriegsmann, Mark; Casadonte, Rita

    2015-03-01

    Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) time-of-flight (TOF) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is an evolving technique in cancer diagnostics and combines the advantages of mass spectrometry (proteomics), detection of numerous molecules, and spatial resolution in histological tissue sections and cytological preparations. This method allows the detection of proteins, peptides, lipids, carbohydrates or glycoconjugates and small molecules.Formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue can also be investigated by IMS, thus, this method seems to be an ideal tool for cancer diagnostics and biomarker discovery. It may add information to the identification of tumor margins and tumor heterogeneity. The technique allows tumor typing, especially identification of the tumor of origin in metastatic tissue, as well as grading and may provide prognostic information. IMS is a valuable method for the identification of biomarkers and can complement histology, immunohistology and molecular pathology in various fields of histopathological diagnostics, especially with regard to identification and grading of tumors.

  15. The Hα surface brightness — radius plane as a diagnostic tool for photoionized nebulae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frew, David J.; Bojičić, Ivan S.; Parker, Quentin A.

    2016-07-01

    The Hα surface brightness - radius (SHα-r) relation is a robust distance indicator for planetary nebulae (PNe), further enhanced by different populations of PNe having distinct loci in SHα-r space. Other types of photoionized nebulae also plot in quite distinct regions in the SHa-r plane, allowing its use as a diagnostic tool. In particular, the nova shells and massive star ejecta (MSE) plot on relatively tight loci illustrating their evolutionary sequences. For the MSE, there is potential to develop a distance indicator for these objects, based on their trend in SHα-r space. As high-resolution, narrowband surveys of the nearest galaxies become more commonplace, the SHα-r plane is a potentially useful diagnostic tool to help identify the various ionized nebulae in these systems.

  16. Acute cardiac arrhythmias following surgery for congenital heart disease: mechanisms, diagnostic tools, and management.

    PubMed

    Payne, Linda; Zeigler, Vicki L; Gillette, Paul C

    2011-06-01

    This article focuses on the management of those cardiac arrhythmias most commonly seen in the immediate postoperative period. They include ventricular tachycardia, ventricular fibrillation, atrial flutter, junctional ectopic tachycardia, bradycardia, and atrioventricular block. The mechanisms of cardiac arrhythmias are reviewed followed by a brief overview of the predominant acute arrhythmias, tools used for the diagnostic evaluation of these arrhythmias, management strategies, and, finally, nursing considerations.

  17. Application of Diagnostic Analysis Tools to the Ares I Thrust Vector Control System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Melcher, Kevin J.; Chicatelli, Amy K.; Johnson, Stephen B.

    2010-01-01

    The NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle is being designed to support missions to the International Space Station (ISS), to the Moon, and beyond. The Ares I is undergoing design and development utilizing commercial-off-the-shelf tools and hardware when applicable, along with cutting edge launch technologies and state-of-the-art design and development. In support of the vehicle s design and development, the Ares Functional Fault Analysis group was tasked to develop an Ares Vehicle Diagnostic Model (AVDM) and to demonstrate the capability of that model to support failure-related analyses and design integration. One important component of the AVDM is the Upper Stage (US) Thrust Vector Control (TVC) diagnostic model-a representation of the failure space of the US TVC subsystem. This paper first presents an overview of the AVDM, its development approach, and the software used to implement the model and conduct diagnostic analysis. It then uses the US TVC diagnostic model to illustrate details of the development, implementation, analysis, and verification processes. Finally, the paper describes how the AVDM model can impact both design and ground operations, and how some of these impacts are being realized during discussions of US TVC diagnostic analyses with US TVC designers.

  18. Raman Spectroscopy Provides a Powerful Diagnostic Tool for Accurate Determination of Albumin Glycation

    PubMed Central

    Dingari, Narahara Chari; Horowitz, Gary L.; Kang, Jeon Woong; Dasari, Ramachandra R.; Barman, Ishan

    2012-01-01

    We present the first demonstration of glycated albumin detection and quantification using Raman spectroscopy without the addition of reagents. Glycated albumin is an important marker for monitoring the long-term glycemic history of diabetics, especially as its concentrations, in contrast to glycated hemoglobin levels, are unaffected by changes in erythrocyte life times. Clinically, glycated albumin concentrations show a strong correlation with the development of serious diabetes complications including nephropathy and retinopathy. In this article, we propose and evaluate the efficacy of Raman spectroscopy for determination of this important analyte. By utilizing the pre-concentration obtained through drop-coating deposition, we show that glycation of albumin leads to subtle, but consistent, changes in vibrational features, which with the help of multivariate classification techniques can be used to discriminate glycated albumin from the unglycated variant with 100% accuracy. Moreover, we demonstrate that the calibration model developed on the glycated albumin spectral dataset shows high predictive power, even at substantially lower concentrations than those typically encountered in clinical practice. In fact, the limit of detection for glycated albumin measurements is calculated to be approximately four times lower than its minimum physiological concentration. Importantly, in relation to the existing detection methods for glycated albumin, the proposed method is also completely reagent-free, requires barely any sample preparation and has the potential for simultaneous determination of glycated hemoglobin levels as well. Given these key advantages, we believe that the proposed approach can provide a uniquely powerful tool for quantification of glycation status of proteins in biopharmaceutical development as well as for glycemic marker determination in routine clinical diagnostics in the future. PMID:22393405

  19. Methods Developed by the Tools for Engine Diagnostics Task to Monitor and Predict Rotor Damage in Real Time

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baaklini, George Y.; Smith, Kevin; Raulerson, David; Gyekenyesi, Andrew L.; Sawicki, Jerzy T.; Brasche, Lisa

    2003-01-01

    Tools for Engine Diagnostics is a major task in the Propulsion System Health Management area of the Single Aircraft Accident Prevention project under NASA s Aviation Safety Program. The major goal of the Aviation Safety Program is to reduce fatal aircraft accidents by 80 percent within 10 years and by 90 percent within 25 years. The goal of the Propulsion System Health Management area is to eliminate propulsion system malfunctions as a primary or contributing factor to the cause of aircraft accidents. The purpose of Tools for Engine Diagnostics, a 2-yr-old task, is to establish and improve tools for engine diagnostics and prognostics that measure the deformation and damage of rotating engine components at the ground level and that perform intermittent or continuous monitoring on the engine wing. In this work, nondestructive-evaluation- (NDE-) based technology is combined with model-dependent disk spin experimental simulation systems, like finite element modeling (FEM) and modal norms, to monitor and predict rotor damage in real time. Fracture mechanics time-dependent fatigue crack growth and damage-mechanics-based life estimation are being developed, and their potential use investigated. In addition, wireless eddy current and advanced acoustics are being developed for on-wing and just-in-time NDE engine inspection to provide deeper access and higher sensitivity to extend on-wing capabilities and improve inspection readiness. In the long run, these methods could establish a base for prognostic sensing while an engine is running, without any overt actions, like inspections. This damage-detection strategy includes experimentally acquired vibration-, eddy-current- and capacitance-based displacement measurements and analytically computed FEM-, modal norms-, and conventional rotordynamics-based models of well-defined damages and critical mass imbalances in rotating disks and rotors.

  20. On the Development of a Computer Based Diagnostic Assessment Tool to Help in Teaching and Learning Process

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ahmad, Afaq; Al-Mashari, Ahmed; Al-Lawati, Ali

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a computer based diagnostic tool developed to facilitate the learning process. The developed tool is capable of generating possible error syndromes associated with the answers received. The developed tool simulates the error pattern of the test results and then accordingly models the action plan to help in children's learning…

  1. DNA technological progress toward advanced diagnostic tools to support human hookworm control.

    PubMed

    Gasser, R B; Cantacessi, C; Loukas, A

    2008-01-01

    Blood-feeding hookworms are parasitic nematodes of major human health importance. Currently, it is estimated that 740 million people are infected worldwide, and more than 80 million of them are severely affected clinically by hookworm disease. In spite of the health problems caused and the advances toward the development of vaccines against some hookworms, limited attention has been paid to the need for improved, practical methods of diagnosis. Accurate diagnosis and genetic characterization of hookworms is central to their effective control. While traditional diagnostic methods have considerable limitations, there has been some progress toward the development of molecular-diagnostic tools. The present article provides a brief background on hookworm disease of humans, reviews the main methods that have been used for diagnosis and describes progress in establishing polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based methods for the specific diagnosis of hookworm infection and the genetic characterisation of the causative agents. This progress provides a foundation for the rapid development of practical, highly sensitive and specific diagnostic and analytical tools to be used in improved hookworm prevention and control programmes.

  2. Tools for stools: the challenge of assessing human intestinal microbiota using molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Brugère, Jean-François; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Missaoui, Mohieddine; Peyret, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    The human GI tract is inhabited by an incredibly complex and abundant microbiota, whose composition is dependent on a variety of factors. The gut microbiota has an influence in the morphological, immunological and nutritional functions of the digestive tract and may be involved in many diseases. This article proposes the rationale behind conducting in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) of the human microbiota, as well as outlining the conceptual and technical difficulties involved in IVD testing. The molecular methods that can be used according to whether the IVD tools are employed to study one individual constituent species or to determine the microbiota as a whole will also be described. In the latter case, these technologies include high-throughput sequencing for metagenomics and DNA microarrays, which can now be efficiently used to study gut ecology and are believed to represent the future of standardized diagnostics. PMID:19435456

  3. Tools for stools: the challenge of assessing human intestinal microbiota using molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Brugère, Jean-François; Mihajlovski, Agnès; Missaoui, Mohieddine; Peyret, Pierre

    2009-05-01

    The human GI tract is inhabited by an incredibly complex and abundant microbiota, whose composition is dependent on a variety of factors. The gut microbiota has an influence in the morphological, immunological and nutritional functions of the digestive tract and may be involved in many diseases. This article proposes the rationale behind conducting in vitro diagnostics (IVDs) of the human microbiota, as well as outlining the conceptual and technical difficulties involved in IVD testing. The molecular methods that can be used according to whether the IVD tools are employed to study one individual constituent species or to determine the microbiota as a whole will also be described. In the latter case, these technologies include high-throughput sequencing for metagenomics and DNA microarrays, which can now be efficiently used to study gut ecology and are believed to represent the future of standardized diagnostics.

  4. In vitro amplification techniques for the detection of nucleic acids: new tools for the diagnostic laboratory.

    PubMed

    Persing, D H; Landry, M L

    1989-01-01

    The acceptance of nucleic acid probes as diagnostic tools for the clinical laboratory has been hampered by a number of factors, including laborious techniques and limited sensitivity. The focus of this review is on the recent development of amplification techniques to enhance the signal generated by nucleic acid-based detection systems. Three general areas are discussed: (1) amplification of target sequences using the polymerase chain reaction or the transcript amplification system, (2) amplification of the probe sequences using Q beta replicase, and (3) amplification of probe-generated signals with compound or "Christmas tree" probes. The hope of these new technologies is to simplify yet improve on the sensitivity of nucleic acid-based tests to enable them to attain a more prominent place in the diagnostic repertoire of the clinical laboratory.

  5. [Traditional and innovative diagnostic tools: when and why they should be applied].

    PubMed

    Cancrini, G; Iori, A

    2004-06-01

    The development of new technological methods surely improves the quality of the Diagnostic Services in Parasitology offered to the National Sanitary Service, however, cost and simplicity have not to be neglected, even when the prime consideration is efficiency. Moreover, the mere fact that something can be done by one of these new approaches does not mean that it should be done that way or that it is most cost-effective to do it that way. A review of diagnostic tools in Parasitology is proposed, to evaluate when and why each of them should be applied. Traditional procedures for the diagnosis of parasitosis are only based on the "direct" recovery and recognition of the parasite, with the microscope as main tool and few other instruments as co-operator. The innovative procedures, recently adjusted on the basis of new scientific knowledge and made possible by the development of the laboratory instrument weapons, can evidence the parasites both directly and indirectly. If it is obvious that the direct identification of a pathogen is more reliable than that indirect, is not so evident what is the most useful direct method, and when it would be better to use indirect diagnostic tools. Advantages and disadvantages of each procedure, cost as well as the purpose of the test (diagnosis, post-treatment, research), and the general condition in which the test have to been applied must be taken into account when we are choosing. In general, we can say that the rationale for their use can be summarised as follows: 1) The macroscopic/microscopic analysis of samples is always recommended (with the exception of samples coming from tissues that need surgery). This "old" procedure allows the identification in 20 minutes of all the parasites present in mixed infections, and the evaluation of the parasite load. It is a cost-effective method which relies ultimately on the skill of the observer to detect and identify parasite stages; 2) Parasite antigen detection is an innovative and

  6. Addiction screening and diagnostic tools: 'Refuting' and 'unmasking' claims to legitimacy.

    PubMed

    Dwyer, Robyn; Fraser, Suzanne

    2015-12-01

    Human practices of all kinds - substance use, gambling, sex, even eating - are increasingly being reframed through the language of addiction. This 'addicting' of contemporary society is achieved, in part, through the screening and diagnostic tools intended to identify and measure addiction. These tools are a key element in the expert knowledge-making through which realities of addiction emerge. Promoted as objective and accurate, the tools are given legitimacy through application of scientific validation techniques. In this article, we critically examine the operations of these validation techniques as applied to substance addiction tools. Framed by feminist and other scholarship that decentres the epistemological guarantees of objectivity and validity, we structure our analysis using Ian Hacking's (1999) concepts of 'refuting' (showing a thesis to be false) and 'unmasking' (undermining a thesis). Under 'refuting', we consider the methodological validation processes on their own terms, identifying contradictory claims, weak findings and inconsistent application of methodological standards. Under 'unmasking', we critically analyse validation as a concept in itself. Here we identify two fundamental problems: symptom learning and feedback effects; and circularity and assumptions of independence and objectivity. Our analysis also highlights the extra-theoretical functions and effects of the tools. Both on their own terms and when subjected to more searching analysis, then, the validity claims the tools make fail to hold up to scrutiny. In concluding, we consider some of the effects of the processes we identify. Not only do these tools make certainty where there is none, we contend, they actively participate in the creation of social objects and social groups, and in shaping affected individuals and their opportunities. In unpacking in detail the legitimacy of the tools, our aim is to open up for further scrutiny the processes by which they go about making (rather than

  7. Using Wood’s Light as a Diagnostic Tool for Vaginal Atrophy

    PubMed Central

    Ulubay, Mustafa; Fidan, Ulas; Keskin, Ugur; Alanbay, Ibrahim; Karaca, Riza

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Wood’s light lamp is a device that emits ultraviolet (UV) light and is a useful diagnostic tool for dermatologic disorders. The change in the thickness of vaginal mucosa, in vaginal atrophy, causes a change in its colour under Wood’s light. We wanted to assess the feasibility of Wood’s light (WL) as a diagnostic tool for vaginal atrophy. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted at the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology from 1 March 2013 to 1 September 2014. We evaluated 45 healthy postmenopausal women with atrophic vaginitis (study group) and 45 healthy, reproductive-aged women as a control group. All patients underwent WL and routine gynaecological examinations for this study. Results: Ninety patients were selected for this study: 45 postmenopausal women suffering atrophic vaginitis symptoms like vaginal dryness, dyspareunia, vulvar pruritus, and signs like pale, smooth, dry, fragile vaginal epithelium, areas of petechiae, and rash, and 45 healthy reproductive-aged women without vaginal atrophy. Thirty-six of the postmenopausal women’s vaginal mucosa appeared pale royal green under WL indicative of vaginal atrophy. Thirty-nine of reproductive-aged women’s (n: 45) vaginal mucosa were not visualized as pale royal green fluorescent images under the WL. Conclusion: Using Wood’s light to diagnose vaginal atrophy is a new use for the old device and may be a reliable, and cheap tool for diagnosing vaginal atrophy. Diagnostic accuracy and cost-effectiveness of Wood’s light will be better optimized in further trials. PMID:25738039

  8. GPLS VME MODULE: A DIAGNOSTIC AND DISPLAY TOOL FOR NSLS MICRO SYSTEMS.

    SciTech Connect

    RAMAMOORTHY,S.; SMITH,J.D.

    1999-03-29

    The General Purpose Light Source VME module is an integral part of every front-end micro in the NSLS control system. The board incorporates features such as a video character generator, clock signals, time-of-day clock, a VME bus interrupter and general-purpose digital inputs and outputs. This module serves as a valuable diagnostic and real-time display tool for the micro development as well as for the final operational systems. This paper describes the functions provided by the board for the NSLS micro control monitor software.

  9. Ocular static and dynamic light scattering: a noninvasive diagnostic tool for eye research and clinical practice

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ansari, Rafat R.

    2004-01-01

    The noninvasive techniques of static and dynamic light scattering are emerging as valuable diagnostic tools for the early detection of ocular and systemic diseases. These include corneal abnormalities, pigmentary dispersion syndrome, glaucoma, cataract, diabetic vitreopathy, and possibly macular degeneration. Systemic conditions such as diabetes and possibly Alzheimer's disease can potentially be detected early via ocular tissues. The current state of development of these techniques for application to ophthalmic research and ultimately clinical practice is reviewed. (c) 2004 Society of Photo-Optical Instrumentation Engineers.

  10. Material Development for Tooling Applications Using Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM)

    SciTech Connect

    Duty, Chad E.; Drye, Tom; Franc, Alan

    2015-03-01

    Techmer Engineered Solutions (TES) is working with Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) to develop materials and evaluate their use for ORNL s recently developed Big Area Additive Manufacturing (BAAM) system for tooling applications. The first phase of the project established the performance of some commercially available polymer compositions deposited with the BAAM system. Carbon fiber reinforced ABS demonstrated a tensile strength of nearly 10 ksi, which is sufficient for a number of low temperature tooling applications.

  11. SU-E-J-17: A Study of Accelerator-Induced Cerenkov Radiation as a Beam Diagnostic and Dosimetry Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Bateman, F; Tosh, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: To investigate accelerator-induced Cerenkov radiation imaging as a possible beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Methods: Cerenkov emission produced by clinical accelerator beams in a water phantom was imaged using a camera system comprised of a high-sensitivity thermoelectrically-cooled CCD camera coupled to a large aperture (f/0.75) objective lens with 16:1 magnification. This large format lens allows a significant amount of the available Cerenkov light to be collected and focused onto the CCD camera to form the image. Preliminary images, obtained with 6 MV photon beams, used an unshielded camera mounted horizontally with the beam normal to the water surface, and confirmed the detection of Cerenkov radiation. Several improvements were subsequently made including the addition of radiation shielding around the camera, and altering of the beam and camera angles to give a more favorable geometry for Cerenkov light collection. A detailed study was then undertaken over a range of electron and photon beam energies and dose rates to investigate the possibility of using this technique for beam diagnostics and dosimetry. Results: A series of images were obtained at a fixed dose rate over a range of electron energies from 6 to 20 MeV. The location of maximum intensity was found to vary linearly with the energy of the beam. A linear relationship was also found between the light observed from a fixed point on the central axis and the dose rate for both photon and electron beams. Conclusion: We have found that the analysis of images of beam-induced Cerenkov light in a water phantom has potential for use as a beam diagnostic and medical dosimetry tool. Our future goals include the calibration of the light output in terms of radiation dose and development of a tomographic system for 3D Cerenkov imaging in water phantoms and other media.

  12. Utility of Discography as a Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation

    PubMed Central

    Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Dohzono, Sho; Hori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-01-01

    Preoperative definitive diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is difficult despite the availability of various neuroradiological investigative tools. We present a case of ILDH diagnosed preoperatively by discography and computed tomography-discography (disco-CT).The patient was a 63-year-old man with acute excruciating right leg pain. Discography and disco-CT demonstrated leakage of the contrast medium into the intradural space. Based on these findings, a right L5 nerve root disturbance caused by ILDH was diagnosed. A right L5 hemi-laminectomy and a dorsal durotomy were performed. The herniated disc was carefully dissected and then completely removed. Three months after surgery, the patient had fully recovered. This report highlights the importance of making a definitive diagnosis of ILDH preoperatively for better surgical planning and improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, discography and disco-CT are both useful preoperative diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of ILDH. PMID:27559461

  13. Utility of Discography as a Preoperative Diagnostic Tool for Intradural Lumbar Disc Herniation.

    PubMed

    Matsumoto, Tomiya; Toyoda, Hiromitsu; Terai, Hidetomi; Dohzono, Sho; Hori, Yusuke; Nakamura, Hiroaki

    2016-08-01

    Preoperative definitive diagnosis of intradural lumbar disc herniation (ILDH) is difficult despite the availability of various neuroradiological investigative tools. We present a case of ILDH diagnosed preoperatively by discography and computed tomography-discography (disco-CT).The patient was a 63-year-old man with acute excruciating right leg pain. Discography and disco-CT demonstrated leakage of the contrast medium into the intradural space. Based on these findings, a right L5 nerve root disturbance caused by ILDH was diagnosed. A right L5 hemi-laminectomy and a dorsal durotomy were performed. The herniated disc was carefully dissected and then completely removed. Three months after surgery, the patient had fully recovered. This report highlights the importance of making a definitive diagnosis of ILDH preoperatively for better surgical planning and improved clinical outcomes. Furthermore, discography and disco-CT are both useful preoperative diagnostic tools for the diagnosis of ILDH. PMID:27559461

  14. “A New Tool Improves Diagnostic Test Performance for Transmission EM Evaluation of Axonemal Dynein Arms”

    PubMed Central

    Funkhouser, W. Keith; Niethammer, Marc; Carson, Johnny L.; Burns, Kimberlie A.; Knowles, Michael R.; Leigh, Margaret W.; Zariwala, Maimoona A.; Funkhouser, William K.

    2014-01-01

    Diagnosis of primary ciliary dyskinesia (PCD) by identification of dynein arm loss in transmission electron microscopy (TEM) images can be confounded by high background noise due to random electron-dense material within the ciliary matrix, leading to diagnostic uncertainty even for experienced morphologists. We developed a novel image analysis tool to average the axonemal peripheral microtubular doublets, thereby increasing microtubular signal and reducing random background noise. In a randomized, double-blinded study that compared two experienced morphologists and three different diagnostic approaches, we found that use of this tool led to improvement in diagnostic TEM test performance. PMID:23957500

  15. Ultrafast Laser Diagnostics for Energetic-Material Ignition Mechanisms: Tools for Physics-Based Model Development.

    SciTech Connect

    Kearney, Sean Patrick; Jilek, Brook Anton; Kohl, Ian Thomas; Farrow, Darcie; Urayama, Junji

    2014-11-01

    We present the results of an LDRD project to develop diagnostics to perform fundamental measurements of material properties during shock compression of condensed phase materials at micron spatial scales and picosecond time scales. The report is structured into three main chapters, which each focus on a different diagnostic devel opment effort. Direct picosecond laser drive is used to introduce shock waves into thin films of energetic and inert materials. The resulting laser - driven shock properties are probed via Ultrafast Time Domain Interferometry (UTDI), which can additionally be used to generate shock Hugoniot data in tabletop experiments. Stimulated Raman scattering (SRS) is developed as a temperature diagnostic. A transient absorption spectroscopy setup has been developed to probe shock - induced changes during shock compressio n. UTDI results are presented under dynamic, direct - laser - drive conditions and shock Hugoniots are estimated for inert polystyrene samples and for the explosive hexanitroazobenzene, with results from both Sandia and Lawrence Livermore presented here. SRS a nd transient absorption diagnostics are demonstrated on static thin - film samples, and paths forward to dynamic experiments are presented.

  16. Established and Adapted Diagnostic Tools for Investigation of a Special Twin-Wire Arc Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schein, Jochen

    2016-10-01

    In the LDS® ( Lichtbogendrahtspritzen) process, a twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS) process developed by Daimler AG, the gas injection and feed to the arc play a crucial role in separating the molten particles from the wire ends. This paper describes an investigation of the gas and particle behavior according to individual LDS® process parameters. Coating problems are not considered. The measurements are separated into two different parts: "cold" (without arc and particles) and "hot" (with arc and particles). The results provide the first detailed understanding of the effect of different LDS® process parameters. A correlation between the gas parameter settings and the particle beam properties was found. Using established and adapted diagnostic tools, as also applied for conventional TWAS processes, this special LDS® process was investigated and the results (gas and particle behavior) validated, thereby allowing explanation and comparison of the diagnostic methods, which is the main focus of this paper. Based on error analysis, individual instabilities, limits, and deviations during the gas determinations and particle measurements are explained in more detail. The paper concludes with presentation of the first particle-shadow diagnostic results and main statements regarding these investigations.

  17. Established and Adapted Diagnostic Tools for Investigation of a Special Twin-Wire Arc Spraying Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    König, Johannes; Lahres, Michael; Zimmermann, Stephan; Schein, Jochen

    2016-09-01

    In the LDS® (Lichtbogendrahtspritzen) process, a twin-wire arc spraying (TWAS) process developed by Daimler AG, the gas injection and feed to the arc play a crucial role in separating the molten particles from the wire ends. This paper describes an investigation of the gas and particle behavior according to individual LDS® process parameters. Coating problems are not considered. The measurements are separated into two different parts: "cold" (without arc and particles) and "hot" (with arc and particles). The results provide the first detailed understanding of the effect of different LDS® process parameters. A correlation between the gas parameter settings and the particle beam properties was found. Using established and adapted diagnostic tools, as also applied for conventional TWAS processes, this special LDS® process was investigated and the results (gas and particle behavior) validated, thereby allowing explanation and comparison of the diagnostic methods, which is the main focus of this paper. Based on error analysis, individual instabilities, limits, and deviations during the gas determinations and particle measurements are explained in more detail. The paper concludes with presentation of the first particle-shadow diagnostic results and main statements regarding these investigations.

  18. FT-Raman spectroscopy as diagnostic tool of Congo red binding to amyloids.

    PubMed

    Iconomidou, Vassiliki A; Chryssikos, Georgios D; Gionis, Vassilis; Hoenger, Andreas; Hamodrakas, Stavros J

    2003-01-01

    Chorion is the major component of silkmoth eggshell. More than 95% of its dry mass consists of the A and B families of low molecular weight structural proteins, which have remarkable mechanical and chemical properties protecting the oocyte and developing embryo from environmental hazards. We present data from FT-Raman spectroscopy of silkmoth chorion and amyloid-like fibrils formed from peptide analogues of chorion proteins, both unstained and stained by Congo red. The results show that FT-Raman spectroscopy is not a straightforward diagnostic tool for the specific interactions of Congo red with amyloids: a dilute aqueous solution of the Congo red dye at pH 5.5 and a thin solid film of the dye cast from this solution exhibit the same "diagnostic" Raman shifts relative to the neat Congo red dry powder as do amyloid fibrils formed from peptide analogues of chorion proteins stained by Congo red. An important consequence of this finding is that these shifts of the Raman active modes of Congo red are probably due to the formation of supramolecular dye aggregates in the presence of water. Therefore, this is not an appropriate diagnostic test for Congo red binding to amyloids. PMID:12722114

  19. Laser induced fluorescence as a diagnostic tool integrated into a scanning fiber endoscope for mouse imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Christopher M.; Maggio-Price, Lillian; Seibel, Eric J.

    2007-02-01

    Scanning fiber endoscope (SFE) technology has shown promise as a minimally invasive optical imaging tool. To date, it is capable of capturing full-color 500-line images, at 15 Hz frame rate in vivo, as a 1.6 mm diameter endoscope. The SFE uses a singlemode optical fiber actuated at mechanical resonance to scan a light spot over tissue while backscattered or fluorescent light at each pixel is detected in time series using several multimode optical fibers. We are extending the capability of the SFE from a RGB reflectance imaging device to a diagnostic tool by imaging laser induced fluorescence (LIF) in tissue, allowing for correlation of endogenous fluorescence to tissue state. Design of the SFE for diagnostic imaging is guided by a comparison of single point spectra acquired from an inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) model to tissue histology evaluated by a pathologist. LIF spectra were acquired by illuminating tissue with a 405 nm light source and detecting intrinsic fluorescence with a multimode optical fiber. The IBD model used in this study was mdr1a-/- mice, where IBD was modulated by infection with Helicobacter bilis. IBD lesions in the mouse model ranged from mild to marked hyperplasia and dysplasia, from the distal colon to the cecum. A principle components analysis (PCA) was conducted on single point spectra of control and IBD tissue. PCA allowed for differentiation between healthy and dysplastic tissue, indicating that emission wavelengths from 620 - 650 nm were best able to differentiate diseased tissue and inflammation from normal healthy tissue.

  20. COMPREHENSIVE DIAGNOSTIC AND IMPROVEMENT TOOLS FOR HVAC-SYSTEM INSTALLATIONS IN LIGHT COMMERCIAL BUILDINGS

    SciTech Connect

    Abram Conant; Mark Modera; Joe Pira; John Proctor; Mike Gebbie

    2004-10-31

    Proctor Engineering Group, Ltd. (PEG) and Carrier-Aeroseal LLP performed an investigation of opportunities for improving air conditioning and heating system performance in existing light commercial buildings. Comprehensive diagnostic and improvement tools were created to address equipment performance parameters (including airflow, refrigerant charge, and economizer operation), duct-system performance (including duct leakage, zonal flows and thermal-energy delivery), and combustion appliance safety within these buildings. This investigation, sponsored by the National Energy Technology Laboratory, a division of the U.S. Department of Energy, involved collaboration between PEG and Aeroseal in order to refine three technologies previously developed for the residential market: (1) an aerosol-based duct sealing technology that allows the ducts to be sealed remotely (i.e., without removing the ceiling tiles), (2) a computer-driven diagnostic and improvement-tracking tool for residential duct installations, and (3) an integrated diagnosis verification and customer satisfaction system utilizing a combined computer/human expert system for HVAC performance. Prior to this work the aerosol-sealing technology was virtually untested in the light commercial sector--mostly because the savings potential and practicality of this or any other type of duct sealing had not been documented. Based upon the field experiences of PEG and Aeroseal, the overall product was tailored to suit the skill sets of typical HVAC-contractor personnel.

  1. In search of a potential diagnostic tool for molecular characterization of lymphatic filariasis.

    PubMed

    Saeed, Mohd; Adnan, Mohd; Khan, Saif; Al-Shammari, Eyad; Mustafa, Huma

    2016-01-01

    Lymphatic filariasis (LF) is a chronic disease and is caused by the parasites Wuchereria bancrofti (W. bancrofti), Brugia malayi (B. malayi) and Brugia timori (B. timori). In the present study, Setaria cervi (S. cervi), a bovine filarial parasite has been used. Previously, it has been reported that the S. cervi shares some common proteins and antigenic determinants with that of human filarial parasite. The larval stages of filarial species usually cannot be identified by classical morphology. Hence, molecular characterization allows the identification of the parasites throughout all their developmental stages. The genomic DNA of S. cervi adult were isolated and estimated spectrophotometrically for the quantitative presence of DNA content. Screening of DNA sequences from filarial DNA GenBank and Expressed Sequence Tags (EST's) were performed for homologous sequences and then multiple sequence alignment was executed. The conserved sequences from multiple sequence alignment were used for In Silico primer designing. The successfully designed primers were used further in PCR amplifications. Therefore, in search of a promising diagnostic tool few genes were identified to be conserved in the human and bovine filariasis and these novel primers deigned may help to develop a promising diagnostic tool for identification of lymphatic filariasis. PMID:26751881

  2. Urethral ultrasonography: A novel diagnostic tool for dysuria following bipolar transurethral plasma kinetic prostatectomy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Guang-Chun; Bian, Cui-Dong; Zhou, Ting-Ting; Liu, Min; Huang, Jian-Hua; Peng, Bo

    2016-04-29

    Urethral ultrasonography is non-invasive and able to indicate the urethral lumen clearly, as well as the surrounding tissues of the posterior urethra, without contrast agent or X-ray irradiation. In this paper, we evaluate the reliability of urethral ultrasonography in the diagnosis of dysuria following bipolar transurethral plasma kinetic prostatectomy (TUPKP). A total of 120 benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) patients with dysuria undergoing TUPKP were enrolled in this study, with a mean age of 72.8 years. All the patients received urethral ultrasonography, urethroscopy and bladder neck urethra stenosis oulectomy. Among the 120 cases, there were 22 cases of bladder neck closure, 20 bladder orifice stricture, 60 urethral stricture, 10 prostate remnants, 2 calculi in prostatic urethra, 4 dysfunction of bladder detrusor muscle and 2 flap of internal urethral orifice. χ2-test was used for the comparison of ultrasonography and urethral cystoscopy in the diagnosis of dysuria following TRPKP, and no significant difference was found between two diagnostic tools (χ 2 = 0.94, P > 0.05). Urethral ultrasonography is a reliable and minimally invasive diagnostic tool for dysuria following TUPKP and is conducive to early treatment of dysuria following prostatectomy. PMID:27163308

  3. CNC machine tool's wear diagnostic and prognostic by using dynamic Bayesian networks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tobon-Mejia, D. A.; Medjaher, K.; Zerhouni, N.

    2012-04-01

    The failure of critical components in industrial systems may have negative consequences on the availability, the productivity, the security and the environment. To avoid such situations, the health condition of the physical system, and particularly of its critical components, can be constantly assessed by using the monitoring data to perform on-line system diagnostics and prognostics. The present paper is a contribution on the assessment of the health condition of a computer numerical control (CNC) tool machine and the estimation of its remaining useful life (RUL). The proposed method relies on two main phases: an off-line phase and an on-line phase. During the first phase, the raw data provided by the sensors are processed to extract reliable features. These latter are used as inputs of learning algorithms in order to generate the models that represent the wear's behavior of the cutting tool. Then, in the second phase, which is an assessment one, the constructed models are exploited to identify the tool's current health state, predict its RUL and the associated confidence bounds. The proposed method is applied on a benchmark of condition monitoring data gathered during several cuts of a CNC tool. Simulation results are obtained and discussed at the end of the paper.

  4. Potential role of body fluid 1H NMR metabonomics as a prognostic and diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Ala-Korpela, Mika

    2007-11-01

    This review briefly handles the use of (1)H NMR spectroscopy in lipoprotein subclass analytics. Potential diagnostic uses of (1)H NMR metabonomics of human serum for coronary heart disease, diabetic nephropathy and cancer are also discussed. In addition, miscellaneous recent applications of NMR metabonomics (e.g., a pharmacometabonomic tactic to personalize drug treatment) as well as multi-organ, multispecies and multi-omics approaches to molecular systems biology are featured. Some related experimental and data analysis methodologies are briefly introduced with respect to the biochemical rationales. Critical considerations on the potential diagnostic value of in vitro (1)H NMR are presented together with optimism toward the usage of body fluid (1)H NMR metabonomics in disease risk assessment and as an aid for personalized medicine.

  5. Design of a Web-tool for diagnostic clinical trials handling medical imaging research.

    PubMed

    Baltasar Sánchez, Alicia; González-Sistal, Angel

    2011-04-01

    New clinical studies in medicine are based on patients and controls using different imaging diagnostic modalities. Medical information systems are not designed for clinical trials employing clinical imaging. Although commercial software and communication systems focus on storage of image data, they are not suitable for storage and mining of new types of quantitative data. We sought to design a Web-tool to support diagnostic clinical trials involving different experts and hospitals or research centres. The image analysis of this project is based on skeletal X-ray imaging. It involves a computerised image method using quantitative analysis of regions of interest in healthy bone and skeletal metastases. The database is implemented with ASP.NET 3.5 and C# technologies for our Web-based application. For data storage, we chose MySQL v.5.0, one of the most popular open source databases. User logins were necessary, and access to patient data was logged for auditing. For security, all data transmissions were carried over encrypted connections. This Web-tool is available to users scattered at different locations; it allows an efficient organisation and storage of data (case report form) and images and allows each user to know precisely what his task is. The advantages of our Web-tool are as follows: (1) sustainability is guaranteed; (2) network locations for collection of data are secured; (3) all clinical information is stored together with the original images and the results derived from processed images and statistical analysis that enable us to perform retrospective studies; (4) changes are easily incorporated because of the modular architecture; and (5) assessment of trial data collected at different sites is centralised to reduce statistical variance.

  6. Indiana Reading Diagnostic Assessment: Resource & Intervention Guide, Kindergarten. Additional Activities and Assessments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Indiana Department of Education, 2006

    2006-01-01

    The materials included in this manual are organized according to the Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts. In each section teachers will find: (1) Indiana's Kindergarten Academic Standards for English/Language Arts Assessments: Black Line Masters of diagnostic/practice pages for skill areas, checklists, and rubrics;…

  7. DEVELOPMENT OF SIGNAL PROCESSING TOOLS AND HARDWARE FOR PIEZOELECTRIC SENSOR DIAGNOSTIC PROCESSES

    SciTech Connect

    OVERLY, TIMOTHY G.; PARK, GYUHAE; FARRAR, CHARLES R.

    2007-02-09

    This paper presents a piezoelectric sensor diagnostic and validation procedure that performs in -situ monitoring of the operational status of piezoelectric (PZT) sensor/actuator arrays used in structural health monitoring (SHM) applications. The validation of the proper function of a sensor/actuator array during operation, is a critical component to a complete and robust SHM system, especially with the large number of active sensors typically involved. The method of this technique used to obtain the health of the PZT transducers is to track their capacitive value, this value manifests in the imaginary part of measured electrical admittance. Degradation of the mechanical/electric properties of a PZT sensor/actuator as well as bonding defects between a PZT patch and a host structure can be identified with the proposed procedure. However, it was found that temperature variations and changes in sensor boundary conditions manifest themselves in similar ways in the measured electrical admittances. Therefore, they examined the effects of temperature variation and sensor boundary conditions on the sensor diagnostic process. The objective of this study is to quantify and classify several key characteristics of temperature change and to develop efficient signal processing techniques to account for those variations in the sensor diagnostis process. In addition, they developed hardware capable of making the necessary measurements to perform the sensor diagnostics and to make impedance-based SHM measurements. The paper concludes with experimental results to demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed technique.

  8. Coronary CT Angiography as a Diagnostic and Prognostic Tool: Perspectives from the SCOT-HEART Trial.

    PubMed

    Doris, Mhairi; Newby, David E

    2016-02-01

    Coronary artery disease is the leading cause of death worldwide. Many trials to date have investigated the diagnostic accuracy of coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) when compared to the gold standard diagnostic test, invasive coronary angiography. However, whether the use of a non-invasive anatomical test, such as CCTA, can translate into improved patient risk stratification, management and outcome has yet to be established. The Scottish COmputed Tomography of the HEART (SCOT-HEART) trial sought to address these questions and determined whether CCTA, when used in addition to standard care, could aid the diagnosis, further investigation and treatment of patients referred to the cardiology clinic with suspected angina due to coronary heart disease. In this trial, CCTA clarified the diagnosis of angina due to coronary heart disease in a quarter of patients and this led to major alterations in treatment and management that appeared to reduce the risk of subsequent coronary heart disease death or non-fatal myocardial infarction. The SCOT-Heart trial has established that CCTA is a valuable diagnostic test in patients with suspected angina pectoris due to coronary heart disease and leads to greater clarity, more focused appropriate treatments and better coronary heart disease outcomes.

  9. Ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in assessing deltoid ligament injury in supination external rotation fractures of the ankle.

    PubMed

    Henari, Shwan; Banks, Louisa N; Radovanovic, Ingrid; Radiovanovic, Ingrid; Queally, Joseph; Morris, Seamus

    2011-10-01

    The medial deltoid ligament is the primary stabilizing structure in the ankle joint following lateral malleolar fracture. However, medial deltoid ligament ruptures are difficult to diagnose using current imaging modalities. We hypothesized that ultrasonography can be used to accurately allow early clinical assessment of ankle fracture stability, thereby negating the need to perform plain film stress views of the acutely injured ankle. This prospective study included 12 patients (age range, 18-72) with supination external rotation fractures requiring operative fixation. Following induction of anesthesia, ultrasonography examination was performed, followed by an arthrogram under fluoroscopic screening. Radiographs, ultrasonography, and arthrographic findings were compared. There was 100% correlation between ultrasonography and arthrogram findings. Ultrasonography accurately diagnosed medial deltoid rupture with a sensitivity of 100% and specificity of 100%. Plain film radiographs of the ankle had a sensitivity of 57.1% and a specificity of 60%. The difference between these was significant (χ(2)=.0091). This study demonstrates diagnostic ultrasonography to be an accurate diagnostic modality in assessing medial deltoid ligament integrity in patients with supination external rotation fractures. It offers the same sensitivity and specificity as arthrography without the need for additional invasive procedures. Its relative ease of use and lack of ionizing radiation make it a potentially useful tool, particularly in a busy trauma service.

  10. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Wang Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-31

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  11. Phase-contrast enhanced mammography: A new diagnostic tool for breast imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhentian; Thuering, Thomas; David, Christian; Roessl, Ewald; Trippel, Mafalda; Kubik-Huch, Rahel A.; Singer, Gad; Hohl, Michael K.; Hauser, Nik; Stampanoni, Marco

    2012-07-01

    Phase contrast and scattering-based X-ray imaging can potentially revolutionize the radiological approach to breast imaging by providing additional and complementary information to conventional, absorption-based methods. We investigated native, non-fixed whole breast samples using a grating interferometer with an X-ray tube-based configuration. Our approach simultaneously recorded absorption, differential phase contrast and small-angle scattering signals. The results show that this novel technique - combined with a dedicated image fusion algorithm - has the potential to deliver enhanced breast imaging with complementary information for an improved diagnostic process.

  12. Virtual Guidance Ultrasound: A Tool to Obtain Diagnostic Ultrasound for Remote Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Caine,Timothy L.; Martin David S.; Matz, Timothy; Lee, Stuart M. C.; Stenger, Michael B.; Platts, Steven H.

    2012-01-01

    Astronauts currently acquire ultrasound images on the International Space Station with the assistance of real-time remote guidance from an ultrasound expert in Mission Control. Remote guidance will not be feasible when significant communication delays exist during exploration missions beyond low-Earth orbit. For example, there may be as much as a 20- minute delay in communications between the Earth and Mars. Virtual-guidance, a pre-recorded audio-visual tutorial viewed in real-time, is a viable modality for minimally trained scanners to obtain diagnostically-adequate images of clinically relevant anatomical structures in an autonomous manner. METHODS: Inexperienced ultrasound operators were recruited to perform carotid artery (n = 10) and ophthalmic (n = 9) ultrasound examinations using virtual guidance as their only instructional tool. In the carotid group, each each untrained operator acquired two-dimensional, pulsed, and color Doppler of the carotid artery. In the ophthalmic group, operators acquired representative images of the anterior chamber of the eye, retina, optic nerve, and nerve sheath. Ultrasound image quality was evaluated by independent imaging experts. RESULTS: Eight of the 10 carotid studies were judged to be diagnostically adequate. With one exception the quality of all the ophthalmic images were adequate to excellent. CONCLUSION: Diagnostically-adequate carotid and ophthalmic ultrasound examinations can be obtained by untrained operators with instruction only from an audio/video tutorial viewed in real time while scanning. This form of quick-response-guidance, can be developed for other ultrasound examinations, represents an opportunity to acquire important medical and scientific information for NASA flight surgeons and researchers when trained medical personnel are not present. Further, virtual guidance will allow untrained personnel to autonomously obtain important medical information in remote locations on Earth where communication is

  13. Mobile Phones Democratize and Cultivate Next-Generation Imaging, Diagnostics and Measurement Tools

    PubMed Central

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-01-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run e.g., biomedical tests and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally. PMID:24647550

  14. [Geriatric Depression Scale as auxiliary diagnostic tool used in patients 55 years and older].

    PubMed

    Bidzan, Leszek; Łapin, Joanna; Sołtys, Krzysztof; Turczyński, Jacek

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the Geriatric Depression Scale translated into Polish for its sensitivity and specificity in relation to obligatory criterions ICD-10. 208 at random select patients from Psychiatry Department and Psychiatry Clinic were included into study. Diagnosis was based on ICD 10 criteria. Geriatric Depression Scale were used in full version containing 30 of questions directed to examined (self-rating). Each questions was read to examined persons. At last 185 persons were included to statistical analysis's. Sensitivity and specificity obtained for critical value equal or higher from 11 points, were 81% and 47% Geriatric Depression Scale is useful tool in initial diagnosis of depression in older people. However one should be clearly to underline, that investigation with Geriatric Depression Scale should start diagnostic process, never while to take place full psychiatric investigations. PMID:12647438

  15. Aspiration cytology of adenomatoid tumor of epididymis: An important diagnostic tool

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, S; Garg, S; Agarwal, R; Sen, R

    2012-01-01

    Adenomatoid tumor is a benign mesothelial neoplasm of the paratesticular region in males but can also occur in female genital tracts. The epididymis is the most common site of involvement and constitutes 32% of paratesticular neoplasms. We diagnosed a case of adenomatoid tumor on cytopathology in 24 years old male, who presented with mass lesion right epididymis since 2 months. The diagnosis was confirmed on histopathology and immunohistochemistry after surgical excision of the nodule. FNAC is a rapid, reliable and cost effective diagnostic tool for preoperative diagnosis to take appropriate surgical decisions. Pathologists should be aware of the cytological features of such lesions so as to differentiate it from other paratesticular lesions. PMID:24960828

  16. Evaluation of FTIR spectroscopy as diagnostic tool for colorectal cancer using spectral analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dong, Liu; Sun, Xuejun; Chao, Zhang; Zhang, Shiyun; Zheng, Jianbao; Gurung, Rajendra; Du, Junkai; Shi, Jingsen; Xu, Yizhuang; Zhang, Yuanfu; Wu, Jinguang

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study is to confirm FTIR spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for colorectal cancer. 180 freshly removed colorectal samples were collected from 90 patients for spectrum analysis. The ratios of spectral intensity and relative intensity (/I1460) were calculated. Principal component analysis (PCA) and Fisher's discriminant analysis (FDA) were applied to distinguish the malignant from normal. The FTIR parameters of colorectal cancer and normal tissues were distinguished due to the contents or configurations of nucleic acids, proteins, lipids and carbohydrates. Related to nitrogen containing, water, protein and nucleic acid were increased significantly in the malignant group. Six parameters were selected as independent factors to perform discriminant functions. The sensitivity for FTIR in diagnosing colorectal cancer was 96.6% by discriminant analysis. Our study demonstrates that FTIR can be a useful technique for detection of colorectal cancer and may be applied in clinical colorectal cancer diagnosis.

  17. Mobile phones democratize and cultivate next-generation imaging, diagnostics and measurement tools.

    PubMed

    Ozcan, Aydogan

    2014-09-01

    In this article, I discuss some of the emerging applications and the future opportunities and challenges created by the use of mobile phones and their embedded components for the development of next-generation imaging, sensing, diagnostics and measurement tools. The massive volume of mobile phone users, which has now reached ~7 billion, drives the rapid improvements of the hardware, software and high-end imaging and sensing technologies embedded in our phones, transforming the mobile phone into a cost-effective and yet extremely powerful platform to run, e.g., biomedical tests, and perform scientific measurements that would normally require advanced laboratory instruments. This rapidly evolving and continuing trend will help us transform how medicine, engineering and sciences are practiced and taught globally.

  18. Quantitative MRI as a diagnostic tool of intervertebral disc matrix composition and integrity

    PubMed Central

    Mwale, Fackson; Iatridis, James C.

    2008-01-01

    Degenerative disc disease has been implicated as a major component of spine pathology. The current major clinical procedures for treating disc degeneration have been disappointing, because of altered spinal mechanics leading to subsequent degeneration at adjacent disc levels. Disc pathology treatment is shifting toward prevention and treatment of underlying etiologic processes at the level of the disc matrix composition and integrity and the biomechanics of the disc. The ability to perform such treatment relies on one’s ability to accurately and objectively assess the state of the matrix and the effectiveness of treatment by a non-invasive technique. In this review, we will summarize our advances in efforts to develop an objective, accurate, non-invasive diagnostic tool (quantitative MRI) in the detection and quantification of matrix composition and integrity and of biomechanical changes in early intervertebral disc degeneration. PMID:19005703

  19. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored. PMID:27621787

  20. Role of Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology as a Diagnostic Tool in Orbital and Adnexal Lesions

    PubMed Central

    Khan, Lubna; Malukani, Kamal; Malaiya, Siddharth; Yeshwante, Prashant; Ishrat, Saba; Nandedkar, Shirish S.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the role of fine needle aspiration (FNAC) as a diagnostic tool in cases of orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Cytological findings were correlated with histopathological diagnosis wherever possible. Methods: FNAC was performed in 29 patients of different age groups presenting with orbital and ocular adnexal masses. Patients were evaluated clinically and investigated by non-invasive techniques before fine needle aspiration of the masses. Smears were analyzed by a cytologist in all cases. Further, results of cytology were compared with the histopathological diagnosis. Results: The age of patients ranged from 1 to 68 years (mean: 29.79±19.29). There were 14 males and 15 females with a male to female ratio of 0.93:1. Out of 29 cases, 26 aspirates were cellular. Cellularity was insufficient in three (10.34%) aspirates. Out of 26 cellular aspirates, 11 were non-neoplastic while 15 were neoplastic on cytology. Subsequent histopathologic examination was done in 21/26 cases. Concordance rate of FNAC in orbital and ocular adnexal mass lesions with respect to the precise histologic diagnosis was 90%. Conclusion: When properly used in well-indicated patients (in cases where a diagnosis cannot be made by clinical and imaging findings alone), FNAC of orbital and periorbital lesions is an invaluable and suitable adjunct diagnostic technique that necessitates close cooperation between the ophthalmologist and cytologist. However, nondiagnostic aspirates may sometimes be obtained, and an inconclusive FNAC should not always be ignored.

  1. Near Infrared Imaging as a Diagnostic Tool for Detecting Enamel Demineralization: An in vivo Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lucas, Seth Adam

    Background and Objectives: For decades there has been an effort to develop alternative optical methods of imaging dental decay utilizing non-ionizing radiation methods. The purpose of this in-vivo study was to demonstrate whether NIR can be used as a diagnostic tool to evaluate dental caries and to compare the sensitivity and specificity of this method with that of conventional methods, including bitewing x-rays and visual inspection. Materials and Methods: 31 test subjects (n=31) from the UCSF orthodontic clinic undergoing orthodontic treatment with planned premolar extractions were recruited. Calibrated examiners performed caries detection examinations using conventional methods: bitewing radiographs and visual inspection. These findings were compared with the results from NIR examinations: transillumination and reflectance. To confirm the results found in the two different detection methods, a gold standard was used. After teeth were extracted, polarized light microscopy and transverse microradiography were performed. Results: A total of 87 premolars were used in the study. NIR identified the occlusal lesions with a sensitivity of 71% and a specificity of 77%, whereas, the visual examination had a sensitivity of only 40% and a specifity of 39%. For interproximal lesions halfway to DEJ, specificity remained constant, but sensitivity improved to 100% for NIR and 75% for x-rays. Conclusions: The results of this preliminary study demonstrate that NIR is just as effective at detecting enamel interproximal lesions as standard dental x-rays. NIR was more effective at detecting occlusal lesions than visual examination alone. NIR shows promise as an alternative diagnostic tool to the conventional methods of x-rays and visual examination and provides a non-ionizing radiation technique.

  2. Web-based tools for quality assurance and radiation protection in diagnostic radiology.

    PubMed

    Moores, B M; Charnock, P; Ward, M

    2010-01-01

    Practical and philosophical aspects of radiation protection in diagnostic radiology have changed very little over the past 50 y even though patient doses have continued to rise significantly in this period. This rise has been driven by technological developments, such as multi-slice computed tomography, that have been able to improve diagnostic accuracy but not necessarily provide the same level of risk-benefit to all patients or groups of patients given the dose levels involved. Can practical radiation protection strategies hope to keep abreast of these ongoing developments? A project was started in 1992 in Liverpool that aimed to develop IT driven quality assurance (QA)/radiation protection software tools based upon a modular quality assurance dose data system. One of the modules involved the assessment of the patient entrance surface air kerma (ESAK) for an X-ray examination that was based upon the use of calibrated X-ray tube exposure factors to calculate ESAK as well as collecting appropriate patient details (age, sex, weight, thickness etc). The package also contained modules for logging all necessary equipment performance QA data. This paper will outline the experience gained with this system through its transition from a local application on a stand alone PC within the department to the current web-based approach. Advantages of a web-based approach to delivering such an application as well as centrally storing data originating on many hospital sites will be discussed together with the scientific support processes that can be developed with such a system. This will include local, national and international considerations. The advantages of importing radiographic examination details directly from other electronic storage systems such as a hospital's radiology information system will be presented together with practical outcomes already achieved. This will include the application of statistical techniques to the very large data sets generated. The development

  3. Optimizing odor identification testing as quick and accurate diagnostic tool for Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Mahlknecht, Philipp; Pechlaner, Raimund; Boesveldt, Sanne; Volc, Dieter; Pinter, Bernardette; Reiter, Eva; Müller, Christoph; Krismer, Florian; Berendse, Henk W.; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Wuschitz, Albert; Schimetta, Wolfgang; Högl, Birgit; Djamshidian, Atbin; Nocker, Michael; Göbel, Georg; Gasperi, Arno; Kiechl, Stefan; Willeit, Johann; Poewe, Werner

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Introduction The aim of this study was to evaluate odor identification testing as a quick, cheap, and reliable tool to identify PD. Methods Odor identification with the 16‐item Sniffin' Sticks test (SS‐16) was assessed in a total of 646 PD patients and 606 controls from three European centers (A, B, and C), as well as 75 patients with atypical parkinsonism or essential tremor and in a prospective cohort of 24 patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (center A). Reduced odor sets most discriminative for PD were determined in a discovery cohort derived from a random split of PD patients and controls from center A using L1‐regularized logistic regression. Diagnostic accuracy was assessed in the rest of the patients/controls as validation cohorts. Results Olfactory performance was lower in PD patients compared with controls and non‐PD patients in all cohorts (each P < 0.001). Both the full SS‐16 and a subscore of the top eight discriminating odors (SS‐8) were associated with an excellent discrimination of PD from controls (areas under the curve ≥0.90; sensitivities ≥83.3%; specificities ≥82.0%) and from non‐PD patients (areas under the curve ≥0.91; sensitivities ≥84.1%; specificities ≥84.0%) in all cohorts. This remained unchanged when patients with >3 years of disease duration were excluded from analysis. All 8 incident PD cases among patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder were predicted with the SS‐16 and the SS‐8 (sensitivity, 100%; positive predictive value, 61.5%). Conclusions Odor identification testing provides excellent diagnostic accuracy in the distinction of PD patients from controls and diagnostic mimics. A reduced set of eight odors could be used as a quick tool in the workup of patients presenting with parkinsonism and for PD risk indication. © 2016 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and

  4. Serum tumour markers as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in Libyan breast cancer.

    PubMed

    Elfagieh, Mohamed; Abdalla, Fathi; Gliwan, Asma; Boder, Jamela; Nichols, Wafa; Buhmeida, Abdelbaset

    2012-12-01

    Results from studies on efficacy of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15.3 (CA 15.3) and thymidine kinase (TK1) as diagnostic and prognostic tools for primary breast cancer (BC) have presented conflicting results, and usefulness of these markers for clinical use in BC remains unclear. The aim of this study is to evaluate potential of concentration of the sera CEA, CA15.3 and TK1 peptides' use as markers in the diagnosis and prognosis of breast lesions of Libyan patients. Serum tumour markers were studied in 20 healthy subjects, 30 patient with benign lesion diseases and 50 patients with histologically confirmed BC diagnosed at the National Cancer Institute (NCI), Misurata, Libya during the period 2005-2009. The concentrations of the BC patients' cutoff points used for diagnostic and prognostic sensitivity were 8.82 ng/ml, 35.57 U/ml and 32.57 U/mg/protein for CEA, CA15.3 and TK1, respectively. Increased CEA (>8.82 ng/ml), CA 15.3 (>35.57 U/ml) and TK1 (>32.57 U/mg/protein) concentrations were found in 62 %, 70 % and 78 % of the BC patients, respectively. For all three tumour markers, increased concentrations correlated increased tumour size and nodal involvement. Significantly higher serum TK1 levels were found in patients with advanced disease (p < 0.0001) and TK1 levels also correlated with disease-specific survival (DSS, p < 0.07). The combined data set of the three markers' data from three markers increased the diagnostic sensitivity to 90 %. The serum marker analysis for CEA, CA 15.3, and S-TK1 concentrations is shown to be a useful tool for identification of malignant cases in our BC population and for the prognostic evaluation of patients with primary BC. Increased concentrations of the markers were also observed to be higher in patients with advanced tumours and indicative of the development of distant metastasis.

  5. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  6. Impact of contacting study authors to obtain additional data for systematic reviews: diagnostic accuracy studies for hepatic fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Seventeen of 172 included studies in a recent systematic review of blood tests for hepatic fibrosis or cirrhosis reported diagnostic accuracy results discordant from 2 × 2 tables, and 60 studies reported inadequate data to construct 2 × 2 tables. This study explores the yield of contacting authors of diagnostic accuracy studies and impact on the systematic review findings. Methods Sixty-six corresponding authors were sent letters requesting additional information or clarification of data from 77 studies. Data received from the authors were synthesized with data included in the previous review, and diagnostic accuracy sensitivities, specificities, and positive and likelihood ratios were recalculated. Results Of the 66 authors, 68% were successfully contacted and 42% provided additional data for 29 out of 77 studies (38%). All authors who provided data at all did so by the third emailed request (ten authors provided data after one request). Authors of more recent studies were more likely to be located and provide data compared to authors of older studies. The effects of requests for additional data on the conclusions regarding the utility of blood tests to identify patients with clinically significant fibrosis or cirrhosis were generally small for ten out of 12 tests. Additional data resulted in reclassification (using median likelihood ratio estimates) from less useful to moderately useful or vice versa for the remaining two blood tests and enabled the calculation of an estimate for a third blood test for which previously the data had been insufficient to do so. We did not identify a clear pattern for the directional impact of additional data on estimates of diagnostic accuracy. Conclusions We successfully contacted and received results from 42% of authors who provided data for 38% of included studies. Contacting authors of studies evaluating the diagnostic accuracy of serum biomarkers for hepatic fibrosis and cirrhosis in hepatitis C patients

  7. The Development of an Open-Ended Drawing Tool: An Alternative Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Students' Understanding of the Particulate Nature of Matter

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nyachwaya, James M.; Mohamed, Abdi-Rizak; Roehrig, Gillian H.; Wood, Nathan B.; Kern, Anne L.; Schneider, Jamie L.

    2011-01-01

    Many studies in the chemical education literature report students' alternative conceptions in chemistry and the difficulty they present for future learning. In this paper, we review existing diagnostic tools used to uncover students' alternative conceptions in chemistry and suggest that there are two fundamental issues with such instruments,…

  8. Inconsistent Results of Diagnostic Tools Hamper the Differentiation between Bee and Vespid Venom Allergy

    PubMed Central

    Sturm, Gunter J.; Jin, Chunsheng; Kranzelbinder, Bettina; Hemmer, Wolfgang; Sturm, Eva M.; Griesbacher, Antonia; Heinemann, Akos; Vollmann, Jutta; Altmann, Friedrich; Crailsheim, Karl; Focke, Margarete; Aberer, Werner

    2011-01-01

    Background Double sensitization (DS) to bee and vespid venom is frequently observed in the diagnosis of hymenoptera venom allergy, but clinically relevant DS is rare. Therefore it is sophisticated to choose the relevant venom for specific immunotherapy and overtreatment with both venoms may occur. We aimed to compare currently available routine diagnostic tests as well as experimental tests to identify the most accurate diagnostic tool. Methods 117 patients with a history of a bee or vespid allergy were included in the study. Initially, IgE determination by the ImmunoCAP, by the Immulite, and by the ADVIA Centaur, as well as the intradermal test (IDT) and the basophil activation test (BAT) were performed. In 72 CAP double positive patients, individual IgE patterns were determined by western blot inhibition and component resolved diagnosis (CRD) with rApi m 1, nVes v 1, and nVes v 5. Results Among 117 patients, DS was observed in 63.7% by the Immulite, in 61.5% by the CAP, in 47.9% by the IDT, in 20.5% by the ADVIA, and in 17.1% by the BAT. In CAP double positive patients, western blot inhibition revealed CCD-based DS in 50.8%, and the CRD showed 41.7% of patients with true DS. Generally, agreement between the tests was only fair and inconsistent results were common. Conclusion BAT, CRD, and ADVIA showed a low rate of DS. However, the rate of DS is higher than expected by personal history, indicating that the matter of clinical relevance is still not solved even by novel tests. Furthermore, the lack of agreement between these tests makes it difficult to distinguish between bee and vespid venom allergy. At present, no routinely employed test can be regarded as gold standard to find the clinically relevant sensitization. PMID:21698247

  9. Bone biopsy as a diagnostic tool in the assessment of renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Spasovski, G B

    2004-11-01

    When renal disease develops, mineral and vitamin D homeostasis is disrupted, resulting in diverse modifications in bone cells, bone structure and the rate of bone turnover. In end stage renal failure (ESRF) when patients require chronic maintenance dialysis, nearly all of them have abnormal bone histology known as renal osteodystrophy (ROD). Moreover, survival rates of patients on dialysis have increased because of therapeutic improvement and the resultant increase in duration of dialysis has led to a further rise in renal osteodystrophy. Because metabolic bone disease can produce fractures, bone pain, and deformities late in the course of the disease, prevention and early treatment are essential. Serum PTH and various bone markers are commonly used to assess bone changes in ESRF patients, but the diagnosis of underlying bone disease is still rather uncertain. To date, bone biopsy is the most powerful and informative diagnostic tool to provide precise information on the type and severity of renal osteodystrophy, and on the presence and amount of aluminum and strontium deposited in the bone. Bone biopsy is not only useful in clinical settings but also in research to assess the effects of therapies on bone. Although considered an invasive procedure, bone biopsy has been proven to be safe and free from major complications, but the operator's experience and skill is important in further minimizing morbidity. Alternatives to bone biopsy continue to be sought, but the non-invasive bone markers have not been proven to be sufficient in diagnostic performance related to bone turnover, mineralization process and bone cell abnormality. Hence, transiliac bone biopsy remains the gold standard for the diagnosis of renal osteodystrophy. PMID:15636048

  10. Sialometry and sialochemistry: diagnostic tools for Sjögren's syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kalk, W; Vissink, A; Spijkervet, F; Bootsma, H; Kallenberg, C; Amerongen, A

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The common occurrence of xerostomia in Sjögren's syndrome (SS) as well as the easy accessibility of saliva supports the use of sialometry and sialochemistry in the diagnosis of SS. Collection and analysis of whole saliva (oral fluid) is currently the routine technique for sialometry, despite the fact that it is rather inaccurate and impure.
OBJECTIVE—To assess the value of glandular sialometry and sialochemistry as diagnostic instruments in SS.
METHODS—In a group of 100 consecutive patients referred for diagnosis of SS, glandular secretory flow rates and a spectrum of salivary components (sodium, potassium, chloride, calcium, phosphate, urea, amylase, total protein) were assessed. The patients were classified as positive or negative for SS according to the revised European classification criteria.
RESULTS—Patients with SS differed clearly from those who tested negative for SS, showing lower submandibular/sublingual (SM/SL) flow rates and an appreciably changed salivary composition of parotid and SM/SL saliva. Besides changes in salivary flow rate and composition, distinct sialometric profiles were observed, characteristic of either early or late salivary manifestation of SS, or of the xerogenic side effects of medication.
CONCLUSIONS—Glandular sialometry and sialochemistry are not only useful tools for differentiating SS from other salivary gland disease in clinical practice, but they also have great potential as diagnostic criteria for SS, showing distinct sialometric and sialochemical changes as well as profiles. Being simple, safe (non-invasive), and sensitive (early disease detection), they have three major advantages over other oral tests for SS.

 PMID:11709452

  11. Metabolic and Genetic Screening of Electromagnetic Hypersensitive Subjects as a Feasible Tool for Diagnostics and Intervention

    PubMed Central

    De Luca, Chiara; Chung Sheun Thai, Jeffrey; Raskovic, Desanka; Cesareo, Eleonora; Caccamo, Daniela; Trukhanov, Arseny

    2014-01-01

    Growing numbers of “electromagnetic hypersensitive” (EHS) people worldwide self-report severely disabling, multiorgan, non-specific symptoms when exposed to low-dose electromagnetic radiations, often associated with symptoms of multiple chemical sensitivity (MCS) and/or other environmental “sensitivity-related illnesses” (SRI). This cluster of chronic inflammatory disorders still lacks validated pathogenetic mechanism, diagnostic biomarkers, and management guidelines. We hypothesized that SRI, not being merely psychogenic, may share organic determinants of impaired detoxification of common physic-chemical stressors. Based on our previous MCS studies, we tested a panel of 12 metabolic blood redox-related parameters and of selected drug-metabolizing-enzyme gene polymorphisms, on 153 EHS, 147 MCS, and 132 control Italians, confirming MCS altered (P < 0.05–0.0001) glutathione-(GSH), GSH-peroxidase/S-transferase, and catalase erythrocyte activities. We first described comparable—though milder—metabolic pro-oxidant/proinflammatory alterations in EHS with distinctively increased plasma coenzyme-Q10 oxidation ratio. Severe depletion of erythrocyte membrane polyunsaturated fatty acids with increased ω6/ω3 ratio was confirmed in MCS, but not in EHS. We also identified significantly (P = 0.003) altered distribution-versus-control of the CYP2C19∗1/∗2 SNP variants in EHS, and a 9.7-fold increased risk (OR: 95% C.I. = 1.3–74.5) of developing EHS for the haplotype (null)GSTT1 + (null)GSTM1 variants. Altogether, results on MCS and EHS strengthen our proposal to adopt this blood metabolic/genetic biomarkers' panel as suitable diagnostic tool for SRI. PMID:24812443

  12. Antibodies to phosphatidylserine/prothrombin complex as an additional diagnostic marker of APS?

    PubMed

    Žigon, P; Čučnik, S; Ambrožič, A; Sodin Šemrl, S; Kveder, T; Božič, B

    2012-06-01

    Antiprothrombin antibodies can be measured by ELISA using either a prothrombin/phosphatidylserine complex (aPS/PT) or prothrombin alone (aPT) as antigen. We aimed to compare the clinical features of autoimmune patients with avidity of aPS/PT and determine the diagnostic efficiency of aPS/PT and aPT for assessing antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). aPS/PT were of low (n = 9), heterogeneous (n = 31) and high (n = 8) avidity out of 48 cases. None of the samples with low avidity were positive in aPT ELISA. Among patients with heterogeneous or high avidity aPS/PT, there was a significantly greater number of patients with APS as compared to patients with low avidity (38/39 vs. 7/9; p < 0.05). No SLE patients had high avidity antiprothrombin antibodies.

  13. Fitting cognitive diagnostic assessment to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santiago Roman, Aidsa Ivette

    A concept inventory (CI) is a multiple-choice instrument designed to evaluate whether a person has an accurate, working knowledge of a specific set of concepts. An important role of CI's is to provide instructors with clues about the pre-conceptions (or misconceptions) their students hold which may be actively interfering with learning. Only a few engineering CI's have been able to be applied successfully in instructional settings, due in part to statistical analysis techniques that are typically applied to the instrument. These techniques include psychometric interpretative techniques such as Classical Test Theory (CTT) and Item Response Theory (IRT), which measure the item performance data of the CI's. However, these strategies do not measure students' cognitive abilities (misconceptions). To begin filing this gap, the objective of this study was to determine the applicability of a new statistical method called the Fusion Model to the Concept Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) among engineering students from various US universities. Specifically, the research question that guided this study was: Can the Fusion Model be appropriately used with the Cognitive Assessment Tool for Statics (CATS) to diagnostically measure students' cognitive understanding of Statics concepts? In this study, the Fusion Model was applied to CATS through a four-phase procedure. Each phase had a specific objective that was tied to the primary research question. The analysis performed resulted in the generation of a Q-matrix that relates a set of cognitive attributes to specific questions. These attributes were determined using the expertise of the author of this study and most importantly the developer of CATS. Results of the study indicated that CATS has high capability to be used as diagnostic assessment, and also identified items (questions) that needed to be revised because they were not able to discriminate between examinees who were masters and non-masters of the specified attributes

  14. Development and Assessment of a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Organic Chemistry Students' Alternative Conceptions Related to Acid Strength

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McClary, LaKeisha M.; Bretz, Stacey Lowery

    2012-01-01

    The central goal of this study was to create a new diagnostic tool to identify organic chemistry students' alternative conceptions related to acid strength. Twenty years of research on secondary and college students' conceptions about acids and bases has shown that these important concepts are difficult for students to apply to qualitative problem…

  15. A Quasi-Universal Nonword Repetition Task as a Diagnostic Tool for Bilingual Children Learning Dutch as a Second Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boerma, Tessel; Chiat, Shula; Leseman, Paul; Timmermeister, Mona; Wijnen, Frank; Blom, Elma

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: This study evaluated a newly developed quasi-universal nonword repetition task (Q-U NWRT) as a diagnostic tool for bilingual children with language impairment (LI) who have Dutch as a 2nd language. The Q-U NWRT was designed to be minimally influenced by knowledge of 1 specific language in contrast to a language-specific NWRT with which it…

  16. The BOUT Project: Validation and Benchmark of BOUT Code and Experimental Diagnostic Tools for Fusion Boundary Turbulence

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, X Q

    2001-08-09

    A boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT is presented. The preliminary encouraging results have been obtained when comparing with probe measurements for a typical Ohmic discharge in CT-7 tokamak. The validation and benchmark of BOUT code and experimental diagnostic tools for fusion boundary plasma turbulence is proposed.

  17. The BOUT Project; Validation and Benchmark of BOUT Code and Experimental Diagnostic Tools for Fusion Boundary Turbulence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xue-qiao

    2001-10-01

    A boundary plasma turbulence code BOUT is presented. The preliminary encouraging results have been obtained when comparing with probe measurements for a typical Ohmic discharge in HT-7 tokamak. The validation and benchmark of BOUT code and experimental diagnostic tools for fusion boundary plasma turbulence is proposed.

  18. Near-infrared spectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hui; Lin, Zan; Mo, Lin; Wu, Tong; Tan, Chao

    2015-01-01

    Cancer diagnosis is one of the most important tasks of biomedical research and has become the main objective of medical investigations. The present paper proposed an analytical strategy for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues by combining the use of near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy with chemometrics. The successive projection algorithm-linear discriminant analysis (SPA-LDA) was used to seek a reduced subset of variables/wavenumbers and build a diagnostic model of LDA. For comparison, the partial least squares-discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) based on full-spectrum classification was also used as the reference. Principal component analysis (PCA) was used for a preliminary analysis. A total of 186 spectra from 20 patients with partial colorectal resection were collected and divided into three subsets for training, optimizing, and testing the model. The results showed that, compared to PLS-DA, SPA-LDA provided more parsimonious model using only three wavenumbers/variables (4065, 4173, and 5758 cm(-1)) to achieve the sensitivity of 84.6%, 92.3%, and 92.3% for the training, validation, and test sets, respectively, and the specificity of 100% for each subset. It indicated that the combination of NIR spectroscopy and SPA-LDA algorithm can serve as a potential tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant colorectal tissues. PMID:25654106

  19. Large biases in regression-based constituent flux estimates: causes and diagnostic tools

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hirsch, Robert M.

    2014-01-01

    It has been documented in the literature that, in some cases, widely used regression-based models can produce severely biased estimates of long-term mean river fluxes of various constituents. These models, estimated using sample values of concentration, discharge, and date, are used to compute estimated fluxes for a multiyear period at a daily time step. This study compares results of the LOADEST seven-parameter model, LOADEST five-parameter model, and the Weighted Regressions on Time, Discharge, and Season (WRTDS) model using subsampling of six very large datasets to better understand this bias problem. This analysis considers sample datasets for dissolved nitrate and total phosphorus. The results show that LOADEST-7 and LOADEST-5, although they often produce very nearly unbiased results, can produce highly biased results. This study identifies three conditions that can give rise to these severe biases: (1) lack of fit of the log of concentration vs. log discharge relationship, (2) substantial differences in the shape of this relationship across seasons, and (3) severely heteroscedastic residuals. The WRTDS model is more resistant to the bias problem than the LOADEST models but is not immune to them. Understanding the causes of the bias problem is crucial to selecting an appropriate method for flux computations. Diagnostic tools for identifying the potential for bias problems are introduced, and strategies for resolving bias problems are described.

  20. Effectiveness of feline body mass index (fBMI) as new diagnostic tool for obesity.

    PubMed

    Kawasumi, Koh; Iwazaki, Eiji; Okada, Yuki; Arai, Toshiro

    2016-02-01

    Feline body mass index (fBMI), BW/PCL, length from top of patella to end of calcaneus, was developed as a new diagnostic tool for obesity in cats. To evaluate the effectiveness of fBMI for obese cats in short-term, 6 cats were induced weight gain by over-feeding with high fat diet and then they were induced weight reduction by restrict-feeding with low fat diet to measure changes in fBMI and plasma metabolite concentrations and enzyme activities. BCS 3 is correlated with fBMI 24.6-32.0, BCS 4 is correlated with fBMI 33.1-37.1 and BCS 5 is correlated with fBMI 29.9-40.3, respectively. On the correlation coefficient analysis by Pearson's method (P < 0.05), positive correlations (r = 0.403) were seen between the fBMI and plasma triglyceride (TG) levels. From these findings, fBMI seems to be more sensitive and useful indicator for obesity diagnosis in cats. PMID:27348888

  1. Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Diagnostic Tool for Six Sexually Transmitted Infections - Preliminary Results

    PubMed Central

    GRAD, ALECSANDRA IULIA; VICA, MIHAELA LAURA; MATEI, HOREA VLADI; GRAD, DORU LUCIAN; COMAN, IOAN; TATARU, DUMITRU ALEXANDRU

    2015-01-01

    Background and aim Sexually transmitted infections are a very frequent and under-diagnosed cause of illness worldwide. A high number of detection methods and a large range of specimens in which sexually transmitted infections can be determined are available at the moment. Polymerase chain reaction performed on first void urine offers the advantage of being non-invasive, self-collectable and has high sensitivity and specificity. We looked to determine the frequency of Chlamydia trachomatis, Neisseria gonorrhoeae, Trichomonas vaginalis, Mycoplasma hominis, Mycoplasma genitalium and Ureaplasma urealyticum in symptomatic and asymptomatic patients. Methods Six sexually transmitted infections were determined in the first void urine of 15 symptomatic and asymptomatic patients by polymerase chain reaction. We used “Epicenter MasterPure™ Complete DNA and RNA Purification Kit” for the DNA purification and “Seeplex® STD6 ACE Detection” for the DNA amplification. The results were examined in UV light. Results A number of 5 patients had positive results for Chlamydia trachomatis or Neisseria gonorrhoeae. Sexually transmitted infections are more frequent in men between 27 and 40 years old. Conclusions Polymerase chain reaction is a good diagnostic tool for sexually transmitted infections because it has a high sensitivity and specificity. Chlamydia trachomatis is the most frequent sexually transmitted infection, followed by Neisseria gonorrhoeae. PMID:26528045

  2. Diagnostic and quality-assurance tools for low-contrast images obtained from array detectors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hatfield, D. B.; Sandel, Bill R.

    1993-01-01

    We investigate methods of estimating a background image frame for subtraction from a data frame for use when a more suitable measured background frame is not available. We define background as any signal component that is not attributable to the phenomenon currently under investigation. We describe a technique that is based on pixel-by-pixel least-squares regression of images for computing a background frame from available data. We argue that the same technique can be a useful quality-assurance tool for evaluating instrument performance. For example, it can help to separate image structure resulting from the reading process from structure resulting from the characteristics of the detector itself. We demonstrate that background estimation can be nontrivial by comparing the results of different background estimation procedures by using data obtained from a CCD array detector. We investigate the temperature-dependent contributions of the detector and readout electronics to the total signal as a demonstration of the diagnostic capabilities of least-squares image regression.

  3. A novel diagnostic tool reveals mitochondrial pathology in human diseases and aging.

    PubMed

    Scheibye-Knudsen, Morten; Scheibye-Alsing, Karsten; Canugovi, Chandrika; Croteau, Deborah L; Bohr, Vilhelm A

    2013-03-01

    The inherent complex and pleiotropic phenotype of mitochondrial diseases poses a significant diagnostic challenge for clinicians as well as an analytical barrier for scientists. To overcome these obstacles we compiled a novel database, www.mitodb.com, containing the clinical features of primary mitochondrial diseases. Based on this we developed a number of qualitative and quantitative measures, enabling us to determine whether a disorder can be characterized as mitochondrial. These included a clustering algorithm, a disease network, a mitochondrial barcode and two scoring algorithms. Using these tools we detected mitochondrial involvement in a number of diseases not previously recorded as mitochondrial. As a proof of principle Cockayne syndrome, ataxia with oculomotor apraxia 1 (AOA1), spinocerebellar ataxia with axonal neuropathy 1 (SCAN1) and ataxia-telangiectasia have recently been shown to have mitochondrial dysfunction and those diseases showed strong association with mitochondrial disorders. We next evaluated mitochondrial involvement in aging and detected two distinct categories of accelerated aging disorders, one of them being associated with mitochondrial dysfunction. Normal aging seemed to associate stronger with the mitochondrial diseases than the non-mitochondrial partially supporting a mitochondrial theory of aging.

  4. Three faces of self-face recognition: potential for a multi-dimensional diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Sugiura, Motoaki

    2015-01-01

    The recognition of self-face is a unique and complex phenomenon in many aspects, including its associated perceptual integration process, its emergence during development, and its socio-motivational effect. This may explain the failure of classical attempts to identify the cortical areas specifically responsive to self-face and designate them as a unique system related to 'self'. Neuroimaging findings regarding self-face recognition seem to be explained comprehensively by a recent forward-model account of the three categories of self: the physical, interpersonal, and social selves. Self-face-specific activation in the sensory and motor association cortices may reflect cognitive scrutiny due to prediction error or task-induced top-down attention in the physical internal schema related to the self-face. Self-face-specific deactivation in some amodal association cortices in the dorsomedial frontal and lateral posterior cortices may reflect adaptive suppression of the default recruitment of the social-response system during face recognition. Self-face-specific activation under a social context in the ventral aspect of the medial prefrontal cortex and the posterior cingulate cortex may reflect cognitive scrutiny of the internal schema related to the social value of the self. The multi-facet nature of self-face-specific activation may hold potential as the basis for a multi-dimensional diagnostic tool for the cognitive system. PMID:25450313

  5. Diagnostic tool for early detection of ovarian cancers using Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lieber, Chad A.; Molpus, Kelly; Brader, Kevin; Mahadevan-Jansen, Anita

    2000-05-01

    With an overall survival rate of about 35 percent, ovarian cancer claims more than 13,000 women in the US each year. It is estimated that roughly 1 in 70 women will develop ovarian cancer. Current screening techniques are challenged due to cost-effectiveness, variable false-positive results, and the asymptomatic nature of the early stages of ovarian cancer. The predominant screening method for ovarian cancers is transvaginal sonography (TVS). TVS is fairly accomplished at ovarian cancer detection, however it is inefficient in distinguishing between benign and malignant masses. Accurate diagnosis of the ovarian tumor relies on exploratory laparotomy, thus increasing the cost and hazard of false- positive screening methods. Raman spectroscopy has been sued successfully as a diagnostic tool in several organ systems in vitro. These studies have shown that Raman spectroscopy can be used to provide diagnosis of subtle changes in tissue pathology with high accuracy. Based on this success, we have developed a Raman spectroscopic system for application in the ovary. Using this system, the Raman signatures of normal and various types of non-normal human ovarian tissues were characterized in vitro. Raman spectra are being analyzed, and empirical as well as multivariate discriminatory algorithms developed. Based on the result of this study, a strategy for in vivo trials will be planned.

  6. Anti-phosphatidylserine/prothrombin antibodies: an additional diagnostic marker for APS?

    PubMed

    Pregnolato, Francesca; Chighizola, Cecilia B; Encabo, Susan; Shums, Zakera; Norman, Gary L; Tripodi, Armando; Chantarangkul, Veena; Bertero, Tiziana; De Micheli, Valeria; Borghi, Maria Orietta; Meroni, Pier Luigi

    2013-07-01

    Among the diagnostic assays for anti-phospholipid syndrome (APS), lupus anticoagulant (LA) is the strongest predictor of thrombosis; however, it presents several limitations as interference with anticoagulant therapy and poor inter-laboratory agreement. Two-thirds of LA activity is apparently due to antibodies against prothrombin (PT), usually detectable by ELISA. Binding of PT to phosphatidylserine (PS) has been shown to enhance solid-phase anti-PT assay sensitivity. To determine the prevalence of antibodies against PS/PT (aPS/PT) in APS, we tested the semiquantitative QUANTA Lite(®) aPS/PT ELISA in a cohort of 80 APS patients. The prevalence of aPS/PT was 81.3%, rising to 87.6% when considering LA-positive subjects only. We observed a strong correlation between aPS/PT and LA (p = 0.006). To note, APS patients with thrombotic manifestations displayed significantly higher IgG aPS/PT titers compared to 20 aPL asymptomatic carriers (p = 0.012). To rule out a possible cross-reactivity of anti-β2 glycoprotein I antibodies (aβ2GPI) with PS/PT complex, we tested two monoclonal aβ2GPI antibodies and an affinity-purified (AP) polyclonal aβ2GPI IgG obtained from the serum of a patient reacting against both β2GPI and PS/PT. The two monoclonal antibodies did not show any reactivity against PS/PT complex, similarly the AP IgGs did not react toward PS/PT antigen while preserved their aβ2GPI activity. Our findings suggest that aPS/PT are a definite antibody population in APS. Moreover, the good correlation between aPS/PT ELISA and LA may support its use as a surrogate test for LA, particularly useful to overcome the technical limitations of the functional assay.

  7. Using Wellbore Deformation as a Diagnostic Tool during CO2 Sequestration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, S.; Murdoch, L. C.; Germanovich, L.; Moysey, S. M.; Skawski, G. M.; Ebenhack, J.; Smith, J.; Ozan, C.

    2012-12-01

    Well bores always deform in response to injection or recovery of fluid. In extreme cases the deformation is catastrophic and the well can be ruined, but in routine cases the small elastic deformation has the potential to be an important diagnostic tool that improves the efficiency and safety of CO2 sequestration. Including deformation measurements along with the pressure signal during short-term hydraulic well tests will improve estimates of formation properties and heterogeneities, and this will lead to forecasts of injectivity and pressure response to CO2 injection. The feasibility of using wellbore deformation as a diagnostic tool is being evaluated by addressing three primary questions: What is the magnitude and pattern of expected deformation? Can this signal be measured? Can these measurements be interpreted? The first question is being evaluated by developing a series of theoretical analyses that represent wells in various scenarios typical of CO2 sequestration. The conceptual model is that well casing is an elastic tube that is loaded during the well completion process. This external load compresses the casing with a compliance of 10 to 40 microns of radial displacement/MPa load. During injection, the casing moves both radially and axially. Internal fluid pressure causes the casing to bulge, and poroelastic effects in the injection formation unload the casing and cause it to move radially outward. Pressure on adjacent confining units, and interaction with the ground surface cause the casing to stretch longitudinally where it contacts the injection interval, and it can be compressed in the overlying confining units. Radial displacements are on the order of tenths of microns to several microns, and axial strains are 10 microstrain or more, according to simulations. Effects in confining units are particularly interesting because they show a time dependency that results from the vertical propagation of pressure from the injection interval—the casing can be

  8. Comparison of diagnostic tools for the detection of aspergillosis in blood samples of experimentally infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Van Waeyenberghe, L; Cray, C; Gross, M; Usleber, E; Pasmans, F; Martel, A; Lierz, M

    2014-12-01

    Antemortem diagnosis of avian aspergillosis is very challenging. Diagnostic assays using blood samples would aid in an early and more definitive diagnosis. In the current study, detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies, Aspergillus antigen, and Aspergillus toxin (fumigaclavine A), protein electrophoresis and measurement of acute-phase protein concentrations were performed on serum of 18 adult and plasma of 21 juvenile gyr-saker hybrid falcons (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug). Adult (n = 15) and juvenile (n = 18) falcons were experimentally inoculated with different dosages of the same strain of Aspergillus fumigatus and an additional three falcons from each age group were used as uninfected control animals. Blood samples were collected prior to inoculation and at 28 days postinoculation. Of the 33 inoculated falcons, 16 demonstrated clinical signs (vomiting, greenish urates, dyspnea, ruffled feathers) commonly associated with aspergillosis and in 14 falcons necropsy revealed aspergillosis granulomas confirmed by mycology and histopathology. Positive galactomannan results were rare, with only 3/15 positive samples from adult falcons and none in the juvenile birds. Most of the inoculated falcons showed an increase of serum amyloid A (66.7%) and haptoglobin (70.4%), but fumigaclavine A was not detected in the blood from any of the experimental animals. Elevated antibody indices were detected in 96.7% of the inoculated birds, but also in 66.7% of the controls. Significant decreases in albumin:globulin ratio were obvious in 81.5% of the inoculated birds, including 100% of the birds with granulomas. Blood from falcons with granulomas demonstrated significantly increased concentration values of alpha 2 and β globulins, decreased percentages of prealbumin and albumin, and increased percentages of alpha 2 and β globulins compared to inoculated falcons without granulomas. In conclusion, acute-phase proteins and the electrophoretic profile of birds challenged with A

  9. Comparison of diagnostic tools for the detection of aspergillosis in blood samples of experimentally infected falcons.

    PubMed

    Fischer, D; Van Waeyenberghe, L; Cray, C; Gross, M; Usleber, E; Pasmans, F; Martel, A; Lierz, M

    2014-12-01

    Antemortem diagnosis of avian aspergillosis is very challenging. Diagnostic assays using blood samples would aid in an early and more definitive diagnosis. In the current study, detection of anti-Aspergillus antibodies, Aspergillus antigen, and Aspergillus toxin (fumigaclavine A), protein electrophoresis and measurement of acute-phase protein concentrations were performed on serum of 18 adult and plasma of 21 juvenile gyr-saker hybrid falcons (Falco rusticolus x Falco cherrug). Adult (n = 15) and juvenile (n = 18) falcons were experimentally inoculated with different dosages of the same strain of Aspergillus fumigatus and an additional three falcons from each age group were used as uninfected control animals. Blood samples were collected prior to inoculation and at 28 days postinoculation. Of the 33 inoculated falcons, 16 demonstrated clinical signs (vomiting, greenish urates, dyspnea, ruffled feathers) commonly associated with aspergillosis and in 14 falcons necropsy revealed aspergillosis granulomas confirmed by mycology and histopathology. Positive galactomannan results were rare, with only 3/15 positive samples from adult falcons and none in the juvenile birds. Most of the inoculated falcons showed an increase of serum amyloid A (66.7%) and haptoglobin (70.4%), but fumigaclavine A was not detected in the blood from any of the experimental animals. Elevated antibody indices were detected in 96.7% of the inoculated birds, but also in 66.7% of the controls. Significant decreases in albumin:globulin ratio were obvious in 81.5% of the inoculated birds, including 100% of the birds with granulomas. Blood from falcons with granulomas demonstrated significantly increased concentration values of alpha 2 and β globulins, decreased percentages of prealbumin and albumin, and increased percentages of alpha 2 and β globulins compared to inoculated falcons without granulomas. In conclusion, acute-phase proteins and the electrophoretic profile of birds challenged with A

  10. Peste des petits ruminants diagnosis and diagnostic tools at a glance: perspectives on global control and eradication.

    PubMed

    Santhamani, Ramasamy; Singh, Rabindra Prasad; Njeumi, Felix

    2016-11-01

    Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a highly contagious, economically important viral disease of small ruminants, targeted for global eradication by the year 2030. The recent geographic surge in PPR virus distribution, economic implications, the success of the rinderpest eradication campaign, and ongoing national/regional efforts convinced the FAO and OIE to initiate a global PPR control and eradication strategy. Since its discovery, a series of diagnostic tools have been developed for detecting PPR virus and virus-specific antibodies. Furthermore, it is understood that diagnostic and vaccine-monitoring tools are inevitable components of the four-stage strategy of global PPR eradication from assessment to the post-eradication phase. However, these tools may not be suitable for all stages of PPR control and eradication. For instance, diagnostics such as ELISA could be used for mass screening of clinical and serum samples, whereas immunochromatographic tests can be used at the field level as a pen-side test. Yet, assays with higher sensitivity, such as RT-PCR, RT-PCR ELISA, real-time RT-PCR and LAMP are important for early diagnosis of PPR and also, theoretically, during the late stages of eradication or when sampling non-natural hosts. Moreover, during the later stages of any control program, suspected/doubtful outbreaks will have to be reconfirmed using multiple laboratory tests. Hence, diagnostics can and should be efficiently applied at different stages of the PPR control and eradication campaign based on available resources and the number of samples to be tested. This article provides an overview of the various PPR diagnostic tools and suggests where and how they should be logically applied during the different phases of global PPR control and eradication. PMID:27522587

  11. Re-appraisal of old and new diagnostic tools in the current management of chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Bessone, Fernando

    2014-08-01

    Hepatitis B virus (HBV) is a very complex and intricate DNA structure associated with a particular genomic organization and replication cycle. However, many years of investigations allowed clarification of the real HBV natural history, through a deeper knowledge of the behavior of HBV antigens and viral structures. Several of the old diagnostic tools, such as HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) and HBV e antigen (HBeAg) determinations, gained prominence now, since the variation of both HBsAg and HBeAg plasma levels was shown to predict treatment response. In addition, the availability of more sensitive methods, such as HBV DNA detection by real-time PCR, has improved the current knowledge of the relationships between HBV replication levels and the natural history of the disease. It is now well established that some HBV genotypes are associated with a better response to treatment with pegylated interferon. Despite the widely accepted value of liver biopsy as a staging tool, transient elastography is being increasingly acknowledged as a non-invasive method to assess liver stiffness, chiefly for detection of advanced fibrosis. Current international guidelines for the management of chronic hepatitis B have provided several accurate biochemical and serological criteria for selecting patients for treatment, allowing a higher number of cases to be enrolled into antiviral therapy. This review describes the different serological markers used for the study of HBV and their clinical significance. It also deals with methods used for detection of genotypes and HBV DNA, emphasizing the effectiveness of such determinations for both patient selection and chronic hepatitis B therapy/monitoring.

  12. Rare manifestations of sarcoidosis in modern era of new diagnostic tools

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Surendra K; Soneja, Manish; Sharma, Abhishek; Sharma, Mehar C.; Hari, Smriti

    2012-01-01

    rare manifestations will facilitate better management of these patients. With increasing use of modern diagnostic tools, manifestations hitherto considered rare, are likely to be recognized more frequently in the future. PMID:22771590

  13. Subjective body vertical: a promising diagnostic tool in idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus?

    PubMed

    Selge, C; Schoeberl, F; Bergmann, J; Kreuzpointner, A; Bardins, S; Schepermann, A; Schniepp, R; Koenig, E; Mueller, F; Brandt, T; Dieterich, M; Zwergal, A; Jahn, K

    2016-09-01

    Postural instability is a frequent symptom of patients with idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus (iNPH), and might be due to the misperception of body verticality. The objective of this study was to assess the usefulness of the subjective body vertical (SBV) as a potential tool for diagnosing iNPH. Twenty patients with iNPH underwent tests of SBV in the pitch and roll planes before and after cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) drainage. Ten patients with other central gait disorders served as controls and also underwent tests for SBV. Before CSF drainage, patients with iNPH showed an impaired verticality perception in the pitch plane with a significant backward deviation of the SBV as compared to the control group (iNPH: mean ± SD -3.7 ± 3.6°; control group: -0.8 ± 2.2°; t value = -2.30, p t-test = 0.03). After CSF drainage, the SBV of the iNPH patients normalized for the pitch plane (-0.9 ± 1.9°). There was a correlation between the backward deviation of the SBV and the ventricular enlargement of the frontal horns (Evan's index; r = -0.52; p Pearson = 0.02). An even stronger correlation was found with the enlargement of the third ventricle (Thalamus index; r = -0.64; p Pearson = 0.002). The new and clinically relevant finding of this study is that verticality perception of patients with iNPH is primarily impaired the pitch plane, and it improves after CSF drainage. This disturbance in pitch might be due to a bilateral central vestibular dysfunction of the thalamus. Determination of the SBV in pitch promises to increase diagnostic accuracy in the cases of suspected iNPH. PMID:27334906

  14. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management.

  15. Development of a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simmons, Jed A.; Guttman, Jeffrey L.; McCauley, John

    2016-03-01

    High power lasers in excess of 1 kW generate enough Rayleigh scatter, even in the NIR, to be detected by silicon based sensor arrays. A lens and camera system in an off-axis position can therefore be used as a non-contact diagnostic tool for high power lasers. Despite the simplicity of the concept, technical challenges have been encountered in the development of an instrument referred to as BeamWatch. These technical challenges include reducing background radiation, achieving high signal to noise ratio, reducing saturation events caused by particulates crossing the beam, correcting images to achieve accurate beam width measurements, creating algorithms for the removal of non-uniformities, and creating two simultaneous views of the beam from orthogonal directions. Background radiation in the image was reduced by the proper positioning of the back plane and the placement of absorbing materials on the internal surfaces of BeamWatch. Maximizing signal to noise ratio, important to the real-time monitoring of focus position, was aided by increasing lens throughput. The number of particulates crossing the beam path was reduced by creating a positive pressure inside BeamWatch. Algorithms in the software removed non-uniformities in the data prior to generating waist width, divergence, BPP, and M2 results. A dual axis version of BeamWatch was developed by the use of mirrors. By its nature BeamWatch produced results similar to scanning slit measurements. Scanning slit data was therefore taken and compared favorably with BeamWatch results.

  16. Uterine smooth muscle tumor analysis by comparative genomic hybridization: a useful diagnostic tool in challenging lesions.

    PubMed

    Croce, Sabrina; Ribeiro, Agnes; Brulard, Celine; Noel, Jean-Christophe; Amant, Frederic; Stoeckle, Eberhard; Devouassoux-Shisheborah, Mojgan; Floquet, Anne; Arnould, Laurent; Guyon, Frederic; Mishellany, Florence; Garbay, Delphine; Cuppens, Tine; Zikan, Michal; Leroux, Agnès; Frouin, Eric; Duvillard, Pierre; Terrier, Philippe; Farre, Isabelle; Valo, Isabelle; MacGrogan, Gaetan M; Chibon, Frederic

    2015-07-01

    The diagnosis and management of uterine smooth muscle tumors with uncertain malignant potential (STUMP) is often challenging, and genomic data on these lesions as well as on uterine smooth muscle lesions are limited. We tested the hypothesis that genomic profile determination by array-CGH could split STUMP into a benign group with scarce chromosomal alterations akin to leiomyoma and a malignant group with high chromosomal instability akin to leiomyosarcoma. Array-CGH genomic profile analysis was conducted for a series of 29 cases of uterine STUMP. A group of ten uterine leiomyomas and ten uterine leiomyosarcomas served as controls. The mean age was 50 years (range, 24-85) and the follow-up ranged from 12 to 156 months (average 70 months). Since STUMP is a heterogenous group of tumors with genomic profiles that can harbor few to many chromosomal alterations, we compared genomic indices in leiomyomas and leiomyosarcomas and set a genomic index=10 threshold. Tumors with a genomic index <10 were classified as nonrecurring STUMPs and those with a genomic index >10 represented STUMPs with recurrences and unfavorable outcomes. Hence, the genomic index threshold splits the STUMP category into two groups of tumors with different outcomes: a group comparable to leiomyomas and another similar to leiomyosarcomas, but more indolent. In our STUMP series, genomic analysis by array-CGH is an innovative diagnostic tool for problematic smooth muscle uterine lesions, complementary to the morphological evaluation approach. We provide an improved classification method for distinguishing truly malignant tumors from benign lesions within the category of STUMP, especially those with equivocal morphological features.

  17. Feasibility of α-fetoprotein as a diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma in Korea

    PubMed Central

    Ahn, Dae Geon; Kim, Hyung Joon; Kang, Hyun; Lee, Hyun Woong; Bae, Si Hyun; Lee, Joon Hyoek; Paik, Yong Han; Lee, June Sung

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of α-fetoprotein (AFP) as a diagnostic tool for hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) in Korean patients. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of HCC and cirrhosis patients at three hospitals. For each HCC patient, a cirrhosis patient matched for age, sex, etiology, and Child-Pugh classification was selected by simple random sampling. The performance of AFP in the diagnosis of HCC was determined using receiver operating characteristic curve analysis. Results: A total of 732 patients with HCC or cirrhosis were selected for each case and the control groups. The mean age was 54 years, and 72.4% of patients were male. The mean serum AFP levels in the HCC group and cirrhosis group were 3,315.6 and 117.2 ng/mL, respectively (p < 0.001). The area under the receiver operating characteristic curve for all HCC patients was 0.757. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive predictive value of AFP was 50.55%, 87.70%, and 80.43%, respectively, at a cut-off of 20 ng/mL; 37.70%, 95.90%, and 90.20%, respectively, at a cut-off of 100 ng/mL, and 30.05%, 97.27%, and 91.67%, respectively, at a cut-off of 200 ng/mL. A cut-off of 100 ng/mL was more sensitive than one of 200 ng/mL with equivalent specificity and positive predictive value. Conclusions: The cut-off AFP value for early-stage HCC was 17.4 ng/mL. Our study cautiously suggests that AFP has a role in the diagnosis of HCC, and that the appropriate value of AFP for the diagnosis of HCC may be 100 ng/mL rather than 200 ng/mL. PMID:26767857

  18. Bedside tomographic scintigraphy: a diagnostic tool in intensive care and the emergency room

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bone, Dianna; Persson, Mikael; Ribbe, Tommy; Dale, Susanne

    2001-09-01

    Scintigraphic tomography (SPECT) with a gamma camera is an established tool for the diagnosis of disturbances in perfusion of the myocardium. The technique has been shown to be useful in the management of patients with acute myocardial infarction. However, SPECT is not widely used for seriously ill patients due to the need to transport the patient to the gamma camera system. In order to make tomography available by the bedside, a form of limited view angle tomography, Ectomography, has been implemented on a mobile gamma camera system. Projection data are acquired by rotating a slant hole collimator in front of the stationary detector and therefore, the head gantry is simple and easily transported. The mobile system is completely self-contained providing acquisition, reconstruction and bedside display. System sensitivity can be increased by using a segmented collimator, making it possible to present reconstructed sections for diagnosis less than 10 min after the start of acquisition. At present, reconstruction is performed with 2D filtered back projection. A comparative study of patients with suspected coronary artery disease has shown that Ectomography and SPECT yield similar diagnostic information. In an experimental study, in which a coronary artery was occluded, it has been possible to use Ectomography to define myocardial area at risk and final infarct size. Myocardial imaging has been performed in the intensive care unit and a pilot study has demonstrated that brain scans can also be performed. Bedside tomographic scintigraphy has been shown to be feasible and studies can be performed without moving the patient. The method should provide, therefore, an alternative to SPECT in intensive care and the emergency room.

  19. Automated innovative diagnostic, data management and communication tool, for improving malaria vector control in endemic settings.

    PubMed

    Vontas, John; Mitsakakis, Konstantinos; Zengerle, Roland; Yewhalaw, Delenasaw; Sikaala, Chadwick Haadezu; Etang, Josiane; Fallani, Matteo; Carman, Bill; Müller, Pie; Chouaïbou, Mouhamadou; Coleman, Marlize; Coleman, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Malaria is a life-threatening disease that caused more than 400,000 deaths in sub-Saharan Africa in 2015. Mass prevention of the disease is best achieved by vector control which heavily relies on the use of insecticides. Monitoring mosquito vector populations is an integral component of control programs and a prerequisite for effective interventions. Several individual methods are used for this task; however, there are obstacles to their uptake, as well as challenges in organizing, interpreting and communicating vector population data. The Horizon 2020 project "DMC-MALVEC" consortium will develop a fully integrated and automated multiplex vector-diagnostic platform (LabDisk) for characterizing mosquito populations in terms of species composition, Plasmodium infections and biochemical insecticide resistance markers. The LabDisk will be interfaced with a Disease Data Management System (DDMS), a custom made data management software which will collate and manage data from routine entomological monitoring activities providing information in a timely fashion based on user needs and in a standardized way. The ResistanceSim, a serious game, a modern ICT platform that uses interactive ways of communicating guidelines and exemplifying good practices of optimal use of interventions in the health sector will also be a key element. The use of the tool will teach operational end users the value of quality data (relevant, timely and accurate) to make informed decisions. The integrated system (LabDisk, DDMS & ResistanceSim) will be evaluated in four malaria endemic countries, representative of the vector control challenges in sub-Saharan Africa, (Cameroon, Ivory Coast, Ethiopia and Zambia), highly representative of malaria settings with different levels of endemicity and vector control challenges, to support informed decision-making in vector control and disease management. PMID:27225553

  20. Repurposing mainstream CNC machine tools for laser-based additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jones, Jason B.

    2016-04-01

    The advent of laser technology has been a key enabler for industrial 3D printing, known as Additive Manufacturing (AM). Despite its commercial success and unique technical capabilities, laser-based AM systems are not yet able to produce parts with the same accuracy and surface finish as CNC machining. To enable the geometry and material freedoms afforded by AM, yet achieve the precision and productivity of CNC machining, hybrid combinations of these two processes have started to gain traction. To achieve the benefits of combined processing, laser technology has been integrated into mainstream CNC machines - effectively repurposing them as hybrid manufacturing platforms. This paper reviews how this engineering challenge has prompted beam delivery innovations to allow automated changeover between laser processing and machining, using standard CNC tool changers. Handling laser-processing heads using the tool changer also enables automated change over between different types of laser processing heads, further expanding the breadth of laser processing flexibility in a hybrid CNC. This paper highlights the development, challenges and future impact of hybrid CNCs on laser processing.

  1. Diagnostic tools for preventing and managing maternal and congenital syphilis: an overview.

    PubMed

    Peeling, Rosanna W; Ye, Htun

    2004-06-01

    Syphilis is a major cause of adverse outcomes in pregnancy in developing countries. Fetal death and morbidity due to congenital syphilis are preventable if infected mothers are identified and treated appropriately by the middle of the second trimester. Most pregnant women with syphilis are asymptomatic and can only be identified through serological screening. Non-treponemal tests, such as the rapid plasma reagin (RPR) test, are sensitive, simple to perform, and inexpensive. However, they have often not been available at primary health-care settings because they required cold storage for reagents and electricity to operate a rotator. Additionally, as many as 28% of positive RPR results in pregnant women are biological false positives. Confirmatory assays are usually available only in reference laboratories. Technological advances have resulted in improved serodiagnostic tools for syphilis. New enzyme immunoassays are available for surveillance and for large-scale screening programmes. Decentralized antenatal screening with on-site confirmation is now possible since new RPR reagents that are stable at room temperature have become commercially available, as have solar-powered rotators and simple, rapid point-of-care treponemal tests that use whole blood and do not require electricity or equipment. These will be valuable tools for preventing or eliminating congenital syphilis. The development of a non-invasive rapid treponemal test that distinguishes between active and past infections remains a high priority in areas where syphilis is endemic.

  2. Genome-wide linkage analysis is a powerful prenatal diagnostic tool in families with unknown genetic defects.

    PubMed

    Arélin, Maria; Schulze, Bernt; Müller-Myhsok, Bertram; Horn, Denise; Diers, Alexander; Uhlenberg, Birgit; Nürnberg, Peter; Nürnberg, Gudrun; Becker, Christian; Mundlos, Stefan; Lindner, Tom H; Sperling, Karl; Hoffmann, Katrin

    2013-04-01

    Genome-wide linkage analysis is an established tool to map inherited diseases. To our knowledge it has not been used in prenatal diagnostics of any genetic disorder. We present a family with a severe recessive mental retardation syndrome, where the mother wished pregnancy termination to avoid delivering another affected child. By genome-wide scanning using the Affymetrix (Santa Clara, CA, USA) 10k chip we were able to establish the disease haplotype. Without knowing the exact genetic defect, we excluded the condition in the fetus. The woman finally gave birth to a healthy baby. We suggest that genome-wide linkage analysis--based on either SNP mapping or full-genome sequencing--is a very useful tool in prenatal diagnostics of diseases.

  3. Development of “-omics” research in Schistosoma spp. and -omics-based new diagnostic tools for schistosomiasis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shuqi; Hu, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Schistosomiasis, caused by dioecious flatworms in the genus Schistosoma, is torturing people from many developing countries nowadays and frequently leads to severe morbidity and mortality of the patients. Praziquantel based chemotherapy and morbidity control for this disease adopted currently necessitate viable and efficient diagnostic technologies. Fortunately, those “-omics” researches, which rely on high-throughput experimental technologies to produce massive amounts of informative data, have substantially contributed to the exploitation and innovation of diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis. In its first section, this review provides a concise conclusion on the progresses pertaining to schistosomal “-omics” researches to date, followed by a comprehensive section on the diagnostic methods of schistosomiasis, especially those innovative ones based on the detection of antibodies, antigens, nucleic acids, and metabolites with a focus on those achievements inspired by “-omics” researches. Finally, suggestions about the design of future diagnostic tools of schistosomiasis are proposed, in order to better harness those data produced by “-omics” studies. PMID:25018752

  4. Evaluation of a new paleosecular variation activity index as a diagnostic tool for geomagnetic field variations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panovska, Sanja; Constable, Catherine

    2015-04-01

    Geomagnetic indices like Dst, K and A, have been used since the early twentieth century to characterize activity in the external part of the modern geomagnetic field and as a diagnostic for space weather. These indices reflect regional and global activity and serve as a proxy for associated physical processes. However, no such tools are yet available for the internal geomagnetic field driven by the geodynamo in Earth's liquid outer core. To some extent this reflects limited spatial and temporal sampling for longer timescales associated with paleomagnetic secular variation, but recent efforts in both paleomagnetic data gathering and modeling activity suggest that longer term characterization of the internal geomagnetic weather/climate and its variability would be useful. Specifically, we propose an index for activity in paleosecular variation, useful as both a local and global measure of field stability during so-called normal secular variation and as a means of identifying more extreme behavior associated with geomagnetic excursions and reversals. To date, geomagnetic excursions have been identified by virtual geomagnetic poles (VGPs) deviating more than some conventional limit from the geographic pole (often 45 degrees), and/or by periods of significant intensity drops below some critical value, for example 50% of the present-day field. We seek to establish a quantitative definition of excursions in paleomagnetic records by searching for synchronous directional deviations and lows in relative paleointensity. We combine paleointensity variations with deviations from the expected geocentric axial dipole (GAD) inclination in a single parameter, which we call the paleosecular variation (PSV) activity index. This new diagnostic can be used on any geomagnetic time series (individual data records, model predictions, spherical harmonic coefficients, etc.) to characterize the level of paleosecular variation activity, find excursions, or even study incipient reversals

  5. Infrared thermography as a diagnostic tool to indicate sick-house-syndrome: a case-study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ljungberg, Sven-Ake

    1996-03-01

    function, manload and demand of air flow. Field control inspections were performed partly from the inside and partly from the outside of the building. Microbial activities were investigated by traditional measurements of the emissions and contamination of indoor air, and by ocular inspections and laboratory tests of building materials. Despite the fact that the building studied has a complicated composition of surface materials, including glass, wood, steel and concrete panels, it was possible to indirectly indicate surface anomalies, related to microbial deterioration of organic materials, through mold and rot activities, due to in-exfiltration of humid air, causing moisture problems within the construction. The result from this case-study shows that thermography can become an important diagnostic tool in order to detect and map sick-house-syndromes. The project is to be continued.

  6. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A-M S

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ^{2} with respect to α, and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  7. Anemia of Chronic Disorders: New Diagnostic Tools and New Treatment Strategies.

    PubMed

    Weiss, Guenter

    2015-10-01

    Anemia in the setting of chronic inflammatory disorders is a very frequent clinical condition, which is, however, often neglected or not properly treated given the problems often caused by the diseases underlying the development of anemia. Mechanistically, anemia is mainly caused by inflammation-driven retention of iron in macrophages making the metal unavailable for heme synthesis in the course of erythropoiesis, and further by impaired biological activity of the red blood cell hormone erythropoietin and the reduced proliferative capacity of erythroid progenitor cells. Anemia can be aggravated by chronic blood loss, as found in subjects with gastrointestinal cancers, inflammatory or infectious bowel disease, or iatrogenic blood loss in the setting of dialysis, all resulting in true iron deficiency. The identification of such patients is a clinical necessity because these individuals need contrasting therapies in comparison to subjects suffering from only classical anemia of chronic disorders. The diagnosis is challenging because no state of the art laboratory test is currently available that can clearly separate patients with inflammatory anemia from those with additional true iron deficiency. However, based on our expanding knowledge on the pathophysiology of inflammatory anemia, new diagnostic markers, including the iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin, and hematologic parameters emerge. Apart from traditional anemia treatments such as blood transfusions, recombinant erythropoietin, and iron, including new high-molecular-weight formulations, new therapeutics are currently under preclinical and clinical evaluation. These novel compounds aim at correcting anemia by multiple pathways, including antagonizing the inflammation- and hepcidin-driven retention of iron in the monocyte-macrophage system and thereby promoting the supply of iron for erythropoiesis or by stimulating the endogenous formation of erythopoietin via stabilization of hypoxia-regulated factors.

  8. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation.

    PubMed

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A-M S

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ^{2} with respect to α, and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software. PMID:27627408

  9. Radio frequency diagnostics on board of Cubesat as a tool for planetary Space Weather monitoring

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothkaehl, H.; Morawski, M.; Szewczyk, T.

    2014-04-01

    CubeSat pico-satellite standard was developed recently to allow easy access to space for projects with limited funds. Due to relatively cheap yet professional development process, CubeSats have also great educational impact. This allows the students to learn about all crucial aspects of space engineering and project management. Since all the basic steps for developing CubeSat are similar to those performed on bigger satellites (i.e. designing, testing, operating in space), this gives possibility to develop all the necessary skills and experience for future work at space industries. Space Research Center, together with its collaborators from University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn and others, would like to design and build double unit CubeSat as an opportunity to perform scientific experiments in space together with technological demonstrators of subsystems. In order to monitor the Earth's and planetary space environment and obtain a much more complete picture of magnetosphere and ionosphere coupling and particularly waves-particle interaction in this system than those available hitherto new mission of clustered Cubesat mission can be propose. Moreover to enhance our understanding of the rich plasma physical processes that drive the Solar Terrestrial space environment, we need to increase our ability to perform multi-point measurements by means of different sensors. Therefore, new technologies radio frequency radio analyser RFA instrument will gave the possibility for diagnostics 3D electric field component (spectra and wave forms) with extremely high time resolution. Additional technological challenges regarding size, computational power and energy constraints are imposed by the design of CubeSat.

  10. Algorithms for optimized maximum entropy and diagnostic tools for analytic continuation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, Dominic; Tremblay, A.-M. S.

    2016-08-01

    Analytic continuation of numerical data obtained in imaginary time or frequency has become an essential part of many branches of quantum computational physics. It is, however, an ill-conditioned procedure and thus a hard numerical problem. The maximum-entropy approach, based on Bayesian inference, is the most widely used method to tackle that problem. Although the approach is well established and among the most reliable and efficient ones, useful developments of the method and of its implementation are still possible. In addition, while a few free software implementations are available, a well-documented, optimized, general purpose, and user-friendly software dedicated to that specific task is still lacking. Here we analyze all aspects of the implementation that are critical for accuracy and speed and present a highly optimized approach to maximum entropy. Original algorithmic and conceptual contributions include (1) numerical approximations that yield a computational complexity that is almost independent of temperature and spectrum shape (including sharp Drude peaks in broad background, for example) while ensuring quantitative accuracy of the result whenever precision of the data is sufficient, (2) a robust method of choosing the entropy weight α that follows from a simple consistency condition of the approach and the observation that information- and noise-fitting regimes can be identified clearly from the behavior of χ2 with respect to α , and (3) several diagnostics to assess the reliability of the result. Benchmarks with test spectral functions of different complexity and an example with an actual physical simulation are presented. Our implementation, which covers most typical cases for fermions, bosons, and response functions, is available as an open source, user-friendly software.

  11. Manganese-Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging as a Diagnostic and Dispositional Tool after Mild-Moderate Blast Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez, Olga; Schaefer, Michele L; Wester, Brock; Lee, Yi-Chien; Boggs, Nathan; Conner, Howard A; Merkle, Andrew C; Fricke, Stanley T; Albanese, Chris; Koliatsos, Vassilis E

    2016-04-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) caused by explosive munitions, known as blast TBI, is the signature injury in recent military conflicts in Iraq and Afghanistan. Diagnostic evaluation of TBI, including blast TBI, is based on clinical history, symptoms, and neuropsychological testing, all of which can result in misdiagnosis or underdiagnosis of this condition, particularly in the case of TBI of mild-to-moderate severity. Prognosis is currently determined by TBI severity, recurrence, and type of pathology, and also may be influenced by promptness of clinical intervention when more effective treatments become available. An important task is prevention of repetitive TBI, particularly when the patient is still symptomatic. For these reasons, the establishment of quantitative biological markers can serve to improve diagnosis and preventative or therapeutic management. In this study, we used a shock-tube model of blast TBI to determine whether manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI) can serve as a tool to accurately and quantitatively diagnose mild-to-moderate blast TBI. Mice were subjected to a 30 psig blast and administered a single dose of MnCl2 intraperitoneally. Longitudinal T1-magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) performed at 6, 24, 48, and 72 h and at 14 and 28 days revealed a marked signal enhancement in the brain of mice exposed to blast, compared with sham controls, at nearly all time-points. Interestingly, when mice were protected with a polycarbonate body shield during blast exposure, the marked increase in contrast was prevented. We conclude that manganese uptake can serve as a quantitative biomarker for TBI and that MEMRI is a minimally-invasive quantitative approach that can aid in the accurate diagnosis and management of blast TBI. In addition, the prevention of the increased uptake of manganese by body protection strongly suggests that the exposure of an individual to blast risk could benefit from the design of improved body armor.

  12. Automated image analysis in histopathology: a valuable tool in medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mulrane, Laoighse; Rexhepaj, Elton; Penney, Steve; Callanan, John J; Gallagher, William M

    2008-11-01

    Virtual pathology, the process of assessing digital images of histological slides, is gaining momentum in today's laboratory environment. Indeed, digital image acquisition systems are becoming commonplace, and associated image analysis solutions are viewed by most as the next critical step in automated histological analysis. Here, we document the advances in the technology, with reference to past and current techniques in histological assessment. In addition, the demand for these technologies is analyzed with major players profiled. As there are several image analysis software programs focusing on the quantification of immunohistochemical staining, particular attention is paid to this application in this review. Oncology has been a primary target area for these approaches, with example studies in this therapeutic area being covered here. Toxicology-based image analysis solutions are also profiled as these are steadily increasing in popularity, especially within the pharmaceutical industry. Reinforced by the phenomenal growth of the virtual pathology field, it is envisioned that the market for automated image analysis tools will greatly expand over the next 10 years.

  13. "Light-tagged" bacteriophage as a diagnostic tool for the detection of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David; Bull, Carolee T; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv alisalensis, the causal agent of bacterial blight of crucifers is essential for managing this disease. A phage-based diagnostic assay was developed that detects and identifies P. cannabina pv alisalensis from cultures and diseased plant specimens. A recombinant "light-tagged" reporter phage was generated by integrating the luxAB genes into the P. cannabina pv alisalensis phage PBSPCA1 genome. PBSPCA1::luxAB is viable, stable and detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis within minutes and with high sensitivity by conferring a bioluminescent signal. Detection is dependent on cell viability since cells treated with a bactericidal disinfectant are unable to elicit a signal. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis from diseased plant specimens indicating the potential of the diagnostic for disease identification. The reporter phage displays promise for the rapid and specific diagnostic detection of cultivated isolates, and infected plant specimens.

  14. "Light-tagged" bacteriophage as a diagnostic tool for the detection of phytopathogens.

    PubMed

    Schofield, David; Bull, Carolee T; Rubio, Isael; Wechter, W Patrick; Westwater, Caroline; Molineux, Ian J

    2013-01-01

    Detection of the phytopathogen Pseudomonas cannabina pv alisalensis, the causal agent of bacterial blight of crucifers is essential for managing this disease. A phage-based diagnostic assay was developed that detects and identifies P. cannabina pv alisalensis from cultures and diseased plant specimens. A recombinant "light-tagged" reporter phage was generated by integrating the luxAB genes into the P. cannabina pv alisalensis phage PBSPCA1 genome. PBSPCA1::luxAB is viable, stable and detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis within minutes and with high sensitivity by conferring a bioluminescent signal. Detection is dependent on cell viability since cells treated with a bactericidal disinfectant are unable to elicit a signal. Importantly, the reporter phage detects P. cannabina pv alisalensis from diseased plant specimens indicating the potential of the diagnostic for disease identification. The reporter phage displays promise for the rapid and specific diagnostic detection of cultivated isolates, and infected plant specimens. PMID:22990589

  15. Protein electrophoresis as a diagnostic and prognostic tool in raptor medicine.

    PubMed

    Tatum, L M; Zaias, J; Mealey, B K; Cray, C; Bossart, G D

    2000-12-01

    Plasma proteins of 139 healthy adult birds of prey from 10 species were separated by electrophoresis to characterize and document normal reference ranges and species-specific electrophoretic patternsand to evaluate the value of this technique for health screening, disease diagnosis, and prognostic indication. Species studied included bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus), red-tailed hawk (Buteo jamaicensis), barn owl (Tyto alba), great horned owl (Bubo virginianus), turkey vulture (Cathartes aura), Harris' hawk (Parabuteo unicinctus), Stellar's sea eagle (Haliaeetus pelagicus), barred owl (Strix varia), screech owl (Otus asio), and black vulture (Coragyps atratus). Several clinical cases show the diagnostic/therapeutic value of protein electrophoresis in raptors. This study establishes species-specific reference ranges for several birds of prey and discusses the benefit of electrophoresis as a diagnostic technique in health screens, as a diagnostic aid in conjunction with other tests, and as a prognostic indicator in clinical evaluation of raptors. PMID:11428396

  16. Structural studies of Helix aspersa agglutinin complexed with GalNAc: A lectin that serves as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Pietrzyk, Agnieszka J; Bujacz, Anna; Mak, Paweł; Potempa, Barbara; Niedziela, Tomasz

    2015-11-01

    Lectins belong to a differentiated group of proteins known to possess sugar-binding properties. Due to this fact, they are interesting research targets in medical diagnostics. Helix aspersa agglutinin (HAA) is a lectin that recognizes the epitopes containing α-d-N-acetylgalactosamine (GalNAc), which is present at the surface of metastatic cancer cells. Although several reports have already described the use of HAA as a diagnostic tool, this protein was not characterized on the molecular level. Here, we present for the first time the structural information about lectin isolated from mucus of Helix aspersa (garden snail). The amino acid sequence of this agglutinin was determined by Edman degradation and tertiary as well as quaternary structure by X-ray crystallography. The high resolution crystal structure (1.38Å) and MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry analysis provide the detailed information about a large part of the HAA natural glycan chain. The topology of the GalNAc binding cleft and interaction with lectin are very well defined in the structure and fully confirmed by STD HSQC NMR spectroscopy. Together, this provides structural clues regarding HAA specificity and opens possibilities to rational modifications of this important diagnostic tool.

  17. State of the art: diagnostic tools and innovative therapies for treatment of advanced thymoma and thymic carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Ried, Michael; Marx, Alexander; Götz, Andrea; Hamer, Okka; Schalke, Berthold; Hofmann, Hans-Stefan

    2016-06-01

    In this review article, state-of-the-art diagnostic tools and innovative treatments of thymoma and thymic carcinoma (TC) are described with special respect to advanced tumour stages. Complete surgical resection (R0) remains the standard therapeutic approach for almost all a priori resectable mediastinal tumours as defined by preoperative standard computed tomography (CT). If lymphoma or germ-cell tumours are differential diagnostic considerations, biopsy may be indicated. Resection status is the most important prognostic factor in thymoma and TC, followed by tumour stage. Advanced (Masaoka-Koga stage III and IVa) tumours require interdisciplinary therapy decisions based on distinctive findings of preoperative CT scan and ancillary investigations [magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)] to select cases for primary surgery or neoadjuvant strategies with optional secondary resection. In neoadjuvant settings, octreotide scans and histological evaluation of pretherapeutic needle biopsies may help to choose between somatostatin agonist/prednisolone regimens and neoadjuvant chemotherapy as first-line treatment. Finally, a multimodality treatment regime is recommended for advanced and unresectable thymic tumours. In conclusion, advanced stage thymoma and TC should preferably be treated in experienced centres in order to provide all modern diagnostic tools (imaging, histology) and innovative therapy techniques. Systemic and local (hyperthermic intrathoracic chemotherapy) medical treatments together with extended surgical resections have increased the therapeutic options in patients with advanced or recurrent thymoma and TC.

  18. Validation of a Rapid Rabies Diagnostic Tool for Field Surveillance in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Léchenne, Monique; Naïssengar, Kemdongarti; Lepelletier, Anthony; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Bourhy, Hervé; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dacheux, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background One root cause of the neglect of rabies is the lack of adequate diagnostic tests in the context of low income countries. A rapid, performance friendly and low cost method to detect rabies virus (RABV) in brain samples will contribute positively to surveillance and consequently to accurate data reporting, which is presently missing in the majority of rabies endemic countries. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated a rapid immunodiagnostic test (RIDT) in comparison with the standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and confirmed the detection of the viral RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our analysis is a multicentre approach to validate the performance of the RIDT in both a field laboratory (N’Djamena, Chad) and an international reference laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). In the field laboratory, 48 samples from dogs were tested and in the reference laboratory setting, a total of 73 samples was tested, representing a wide diversity of RABV in terms of animal species tested (13 different species), geographical origin of isolates with special emphasis on Africa, and different phylogenetic clades. Under reference laboratory conditions, specificity was 93.3% and sensitivity was 95.3% compared to the gold standard FAT test. Under field laboratory conditions, the RIDT yielded a higher reliability than the FAT test particularly on fresh and decomposed samples. Viral RNA was later extracted directly from the test filter paper and further used successfully for sequencing and genotyping. Conclusion/Significance The RIDT shows excellent performance qualities both in regard to user friendliness and reliability of the result. In addition, the test cassettes can be used as a vehicle to ship viral RNA to reference laboratories for further laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations using nucleotide sequencing. The potential for satisfactory use in remote locations is

  19. The Facial Aesthetic index: An additional tool for assessing treatment need

    PubMed Central

    Sundareswaran, Shobha; Ramakrishnan, Ranjith

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Facial Aesthetics, a major consideration in orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning, may not be judged correctly and completely by simply analyzing dental occlusion or osseous structures. Despite this importance, there is no index to guarantee availability of treatment or prioritize patients based on their soft tissue treatment needs. Individuals having well-aligned teeth but unaesthetic convex profiles do not get included for treatment as per current malocclusion indices. The aim of this investigation is to develop an aesthetic index based on facial profiles which could be used as an additional tool with malocclusion indices. Materials and Methods: A chart showing typical facial profile changes due to underlying malocclusions was generated by soft tissue manipulations of standardized profile photographs of a well-balanced male and female face. A panel of 62 orthodontists judged the profile photographs of 100 patients with different soft tissue patterns for assessing profile variations and treatment need. The index was later tested in a cross-section of school population. Statistical analysis was done using “irr” package of R environment version 2.15.1. Results: The index exhibited very good reliability in determining profile variations (Fleiss kappa 0.866, P < 0.001), excellent reproducibility (kappa 0.9078), high sensitivity, and specificity (95.7%). Testing in population yielded excellent agreement among orthodontists (kappa 0.9286). Conclusions: A new Facial Aesthetic index, based on patient's soft tissue profile requirements is proposed, which can complement existing indices to ensure treatment to those in need. PMID:27127752

  20. Surveillance of Travellers: An Additional Tool for Tracking Antimalarial Drug Resistance in Endemic Countries

    PubMed Central

    Gharbi, Myriam; Flegg, Jennifer A.; Pradines, Bruno; Berenger, Ako; Ndiaye, Magatte; Djimdé, Abdoulaye A.; Roper, Cally; Hubert, Véronique; Kendjo, Eric; Venkatesan, Meera; Brasseur, Philippe; Gaye, Oumar; Offianan, André T.; Penali, Louis; Le Bras, Jacques; Guérin, Philippe J.; Study, Members of the French National Reference Center for Imported Malaria

    2013-01-01

    Introduction There are growing concerns about the emergence of resistance to artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs). Since the widespread adoption of ACTs, there has been a decrease in the systematic surveillance of antimalarial drug resistance in many malaria-endemic countries. The aim of this work was to test whether data on travellers returning from Africa with malaria could serve as an additional surveillance system of local information sources for the emergence of drug resistance in endemic-countries. Methodology Data were collected from travellers with symptomatic Plasmodium falciparum malaria returning from Senegal (n = 1,993), Mali (n = 2,372), Cote d’Ivoire (n = 4,778) or Cameroon (n = 3,272) and recorded in the French Malaria Reference Centre during the period 1996–2011. Temporal trends of the proportion of parasite isolates that carried the mutant genotype, pfcrt 76T, a marker of resistance to chloroquine (CQ) and pfdhfr 108N, a marker of resistance to pyrimethamine, were compared for travellers and within-country surveys that were identified through a literature review in PubMed. The in vitro response to CQ was also compared between these two groups for parasites from Senegal. Results The trends in the proportion of parasites that carried pfcrt 76T, and pfdhfr 108N, were compared for parasites from travellers and patients within-country using the slopes of the curves over time; no significant differences in the trends were found for any of the 4 countries. These results were supported by in vitro analysis of parasites from the field in Senegal and travellers returning to France, where the trends were also not significantly different. Conclusion The results have not shown different trends in resistance between parasites derived from travellers or from parasites within-country. This work highlights the value of an international database of drug responses in travellers as an additional tool to assess the emergence of drug

  1. The Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory: A New Career Indecision Assessment Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vidal-Brown, Sherry A.; Thompson, Bruce

    2001-01-01

    The Career Assessment Diagnostic Inventory evaluates six career indecision factors: family conflict, emotional independence, decision-making anxiety, identity development, career information, and career self-efficacy. Factor analysis and convergent validity results of scores of 539 students supported the instrument's validity. (SK)

  2. ULTRASONOGRAPHY, AN EFFECTIVE TOOL IN DIAGNOSING PLANTAR FASCIITIS: A SYSTEMATIC REVIEW OF DIAGNOSTIC TRIALS

    PubMed Central

    Wyland, Matthew; Applequist, Lee; Bolowsky, Erin; Klingensmith, Heather; Virag, Isaac

    2016-01-01

    Background Plantar fasciitis (PF) is the most common cause of heel pain that affects 10% of the general population, whether living an athletic or sedentary lifestyle. The most frequent mechanism of injury is an inflammatory response that is caused by repetitive micro trauma. Many techniques are available to diagnose PF, including the use of ultrasonography (US). Purpose The purpose of this study is to systematically review and appraise previously published articles published between the years 2000 and 2015 that evaluated the effectiveness of using US in the process of diagnosing PF, as compared to alternative diagnostic methods. Methods A total of eight databases were searched to systematically review scholarly (peer reviewed) diagnostic and intervention articles pertaining to the ability of US to diagnose PF. Results Using specific key words the preliminary search yielded 264 articles, 10 of which were deemed relevant for inclusion in the study. Two raters independently scored each article using the 15 point modified QUADAS scale. Discussion Six studies compared the diagnostic efficacy of US to another diagnostic technique to diagnose PF, and four studies focused on comparing baseline assessment of plantar fascia before subsequent intervention. The most notable US outcomes measured were plantar fascia thickness, enthesopathy, and hypoechogenicity. Conclusion US was found to be accurate and reliable compared to alternative reference standards like MRI in the diagnosis of PF. The general advantages of US (e.g. cost efficient, ease of administration, non-invasive, limited contraindications) make it a superior diagnostic modality in the diagnosis of PF. US should be considered in rehabilitation clinics to effectively diagnose PF and to accurately monitor improvement in the disease process following rehabilitation interventions. Level of Evidence 1A PMID:27757279

  3. Pediatric Sleep Questionnaires as Diagnostic or Epidemiological Tools: A Review of Currently Available Instruments

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    An extensive list of published and unpublished instruments used to investigate or evaluate sleep issues in children was collected and assessed based on the fundamental operational principles of instrument development (11 steps). Of all the available tools identified, only a few were validated and standardized using appropriate psychometric criteria. In fact, only 2 fulfill all desirable criteria and approximately 11 instruments seem to adhere to most of the psychometric tool development requirements, and were therefore assessed in greater detail. Notwithstanding, in the rapidly developing scientific world of pediatric sleep, there are too many tools being used that have not undergone careful and methodical psychometric evaluation, and as such may be fraught with biased or invalid findings. It is hoped that this initial effort in categorizing and assessing available tools for pediatric sleep will serve as recognition of the relatively early developmental stage of our field, and provide the necessary impetus for future tool development using multicentered approaches and adequate methodologies. PMID:20934896

  4. A Malaria Diagnostic Tool Based on Computer Vision Screening and Visualization of Plasmodium falciparum Candidate Areas in Digitized Blood Smears

    PubMed Central

    Walliander, Margarita; Mårtensson, Andreas; Diwan, Vinod; Rahtu, Esa; Pietikäinen, Matti; Lundin, Mikael; Lundin, Johan

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Microscopy is the gold standard for diagnosis of malaria, however, manual evaluation of blood films is highly dependent on skilled personnel in a time-consuming, error-prone and repetitive process. In this study we propose a method using computer vision detection and visualization of only the diagnostically most relevant sample regions in digitized blood smears. Methods Giemsa-stained thin blood films with P. falciparum ring-stage trophozoites (n = 27) and uninfected controls (n = 20) were digitally scanned with an oil immersion objective (0.1 µm/pixel) to capture approximately 50,000 erythrocytes per sample. Parasite candidate regions were identified based on color and object size, followed by extraction of image features (local binary patterns, local contrast and Scale-invariant feature transform descriptors) used as input to a support vector machine classifier. The classifier was trained on digital slides from ten patients and validated on six samples. Results The diagnostic accuracy was tested on 31 samples (19 infected and 12 controls). From each digitized area of a blood smear, a panel with the 128 most probable parasite candidate regions was generated. Two expert microscopists were asked to visually inspect the panel on a tablet computer and to judge whether the patient was infected with P. falciparum. The method achieved a diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of 95% and 100% as well as 90% and 100% for the two readers respectively using the diagnostic tool. Parasitemia was separately calculated by the automated system and the correlation coefficient between manual and automated parasitemia counts was 0.97. Conclusion We developed a decision support system for detecting malaria parasites using a computer vision algorithm combined with visualization of sample areas with the highest probability of malaria infection. The system provides a novel method for blood smear screening with a significantly reduced need for visual examination and

  5. A Meta-Analysis of the Accuracy of Prostate Cancer Studies Which Use Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy as a Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Guo, You-min; Liu, Min; Qiang, Yong-qian; Guo, Xiao-juan; Zhang, Yi-li; Duan, Xiao-Yi; Zhang, Qiu-Juan; Liang, Weifeng

    2008-01-01

    Objective We aimed to do a meta-analysis of the existing literature to assess the accuracy of prostate cancer studies which use magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) as a diagnostic tool. Materials and Methods Prospectively, independent, blind studies were selected from the Cochrane library, Pubmed, and other network databases. The criteria for inclusion and exclusion in this study referenced the criteria of diagnostic research published by the Cochrane center. The statistical analysis was adopted by using Meta-Test version 6.0. Using the homogeneity test, a statistical effect model was chosen to calculate different pooled weighted values of sensitivity, specificity, and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (95% CI). The summary receiver operating characteristic (SROC) curves method was used to assess the results. Results We chose two cut-off values (0.75 and 0.86) as the diagnostic criteria for discriminating between benign and malignant. In the first diagnostic criterion, the pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity, and corresponding 95% CI (expressed as area under curve [AUC]) were 0.82 (0.73, 0.89), 0.68 (0.58, 0.76), and 83.4% (74.97, 91.83). In the second criterion, the pooled weighted sensitivity, specificity, and corresponding 95% CI were 0.64 (0.55, 0.72), 0.86 (0.79, 0.91) and 82.7% (68.73, 96.68). Conclusion As a new method in the diagnostic of prostate cancer, MRS has a better applied value compared to other common modalities. Ultimately, large scale RCT randomized controlled trial studies are necessary to assess its clinical value. PMID:18838853

  6. The Role of Metabolomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Trezzi, Jean-Pierre; Vlassis, Nikos; Hiller, Karsten

    2015-01-01

    This chapter introduces the emerging field of metabolomics and its application in the context of cancer biomarker research. Taking advantage of modern high-throughput technologies, and enhanced computational power, metabolomics has a high potential for cancer biomarker identification and the development of diagnostic tools. This chapter describes current metabolomics technologies used in cancer research, starting with metabolomics sample preparation, elaborating on current analytical methodologies for metabolomics measurement and introducing existing software for data analysis. The last part of this chapter deals with the statistical analysis of very large metabolomics datasets and their relevance for cancer biomarker identification.

  7. Molecular diagnostic tools in Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and other prion disorders.

    PubMed

    Van Everbroeck, Bart; Boons, Jef; De Leenheir, Evelyn; Lübke, Ursula; Cras, Patrick

    2004-05-01

    Clinical criteria and cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers for the diagnosis of human prion diseases (sporadic, iatrogenic or variant Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease and genetic inherited transmissible spongiform encephalopathies) are now widely available and show a sensitivity and specificity of approximately 98%. Final diagnosis of prion diseases is obtained by post-mortem examination upon identification of the pathological conformer of the prion protein (PrPSc) in the brain. Several diagnostic kits are now available that facilitate the immunochemical measurement of PrPSc. Several new molecular diagnostic techniques, aimed at increasing the sensitivity and specificity of PrPSc detection and at identifying markers of disease other than PrPSc, are the subject of ongoing studies. The aim of these studies is to develop preclinical screening tests for the identification of infected but still healthy individuals. These tests are also essential to investigate the safety of blood or blood-derived products and to ensure meat safety in European countries.

  8. Conceptualization of category-oriented likelihood ratio: a useful tool for clinical diagnostic reasoning

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background In the diagnostic reasoning process medical students and novice physicians need to be made aware of the diagnostic values of the clinical findings (including history, signs, and symptoms) to make an appropriate diagnostic decision. Diagnostic reasoning has been understood in light of two paradigms on clinical reasoning: problem solving and decision making. They advocate the reasoning strategies used by expert physicians and the statistical models of reasoning, respectively. Evidence-based medicine (EBM) applies decision theory to the clinical diagnosis, which can be a challenging topic in medical education. This theoretical article tries to compare evidence-based diagnosis with expert-based strategies in clinical diagnosis and also defines a novel concept of category-oriented likelihood ratio (LR) to propose a new model combining both aforementioned methods. Discussion Evidence-based medicine advocates the use of quantitative evidence to estimate the probability of diseases more accurately and objectively; however, the published evidence for a given diagnosis cannot practically be utilized in primary care, especially if the patient is complaining of a nonspecific problem such as abdominal pain that could have a long list of differential diagnoses. In this case, expert physicians examine the key clinical findings that could differentiate between broader categories of diseases such as organic and non-organic disease categories to shorten the list of differential diagnoses. To approach nonspecific problems, not only do the experts revise the probability estimate of specific diseases, but also they revise the probability estimate of the categories of diseases by using the available clinical findings. Summary To make this approach analytical and objective, we need to know how much more likely it is for a key clinical finding to be present in patients with one of the diseases of a specific category versus those with a disease not included in that category. In

  9. [Dogs as a diagnostic tool--utopian dream or unexploited possibility?].

    PubMed

    Klockars, Tuomas

    2016-01-01

    The dog's sense of smell has been estimated to be as much as 100 000 times more sensitive than that of man. While the dog's sense of smell is utilized by various authorities, medical exploitation of dogs is scarce. A disorder causes in the body metabolic changes, which could possibly be detected by using trained dogs. Promising studies have been published in recent years about the use of diagnostic dogs in identifying cancers or antibiotic-associated diarrhea, for example. PMID:27522829

  10. SDA-based diagnostic and analysis tools for Collider Run II

    SciTech Connect

    Bolshakov, T.B.; Lebrun, P.; Panacek, S.; Papadimitriou, V.; Slaughter, J.; Xiao, A.; /Fermilab

    2005-05-01

    Operating and improving the understanding of the Fermilab Accelerator Complex for the colliding beam experiments requires advanced software methods and tools. The Shot Data Analysis (SDA) has been developed to fulfill this need. Data from the Fermilab Accelerator Complex is stored in a relational database, and is served to programs and users via Web-based tools. Summary tables are systematically generated during and after a store. These tables (the Supertable, the Recomputed Emittances, the Recomputed Intensities and other tables) are discussed here.

  11. KlebSeq, a Diagnostic Tool for Surveillance, Detection, and Monitoring of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Bowers, Jolene R; Lemmer, Darrin; Sahl, Jason W; Pearson, Talima; Driebe, Elizabeth M; Wojack, Bette; Saubolle, Michael A; Engelthaler, David M; Keim, Paul

    2016-10-01

    Health care-acquired infections (HAIs) kill tens of thousands of people each year and add significantly to health care costs. Multidrug-resistant and epidemic strains are a large proportion of HAI agents, and multidrug-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading HAI agent, have caused an urgent public health crisis. In the health care environment, patient colonization by K. pneumoniae precedes infection, and transmission via colonization leads to outbreaks. Periodic patient screening for K. pneumoniae colonization has the potential to curb the number of HAIs. In this report, we describe the design and validation of KlebSeq, a highly informative screening tool that detects Klebsiella species and identifies clinically important strains and characteristics by using highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing without a live-culturing step. We demonstrate the utility of this tool on several complex specimen types, including urine, wound swabs and tissue, and several types of respiratory and fecal specimens, showing K. pneumoniae species and clonal group identification and antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiling, including capsule typing. Use of this amplicon sequencing tool to screen patients for Klebsiella carriage could inform health care staff of the risk of infection and outbreak potential. KlebSeq also serves as a model for next-generation molecular tools for public health and health care, as expansion of this tool can be used for several other HAI agents or applications. PMID:27510832

  12. KlebSeq, a Diagnostic Tool for Surveillance, Detection, and Monitoring of Klebsiella pneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Lemmer, Darrin; Sahl, Jason W.; Pearson, Talima; Driebe, Elizabeth M.; Wojack, Bette; Saubolle, Michael A.; Engelthaler, David M.; Keim, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Health care-acquired infections (HAIs) kill tens of thousands of people each year and add significantly to health care costs. Multidrug-resistant and epidemic strains are a large proportion of HAI agents, and multidrug-resistant strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae, a leading HAI agent, have caused an urgent public health crisis. In the health care environment, patient colonization by K. pneumoniae precedes infection, and transmission via colonization leads to outbreaks. Periodic patient screening for K. pneumoniae colonization has the potential to curb the number of HAIs. In this report, we describe the design and validation of KlebSeq, a highly informative screening tool that detects Klebsiella species and identifies clinically important strains and characteristics by using highly multiplexed amplicon sequencing without a live-culturing step. We demonstrate the utility of this tool on several complex specimen types, including urine, wound swabs and tissue, and several types of respiratory and fecal specimens, showing K. pneumoniae species and clonal group identification and antimicrobial resistance and virulence profiling, including capsule typing. Use of this amplicon sequencing tool to screen patients for Klebsiella carriage could inform health care staff of the risk of infection and outbreak potential. KlebSeq also serves as a model for next-generation molecular tools for public health and health care, as expansion of this tool can be used for several other HAI agents or applications. PMID:27510832

  13. Comprehensive lipid analysis: a powerful metanomic tool for predictive and diagnostic medicine.

    PubMed

    Watkins, S M

    2000-09-01

    The power and accuracy of predictive diagnostics stand to improve dramatically as a result of lipid metanomics. The high definition of data obtained with this approach allows multiple rather than single metabolites to be used in markers for a group. Since as many as 40 fatty acids are quantified from each lipid class, and up to 15 lipid classes can be quantified easily, more than 600 individual lipid metabolites can be measured routinely for each sample. Because these analyses are comprehensive, only the most appropriate and unique metabolites are selected for their predictive value. Thus, comprehensive lipid analysis promises to greatly improve predictive diagnostics for phenotypes that directly or peripherally involve lipids. A broader and possibly more exciting aspect of this technology is the generation of metabolic profiles that are not simply markers for disease, but metabolic maps that can be used to identify specific genes or activities that cause or influence the disease state. Metanomics is, in essence, functional genomics from metabolite analysis. By defining the metabolic basis for phenotype, researchers and clinicians will have an extraordinary opportunity to understand and treat disease. Much in the same way that gene chips allow researchers to observe the complex expression response to a stimulus, metanomics will enable researchers to observe the complex metabolic interplay responsible for defining phenotype. By extending this approach beyond the observation of individual dysregulations, medicine will begin to profile not single diseases, but health. As health is the proper balance of all vital metabolic pathways, comprehensive or metanomic analysis lends itself very well to identifying the metabolite distributions necessary for optimum health. Comprehensive and quantitative analysis of lipids would provide this degree of diagnostic power to researchers and clinicians interested in mining metabolic profiles for biological meaning.

  14. Evaluation of real-time PCR for Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworm as diagnostic tool in asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia.

    PubMed

    Schär, Fabian; Odermatt, Peter; Khieu, Virak; Panning, Marcus; Duong, Socheat; Muth, Sinuon; Marti, Hanspeter; Kramme, Stefanie

    2013-05-01

    Diagnosis of soil-transmitted helminths such as Strongyloides stercoralis and hookworms (Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus) is challenging due to irregular larval and egg output in infected individuals and insensitive conventional diagnostic procedures. Sensitive novel real-time PCR assays have been developed. Our study aimed to evaluate the real-time PCR assays as a diagnostic tool for detection of Strongyloides spp. and hookworms in a random stool sample of 218 asymptomatic schoolchildren in Cambodia. Overall prevalence of 17.4% (38/218) and 34.9% (76/218) were determined by real-time PCR for S. stercoralis and hookworms, respectively. Sensitivity and specificity of S. stercoralis specific real-time PCR as compared to the combination of Baermann/Koga Agar as gold standard were 88.9% and 92.7%, respectively. For hookworm specific real-time PCR a sensitivity of 78.9% and specificity of 78.9% were calculated. Co-infections were detectable by PCR in 12.8% (28/218) of individuals. S. stercoralis real-time PCR applied in asymptomatic cases showed a lower sensitivity compared to studies undertaken with symptomatic patients with the same molecular tool, yet it proved to be a valid supplement in the diagnosis of STH infection in Cambodia.

  15. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P.; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-01-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate “first aid” measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  16. Use of Molecular Diagnostic Tools for the Identification of Species Responsible for Snakebite in Nepal: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sanjib Kumar; Kuch, Ulrich; Höde, Patrick; Bruhse, Laura; Pandey, Deb P; Ghimire, Anup; Chappuis, François; Alirol, Emilie

    2016-04-01

    Snakebite is an important medical emergency in rural Nepal. Correct identification of the biting species is crucial for clinicians to choose appropriate treatment and anticipate complications. This is particularly important for neurotoxic envenoming which, depending on the snake species involved, may not respond to available antivenoms. Adequate species identification tools are lacking. This study used a combination of morphological and molecular approaches (PCR-aided DNA sequencing from swabs of bite sites) to determine the contribution of venomous and non-venomous species to the snakebite burden in southern Nepal. Out of 749 patients admitted with a history of snakebite to one of three study centres, the biting species could be identified in 194 (25.9%). Out of these, 87 had been bitten by a venomous snake, most commonly the Indian spectacled cobra (Naja naja; n = 42) and the common krait (Bungarus caeruleus; n = 22). When both morphological identification and PCR/sequencing results were available, a 100% agreement was noted. The probability of a positive PCR result was significantly lower among patients who had used inadequate "first aid" measures (e.g. tourniquets or local application of remedies). This study is the first to report the use of forensic genetics methods for snake species identification in a prospective clinical study. If high diagnostic accuracy is confirmed in larger cohorts, this method will be a very useful reference diagnostic tool for epidemiological investigations and clinical studies. PMID:27105074

  17. A contactless microwave-based diagnostic tool for high repetition rate laser systems

    SciTech Connect

    Braggio, C.; Borghesani, A. F.

    2014-02-15

    We report on a novel electro-optic device for the diagnostics of high repetition rate laser systems. It is composed of a microwave receiver and of a second order nonlinear crystal, whose irradiation with a train of short laser pulses produces a time-dependent polarization in the crystal itself as a consequence of optical rectification. This process gives rise to the emission of microwave radiation that is detected by a receiver and is analyzed to infer the repetition rate and intensity of the pulses. We believe that this new method may overcome some of the limitations of photodetection techniques.

  18. Three-dimensional ultrasonography in maxillofacial surgery. A new diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Hell, B; Walter, F A; Schreiber, S; Blase, H; Bielke, G; Meindl, S; Stein, G

    1993-06-01

    Three-dimensional (3-D) ultrasonography is introduced as a new diagnostic method for soft-tissue lesions. This method is based on the production of absolutely parallel brightness (B)-scan tomographies with constant intervals. After adequate preparation, the sonographic primaries are processed into 3-D graphs by a specialized program called EUCLID-IS. This method promises to be useful in the evaluation of tumor patients as well as in the follow-up examination of these patients. The main advantages of the presented method are the capacity to measure accurately the volume of regions of interest and the excellent visualization of the structures examined.

  19. Quantum cascade laser absorption spectroscopy as a plasma diagnostic tool: an overview.

    PubMed

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry.

  20. The porphyrias: clinic, diagnostics, novel investigative tools and evolving molecular therapeutic strategies.

    PubMed

    van Serooskerken, A-M van Tuyll; Poblete-Gutiérrez, P; Frank, J

    2010-01-01

    The porphyrias are clinically and genetically heterogeneous metabolic disorders resulting from a predominantly hereditary dysfunction of specific enzymes involved in heme biosynthesis. Today, the clinical, biochemical, and genetic characteristics of this fascinating group of diseases are well established. Recently, different in vitro and animal models have facilitated the investigation of etiopathologic mechanisms in the different types of porphyria and the development of causal treatment strategies such as pathway interference, enzyme replacement, and gene therapy. The continuous progress in basic science has made an invaluable contribution to the rapid translation of discoveries made in the laboratory into new diagnostics and therapeutics in the near future.

  1. Quantum Cascade Laser Absorption Spectroscopy as a Plasma Diagnostic Tool: An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Welzel, Stefan; Hempel, Frank; Hübner, Marko; Lang, Norbert; Davies, Paul B.; Röpcke, Jürgen

    2010-01-01

    The recent availability of thermoelectrically cooled pulsed and continuous wave quantum and inter-band cascade lasers in the mid-infrared spectral region has led to significant improvements and new developments in chemical sensing techniques using in-situ laser absorption spectroscopy for plasma diagnostic purposes. The aim of this article is therefore two-fold: (i) to summarize the challenges which arise in the application of quantum cascade lasers in such environments, and, (ii) to provide an overview of recent spectroscopic results (encompassing cavity enhanced methods) obtained in different kinds of plasma used in both research and industry. PMID:22163581

  2. L-Shell Spectroscopy of Au as a Temperature Diagnostic Tool

    SciTech Connect

    Trabert, E; Hansen, S B; Beiersdorfer, P; Brown, G V; Widmann, K; Chung, H K

    2008-03-27

    In order to develop plasma diagnostic for reduced-size hot hohlraums under laser irradiation, they have studied the L-shell emission from highly charged gold ions in the SuperEBIT electron beam ion trap. The resolving power necessary to identify emission features from individual charge states in a picket fence pattern has been estimated, and the observed radiation features have been compared with atomic structure calculations. They find that the strong 3d{sub 5/2} {yields} 2p{sub 3/2} emission features are particularly useful in determining the charge state distribution and average ion charge , which are strongly sensitive to the electron temperature.

  3. A Cognitive Tool for Teaching the Addition/Subtraction of Common Fractions: A Model of Affordances

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kong, Siu Cheung; Kwok, Lam For

    2005-01-01

    The aim of this research is to devise a cognitive tool for meeting the diverse needs of learners for comprehending new procedural knowledge. A model of affordances on teaching fraction equivalence for developing procedural knowledge for adding/subtracting fractions with unlike denominators was derived from the results of a case study of an initial…

  4. Current immunological and molecular tools for leptospirosis: diagnostics, vaccine design, and biomarkers for predicting severity.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, Senaka; Rodrigo, Chaturaka; Handunnetti, Shiroma M; Fernando, Sumadhya Deepika

    2015-01-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonotic spirochaetal illness that is endemic in many tropical countries. The research base on leptospirosis is not as strong as other tropical infections such as malaria. However, it is a lethal infection that can attack many vital organs in its severe form, leading to multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and death. There are many gaps in knowledge regarding the pathophysiology of leptospirosis and the role of host immunity in causing symptoms. This hinders essential steps in combating disease, such as developing a potential vaccine. Another major problem with leptospirosis is the lack of an easy to perform, accurate diagnostic tests. Many clinicians in resource limited settings resort to clinical judgment in diagnosing leptospirosis. This is unfortunate, as many other diseases such as dengue, hanta virus, rickettsial infections, and even severe bacterial sepsis, can mimic leptospirosis. Another interesting problem is the prediction of disease severity at the onset of the illness. The majority of patients recover from leptospirosis with only a mild febrile illness, while a few others have severe illness with multi-organ failure. Clinical features are poor predictors of potential severity of infection, and therefore the search is on for potential biomarkers that can serve as early warnings for severe disease. This review concentrates on these three important aspects of this neglected tropical disease: diagnostics, developing a vaccine, and potential biomarkers to predict disease severity.

  5. Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools for Residual Life Estimation in Aging Nuclear Power Plant Components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ramuhalli, P.; Bond, L. J.; Griffin, J.; Henager, C.; Dixit, M.

    2011-06-01

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors (LWR) is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need, nondestructive methods that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel sensors and enhanced data integration techniques. A range of acoustic and electromagnetic measurement methods may be suitable, including acoustic microscopy, eddy current and magnetic Barkhausen emission. Prognostic methods that predict rate of degradation and remaining life based on phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics have been reported by several researchers. However, the challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. This paper discusses an assessment of selected diagnostic techniques, and the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms to detection of early degradation and rate of degradation/life prediction. Such measurement and modeling methods are expected to form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches for assessing and monitoring life extension of ageing light water reactors.

  6. Quantified light-induced fluorescence, review of a diagnostic tool in prevention of oral disease

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Josselin de Jong, Elbert; Higham, Susan M.; Smith, Philip W.; van Daelen, Catherina J.; van der Veen, Monique H.

    2009-05-01

    Diagnostic methods for the use in preventive dentistry are being developed continuously. Few of these find their way into general practice. Although the general trend in medicine is to focus on disease prevention and early diagnostics, in dentistry this is still not the case. Nevertheless, in dental research some of these methods seem to be promising for near future use by the general dental professional. In this paper an overview is given of a method called quantitative light-induced fluorescence or (QLF) in which visible and harmless light excites the teeth in the patient's mouth to produce fluorescent images, which can be stored on disk and computer analyzed. White spots (early dental caries) are detected and quantified as well as bacterial metabolites on and in the teeth. An overview of research to validate the technique and modeling to further the understanding of the technique by Monte Carlo simulation is given and it is shown that the fluorescence phenomena can be described by the simulation model in a qualitative way. A model describing the visibility of red fluorescence from within the dental tissue is added, as this was still lacking in current literature. An overview is given of the clinical images made with the system and of the extensive research which has been done. The QLF™ technology has been shown to be of importance when used in clinical trials with respect to the testing of toothpastes and preventive treatments. It is expected that the QLF™ technology will soon find its way into the general dental practice.

  7. Quantitative Electroencephalography as a Diagnostic Tool for Alzheimer's Dementia in Adults with Down Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Salem, Lise Cronberg; Sabers, Anne; Kjaer, Troels W.; Musaeus, Christian; Nielsen, Martin N.; Nielsen, Anne-Grete; Waldemar, Gunhild

    2015-01-01

    Background Assessment of dementia in individuals with intellectual disability is complex due to great inter-individual variability in cognitive function prior to dementia and a lack of standardized instruments. Studies have indicated that quantitative electroencephalography (qEEG) results may be used as a diagnostic marker for dementia. The aim of this study was to examine the value of qEEG in the diagnostic evaluation of dementia in patients with Down syndrome (DS). Method The study included 21 patients with DS and mild-to-moderate dementia due to Alzheimer's disease (DS-AD) and 16 age-matched adults with DS without cognitive deterioration assessed by the informant-based Dementia Screening Questionnaire in Intellectual Disability (DSQIID). Conventional EEG was performed and analysed quantitatively using fast Fourier transformation. Outcomes were centroid frequency, peak frequency, absolute power, and relative power. Results In several regions of the brain, a significant decrease in the theta-1 band (4-7 Hz) was identified for the centroid frequency. A significant negative correlation was demonstrated between the mean of the centroid frequency of the theta-1 band and the total DSQIID score. Conclusion We found that qEEG can detect a significant decrease in centroid frequency in a sample of patients with DS-AD as compared to a sample of adults with DS and no cognitive deterioration. PMID:26628899

  8. Diagnostic and Prognostic Tools for Residual Life Estimation in Aging Nuclear Power Plant Components

    SciTech Connect

    Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Henager, Charles H.; Dixit, Mukul

    2011-06-23

    A central issue in life extension for the current fleet of light water nuclear power reactors (LWR) is the early detection and monitoring of significant materials degradation. To meet this need, nondestructive methods that are suitable for continuous monitoring over extended time periods (months to years) are needed. A related issue is the ability to estimate remaining useful life (RUL) of components and systems based on condition assessment or degradation information. Monitoring for early detection of materials degradation requires novel sensors and enhanced data integration techniques. A range of acoustic and electromagnetic measurement methods may be suitable, including acoustic microscopy, eddy current and magnetic Barkhausen emission. Prognostic methods that predict rate of degradation and remaining life based on phenomena that can be described by linear elastic fracture mechanics have been reported by several researchers. However, the challenge of predicting remaining life starting from earlier phases of degradation is largely unsolved. This paper discusses an assessment of selected diagnostic techniques, and the application of Bayesian prognostic algorithms to detection of early degradation and rate of degradation/life prediction. Such measurement and modeling methods are expected to form the basis for a new range of advanced diagnostic and prognostic approaches for assessing and monitoring life extension of ageing light water reactors.

  9. Central Nervous System Involvement in Adult Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: Diagnostic Tools, Prophylaxis, and Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Del Principe, Maria Ilaria; Maurillo, Luca; Buccisano, Francesco; Sconocchia, Giuseppe; Cefalo, Mariagiovanna; De Santis, Giovanna; Di Veroli, Ambra; Ditto, Concetta; Nasso, Daniela; Postorino, Massimiliano; Refrigeri, Marco; Attrotto, Cristina; Del Poeta, Giovanni; Lo-Coco, Francesco; Amadori, Sergio; Venditti, Adriano

    2014-01-01

    In adult patients with acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL), Central Nervous System (CNS) involvement is associated with a very poor prognosis. The diagnostic assessment of this condition relies on the use of neuroradiology, conventional cytology (CC) and flow cytometry (FCM). Among these approaches, which is the gold standard it is still a matter of debate. Neuroradiology and CC have a limited sensitivity with a higher rate of false negative results. FCM demonstrated a superior sensitivity over CC, particularly when low levels of CNS infiltrating cells are present. Although prospective studies of a large series of patients are still awaited, a positive finding by FCM appears to anticipate an adverse outcome even if CC shows no infiltration. Current strategies for adult ALL CNS-directed prophylaxis or therapy involve systemic and intrathecal chemotherapy and radiation therapy. An early and frequent intrathecal injection of cytostatic combined with systemic chemotherapy is the most effective strategy to reduce the frequency of CNS involvement. In patients with CNS overt ALL, at diagnosis or upon relapse, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation might be considered. This review discusses risk factors, diagnostic techniques for identification of CNS infiltration and modalities of prophylaxis and therapy to manage it. PMID:25408861

  10. Exploiting the Campylobacter jejuni protein glycosylation system for glycoengineering vaccines and diagnostic tools directed against brucellosis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Immune responses directed towards surface polysaccharides conjugated to proteins are effective in preventing colonization and infection of bacterial pathogens. Presently, the production of these conjugate vaccines requires intricate synthetic chemistry for obtaining, activating, and attaching the polysaccharides to protein carriers. Glycoproteins generated by engineering bacterial glycosylation machineries have been proposed to be a viable alternative to traditional conjugation methods. Results In this work we expressed the C. jejuni oligosaccharyltansferase (OTase) PglB, responsible for N-linked protein glycosylation together with a suitable acceptor protein (AcrA) in Yersinia enterocolitica O9 cells. MS analysis of the acceptor protein demonstrated the transfer of a polymer of N-formylperosamine to AcrA in vivo. Because Y. enterocolitica O9 and Brucella abortus share an identical O polysaccharide structure, we explored the application of the resulting glycoprotein in vaccinology and diagnostics of brucellosis, one of the most common zoonotic diseases with over half a million new cases annually. Injection of the glycoprotein into mice generated an IgG response that recognized the O antigen of Brucella, although this response was not protective against a challenge with a virulent B. abortus strain. The recombinant glycoprotein coated onto magnetic beads was efficient in differentiating between naïve and infected bovine sera. Conclusion Bacterial engineered glycoproteins show promising applications for the development on an array of diagnostics and immunoprotective opportunities in the future. PMID:22276812

  11. Use of the Child Behavior Checklist as a Diagnostic Screening Tool in Community Mental Health

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rishel, Carrie W.; Greeno, Catherine; Marcus, Steven C.; Shear, M. Katherine; Anderson, Carol

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This study examines whether the Child Behavior Checklist (CBCL) can be used as an accurate psychiatric screening tool for children in community mental health settings. Method: Associations, logistic regression models, and receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis were used to test the predictive relationship between the CBCL and…

  12. [Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry for Neuroblastoma, a new and possible diagnostic tool: case report].

    PubMed

    Manrique, Belén; López Marti, Jessica; Cacciavillano, Walter; Rossi, Jorge

    2016-04-01

    Neuroblastoma is the most frequent extracranial solid tumor in childhood, representing 5.6% according to the "Registro Oncopediatrico Hospitalario Argentino". For its diagnosis, several complementary methods (radiological, biological and biochemical) are required, and Multi-parametric Flow Cytometry (MFC) arises as a potential diagnostic method, despite not having been so far extensively explored. MFC is a method that allows to obtain several information about size, internal complexity and antigenic expression by the use of a laser and fluorescent monoclonal antibodies. There are an increasing number of reports in the literature, which reveal the importance of using MFC for diagnosis and monitoring of solid tumors. The aim in this presentation is to highlight the fundamental role that MFC had in the case of a patient affected by neuroblastoma, in which an early diagnosis using this methodology allowed prompt administration of adequate treatment.

  13. Synthetic glycolipid-like constructs as tools for glycobiology research, diagnostics, and as potential therapeutics.

    PubMed

    Korchagina, E Y; Henry, S M

    2015-07-01

    Function-spacer-lipid (FSL) constructs are amphiphilic molecules that are able to disperse in water and then self-assemble into cell membranes or onto solid surfaces. Modification of a biological or non-biological surface is very easy and achieved by simple contact of the surface with an appropriately buffered solution containing one or more FSLs. When the functional head group of the FSL is a glycan, glycan modified surfaces can be rapidly formed. Once cells, viruses, or solid surfaces are FSL modified with either simple or complex glycans, they can be used in vitro and/or in vivo to measure interactions with cells, viruses, antibodies, and lectins. FSLs have already been used in a variety of techniques including antibody specificity mapping, antibody/toxin neutralization, diagnostic assays, immune system manipulation, and animal modeling of transfusion reactions. FSLs offer the easiest and fastest method available to achieve a glycan-modified surface. PMID:26542000

  14. The use of different diagnostic tools for Babesia and Theileria parasites in cattle in Menofia, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Nayel, Mohamed; El-Dakhly, Khaled Mohamed; Aboulaila, Mahmoud; Elsify, Ahmed; Hassan, Hany; Ibrahim, Elsayed; Salama, Akram; Yanai, Tokuma

    2012-09-01

    Bovine piroplasmosis is caused by tick-borne hemoprotozoans of the genera Babesia and Theileria and is the most prevalent in tropical and subtropical countries, causing a major economic impact worldwide. In the current study, a total of 405 cattle of different ages, sexes, and breeds were randomly sampled for surveying and diagnosis of babesiosis and theileriosis using three methods: direct microscopy (blood smears), indirect fluorescent antibody test (IFAT) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Giemsa-stained blood smears revealed that, out of 405 examined cattle, 33 (8.15 %) were infected with Babesia sp. and 65 (16.05 %) with Theileria sp. (total number of infected cattle was 98). Mixed infection was seen in 11 (2.72 %) animals. Moreover, application of the three diagnostic assays on 158 randomly sampled cattle indicated that 17 (10.76 %) and 33 (20.89 %) were positive for Babesia and Theileria spp. by the direct smear technique, 25 (15.82 %) and 33 (20.89 %) by IFAT (fluorescence was greenish yellow for Babesia and yellowish for Theileria), and 20 (12.66 %) and 38 (24.05 %) by PCR. Using primers specific for Babesia and Theileria spp., we found that diagnostic bands appeared at ~350 and ~370 bp, respectively indicating the presence of these piroplasms. Statistically, there was a non-significant difference of the positivity in response to the three techniques; thus, any of these methods can be described as useful for diagnosing blood parasites in both domesticated animals and birds. On the basis of the obtained results, it could be concluded that direct microscopy can be used in acute infections, whereas IFAT and PCR are useful in chronicity.

  15. Tandem repeat markers as novel diagnostic tools for high resolution fingerprinting of Wolbachia

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Strains of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia pipientis are extremely diverse both genotypically and in terms of their induced phenotypes in invertebrate hosts. Despite extensive molecular characterisation of Wolbachia diversity, little is known about the actual genomic diversity within or between closely related strains that group tightly on the basis of existing gene marker systems, including Multiple Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). There is an urgent need for higher resolution fingerprinting markers of Wolbachia for studies of population genetics, horizontal transmission and experimental evolution. Results The genome of the wMel Wolbachia strain that infects Drosophila melanogaster contains inter- and intragenic tandem repeats that may evolve through expansion or contraction. We identified hypervariable regions in wMel, including intergenic Variable Number Tandem Repeats (VNTRs), and genes encoding ankyrin (ANK) repeat domains. We amplified these markers from 14 related Wolbachia strains belonging to supergroup A and were successful in differentiating size polymorphic alleles. Because of their tandemly repeated structure and length polymorphism, the markers can be used in a PCR-diagnostic multilocus typing approach, analogous to the Multiple Locus VNTR Analysis (MLVA) established for many other bacteria and organisms. The isolated markers are highly specific for supergroup A and not informative for other supergroups. However, in silico analysis of completed genomes from other supergroups revealed the presence of tandem repeats that are variable and could therefore be useful for typing target strains. Conclusions Wolbachia genomes contain inter- and intragenic tandem repeats that evolve through expansion or contraction. A selection of polymorphic tandem repeats is a novel and useful PCR diagnostic extension to the existing MLST typing system of Wolbachia, as it allows rapid and inexpensive high-throughput fingerprinting of closely related strains for

  16. Auditory-visual virtual reality as a diagnostic and therapeutic tool for cynophobia.

    PubMed

    Suied, Clara; Drettakis, George; Warusfel, Olivier; Viaud-Delmon, Isabelle

    2013-02-01

    Traditionally, virtual reality (VR) exposure-based treatment concentrates primarily on the presentation of a high-fidelity visual experience. However, adequately combining the visual and the auditory experience provides a powerful tool to enhance sensory processing and modulate attention. We present the design and usability testing of an auditory-visual interactive environment for investigating VR exposure-based treatment for cynophobia. The specificity of our application involves 3D sound, allowing the presentation and spatial manipulations of a fearful stimulus in the auditory modality and in the visual modality. We conducted an evaluation test with 10 participants who fear dogs to assess the capacity of our auditory-visual virtual environment (VE) to generate fear reactions. The specific perceptual characteristics of the dog model that were implemented in the VE were highly arousing, suggesting that VR is a promising tool to treat cynophobia. PMID:23425570

  17. Anatomic pathology of hepatocellular carcinoma: histopathology using classic and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Pittman, Meredith E; Brunt, Elizabeth M

    2015-05-01

    Hepatocellular carcinoma can be diagnosed on a needle biopsy of the liver; however, uncertainty may arise because of the inherent complexity of liver histology. This article aims to provide practicing pathologists with tools for the approach to mass-directed liver biopsies clinically concerning for hepatocellular carcinoma. The examination of routine hematoxylin-eosin stains and the use of ancillary histochemical and immunohistochemical stains are discussed. Sections reviewing liver carcinoma with biphenotypic differentiation and the challenge of dysplastic nodules are included.

  18. A construction of standardized near infrared hyper-spectral teeth database: a first step in the development of reliable diagnostic tool for quantification and early detection of caries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bürmen, Miran; Usenik, Peter; Fidler, Aleš; Pernuš, Franjo; Likar, Boštjan

    2011-03-01

    Dental caries is a disease characterized by demineralization of enamel crystals leading to the penetration of bacteria into the dentin and pulp. If left untreated, the disease can lead to pain, infection and tooth loss. Early detection of enamel demineralization resulting in increased enamel porosity, commonly known as white spots, is a difficult diagnostic task. Several papers reported on near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy to be a potentially useful noninvasive spectroscopic technique for early detection of caries lesions. However, the conducted studies were mostly qualitative and did not include the critical assessment of the spectral variability of the sound and carious dental tissues and influence of the water content. Such assessment is essential for development and validation of reliable qualitative and especially quantitative diagnostic tools based on NIR spectroscopy. In order to characterize the described spectral variability, a standardized diffuse reflectance hyper-spectral database was constructed by imaging 12 extracted human teeth with natural lesions of various degrees in the spectral range from 900 to 1700 nm with spectral resolution of 10 nm. Additionally, all the teeth were imaged by digital color camera. The influence of water content on the acquired spectra was characterized by monitoring the teeth during the drying process. The images were assessed by an expert, thereby obtaining the gold standard. By analyzing the acquired spectra we were able to accurately model the spectral variability of the sound dental tissues and identify the advantages and limitations of NIR hyper-spectral imaging.

  19. Oral fluid nanosensor test: saliva as a diagnostic tool for oral health.

    PubMed

    Pujari, Mallayya; Bahirwani, Shraddha; Balaji, P; Kaul, Rachna; Shah, Bina; Daryani, Deepak; Iqbal, Sidra

    2012-09-01

    High-impact diseases, especially cancer, are challenging to diagnose without supplementing laboratory testing. Even with laboratory tools, definitive diagnosis often remains elusive. The oral fluid nanosensor test technology platform combines cutting-edge technologies--such as self-assembled monolayers, bionanotechnology, cyclic enzymatic amplification, and microfluidics--with several well-established techniques including microinjection molding, hybridization-based detection, and molecular purification. The intended use of the OFNASET is for the point-of-care multiplex detection of salivary biomarkers for oral cancer.

  20. Laryngeal Measurements and Diagnostic Tools for Diagnosis of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

    PubMed Central

    Casado, Verónica; Navarro, Sandra M.; Alvarez, Andrés E.; Villafañe, Mercedes; Miranda, Ana; Spaans, Natalia

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE The purpose of this study was to evaluate sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative likelihood ratios of laryngeal height, lung function, and diagnostic questionnaires for screening and diagnosis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). METHODS We undertook a cross-sectional study of 233 people aged between 40 and 75 years. Measured variables were age, sex, weight, height, body mass index, tobacco use, maximum laryngeal height, and spirometry, and we administered a COPD questionnaire and the Lung Function Questionnaire. RESULTS For laryngeal height, we found a positive likelihood ratio of 5.21, and for the Lung Function Questionnaire, we found a negative likelihood ratio of 0.10. Combining a maximum laryngeal height of ≤4 cm with Lung Function Questionnaire findings of ≤18 yielded a positive likelihood ratio of 29.06, and a negative likelihood ratio of 0.26. CONCLUSIONS The intrinsic validity of the lung function questionnaire makes it useful for screening. Combining Lung Function Questionnaire results and laryngeal height can help confirm or dismiss COPD. PMID:25583892

  1. Clinical diagnostic tools for screening of perioperative stroke in general surgery: a systematic review.

    PubMed

    Sun, Z; Yue, Y; Leung, C C H; Chan, M T V; Gelb, A W

    2016-03-01

    Perioperative stroke is a devastating complication that carries high mortality and functional disability. Unfortunately, residual anaesthesia and analgesia may obscure important warning signs and may lead to a delay in the assessment and treatment of major stroke after surgery. The purpose of this review is to examine the utility of existing stroke scales, for the recognition of perioperative stroke in the general surgical population. A total of 21 stroke scales have been described in the literature. Diagnostic performance was reported in 17 scales. The majority of the stroke scales were designed to evaluate current neurological deficits after an established stroke event. Recent abbreviated stroke test, such as the Face, Arm, Speech Test (FAST), were developed to facilitate stroke identification in the emergency department. Only two stroke scales have been applied in the perioperative setting after cardiac, carotid and neurological surgeries. The modified National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale appears to be useful in detecting new subtle neurological deficits in critical care, or high dependency units after surgery. However, in the general postsurgical wards, given the concern about the workload required, abbreviated stroke tests may be more appropriate for routine regular stroke surveillance. It is hoped that these tests will provide rapid assessment of global neurological function to facilitate timely diagnosis and treatment of perioperative stroke.

  2. Digital capillaroscopy as important tool for early diagnostics of arterial hypertension

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurfinkel, Yu. I.; Sasonko, M. L.; Priezzhev, A. V.

    2015-03-01

    The study is aimed to determine the digital capillaroscopy possibilities in early diagnostics of an arterial hypertension. A total of 123 adult persons were examined in the study. The first group consisted of 40 patients with prehypertension (BP 130-139/85-89 mm Hg). The second group included 36 patients with 1-2 stage of hypertension (mean systolic BP 152.7±12 mm Hg). Patients in both groups did not receive regular drug therapy. The group of volunteers (n=47) included healthy adults without signs of cardiovascular pathology. The capillary circulation was examined on the nailbed using the optical digital capillaroscope developed by the company "AET", Russia. Diameters of the arterial and venous segments, perivascular zone size, capillary blood velocity, the degree of arterial loops narrowing and the density of the capillary network were estimated. In patients with arterial hypertension and even in patients with prehypertension remodeling and rarefaction of capillaries and the expressed narrowing their arterial loops were manifested. The results of the study revealed the presence of abnormalities of microcirculation parameters in patients of both groups. The capillaries density in both groups of patients was significantly lower than in healthy persons. The significant narrowing of arterial loops was revealed in patients with both arterial hypertension and prehypertension, in comparison with healthy volunteers. Capillary blood velocity did not differ significantly between healthy volunteers group and the group of prehypertensive patients. However in patients with hypertension this parameter was significantly lower in comparison with control group.

  3. High-Content Movement Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool in C. elegans

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Winter, Peter; Lancichinetti, Andrea; Krevitt, Leah; Amaral, Luis; Morimoto, Rick

    2013-03-01

    Many neurodegenerative diseases manifest themselves through a loss of motor control and give us information about the underlying disease. This loss of coordination is observed in humans and in the model organisms used to study neurodegeneration. In Caenorhabditis elegans, there is an extensive genetic library of strains that lack functional neuronal signaling pathways and expressing proteins associated with neurodegenerative diseases. While most of these strains have decrease motility or cause paralysis, relatively few have been screened to look for more subtle changes in motor control such as stiffness, twitching, or other changes in behavior. we use high-resolution position and posture data to automatically analyze the movement of worms from different genetic backgrounds and characterize 14 movement characteristics. By creating a quantitative mapping between the movement characterization and an online database of gene annotation, gene expression, and anatomy, we aim to predict a likely set of cellular and molecular disruptions. This work provides a proof of concept for the use of detailed movement analysis to uncover novel disruptions in certain motor control processes. Knowledge of the molecular origin of these disruptions provided by our understanding of C. elegans genetics and physiology could lead to new diagnostic and therapeutic targets for neurodegenerative disease.

  4. Comparison of New Diagnostic Tools for Management of Pediatric Mediterranean Visceral Leishmaniasis

    PubMed Central

    Cruz, Israel; Chicharro, Carmen; Nieto, Javier; Bailo, Begoña; Cañavate, Carmen; Figueras, María-Concepción; Alvar, Jorge

    2006-01-01

    New techniques are available for diagnosing leishmaniasis, but their efficacy in the identification of pediatric visceral leishmaniasis (VL) has not been compared with that of traditional methods. Blood, bone marrow, and urine samples were taken from 25 children with VL during their first clinical episode, 22 days after the start of treatment with liposomal amphotericin B (3 mg/kg/day on 6 days over a 10-day period), and when a relapse was suspected during follow-up. The results obtained suggest that antibody detection techniques, the antigen detection in urine (KAtex kit), and Leishmania nested PCR (LnPCR) analysis of the blood could be used for diagnosis of the first clinical episode. After treatment, clinical improvement was associated with negativization of Novy-MacNeal-Nicolle culture and microscopy of bone marrow aspirate, KAtex test, and LnPCR blood analysis results. Interestingly, LnPCR analysis of the bone marrow aspirate showed that sterile cure was not achieved in eight patients, two of which suffered a relapse within 10 to 20 weeks. All of the new noninvasive techniques tested showed high diagnostic sensitivity. However, LnPCR analysis of the bone marrow was the most sensitive; this test was able to detect the persistence of parasites and predict potential relapses. PMID:16825347

  5. Exome sequencing as a diagnostic tool for pediatric-onset ataxia.

    PubMed

    Sawyer, Sarah L; Schwartzentruber, Jeremy; Beaulieu, Chandree L; Dyment, David; Smith, Amanda; Warman Chardon, Jodi; Yoon, Grace; Rouleau, Guy A; Suchowersky, Oksana; Siu, Victoria; Murphy, Lisa; Hegele, Robert A; Marshall, Christian R; Bulman, Dennis E; Majewski, Jacek; Tarnopolsky, Mark; Boycott, Kym M

    2014-01-01

    Ataxia demonstrates substantial phenotypic and genetic heterogeneity. We set out to determine the diagnostic yield of exome sequencing in pediatric patients with ataxia without a molecular diagnosis after standard-of-care assessment in Canada. FORGE (Finding Of Rare disease GEnes) Canada is a nation-wide project focused on identifying novel disease genes for rare pediatric diseases using whole-exome sequencing. We retrospectively selected all FORGE Canada projects that included cerebellar ataxia as a feature. We identified 28 such families and a molecular diagnosis was made in 13; a success rate of 46%. In 11 families, we identified mutations in genes associated with known neurological syndromes and in two we identified novel disease genes. Exome analysis of sib pairs and/or patients born to consanguineous parents was more likely to be successful (9/13) than simplex cases (4/15). Our data suggest that exome sequencing is an effective first line test for pediatric patients with ataxia where a specific single gene is not immediately suspected to be causative.

  6. Circulating microRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic tools for hepatocellular carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yu-Cheng; Xu, Zhuo; Zhang, Tian-Fu; Wang, Ya-Li

    2015-09-14

    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is an aggressive malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. Conventional biomarkers exhibit poor performance in the surveillance, diagnosis, and prognosis of HCC. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are a class of evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNAs that are involved in the regulation of gene expression and protein translation, and they play critical roles in cell growth, differentiation, and the development of various types of cancers, including HCC. Recent evidence revealed the role of miRNAs as potential novel and ideal biomarkers for HCC. miRNAs are released to extracellular spaces, and they are extremely stable in bodily fluids, including serum or plasma, where they are packaged into various microparticles or associated with RNA-binding proteins. Numerous studies have demonstrated that circulating miRNAs have potential applications as minimally invasive biomarkers for HCC diagnosis and prognosis. The present review highlights current understanding of miRNA biogenesis and the origins and types of circulating miRNAs. We summarize recent progress in the use of circulating miRNAs as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers for HCC. We also discuss the challenges and perspectives of the clinical utility of circulating miRNAs in HCC. PMID:26379392

  7. The challenge of Clostridium difficile infection: Overview of clinical manifestations, diagnostic tools and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Postma, Nynke; Kiers, Dorien; Pickkers, Peter

    2015-12-01

    The most important infectious cause of antibiotic-associated diarrhoea and colitis is Clostridium difficile, which is a Gram-positive, anaerobic, spore-forming, toxin-producing bacillus. In this overview we will discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic management of patients presenting with suspected or proven C. difficile infection (CDI). The clinical spectrum varies from asymptomatic C. difficile carriers to fulminant colitis with multi-organ failure. The onset of symptoms is usually within 2 weeks after initiation of antibiotic treatment. Diagnosis is based on the combination of clinical symptoms and either a positive stool test for C. difficile toxins or endoscopic or histological findings of pseudomembranous colitis. There is no indication for treatment of asymptomatic carriers, but patients with proven CDI should be treated. Treatment consists of cessation of the provoking antibiotic treatment, secondary prevention by infection control strategies, and treatment with metronidazole or vancomycin. Treatment of recurring CDI, severe infection, the need for surgery, and novel alternative potential treatment strategies will be discussed. The concurrent increase in multiresistant colonisation and increasing numbers of asymptomatic carriers of C. difficile will lead to an increase of the situation in which patients with severe infections, treated with broad-spectrum antibiotics, will develop concurrent severe CDI. We will discuss possible therapy strategies for these patients.

  8. Infrared vibrational spectroscopy: a rapid and novel diagnostic and monitoring tool for cystinuria

    PubMed Central

    Oliver, Katherine V.; Vilasi, Annalisa; Maréchal, Amandine; Moochhala, Shabbir H.; Unwin, Robert J.; Rich, Peter R.

    2016-01-01

    Cystinuria is the commonest inherited cause of nephrolithiasis (~1% in adults; ~6% in children) and is the result of impaired cystine reabsorption in the renal proximal tubule. Cystine is poorly soluble in urine with a solubility of ~1 mM and can readily form microcrystals that lead to cystine stone formation, especially at low urine pH. Diagnosis of cystinuria is made typically by ion-exchange chromatography (IEC) detection and quantitation, which is slow, laboursome and costly. More rapid and frequent monitoring of urinary cystine concentration would significantly improve the diagnosis and clinical management of cystinuria. We used attenuated total reflection - Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) to detect and quantitate insoluble cystine in 22 cystinuric and 5 healthy control urine samples. Creatinine concentration was also determined by ATR-FTIR to adjust for urinary concentration/dilution. Urine was centrifuged, the insoluble fraction re-suspended in 5 μL water and dried on the ATR prism. Cystine was quantitated using its 1296 cm−1 absorption band and levels matched with parallel measurements made using IEC. ATR-FTIR afforded a rapid and inexpensive method of detecting and quantitating insoluble urinary cystine. This proof-of-concept study provides a basis for developing a high-throughput, cost-effective diagnostic method for cystinuria, and for point-of-care clinical monitoring PMID:27721432

  9. Raman spectroscopy: a diagnostic tool for detection of early malignant changes in the larynx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stone, Nicholas; Stavroulaki, Pelagia; Kendall, Catherine A.; Birchall, Martin; Barr, Hugh

    2000-05-01

    The incidence of laryngeal cancer has risen progressively over the last 25 years. Early diagnosis and treatment of premalignant lesions of the larynx is vital to prevent progression to invasive squamous cell carcinoma. In the larynx, it has long been recognized that histological evidence of maturation abnormality is associated with a higher risk of transformation to malignancy. Currently, it is extremely difficult if not impossible for the clinician to ascertain the level of abnormality present without removing a biopsy sample and sending it for histopathological analysis. Inherent risks with this technique include damage to vocal chords and loss of speech quality as well as possible selection of unrepresentative biopsy samples. Raman spectroscopy, incorporated into an endoscopic system, has the potential to provide a real-time, non-invasive diagnostic technique able to detect biochemical changes that accompany abnormal pathology. Likely outcomes would be improved biopsy targeting and patient management by providing immediate result of tissue pathology. This paper demonstrates the capacity of near IR Raman spectroscopy combine with statistical data analysis techniques to discriminate between normal, dysplastic and cancerous laryngeal tissue.

  10. Inverse Compton Scattering as a Diagnostic Tool for the Measurement of Electron Beam Energies in Diodes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Critchley, A. D. J.

    2003-10-01

    The main emphasis of the diode research project at the Atomic Weapons Establishment (AWE) UK is to produce small diameter radiographic spot sizes at high dose to improve the resolution of the transmission radiographs taken during hydrodynamic experiments. Experimental measurements of conditions within the diodes of Pulsed Power driven flash x-ray machines are vital to provide a benchmark for electromagnetic PIC codes such as LSP which are used to develop new diode designs. The potential use of inverse Compton scattering (ICS) as a diagnostic technique in the determination of electron energies within the diode has been investigated. The interaction of a laser beam with a beam of high-energy electrons will create an ICS spectrum of photons. Theoretically, one should be able to glean information on the energies and positions of the electrons from the energy spectrum and differential cross section of the scattered photons. The feasibility of fielding this technique on various diode designs has been explored, and an experimental setup with the greatest likelihood of success is proposed.

  11. Relapsing Polychondritis: an Update on Pathogenesis, Clinical Features, Diagnostic Tools, and Therapeutic Perspectives.

    PubMed

    Vitale, Antonio; Sota, Jurgen; Rigante, Donato; Lopalco, Giuseppe; Molinaro, Francesco; Messina, Mario; Iannone, Florenzo; Cantarini, Luca

    2016-01-01

    Relapsing polychondritis is a rare multisystemic disease widely accepted as a complex autoimmune disorder affecting proteoglycan-rich structures and cartilaginous tissues, especially the auricular pinna, cartilage of the nose, tracheobronchial tree, eyes, and heart's connective components. The clinical spectrum may vary from intermittent inflammatory episodes leading to unesthetic structural deformities to life-threatening cardiopulmonary manifestations, such as airway collapse and valvular regurgitation. The frequent association with other rheumatologic and hematologic disorders has been extensively reported over time, contributing to define its complexity at a diagnostic and also therapeutic level. Diagnosis of relapsing polychondritis is mainly based on clinical clues, while laboratory data have only a supportive contribution. Conversely, radiology is showing a relevant role in estimating the rate of systemic involvement as well as disease activity. The present review is aimed at providing an update on scientific data reported during the last 3 years about relapsing polychondritis in terms of pathogenesis, clinical features, diagnosis, and new treatment options. PMID:26711694

  12. Gene dosage methods as diagnostic tools for the identification of chromosome abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Gouas, L; Goumy, C; Véronèse, L; Tchirkov, A; Vago, P

    2008-09-01

    Cytogenetics is the part of genetics that deals with chromosomes, particularly with numerical and structural chromosome abnormalities, and their implications in congenital or acquired genetic disorders. Standard karyotyping, successfully used for the last 50 years in investigating the chromosome etiology in patients with infertility, fetal abnormalities and congenital disorders, is constrained by the limits of microscopic resolution and is not suited for the detection of subtle chromosome abnormalities. The ability to detect submicroscopic chromosomal rearrangements that lead to copy-number changes has escalated progressively in recent years with the advent of molecular cytogenetic techniques. Here, we review various gene dosage methods such as FISH, PCR-based approaches (MLPA, QF-PCR, QMPSF and real time PCR), CGH and array-CGH, that can be used for the identification and delineation of copy-number changes for diagnostic purposes. Besides comparing their relative strength and weakness, we will discuss the impact that these detection methods have on our understanding of copy number variations in the human genome and their implications in genetic counseling. PMID:18513889

  13. Sonographic Measurement of Abdominal Esophageal Length as a Diagnostic Tool in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease in Infants

    PubMed Central

    Dehdashti, Hamid; Dehdashtian, Masoud; Rahim, Fakher; Payvasteh, Mehrdad

    2011-01-01

    Background/Aim: This study was conducted to provide sonographic measurements of the abdominal esophagus length in neonates and infants with and without gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD) and to investigate its diagnostic value. GERD severity was also evaluated and correlated with esophageal length. It is a prospective case-control study. Materials and Methods: This prospective case-control study comprised 235 neonates and infants (120 without reflux and 115 with reflux). There were 40 children without reflux in each of three age categories: less than 1 month, 1–6 months, and 6–12 months. Of the children with reflux, 40 were less than 1 month old; 37, 1–6 months; and 38, 6–12 months. The abdominal esophagus was measured from its entrance into the diaphragm to the base of gastric folds in fed infants. GERD was sonographically diagnosed and confirmed by a barium meal. The number of refluxes during a 10-min period were recorded. Results: Neonates and infants with reflux had a significantly shorter abdominal esophagus than subjects without reflux: the mean difference in neonates, 4.65 mm; 1–6 months, 4.57 mm; 6–12 months, 3.61 mm. Conclusions: Children with severe reflux had a shorter esophagus compared with those with mild and moderate reflux only in the neonate group. Therefore, thinking of GERD and carefully looking for its symptoms is necessary to avoid unnecessary utilization of healthcare resources in children with severe reflux. PMID:21196654

  14. System Diagnostic Builder - A rule generation tool for expert systems that do intelligent data evaluation. [applied to Shuttle Mission Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nieten, Joseph; Burke, Roger

    1993-01-01

    Consideration is given to the System Diagnostic Builder (SDB), an automated knowledge acquisition tool using state-of-the-art AI technologies. The SDB employs an inductive machine learning technique to generate rules from data sets that are classified by a subject matter expert. Thus, data are captured from the subject system, classified, and used to drive the rule generation process. These rule bases are used to represent the observable behavior of the subject system, and to represent knowledge about this system. The knowledge bases captured from the Shuttle Mission Simulator can be used as black box simulations by the Intelligent Computer Aided Training devices. The SDB can also be used to construct knowledge bases for the process control industry, such as chemical production or oil and gas production.

  15. Proposed electron halo detector system as one of the beam overlap diagnostic tools for the new RHIC electron lens

    SciTech Connect

    Thieberger, P.; Alessi, J.; Beebe, E.; Chasman, C.; Fischer, W.; Gassner, D.; Gu, X.; Gupta, R.; Hock, J.; Lambiase, R.; Montag, C.; Luo, Y.; Minty, M.; Okamura, M.; Pikin, A.; Tan, Y.; Tuozzolo, J.; Zhang, W.

    2011-03-28

    An electron lens for head-on beam-beam compensation planned for RHIC requires precise overlap of the electron and proton beams which both can have down to 0.3 mm rms transverse radial widths along the 2m long interaction region. Here we describe a new diagnostic tool that is being considered to aid in the tuning and verification of this overlap. Some of ultra relativistic protons (100 or 250 GeV) colliding with low energy electrons (2 to 10 keV) will transfer sufficient transverse momentum to cause the electrons to spiral around the magnetic guiding field in a way that will make them detectable outside of the main solenoid. Time-of-flight of the halo electron signals will provide position-sensitive information along the overlap region. Scattering cross sections are calculated and counting rate estimates are presented as function of electron energy and detector position.

  16. In-situ diagnostic tools for hydrogen transfer leak characterization in PEM fuel cell stacks part II: Operational applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand, Amir M.; Homayouni, Hooman; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid; Kjeang, Erik

    2016-08-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic tool for in-situ characterization of the rate and distribution of hydrogen transfer leaks in Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stacks. The method is based on reducing the air flow rate from a high to low value at a fixed current, while maintaining an anode overpressure. At high air flow rates, the reduction in air flow results in lower oxygen concentration in the cathode and therefore reduction in cell voltages. Once the air flow rate in each cell reaches a low value at which the cell oxygen-starves, the voltage of the corresponding cell drops to zero. However, oxygen starvation results from two processes: 1) the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction which produces current; and 2) the chemical reaction between oxygen and the crossed over hydrogen. In this work, a diagnostic technique has been developed that accounts for the effect of the electrochemical reaction on cell voltage to identify the hydrogen leak rate and number of leaky cells in a fuel cell stack. This technique is suitable for leak characterization during fuel cell operation, as it only requires stack air flow and voltage measurements, which are readily available in an operational fuel cell system.

  17. Novel molecular diagnostic tools for malaria elimination: a review of options from the point of view of high-throughput and applicability in resource limited settings.

    PubMed

    Britton, Sumudu; Cheng, Qin; McCarthy, James S

    2016-01-01

    As malaria transmission continues to decrease, an increasing number of countries will enter pre-elimination and elimination. To interrupt transmission, changes in control strategies are likely to require more accurate identification of all carriers of Plasmodium parasites, both symptomatic and asymptomatic, using diagnostic tools that are highly sensitive, high throughput and with fast turnaround times preferably performed in local health service settings. Currently available immunochromatographic lateral flow rapid diagnostic tests and field microscopy are unlikely to consistently detect infections at parasite densities less than 100 parasites/µL making them insufficiently sensitive for detecting all carriers. Molecular diagnostic platforms, such as PCR and LAMP, are currently available in reference laboratories, but at a cost both financially and in turnaround time. This review describes the recent progress in developing molecular diagnostic tools in terms of their capacity for high throughput and potential for performance in non-reference laboratories for malaria elimination. PMID:26879936

  18. Injected 1+ ion beam as a diagnostics tool of charge breeder ECR ion source plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarvainen, O.; Lamy, T.; Angot, J.; Thuillier, T.; Delahaye, P.; Maunoury, L.; Choinski, J.; Standylo, L.; Galatà, A.; Patti, G.; Koivisto, H.

    2015-06-01

    Charge breeder electron cyclotron resonance ion sources (CB-ECRIS) are used as 1+  →n+  charge multiplication devices of post-accelerated radioactive ion beams. The charge breeding process involves thermalization of the injected 1+  ions with the plasma ions in ion-ion collisions, subsequent ionization by electron impact and extraction of the n+  ions. Charge breeding experiments of 85Rb and 133Cs ion beams with the 14.5 GHz PHOENIX CB-ECRIS operating with oxygen gas demonstrate the plasma diagnostics capabilities of the 1+  injection method. Two populations can be distinguished in the m/q-spectrum of the extracted ion beams, the low (1+  and 2+) charge states representing the uncaptured fraction of the incident 1+  ion beam and the high charge states that have been captured in ion-ion collisions and subsequently charge bred through electron impact ionization. Identification of the uncaptured fraction of the 1+  ions allows estimating the lower limit of ion-ion collision frequency of various charge states in the ECRIS plasma. The collision frequencies of highly charged ions (˜107 Hz) are shown to exceed their gyrofrequencies (˜106 Hz) at least by an order of magnitude, which implies that the dynamics of high charge state ions are dictated by magnetically confined electrons and ambipolar diffusion and only low charge state ions can be considered magnetized. Furthermore, it is concluded that the plasma density of the ECRIS charge breeder is most likely on the order of 1011 cm-3 i.e. well below the critical density for 14.5 GHz microwaves.

  19. Serum biomarkers reflecting specific tumor tissue remodeling processes are valuable diagnostic tools for lung cancer

    PubMed Central

    Willumsen, Nicholas; Bager, Cecilie L; Leeming, Diana J; Smith, Victoria; Christiansen, Claus; Karsdal, Morten A; Dornan, David; Bay-Jensen, Anne-Christine

    2014-01-01

    Extracellular matrix (ECM) proteins, such as collagen type I and elastin, and intermediate filament (IMF) proteins, such as vimentin are modified and dysregulated as part of the malignant changes leading to disruption of tissue homeostasis. Noninvasive biomarkers that reflect such changes may have a great potential for cancer. Levels of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) generated fragments of type I collagen (C1M), of elastin (ELM), and of citrullinated vimentin (VICM) were measured in serum from patients with lung cancer (n = 40), gastrointestinal cancer (n = 25), prostate cancer (n = 14), malignant melanoma (n = 7), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) (n = 13), and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) (n = 10), as well as in age-matched controls (n = 33). The area under the receiver operating characteristics (AUROC) was calculated and a diagnostic decision tree generated from specific cutoff values. C1M and VICM were significantly elevated in lung cancer patients as compared with healthy controls (AUROC = 0.98, P < 0.0001) and other cancers (AUROC = 0.83 P < 0.0001). A trend was detected when comparing lung cancer with COPD+IPF. No difference could be seen for ELM. Interestingly, C1M and VICM were able to identify patients with lung cancer with a positive predictive value of 0.9 and an odds ratio of 40 (95% CI = 8.7–186, P < 0.0001). Biomarkers specifically reflecting degradation of collagen type I and citrullinated vimentin are applicable for lung cancer patients. Our data indicate that biomarkers reflecting ECM and IMF protein dysregulation are highly applicable in the lung cancer setting. We speculate that these markers may aid in diagnosing and characterizing patients with lung cancer. PMID:25044252

  20. New generation of medium wattage metal halide lamps and spectroscopic tools for their diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunaevsky, A.; Tu, J.; Gibson, R.; Steere, T.; Graham, K.; van der Eyden, J.

    2010-11-01

    A new generation of ceramic metal halide high intensity discharge (HID) lamps has achieved high efficiencies by implementing new design concepts. The shape of the ceramic burner is optimized to withstand high temperatures with minimal thermal stress. Corrosion processes with the ceramic walls are slowed down via adoption of non-aggressive metal halide chemistry. Light losses over life due to tungsten deposition on the walls are minimized by maintaining a self-cleaning chemical process, known as tungsten cycle. All these advancements have made the new ceramic metal halide lamps comparable to high pressure sodium lamps for luminous efficacy, life, and maintenance while providing white light with high color rendering. Direct replacement of quartz metal halide lamps and systems results in the energy saving from 18 up to 50%. High resolution spectroscopy remains the major non-destructive tool for the ceramic metal halide lamps. Approaches to reliable measurements of relative partial pressures of the arc species are discussed.

  1. Detection of collagen by second harmonic microscopy as a diagnostic tool for liver fibrosis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Banavar, Maruth; Kable, Eleanor P. W.; Braet, Filip; Wang, X. M.; Gorrell, M. D.; Cox, Guy

    2006-02-01

    Liver fibrosis has many causes, including hepatitis C, alcohol abuse, and non-alcoholic steatohepatitis. It is characterized by abnormal deposition of extracellular matrix proteins, mainly collagen. The deposition of these proteins results in impaired liver function caused by distortion of the hepatic architecture by fibrous scar tissue. The unique triple helix structure of collagen and high level of crystallinity make it very efficient for generating second harmonic signals. In this study we have set out to see if second harmonic imaging of collagen can be used as a non-biased quantitative tool for classification of fibrosis levels in liver biopsies and if it can detect early fibrosis formation not detected by current methods.

  2. Pathogenesis of cerebral malaria: new diagnostic tools, biomarkers, and therapeutic approaches

    PubMed Central

    Sahu, Praveen K.; Satpathi, Sanghamitra; Behera, Prativa K.; Mishra, Saroj K.; Mohanty, Sanjib; Wassmer, Samuel Crocodile

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral malaria is a severe neuropathological complication of Plasmodium falciparum infection. It results in high mortality and post-recovery neuro-cognitive disorders in children, even after appropriate treatment with effective anti-parasitic drugs. While the complete landscape of the pathogenesis of cerebral malaria still remains to be elucidated, numerous innovative approaches have been developed in recent years in order to improve the early detection of this neurological syndrome and, subsequently, the clinical care of affected patients. In this review, we briefly summarize the current understanding of cerebral malaria pathogenesis, compile the array of new biomarkers and tools available for diagnosis and research, and describe the emerging therapeutic approaches to tackle this pathology effectively. PMID:26579500

  3. Potential application of miRNAs as diagnostic and therapeutic tools in chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Liang-Hao; Ji, Jun-Tao; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2015-01-01

    Chronic pancreatitis (CP) is a progressive inflammatory disease typified by end-stage fibrosis. This disease can also increase the risk of pancreatic cancer. The associated diagnosis, pain and other complications further add to the burden of disease management. In recent years, significant progress has been achieved in identifying miRNAs and their physiological functions, including mRNA repression and protein expression control. Given the extensive effort made on miRNA research, a close correlation has been discovered between certain types of miRNAs and disease progression, particularly for tissue fibrosis. Designing miRNA-related tools for disease diagnosis and therapeutic treatments presents a novel and potential research frontier. In the current review, we discuss various miRNAs closely interacting with CP, as well as the possible development of targeted miRNA therapies in managing this disease. PMID:26149296

  4. Perspectives on the use of new diagnostic tools in the treatment of chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Binet, Jacques-Louis; Caligaris-Cappio, Federico; Catovsky, Daniel; Cheson, Bruce; Davis, Tom; Dighiero, Guillaume; Döhner, Hartmut; Hallek, Michael; Hillmen, Peter; Keating, Michael; Montserrat, Emili; Kipps, Thomas J; Rai, Kanti

    2006-02-01

    Recently, considerable progress has been made in the identification of molecular and cellular markers that may predict the tendency for disease progression in patients with chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL) or detect minimal residual disease after therapy. These developments have created uncertainty for clinicians who hope to incorporate the use of these markers and new disease-assessment tools into standard clinical practice. However, clinical trials are required to determine whether poor-prognosis leukemia-cell markers, such as expression of unmutated immunoglobulin genes or the zeta-associated protein of 70 kDa (ZAP-70), can be used as the basis for determining the time or type of therapy. Pending the outcome of such trials, treatment decisions outside the context of a clinical trial still should be based on guidelines established by the most recent National Cancer Institute-sponsored Working Group.

  5. Molecular diagnostics as a predictive tool: genetics of drug efficacy and toxicity.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Julie A; Evans, William E

    2002-06-01

    There is a rapidly growing body of evidence linking genetic polymorphisms with functional changes in proteins that are responsible for the metabolism and disposition of many medications. Likewise, polymorphisms in genes encoding the targets of medications (e.g. receptors) can alter the pharmacodynamics of the drug response by changing receptor sensitivity. As a result, the inherited basis of drug effects is often polygenic in nature, and thus more challenging to define. However, technological advances, coupled with new insights into the molecular pharmacology of medications and the functional consequences of polymorphisms in the human genome, are providing the tools needed to elucidate genetic determinants of drug response, and translate functional genomics into personalized medicine.

  6. The backscatter electron signal as an additional tool for phase segmentation in electron backscatter diffraction.

    PubMed

    Payton, E J; Nolze, G

    2013-08-01

    The advent of simultaneous energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) data collection has vastly improved the phase separation capabilities for electron backscatter diffraction (EBSD) mapping. A major problem remains, however, in distinguishing between multiple cubic phases in a specimen, especially when the compositions of the phases are similar or their particle sizes are small, because the EDS interaction volume is much larger than that of EBSD and the EDS spectra collected during spatial mapping are generally noisy due to time limitations and the need to minimize sample drift. The backscatter electron (BSE) signal is very sensitive to the local composition due to its atomic number (Z) dependence. BSE imaging is investigated as a complimentary tool to EDS to assist phase segmentation and identification in EBSD through examination of specimens of meteorite, Cu dross, and steel oxidation layers. The results demonstrate that the simultaneous acquisition of EBSD patterns, EDS spectra, and the BSE signal can provide new potential for advancing multiphase material characterization in the scanning electron microscope. PMID:23575349

  7. Physical Exercise as a Diagnostic, Rehabilitation, and Preventive Tool: Influence on Neuroplasticity and Motor Recovery after Stroke

    PubMed Central

    Pin-Barre, Caroline; Laurin, Jérôme

    2015-01-01

    Stroke remains a leading cause of adult motor disabilities in the world and accounts for the greatest number of hospitalizations for neurological disease. Stroke treatments/therapies need to promote neuroplasticity to improve motor function. Physical exercise is considered as a major candidate for ultimately promoting neural plasticity and could be used for different purposes in human and animal experiments. First, acute exercise could be used as a diagnostic tool to understand new neural mechanisms underlying stroke physiopathology. Indeed, better knowledge of stroke mechanisms that affect movements is crucial for enhancing treatment/rehabilitation effectiveness. Secondly, it is well established that physical exercise training is advised as an effective rehabilitation tool. Indeed, it reduces inflammatory processes and apoptotic marker expression, promotes brain angiogenesis and expression of some growth factors, and improves the activation of affected muscles during exercise. Nevertheless, exercise training might also aggravate sensorimotor deficits and brain injury depending on the chosen exercise parameters. For the last few years, physical training has been combined with pharmacological treatments to accentuate and/or accelerate beneficial neural and motor effects. Finally, physical exercise might also be considered as a major nonpharmacological preventive strategy that provides neuroprotective effects reducing adverse effects of brain ischemia. Therefore, prestroke regular physical activity may also decrease the motor outcome severity of stroke. PMID:26682073

  8. Third Harmonic Generation microscopy as a diagnostic tool for the investigation of microglia BV-2 and breast cancer cells activation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavgiotaki, E.; Filippidis, G.; Psilodimitrakopoulos, S.; Markomanolaki, H.; Kalognomou, M.; Agelaki, S.; Georgoulias, V.; Athanassakis, I.

    2015-07-01

    Nonlinear optical imaging techniques have created new opportunities of research in the biomedical field. Specifically, Third Harmonic Generation (THG) seems to be a suitable noninvasive imaging tool for the delineation and quantification of biological structures at the microscopic level. The aim of this study was to extract information as to the activation state of different cell types by using the THG imaging microscopy as a diagnostic tool. BV-2 microglia cell line was used as a representative biological model enabling the study of resting and activated state of the cells linked to various pathological conditions. Third Harmonic Generation (THG) and Two Photon Excitation Fluorescence (TPEF) measurements were simultaneously collected from stained breast cancer cells, by employing a single homemade experimental apparatus and it was shown that high THG signals mostly arise from lipid bodies. Continuously, BV-2 microglia cells were examined with or without activation by lipopolysaccharide (LPS) in order to discriminate between control and activated cells based on the quantification of THG signals. Statistically quantification was accomplished in both mean area and mean intensity values of THG. The values for mean total area and mean THG intensity values have been increased in activated versus the non-activated cells. Similar studies of quantification are underway in breast cancer cells for the exact discrimination on different cell lines. Furthermore, laser polarization dependence of SHG and THG signal in unstained biological samples is investigated.

  9. A Radially Organized Multipatterned Device as a Diagnostic Tool for the Screening of Topographies in Tissue Engineering Biomaterials.

    PubMed

    Babo, Pedro S; Klymov, Alexey; teRiet, Joost; Reis, Rui L; Jansen, John A; Gomes, Manuela E; Walboomers, X Frank

    2016-09-01

    Micro- and nanotextured biomaterial surfaces have been widely studied for their capacity to drive the regeneration of organized tissues. Nanotopographical features in the shape of groove-ridge patterns aim at mimicking the extracellular matrix organization. However, to date, a wide array of groove and ridge sizes has been described. In this work, we therefore tested a device composed of a multipatterned array consisting of six patterns of radially arranged parallel nanogrooves, with a pitch ranging from 0 to 1000 nm and a depth ranging from 0 to 170 nm, to be used as a tool for the expeditious and simultaneous screening of surface topographies aiming the regeneration of anisotropically organized tissues such as ligament. The topographies were reproduced in (1) epoxy resin or (2) membranes produced by the crosslinking of platelet lysate (PL) with genipin (gPL). Both materials were seeded with periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs) and the proliferation, migration, as well as cell alignment were assessed. The effect of topography in PDLCs was only evident in terms of cell organization, resulting in a highly anisotropic organization of the cells for the 1000 and 600 nm patterns, and in an increased isotropic organization for shallower topographies. Overall, our results suggest that this multipatterned system can be a valuable diagnostic tool for biomaterials aiming at the regeneration of anisotropically organized tissues, such as periodontal ligament. PMID:27558215

  10. Application of Infrared Thermography as a Diagnostic Tool of Knee Osteoarthritis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arfaoui, Ahlem; Bouzid, Mohamed Amine; Pron, Hervé; Taiar, Redha; Polidori, Guillaume

    This paper aimed to study the feasibility of application of infrared thermography to detect osteoarthritis of the knee and to compare the distribution of skin temperature between participants with osteoarthritis and those without pathology. All tests were conducted at LACM (Laboratory of Mechanical Stresses Analysis) and the gymnasium of the University of Reims Champagne Ardennes. IR thermography was performed using an IR camera. Ten participants with knee osteoarthritis and 12 reference healthy participants without OA participated in this study. Questionnaires were also used. The participants with osteoarthritis of the knee were selected on clinical examination and a series of radiographs. The level of pain was recorded by using a simple verbal scale (0-4). Infrared thermography reveals relevant disease by highlighting asymmetrical behavior in thermal color maps of both knees. Moreover, a linear evolution of skin temperature in the knee area versus time has been found whatever the participant group is in the first stage following a given effort. Results clearly show that the temperature can be regarded as a key parameter for evaluating pain. Thermal images of the knee were taken with an infrared camera. The study shows that with the advantage of being noninvasive and easily repeatable, IRT appears to be a useful tool to detect quantifiable patterns of surface temperatures and predict the singular thermal behavior of this pathology. It also seems that this non-intrusive technique enables to detect the early clinical manifestations of knee OA.

  11. Direct blood dry LAMP: a rapid, stable, and easy diagnostic tool for Human African Trypanosomiasis.

    PubMed

    Hayashida, Kyoko; Kajino, Kiichi; Hachaambwa, Lottie; Namangala, Boniface; Sugimoto, Chihiro

    2015-03-01

    Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a rapid and sensitive tool used for the diagnosis of a variety of infectious diseases. One of the advantages of this method over the polymerase chain reaction is that DNA amplification occurs at a constant temperature, usually between 60-65°C; therefore, expensive devices are unnecessary for this step. However, LAMP still requires complicated sample preparation steps and a well-equipped laboratory to produce reliable and reproducible results, which limits its use in resource-poor laboratories in most developing countries. In this study, we made several substantial modifications to the technique to carry out on-site diagnosis of Human African Trypanosomiasis (HAT) in remote areas using LAMP. The first essential improvement was that LAMP reagents were dried and stabilized in a single tube by incorporating trehalose as a cryoprotectant to prolong shelf life at ambient temperature. The second technical improvement was achieved by simplifying the sample preparation step so that DNA or RNA could be amplified directly from detergent-lysed blood samples. With these modifications, diagnosis of HAT in local clinics or villages in endemic areas becomes a reality, which could greatly impact on the application of diagnosis not only for HAT but also for other tropical diseases.

  12. Photothermal microscopy: an effective diagnostic tool for laser irradiation effects on fused silica and KDP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Zhouling; Chen, Jian; Dong, Jingtao

    2015-05-01

    In this paper, an automated microscopic instrument based on this technique is developed and used for the measurement and analysis of weak absorption properties of optical materials. This system shows a measuring sensitivity of absorbance down to 10 ppb, and provides user-friendly operation of the whole absorption measurement process. Compared with a typical bench-top system, the automated system requires little special skills from the operators and is therefore more reliable and reproducible. By using this system, a study of laser irradiation effects on optical materials induced by high power laser pulses is performed. The in-situ monitoring of a laser induced damage process at 355 nm in fused silica is realized, which indicates that the photothermal system is a useful tool for analysis of laser-material-interaction dynamics. Other specific applications of this system include measuring weak absorption, detecting local absorption defects. Experimental results show that both surface/sub-surface absorption defects on fused silica and bulk absorption defects on KDP are clearly determined.

  13. BeeDoctor, a Versatile MLPA-Based Diagnostic Tool for Screening Bee Viruses

    PubMed Central

    De Smet, Lina; Ravoet, Jorgen; de Miranda, Joachim R.; Wenseleers, Tom; Mueller, Matthias Y.; Moritz, Robin F. A.; de Graaf, Dirk C.

    2012-01-01

    The long-term decline of managed honeybee hives in the world has drawn significant attention to the scientific community and bee-keeping industry. A high pathogen load is believed to play a crucial role in this phenomenon, with the bee viruses being key players. Most of the currently characterized honeybee viruses (around twenty) are positive stranded RNA viruses. Techniques based on RNA signatures are widely used to determine the viral load in honeybee colonies. High throughput screening for viral loads necessitates the development of a multiplex polymerase chain reaction approach in which different viruses can be targeted simultaneously. A new multiparameter assay, called “BeeDoctor”, was developed based on multiplex-ligation probe dependent amplification (MLPA) technology. This assay detects 10 honeybee viruses in one reaction. “BeeDoctor” is also able to screen selectively for either the positive strand of the targeted RNA bee viruses or the negative strand, which is indicative for active viral replication. Due to its sensitivity and specificity, the MLPA assay is a useful tool for rapid diagnosis, pathogen characterization, and epidemiology of viruses in honeybee populations. “BeeDoctor” was used for screening 363 samples from apiaries located throughout Flanders; the northern half of Belgium. Using the “BeeDoctor”, virus infections were detected in almost eighty percent of the colonies, with deformed wing virus by far the most frequently detected virus and multiple virus infections were found in 26 percent of the colonies. PMID:23144717

  14. Use of the Stroop phenomenon as a diagnostic tool for malingering.

    PubMed Central

    Osimani, A; Alon, A; Berger, A; Abarbanel, J M

    1997-01-01

    AIMS: To assess a computerised version of the Stroop test for detection of malingering of cognitive deficit. METHODS: Sixty subjects were assessed using this test. Twenty had cognitive deficits due to brain damage of miscellaneous aetiologies. Ten were healthy, not acquainted with the test, and were asked to simulate cognitive impairment. Another 10 simulators were psychology students trained in the use of the test. Twenty healthy subjects served as controls. Results were analysed for reaction time, error percentage, and the Stroop effect. RESULTS: There was a significant difference in reaction time among groups, showing a direct relation of age among control subjects, and also longer reaction time in patients with brain damage than in controls. Controls and patients with brain damage showed a clear Stroop effect. Simulators had a significantly prolonged reaction time, increased error percentage, and inverted or absent Stroop effect. This alteration of the Stroop effect is never present in organic cognitive deficits and seems to be a characteristic pattern of feigning, independently of knowledge of the test. CONCLUSION: This technique is recommended as a valuable tool to detect feigned cognitive impairment. Images PMID:9219749

  15. Bioimpedance Harmonic Analysis as a Diagnostic Tool to Assess Regional Circulation and Neural Activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mudraya, I. S.; Revenko, S. V.; Khodyreva, L. A.; Markosyan, T. G.; Dudareva, A. A.; Ibragimov, A. R.; Romich, V. V.; Kirpatovsky, V. I.

    2013-04-01

    The novel technique based on harmonic analysis of bioimpedance microvariations with original hard- and software complex incorporating a high-resolution impedance converter was used to assess the neural activity and circulation in human urinary bladder and penis in patients with pelvic pain, erectile dysfunction, and overactive bladder. The therapeutic effects of shock wave therapy and Botulinum toxin detrusor injections were evaluated quantitatively according to the spectral peaks at low 0.1 Hz frequency (M for Mayer wave), respiratory (R) and cardiac (C) rhythms with their harmonics. Enhanced baseline regional neural activity identified according to M and R peaks was found to be presumably sympathetic in pelvic pain patients, and parasympathetic - in patients with overactive bladder. Total pulsatile activity and pulsatile resonances found in the bladder as well as in the penile spectrum characterised regional circulation and vascular tone. The abnormal spectral parameters characteristic of the patients with genitourinary diseases shifted to the norm in the cases of efficient therapy. Bioimpedance harmonic analysis seems to be a potent tool to assess regional peculiarities of circulatory and autonomic nervous activity in the course of patient treatment.

  16. Mitochondrial DNA methylation as a next-generation biomarker and diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Iacobazzi, Vito; Castegna, Alessandra; Infantino, Vittoria; Andria, Generoso

    2013-01-01

    Recent expansion of our knowledge on epigenetic changes strongly suggests that not only nuclear DNA (nDNA), but also mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) may be subjected to epigenetic modifications related to disease development, environmental exposure, drug treatment and aging. Thus, mtDNA methylation is attracting increasing attention as a potential biomarker for the detection and diagnosis of diseases and the understanding of cellular behavior in particular conditions. In this paper we review the current advances in mtDNA methylation studies with particular attention to the evidences of mtDNA methylation changes in diseases and physiological conditions so far investigated. Technological advances for the analysis of epigenetic variations are promising tools to provide insights into methylation of mtDNA with similar resolution levels as those reached for nDNA. However, many aspects related to mtDNA methylation are still unclear. More studies are needed to understand whether and how changes in mtDNA methylation patterns, global and gene specific, are associated to diseases or risk factors.

  17. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  18. Tools for Evaluating Fault Detection and Diagnostic Methods for HVAC Secondary Systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pourarian, Shokouh

    Although modern buildings are using increasingly sophisticated energy management and control systems that have tremendous control and monitoring capabilities, building systems routinely fail to perform as designed. More advanced building control, operation, and automated fault detection and diagnosis (AFDD) technologies are needed to achieve the goal of net-zero energy commercial buildings. Much effort has been devoted to develop such technologies for primary heating ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) systems, and some secondary systems. However, secondary systems, such as fan coil units and dual duct systems, although widely used in commercial, industrial, and multifamily residential buildings, have received very little attention. This research study aims at developing tools that could provide simulation capabilities to develop and evaluate advanced control, operation, and AFDD technologies for these less studied secondary systems. In this study, HVACSIM+ is selected as the simulation environment. Besides developing dynamic models for the above-mentioned secondary systems, two other issues related to the HVACSIM+ environment are also investigated. One issue is the nonlinear equation solver used in HVACSIM+ (Powell's Hybrid method in subroutine SNSQ). It has been found from several previous research projects (ASRHAE RP 825 and 1312) that SNSQ is especially unstable at the beginning of a simulation and sometimes unable to converge to a solution. Another issue is related to the zone model in the HVACSIM+ library of components. Dynamic simulation of secondary HVAC systems unavoidably requires an interacting zone model which is systematically and dynamically interacting with building surrounding. Therefore, the accuracy and reliability of the building zone model affects operational data generated by the developed dynamic tool to predict HVAC secondary systems function. The available model does not simulate the impact of direct solar radiation that enters a zone

  19. Fluorescence: a diagnostic tool for the detection of stress in plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Corp, Lawrence A.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    1997-01-01

    Green vegetation when excited by specific wavelengths of light dissipates a portion of the absorbed energy as light emissions in the form of fluorescence in several broad areas of the spectrum. Currently, leaf level fluoresence emissions have been broken down into five primary regions, namely; ultraviolet (UV), blue, green, red, and near-infrared (NIR). The optimal excitation wavelengths for each of these bands was verified for healthy soybean leaves through the use of the EEM. Intact vegetation when excited at 280 nm emits substantial fluorescence in two bands; the first centered near 335 nm, and the second centered near 440 nm. UV band fluorescence from vegetation treated with varying levels of nitrogen decreases relative to the blur fluorescence as a function of total protein concentration. These studies indicate that in vivo UV band fluorescence can be utilized as a non-destructive tool to remotely sense variations in protein concentration due to nitrogen fertilization level. It has been well established that this fluorescence emission originates from proteins contain aromatic amino acids. The majority of plant proteins contain these amino acids and as a result have the potential to fluorescence in the region of the spectrum discussed here. Pure ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in aqueous solution exhibited intense UV fluorescence characteristics with excitation and emission distributions similar to those of intact vegetation. Due to its high concentration we believe this protein contributes to the UV band fluorescence emanating from the intact leaf. The red and NIR fluorescence emissions can be excited within the broad wavelength region from 250 to 675 nm with excitation maxima at 430 nm, 470 nm, 600 nm, and 660 nm. The ratio of red to NIR fluorescence excitation spectra produces a ratio spectrum which exhibits striking similarities to the action spectrum of photosynthesis. The relative differences between these two emission bands depend on the wavelength

  20. Immunoassay for ethyl glucuronide in vitreous humor: a new tool for postmortem diagnostics of alcohol use.

    PubMed

    Rainio, Juha; Kultti, Johanna; Kangastupa, Päivikki; Tuomi, Heidi; Ahola, Sanna; Karhunen, Pekka J; Helander, Anders; Niemelä, Onni

    2013-03-10

    Although excessive alcohol consumption plays a major role in fatal events, the role of alcohol use as a possible contributing factor at the time of death is not easy to establish due to lack of suitable biomarkers for postmortem analyses. We used an immunological approach to measure ethyl glucuronide (EtG) concentrations from vitreous humor (VH) and serum from 58 individuals representing a forensic autopsy population of cases with either a well-documented history of excessive alcohol use (n=37) or cases without such history (n=21), according to medical and police records and blood alcohol determinations (BAC). The immunoassay was based on the Microgenics DRI-EtG EIA reagents applied on an automated Abbott Architect c8000 clinical chemistry analyzer. Liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) determination of EtG and ethyl sulfate (EtS) was used as a reference method. At a cut-off of 0.3mg/l for VH-EtG, the immunoassay correctly identified 92% of the cases with a history of excessive alcohol use, whereas the BAC was positive (cut-off 10mg/dl) in 68% of the cases. A significant correlation emerged between VH-EtG and serum EtG (r=0.77, p<0.001) and between VH-EtG and BAC (r=0.62, p<0.001), although VH-EtG was frequently elevated also in cases with no detectable BAC. The EtG immunoassay showed a strong correlation with the LC-MS/MS reference method (r=0.94, p<0.001) and there was 100% agreement in the frequency of marker positive and negative findings between the immunoassay EtG results and the LC-MS/MS analysis of EtG and EtS. The present data indicate that the immunoassay for VH-EtG is a useful forensic tool for screening of antemortem alcohol use. PMID:23415594

  1. MicroRNAs in Leukemias: Emerging Diagnostic Tools and Therapeutic Targets

    PubMed Central

    Mian, Yousaf A.; Zeleznik-Le, Nancy J.

    2010-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNA) are small non-coding RNAs of ~22 nucleotides that regulate the translation and stability of mRNA to control different functions of the cell. Misexpression of miRNA has been linked to disruption of normal cellular functions, which results in various disorders including cancers such as leukemias. MicroRNA involvement in disease has been the subject of much attention and is increasing our current understanding of disease biology. Such linkages have been determined by high-throughput studies, which provide a framework for characterizing differential miRNA expression levels correlating to different cytogenetic abnormalities and their corresponding malignancies. In addition, functional studies of particular miRNAs have begun to define the effects of miRNA on predicted mRNA targets. It is clear that miRNAs can serve as molecular markers of leukemias and the hope is that they can also serve as new therapeutic targets. Studies are beginning to elucidate how to deliver therapeutic antagonists to attenuate overexpressed miRNAs and to replace underexpressed miRNAs. In this review, we: i) discuss the current understanding of miRNA function and expression in normal hematopoiesis, ii) provide examples of miRNAs that are misregulated in leukemias, and iii) evaluate the current status and potential future directions for the burgeoning field of antisense oligonucleotides and other therapeutic attempts to intervene in miRNA disregulation in leukemias. PMID:20370647

  2. Trace elements nutritional status. Use of hair as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Contiero, E; Folin, M

    1994-02-01

    In this study, hair levels of Cu and Zn were determined in healthy male and female individuals (n = 192) ages 3.6-14.5 yr and the correlations with Cu and Zn daily intakes were examined. Determinations of Cu and Zn concentrations were performed by way of atomic absorption spectrometry and X-ray fluorescence. Nutritional data were collected with the aid of an individual questionnaire. Statistical analysis revealed no effect of age and sex either on Cu concentrations in hair or on Cu daily intakes. Zn concentrations were significantly higher in hair of both pubescent males and females compared with prepubescent individuals. There was no influence of age on Zn daily intake in males, however, whereas pubescent girls had a lower intake than males. Correlation coefficients between Cu concentrations in hair and daily nutritional intakes calculated for males and females were r = 0.1694 and r = 0.1677, respectively; those for Zn were r = -0.2223 (p < 0.05) in males and r = -0.2787 (p < 0.01) in females. These data confirm that the analysis of Zn in hair represents an addition to conventional materials in the assessment of the nutritional status of groups of individuals.

  3. Development and validation of a comprehensive genomic diagnostic tool for myeloid malignancies

    PubMed Central

    McKerrell, Thomas; Moreno, Thaidy; Ponstingl, Hannes; Bolli, Niccolo; Dias, João M. L.; Tischler, German; Colonna, Vincenza; Manasse, Bridget; Bench, Anthony; Bloxham, David; Herman, Bram; Fletcher, Danielle; Park, Naomi; Quail, Michael A.; Manes, Nicla; Hodkinson, Clare; Baxter, Joanna; Sierra, Jorge; Foukaneli, Theodora; Warren, Alan J.; Chi, Jianxiang; Costeas, Paul; Rad, Roland; Huntly, Brian; Grove, Carolyn; Ning, Zemin; Tyler-Smith, Chris; Varela, Ignacio; Scott, Mike; Nomdedeu, Josep; Mustonen, Ville

    2016-01-01

    The diagnosis of hematologic malignancies relies on multidisciplinary workflows involving morphology, flow cytometry, cytogenetic, and molecular genetic analyses. Advances in cancer genomics have identified numerous recurrent mutations with clear prognostic and/or therapeutic significance to different cancers. In myeloid malignancies, there is a clinical imperative to test for such mutations in mainstream diagnosis; however, progress toward this has been slow and piecemeal. Here we describe Karyogene, an integrated targeted resequencing/analytical platform that detects nucleotide substitutions, insertions/deletions, chromosomal translocations, copy number abnormalities, and zygosity changes in a single assay. We validate the approach against 62 acute myeloid leukemia, 50 myelodysplastic syndrome, and 40 blood DNA samples from individuals without evidence of clonal blood disorders. We demonstrate robust detection of sequence changes in 49 genes, including difficult-to-detect mutations such as FLT3 internal-tandem and mixed-lineage leukemia (MLL) partial-tandem duplications, and clinically significant chromosomal rearrangements including MLL translocations to known and unknown partners, identifying the novel fusion gene MLL-DIAPH2 in the process. Additionally, we identify most significant chromosomal gains and losses, and several copy neutral loss-of-heterozygosity mutations at a genome-wide level, including previously unreported changes such as homozygosity for DNMT3A R882 mutations. Karyogene represents a dependable genomic diagnosis platform for translational research and for the clinical management of myeloid malignancies, which can be readily adapted for use in other cancers. PMID:27121471

  4. [A need to implement new tools for diagnosing tobacco-addition syndrome and readiness/motivation to quit smoking in the working-age population in Poland].

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    High rates of tobacco use is still observed in working-age population in Poland. The present level of the state tobacco control has been achieved through adopting legal regulations and population-based interventions. In Poland a sufficient contribution of health professionals to the diagnosis of the tobacco-addition syndrome (TAS) and the application of the 5A's (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange follow-up) brief intervention, has not been confirmed by explicit research results. Systemic solutions of the health care system of the professional control, specialist health care, health professional trainings and reference centres have not as yet been elaborated. The tools for diagnosing tobacco dependence and motivation to quit smoking, developed over 30 years ago and recommended by experts to be used in clinical and research practice, have not met the current addiction criteria. In this paper other tools than those previously recommended - tests developed in the first decade of the 21st century (including Cigarette Dependence Scale and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale), reflecting modern concepts of nicotine dependence are presented. In the literature on the readiness/motivation to change health behaviors, a new approach dominates. The motivational interviewing (MI) by Miller and Rollnick concentrates on a smoking person and his or her internal motivation. Motivational interviewing is recommended by the World Health Organization as a 5R's (relevance, risks, rewards, roadblocks, repetition) brief motivational advice, addressed to tobacco users who are unwilling to make a quit attempt. In Poland new research studies on the implementation of new diagnostic tools and updating of binding guidelines should be undertaken, to strengthen primary health care in treating tobacco dependence, and to incorporate MI and 5R's into trainings in TAS diagnosing and treating addressed to health professionals. PMID:27044722

  5. [A need to implement new tools for diagnosing tobacco-addition syndrome and readiness/motivation to quit smoking in the working-age population in Poland].

    PubMed

    Broszkiewicz, Marzenna; Drygas, Wojciech

    2016-01-01

    High rates of tobacco use is still observed in working-age population in Poland. The present level of the state tobacco control has been achieved through adopting legal regulations and population-based interventions. In Poland a sufficient contribution of health professionals to the diagnosis of the tobacco-addition syndrome (TAS) and the application of the 5A's (ask, advice, assess, assist, arrange follow-up) brief intervention, has not been confirmed by explicit research results. Systemic solutions of the health care system of the professional control, specialist health care, health professional trainings and reference centres have not as yet been elaborated. The tools for diagnosing tobacco dependence and motivation to quit smoking, developed over 30 years ago and recommended by experts to be used in clinical and research practice, have not met the current addiction criteria. In this paper other tools than those previously recommended - tests developed in the first decade of the 21st century (including Cigarette Dependence Scale and Nicotine Dependence Syndrome Scale), reflecting modern concepts of nicotine dependence are presented. In the literature on the readiness/motivation to change health behaviors, a new approach dominates. The motivational interviewing (MI) by Miller and Rollnick concentrates on a smoking person and his or her internal motivation. Motivational interviewing is recommended by the World Health Organization as a 5R's (relevance, risks, rewards, roadblocks, repetition) brief motivational advice, addressed to tobacco users who are unwilling to make a quit attempt. In Poland new research studies on the implementation of new diagnostic tools and updating of binding guidelines should be undertaken, to strengthen primary health care in treating tobacco dependence, and to incorporate MI and 5R's into trainings in TAS diagnosing and treating addressed to health professionals.

  6. Co-Development of Diagnostic Vectors to Support Targeted Therapies and Theranostics: Essential Tools in Personalized Cancer Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Nicolaides, Nicholas C.; O’Shannessy, Daniel J.; Albone, Earl; Grasso, Luigi

    2014-01-01

    Novel technologies are being developed to improve patient therapy through the identification of targets and surrogate molecular signatures that can help direct appropriate treatment regimens for efficacy and drug safety. This is particularly the case in oncology whereby patient tumor and biofluids are routinely isolated and analyzed for genetic, immunohistochemical, and/or soluble markers to determine if a predictive biomarker signature (i.e., mutated gene product, differentially expressed protein, altered cell surface antigen, etc.) exists as a means for selecting optimal treatment. These biomarkers may be drug-specific targets and/or differentially expressed nucleic acids, proteins, or cell lineage profiles that can directly affect the patient’s disease tissue or immune response to a therapeutic regimen. Improvements in diagnostics that can prescreen predictive response biomarker profiles will continue to optimize the ability to enhance patient therapy via molecularly defined disease-specific treatment. Conversely, patients lacking predictive response biomarkers will no longer needlessly be exposed to drugs that are unlikely to provide clinical benefit, thereby enabling patients to pursue other therapeutic options and lowering overall healthcare costs by avoiding futile treatment. While patient molecular profiling offers a powerful tool to direct treatment options, the difficulty in identifying disease-specific targets or predictive biomarker signatures that stratify a significant fraction within a disease indication remains challenging. A goal for drug developers is to identify and implement new strategies that can rapidly enable the development of beneficial disease-specific therapies for broad patient-specific targeting without the need of tedious predictive biomarker discovery and validation efforts, currently a bottleneck for development timelines. Successful strategies may gain an advantage by employing repurposed, less-expensive existing agents while

  7. Rapid, sensitive and effective diagnostic tools for foot-and-mouth disease virus in Africa.

    PubMed

    Kasanga, Christopher J; Yamazaki, Wataru; Mioulet, Valerie; King, Donald P; Mulumba, Misheck; Ranga, Ezekia; Deve, Jimis; Mundia, Cornelius; Chikungwa, Patrick; Joao, Laureta; Wambura, Philemon N; Rweyemamu, Mark M

    2014-01-01

    Speed is paramount in the diagnosis of highly infectious diseases, such as foot-and-mouth disease (FMD), as well as for emerging diseases; however, simplicity is required if a test is to be deployed in the field. Recent developments in molecular biology have enabled the specific detection of FMD virus (FMDV) by reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), real-time reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and sequencing. RT-LAMP enables amplification of the FMDV RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 3D(pol) gene at 63 °C (in the presence of a primer mixture and both reverse transcriptase and Bst DNA polymerase) for 1 h, whilst RT-qPCR amplifies the same gene in approximately 2 h 30 min. In this study, we compared the sensitivity and effectiveness of RT-LAMP against RT-qPCR for the detection of the FMDV 3D(pol) gene in 179 oesophageal-pharyngeal scraping samples (collected by probang) obtained from clinically healthy cattle and buffalo in Malawi, Mozambique and Tanzania in 2010. The FMDV detection rate was higher with RT-LAMP (30.2%; n = 54) than with RT-qPCR (17.3%; n = 31). All samples positive by RT-qPCR (Cq ≤ 32.0) were also positive for the RT-LAMP assay; and both assays proved to be highly specific for the FMDV target sequence. In addition, the VP1 sequences of 10 viruses isolated from positive samples corresponded to the respective FMDV serotypes and genotypes. Our findings indicate that the performance of RT-LAMP is superior to RT-qPCR. Accordingly, we consider this test to have great potential with regard to the specific detection and surveillance of infectious diseases of humans and animals in resource-compromised developing countries.

  8. Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide inhibition as a potent diagnostic tool for gene function in plant biology

    SciTech Connect

    Jansson, Christer; Sun, Chuanxin; Ghebramedhin, Haile; Hoglund, Anna-Stina; Jansson, Christer

    2008-01-15

    Antisense oligodeoxynucleotide (ODN) inhibition emerges as an effective means for probing gene function in plant cells. Employing this method we have established the importance of the SUSIBA2 transcription factor for regulation of starch synthesis in barley endosperm, and arrived at a model for the role of the SUSIBAs in sugar signaling and source-sink commutation during cereal endosperm development. In this addendum we provide additional data demonstrating the suitability of the antisense ODN technology in studies on starch branching enzyme activities in barley leaves. We also comment on the mechanism for ODN uptake in plant cells. Antisense ODNs are short (12-25 nt-long) stretches of single-stranded ODNs that hybridize to the cognate mRNA in a sequence-specific manner, thereby inhibiting gene expression. They are naturally occurring in both prokaryotes and eukaryotes where they partake in gene regulation and defense against viral infection. The mechanisms for antisense ODN inhibition are not fully understood but it is generally considered that the ODN either sterically interferes with translation or promotes transcript degradation by RNase H activation. The earliest indication of the usefulness of antisense ODN technology for the purposes of molecular biology and medical therapy was the demonstration in 1978 that synthetic ODNs complementary to Raos sarcoma virus could inhibit virus replication in tissue cultures of chick embryo fibroblasts. Since then the antisense ODN technology has been widely used in animal sciences and as an important emerging therapeutic approach in clinical medicine. However, antisense ODN inhibition has been an under-exploited strategy for plant tissues, although the prospects for plant cells in suspension cultures to take up single-stranded ODNs was reported over a decade ago. In 2001, two reports from Malho and coworker demonstrated the use of cationic-complexed antisense ODNs to suppress expression of genes encoding pollen

  9. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes

    PubMed Central

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-01-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients’ improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  10. The Role of Epigenomics in the Study of Cancer Biomarkers and in the Development of Diagnostic Tools.

    PubMed

    Verma, Mukesh

    2015-01-01

    Epigenetics plays a key role in cancer development. Genetics alone cannot explain sporadic cancer and cancer development in individuals with no family history or a weak family history of cancer. Epigenetics provides a mechanism to explain the development of cancer in such situations. Alterations in epigenetic profiling may provide important insights into the etiology and natural history of cancer. Because several epigenetic changes occur before histopathological changes, they can serve as biomarkers for cancer diagnosis and risk assessment. Many cancers may remain asymptomatic until relatively late stages; in managing the disease, efforts should be focused on early detection, accurate prediction of disease progression, and frequent monitoring. This chapter describes epigenetic biomarkers as they are expressed during cancer development and their potential use in cancer diagnosis and prognosis. Based on epigenomic information, biomarkers have been identified that may serve as diagnostic tools; some such biomarkers also may be useful in identifying individuals who will respond to therapy and survive longer. The importance of analytical and clinical validation of biomarkers is discussed, along with challenges and opportunities in this field.

  11. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients' improvement after treatment. PMID:27582591

  12. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorders and fetal alcohol syndrome: the state of the art and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Memo, Luigi; Gnoato, Elisa; Caminiti, Stefania; Pichini, Simona; Tarani, Luigi

    2013-06-01

    Ethanol consumption during pregnancy is a widespread problem which is increasing in the generation of young women. Gestational alcohol consumption causes fetal exposure to this teratogen and is associated with the onset of fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD) including fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS). FASD and FAS can lead to several physical, cognitive and behavioral disabilities, whose early diagnosis is of primary importance to perform primary prevention with total abstinence from alcohol during pregnancy and secondary prevention in newborns and children for a proper follow up to reduce risk of secondary consequences. In recent years significant efforts have been made to understand the underlying mechanisms of this disease and to identify objective biological and instrumental diagnostic tools, such as exposure biomarkers in neonatal meconium and advanced magnetic resonance imaging. Nonetheless, further studies are still needed to implement our knowledge on fetal effects of ethanol, and multidisciplinary actions are necessary to raise awareness among women of childbearing age about the danger of consuming even small amounts of ethanol during pregnancy.

  13. Auditory Brainstem Response Wave Amplitude Characteristics as a Diagnostic Tool in Children with Speech Delay with Unknown Causes.

    PubMed

    Abadi, Susan; Khanbabaee, Ghamartaj; Sheibani, Kourosh

    2016-09-01

    Speech delay with an unknown cause is a problem among children. This diagnosis is the last differential diagnosis after observing normal findings in routine hearing tests. The present study was undertaken to determine whether auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli are different between normally developing children and children suffering from delayed speech with unknown causes. In this cross-sectional study, we compared click auditory brainstem responses between 261 children who were clinically diagnosed with delayed speech with unknown causes based on normal routine auditory test findings and neurological examinations and had >12 months of speech delay (case group) and 261 age- and sex-matched normally developing children (control group). Our results indicated that the case group exhibited significantly higher wave amplitude responses to click stimuli (waves I, III, and V) than did the control group (P=0.001). These amplitudes were significantly reduced after 1 year (P=0.001); however, they were still significantly higher than those of the control group (P=0.001). The significant differences were seen regardless of the age and the sex of the participants. There were no statistically significant differences between the 2 groups considering the latency of waves I, III, and V. In conclusion, the higher amplitudes of waves I, III, and V, which were observed in the auditory brainstem responses to click stimuli among the patients with speech delay with unknown causes, might be used as a diagnostic tool to track patients' improvement after treatment.

  14. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF2 radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.; Röpcke, J.; van Helden, J. H.

    2015-01-01

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF2 radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF2 radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm-1. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν3 fundamental band of CF2 with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF2 radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  15. Carbon isotope discrimination as a diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis in C3-C4 intermediate species

    PubMed Central

    Alonso-Cantabrana, Hugo; von Caemmerer, Susanne

    2016-01-01

    The presence and activity of the C4 cycle in C3-C4 intermediate species have proven difficult to analyze, especially when such activity is low. This study proposes a strategy to detect C4 activity and estimate its contribution to overall photosynthesis in intermediate plants, by using tunable diode laser absorption spectroscopy (TDLAS) coupled to gas exchange systems to simultaneously measure the CO2 responses of CO2 assimilation (A) and carbon isotope discrimination (Δ) under low O2 partial pressure. Mathematical models of C3-C4 photosynthesis and Δ are then fitted concurrently to both responses using the same set of constants. This strategy was applied to the intermediate species Flaveria floridana and F. brownii, and to F. pringlei and F. bidentis as C3 and C4 controls, respectively. Our results support the presence of a functional C4 cycle in F. floridana, that can fix 12–21% of carbon. In F. brownii, 75–100% of carbon is fixed via the C4 cycle, and the contribution of mesophyll Rubisco to overall carbon assimilation increases with CO2 partial pressure in both intermediate plants. Combined gas exchange and Δ measurement and modeling is a powerful diagnostic tool for C4 photosynthesis. PMID:26862154

  16. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  17. Cervical cytology as a diagnostic tool for female genital schistosomiasis: Correlation to cervical atypia and Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction

    PubMed Central

    Pillay, Pavitra; van Lieshout, Lisette; Taylor, Myra; Sebitloane, Motshedisi; Zulu, Siphosenkosi Gift; Kleppa, Elisabeth; Roald, Borghild; Kjetland, Eyrun Floerecke

    2016-01-01

    Background: Female genital schistosomiasis (FGS) is a tissue reaction to lodged ova of Schistosoma haematobium in the genital mucosa. Lesions can make the mucosa friable and prone to bleeding and discharge. Women with FGS may have an increased risk of HIV acquisition, and FGS may act as a cofactor in the development of cervical cancer. Objectives: To explore cytology as a method for diagnosing FGS and to discuss the diagnostic challenges in low-resource rural areas. The correlation between FGS and squamous cell atypia (SCA) is also explored and discussed. Cytology results are compared to Schistosoma polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in vaginal lavage and urine and in urine microscopy. Materials and Methods: In a clinical study, 394 women aged between 16 and 23 years from rural high schools in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa, underwent structured interviews and the following laboratory tests: Cytology Papanicolaou (Pap) smears for S. haematobium ova and cervical SCA, real-time PCR for Schistosoma-specific DNA in vaginal lavage and urine samples, and urine microscopy for the presence of S. haematobium ova. Results: In Pap smears, S. haematobium ova were detected in 8/394 (2.0%). SCA was found in 107/394 (27.1%), seven of these had high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesion (HSIL). Schistosoma specific DNA was detected in 38/394 (9.6%) of vaginal lavages and in 91/394 (23.0%) of urines. Ova were found microscopically in 78/394 (19.7%) of urines. Conclusion: Schistosoma PCR on lavage was a better way to diagnose FGS compared to cytology. There was a significant association between S. haematobium ova in Pap smears and the other diagnostic methods. In low-resource Schistosoma-endemic areas, it is important that cytology screeners are aware of diagnostic challenges in the identification of schistosomiasis in addition to the cytological diagnosis of SCA. Importantly, in this study, three of eight urines were negative but showed Schistosoma ova in their Pap smear, and one of them

  18. Additional disturbances as a beneficial tool for restoration of post-mining sites: a multi-taxa approach.

    PubMed

    Řehounková, Klára; Čížek, Lukáš; Řehounek, Jiří; Šebelíková, Lenka; Tropek, Robert; Lencová, Kamila; Bogusch, Petr; Marhoul, Pavel; Máca, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Open interior sands represent a highly threatened habitat in Europe. In recent times, their associated organisms have often found secondary refuges outside their natural habitats, mainly in sand pits. We investigated the effects of different restoration approaches, i.e. spontaneous succession without additional disturbances, spontaneous succession with additional disturbances caused by recreational activities, and forestry reclamation, on the diversity and conservation values of spiders, beetles, flies, bees and wasps, orthopterans and vascular plants in a large sand pit in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Out of 406 species recorded in total, 112 were classified as open sand specialists and 71 as threatened. The sites restored through spontaneous succession with additional disturbances hosted the largest proportion of open sand specialists and threatened species. The forestry reclamations, in contrast, hosted few such species. The sites with spontaneous succession without disturbances represent a transition between these two approaches. While restoration through spontaneous succession favours biodiversity in contrast to forestry reclamation, additional disturbances are necessary to maintain early successional habitats essential for threatened species and open sand specialists. Therefore, recreational activities seem to be an economically efficient restoration tool that will also benefit biodiversity in sand pits.

  19. Additional disturbances as a beneficial tool for restoration of post-mining sites: a multi-taxa approach.

    PubMed

    Řehounková, Klára; Čížek, Lukáš; Řehounek, Jiří; Šebelíková, Lenka; Tropek, Robert; Lencová, Kamila; Bogusch, Petr; Marhoul, Pavel; Máca, Jan

    2016-07-01

    Open interior sands represent a highly threatened habitat in Europe. In recent times, their associated organisms have often found secondary refuges outside their natural habitats, mainly in sand pits. We investigated the effects of different restoration approaches, i.e. spontaneous succession without additional disturbances, spontaneous succession with additional disturbances caused by recreational activities, and forestry reclamation, on the diversity and conservation values of spiders, beetles, flies, bees and wasps, orthopterans and vascular plants in a large sand pit in the Czech Republic, Central Europe. Out of 406 species recorded in total, 112 were classified as open sand specialists and 71 as threatened. The sites restored through spontaneous succession with additional disturbances hosted the largest proportion of open sand specialists and threatened species. The forestry reclamations, in contrast, hosted few such species. The sites with spontaneous succession without disturbances represent a transition between these two approaches. While restoration through spontaneous succession favours biodiversity in contrast to forestry reclamation, additional disturbances are necessary to maintain early successional habitats essential for threatened species and open sand specialists. Therefore, recreational activities seem to be an economically efficient restoration tool that will also benefit biodiversity in sand pits. PMID:27053054

  20. Development of sero-diagnostic and molecular tools for the control of important tick-borne pathogens of cattle in Africa.

    PubMed

    Morzaria, S P; Katende, J; Musoke, A; Nene, V; Skilton, R; Bishop, R

    1999-09-01

    Tick-borne diseases (TBDs) are a major economic constraint to livestock production in sub-Saharan Africa. ILRI is focussing on developing a range of products, such as vaccines, diagnostics and decision support services to underpin improved control programmes against these diseases. We have developed three highly sensitive and specific enzyme linked immuno-assays (ELISAs), which allow precise diagnosis of Theileria parva, Babesia bigemina and Anaplasma marginale. These tests have been standardised and validated using defined experimental and field infection sera. Parasite specific recombinant antigens and monoclonal antibodies against bovine immunoglobulins as secondary antibodies have played an important role in in enhancing the sensitivity and specificity of the assays. They have been further evaluated in on-farm longitudinal sero-epidemiological studies to define infection dynamics and disease risks in various farming systems in Kenya and Uganda. In addition, DNA-based tests for differentiation of Theileria species and characterisation of Theileria parva stocks have been developed. These tests have been derived through physical mapping and sequencing of key elements of the T. parva genome, which include repetitive and telomeric regions, minisatellite sequences, antigen genes and a number of random DNA sequences. These tools are currently being deployed in conjunction with field immunisation programmes to determine the biological impact of introducing live vaccines of T. parva on population dynamics. PMID:11071549

  1. A Simple Evaluation Tool (ET-CET) Indicates Increase of Diagnostic Skills From Small Bowel Capsule Endoscopy Training Courses: A Prospective Observational European Multicenter Study.

    PubMed

    Albert, J G; Humbla, O; McAlindon, M E; Davison, C; Seitz, U; Fraser, C; Hagenmüller, F; Noetzel, E; Spada, C; Riccioni, M E; Barnert, J; Filmann, N; Keuchel, M

    2015-10-01

    Small bowel capsule endoscopy (SBCE) has become a first line diagnostic tool. Several training courses with a similar format have been established in Europe; however, data on learning curve and training in SBCE remain sparse.Between 2008 and 2011, different basic SBCE training courses were organized internationally in UK (n = 2), Italy (n = 2), Germany (n = 2), Finland (n = 1), and nationally in Germany (n = 10), applying similar 8-hour curricula with 50% lectures and 50% hands-on training. The Given PillCam System was used in 12 courses, the Olympus EndoCapsule system in 5, respectively. A simple evaluation tool for capsule endoscopy training (ET-CET) was developed using 10 short SBCE videos including relevant lesions and normal or irrelevant findings. For each video, delegates were required to record a diagnosis (achievable total score from 0 to 10) and the clinical relevance (achievable total score 0 to 10). ET-CET was performed at baseline before the course and repeated, with videos in altered order, after the course.Two hundred ninety-four delegates (79.3% physicians, 16.3% nurses, 4.4% others) were included for baseline analysis, 268 completed the final evaluation. Forty percent had no previous experience in SBCE, 33% had performed 10 or less procedures. Median scores for correct diagnosis improved from 4.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) during the courses (P < 0.001, Wilcoxon), and for correct classification of relevance of the lesions from 5.0 (IQR 3) to 7.0 (IQR 3) (P < 0.001), respectively. Improvement was not dependent on experience, profession, SBCE system, or course setting. Previous experience in SBCE was associated with higher baseline scores for correct diagnosis (P < 0.001; Kruskal-Wallis). Additionally, independent nonparametric partial correlation with experience in gastroscopy (rho 0.33) and colonoscopy (rho 0.27) was observed (P < 0.001).A simple ET-CET demonstrated significant improvement of diagnostic skills on

  2. Cone beam computed tomography imaging as a primary diagnostic tool for computer-guided surgery and CAD-CAM interim removable and fixed dental prostheses.

    PubMed

    Charette, Jyme R; Goldberg, Jack; Harris, Bryan T; Morton, Dean; Llop, Daniel R; Lin, Wei-Shao

    2016-08-01

    This article describes a digital workflow using cone beam computed tomography imaging as the primary diagnostic tool in the virtual planning of the computer-guided surgery and fabrication of a maxillary interim complete removable dental prosthesis and mandibular interim implant-supported complete fixed dental prosthesis with computer-aided design and computer-aided manufacturing technology. Diagnostic impressions (conventional or digital) and casts are unnecessary in this proposed digital workflow, providing clinicians with an alternative treatment in the indicated clinical scenario. PMID:27086108

  3. Flow Dynamics of Aneurysm Growth and Rupture: Challenges for the Development of Computational Flow Dynamics as a Diagnostic Tool to Detect Rupture-Prone Aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Frösen, Juhana

    2016-01-01

    Saccular intracranial aneurysm (sIA) is a relatively common disease that can potentially cause a devastating, life-threatening intracranial hemorrhage. Many sIAs never rupture and thus do not necessitate interventions, making the detection of rupture-prone sIAs a very relevant clinical problem. Moreover, because currently available methods to prevent sIA rupture have significant risks of morbidity and mortality, diagnostic tools that can predict imminent rupture and help plan proper timing of prophylactic interventions, can improve patient care. Hemorrhage from an sIA occurs when hemodynamic stress exceeds sIA wall strength. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) is a tool with which the hemodynamic stress to which the sIA wall is exposed can be determined non-invasively. Studies using CFD in sIAs have demonstrated associations of wall shear stress (WSS) with aneurysm growth, fragile sIA wall, and sIA rupture; these studies show the potential of CFD as a diagnostic tool. This review discusses the limitations of CFD and of the studies performed, and what needs to be done in order to develop CFD into a useful diagnostic tool to determine aneurysm-specific rupture risk. PMID:27637634

  4. Multispectral imaging techniques observing the dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations as diagnostic tool for diseased tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klaessens, John H. G. M.; Noordmands, Herke Jan; de Roode, Rowland; Verdaasdonk, Rudolf M.

    2010-02-01

    Tissue oxygenation imaging is a promising diagnostics tool to study the changes and dynamics of tissue perfusion reflecting pathologic and/or physiologic conditions of tissue. In clinical settings, imaging of local oxygenation or blood perfusion variations can be useful for e.g. detection of skin cancer, detection of early inflammation, effectiveness of peripheral nerve block anesthesia, study of the process of wound healing or localization of the cerebral area causing an epileptic attack. In this study, two oxygenation imaging methods based on multi-spectral techniques were evaluated: one system consisting of a CCD camera in combination with a Liquid Crystal Tunable Filter (420 - 730 nm or 650-1100 nm) and a broad band (white) light source, while the second system was a CCD camera in combination with a tunable multispectral LED light source (450-890nm). By collecting narrowband images at selected wavelengths, concentration changes of the different chromophores at the surface of the tissue (e.g. dO2Hb, dHHb and dtHb) can be calculated using the modified Lambert Beer equation. Two analyzing methods were used to calculate the concentration changes this to reduce the errors caused by movement of the tissue. In vivo measurements were obtained during skin oxygen changes induced by temporary arm clamping to validate the methods and algorithms. Functional information from the tissue surface was collected, in non-contact mode, by imaging the hemodynamic and oxygenation changes just below that surface. Both multi-spectral imaging techniques show promising results for detecting dynamic changes in the hemoglobin concentrations. The algorithms need to be optimized and image acquisition and processing needs to be developed top real time for practical clinical applications.

  5. Copper as ancillary diagnostic tool in preoperative evaluation of possible papillary thyroid carcinoma in patients with benign thyroid disease.

    PubMed

    Dragutinović, Vesna V; Tatić, Svetislav B; Nikolić-Mandić, Snežana D; Tripković, Tatjana M; Dunđerović, Duško M; Paunović, Ivan R

    2014-09-01

    Preoperative diagnosis of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC) comprises numerous diagnostic procedures which are mostly applicable in tertiary institutions. Normal thyroid function depends on the presence of many trace elements and copper (Cu) and zinc (Zn) are some of those. The study is based on retrospective review of 118 patients with preoperatively diagnosed benign thyroid disease (BTD) and 12 with PTC, who underwent thyroid surgery at the Center for Endocrine Surgery Clinical Center of Serbia, Belgrade, between 2010 and 2012. The objective was to evaluate concentrations of Cu and Zn in serum as possible prediction markers for PTC in patients who underwent surgery for preoperatively diagnosed BTD. Concentrations of Cu and Zn ions in serum were measured using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Data were analyzed using methods of descriptive statistics, Anova and t-test (p < 0.05 was considered statistically significant). Definitive pathohistological findings revealed PTC in 23 (19.5%) and papillary microcarcinoma-mPTC in 13 (11.0%) of BTD patients. The concentrations of Cu ions in serum of PTC patients as well as in serum of patients with mPTC were significantly higher than in serum of BTD patients (p < 0.05). The concentrations of Zn ions and Cu/Zn ratio in serum of PTC and mPTC patients were not significantly higher than in serum of BTD patients. The concentration of Cu ions in serum of patients before thyroid surgery can be useful, easy available, and a low-cost tool in prediction of preoperatively undiagnosed PTC in patients with BTD.

  6. Detection of OXA-48-type carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae in diagnostic laboratories can be enhanced by addition of bicarbonates to cultivation media or reaction buffers.

    PubMed

    Studentova, Vendula; Papagiannitsis, Costas C; Izdebski, Radoslaw; Pfeifer, Yvonne; Chudackova, Eva; Bergerova, Tamara; Gniadkowski, Marek; Hrabak, Jaroslav

    2015-03-01

    Carbapenemase-mediated resistance to carbapenems in Enterobacteriaceae has become the main challenge in the treatment and prevention of infections recently. The partially unnoticed spread of OXA-48-type carbapenemase producers is usually assigned to low minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of carbapenems that OXA-48-producing isolates often display. Therefore, there is an urgent need of specific and sensitive methods for isolation and detection of OXA-48 producers in clinical microbiology diagnostics. The influence of bicarbonates on carbapenem MICs against carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae was tested. We also checked whether the addition of bicarbonates to liquid media supplemented with meropenem may facilitate the selective enrichment of various carbapenemase producers in cultures. Furthermore, the sensitivity of carbapenemase confirmation by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) and spectrophotometric hydrolysis assays upon the addition of NH4HCO3 was examined. The addition of NaHCO3 significantly increased MICs of ertapenem and meropenem for OXA-48 producers. Furthermore, liquid media supplemented with NaHCO3 and meropenem were reliable for the selective enrichment of carbapenemase producers. The presence of NH4HCO3 in buffers used in the spectrophotometric and MALDI-TOF MS carbapenemase detection increased the sensitivity of that assay. Our results demonstrate that bicarbonates in media or reaction buffers can enhance the sensitivity of screening methods and diagnostic tests for carbapenemase producers.

  7. Tzanck smear as an accurate and rapid diagnostic tool for cutaneous alternariosis in a renal transplant recipient.

    PubMed

    Karataş Toğral, A; Güleç, A T

    2016-10-01

    Alternaria species are becoming increasingly important opportunistic pathogens in recipients of solid organ transplant, as it has been shown that dissemination with systemic involvement is not as rare as previously reported. Therefore, rapid and accurate diagnosis is necessary for appropriate patient management. We report a patient with renal transplant who developed recurrent cutaneous alternariosis. Tzanck smear successfully and very rapidly revealed hyphae and spores in both the primary and subsequent lesions. Furthermore, Tzanck smear provided guidance for histopathological examination of the second lesion, which failed to disclose the fungal elements until additional deeper serial sections were performed. The present case emphasizes that the Tzanck smear is a useful clinical tool leading to the immediate correct diagnosis even in deep fungal infections. PMID:27663148

  8. ‘Double Trouble’: Diagnostic Challenges in Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy in Patients with an Additional Hereditary Skeletal Dysplasia

    PubMed Central

    Donkervoort, Sandra; Schindler, Alice; Tesi-Rocha, Carolina; Schreiber, Allison; Leach, Meganne E.; Dastgir, Jahannaz; Hu, Ying; Mankodi, Ami; Wagner, Kathryn R.; Friedman, Neil R.; Bönnemann, Carsten G.

    2015-01-01

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is caused by mutations Dystrophin and affects 1 in 3600-6000 males. It is characterized by progressive weakness, leading to loss of ambulation, respiratory insufficiency, cardiomyopathy, and scoliosis. We describe the unusual phenotype of 3 patients with skeletal dysplasias in whom an additional diagnosis of DMD was later established. Two unrelated boys presented with osteogenesis imperfecta due to point mutations in COL1A1 and were both subsequently found to have a 1bp frameshift deletion in the Dystrophin gene at age 3 and age 15, respectively. The third patient had a diagnosis of pseudoachondroplasia caused by a mutation in the COMP gene and was found to have a deletion of exons 48-50 in Dystrophin at age 9. We discuss the atypical presentation caused by the concomitant presence of 2 conditions affecting the musculoskeletal system, emphasizing aspects that may confound the presentation of a well-characterized disease like DMD. Additional series of patients with DMD and a secondary inherited condition are necessary to establish the natural history in this “double trouble” population. The recognition and accurate diagnosis of patients with two independent genetic disease processes is essential for management, prognosis, genetic risk assessment, and discussion regarding potential therapeutic interventions. PMID:24070816

  9. Additive Manufacturing/Diagnostics via the High Frequency Induction Heating of Metal Powders: The Determination of the Power Transfer Factor for Fine Metallic Spheres

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Radhakrishnan, Balasubramaniam; Caravias, George; Holcomb, Matthew

    2015-03-11

    Grid Logic Inc. is developing a method for sintering and melting fine metallic powders for additive manufacturing using spatially-compact, high-frequency magnetic fields called Micro-Induction Sintering (MIS). One of the challenges in advancing MIS technology for additive manufacturing is in understanding the power transfer to the particles in a powder bed. This knowledge is important to achieving efficient power transfer, control, and selective particle heating during the MIS process needed for commercialization of the technology. The project s work provided a rigorous physics-based model for induction heating of fine spherical particles as a function of frequency and particle size. This simulation improved upon Grid Logic s earlier models and provides guidance that will make the MIS technology more effective. The project model will be incorporated into Grid Logic s power control circuit of the MIS 3D printer product and its diagnostics technology to optimize the sintering process for part quality and energy efficiency.

  10. Investigation of the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in reproductive medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Trottmann, Matthias; Homann, Christian; Leeb, R.; Doering, D.; Kuznetsova, J.; Reese, S.; Stief, C. G.; Koelle, S.; Sroka, R.

    2015-02-01

    Introduction and objective: In Europe, nearly every sixth couple in the reproductive age is involuntarily childless. In about 30%, both male and female reveal fertility problems. In about 10% of infertile men, azoospermia is the underlying cause. As conventional therapeutic options are limited, surgical testicular sperm extraction (TESE) is necessary to obtain sperms for assisted reproductive techniques. Regarding the females, up to 30% of all idiopathic infertilities are due to alterations of the uterine tube So far, no imaging technique, which does not require any labelling, is available to evaluate the male and female genital tract at a microscopic level under in vivo conditions. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the potential of optical coherence tomography (OCT) as a non-invasive diagnostic tool in gynaecology and andrology. Material and Methods: Tissues samples from the bovine testis, epididymis, vas deferens, ovary, oviduct (ampulla and isthmus) and uterus were obtained immediately after slaughter (14 cows aged 3 to 8 years and 14 bulls aged 3 to 6 years; breeds: Holstein- Friesian, and Deutsches Fleckvieh). Imaging was done by using the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved probe-based Niris Imaging System (Imalux, Cleveland, Ohio, USA) and the Telesto 1325 nm OCT System and Ganymede 930 nm OCT System (Thorlabs Inc., Dachau, Germany). All images obtained were compared to histological images after paraffin embedding and HE staining. Results: OCT imaging visualized the microarchitecture of the testis, epididymis, spermatic duct and the ovary, oviduct and uterus. Using the Thorlabs systems a axial resolution of approx. 5μm and lateral resolution of 8- 15μm could be achieved. Different optical tissue volumes could be visualized, which depends on the optical penetration depth of the wavelength of the system used. While the tissue volume observed by probe based Imalux-OCT is similar to the used Thorlabs systems, the optical resolution is

  11. Regression Modeling and Meta-Analysis of Diagnostic Accuracy of SNP-Based Pathogenicity Detection Tools for UGT1A1 Gene Mutation

    PubMed Central

    Rahim, Fakher; Galehdari, Hamid; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Saki, Najmaldin

    2013-01-01

    Aims. This review summarized all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools and introduced regression model based on functional scores, mutation score, and genomic variation degree. Materials and Methods. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to Crigler-Najjar syndrome. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools including SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Results. Comparing the diagnostic OR, our model showed high detection potential (diagnostic OR: 16.71, 95% CI: 3.38–82.69). The highest MCC and ACC belonged to our suggested model (46.8% and 73.3%), followed by SIFT (34.19% and 62.71%). The AUC analysis showed a significance overall performance of our suggested model compared to the selected SNP-based pathogenicity detection tool (P = 0.046). Conclusion. Our suggested model is comparable to the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools that can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures. Although the accuracy of our suggested model is not relatively high, the functional impact of the pathogenic mutations is highlighted at the protein level, which improves the understanding of the molecular basis of mutation pathogenesis. PMID:23997956

  12. A Serious Videogame as an Additional Therapy Tool for Training Emotional Regulation and Impulsivity Control in Severe Gambling Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Tárrega, Salomé; Castro-Carreras, Laia; Fernández-Aranda, Fernando; Granero, Roser; Giner-Bartolomé, Cristina; Aymamí, Neus; Gómez-Peña, Mónica; Santamaría, Juan J.; Forcano, Laura; Steward, Trevor; Menchón, José M.; Jiménez-Murcia, Susana

    2015-01-01

    Background: Gambling disorder (GD) is characterized by a significant lack of self-control and is associated with impulsivity-related personality traits. It is also linked to deficits in emotional regulation and frequently co-occurs with anxiety and depression symptoms. There is also evidence that emotional dysregulation may play a mediatory role between GD and psychopathological symptomatology. Few studies have reported the outcomes of psychological interventions that specifically address these underlying processes. Objectives: To assess the utility of the Playmancer platform, a serious video game, as an additional therapy tool in a CBT intervention for GD, and to estimate pre-post changes in measures of impulsivity, anger expression and psychopathological symptomatology. Method: The sample comprised a single group of 16 male treatment-seeking individuals with severe GD diagnosis. Therapy intervention consisted of 16 group weekly CBT sessions and, concurrently, 10 additional weekly sessions of a serious video game. Pre-post treatment scores on South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS), Barratt Impulsiveness Scale (BIS-11), I7 Impulsiveness Questionnaire (I7), State-Trait Anger Expression Inventory 2 (STAXI-2), Symptom Checklist-Revised (SCL-90-R), State-Trait Anxiety Inventory (STAI-S-T), and Novelty Seeking from the Temperament and Character Inventory-Revised (TCI-R) were compared. Results: After the intervention, significant changes were observed in several measures of impulsivity, anger expression and other psychopathological symptoms. Dropout and relapse rates during treatment were similar to those described in the literature for CBT. Conclusion: Complementing CBT interventions for GD with a specific therapy approach like a serious video game might be helpful in addressing certain underlying factors which are usually difficult to change, including impulsivity and anger expression. PMID:26617550

  13. Additive technology of soluble mold tooling for embedded devices in composite structures: A study on manufactured tolerances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roy, Madhuparna

    Composite textiles have found widespread use and advantages in various industries and applications. The constant demand for high quality products and services requires companies to minimize their manufacturing costs, and delivery time in order to compete in general and niche marketplaces. Advanced manufacturing methods aim to provide economical methods of mold production. Creation of molding and tooling options for advanced composites encompasses a large portion of the fabrication time, making it a costly process and restraining factor. This research discusses a preliminary investigation into the use of soluble polymer compounds and additive manufacturing to fabricate soluble molds. These molds suffer from dimensional errors due to several factors, which have also been characterized. The basic soluble mold of a composite is 3D printed to meet the desired dimensions and geometry of holistic structures or spliced components. The time taken to dissolve the mold depends on the rate of agitation of the solvent. This process is steered towards enabling the implantation of optoelectronic devices within the composite to provide sensing capability for structural health monitoring. The shape deviation of the 3D printed mold is also studied and compared to its original dimensions to optimize the dimensional quality to produce dimensionally accurate parts. Mechanical tests were performed on compact tension (CT) resin samples prepared from these 3D printed molds and revealed crack propagation towards an embedded intact optical fiber.

  14. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  15. Rasch Analysis of the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) and the International Index of Erectile Function (IIEF) in an Iranian Sample of Prostate Cancer Patients

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Chung-Ying; Pakpour, Amir H.; Burri, Andrea; Montazeri, Ali

    2016-01-01

    Background Male sexual dysfunction is an increasing problem across a variety of general and clinical populations, such as cancer populations; especially among prostate cancer patients who tend to receive treatments that often result in erectile dysfunction (ED) and/or premature ejaculation (PE). Therefore, in order to diagnose ED and PE in these populations, adequate and efficient instruments such as the International Index of Erectile Function 5-item version (IIEF-5) and the Premature Ejaculation Diagnostic Tool (PEDT) are needed. However, since this is an important topic additional evidence of psychometric properties of the IIEF-5 and the PEDT in such samples are required. Thus the aim of the present study was to use Rasch models to investigate the construct validity, local dependency, score order, and differential item functioning (DIF) of both questionnaires in a sample of prostate cancer patients. Methods Prostate cancer patients (n = 1058, mean±SD age = 64.07±6.84 years) who visited urology clinics were invited to fill out the IIEF-5 and the PEDT. Construct validity was examined using infit and outfit mean square (MnSq) and local dependency using correlations between each two residual Rasch scores. Score order was investigated using step and average measures of difficulty and DIF using DIF contrast. Results All IIEF-5 and PEDT items had acceptable infit and outfit MnSq. Step measures revealed that all but two items had disordered categories in terms of scores 1 to 3. Only one local dependency was found, and no items displayed DIF across age, educational level, and help seeking. Conclusions The results showed that both the IIEF-5 and the PEDT had sound psychometric properties in the Rasch analyses, although some score disordering could be detected in both instruments. The results of no DIF items in both instruments suggest using them to compare ED and PE across age and educational level is adequate. PMID:27336626

  16. Analysis of the Vaginal Microbiome by Next-Generation Sequencing and Evaluation of its Performance as a Clinical Diagnostic Tool in Vaginitis

    PubMed Central

    Hong, Ki Ho; Hong, Sung Kuk; Cho, Sung Im; Ra, Eunkyung; Han, Kyung Hee; Kang, Soon Beom; Kim, Eui-Chong; Park, Sung Sup

    2016-01-01

    Background Next-generation sequencing (NGS) can detect many more microorganisms of a microbiome than traditional methods. This study aimed to analyze the vaginal microbiomes of Korean women by using NGS that included bacteria and other microorganisms. The NGS results were compared with the results of other assays, and NGS was evaluated for its feasibility for predicting vaginitis. Methods In total, 89 vaginal swab specimens were collected. Microscopic examinations of Gram staining and microbiological cultures were conducted on 67 specimens. NGS was performed with GS junior system on all of the vaginal specimens for the 16S rRNA, internal transcribed spacer (ITS), and Tvk genes to detect bacteria, fungi, and Trichomonas vaginalis. In addition, DNA probe assays of the Candida spp., Gardnerella vaginalis, and Trichomonas vaginalis were performed. Various predictors of diversity that were obtained from the NGS data were analyzed to predict vaginitis. Results ITS sequences were obtained in most of the specimens (56.2%). The compositions of the intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were similar to each other but differed from the composition of the normal score group. The fraction of the Lactobacillus spp. showed the highest area under the curve value (0.8559) in ROC curve analysis. The NGS and DNA probe assay results showed good agreement (range, 86.2-89.7%). Conclusions Fungi as well as bacteria should be considered for the investigation of vaginal microbiome. The intermediate and vaginitis Nugent score groups were indistinguishable in NGS. NGS is a promising diagnostic tool of the vaginal microbiome and vaginitis, although some problems need to be resolved. PMID:27374709

  17. Isolation and Characterization of Monoclonal Antibodies Against a Virion Core Protein of Orf Virus Strain NA1/11 As Potential Diagnostic Tool for Orf Viruses.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiaoping; Zhang, Jiafeng; Hao, Wenbo; Peng, Yongzheng; Li, Hong; Li, Wei; Li, Ming; Luo, Shuhong

    2015-08-01

    Orf is caused by the orf virus (ORFV) and is a non-systemic, widespread disease afflicting sheep, goats, wild ruminants, and humans. Recent outbreaks in sheep and goats in Jilin and other northern Chinese provinces raise concerns about orf control in China. Thirty-five hybridoma clones were constructed from splenocytes of BALB/c mice immunized with natural orf virus protein. These hybridomas were used to produce antibodies targeting ORFV proteins. Immunological characterization of these monoclonal antibodies (MAb) showed that the 5F2D8 hybridoma line produced MAb that can recognize the 100, 70, and 20 kDa bands from total viral lysate. This hybridoma was further characterized by immunoprecipitation and peptide sequencing. The results indicate that 5F2D8 specifically recognizes orf virus encoded protein ORFV086, a late expression virion core protein that plays important roles in progeny virus particle assembly, morphogenesis, and maturity. Further experiments demonstrate that this MAb did not react with other viral proteins of ORFV orthopoxviruses, but reacted strongly to different field isolates of orf viruses from China. Additionally, this anti-ORFV086 MAb possesses ORFV neutralizing capability. Sequence alignments and phylogenetic analysis determined that ORFV086 of NA1/11, clustered together with NZ2 and IA82, is highly conserved and has structural similarities with the Vaccinia virus core protein P4a. As such, this MAb has great potential as a diagnostic tool for orf viruses, in the further exploration of orf pathogenesis, and in disease control and prevention.

  18. Feasibility study of the Fab fragment of a monoclonal antibody against tissue factor as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Tsumura, Ryo; Sato, Ryuta; Furuya, Fumiaki; Koga, Yoshikatsu; Yamamoto, Yoshiyuki; Fujiwara, Yuki; Yasunaga, Masahiro; Matsumura, Yasuhiro

    2015-12-01

    Tissue factor (TF) is expressed strongly in various types of cancer, especially cancers that are often refractory to treatment, such as pancreatic cancer. In this study, we compared the differences in the biophysical and pharmacological properties of whole IgG and the Fab fragment of anti-human TF monoclonal antibody (1849 antibodies), in order to determine their suitability for application in the diagnosis and treatment of cancers. In the biophysical examination, we investigated the characteristics of 1849-whole IgG and 1849-Fab by SPR sensing and confocal fluorescence microscopy analysis using recombinant human TF antigen and TF-overexpressing human pancreatic cancer cell line, BxPC3, respectively. After conjugation with Alexa-Flour-647, in vivo imaging was conducted in mice bearing BxPC3 xenograft tumors. Furthermore, the distribution of the conjugates in tumors and major organs was evaluated by ex vivo study. The in vitro experiments showed that 1849 antibodies had high affinity against TF antigen. In addition, 1849-Fab showed a faster dissociation rate from the antigen than 1849-whole IgG. In mice, 1849-Fab-Alexa-Flour-647 showed rapid renal clearance and faster tumor accumulation, achieving a high contrast signal over nearby normal tissues in the early phase and enhanced tumor penetration after administration. On the other hand, 1849-whole IgG-Alexa-Flour-647 showed slow clearance from the blood and sustained high tumor accumulation. These results suggest that 1849-Fab may be a useful tool for pancreatic cancer diagnosis.

  19. Sympathetic skin response and heart rate variability as diagnostic tools for the differential diagnosis of Lewy body dementia and Alzheimer's disease: a diagnostic test study

    PubMed Central

    Negami, Masako; Maruta, Takahiro; Takeda, Chie; Adachi, Yumi; Yoshikawa, Hiroaki

    2013-01-01

    Objective The purpose of this study is to investigate the usefulness of sympathetic skin response (SSR) and heart rate variability (HRV) for the differential diagnosis of patients with dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). Design A diagnostic test study. Setting Single centre in Japan. Participants We examined 20 patients with probable Alzheimer's disease (AD) diagnosed with NINCDS-ADRDA criteria and 20 with probable DLB diagnosed with the criteria of the third international DLB workshop. Methods For the SSR measurement, surface electrodes were used: the active recording electrode was placed on the palm of the hand and the reference electrode was placed on the dorsum of the same hand. SSR was induced by a median nerve electrical stimulation at an amplitude of 20 mA. For the HRV measurement, the A–A intervals were measured twice for 2 min with an interval of 5 min in a sitting position after a rest of 5 min. From the low-frequency power (LF; 0.02–0.15 Hz) and high-frequency power (HF; 0.15–0.50 Hz), the ratio of LF to HF power (LF/HF) was calculated using the maximal entropy method. Results SSR and HRV could detect the abnormality of autonomic function in patients with DLB at sensitivities of 85% and 90%, respectively. On the other hand, SSR and HRV detected an abnormality of autonomic function in patients with AD at sensitivities of 15% and 25% (p<0.05). The combination of the SSR and the HRV (double-positive) indicated abnormal autonomic function was recorded in only 1 of 20 patients (5%) with AD. In contrast, this combination indicated autonomic abnormality in 15 of 20 patients with DLB by our criteria (75%). Conclusions SSR and HRV can be applied to differentiate DLB from AD. PMID:23457321

  20. Meta-analysis diagnostic accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools: a case of UTG1A1 gene mutations

    PubMed Central

    Galehdari, Hamid; Saki, Najmaldin; Mohammadi-asl, Javad; Rahim, Fakher

    2013-01-01

    Crigler-Najjar syndrome (CNS) type I and type II are usually inherited as autosomal recessive conditions that result from mutations in the UGT1A1 gene. The main objective of the present review is to summarize results of all available evidence on the accuracy of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools compared to published clinical result for the prediction of in nsSNPs that leads to disease using prediction performance method. A comprehensive search was performed to find all mutations related to CNS. Database searches included dbSNP, SNPdbe, HGMD, Swissvar, ensemble, and OMIM. All the mutation related to CNS was extracted. The pathogenicity prediction was done using SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools include SIFT, PHD-SNP, PolyPhen2, fathmm, Provean, and Mutpred. Overall, 59 different SNPs related to missense mutations in the UGT1A1 gene, were reviewed. Comparing the diagnostic OR, PolyPhen2 and Mutpred have the highest detection 4.983 (95% CI: 1.24 – 20.02) in both, following by SIFT (diagnostic OR: 3.25, 95% CI: 1.07 – 9.83). The highest MCC of SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools, was belong to SIFT (34.19%) followed by Provean, PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (29.99%, 29.89%, and 29.89%, respectively). Hence the highest SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools ACC, was fit to SIFT (62.71%) followed by PolyPhen2, and Mutpred (61.02%, in both). Our results suggest that some of the well-established SNP-based pathogenicity detection tools can appropriately reflect the role of a disease-associated SNP in both local and global structures. PMID:23875061

  1. Exploration and classification of chromatographic fingerprints as additional tool for identification and quality control of several Artemisia species.

    PubMed

    Alaerts, Goedele; Pieters, Sigrid; Logie, Hans; Van Erps, Jürgen; Merino-Arévalo, Maria; Dejaegher, Bieke; Smeyers-Verbeke, Johanna; Vander Heyden, Yvan

    2014-07-01

    The World Health Organization accepts chromatographic fingerprints as a tool for identification and quality control of herbal medicines. This is the first study in which the distinction, identification and quality control of four different Artemisia species, i.e. Artemisia vulgaris, A. absinthium, A. annua and A. capillaris samples, is performed based on the evaluation of entire chromatographic fingerprint profiles developed with identical experimental conditions. High-Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC) with Diode Array Detection (DAD) was used to develop the fingerprints. Application of factorial designs leads to methanol/water (80:20 (v/v)) as the best extraction solvent for the pulverised plant material and to a shaking bath for 30 min as extraction method. Further, so-called screening, optimisation and fine-tuning phases were performed during fingerprint development. Most information about the different Artemisia species, i.e. the highest number of separated peaks in the fingerprint, was acquired on four coupled Chromolith columns (100 mm × 4.6 mm I.D.). Trifluoroacetic acid 0.05% (v/v) was used as mobile-phase additive in a stepwise linear methanol/water gradient, i.e. 5, 34, 41, 72 and 95% (v/v) methanol at 0, 9, 30, 44 and 51 min, where the last mobile phase composition was kept isocratic till 60 min. One detection wavelength was selected to perform data analysis. The lowest similarity between the fingerprints of the four species was present at 214 nm. The HPLC/DAD method was applied on 199 herbal samples of the four Artemisia species, resulting in 357 fingerprints. The within- and between-day variation of the entire method, as well as the quality control fingerprints obtained during routine analysis, were found acceptable. The distinction of these Artemisia species was evaluated based on the entire chromatographic profiles, developed by a shared method, and visualised in score plots by means of the Principal Component Analysis (PCA) exploratory data

  2. In-situ diagnostic tools for hydrogen transfer leak characterization in PEM fuel cell stacks part I: R&D applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Niroumand, Amir M.; Pooyanfar, Oldooz; Macauley, Natalia; DeVaal, Jake; Golnaraghi, Farid

    2015-03-01

    This paper describes a diagnostic tool for in-situ characterization of hydrogen transfer leak in individual cells of a Polymer Electrolyte Membrane (PEM) fuel cell stack, suitable for Research and Development (R&D) applications. The technique is based on supplying hydrogen and nitrogen to the anode and cathode of a PEM fuel cell stack while maintaining a prescribed anode overpressure. Under these conditions, hydrogen crosses over from the anode to the cathode, and the Open Circuit Voltage (OCV) represents the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure in the two electrodes. It is shown that by measuring temperature, pressure, flow, humidity, and individual OCVs, the proposed technique can accurately estimate the rate of hydrogen transfer leak in individual cells of a PEM fuel cell stack. This diagnostic tool is suitable for characterizing hydrogen transfer leaks during fuel cell R&D, as it only requires gasses and measurements that are readily available on fuel cell test stations, and does not need disassembling or modifying the fuel cell stack.

  3. Acoustic signature from flames as a combustion diagnostic tool. Final technical report, 1 May 79-31 Oct 83

    SciTech Connect

    Strahle, W.C.

    1983-11-01

    A program was conducted to investigate the feasibility of using the combustion noise acoustic output as a non-intrusive diagnostic of some details of the combustion process. Investigated were an open premixed turbulent jet flame and a gas turbine combustor converted to run on propane. The analysis links the acoustic pressure fluctuations to the distribution of heat release rate fluctuations. Measurement of the sound field, yields in principle, the heat release rate fluctuation field. It was found, however, that the analytical methods for this inverse problem are too sensitive to small experimental uncertainties. Consequently, it appears that the method is not, in general feasible.

  4. A diffusive description of the focused transport of solar energetic particles. Intensity- and anisotropy-time profiles as a powerful diagnostic tool for interplanetary particle transport conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Artmann, S.; Schlickeiser, R.; Agueda, N.; Krucker, S.; Lin, R. P.

    2011-11-01

    The transport of solar energetic charged particles along the interplanetary magnetic field in the ecliptic plane of the sun can be described roughly by a one-dimensional diffusion equation. Large-scale spatial variations of the guide magnetic field can be taken into account by adding an additional term to the diffusion equation that includes the effect of adiabatic focusing. We solve this equation analytically by assuming a point-like particle injection in time and space and a spatial power-law dependence for the focusing length and the spatial diffusion coefficient. We infer the intensity- and anisotropy-time profiles of solar energetic particles from this solution. Through these the influence of different assumptions for the diffusion parameters can be seen in a mathematically closed form. The comparison of calculated and measured intensity- and anisotropy-time profiles, which are a powerful diagnostic tool for interplanetary particle transport, gives information about the large-scale spatial dependence of the focusing length and the diffusion coefficient. For an exceptionally large solar energetic particle event, which did occur on 2001 April 15, we fit the 27 - 512 keV electron intensities and anisotropies observed by the Wind spacecraft using the theoretically derived profiles. We find a linear spatial dependence of the mean free path along the guiding magnetic field. We also find the mean free path to be energy independent, which supports the theory of "velocity-dependent diffusion". This means that the intensity profiles for the discussed energies exhibit the same shape if they are plotted against the traveled distance and not against the time. In this case the profiles differ only in their maximum values and we can determine the energy spectra of the solar flare electrons out of the scaling factor we need to fit the data. The derived spectra exhibits a power-law dependence ∝ E_kin-3 in an energy range from ~ 50 keV to ~ 500 keV. Appendices are available

  5. Bias-corrected diagnostic performance of the naked-eye single-tube red-cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT): an effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Jawahirani, Anil; Das, Kishor; Rughwani, Vinky; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2006-08-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a majority of the countries in the thalassemia-belt need a cost-effective screening program as the first step towards control of thalassemia. Although the naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) has been considered to be a very effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia trait, assessment of its diagnostic performance has been affected with the reference test- and verification-bias. Here, we set out to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT corrected for these potential biases. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation study using data from 1563 subjects from Central India with a high prevalence of beta-thalassemia. We used latent class modelling after ensuring its validity to account for the reference test bias and global sensitivity analysis to control the verification bias. We also compared the results of latent class modelling with those of five discriminant indexes. We observed that across a range of cut-offs for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) concentration the average sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT obtained from latent class modelling was 99.8 and 83.7%, respectively. These estimates were comparable to those characterizing the diagnostic performance of HbA2, which is considered by many as the reference test to detect beta-thalassemia. After correction for the verification bias these estimates were 93.4 and 97.2%, respectively. Combined with the inexpensive and quick disposition of NESTROFT, these results strongly support its candidature as a screening tool-especially in the resource-poor and high-prevalence settings.

  6. Pulse Waves in the Lower Extremities as a Diagnostic Tool of Peripheral Arterial Disease and Predictor of Mortality in Elderly Chinese.

    PubMed

    Sheng, Chang-Sheng; Li, Yan; Huang, Qi-Fang; Kang, Yuan-Yuan; Li, Fei-Ka; Wang, Ji-Guang

    2016-03-01

    Patients with peripheral arterial disease may have elongated upstroke time in pulse waves in the lower extremities. We investigated upstroke time as a diagnostic tool of peripheral arterial disease and predictor of mortality in an elderly (≥60 years) Chinese population. We recorded pulse waves at the left and right ankles by pneumoplethysmography and calculated the percentage of upstroke time per cardiac cycle. Diagnostic accuracy was compared with the conventional ankle-brachial index method (n=4055) and computed tomographic angiography (34 lower extremities in 17 subjects). Upstroke time per cardiac cycle at baseline (mean±SD, 16.4%±3.1%) was significantly (P<0.0001) associated with ankle-brachial index in men (n=1803; r=-0.44) and women (n=2252; r=-0.32) and had an overall sensitivity and specificity of 86% and 80%, respectively, for the diagnosis of peripheral arterial disease (upstroke time per cardiac cycle, ≥21.7%) in comparison with computed tomographic angiography. During 5.9 years (median) of follow-up, all-cause and cardiovascular deaths occurred in 366 and 183 subjects, respectively. In adjusted Cox regression analyses, an upstroke time per cardiac cycle ≥21.7% (n=219; 5.4%) significantly (P<0.0001) predicted total and cardiovascular mortality. The corresponding hazard ratios were 1.98 (95% confidence interval, 1.48-2.65) and 2.29 (1.58-3.32), respectively, when compared with that of 2.10 (1.48-3.00) and 2.44 (1.57-3.79), respectively, associated with an ankle-brachial index of ≤0.90 (n=115; 2.8%). In conclusion, pulse waves in the lower extremities may behave as an accurate and ease of use diagnostic tool of peripheral arterial disease and predictor of mortality in the elderly.

  7. Bias-corrected diagnostic performance of the naked-eye single-tube red-cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT): an effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia.

    PubMed

    Mamtani, Manju; Jawahirani, Anil; Das, Kishor; Rughwani, Vinky; Kulkarni, Hemant

    2006-08-01

    It is being increasingly recognized that a majority of the countries in the thalassemia-belt need a cost-effective screening program as the first step towards control of thalassemia. Although the naked eye single tube red cell osmotic fragility test (NESTROFT) has been considered to be a very effective screening tool for beta-thalassemia trait, assessment of its diagnostic performance has been affected with the reference test- and verification-bias. Here, we set out to provide estimates of sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT corrected for these potential biases. We conducted a cross-sectional diagnostic test evaluation study using data from 1563 subjects from Central India with a high prevalence of beta-thalassemia. We used latent class modelling after ensuring its validity to account for the reference test bias and global sensitivity analysis to control the verification bias. We also compared the results of latent class modelling with those of five discriminant indexes. We observed that across a range of cut-offs for the mean corpuscular volume (MCV) and the hemoglobin A2 (HbA2) concentration the average sensitivity and specificity of NESTROFT obtained from latent class modelling was 99.8 and 83.7%, respectively. These estimates were comparable to those characterizing the diagnostic performance of HbA2, which is considered by many as the reference test to detect beta-thalassemia. After correction for the verification bias these estimates were 93.4 and 97.2%, respectively. Combined with the inexpensive and quick disposition of NESTROFT, these results strongly support its candidature as a screening tool-especially in the resource-poor and high-prevalence settings. PMID:17178668

  8. Development of Pediatric Sleep Questionnaires as Diagnostic or Epidemiological Tools: A Brief Review of Do's and Don'ts

    PubMed Central

    Spruyt, Karen; Gozal, David

    2010-01-01

    Questionnaires are a useful and extensively used tool in clinical sleep medicine and in sleep research. The number of sleep questionnaires targeting the pediatric age range has tremendously increased in recent years, and with such explosion in the number of instruments, their heterogeneity has become all the more apparent. Here, we explore the theoretical and pragmatic processes required for instrument design and development, i.e., how any questionnaire, inventory, log, or diary should be created and evaluated, and also provide illustrative examples to further underline the potential pitfalls that are inherently embedded in every step of tool development. PMID:20952230

  9. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective.

  10. A user-friendly, open-source tool to project impact and cost of diagnostic tests for tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Dowdy, David W; Andrews, Jason R; Dodd, Peter J; Gilman, Robert H

    2014-06-04

    Most models of infectious diseases, including tuberculosis (TB), do not provide results customized to local conditions. We created a dynamic transmission model to project TB incidence, TB mortality, multidrug-resistant (MDR) TB prevalence, and incremental costs over 5 years after scale-up of nine alternative diagnostic strategies. A corresponding web-based interface allows users to specify local costs and epidemiology. In settings with little capacity for up-front investment, same-day microscopy had the greatest impact on TB incidence and became cost-saving within 5 years if delivered at $10/test. With greater initial investment, population-level scale-up of Xpert MTB/RIF or microcolony-based culture often averted 10 times more TB cases than narrowly-targeted strategies, at minimal incremental long-term cost. Xpert for smear-positive TB had reasonable impact on MDR-TB incidence, but at substantial price and little impact on overall TB incidence and mortality. This user-friendly modeling framework improves decision-makers' ability to evaluate the local impact of TB diagnostic strategies.

  11. Tuberculosis in elephants-a reemergent disease: diagnostic dilemmas, the natural history of infection, and new immunological tools.

    PubMed

    Maslow, J N; Mikota, S K

    2015-05-01

    Tuberculosis (TB) in elephants has been described since ancient times. However, it was not until 1996 when infection with Mycobacterium tuberculosis was identified in a herd of circus elephants that significant research into this disease began. The epidemiology and natural history of TB were unknown in elephants since there had been no comprehensive screening programs, and diagnostic techniques developed for cervidae and bovidae were of unknown value. And, while precepts of test and slaughter were the norm for cattle and deer, this was considered untenable for an endangered species. With no precedent for the treatment of TB in animals, treatment regimens for elephants were extrapolated from human protocols, which guided changes to the Guidelines for the Control of Tuberculosis in Elephants. In the absence of diagnostic testing to confirm cure in elephants, the efficacy of these treatment regimens is only beginning to be understood as treated elephants die and are examined postmortem. However, because of pressures arising from public relations related to elephant husbandry and the added considerations of TB infection in animals (whether real or imagined), sharing of information to aid in research and treatment has been problematic. Here we review the challenges and successes of the diagnosis of tuberculosis in elephants and discuss the natural history of the disease to put the work of Landolfi et al on the immunological response to tuberculosis in elephants in perspective. PMID:25633896

  12. Upgrading Diagnostic Diagrams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Proxauf, B.; Kimeswenger, S.; Öttl, S.

    2014-04-01

    Diagnostic diagrams of forbidden lines have been a useful tool for observers in astrophysics for many decades now. They are used to obtain information on the basic physical properties of thin gaseous nebulae. Moreover they are also the initial tool to derive thermodynamic properties of the plasma from observations to get ionization correction factors and thus to obtain proper abundances of the nebulae. Some diagnostic diagrams are in wavelengths domains which were difficult to take either due to missing wavelength coverage or low resolution of older spectrographs. Thus they were hardly used in the past. An upgrade of this useful tool is necessary because most of the diagrams were calculated using only the species involved as a single atom gas, although several are affected by well-known fluorescence mechanisms as well. Additionally the atomic data have improved up to the present time. The new diagnostic diagrams are calculated by using large grids of parameter space in the photoionization code CLOUDY. For a given basic parameter the input radiation field is varied to find the solutions with cooling-heating-equilibrium. Empirical numerical functions are fitted to provide formulas usable in e.g. data reduction pipelines. The resulting diagrams differ significantly from those used up to now and will improve the thermodynamic calculations.

  13. Intelligent Information Retrieval: Diagnosing Information Need. Part II. Uncertainty Expansion in a Prototype of a Diagnostic IR Tool.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cole, Charles; Cantero, Pablo; Sauve, Diane

    1998-01-01

    Outlines a prototype of an intelligent information-retrieval tool to facilitate information access for an undergraduate seeking information for a term paper. Topics include diagnosing the information need, Kuhlthau's information-search-process model, Shannon's mathematical theory of communication, and principles of uncertainty expansion and…

  14. Success Is an Open Book: Online Diagnostic Tools and Learning Outcomes in Introduction to American Government Courses

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reed, Ryan; Smith, Daniel E.

    2016-01-01

    This project examines the utility of a particular course enhancement, Cengage's Aplia, and more generally interactive tools designed to facilitate reading in the introductory American government course. Using two control and two treatment sections of the course (one section each for two instructors) during the Fall 2013 term, we measured student…

  15. Development of a Three-Tier Test as a Valid Diagnostic Tool for Identification of Misconceptions Related to Carbohydrates

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milenkovic, Dusica D.; Hrin, Tamara N.; Segedinac, Mirjana D.; Horvat, Sasa

    2016-01-01

    This study describes the development and application of a three-tier test as a valid and reliable tool in diagnosing students' misconceptions regarding some basic concepts about carbohydrates. The test was administrated to students of the Pharmacy Department at the University of Bijeljina (Serb Republic). The results denoted construct and content…

  16. Hard x-ray correlation analysis as a diagnostic tool for the measurement of magnetic turbulence in tokamaks

    SciTech Connect

    Saha, S. K.; Hui, A. K.; Chowdhury, S.; Raychaudhuri, Santwana; Banik, D.

    2010-12-15

    A diagnostic has been developed for the measurement and characterization of the magnetic turbulence occurring in the core region of a tokamak. A specially shielded detector looking in the tangential direction has been employed to measure the thin target bremsstrahlung from the core plasma. The thick target bremsstrahlung from the limiter is also recorded at the same time. Auto- and cross-correlation analyses have been shown to yield, respectively, the stochasticity of the magnetic fluctuations in the core region and the consequent diffusion coefficient of the nonthermal electrons. The measured stochasticity bears a relationship with the diffusion coefficient. Data obtained from internal magnetic probes corroborate the above trend but the hard x-ray measurement data are shown to be more reliable than those obtained from magnetic probes.

  17. The role of radiology in diagnosis and management of drug mules: an update with new challenges and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Bulakci, Mesut; Cengel, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Emergency physicians and radiologists have been increasingly encountering internal concealment of illegal drugs. The packages commonly contain powdered solid drugs such as cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and hashish, but they may also contain cocaine in the liquid form. The second type of package has recently been more commonly encountered, and poses a greater diagnostic challenge. As clinical evaluation and laboratory tests frequently fail to make the correct diagnosis, imaging examination is typically required. Imaging methods assume a vital role in the diagnosis, follow-up and management. Abdominal X-ray, ultrasonography, CT and MRI are used for the imaging purposes. Among the aforementioned methods, low-dose CT is state-of-the-art in these cases. It is of paramount importance that radiologists have a full knowledge of the imaging characteristics of these packages and accurately guide physicians and security officials. PMID:26867003

  18. The role of radiology in diagnosis and management of drug mules: an update with new challenges and new diagnostic tools.

    PubMed

    Bulakci, Mesut; Cengel, Ferhat

    2016-01-01

    Emergency physicians and radiologists have been increasingly encountering internal concealment of illegal drugs. The packages commonly contain powdered solid drugs such as cocaine, heroin, methamphetamine and hashish, but they may also contain cocaine in the liquid form. The second type of package has recently been more commonly encountered, and poses a greater diagnostic challenge. As clinical evaluation and laboratory tests frequently fail to make the correct diagnosis, imaging examination is typically required. Imaging methods assume a vital role in the diagnosis, follow-up and management. Abdominal X-ray, ultrasonography, CT and MRI are used for the imaging purposes. Among the aforementioned methods, low-dose CT is state-of-the-art in these cases. It is of paramount importance that radiologists have a full knowledge of the imaging characteristics of these packages and accurately guide physicians and security officials.

  19. Using next-generation sequencing as a genetic diagnostic tool in rare autosomal recessive neurologic Mendelian disorders.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhao; Wang, Jun-Ling; Tang, Bei-Sha; Sun, Zhan-Fang; Shi, Yu-Ting; Shen, Lu; Lei, Li-Fang; Wei, Xiao-Ming; Xiao, Jing-Jing; Hu, Zheng-Mao; Pan, Qian; Xia, Kun; Zhang, Qing-Yan; Dai, Mei-Zhi; Liu, Yu; Ashizawa, Tetsuo; Jiang, Hong

    2013-10-01

    Next-generation sequencing was used to investigate 9 rare Chinese pedigrees with rare autosomal recessive neurologic Mendelian disorders. Five probands with ataxia-telangectasia and 1 proband with chorea-acanthocytosis were analyzed by targeted gene sequencing. Whole-exome sequencing was used to investigate 3 affected individuals with Joubert syndrome, nemaline myopathy, or spastic ataxia Charlevoix-Saguenay type. A list of known and novel candidate variants was identified for each causative gene. All variants were genetically verified by Sanger sequencing or quantitative polymerase chain reaction with the strategy of disease segregation in related pedigrees and healthy controls. The advantages of using next-generation sequencing to diagnose rare autosomal recessive neurologic Mendelian disorders characterized by genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity are demonstrated. A genetic diagnostic strategy combining the use of targeted gene sequencing and whole-exome sequencing with the aid of next-generation sequencing platforms has shown great promise for improving the diagnosis of neurologic Mendelian disorders. PMID:23726790

  20. Ion-Beam-Induced Luminescence Analysis as Diagnostic Tool for Microstructure Patterning on Diamond by Proton Beam Writing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kada, Wataru; Yokoyama, Akihito; Koka, Masashi; Takano, Katsuyoshi; Satoh, Takahiro; Kamiya, Tomihiro

    2012-06-01

    An in situ diagnostics technique for proton beam writing (PBW) on chemical vapor deposition (CVD) diamond was newly established by developing a method of monochromatic ion-beam-induced luminescence (IBIL) analysis. As a compact optic system of IBIL analysis, a couple of optics including a monochromator and a photon counting photomultiplier were installed on the microbeam line of a 3 MV single-ended accelerator. Changes in the crystal structure of single-crystal CVD diamond were continuously monitored by observing the decay of IBIL at a wavelength related to them. Two-dimensional microscopy images of IBIL were also clearly visualized as patterns on diamond in the postprocess of PBW with the same experimental setup. The total fluence of the proton microbeam was well linked to the photon count of IBIL for the fabrication of micrometer-sized carbonized layers in the CVD diamond crystal.

  1. Optical shadowgraphy and proton imaging as diagnostics tools for fast electron propagation in ultrahigh-intensity laser-matter interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manclossi, M.; Batani, D.; Piazza, D.; Baton, S.; Amiranoff, F.; Koenig, M.; Popescu, H.; Audebert, P.; Santos, J. J.; Martinolli, E.; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A.; Le Gloahec, M. R.; Antonicci, A.; Rousseaux, C.; Borghesi, M.; Cecchetti, C.; Malka, V.; Hall, T.

    2005-10-01

    This paper reports the results of some recent experiments performed at the LULI laboratory (Palaiseau, France) concerning the propagation of large relativistic electron currents in a gas jet. We present our experimental results according to the type of diagnostics used in the experiments: (1) time resolved optical shadowgraphy and (2) proton imaging. Proton radiography images did show the presence of very strong fields in the gas probably produced by charge separation. In turn, these imply a slowing down of the fast electron cloud as it penetrates in the gas. Indeed, shadowgraphy images show a strong inhibition of propagation and a strong reduction in time of the velocity of the electron cloud from the initial value, which is of the order of a fraction of c.

  2. Review article: Diagnostic accuracy of risk stratification tools for patients with chest pain in the rural emergency department: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Roche, Tina; Jennings, Natasha; Clifford, Stuart; O'connell, Jane; Lutze, Matthew; Gosden, Edward; Hadden, N Fionna; Gardner, Glenn

    2016-10-01

    Risk stratification tools for patients presenting to rural EDs with undifferentiated chest pain enable early definitive treatment in high-risk patients. This systematic review compares the most commonly used risk stratification tools used to predict the risk of major adverse cardiac event (MACE) for patients presenting to rural EDs with chest pain. A comprehensive search of MEDLINE and Embase for studies published between January 2011 and January 2015 was undertaken. Study quality was assessed using QUADAS-2 criteria and the PRISMA guidelines.Eleven studies using eight risk stratification tools met the inclusion criteria. The percentage of MACE in the patients stratified as suitable for discharge, and the percentage of patients whose scores would have recommended admission that did not experience a MACE event were used as comparisons. Using the findings of a survey of emergency physicians that found a 1% MACE rate acceptable in discharged patients, the EDACS-ADP was considered the best performer. EDACS-ADP had one of the lowest rates of MACE in those discharged (3/1148, 0.3%) and discharged one of the highest percentage of patients (44.5%). Only the GRACE tool discharged more patients (69% - all patients with scores <100) but had a MACE rate of 0.3% in discharged patients. The HFA/CSANZ guidelines achieved zero cases of MACE but discharged only 1.3% of patients.EDACS-ADP can potentially increase diagnostic efficiency of patients presenting at ED with chest pain. Further assessment of tool in a rural context is recommended.

  3. Bioinformatic tools for using whole genome sequencing as a rapid high resolution diagnostic typing tool when tracing bioterror organisms in the food and feed chain.

    PubMed

    Segerman, Bo; De Medici, Dario; Ehling Schulz, Monika; Fach, Patrick; Fenicia, Lucia; Fricker, Martina; Wielinga, Peter; Van Rotterdam, Bart; Knutsson, Rickard

    2011-03-01

    The rapid technological development in the field of parallel sequencing offers new opportunities when tracing and tracking microorganisms in the food and feed chain. If a bioterror organism is deliberately spread it is of crucial importance to get as much information as possible regarding the strain as fast as possible to aid the decision process and select suitable controls, tracing and tracking tools. A lot of efforts have been made to sequence multiple strains of potential bioterror organisms so there is a relatively large set of reference genomes available. This study is focused on how to use parallel sequencing for rapid phylogenomic analysis and screen for genetic modifications. A bioinformatic methodology has been developed to rapidly analyze sequence data with minimal post-processing. Instead of assembling the genome, defining genes, defining orthologous relations and calculating distances, the present method can achieve a similar high resolution directly from the raw sequence data. The method defines orthologous sequence reads instead of orthologous genes and the average similarity of the core genome (ASC) is calculated. The sequence reads from the core and from the non-conserved genomic regions can also be separated for further analysis. Finally, the comparison algorithm is used to visualize the phylogenomic diversity of the bacterial bioterror organisms Bacillus anthracis and Clostridium botulinum using heat plot diagrams.

  4. Adult stem cells: simply a tool for regenerative medicine or an additional piece in the puzzle of human aging?

    PubMed

    Tollervey, James R; Lunyak, Victoria V

    2011-12-15

    Adult stem cells have taken center stage in current research related to regenerative medicine and pharmacogenomic studies seeking new therapeutic interventions. As we learn more about these cells, it is becoming apparent that the next big leap in our understanding of adult stem cell biology and adult stem cell aging will depend on the integration of approaches from various disciplines. Major advances and technological breakthroughs at the crossroad of fields such as biomaterials, genomics, epigenomics, and proteomics will enable the design of better tools to model human diseases, and warrant safe usage of adult stem cells in the clinic.

  5. A review on epilepsy in the horse and the potential of Ambulatory EEG as a diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    van der Ree, Marleen; Wijnberg, Inge

    2012-01-01

    Epilepsy in the horse is diagnosed based on clinical signs, but diagnosing can be difficult if a grand mal is not present. The future prospects of the horse and potentially the safety of the owner depend on an accurate diagnosis. This review presents information on epilepsy and focuses on the diagnostic potential of (Ambulatory) electroencephalography ((A) EEG). An epileptic seizure is a brain disorder, which expresses itself as a recurrent episode of involuntary abnormal behaviour. The aetiology can originate from inside or outside the brain or is idiopathic. Besides those categories, seizures can be classified as generalised or partial. A typical generalised tonic-clonic seizure is characterised by the prodrome, the ictus and the post-ictal phase. EEG is the graphic recording of rhythmic bioelectric activity which originates predominantly from the cerebral cortex. In human medicine, the 10/20 international basis system for electrode placement is used. This makes comparison more reliable and consistent. The normal human brainwaves recorded are alpha, beta, theta and delta waves. In the horse, fewer descriptions of normal signals are available. In humans suffering from epilepsy, spikes, complexes, spike-and-wave discharges and rhythmical multi-spike activity are seen. In horses suffering from epilepsy, spikes, sharp waves and spike-and-wave discharges are seen. In humans, AEEG has numerous advantages above short-duration EEG in diagnosing epilepsy or intracranial pathology. In future, AEEG might be useful to record brain signals in awake horses expressing their behaviour under natural circumstances.

  6. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health.

    PubMed

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; Van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James; Tinker, M Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a 'reference' range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell-cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (C(T)) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  7. Evaluation of the role of corpus cavernosum electromyography as a noninvasive diagnostic tool in male erectile dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Aggour, A; Mostafa, H; el-Shawaf, H

    1998-01-01

    Corpus cavernosum electromyography (EMG) and its evolution: single potential analysis of cavernous electrical activity (SPACE) seem to be promising diagnostic methods in the evaluation of erectile dysfunction and smooth muscle integrity. Our study concentrates on the role of EMG in the evaluation of corpus cavernosum smooth muscles, using it as a noninvasive technique for demonstrating autonomic erectile dysfunction through their influence on recording SPACE and consequent proper selection of patients for different therapeutic modalities. A total of 80 male patients were examined for the feasibility of transcutaneous registration of cavernous electrical activity with a 2-channel electrophysiological unit (Evamatic 2000, Dantec) with two surface electrodes bilaterally placed on the penile shaft. Ten patients had normal erectile function, but complained of other urological symptoms. They served as the controls for normal electrical activity. Fifty patients with organic impotence of nonvascular (neurogenic) or vascular (venogenic, arteriogenic) aetiologies were subjected to EMG in both the flaccid and the erect state. On the basis of the EMG patterns the patients were divided into the following groups: 34 patients having normal tracing in both the flaccid and the erect state, and 21 patients showing abnormal patterns of waves with evidence of autonomic neurogenic dysfunction and incomplete smooth muscle relaxation. Of the latter 4 had long-standing diabetes mellitus and 4 had spinal injuries. PMID:9569116

  8. CLIPS: A tool for corn disease diagnostic system and an aid to neural network for automated knowledge acquisition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wu, Cathy; Taylor, Pam; Whitson, George; Smith, Cathy

    1990-01-01

    This paper describes the building of a corn disease diagnostic expert system using CLIPS, and the development of a neural expert system using the fact representation method of CLIPS for automated knowledge acquisition. The CLIPS corn expert system diagnoses 21 diseases from 52 symptoms and signs with certainty factors. CLIPS has several unique features. It allows the facts in rules to be broken down to object-attribute-value (OAV) triples, allows rule-grouping, and fires rules based on pattern-matching. These features combined with the chained inference engine result to a natural user query system and speedy execution. In order to develop a method for automated knowledge acquisition, an Artificial Neural Expert System (ANES) is developed by a direct mapping from the CLIPS system. The ANES corn expert system uses the same OAV triples in the CLIPS system for its facts. The LHS and RHS facts of the CLIPS rules are mapped into the input and output layers of the ANES, respectively; and the inference engine of the rules is imbedded in the hidden layer. The fact representation by OAC triples gives a natural grouping of the rules. These features allow the ANES system to automate rule-generation, and make it efficient to execute and easy to expand for a large and complex domain.

  9. Gene transcription in sea otters (Enhydra lutris); development of a diagnostic tool for sea otter and ecosystem health

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bowen, Lizabeth; Miles, A. Keith; Murray, Michael; Haulena, Martin; Tuttle, Judy; van Bonn, William; Adams, Lance; Bodkin, James L.; Ballachey, Brenda; Estes, James A.; Tinker, M. Tim; Keister, Robin; Stott, Jeffrey L.

    2012-01-01

    Gene transcription analysis for diagnosing or monitoring wildlife health requires the ability to distinguish pathophysiological change from natural variation. Herein, we describe methodology for the development of quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays to measure differential transcript levels of multiple immune function genes in the sea otter (Enhydra lutris); sea otter-specific qPCR primer sequences for the genes of interest are defined. We establish a ‘reference’ range of transcripts for each gene in a group of clinically healthy captive and free-ranging sea otters. The 10 genes of interest represent multiple physiological systems that play a role in immuno-modulation, inflammation, cell protection, tumour suppression, cellular stress response, xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, antioxidant enzymes and cell–cell adhesion. The cycle threshold (CT) measures for most genes were normally distributed; the complement cytolysis inhibitor was the exception. The relative enumeration of multiple gene transcripts in simple peripheral blood samples expands the diagnostic capability currently available to assess the health of sea otters in situ and provides a better understanding of the state of their environment.

  10. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  11. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed. PMID:26411443

  12. New Diagnostics for Childhood Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Chiang, Silvia S; Swanson, Douglas S; Starke, Jeffrey R

    2015-09-01

    The challenge of diagnosing childhood tuberculosis (TB) results from its paucibacillary nature and the difficulties of sputum collection in children. Mycobacterial culture, the diagnostic gold standard, provides microbiological confirmation in only 30% to 40% of childhood pulmonary TB cases and takes up to 6 weeks to result. Conventional drug susceptibility testing requires an additional 2 to 4 weeks after culture confirmation. In response to the low sensitivity and long wait time of the traditional diagnostic approach, many new assays have been developed. These new tools have shortened time to result; however, none of them offer greater sensitivity than culture.

  13. Sequential simulation (SqS) of clinical pathways: a tool for public and patient engagement in point-of-care diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Huddy, Jeremy R; Weldon, Sharon-Marie; Ralhan, Shvaita; Painter, Tim; Hanna, George B; Kneebone, Roger; Bello, Fernando

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Public and patient engagement (PPE) is fundamental to healthcare research. To facilitate effective engagement in novel point-of-care tests (POCTs), the test and downstream consequences of the result need to be considered. Sequential simulation (SqS) is a tool to represent patient journeys and the effects of intervention at each and subsequent stages. This case study presents a process evaluation of SqS as a tool for PPE in the development of a volatile organic compound-based breath test POCT for the diagnosis of oesophagogastric (OG) cancer. Setting Three 3-hour workshops in central London. Participants 38 members of public attended a workshop, 26 (68%) had no prior experience of the OG cancer diagnostic pathway. Interventions Clinical pathway SqS was developed from a storyboard of a patient, played by an actor, noticing symptoms of oesophageal cancer and following a typical diagnostic pathway. The proposed breath testing strategy was then introduced and incorporated into a second SqS to demonstrate pathway impact. Facilitated group discussions followed each SqS. Primary and secondary outcome measures Evaluation was conducted through pre-event and postevent questionnaires, field notes and analysis of audiovisual recordings. Results 38 participants attended a workshop. All participants agreed they were able to contribute to discussions and like the idea of an OG cancer breath test. Five themes emerged related to the proposed new breath test including awareness of OG cancer, barriers to testing and diagnosis, design of new test device, new clinical pathway and placement of test device. 3 themes emerged related to the use of SqS: participatory engagement, simulation and empathetic engagement, and why participants attended. Conclusions SqS facilitated a shared immersive experience for participants and researchers that led to the coconstruction of knowledge that will guide future research activities and be of value to stakeholders concerned with the invention

  14. Value of Quantitative and Qualitative Analyses of Circulating Cell-Free DNA as Diagnostic Tools for Hepatocellular Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Liao, Wenjun; Mao, Yilei; Ge, Penglei; Yang, Huayu; Xu, Haifeng; Lu, Xin; Sang, Xinting; Zhong, Shouxian

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Qualitative and quantitative analyses of circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA) are potential methods for the detection of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Many studies have evaluated these approaches, but the results have been variable. This meta-analysis is the first to synthesize these published results and evaluate the use of circulating cfDNA values for HCC diagnosis. All articles that met our inclusion criteria were assessed using QUADAS guidelines after the literature research. We also investigated 3 subgroups in this meta-analysis: qualitative analysis of abnormal concentrations of circulating cfDNA; qualitative analysis of single-gene methylation alterations; and multiple analyses combined with alpha-fetoprotein (AFP). Statistical analyses were performed using the software Stata 12.0. We synthesized these published results and calculated accuracy measures (pooled sensitivity and specificity, positive/negative likelihood ratios [PLRs/NLRs], diagnostic odds ratios [DORs], and corresponding 95% confidence intervals [95% CIs]). Data were pooled using bivariate generalized linear mixed model. Furthermore, summary receiver operating characteristic curves and area under the curve (AUC) were used to summarize overall test performance. Heterogeneity and publication bias were also examined. A total of 2424 subjects included 1280 HCC patients in 22 studies were recruited in this meta-analysis. Pooled sensitivity and specificity, PLR, NLR, DOR, AUC, and CIs of quantitative analysis were 0.741 (95% CI: 0.610–0.840), 0.851 (95% CI: 0.718–0.927), 4.970 (95% CI: 2.694–9.169), 0.304 (95% CI: 0.205–0.451), 16.347 (95% CI: 8.250–32.388), and 0.86 (95% CI: 0.83–0.89), respectively. For qualitative analysis, the values were 0.538 (95% CI: 0.401–0.669), 0.944 (95% CI: 0.889–0.972), 9.545 (95% CI: 5.298–17.196), 0.490 (95% CI: 0.372–0.646), 19.491 (95% CI: 10.458–36.329), and 0.87 (95% CI: 0.84–0.90), respectively. After combining with AFP assay, the

  15. Evaluation of ultrasonography as a diagnostic tool in the management of head and neck facial space infections: A clinical study

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Ajaz; Ahmed, Irshad; Hassan, Shahid; Samoon, Amina; Ali, Babar

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Superficial facial space infections represent a significant amount of the dental problems that present to hospital. Determining whether an odontogenic swelling is a cellulitis or abscess is difficult, but important as both may require different treatments. The use of an ultrasound may aid in differentiating cellulitis and abscess. This study was done to compare the accuracy of clinical examination alone versus ultrasonography (USG) in the diagnosis of cellulitis and abscess in symptomatic patients with a diagnosis of superficial facial space infection. Materials and Methods: Twenty patients (1870 years) diagnosed as superficial facial space infections by clinical and radiographic examinations were included in the study and patients with significant medical conditions were excluded. The provisional clinical diagnosis was made after a thorough history was taken and clinical examination was performed to determine if the swelling was a cellulitis or abscess. Swelling was then evaluated using the ultrasonic transducer which was placed over the swelling to aid the diagnosis which was again recorded. An incision and drainage procedure was performed after the administration of local anesthesia. The success of the ultrasound intervention versus clinical examination was based on whether frank exudation was detected during incision and drainage of such swellings. Results: The statistical analysis found that USG is a valuable diagnostic aid for detection of abscess or cellulitis in head and neck facial space infections. Interpretation and Conclusion: The findings of this prospective analysis indicate that there was statistical difference between clinical examination alone and USG in making the correct diagnosis. The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive, negative predictive, and accuracy were not similar for all methods tested. From the results of this study, ultrasound is recommended as an adjunct to clinical examination in differentiating between

  16. Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi O:1,9,12 polysaccharide-protein conjugate as a diagnostic tool for typhoid fever.

    PubMed

    Zuñiga, Jessica; Lillo, Luis; Shin, Junghee J; Machavarapu, Rajya L; Quiroga, Teresa; Goycoolea, Manuela; Matsuhiro, Betty; Aron-Hott, L; Godfrey, Henry P; Cabello, Felipe C

    2005-09-01

    Serologic tests play an important role in diagnosis of typhoid fever. In an effort to develop a more defined reagent for these tests, purified Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi (ST) O:1,9,12 polysaccharide was conjugated to human serum albumin (HSA), and the conjugate was purified chromatographically to yield a reagent with 2 moles ST O polysaccharide per mole HSA. In 40 patients with bacteriologically confirmed typhoid fever, significant dot immunobinding titers (> or =20,000) were present in 28 (70%) tested with 100 ng of ST O antigen-HSA (ST O-HSA) conjugate, in 38 (95%) tested with 100 ng of ST lipopolysaccharide, and in 16 (40%) tested with purified unconjugated ST O chains. In sera from 22 patients with other nontyphoid fevers, 2 (9.1%) had such reactivities with 100 ng of ST O-HSA, 1 (4.5%) had such reactivity with 100 ng of ST lipopolysaccharide (4.5%), and none reacted with 100 ng of unconjugated ST O chains. None of the 17 healthy-control sera reacted significantly with any of the ST reagents. None of the patient or control sera reacted with unconjugated HSA. The sensitivity of dot immunobinding for typhoid fever was 70% with 100 ng of ST O-HSA, somewhat lower than that with 100 ng of ST lipopolysaccharide (95%) but similar to that of the Widal H agglutination test with a > or =1/160 cutoff (74%). Specificities of these tests were 91%, 95%, and 86%, respectively. These preliminary results suggest that ST O polysaccharide-protein conjugates could provide a nontoxic, easily quality-controlled synthetic reagent for analysis of human immune responses to ST as well as for the development of new diagnostics and vaccines for typhoid fever.

  17. Optical-fiber-coupled inferometric measurement of tympanic membrane temperature: a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Sade, Sharon; Fishman, Gadi; Ophir, Dov; Grankin, Mila; Katzir, Abraham

    1998-07-01

    A novel infrared (IR) transparent optical fiber coupled to a hand held otoscope and a radiometer was constructed and used to measure the temperatures of the tympanic membrane (TM) and to distinguish between diseased and healthy middle ears. A greater temperature difference between TM readings was found when Acute Otitis Media (AOM) existed in one of the ears examined. This supports the hypothesis that acute inflammation of the middle ear will result in elevated local temperature when measured in such a way that the reading is taken only from the TM without interference of the external canal. The use of an optical fiber enabled temperature measurements of the TM with high spatial resolution eliminating the external ear canal interference. A small patient population was examined and the initial results were statistically significant. In the hands of the primary care physician, this tool would prevent misdiagnosis of AOM preventing indiscriminate use of antibiotics and avoiding complications by early diagnosis.

  18. Nematode.net update 2011: addition of data sets and tools featuring next-generation sequencing data.

    PubMed

    Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Heizer, Esley; Taylor, Christina M; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2012-01-01

    Nematode.net (http://nematode.net) has been a publicly available resource for studying nematodes for over a decade. In the past 3 years, we reorganized Nematode.net to provide more user-friendly navigation through the site, a necessity due to the explosion of data from next-generation sequencing platforms. Organism-centric portals containing dynamically generated data are available for over 56 different nematode species. Next-generation data has been added to the various data-mining portals hosted, including NemaBLAST and NemaBrowse. The NemaPath metabolic pathway viewer builds associations using KOs, rather than ECs to provide more accurate and fine-grained descriptions of proteins. Two new features for data analysis and comparative genomics have been added to the site. NemaSNP enables the user to perform population genetics studies in various nematode populations using next-generation sequencing data. HelmCoP (Helminth Control and Prevention) as an independent component of Nematode.net provides an integrated resource for storage, annotation and comparative genomics of helminth genomes to aid in learning more about nematode genomes, as well as drug, pesticide, vaccine and drug target discovery. With this update, Nematode.net will continue to realize its original goal to disseminate diverse bioinformatic data sets and provide analysis tools to the broad scientific community in a useful and user-friendly manner.

  19. RNA Aptamer That Specifically Binds to Mycolactone and Serves as a Diagnostic Tool for Diagnosis of Buruli Ulcer

    PubMed Central

    Aboagye, Samuel Yaw; Otchere, Isaac Darko; Liao, Albert M.; Caltagirone, Thomas G.; Yeboah-Manu, Dorothy

    2016-01-01

    most promising aptamer, Apt-3683 showed a discernible cleavage difference relative to the non-specific autocatalysis over a 3-minute time course. Conclusion This preliminary proof-of-concept indicates that diagnosis of BUD with RNA aptamers is feasible and can be used as point of care upon incorporation into a diagnostic platform. PMID:27776120

  20. Trypanosome infection in dromedary camels in Eastern Ethiopia: Prevalence, relative performance of diagnostic tools and host related risk factors.

    PubMed

    Fikru, Regassa; Andualem, Yimer; Getachew, Terefe; Menten, Joris; Hasker, Epco; Merga, Bekana; Goddeeris, Bruno Maria; Büscher, Philippe

    2015-07-30

    A cross-sectional study was conducted in Chifra and Dewe districts of Afar region, Eastern Ethiopia, to determine the prevalence, agreement between diagnostic tests and host related risk factors of trypanosome infection in camel. An overall prevalence of 2%, 24.1%, 21.3%, 9.5% and 7.8% was recorded with respectively Giemsa stained thin blood smear, CATT/T. evansi, RoTat1.2 PCR, 18S PCR and ITS-1PCR in a cohort of 399 animals. Only one T. vivax infection was confirmed by TvPRAC PCR indicating T. evansi as the predominant species affecting camels in the study area. No single animal was positive when tested with T. evansi type B specific EVAB PCR. There was slight agreement between the CATT/T. evansi and the molecular tests. Among the PCR methods, RoTat 1.2 PCR yielded a significantly higher positivity rate compared to 18S PCR and ITS-1 PCR. There was no significant difference in the positivity rate observed in each gender of camels (p>0.05). The positivity rate was significantly higher in camels with poor body condition and in older animals when tested using the CATT/T.evansi or RoTat 1.2 PCR (p>0.05). Camels that tested positive with all tests had significantly lower PCV's (p<0.05). This study provides further evidence that T. evansi is endemic in the Afar region of Ethiopia. The latent class analysis indicated an estimate overall prevalence of 19% (95% CI: 13-28). Moreover, the model indicated low sensitivity of CATT/T. evansi (43%) and the PCR tests (39-53%) but higher specificity of the PCR tests (86-99%) and low specificity of CATT/T. evansi (80%). This study suggests that improved sensitivity and reliability of the tests would help diagnosis of trypanosomosis. Further studies are required to determine the prevalence of clinical disease and losses due to trypanosomosis.

  1. Fourier transform infrared microspectroscopy as a diagnostic tool for distinguishing between normal and malignant human gastric tissue.

    PubMed

    Colagar, Abasalt Hosseinzadeh; Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Khadjvand, Tahereh

    2011-09-01

    Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) microspectroscopy can be considered to be a fast and non-invasive tool for distinguishing between normal and cancerous cells and tissues without the need for laborious and invasive sampling procedures. Gastric samples from four patients (age, 65±2 years) were analysed. Samples were obtained from the organs removed during gastrectomy and then classified as normal or cancerous. Classification was based on histopathological examinations at our institution. Formalin-fixed sections of gastric tissue were analysed by FTIR-microspectroscopy. To characterize differences between sections of normal and cancerous tissue, specific regions of the spectra were analysed to study variations in the levels of metabolites. To distinguish between two conditions (normal and cancerous), changes in the relative intensity of bands in the range 600-4000 cm⁻¹ were analysed. A FTIR spectral map of the bands in the region 2800-3100 cm⁻¹ and 900-1800 cm⁻¹ were created to analyse pathological changes in tissues. The limited data available showed that normal gastric tissue had stronger absorption than cancerous tissue over a wide region in the four patients. There was a significant decrease in total biomolecular components for cancerous tissue compared with normal tissue.

  2. High-accuracy diagnostic tool for electron cloud observation in the LHC based on synchronous phase measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Esteban Müller, J. F.; Baudrenghien, P.; Mastoridis, T.; Shaposhnikova, E.; Valuch, D.

    2015-11-01

    Electron cloud effects, which include heat load in the cryogenic system, pressure rise, and beam instabilities, are among the main intensity limitations for the LHC operation with 25 ns spaced bunches. A new observation tool was proposed and developed to monitor the e-cloud activity and it has already been used successfully during the LHC run 1 (2010-2012) and it is being intensively used in operation during the start of the LHC run 2 (2015-2018). It is based on the fact that the power loss of each bunch due to e-cloud can be estimated using bunch-by-bunch measurement of the synchronous phase. The measurements were done using the existing beam phase module of the low-level rf control system. In order to achieve the very high accuracy required, corrections for reflection in the cables and for systematic errors need to be applied followed by a post-processing of the measurements. Results clearly show the e-cloud buildup along the bunch trains and its time evolution during each LHC fill as well as from fill to fill. Measurements during the 2012 LHC scrubbing run reveal a progressive reduction in the e-cloud activity and therefore a decrease in the secondary electron yield. The total beam power loss can be computed as a sum of the contributions from all bunches and compared with the heat load deposited in the cryogenic system.

  3. Quantitative Image Analysis of Epithelial and Stromal Area in Histological Sections of Colorectal Cancer: An Emerging Diagnostic Tool

    PubMed Central

    Rogojanu, R.; Thalhammer, T.; Thiem, U.; Heindl, A.; Mesteri, I.; Seewald, A.; Jäger, W.; Smochina, C.; Ellinger, I.; Bises, G.

    2015-01-01

    In colorectal cancer (CRC), an increase in the stromal (S) area with the reduction of the epithelial (E) parts has been suggested as an indication of tumor progression. Therefore, an automated image method capable of discriminating E and S areas would allow an improved diagnosis. Immunofluorescence staining was performed on paraffin-embedded sections from colorectal tumors (16 samples from patients with liver metastasis and 18 without). Noncancerous tumor adjacent mucosa (n = 5) and normal mucosa (n = 4) were taken as controls. Epithelial cells were identified by an anti-keratin 8 (K8) antibody. Large tissue areas (5–63 mm2/slide) including tumor center, tumor front, and adjacent mucosa were scanned using an automated microscopy system (TissueFAXS). With our newly developed algorithms, we showed that there is more K8-immunoreactive E in the tumor center than in tumor adjacent and normal mucosa. Comparing patients with and without metastasis, the E/S ratio decreased by 20% in the tumor center and by 40% at tumor front in metastatic samples. The reduction of E might be due to a more aggressive phenotype in metastasis patients. The novel software allowed a detailed morphometric analysis of cancer tissue compartments as tools for objective quantitative measurements, reduced analysis time, and increased reproducibility of the data. PMID:26579535

  4. Effect of Ti Addition on Carbide Modification and the Microscopic Simulation of Impact Toughness in High-Carbon Cr-V Tool Steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cho, Ki Sub; Kim, Sang Il; Park, Sung Soo; Choi, Won Suk; Moon, Hee Kwon; Kwon, Hoon

    2016-01-01

    In D7 tool steel, which contains high levels of primary carbides, the influence of carbide modification by Ti addition was quantitatively analyzed. Considering the Griffith-Irwin energy criterion for crack growth, the impact energy was evaluated by substituting a microscopic factor of the normalized number density of carbides cracked during hardness indentation tests for the crack length. The impact energy was enhanced with Ti addition because Ti reduced and refined the primary M7C3 carbide phase of elongated morphology, reducing the probability of crack generation.

  5. The Monte Carlo method as a tool for statistical characterisation of differential and additive phase shifting algorithms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miranda, M.; Dorrío, B. V.; Blanco, J.; Diz-Bugarín, J.; Ribas, F.

    2011-01-01

    Several metrological applications base their measurement principle in the phase sum or difference between two patterns, one original s(r,phi) and another modified t(r,phi+Δphi). Additive or differential phase shifting algorithms directly recover the sum 2phi+Δphi or the difference Δphi of phases without requiring prior calculation of the individual phases. These algorithms can be constructed, for example, from a suitable combination of known phase shifting algorithms. Little has been written on the design, analysis and error compensation of these new two-stage algorithms. Previously we have used computer simulation to study, in a linear approach or with a filter process in reciprocal space, the response of several families of them to the main error sources. In this work we present an error analysis that uses Monte Carlo simulation to achieve results in good agreement with those obtained with spatial and temporal methods.

  6. Diagnostic Tool for Assessing Overactive Bladder Symptoms: Could the International Prostate Symptom Storage Subscore Replace the Overactive Bladder Symptom Score?

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The goal of this study was to compare the International Prostate Symptom Storage Subscore (IPSS-s) and the overactive bladder symptom score (OABSS) as tools for assessing the symptoms of overactive bladder (OAB). Methods A cross-sectional study was conducted of a sample of 1,341 patients aged 50 years and older with lower urinary tract complaints who had undergone a medical examination at one of several centers. For each patient, we reviewed the International Prostate Symptom Score and the OABSS. The patients were divided into 2 groups according to their IPSS-s result (group 1, score ≥6; group 2, score<6) and into another 2 groups according to their OABSS diagnosis (group 3, OAB patients; group 4, non-OAB patients). We determined whether the OABSS varied to a statistically significant extent between groups 1 and 2. Furthermore, we evaluated the correlation of IPSS-s severity with the OABSS results in group 3, and the OAB diagnosis rate was compared between groups 1 and 2. Results In groups 1 and 2, the OABSS results were not found to vary to a statistically significant extent (P=0.326). In group 3, no significant correlation was found between IPSS-s severity and the OABSS results (P=0.385). In the prevalence analysis, no statistically significant difference was found among the groups, and the receiver operating characteristic curve showed an area under the curve of 0.474. Conclusions The results of this cross-sectional analysis suggest that the IPSS-s and the OABSS are not significantly correlated. Although both scores are used to measure OAB symptoms, the simultaneous use of IPSS-s and OABSS is not warranted. PMID:27706011

  7. Generalized Additive Models Used to Predict Species Abundance in the Gulf of Mexico: An Ecosystem Modeling Tool

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, Michael; Ainsworth, Cameron H.

    2013-01-01

    Spatially explicit ecosystem models of all types require an initial allocation of biomass, often in areas where fisheries independent abundance estimates do not exist. A generalized additive modelling (GAM) approach is used to describe the abundance of 40 species groups (i.e. functional groups) across the Gulf of Mexico (GoM) using a large fisheries independent data set (SEAMAP) and climate scale oceanographic conditions. Predictor variables included in the model are chlorophyll a, sediment type, dissolved oxygen, temperature, and depth. Despite the presence of a large number of zeros in the data, a single GAM using a negative binomial distribution was suitable to make predictions of abundance for multiple functional groups. We present an example case study using pink shrimp (Farfantepenaeus duroarum) and compare the results to known distributions. The model successfully predicts the known areas of high abundance in the GoM, including those areas where no data was inputted into the model fitting. Overall, the model reliably captures areas of high and low abundance for the large majority of functional groups observed in SEAMAP. The result of this method allows for the objective setting of spatial distributions for numerous functional groups across a modeling domain, even where abundance data may not exist. PMID:23691223

  8. MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry fingerprinting: A diagnostic tool to differentiate dematiaceous fungi Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys chlorohalonata.

    PubMed

    Gruenwald, Maike; Rabenstein, Andreas; Remesch, Markko; Kuever, Jan

    2015-08-01

    Stachybotrys chartarum and Stachybotrys chlorohalonata are two closely related species. Unambiguous identification of these two species is a challenging task if relying solely on morphological criteria and therefore smarter and less labor-intensive approaches are needed. Here we show that even such closely related species of fungi as S. chartarum and S. chlorohalonata are unequivocally discriminated by their highly reproducible MALDI-TOF-MS fingerprints (matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry fingerprints). We examined 19 Stachybotrys and one Aspergillus isolate by MALDI-TOF-MS. All but one isolate produced melanin containing conidia on malt extract agar. Mass spectra were obtained in good quality from the analysis of hyaline and darkly pigmented conidia by circumventing the property of melanin which causes signal suppression. MALDI-TOF fingerprint analysis clearly discriminated not only the two morphologically similar species S. chartarum and S. chlorohalonata from each other but separated them precisely from Stachybotrys bisbyi and Aspergillus versicolor isolates. Furthermore, even S. chartarum chemotypes A and S could be differentiated into two distinct groups by their MALDI-TOF fingerprints. The chemotypes of S. chartarum isolates were identified by trichodiene synthase 5 (tri5) sequences prior to mass spectra analysis. Additionally, species identities of all isolates were verified by their 18S rRNA and tri5 gene sequences. PMID:26036596

  9. X-Ray Reflected Spectra from Accretion Disk Models. II. Diagnostic Tools for X-Ray Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Garcia, J.; Kallman, T. R.; Mushotzky, R. F.

    2011-01-01

    We present a comprehensive study of the emission spectra from accreting sources. We use our new reflection code to compute the reflected spectra from an accretion disk illuminated by X-rays. This set of models covers different values of ionization parameter, solar iron abundance and photon index for the illuminating spectrum. These models also include the most complete and recent atomic data for the inner-shell of the iron and oxygen isonuclear sequences. We concentrate our analysis to the 2 - 10 keV energy region, and in particular to the iron K-shell emission lines. We show the dependency of the equivalent width (EW) of the Fe Ka with the ionization parameter. The maximum value of the EW is approx. 800 eV for models with log Epsilon approx. 1.5, and decreases monotonically as Epsilon increases. For lower values of Epsilon the Fe K(alpha) EW decreases to a minimum near log Epsilon approx. 0.8. We produce simulated CCD observations based on our reflection models. For low ionized, reflection dominated cases, the 2 -10 keV energy region shows a very broad, curving continuum that cannot be represented by a simple power-law. We show that in addition to the Fe K-shell emission, there are other prominent features such as the Si and S L(alpha) lines, a blend of Ar VIII-XI lines, and the Ca x K(alpha) line. In some cases the S xv blends with the He-like Si RRC producing a broad feature that cannot be reproduced by a simple Gaussian profile. This could be used as a signature of reflection.

  10. Polymeric micelles as a diagnostic tool for image-guided drug delivery and radiotherapy of HER2 overexpressing breast cancer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoang, Nu Bryan

    Block copolymer micelles have emerged as a viable formulation strategy with several drugs relying on this technology in clinical evaluation. To date, information on the tumor penetration and intratumoral distribution of block copolymer micelles (BCM) has been quite limited. Thus, there is impetus to develop a radiolabeled formulation that can be used to gain invaluable insight into the intratumoral distribution of the BCMs. This information could then be used to direct formulation strategies as a means to optimize treatment outcomes. This thesis describes the synthesis and characterization of a targeted block copolymer micelle system based on poly(ethylene glycol)-block -poly(epsilon-caprolactone) labeled with the radionuclide Indium-111 (111In). The incorporation of the imageable component, 111In permits pursuit of image-guided drug delivery for real-time monitoring of tumor localization and intratumoral distribution. Intracellular trafficking of drugs and therapies such as Auger electron emitting radionuclides to perinuclear and nuclear regions of cells is critical to realizing their full therapeutic potential. HER2 specific antibodies (trastuzumab fab fragments) and nuclear localization signal peptides were conjugated to the surface of the BCMs to direct uptake in HER2 expressing cells and subsequent localization in the cell nucleus. Cell uptake was HER2 density dependent, confirming receptor-mediated internalization of the BCMs. Importantly, conjugation of NLS resulted in a significant increase in nuclear uptake of the radionuclide 111In. Successful nuclear targeting was shown to improve the antiproliferative effect of the Auger electrons. In addition, a significant radiation enhancement effect was observed by concurrent delivery of low-dose MTX and 111In in all breast cancer cell lines evaluated. Imaging enabled the accurate quantification of the specific tumor uptake of the micelles and visualization of their degree of tumor penetration in relation to

  11. Mutation Analysis of H3F3A and H3F3B as a Diagnostic Tool for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone and Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cleven, Arjen H G; Höcker, Saskia; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge; Szuhai, Karoly; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-11-01

    Specific H3F3A driver mutations and IDH2 mutations were recently described in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and H3F3B driver mutations in chondroblastoma; these may be helpful as a diagnostic tool for giant cell-containing tumors of the bone. Using Sanger sequencing, we determined the frequency of H3F3A, H3F3B, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations in GCTBs (n=60), chondroblastomas (n=12), and other giant cell-containing tumors (n=24), including aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, and telangiectatic osteosarcoma. To find an easy applicable marker for H3F3A mutation status, H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX expression were correlated with H3F3A mutations. In total, 69% of all GCTBs harbored an H3F3A (G34W/V) mutation compared with 0% of all other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001), whereas 70% of chondroblastomas showed an H3F3B (K36M) mutation compared with 0% of other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001). Diffuse H3K36 trimethylation positivity was more often seen in mutated H3F3A GCTBs compared with other giant cell-containing tumors (P=0.005). ATRX protein expression was not correlated with H3F3A mutation status. Hotspot mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were absent. Our results show that H3F3A and H3F3B mutation analysis appears to be a highly specific, although less sensitive, diagnostic tool for the distinction of GCTB and chondroblastoma from other giant cell-containing tumors. Although H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX immunohistochemistry cannot be used as surrogate markers for H3F3A mutation status, mutations in H3F3A are associated with increased H3K36 trimethylation, suggesting that methylation at this residue may play a role in the etiology of the disease.

  12. Mutation Analysis of H3F3A and H3F3B as a Diagnostic Tool for Giant Cell Tumor of Bone and Chondroblastoma.

    PubMed

    Cleven, Arjen H G; Höcker, Saskia; Briaire-de Bruijn, Inge; Szuhai, Karoly; Cleton-Jansen, Anne-Marie; Bovée, Judith V M G

    2015-11-01

    Specific H3F3A driver mutations and IDH2 mutations were recently described in giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) and H3F3B driver mutations in chondroblastoma; these may be helpful as a diagnostic tool for giant cell-containing tumors of the bone. Using Sanger sequencing, we determined the frequency of H3F3A, H3F3B, IDH1, and IDH2 mutations in GCTBs (n=60), chondroblastomas (n=12), and other giant cell-containing tumors (n=24), including aneurysmal bone cyst, chondromyxoid fibroma, and telangiectatic osteosarcoma. To find an easy applicable marker for H3F3A mutation status, H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX expression were correlated with H3F3A mutations. In total, 69% of all GCTBs harbored an H3F3A (G34W/V) mutation compared with 0% of all other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001), whereas 70% of chondroblastomas showed an H3F3B (K36M) mutation compared with 0% of other giant cell-containing tumors (P<0.001). Diffuse H3K36 trimethylation positivity was more often seen in mutated H3F3A GCTBs compared with other giant cell-containing tumors (P=0.005). ATRX protein expression was not correlated with H3F3A mutation status. Hotspot mutations in IDH1 or IDH2 were absent. Our results show that H3F3A and H3F3B mutation analysis appears to be a highly specific, although less sensitive, diagnostic tool for the distinction of GCTB and chondroblastoma from other giant cell-containing tumors. Although H3K36 trimethylation and ATRX immunohistochemistry cannot be used as surrogate markers for H3F3A mutation status, mutations in H3F3A are associated with increased H3K36 trimethylation, suggesting that methylation at this residue may play a role in the etiology of the disease. PMID:26457357

  13. Magnetic Resonance Imaging and GeneXpert: A Rapid and Accurate Diagnostic Tool for the Management of Tuberculosis of the Spine

    PubMed Central

    Chhabra, Harvinder Singh; Mahajan, Rajat; Chabra, Tarun; Batra, Sahil

    2016-01-01

    Study Design Retrospective study. Purpose The aim of this study was to analyze various diagnostic tools, including GeneXpert, for the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Overview of Literature Traditional diagnostic methods of microscopy, histology, and culture have low sensitivity and specificity for the management of tuberculosis of the spine. Methods Of the 262 treated cases of spinal tuberculosis, data on 1 year follow-up was available for 217 cases. Of these, only 145 cases with a confirmed diagnosis were selected for retrospective analysis. Results In 145 of the 217 patients (66.80%), diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of a culture. Of the 145 patients with a confirmed diagnosis, 98 (66.20%) patients were diagnosed on the basis of clinical presentation, whereas 123 (84.8%) exhibited a typical magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) picture. In 99 surgically treated patients, the diagnosis was confirmed on the basis of an intraoperative tissue biopsy. Among the 46 patients treated conservatively, 35 underwent a transpedicular biopsy, 4 patients underwent computed tomography-guided biopsy, 6 patients were diagnosed on the basis of material obtained from a cold abscess, and 1 patient underwent an open biopsy. The sensitivity of the culture for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 66.80% (145/217) in our patients. Among the cases in which GeneXpert was used, the sensitivity for the detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis was 93.4% (43/46). Moreover, the sensitivity of GeneXpert to detect rifampicin resistance was 100% (7/7) in our study. Conclusions Majority of the patients with tuberculosis of the spine can be diagnosed on the basis of a typical radiological presentation via MRI. In our study, 84.8% cases exhibited typical MRI findings. For patients presenting with atypical MRI features, a rapid and accurate diagnosis is possible by combining GeneXpert with MRI. The combined use of MRI and GeneXpert is a rapid and highly sensitive tool to diagnose

  14. Fungal Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Kozel, Thomas R.; Wickes, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Early diagnosis of fungal infection is critical to effective treatment. There are many impediments to diagnosis such as a diminishing number of clinical mycologists, cost, time to result, and requirements for sensitivity and specificity. In addition, fungal diagnostics must meet the contrasting needs presented by the increasing diversity of fungi found in association with the use of immunosuppressive agents in countries with high levels of medical care and the need for diagnostics in resource-limited countries where large numbers of opportunistic infections occur in patients with AIDS. Traditional approaches to diagnosis include direct microscopic examination of clinical samples, histopathology, culture, and serology. Emerging technologies include molecular diagnostics and antigen detection in clinical samples. Innovative new technologies that use molecular and immunoassay platforms have the potential to meet the needs of both resource-rich and resource-limited clinical environments. PMID:24692193

  15. Use of Universal 16S rRNA Gene PCR as a Diagnostic Tool for Venous Access Port-Related Bloodstream Infections

    PubMed Central

    Marín, M.; Martín-Rabadán, P.; Echenagusia, A.; Camúñez, F.; Rodríguez-Rosales, G.; Simó, G.; Echenagusia, M.; Bouza, E.

    2013-01-01

    Amplification of the universal 16S rRNA gene using PCR has improved the diagnostic yield of microbiological samples. However, no data have been reported on the reliability of this technique with venous access ports (VAPs). We assessed the utility of 16S rRNA PCR for the prediction of VAP-related bloodstream infection (VAP-RBSI). During a 2-year period, we prospectively received all VAPs removed by interventional radiologists. PCR and conventional cultures were performed using samples from the different VAP sites. We compared the results of PCR with those of conventional culture for patients with confirmed VAP-RBSI. We collected 219 VAPs from 219 patients. Conventional VAP culture revealed 15 episodes of VAP-RBSI. PCR revealed a further 4 episodes in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy which would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Moreover, it had a negative predictive value of 97.8% for the prediction of VAP-RBSI when it was performed using biofilm from the internal surface of the port. In conclusion, universal 16S rRNA PCR performed with samples from the inside of VAPs proved to be a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI. It increased detection of VAP-RBSI episodes by 21.1% in patients undergoing antibiotic therapy whose episodes would have gone undetected using conventional culture. Therefore, we propose a new application of 16S rRNA PCR as a useful tool for the diagnosis of VAP-RBSI in patients receiving antibiotic therapy. PMID:23254136

  16. Comparison of the time behavior in the separation of light and heavy materials in X-ray backscattered method as a diagnostic tool in inspection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faezeh, Rahmani; Sepideh Sadat, Azimi; Esmaiel, Bayat; Vahid, Dost Mohammadi

    2016-03-01

    X-ray backscattered method based on Compton backscattering is used in the inspection field. In contrast to transmission method, source and detectors are positioned on one side of the target, so in the situation that transmission inspection is difficult, X-ray backscattered method can be provided suitable data in the inspection field. Also, detection of hidden explosives and narcotic materials are very difficult or impossible in transmission methods. High intensity backscattered beam from light materials (low-Z), such as explosives and narcotics, in comparison to the heavy materials (high-Z), made this method as the strong technique in inspection. X-ray and gamma photons scattered by the light material (such as PE and PTFE) as well as heavy material (such as Fe and Cu) were studied using MCNPX2.6 Monte Carlo code. The results showed that rise time of pulse from light materials are slower than that of from heavy materials due to multi scattering of low energy photons in the light ones, so time expansion would occur in signals from light elements. If measurement is possible, the difference in time behavior can be used as a novel method in complementary diagnostic tool beside the use of pulse height in X-ray backscattered method.

  17. Neuropsychopharmacology and Neurogenetic Aspects of Executive Functioning: Should Reward Gene Polymorphisms Constitute a Diagnostic Tool to Identify Individuals at Risk for Impaired Judgment?

    PubMed Central

    Bowirrat, Abdalla; Chen, Thomas JH; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Madigan, Margaret; Chen, Amanda LH; Bailey, John A.; Braverman, Eric R.; Kerner, Mallory; Giordano, John; Morse, Siohban; Downs, B. William; Waite, Roger L.; Fornari, Frank; Armaly, Zaher; Blum, Kenneth

    2013-01-01

    Executive functions are processes that act in harmony to control behaviors necessary for maintaining focus and achieving outcomes. Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders is attributed to structural or functional pathology of brain networks involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain regions. The PFC receives innervations from different neurons associated with a number of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine (DA). Here we review findings on the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognitive and emotional behaviors. We suggest examination of multifactorial interactions of an individual’s genetic history, along with environmental risk factors, can assist in the characterization of executive functioning for that individual. Based upon the results of genetic studies we also propose genetic mapping as a probable diagnostic tool serving as a therapeutic adjunct for augmenting executive functioning capabilities. We conclude that preservation of the neurological underpinnings of executive functions requires the integrity of complex neural systems including the influence of specific genes and associated polymorphisms to provide adequate neurotransmission. PMID:22371275

  18. Quantum cascade laser based monitoring of CF{sub 2} radical concentration as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes

    SciTech Connect

    Hübner, M.; Lang, N.; Röpcke, J.; Helden, J. H. van; Zimmermann, S.; Schulz, S. E.; Buchholtz, W.

    2015-01-19

    Dielectric etching plasma processes for modern interlevel dielectrics become more and more complex by the introduction of new ultra low-k dielectrics. One challenge is the minimization of sidewall damage, while etching ultra low-k porous SiCOH by fluorocarbon plasmas. The optimization of this process requires a deeper understanding of the concentration of the CF{sub 2} radical, which acts as precursor in the polymerization of the etch sample surfaces. In an industrial dielectric etching plasma reactor, the CF{sub 2} radical was measured in situ using a continuous wave quantum cascade laser (cw-QCL) around 1106.2 cm{sup −1}. We measured Doppler-resolved ro-vibrational absorption lines and determined absolute densities using transitions in the ν{sub 3} fundamental band of CF{sub 2} with the aid of an improved simulation of the line strengths. We found that the CF{sub 2} radical concentration during the etching plasma process directly correlates to the layer structure of the etched wafer. Hence, this correlation can serve as a diagnostic tool of dielectric etching plasma processes. Applying QCL based absorption spectroscopy opens up the way for advanced process monitoring and etching controlling in semiconductor manufacturing.

  19. Improved tympanic thermometer based on a fiber optic infrared radiometer and an otoscope and its use as a new diagnostic tool for acute otitis media

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fishman, Gadi; DeRowe, Ari; Ophir, Eyal; Scharf, Vered; Shabtai, Abraham; Ophir, Dov; Katzir, Abraham

    1999-06-01

    Clinical diagnosis of acute otitis media (AOM) in children is not easy. It was assumed that there is a difference ΔT between the Tympanic Membrane (TM) temperatures in the two ears in unilateral AOM and that an accurate measurement of ΔT may improve the diagnosis accuracy. An IR transmitting fiber, made of AgClBr, was coupled into a hand held otoscope and was used for the non-contact (radiometric) measurements of TT, the TM temperature. Experiments were carried out, first, on a laboratory model that simulated the human ear, including an artificial tympanic membrane and an artificial ear canal. Measurements carried out using commercially available tympanic thermometers shown that the temperature Tc of the ear canal affected the results. Tc did not affect the fiberoptic radiometer, and this device accurately measured the true temperature, TT of the tympanic membrane. A prospective blinded sampling of the TM temperature was then performed on 48 children with suspected AOM. The mean temperature difference between the ears, for children with unilateral AOM was ΔT = (0.68 +/- 0.27)°C. For children with bilateral AOM it was ΔT = (0.14+/-0.10)°C (p<0.001). It was demonstrated that afor unilateral AOM the difference ΔT was proportional to the systemic temperature. In conclusion, the fiberoptic interferometric measurements of the TM can be a useful non-invasive diagnostic tool for AOM, when combined with other data.

  20. Neuropsychopharmacology and neurogenetic aspects of executive functioning: should reward gene polymorphisms constitute a diagnostic tool to identify individuals at risk for impaired judgment?

    PubMed

    Bowirrat, Abdalla; Chen, Thomas J H; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; Madigan, Margaret; Chen, Amanda Lh; Bailey, John A; Braverman, Eric R; Kerner, Mallory; Giordano, John; Morse, Siobhan; Downs, B William; Waite, Roger L; Fornari, Frank; Armaly, Zaher; Blum, Kenneth

    2012-04-01

    Executive functions are processes that act in harmony to control behaviors necessary for maintaining focus and achieving outcomes. Executive dysfunction in neuropsychiatric disorders is attributed to structural or functional pathology of brain networks involving prefrontal cortex (PFC) and its connections with other brain regions. The PFC receives innervations from different neurons associated with a number of neurotransmitters, especially dopamine (DA). Here we review findings on the contribution of PFC DA to higher-order cognitive and emotional behaviors. We suggest that examination of multifactorial interactions of an individual's genetic history, along with environmental risk factors, can assist in the characterization of executive functioning for that individual. Based upon the results of genetic studies, we also propose genetic mapping as a probable diagnostic tool serving as a therapeutic adjunct for augmenting executive functioning capabilities. We conclude that preservation of the neurological underpinnings of executive functions requires the integrity of complex neural systems including the influence of specific genes and associated polymorphisms to provide adequate neurotransmission.

  1. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of DAPI-stained nuclei as a novel diagnostic tool for the detection and classification of B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukemia.

    PubMed

    Yahav, Gilad; Hirshberg, Abraham; Salomon, Ophira; Amariglio, Ninette; Trakhtenbrot, Luba; Fixler, Dror

    2016-07-01

    B-cell chronic lymphocytic leukaemia (B-CLL) and B-cell precursor acute lymphoblastic leukaemia (B-ALL) are the most common type of leukaemia in adults and children, respectively. Today, fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) is the standard for detecting chromosomal aberrations that reflect adverse and favorable outcome. This study revealed a new, simple, and fast diagnostic tool to detect pathological cells by measuring and imaging the fluorescence lifetime (FLT) using FLT imaging microscopy (FLIM) of the peripheral blood (PB) cells of B-CLL samples that were labeled with the DNA binder, DAPI. The FLT of DAPI in healthy individuals was found to be 2.66 ± 0.12 ns. In contrast, PB cells of B-CLL and BM cells of B-ALL patients were characterized by a specific group distribution of the FLT values. The FLT of DAPI was divided into four subgroups, relative to 2.66 ns: short+, normal, prolonged, and prolonged+. These alterations could be related to different chromatin arrangements of B-CLL and B-ALL interphase nuclei. Notably, extremely long FLT of nuclear DAPI correlate with the presence of extra chromosome 12, while moderate increases compared to normal characterize the deletion of p53. Such correlations potentially enable a FLT-based rapid automatic diagnosis and classification of B-CLL even when the frequency of genetic and chromosomal abnormalities is low. © 2016 International Society for Advancement of Cytometry. PMID:27315046

  2. [New diagnostic tools for arrhythmias].

    PubMed

    Teres, C; Burri, H

    2015-05-27

    Cardiac arrhythmias are common conditions that often manifest themselves intermittently, thus complicating their diagnosis, particularly in the ambulatory setting. Recently, technological advances have facilitated public access to health applications and devices. This article reviews the available technologies and analyses their usefulness for the diagnosis of arrhythmias in the context of everyday clinical practice.

  3. Vereckei Criteria as a diagnostic tool amongst emergency medicine residents to distinguish between ventricular tachycardia and supra-ventricular tachycardia with aberrancy

    PubMed Central

    Baxi, Rupen P.; Hart, Kimberly W.; Vereckei, András; Miller, John; Chung, Sora; Chang, Wendy; Gottesman, Brent; Hunt, Meagan; Culyer, Ginger; Trimarco, Thomas; Willoughby, Christopher; Suarez, Guillermo; Lindsell, Christopher J.; Collins, Sean P.

    2012-01-01

    Background Accurate electrocardiographic (ECG) differentiation of ventricular tachycardia (VT) from supraventricular tachycardia with aberrancy (SVT-A) on ECG is key to therapeutic decision-making in the emergency department (ED) setting. Objective The goal of this study was to test the accuracy and agreement of emergency medicine residents to differentiate VT from SVT-A using the Vereckei criteria. Methods Six emergency medicine residents volunteered to participate in the review of 114 ECGs from 86 patients with a diagnosis of either VT or SVT-A based on an electrophysiology study. The resident reviewers initially read 12-lead ECGs blinded to clinical information, and then one week later reviewed a subset of the same 12-lead ECGs unblinded to clinical information. Results One reviewer was excluded for failing to follow study protocol and one reviewer was excluded for reviewing less than 50 blinded ECGs. The remaining four reviewers each read 114 common ECGs blinded to clinical data and their diagnostic accuracy for VT was 74% (sensitivity 70%, specificity 80%), 75% (sensitivity 76%, specificity 73%), 61% (sensitivity 81%, specificity 25%), and 68% (sensitivity 84%, specificity 40%). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.31 (95% CI 0.22 – 0.42). Eliminating two of the four reviewers who left a disproportionately high number of ECGs unclassified resulted in an increase in overall mean diagnostic accuracy (70% to 74%) and agreement (0.31 to 0.50) in the two remaining reviewers. Three reviewers read 45 common ECGs unblinded to clinical information and had accuracies for VT 93%, 93% and 78%. Conclusion The new single lead Vereckei criteria, when applied by emergency medicine residents achieved only fair-to-good individual accuracy and moderate agreement. The addition of clinical information resulted in substantial improvement in test characteristics. Further improvements (accuracy and simplification) of algorithms for differentiating VT from SVT-A would

  4. Prospective assessment of rapid diagnostic tests for the detection of antibodies to hepatitis C virus, a tool for improving access to care.

    PubMed

    Chevaliez, S; Poiteau, L; Rosa, I; Soulier, A; Roudot-Thoraval, F; Laperche, S; Hézode, C; Pawlotsky, J-M

    2016-05-01

    Large-scale hepatitis C screening is required to prevent further spread of the infection, improve access to care in the context of new hepatitis C virus (HCV) drug regimens without interferon-alpha and subsequently reduce the risk of long-term complications of chronic liver disease. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) represent an attractive alternative to enzyme immunoassay using blood from venepuncture. The aim of the present study was to prospectively assess the clinical performance of CE-marked RDTs detecting anti-HCV antibodies in fingerstick capillary whole blood and/or oral fluid. A total of 513 individuals, including 318 patients with chronic HCV infection, 25 patients with resolved HCV infection and 170 HCV-seronegative individuals, were prospectively enrolled. The specificity of RDTs with fingerstick whole blood varied from 98.8% to 100%. The clinical sensitivity was high for the OraQuick(®) and Toyo(®) tests (99.4% and 95.8%, respectively), but low for the Labmen(®) test (63.1%). The specificity and clinical sensitivity in crevicular fluid were both satisfactory for the OraQuick(®) test (100% and 97.6%, respectively). HCV antibody RDTs were easy and rapid to perform in the context of patient care. They were highly specific. Both the OraQuick(®) and Toyo(®) tests reached the expected level of performance for wide-scale use, with a performance advantage for the OraQuick(®) HCV test. RDTs appear to be a promising new tool for wide-scale screening of HCV infection in high-risk to medium-risk populations. Hence, careful assessment of the performance of HCV RDTs must be recommended before they can be implemented in clinical practice. PMID:26806260

  5. Lensless on-chip imaging of cells provides a new tool for high-throughput cell-biology and medical diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Mudanyali, Onur; Erlinger, Anthony; Seo, Sungkyu; Su, Ting-Wei; Tseng, Derek; Ozcan, Aydogan

    2009-12-14

    Conventional optical microscopes image cells by use of objective lenses that work together with other lenses and optical components. While quite effective, this classical approach has certain limitations for miniaturization of the imaging platform to make it compatible with the advanced state of the art in microfluidics. In this report, we introduce experimental details of a lensless on-chip imaging concept termed LUCAS (Lensless Ultra-wide field-of-view Cell monitoring Array platform based on Shadow imaging) that does not require any microscope objectives or other bulky optical components to image a heterogeneous cell solution over an ultra-wide field of view that can span as large as approximately 18 cm(2). Moreover, unlike conventional microscopes, LUCAS can image a heterogeneous cell solution of interest over a depth-of-field of approximately 5 mm without the need for refocusing which corresponds to up to approximately 9 mL sample volume. This imaging platform records the shadows (i.e., lensless digital holograms) of each cell of interest within its field of view, and automated digital processing of these cell shadows can determine the type, the count and the relative positions of cells within the solution. Because it does not require any bulky optical components or mechanical scanning stages it offers a significantly miniaturized platform that at the same time reduces the cost, which is quite important for especially point of care diagnostic tools. Furthermore, the imaging throughput of this platform is orders of magnitude better than conventional optical microscopes, which could be exceedingly valuable for high-throughput cell-biology experiments.

  6. Modeling of low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy: the ChemCam diagnostic tool on the Mars Science Laboratory Rover

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Colgan, James

    2016-05-01

    We report on efforts to model the low-temperature plasmas generated using laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS). LIBS is a minimally invasive technique that can quickly and efficiently determine the elemental composition of a target and is employed in an extremely wide range of applications due to its ease of use and fast turnaround. In particular, LIBS is the diagnostic tool used by the ChemCam instrument on the Mars Science Laboratory rover Curiosity. In this talk, we report on the use of the Los Alamos plasma modeling code ATOMIC to simulate LIBS plasmas, which are typically at temperatures of order 1 eV and electron densities of order 10 16 - 17 cm-3. At such conditions, these plasmas are usually in local-thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) and normally contain neutral and singly ionized species only, which then requires that modeling must use accurate atomic structure data for the element under investigation. Since LIBS devices are often employed in a very wide range of applications, it is therefore desirable to have accurate data for most of the elements in the periodic table, ideally including actinides. Here, we discuss some recent applications of our modeling using ATOMIC that have explored the plasma physics aspects of LIBS generated plasmas, and in particular discuss the modeling of a plasma formed from a basalt sample used as a ChemCam standard1. We also highlight some of the more general atomic physics challenges that are encountered when attempting to model low-temperature plasmas. The Los Alamos National Laboratory is operated by Los Alamos National Security, LLC for the National Nuclear Security Administration of the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC5206NA25396. Work performed in conjunction with D. P. Kilcrease, H. M. Johns, E. J. Judge, J. E. Barefield, R. C. Wiens, S. M. Clegg.

  7. The Pabst's method: an effective and low-budget tool for the forensic comparison of opaque thermoplastics--part 1: Additional discrimination of black electrical tapes.

    PubMed

    Henning, Siegfried; Schönberger, Torsten; Simmross, Ulrich

    2013-12-10

    For many years now, Pabst's micro-press has been used in German forensic science laboratories as a valuable addition to methods of comparative analysis of plastic trace evidence. However, it is as yet hardly known in laboratories outside of Germany. The principal reproducibility is demonstrated by a homogeneity check of a raw backing material of defined origin. The illustrated results of a proficiency test emphasise the applicability of the Pabst method for forensic comparisons. The discrimination power of the Pabst method was tested by taking 90 black PVC-backings provided by the FBI Laboratory, i.e. those that could not be discriminated by standard methods. In this way further discriminations could be achieved. In the following, the Pabst method is therefore introduced as a straightforward, inexpensive and useful tool.

  8. Diagnostic Errors Study Findings

    MedlinePlus

    ... ahrq.gov/professionals/quality-patient-safety/quality-resources/tools/office-testing-toolkit/ . Additionally, the Office of the National ... Assistance on Health Initiatives Measurement & Reporting Tools Research Tools & ... Centers & Programs Centers & Offices Initiatives About AHRQ Portfolios ...

  9. A Critical Review of Screening and Diagnostic Instruments for Autism Spectrum Disorders in People with Sensory Impairments in Addition to Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    de Vaan, Gitta; Vervloed, Mathijs P. J.; Hoevenaars-van den Boom, Marella; Antonissen, Anneke; Knoors, Harry; Verhoeven, Ludo

    2016-01-01

    Instruments that are used for diagnosing of, or screening for, autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may not be applicable to people with sensory disabilities in addition to intellectual disabilities. First, because they do not account for equifinality, the possibility that different conditions may lead to the same outcome. Second, because they do not…

  10. European surveillance network for influenza in pigs: surveillance programs, diagnostic tools and Swine influenza virus subtypes identified in 14 European countries from 2010 to 2013.

    PubMed

    Simon, Gaëlle; Larsen, Lars E; Dürrwald, Ralf; Foni, Emanuela; Harder, Timm; Van Reeth, Kristien; Markowska-Daniel, Iwona; Reid, Scott M; Dan, Adam; Maldonado, Jaime; Huovilainen, Anita; Billinis, Charalambos; Davidson, Irit; Agüero, Montserrat; Vila, Thaïs; Hervé, Séverine; Breum, Solvej Østergaard; Chiapponi, Chiara; Urbaniak, Kinga; Kyriakis, Constantinos S; Brown, Ian H; Loeffen, Willie

    2014-01-01

    Swine influenza causes concern for global veterinary and public health officials. In continuing two previous networks that initiated the surveillance of swine influenza viruses (SIVs) circulating in European pigs between 2001 and 2008, a third European Surveillance Network for Influenza in Pigs (ESNIP3, 2010-2013) aimed to expand widely the knowledge of the epidemiology of European SIVs. ESNIP3 stimulated programs of harmonized SIV surveillance in European countries and supported the coordination of appropriate diagnostic tools and subtyping methods. Thus, an extensive virological monitoring, mainly conducted through passive surveillance programs, resulted in the examination of more than 9 000 herds in 17 countries. Influenza A viruses were detected in 31% of herds examined from which 1887 viruses were preliminary characterized. The dominating subtypes were the three European enzootic SIVs: avian-like swine H1N1 (53.6%), human-like reassortant swine H1N2 (13%) and human-like reassortant swine H3N2 (9.1%), as well as pandemic A/H1N1 2009 (H1N1pdm) virus (10.3%). Viruses from these four lineages co-circulated in several countries but with very different relative levels of incidence. For instance, the H3N2 subtype was not detected at all in some geographic areas whereas it was still prevalent in other parts of Europe. Interestingly, H3N2-free areas were those that exhibited highest frequencies of circulating H1N2 viruses. H1N1pdm viruses were isolated at an increasing incidence in some countries from 2010 to 2013, indicating that this subtype has become established in the European pig population. Finally, 13.9% of the viruses represented reassortants between these four lineages, especially between previous enzootic SIVs and H1N1pdm. These novel viruses were detected at the same time in several countries, with increasing prevalence. Some of them might become established in pig herds, causing implications for zoonotic infections.

  11. Monitoring bone strontium levels of an osteoporotic subject due to self-administration of strontium citrate with a novel diagnostic tool, in vivo XRF: a case study.

    PubMed

    Moise, H; Adachi, J D; Chettle, D R; Pejović-Milić, A

    2012-07-01

    A previously developed in vivo X-ray fluorescence (IVXRF) I-125 based system was used to measure bone strontium levels non-invasively in an osteoporotic female volunteer. The volunteer was recruited in December 2008, as part of the Ryerson and McMaster University Strontium in Bone Research Study and measured at twice weekly, weekly and monthly intervals. Thirty minute measurements were taken at the finger and ankle bone sites, representing primarily cortical and trabecular bone, respectively and the strontium K-alpha X-ray peak at 14.16 keV was used in the analysis. Since the volunteer had no prior history of strontium based medications or supplementation, baseline natural strontium levels were obtained followed by a 24h measurement of first intake of strontium citrate supplements (680 mg Sr/day). While the baseline levels of 0.38 ± 0.05 and 0.39 ± 0.10 for the finger and ankle, respectively, were on par with those previously reported in Caucasians among twenty-two healthy non-supplementing strontium individuals by our group, an increase began to be seen after 24 hrs of 0.62 ± 0.14 and 0.45 ± 0.12 for the finger and ankle, respectively. By 120 h, the increase was statistically significant at 0.68 ± 0.07 and 0.93 ± 0.05, respectively. Further increases occurred within an interval of 90-180 days, with the most recent, after 800 days, at the finger and ankle being 7 and 15 times higher than the initial baseline reading. The intriguing results show bone strontium incorporation and retention follow a pattern, suggesting strontium levels, at least in the ankle, do not plateau within two to three years and will continue to increase over time, as an individual takes strontium supplements. The ability of this IVXRF system to monitor and measure bone strontium levels over time provides a useful diagnostic tool to help gain insight into strontium bone kinetics.

  12. A diagnostic interface for the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) modelling framework based on the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy v2.50)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kern, Bastian; Jöckel, Patrick

    2016-10-01

    Numerical climate and weather models have advanced to finer scales, accompanied by large amounts of output data. The model systems hit the input and output (I/O) bottleneck of modern high-performance computing (HPC) systems. We aim to apply diagnostic methods online during the model simulation instead of applying them as a post-processing step to written output data, to reduce the amount of I/O. To include diagnostic tools into the model system, we implemented a standardised, easy-to-use interface based on the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) into the ICOsahedral Non-hydrostatic (ICON) modelling framework. The integration of the diagnostic interface into the model system is briefly described. Furthermore, we present a prototype implementation of an advanced online diagnostic tool for the aggregation of model data onto a user-defined regular coarse grid. This diagnostic tool will be used to reduce the amount of model output in future simulations. Performance tests of the interface and of two different diagnostic tools show, that the interface itself introduces no overhead in form of additional runtime to the model system. The diagnostic tools, however, have significant impact on the model system's runtime. This overhead strongly depends on the characteristics and implementation of the diagnostic tool. A diagnostic tool with high inter-process communication introduces large overhead, whereas the additional runtime of a diagnostic tool without inter-process communication is low. We briefly describe our efforts to reduce the additional runtime from the diagnostic tools, and present a brief analysis of memory consumption. Future work will focus on optimisation of the memory footprint and the I/O operations of the diagnostic interface.

  13. Diagnostic Imaging of Dental Disease in Pet Rabbits and Rodents.

    PubMed

    Capello, Vittorio

    2016-09-01

    Diagnostic imaging techniques are of paramount importance for dentistry and oral disorders of rabbits, rodents, and other exotic companion mammals. Aside from standard radiography, stomatoscopy is a complementary tool allowing a thorough and detailed inspection of the oral cavity. Computed tomography (CT) generates multiple 2-dimensional views and 3-dimensional reconstructions providing superior diagnostic accuracy also useful for prognosis and treatment of advanced dental disease and its related complications. MRI is a diagnostic imaging technique additional to CT used primarily to enhance soft tissues, including complex odontogenic abscesses.

  14. Molecular Diagnostic Applications in Colorectal Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Huth, Laura; Jäkel, Jörg; Dahl, Edgar

    2014-01-01

    Colorectal cancer, a clinically diverse disease, is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Application of novel molecular diagnostic tests, which are summarized in this article, may lead to an improved survival of colorectal cancer patients. Distinction of these applications is based on the different molecular principles found in colorectal cancer (CRC). Strategies for molecular analysis of single genes (as KRAS or TP53) as well as microarray based techniques are discussed. Moreover, in addition to the fecal occult blood testing (FOBT) and colonoscopy some novel assays offer approaches for early detection of colorectal cancer like the multitarget stool DNA test or the blood-based Septin 9 DNA methylation test. Liquid biopsy analysis may also exhibit great diagnostic potential in CRC for monitoring developing resistance to treatment. These new diagnostic tools and the definition of molecular biomarkers in CRC will improve early detection and targeted therapy of colorectal cancer.

  15. Direct analysis of carbohydrates in animal plasma by ion chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry and pulsed amperometric detection for use as a non-invasive diagnostic tool.

    PubMed

    Kotnik, Darja; Smidovnik, Andrej; Jazbec-Križman, Petra; Križman, Mitja; Prošek, Mirko

    2011-12-01

    The present paper demonstrates that electrochemical detection (ECD) coupled to ion chromatography and electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (IC-ECD-ESI/MS/MS) can be used to rapidly estimate some indications of the health status of organisms. The lactulose to mannitol ratio (L/M) is used as a non-invasive assay to investigate small intestinal absorption pathways and mucosal integrity. In the present study, an evaluation of the negative effects of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug meloxicam perorally administrated to a group of dogs was carried out by determining the lactulose/mannitol index using the IC-ECD-ESI/MS/MS hyphenated technique. According to the results of the study, meloxicam altered gastrointestinal permeability. Coenzyme Q(10) (CoQ(10)) was tested to determine if it could prevent meloxicam induced gastrointestinal damage and it was found that CoQ(10) could be an effective preventive treatment. Furthermore, plasma glucose concentration level was determined to be an indirect indicator of the oxidative state in the blood. To find out the beneficial effects of a double antioxidant combination (α-lipoic acid (ALA) and CoQ(10)) on the total glucose level in chickens, ALA and CoQ(10) were provided as food additives in factory farm raised chicken. The results of the pilot study indicate that the glucose level in the plasma of chickens group fed with CoQ(10) and ALA was significantly decreased compared to the control group. Ion chromatography (IC) utilizing pulsed amperometric detection (PAD) was compared to ion chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) as an analytical tool for monitoring the carbohydrate level in biological fluids. In electrochemical detection, the newly developed two-pulse waveform successfully withstands matrix effects in biological samples. Continuous on-line desalting of the high salt concentrations used as the eluent for carbohydrate separation from the anion-exchange column allows coupling of IC and MS

  16. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy as a standard diagnostic tool: an observational study.

    PubMed

    Jaconi, Marta; Pagni, Fabio; Vacirca, Francesco; Leni, Davide; Corso, Rocco; Cortinovis, Diego; Bidoli, Paolo; Bono, Francesca; Cuttin, Maria S; Valente, Maria G; Pesci, Alberto; Bedini, Vittorio A; Leone, Biagio E

    2015-03-01

    C-arm cone-beam computed tomography (CT)-guided transthoracic lung core needle biopsy (CNB) is a safe and accurate procedure for the evaluation of patients with pulmonary nodules. This article will focus on the clinical features related to CNB in terms of diagnostic performance and complication rate. Moreover, the concept of categorizing pathological diagnosis into 4 categories, which could be used for clinical management, follow-up, and quality assurance is also introduced. We retrospectively collected data regarding 375 C-arm cone-beam CT-guided CNBs from January 2010 and June 2014. Clinical and radiological variables were evaluated in terms of success or failure rate. Pathological reports were inserted in 4 homogenous groups (nondiagnostic--L1, benign--L2, malignant not otherwise specified--L3, and malignant with specific histotype--L4), defining for each category a hierarchy of suggested actions. The sensitivity, specificity, and positive and negative predictive value and accuracy for patients subjected to CNBs were of 96.8%, 100%, 100%, 100%, and 97.2%, respectively. Roughly 75% of our samples were diagnosed as malignant, with 60% lung adenocarcinoma diagnoses. Molecular analyses were performed on 85 malignant samples to verify applicability of targeted therapy. The rate of "nondiagnostic" samples was 12%. C-arm cone-beam CT-guided transthoracic lung CNB can represent the gold standard for the diagnostic evaluation of pulmonary nodules. A clinical and pathological multidisciplinary evaluation of CNBs was needed in terms of integration of radiological, histological, and oncological data. This approach provided exceptional performances in terms of specificity, positive and negative predictive values; sensitivity in our series was lower compared with other large studies, probably due to the application of strong criteria of adequacy for CNBs (L1 class rate). The satisfactory rate of collected material was evaluated not only in terms of merely diagnostic

  17. Developing an edge-plasma diagnostic tool for the Globus-M tokamak based on measuring ratios of HeI lines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Timokhin, V. M.; Rykachevskii, A. I.; Miroshnikov, I. V.; Sergeev, V. Yu.; Kochergin, M. M.; Koval', A. N.; Mukhin, E. E.; Tolstyakov, S. Yu.; Voronin, A. V.

    2016-08-01

    A diagnostic technique that is based on measuring the ratios of neutral-helium line strengths has been developed for peripheral distributions of electron temperature and density of tokamak plasma. The main components of the technique are a four-channel filter-lens imaging polychromator (FLIP-4) and a Phantom Miro M110 high-speed camera for recording the images. The polychromator has been assembled, adjusted, and tested on an optical test bench. The optical system was installed on the spherical Globus-M tokamak. Some preliminary experiments were carried out. Images of the plasma-gun jet were obtained at neutralhelium lines.

  18. Polymeric LabChip Real-Time PCR as a Point-of-Care-Potential Diagnostic Tool for Rapid Detection of Influenza A/H1N1 Virus in Human Clinical Specimens

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hyun-Ok; Kim, Je-Hyoung; Ryu, Ho-Sun; Lee, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Sun-Jin; Kim, Deog-Joong; Suh, In Bum; Choi, Du Young; In, Kwang-Ho; Kim, Sung-Woo; Park, Hyun

    2012-01-01

    It is clinically important to be able to detect influenza A/H1N1 virus using a fast, portable, and accurate system that has high specificity and sensitivity. To achieve this goal, it is necessary to develop a highly specific primer set that recognizes only influenza A viral genes and a rapid real-time PCR system that can detect even a single copy of the viral gene. In this study, we developed and validated a novel fluidic chip-type real-time PCR (LabChip real-time PCR) system that is sensitive and specific for the detection of influenza A/H1N1, including the pandemic influenza strain A/H1N1 of 2009. This LabChip real-time PCR system has several remarkable features: (1) It allows rapid quantitative analysis, requiring only 15 min to perform 30 cycles of real-time PCR. (2) It is portable, with a weight of only 5.5 kg. (3) The reaction cost is low, since it uses disposable plastic chips. (4) Its high efficiency is equivalent to that of commercially available tube-type real-time PCR systems. The developed disposable LabChip is an economic, heat-transferable, light-transparent, and easy-to-fabricate polymeric chip compared to conventional silicon- or glass-based labchip. In addition, our LabChip has large surface-to-volume ratios in micro channels that are required for overcoming time consumed for temperature control during real-time PCR. The efficiency of the LabChip real-time PCR system was confirmed using novel primer sets specifically targeted to the hemagglutinin (HA) gene of influenza A/H1N1 and clinical specimens. Eighty-five human clinical swab samples were tested using the LabChip real-time PCR. The results demonstrated 100% sensitivity and specificity, showing 72 positive and 13 negative cases. These results were identical to those from a tube-type real-time PCR system. This indicates that the novel LabChip real-time PCR may be an ultra-fast, quantitative, point-of-care-potential diagnostic tool for influenza A/H1N1 with a high sensitivity and specificity

  19. Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome.

    PubMed

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Hirata, Koichi; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 and the Cu/Zn ratio as ancillary diagnostic tools in distinguishing between the classical and follicular variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Dragutinović, Vesna V; Tatić, Svetislav B; Nikolić-Mandić, Snežana; Savin, Svetlana; Cvejić, Dubravka; Dunđerović, Duško; Gajić, Milan; Paunović, Ivan

    2012-10-01

    The most common histological variants of papillary thyroid carcinoma (PTC), classical (CPTC) and follicular (FPTC), have different diagnostic features, molecular biology, and prognosis. Matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) endopeptidase which degrades the components of the extracellular matrix is essential in the invasive growth and metastasizing of malignant tumors. The serum copper (Cu)/zinc (Zn) ratios are sensitive diagnostic and prognostic indicators in oncology since Cu- and Zn-dependent enzymes play important roles in the genesis and the progression of tumors. The aim of this study was to examine the expressions of MMP-9 in tissues of CPTC and FPTC, as well as to determine the Cu/Zn ratios in the same samples. MMP-9 was determined immunohistochemically, and the concentrations of copper and zinc in thyroid tissue were determined by means of flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The results obtained revealed significantly higher expressions of MMP-9 in CPTC in comparison with FPTC, as well as higher Cu/Zn ratios in CPTC than in FPTC. Thus, determining MMP-9 activities and the Cu/Zn ratios could improve the accuracy of the standard histopathological diagnosis of these two types of PTC.

  1. Visual Detection of Human Antibodies Using Sugar Chain-Immobilized Fluorescent Nanoparticles: Application as a Point of Care Diagnostic Tool for Guillain-Barré Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Shinchi, Hiroyuki; Yuki, Nobuhiro; Ishida, Hideharu; Hirata, Koichi; Wakao, Masahiro; Suda, Yasuo

    2015-01-01

    Sugar chain binding antibodies have gained substantial attention as biomarkers due to their crucial roles in various disorders. In this study, we developed simple and quick detection method of anti-sugar chain antibodies in sera using our previously developed sugar chain-immobilized fluorescent nanoparticles (SFNPs) for the point-of-care diagnostics. Sugar chain structure on SFNPs was modified with the sugar moieties of the GM1 ganglioside via our original linker molecule to detect anti-GM1 antibodies. The structures and densities of the sugar moieties immobilized on the nanoparticles were evaluated in detail using lectins and sera containing anti-GM1 antibodies from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, a neurological disorder, as an example of disease involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. When optimized SFNPs were added to sera from patients with Guillain-Barré syndrome, fluorescent aggregates were able to visually detect under UV light in three hours. The sensitivity of the detection method was equivalent to that of the current ELISA method used for the diagnosis of Guillain-Barré syndrome. These results suggest that our method using SFNPs is suitable for the point-of-care diagnostics of diseases involving anti-sugar chain antibodies. PMID:26378448

  2. DNA Microarray-Based Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Marzancola, Mahsa Gharibi; Sedighi, Abootaleb; Li, Paul C H

    2016-01-01

    The DNA microarray technology is currently a useful biomedical tool which has been developed for a variety of diagnostic applications. However, the development pathway has not been smooth and the technology has faced some challenges. The reliability of the microarray data and also the clinical utility of the results in the early days were criticized. These criticisms added to the severe competition from other techniques, such as next-generation sequencing (NGS), impacting the growth of microarray-based tests in the molecular diagnostic market.Thanks to the advances in the underlying technologies as well as the tremendous effort offered by the research community and commercial vendors, these challenges have mostly been addressed. Nowadays, the microarray platform has achieved sufficient standardization and method validation as well as efficient probe printing, liquid handling and signal visualization. Integration of various steps of the microarray assay into a harmonized and miniaturized handheld lab-on-a-chip (LOC) device has been a goal for the microarray community. In this respect, notable progress has been achieved in coupling the DNA microarray with the liquid manipulation microsystem as well as the supporting subsystem that will generate the stand-alone LOC device.In this chapter, we discuss the major challenges that microarray technology has faced in its almost two decades of development and also describe the solutions to overcome the challenges. In addition, we review the advancements of the technology, especially the progress toward developing the LOC devices for DNA diagnostic applications.

  3. Combined use of Mycobacterium tuberculosis-specific CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses is a powerful diagnostic tool of active tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Rozot, Virginie; Patrizia, Amelio; Vigano, Selena; Mazza-Stalder, Jesica; Idrizi, Elita; Day, Cheryl L; Perreau, Matthieu; Lazor-Blanchet, Catherine; Ohmiti, Khalid; Goletti, Delia; Bart, Pierre-Alexandre; Hanekom, Willem; Scriba, Thomas J; Nicod, Laurent; Pantaleo, Giuseppe; Harari, Alexandre

    2015-02-01

    Immune-based assays are promising tools to help to formulate diagnosis of active tuberculosis. A multiparameter flow cytometry assay assessing T-cell responses specific to Mycobacterium tuberculosis and the combination of both CD4 and CD8 T-cell responses accurately discriminated between active tuberculosis and latent infection.

  4. Use of a Process Analysis Tool for Diagnostic Study on Fine Particulate Matter Predictions in the U.S.-Part II: Analysis and Sensitivity Simulations

    EPA Science Inventory

    Following the Part I paper that described an application of the U.S. EPA Models-3/Community Multiscale Air Quality (CMAQ) modeling system to the 1999 Southern Oxidants Study episode, this paper presents results from process analysis (PA) using the PA tool embedded in CMAQ and s...

  5. Results of a multicentre randomised controlled trial of statistical process control charts and structured diagnostic tools to reduce ward-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: the CHART Project.

    PubMed

    Curran, E; Harper, P; Loveday, H; Gilmour, H; Jones, S; Benneyan, J; Hood, J; Pratt, R

    2008-10-01

    Statistical process control (SPC) charts have previously been advocated for infection control quality improvement. To determine their effectiveness, a multicentre randomised controlled trial was undertaken to explore whether monthly SPC feedback from infection control nurses (ICNs) to healthcare workers of ward-acquired meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (WA-MRSA) colonisation or infection rates would produce any reductions in incidence. Seventy-five wards in 24 hospitals in the UK were randomised into three arms: (1) wards receiving SPC chart feedback; (2) wards receiving SPC chart feedback in conjunction with structured diagnostic tools; and (3) control wards receiving neither type of feedback. Twenty-five months of pre-intervention WA-MRSA data were compared with 24 months of post-intervention data. Statistically significant and sustained decreases in WA-MRSA rates were identified in all three arms (P<0.001; P=0.015; P<0.001). The mean percentage reduction was 32.3% for wards receiving SPC feedback, 19.6% for wards receiving SPC and diagnostic feedback, and 23.1% for control wards, but with no significant difference between the control and intervention arms (P=0.23). There were significantly more post-intervention 'out-of-control' episodes (P=0.021) in the control arm (averages of 0.60, 0.28, and 0.28 for Control, SPC and SPC+Tools wards, respectively). Participants identified SPC charts as an effective communication tool and valuable for disseminating WA-MRSA data. PMID:18723251

  6. Student Interpretations of Diagnostic Feedback

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doe, Christine

    2015-01-01

    Diagnostic assessment is increasingly being recognized as a potentially beneficial tool for teaching and learning (Jang, 2012). There have been calls in the research literature for students to receive diagnostic feedback and for researchers to investigate how such feedback is used by students. Therefore, this study examined how students…

  7. Using Rapid Diagnostic Tests as a Source of Viral RNA for Dengue Serotyping by RT-PCR - A Novel Epidemiological Tool

    PubMed Central

    Vongsouvath, Manivanh; Phommasone, Koukeo; Sengvilaipaseuth, Onanong; Kosoltanapiwat, Nathamon; Chantratita, Narisara; Blacksell, Stuart D.; Lee, Sue J.; de Lamballerie, Xavier; Mayxay, Mayfong; Keomany, Sommay; Newton, Paul N.; Dubot-Pérès, Audrey

    2016-01-01

    Background Dengue virus infection causes major public health problems in tropical and subtropical areas. In many endemic areas, including the Lao PDR, inadequate access to laboratory facilities is a major obstacle to surveillance and study of dengue epidemiology. Filter paper is widely used for blood collection for subsequent laboratory testing for antibody and nucleic acid detection. For the first time, we demonstrate that dengue viral RNA can be extracted from dengue rapid diagnostic tests (RDT) and then submitted to real-time RT-PCR for serotyping. Methodology/Principal Findings We evaluated the Standard Diagnostics (SD) Bioline Dengue Duo RDT, a commonly used test in dengue endemic areas. First, using the QIAamp RNA kit, dengue RNA was purified from the sample pad of the NS1 RDT loaded with virus isolates of the four serotypes, then quantified by RT-PCR. We observed greater recovery of virus, with a mean of 27 times more RNA recovered from RDT, than from filter paper. Second, we evaluated dengue NS1 RDTs from patients at Mahosot Hospital, Vientiane, (99 patients) and from rural Salavan Provincial Hospital (362 patients). There was good agreement between dengue RT-PCR from NS1 RDT with RT-PCR performed on RNA extracted from patient sera, either using RDT loaded with blood (82.8% and 91.4%, in Vientiane and Salavan, respectively) or serum (91.9% and 93.9%). There was 100% concordance between RDT and serum RT-PCR of infecting dengue serotype. Conclusions/Significance Therefore, the collection of NS1 positive RDTs, which do not require cold storage, may be a novel approach for dengue serotyping by RT-PCR and offers promising prospects for the collection of epidemiological data from previously inaccessible tropical areas to aid surveillance and public health interventions. PMID:27159058

  8. Assessment of intracellular cytokines and regulatory cells in patients with autoimmune diseases and primary immunodeficiencies - novel tool for diagnostics and patient follow-up.

    PubMed

    Osnes, Liv T; Nakken, Britt; Bodolay, Edit; Szodoray, Peter

    2013-08-01

    Serum and intracytoplasmic cytokines are mandatory in host defense against microbes, but also play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases by initiating and perpetuating various cellular and humoral autoimmune processes. The intricate interplay and fine balance of pro- and anti-inflammatory processes drive, whether inflammation and eventually organ damage will occur, or the inflammatory cascade quenches. In the early and late, as well as inactive and active stages of autoimmune diseases, different cellular and molecular patterns can dominate in these patients. However, the simultaneous assessment of pro- and anti-inflammatory biomarkers aids to define the immunological state of a patient. A group of the most useful inflammatory biomarkers are cytokines, and with increasing knowledge during the last decade their role have been well-defined in patients with autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies. Multiple pathological processes drive the development of autoimmunity and immunodeficiencies, most of which involve quantitative and qualitative disturbances in regulatory cells, cytokine synthesis and signaling pathways. The assessment of these biomarkers does not aid only in the mechanistic description of autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies, but further helps to subcategorize diseases and to evaluate therapy responses. Here, we provide an overview, how monitoring of cytokines and regulatory cells aid in the diagnosis and follow-up of patients with autoimmune diseases and immunodeficiencies furthermore, we pinpoint novel cellular and molecular diagnostic possibilities in these diseases.

  9. [Cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. in food--potentials and limitations of diagnostic tools in the context of official food control].

    PubMed

    Messelhäusser, Ute; Thärigen, Diana; Fella, Christiane; Schreiner, Hermann; Busch, Ulrich; Höller, Christiane

    2015-01-01

    Thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. rank among the most important foodborne pathogens in Germany. Therefore a necessity for rapid and routinely useable detection methods exists also in the area of food microbiology. A reliable, cultura qualitative, but also quantitative detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. pose a challenge, at least concerning special food matrices, especially because in the context of official food control the cultural detection of thermotolerant Campylobacter spp. is needed. This was the reason, why different cultural detection methods, beside the standard procedure of ISO 10272:2006, in combination with molecular and immunological screening methods were tested at the Bavarian Health and Food Safety Authority (LGL) during the last years for the use in routine diagnostic using different food matrices of animal and plant origin. The results of the comparative studies showed clearly that no enrichment broth tested gave completely satisfactory results for an only culture-based detection the combination with a screening method is therefore recommended for a rapid and reliable detection. But in this case the user should take into account that the sensitivity of such molecular and immunological methods is normally so high that in some cases, depending on the food matrix and processing step, the isolation of the pathogen would not be possible in samples, which were positive in the screening methods.

  10. Knowledge based jet engine diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jellison, Timothy G.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1987-01-01

    A fielded expert system automates equipment fault isolation and recommends corrective maintenance action for Air Force jet engines. The knowledge based diagnostics tool was developed as an expert system interface to the Comprehensive Engine Management System, Increment IV (CEMS IV), the standard Air Force base level maintenance decision support system. XMAM (trademark), the Expert Maintenance Tool, automates procedures for troubleshooting equipment faults, provides a facility for interactive user training, and fits within a diagnostics information feedback loop to improve the troubleshooting and equipment maintenance processes. The application of expert diagnostics to the Air Force A-10A aircraft TF-34 engine equipped with the Turbine Engine Monitoring System (TEMS) is presented.

  11. Software Users Manual (SUM): Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maul, William A.; Fulton, Christopher E.

    2011-01-01

    This software user manual describes the implementation and use the Extended Testability Analysis (ETA) Tool. The ETA Tool is a software program that augments the analysis and reporting capabilities of a commercial-off-the-shelf (COTS) testability analysis software package called the Testability Engineering And Maintenance System (TEAMS) Designer. An initial diagnostic assessment is performed by the TEAMS Designer software using a qualitative, directed-graph model of the system being analyzed. The ETA Tool utilizes system design information captured within the diagnostic model and testability analysis output from the TEAMS Designer software to create a series of six reports for various system engineering needs. The ETA Tool allows the user to perform additional studies on the testability analysis results by determining the detection sensitivity to the loss of certain sensors or tests. The ETA Tool was developed to support design and development of the NASA Ares I Crew Launch Vehicle. The diagnostic analysis provided by the ETA Tool was proven to be valuable system engineering output that provided consistency in the verification of system engineering requirements. This software user manual provides a description of each output report generated by the ETA Tool. The manual also describes the example diagnostic model and supporting documentation - also provided with the ETA Tool software release package - that were used to generate the reports presented in the manual

  12. Identification of Chabertiidae (Nematoda, Strongylida) by PCR-RFLP based method: a new diagnostic tool for cross transmission investigation between domestic and wild ruminants in France.

    PubMed

    Patrelle, Cécile; Ferté, Hubert; Jouet, Damien

    2014-12-01

    We describe a PCR-RFLP-based method that allows reliable identification of four species of nematode parasites presenting similar infective third-stage larvae (L3) with a flagelliform tail and more than 16 intestinal cells, commonly observed in gastrointestinal tract of ruminants in France. Molecular analysis of the second internal transcribed spacer (ITS2) of ribosomal DNA, considered as a specific marker for Strongylida, revealed four robust monophyletic clades corresponding to species Chabertia ovina, Oesophagostomum sikae, Oesophagostomum radiatum and Oesophagostomum venulosum. One restriction enzyme (DdeI) was used to digest this domain, and we observed four different and clear digestion patterns according to these species (adults or larvae). Hence, this new method is a good tool easy to use for veterinary laboratories to characterize the different species, and allows considering possible cross transmission between domestic and wild ruminants, especially cervids often incriminated as potential reservoir of parasites for cattle. Moreover, thanks to this new tool, necroscopic analyses could be substituted by coprological methods, a non-invasive approach.

  13. microRNA: Diagnostic Perspective

    PubMed Central

    Faruq, Omar; Vecchione, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Biomarkers are biological measures of a biological state. An ideal marker should be safe and easy to measure, cost efficient, modifiable with treatment, and consistent across gender and ethnic groups. To date, none of the available biomarkers satisfy all of these criteria. In addition, the major limitations of these markers are low specificity, sensitivity, and false positive results. Recently identified, microRNAs (miRNAs) are endogenous, evolutionarily conserved small non-coding RNA (about 22–25 nt long), also known as micro-coordinators of gene expression, which have been shown to be an effective tools to study the biology of diseases and to have great potential as novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers with high specificity and sensitivity. In fact, it has been demonstrated that miRNAs play a pivotal role in the regulation of a wide range of developmental and physiological processes and their deficiencies have been related to a number of disease. In addition, miRNAs are stable and can be easily isolated and measured from tissues and body fluids. In this review, we provide a perspective on emerging concepts and potential usefulness of miRNAs as diagnostic markers, emphasizing the involvement of specific miRNAs in particular tumor types, subtypes, cardiovascular diseases, diabetes, infectious diseases, and forensic test. PMID:26284247

  14. Diagnostic hematology of reptiles.

    PubMed

    Stacy, Nicole I; Alleman, A Rick; Sayler, Katherine A

    2011-03-01

    The hematologic evaluation of reptiles is an indispensable diagnostic tool in exotic veterinary practice. The diversity of reptile species, their characteristic physiologic features, and effects of intrinsic and extrinsic factors present unique challenges for accurate interpretation of the hemogram. Combining the clinical presentation with hematologic findings provides valuable information in the diagnosis and monitoring of disease and helps guide the clinician toward therapy and further diagnostic testing. This article outlines the normal and pathologic morphology of blood cells of reptile species. The specific comparative aspects of reptiles are emphasized, and structural and functional abnormalities in the reptilian hemogram are described.

  15. Endotoxemia as a Diagnostic Tool for Patients with Suspected Bacteremia Caused by Gram-Negative Organisms: a Meta-Analysis of 4 Decades of Studies

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Piotr; Öhrmalm, Lars; Gogos, Charalambos; Armaganidis, Apostolos

    2015-01-01

    The clinical significance of endotoxin detection in blood has been evaluated for a broad range of patient groups in over 40 studies published over 4 decades. The influences of Gram-negative (GN) bacteremia species type and patient inclusion criteria on endotoxemia detection rates in published studies remain unclear. Studies were identified after a literature search and manual reviews of article bibliographies, together with a direct approach to authors of potentially eligible studies for data clarifications. The concordance between GN bacteremia and endotoxemia expressed as the summary diagnostic odds ratios (DORs) was derived for three GN bacteremia categories across eligible studies by using a hierarchical summary receiver operating characteristic (HSROC) method. Forty-two studies met broad inclusion criteria, with between 2 and 173 GN bacteremias in each study. Among all 42 studies, the DORs (95% confidence interval) were 3.2 (1.7 to 6.0) and 5.8 (2.4 to 13.7) in association with GN bacteremias with Escherichia coli and those with Pseudomonas aeruginosa, respectively. Among 12 studies of patients with sepsis, the proportion of endotoxemia positivity (95% confidence interval) among patients with P. aeruginosa bacteremia (69% [57 to 79%]; P = 0.004) or with Proteus bacteremia (76% [51 to 91%]; P = 0.04) was significantly higher than that among patients without GN bacteremia (49% [33 to 64%]), but this was not so for patients bacteremic with E. coli (57% [40 to 73%]; P = 0.55). Among studies of the sepsis patient group, the concordance of endotoxemia with GN bacteremia was surprisingly weak, especially for E. coli GN bacteremia. PMID:25631796

  16. Miniature all-solid-state heterostructure nanowire Li-ion batteries as a tool for engineering and structural diagnostics of nanoscale electrochemical processes.

    PubMed

    Oleshko, Vladimir P; Lam, Thomas; Ruzmetov, Dmitry; Haney, Paul; Lezec, Henri J; Davydov, Albert V; Krylyuk, Sergiy; Cumings, John; Talin, A Alec

    2014-10-21

    Complex interfacial phenomena and phase transformations that govern the operation of Li-ion batteries require detailed nanoscale 3D structural and compositional characterization that can be directly related to their capacity and electrical transport properties. For this purpose, we have designed model miniature all solid-state radial heterostructure Li-ion batteries composed of LiCoO2 cathode, LiPON electrolyte and amorphous Si anode shells, which were deposited around metallized high-aspect-ratio Si nanowires as a scaffolding core. Such diagnostic batteries, the smallest, complete secondary Li-ion batteries realized to date, were specifically designed for in situ electrical testing in a field-emission scanning electron microscope and/or transmission electron microscope. The results of electrochemical testing were described in detail in a previous publication (Nano Lett., 2012, 12, 505-511). The model Li-ion batteries allow analysis of the correlations between electrochemical properties and their structural evolution during cycling in various imaging, diffraction and spectroscopic modes down to the atomic level. Employing multimode analytical scanning/transmission electron microscopy imaging coupled with correlative multivariate statistical analysis and tomography, we have analyzed and quantified the 3D morphological and structural arrangement of the batteries, including textured platelet-like LiCoO2 nanocrystallites, buried electrode-electrolyte interfaces and hidden internal defects to clarify effects of scaling on a battery's electrochemical performance. Characterization of the nanoscale interfacial processes using model heterostructure nanowire-based Li-ion batteries provides useful guidelines for engineering of prospective nano-sized building blocks in future electrochemical energy storage systems.

  17. Astigmatism and diagnostic procedures.

    PubMed

    Visnjić, Mirna Belovari; Zrinsćak, Ognjen; Barisić, Freja; Iveković, Renata; Laus, Katia Novak; Mandić, Zdravko

    2012-06-01

    Astigmatism represents an inability of the cornea and lens to provide a sharp image onto the retina. Correcting astigmatic errors, whether congenital, contact lens induced or surgically induced, is now an integral part of modern cataract and refractive procedures. Development of modern technology has enabled accurate diagnosis and perfect opportunities for correction; however, while cataract and keratorefractive surgery have come a long way in the last decade, the treatment and diagnosis of astigmatism continue to challenge ophthalmologists. There are several diagnostic procedures and tools available today, some standard and some contemporary that include keratometry, corneal topography, apparatus using wavefront or Scheimpflug analysis like Orbscan, Pentacam, Wavescan, etc. With the introduction of several new diagnostic tools, measurements of astigmatism have become less of an issue, but in some cases it is still difficult to obtain consistent results. What remains still unanswered is the question of the best diagnostic tool on the market. Further research is needed to evaluate both tools as well as their clinical application for optimal use. PMID:23115957

  18. Molecular Diagnostics

    PubMed Central

    Choe, Hyonmin; Deirmengian, Carl A.; Hickok, Noreen J.; Morrison, Tiffany N.; Tuan, Rocky S.

    2015-01-01

    Orthopaedic infections are complex conditions that require immediate diagnosis and accurate identification of the causative organisms to facilitate appropriate management. Conventional methodologies for diagnosis of these infections sometimes lack accuracy or sufficient rapidity. Current molecular diagnostics are an emerging area of bench-to-bedside research in orthopaedic infections. Examples of promising molecular diagnostics include measurement of a specific biomarker in the synovial fluid, polymerase chain reaction–based detection of bacterial genes, and metabolomic determination of responses to orthopaedic infection. PMID:25808967

  19. Cable Diagnostic Focused Initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Hartlein, R.A.; Hampton, R.N.

    2010-12-30

    This report summarizes an extensive effort made to understand how to effectively use the various diagnostic technologies to establish the condition of medium voltage underground cable circuits. These circuits make up an extensive portion of the electric delivery infrastructure in the United States. Much of this infrastructure is old and experiencing unacceptable failure rates. By deploying efficient diagnostic testing programs, electric utilities can replace or repair circuits that are about to fail, providing an optimal approach to improving electric system reliability. This is an intrinsically complex topic. Underground cable systems are not homogeneous. Cable circuits often contain multiple branches with different cable designs and a range of insulation materials. In addition, each insulation material ages differently as a function of time, temperature and operating environment. To complicate matters further, there are a wide variety of diagnostic technologies available for assessing the condition of cable circuits with a diversity of claims about the effectiveness of each approach. As a result, the benefits of deploying cable diagnostic testing programs have been difficult to establish, leading many utilities to avoid the their use altogether. This project was designed to help address these issues. The information provided is the result of a collaborative effort between Georgia Tech NEETRAC staff, Georgia Tech academic faculty, electric utility industry participants, as well as cable system diagnostic testing service providers and test equipment providers. Report topics include: •How cable systems age and fail, •The various technologies available for detecting potential failure sites, •The advantages and disadvantages of different diagnostic technologies, •Different approaches for utilities to employ cable system diagnostics. The primary deliverables of this project are this report, a Cable Diagnostic Handbook (a subset of this report) and an online

  20. First all-in-one diagnostic tool for DNA intelligence: genome-wide inference of biogeographic ancestry, appearance, relatedness, and sex with the Identitas v1 Forensic Chip.

    PubMed

    Keating, Brendan; Bansal, Aruna T; Walsh, Susan; Millman, Jonathan; Newman, Jonathan; Kidd, Kenneth; Budowle, Bruce; Eisenberg, Arthur; Donfack, Joseph; Gasparini, Paolo; Budimlija, Zoran; Henders, Anjali K; Chandrupatla, Hareesh; Duffy, David L; Gordon, Scott D; Hysi, Pirro; Liu, Fan; Medland, Sarah E; Rubin, Laurence; Martin, Nicholas G; Spector, Timothy D; Kayser, Manfred

    2013-05-01

    When a forensic DNA sample cannot be associated directly with a previously genotyped reference sample by standard short tandem repeat profiling, the investigation required for identifying perpetrators, victims, or missing persons can be both costly and time consuming. Here, we describe the outcome of a collaborative study using the Identitas Version 1 (v1) Forensic Chip, the first commercially available all-in-one tool dedicated to the concept of developing intelligence leads based on DNA. The chip allows parallel interrogation of 201,173 genome-wide autosomal, X-chromosomal, Y-chromosomal, and mitochondrial single nucleotide polymorphisms for inference of biogeographic ancestry, appearance, relatedness, and sex. The first assessment of the chip's performance was carried out on 3,196 blinded DNA samples of varying quantities and qualities, covering a wide range of biogeographic origin and eye/hair coloration as well as variation in relatedness and sex. Overall, 95 % of the samples (N = 3,034) passed quality checks with an overall genotype call rate >90 % on variable numbers of available recorded trait information. Predictions of sex, direct match, and first to third degree relatedness were highly accurate. Chip-based predictions of biparental continental ancestry were on average ~94 % correct (further support provided by separately inferred patrilineal and matrilineal ancestry). Predictions of eye color were 85 % correct for brown and 70 % correct for blue eyes, and predictions of hair color were 72 % for brown, 63 % for blond, 58 % for black, and 48 % for red hair. From the 5 % of samples (N = 162) with <90 % call rate, 56 % yielded correct continental ancestry predictions while 7 % yielded sufficient genotypes to allow hair and eye color prediction. Our results demonstrate that the Identitas v1 Forensic Chip holds great promise for a wide range of applications including criminal investigations, missing person investigations, and for national security

  1. Sonographic diagnostics in dermatology.

    PubMed

    Ulrich, Jens; Schwürzer-Voit, Markus; Jenderka, Klaus-Vitold; Voit, Christiane

    2014-12-01

    Ultrasonography non-invasively visualizes changes within the skin, skin appendages, subcutaneous tissue, subcutaneous (regional) lymph nodes and peripheral vessels. Thus it is an established diagnostic tool in dermatology. Compared to X-ray, MRI and PET, ultrasonography has some advantages; however, it is more dependent on the individual experience of the investigator. Therefore a structured education and continuous training are necessary. This review describes the physical and technical basics, the administrative requirements and the main indications in dermatology.

  2. Magnetic resonance imaging: A potential tool in assessing the addition of hyperthermia to neoadjuvant therapy in patients with locally advanced breast cancer

    PubMed Central

    CRACIUNESCU, OANA I.; THRALL, DONALD E.; VUJASKOVIC, ZELJKO; DEWHIRST, MARK W.

    2010-01-01

    The poor overall survival for patients with locally advanced breast cancers has led over the past decade to the introduction of numerous neoadjuvant combined therapy regimens to down-stage the disease before surgery. At the same time, more evidence suggests the need for treatment individualisation with a wide variety of new targets for cancer therapeutics and also multi modality therapies. In this context, early determination of whether the patient will fail to respond can enable the use of alternative therapies that can be more beneficial. The purpose of this review is to examine the potential role of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in early prediction of treatment response and prognosis of overall survival in locally advanced breast cancer patients enrolled on multi modality therapy trials that include hyperthermia. The material is organised with a review of dynamic contrast (DCE)-MRI and diffusion weighted (DW)-MRI for characterisation of phenomenological parameters of tumour physiology and their potential role in estimating therapy response. Most of the work published in this field has focused on responses to neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimens alone, so the emphasis will be there, however the available data that involves the addition of hyperthermia to the regimen will be discussed The review will also include future directions that include the potential use of MRI imaging techniques in establishing the role of hyperthermia alone in modifying breast tumour microenvironment, together with specific challenges related to performing such studies. PMID:20849258

  3. A novel ion-pairing chromatographic method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin components in feed additives: chemometric tools for improving the optimization and validation.

    PubMed

    De Zan, María M; Teglia, Carla M; Robles, Juan C; Goicoechea, Héctor C

    2011-07-15

    The development, optimization and validation of an ion-pairing high performance liquid chromatography method for the simultaneous determination of both nicarbazin (NIC) components: 4,4'-dinitrocarbanilide (DNC) and 2-hydroxy-4,6-dimethylpyrimidine (HDP) in bulk materials and feed additives are described. An experimental design was used for the optimization of the chromatographic system. Four variables, including mobile phase composition and oven temperature, were analyzed through a central composite design exploring their contribution to analyte separation. Five responses: peak resolutions, HDP capacity factor, HDP tailing and analysis time, were modelled by using the response surface methodology and were optimized simultaneously by implementing the desirability function. The optimum conditions resulted in a mobile phase consisting of 10.0 mmol L(-1) of 1-heptanesulfonate, 20.0 mmol L(-1) of sodium acetate, pH=3.30 buffer and acetonitrile in a gradient system at a flow rate of 1.00 mL min(-1). Column was an INERSTIL ODS-3 (4.6 mm×150 mm, 5 μm particle size) at 40.0°C. Detection was performed at 300 nm by a diode array detector. The validation results of the method indicated a high selectivity and good precision characteristics, with RSD less than 1.0% for both components, both in intra and inter-assay precision studies. Linearity was proved for a range of 32.0-50.0 μg mL(-1) of NIC in sample solution. The recovery, studied at three different fortification levels, varied from 98.0 to 101.4 for HDP and from 99.1 to 100.2 for DNC. The applicability of the method was demonstrated by determining DNC and HDP content in raw materials and commercial formulations used for coccidiosis prevention. Assays results on real samples showed that considerable differences in molecular ratio DNC:HDP exist among them.

  4. Real-Time Polymerase Chain Reaction as a Tool for Evaluation of Magnetic Poly(Glycidyl methacrylate)-Based Microspheres in Molecular Diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Trachtová, Stepánka; Spanová, Alena; Horák, Daniel; Kozáková, Hana; Rittich, Bohuslav

    2016-01-01

    DNA amplification by real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used for the evaluation of efficiency of polymer coating of magnetic hydrophilic poly(2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate-co-glycidyl methacrylate) (P(HEMA-co-GMA)) and poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres with/without carboxyl groups. The inhibition effect of magnetic microspheres on real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) course was evaluated by regression analysis after the addition of different concentrations of tested microspheres to PCR mixtures. Microspheres mostly did not interfere in RT-PCR till the concentration 50 µg/25 µl PCR mixture. No relationship between Fe content (and microsphere diameter) and inhibition effect was found. Microspheres containing carboxyl groups extinguished the fluorescence at lower concentrations (10-20 µg/25 µl PCR mixture) without inhibition of DNA amplification as PCR products were detected using agarose gel electrophoresis. Negative effect of maghemite on PCR course was partially reduced by coating of magnetic core by silica or polymers. Two inhibition mechanisms of DNA amplification were discussed in this work.

  5. Targeted array comparative genomic hybridization--a new diagnostic tool for the detection of large copy number variations in nemaline myopathy-causing genes.

    PubMed

    Kiiski, K; Laari, L; Lehtokari, V-L; Lunkka-Hytönen, M; Angelini, C; Petty, R; Hackman, P; Wallgren-Pettersson, C; Pelin, K

    2013-01-01

    Nemaline myopathy (NM) constitutes a heterogeneous group of congenital myopathies. Mutations in the nebulin gene (NEB) are the main cause of recessively inherited NM. NEB is one of the most largest genes in human. To date, 68 NEB mutations, mainly small deletions or point mutations have been published. The only large mutation characterized is the 2.5 kb deletion of exon 55 in the Ashkenazi Jewish population. To investigate any copy number variations in this enormous gene, we designed a novel custom comparative genomic hybridization microarray, NM-CGH, targeted towards the seven known genes causative for NM. During the validation of the NM-CGH array we identified two novel deletions in two different families. The first is the largest deletion characterized in NEB to date, (∼53 kb) encompassing 24 exons. The second deletion (1 kb) covers two exons. In both families, the copy number change was the second mutation to be characterized and shown to have been inherited from one of the healthy carrier parents. In addition to these novel mutations, copy number variation was identified in four samples in three families in the triplicate region of NEB. We conclude that this method appears promising for the detection of copy number variations in NEB. PMID:23010307

  6. Myasthenia Gravis: Tests and Diagnostic Methods

    MedlinePlus

    ... Affiliations Foundation Focus Newsletter E-Update Test & Diagnostic methods In addition to a complete medical and neurological ... How can I help? About MGFA Test & Diagnostic methods Treatment for MG FAQ's Upcoming Events Spring 2016 ...

  7. Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES) User's Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Simon, Donald L.

    2010-01-01

    This report is a User's Guide for the Propulsion Diagnostic Method Evaluation Strategy (ProDiMES). ProDiMES is a standard benchmarking problem and a set of evaluation metrics to enable the comparison of candidate aircraft engine gas path diagnostic methods. This Matlab (The Mathworks, Inc.) based software tool enables users to independently develop and evaluate diagnostic methods. Additionally, a set of blind test case data is also distributed as part of the software. This will enable the side-by-side comparison of diagnostic approaches developed by multiple users. The Users Guide describes the various components of ProDiMES, and provides instructions for the installation and operation of the tool.

  8. Salivary Diagnostics: A Brief Review

    PubMed Central

    Malathi, Narasimhan; Mythili, Sabesan; Vasanthi, Hannah R.

    2014-01-01

    Early detection of disease plays a crucial role for treatment planning and prognosis. Saliva has great potential as a diagnostic fluid and offers advantage over serum and other biological fluids by an economic and noninvasive collection method for monitoring of systemic health and disease progression. The plethora of components in this fluid can act as biomarkers for diagnosis of various systemic and local diseases. In this review paper, we have emphasized the role of salivary biomarkers as diagnostic tools. PMID:24616813

  9. Diagnostic imaging.

    PubMed

    Morris, Peter; Perkins, Alan

    2012-04-21

    Physical techniques have always had a key role in medicine, and the second half of the 20th century in particular saw a revolution in medical diagnostic techniques with the development of key imaging instruments: x-ray imaging and emission tomography (nuclear imaging and PET), MRI, and ultrasound. These techniques use the full width of the electromagnetic spectrum, from gamma rays to radio waves, and sound. In most cases, the development of a medical imaging device was opportunistic; many scientists in physics laboratories were experimenting with simple x-ray images within the first year of the discovery of such rays, the development of the cyclotron and later nuclear reactors created the opportunity for nuclear medicine, and one of the co-inventors of MRI was initially attempting to develop an alternative to x-ray diffraction for the analysis of crystal structures. What all these techniques have in common is the brilliant insight of a few pioneering physical scientists and engineers who had the tenacity to develop their inventions, followed by a series of technical innovations that enabled the full diagnostic potential of these instruments to be realised. In this report, we focus on the key part played by these scientists and engineers and the new imaging instruments and diagnostic procedures that they developed. By bringing the key developments and applications together we hope to show the true legacy of physics and engineering in diagnostic medicine. PMID:22516558

  10. Diagnostic Imaging

    MedlinePlus

    Diagnostic imaging lets doctors look inside your body for clues about a medical condition. A variety of machines and techniques can create pictures of the structures and activities inside your body. The type of imaging your doctor uses depends on your symptoms and ...

  11. GRIPPING TOOL

    DOEpatents

    Sandrock, R.J.

    1961-12-12

    A self-actuated gripping tool is described for transferring fuel elements and the like into reactors and other inaccessible locations. The tool will grasp or release the load only when properly positioned for this purpose. In addition, the load cannot be released except when unsupported by the tool, so that jarring or contact will not bring about accidental release of the load. The gripping members or jaws of the device are cam-actuated by an axially slidable shaft which has two lockable positions. A spring urges the shaft into one position and a solenoid is provided to overcome the spring and move it into the other position. The weight of the tool operates a sleeve to lock the shaft in its existing position. Only when the cable supporting the tool is slack is the device capable of being actuated either to grasp or release its load. (AEC)

  12. Chronic pancreatitis: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Duggan, Sinead N; Ní Chonchubhair, Hazel M; Lawal, Oladapo; O’Connor, Donal B; Conlon, Kevin C

    2016-01-01

    Typical clinical symptoms of chronic pancreatitis are vague and non-specific and therefore diagnostic tests are required, none of which provide absolute diagnostic certainly, especially in the early stages of disease. Recently-published guidelines bring much needed structure to the diagnostic work-up of patients with suspected chronic pancreatitis. In addition, novel diagnostic modalities bring promise for the future. The assessment and diagnosis of pancreatic exocrine insufficiency remains challenging and this review contests the accepted perspective that steatorrhea only occurs with > 90% destruction of the gland. PMID:26900292

  13. Use of humanized rat basophilic leukemia reporter cell lines as a diagnostic tool for detection of allergen-specific IgE in allergic patients: time for a reappraisal?

    PubMed

    Falcone, Franco H; Alcocer, Marcos J C; Okamoto-Uchida, Yoshimi; Nakamura, Ryosuke

    2015-11-01

    The interaction between allergens and specific IgE is at the heart of the allergic response and as such lies at the center of techniques used for diagnosis of allergic sensitization. Although serological tests are available, in vivo tests such as double-blind placebo-controlled food challenges (DBPCFC) and skin prick test (SPT) associated to the patients' clinical history are still the main guides to clinicians in many practices around the world. More recently, complex protein arrays and basophil activation tests, requiring only small amounts of whole blood, have been developed and refined, but are yet to enter clinical practice. Similarly, the use of rat basophilic leukemia (RBL) cell lines for detection of allergen-specific IgE has been made possible by stable transfection of the human FcεRI α chain into this cell line more than 20 years ago, but has not found widespread acceptance among clinicians. Here, we review the perceived limitations of diagnostic applications of humanized RBL systems. Furthermore, we illustrate how the introduction of reporter genes into humanized RBL cells is able to overcome most of these limitations, and has the potential to become a new powerful tool to complement the armamentarium of allergists. A demonstration of the usefulness of humanized RBL reporter systems for elucidation of complex IgE sensitization patterns against wheat proteins and a section on the use of fluorescence-based reporter systems in combination with allergen arrays close the review. PMID:26452547

  14. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    PubMed

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  15. Alzheimer's disease: new diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

    PubMed

    Racchi, Marco; Uberti, Daniela; Govoni, Stefano; Memo, Maurizio; Lanni, Cristina; Vasto, Sonya; Candore, Giuseppina; Caruso, Calogero; Romeo, Loriana; Scapagnini, Giovanni

    2008-08-13

    On March 19, 2008 a Symposium on Pathophysiology of Ageing and Age-Related diseases was held in Palermo, Italy. Here, the lectures of M. Racchi on History and future perspectives of Alzheimer Biomarkers and of G. Scapagnini on Cellular Stress Response and Brain Ageing are summarized. Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a heterogeneous and progressive neurodegenerative disease, which in Western society mainly accounts for clinica dementia. AD prevention is an important goal of ongoing research. Two objectives must be accomplished to make prevention feasible: i) individuals at high risk of AD need to be identified before the earliest symptoms become evident, by which time extensive neurodegeneration has already occurred and intervention to prevent the disease is likely to be less successful and ii) safe and effective interventions need to be developed that lead to a decrease in expression of this pathology. On the whole, data here reviewed strongly suggest that the measurement of conformationally altered p53 in blood cells has a high ability to discriminate AD cases from normal ageing, Parkinson's disease and other dementias. On the other hand, available data on the involvement of curcumin in restoring cellular homeostasis and rebalancing redox equilibrium, suggest that curcumin might be a useful adjunct in the treatment of neurodegenerative illnesses characterized by inflammation, such as AD.

  16. KIDMAP--A Diagnostic Tool for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Yew Jin; Linacre, John M.; Yeoh, Oon Chye

    While assessment is the bread and butter of the teaching profession, its practitioners usually do not extend analysis of test responses beyond simple measures such as facility or discrimination indices in classical test theory. Item response theory (IRT) has much to offer but its nonintuitive content and difficulty make it a formidable obstacle in…

  17. Progress on US ITER Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnson, David; Feder, Russ

    2010-11-01

    There have been significant advances in the design concepts for the 8 ITER diagnostic systems being provided by the US. Concepts for integration of the diagnostics into the port plugs have also evolved. A prerequisite for the signoff of the procurement arrangements for these each diagnostic is a Conceptual Design Review organized by the ITER Organization. US experts under contract with the USIPO have been assisting the IO to prepare for these Reviews. In addition, a design team at PPPL has been working with these experts and designers from other ITER parties to package diagnostic front-ends into the 5 US plugs. Modular diagnostic shield modules are now being considered in order to simplify the interfaces between the diagnostics within each plug. Diagnostic first wall elements are envisioned to be integral with these shield modules. This simplifies the remote handling of the diagnostics and provides flexibility for future removal of one diagnostic minimally affecting others. Front-end configurations will be presented, along with lists of issues needing resolution prior to the start of preliminary design.

  18. Diagnostics development plan for ZR.

    SciTech Connect

    Hanson, David Lester

    2003-09-01

    The Z Refurbishment (ZR) Project is a program to upgrade the Z machine at SNL with modern durable pulsed power technology, providing additional shot capacity and improved reliability as well as advanced capabilities for both pulsed x-ray production and high pressure generation. The development of enhanced diagnostic capabilities is an essential requirement for ZR to meet critical mission needs. This report presents a comprehensive plan for diagnostic instrument and infrastructure development for the first few years of ZR operation. The focus of the plan is on: (1) developing diagnostic instruments with high spatial and temporal resolution, capable of low noise operation and survival in the severe EMP, bremsstrahlung, and blast environments of ZR; and (2) providing diagnostic infrastructure improvements, including reduced diagnostic trigger signal jitter, more and flexible diagnostic line-of-sight access, and the capability for efficient exchange of diagnostics with other laboratories. This diagnostic plan is the first step in an extended process to provide enhanced diagnostic capabilities for ZR to meet the diverse programmatic needs of a broad range of defense, energy, and general science programs of an international user community into the next decade.

  19. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  20. Shot Planning and Analysis Tools

    SciTech Connect

    Casey, A; Beeler, R; Conder, A; Fallejo, R; Flegel, M; Hutton, M; Jancaitis, K; Lakamsani, V; Potter, D; Reisdorf, S; Tappero, J; Whitman, P; Carr, W; Liao, Z

    2011-07-25

    Shot planning and analysis tools (SPLAT) integrate components necessary to help achieve a high over-all operational efficiency of the National Ignition Facility (NIF) by combining near and long-term shot planning, final optics demand and supply loops, target diagnostics planning, and target fabrication requirements. Currently, the SPLAT project is comprised of two primary tool suites for shot planning and optics demand. The shot planning component provides a web-based interface to selecting and building a sequence of proposed shots for the NIF. These shot sequences, or 'lanes' as they are referred to by shot planners, provide for planning both near-term shots in the Facility and long-term 'campaigns' in the months and years to come. The shot planning capabilities integrate with the Configuration Management Tool (CMT) for experiment details and the NIF calendar for availability. Future enhancements will additionally integrate with target diagnostics planning and target fabrication requirements tools. The optics demand component is built upon predictive modelling of maintenance requirements on the final optics as a result of the proposed shots assembled during shot planning. The predictive models integrate energetics from a Laser Performance Operations Model (LPOM), the status of the deployed optics as provided by the online Final Optics Inspection system, and physics-based mathematical 'rules' that predict optic flaw growth and new flaw initiations. These models are then run on an analytical cluster comprised of forty-eight Linux-based compute nodes. Results from the predictive models are used to produce decision-support reports in the areas of optics inspection planning, optics maintenance exchanges, and optics beam blocker placement advisories. Over time, the SPLAT project will evolve to provide a variety of decision-support and operation optimization tools.

  1. ATAMM analysis tool

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, Robert; Stoughton, John; Mielke, Roland

    1991-01-01

    Diagnostics software for analyzing Algorithm to Architecture Mapping Model (ATAMM) based concurrent processing systems is presented. ATAMM is capable of modeling the execution of large grain algorithms on distributed data flow architectures. The tool graphically displays algorithm activities and processor activities for evaluation of the behavior and performance of an ATAMM based system. The tool's measurement capabilities indicate computing speed, throughput, concurrency, resource utilization, and overhead. Evaluations are performed on a simulated system using the software tool. The tool is used to estimate theoretical lower bound performance. Analysis results are shown to be comparable to the predictions.

  2. Rotorcraft Diagnostics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haste, Deepak; Azam, Mohammad; Ghoshal, Sudipto; Monte, James

    2012-01-01

    Health management (HM) in any engineering systems requires adequate understanding about the system s functioning; a sufficient amount of monitored data; the capability to extract, analyze, and collate information; and the capability to combine understanding and information for HM-related estimation and decision-making. Rotorcraft systems are, in general, highly complex. Obtaining adequate understanding about functioning of such systems is quite difficult, because of the proprietary (restricted access) nature of their designs and dynamic models. Development of an EIM (exact inverse map) solution for rotorcraft requires a process that can overcome the abovementioned difficulties and maximally utilize monitored information for HM facilitation via employing advanced analytic techniques. The goal was to develop a versatile HM solution for rotorcraft for facilitation of the Condition Based Maintenance Plus (CBM+) capabilities. The effort was geared towards developing analytic and reasoning techniques, and proving the ability to embed the required capabilities on a rotorcraft platform, paving the way for implementing the solution on an aircraft-level system for consolidation and reporting. The solution for rotorcraft can he used offboard or embedded directly onto a rotorcraft system. The envisioned solution utilizes available monitored and archived data for real-time fault detection and identification, failure precursor identification, and offline fault detection and diagnostics, health condition forecasting, optimal guided troubleshooting, and maintenance decision support. A variant of the onboard version is a self-contained hardware and software (HW+SW) package that can be embedded on rotorcraft systems. The HM solution comprises components that gather/ingest data and information, perform information/feature extraction, analyze information in conjunction with the dependency/diagnostic model of the target system, facilitate optimal guided troubleshooting, and offer

  3. Overcoming inhibition in real-time diagnostic PCR.

    PubMed

    Hedman, Johannes; Rådström, Peter

    2013-01-01

    PCR is an important and powerful tool in several fields, including clinical diagnostics, food analysis, and forensic analysis. In theory, PCR enables the detection of one single cell or DNA molecule. However, the presence of PCR inhibitors in the sample affects the amplification efficiency of PCR, thus lowering the detection limit, as well as the precision of sequence-specific nucleic acid quantification in real-time PCR. In order to overcome the problems caused by PCR inhibitors, all the steps leading up to DNA amplification must be optimized for the sample type in question. Sampling and sample treatment are key steps, but most of the methods currently in use were developed for conventional diagnostic methods and not for PCR. Therefore, there is a need for fast, simple, and robust sample preparation methods that take advantage of the accuracy of PCR. In addition, the thermostable DNA polymerases and buffer systems used in PCR are affected differently by inhibitors. During recent years, real-time PCR has developed considerably and is now widely used as a diagnostic tool. This technique has greatly improved the degree of automation and reduced the analysis time, but has also introduced a new set of PCR inhibitors, namely those affecting the fluorescence signal. The purpose of this chapter is to view the complexity of PCR inhibition from different angles, presenting both molecular explanations and practical ways of dealing with the problem. Although diagnostic PCR brings together scientists from different diagnostic fields, end-users have not fully exploited the potential of learning from each other. Here, we have collected knowledge from archeological analysis, clinical diagnostics, environmental analysis, food analysis, and forensic analysis. The concept of integrating sampling, sample treatment, and the chemistry of PCR, i.e., pre-PCR processing, will be addressed as a general approach to overcoming real-time PCR inhibition and producing samples optimal for PCR

  4. FEL-accelerator related diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Kevin Jordan; David Douglas; Stephen V. Benson; Pavel Evtuschenko

    2007-08-02

    Free Electron Lasers (FEL) present a unique set of beam parameters to the diagnostics suite. The FEL requires characterization of the full six dimensional phase space of the electron beam at the wiggler and accurate alignment of the electron beam to the optical mode of the laser. In addition to the FEL requirements on the diagnostics suite, the Jefferson Lab FEL is operated as an Energy Recovered Linac (ERL) which imposes additional requirements on the diagnostics. The ERL aspect of the Jefferson Lab FEL requires that diagnostics operate over a unique dynamic range and operate with simultaneous transport of the accelerated and energy recovered beams. This talk will present how these challenges are addressed at the Jefferson Lab FEL.

  5. 'Doctor Google' ending the diagnostic odyssey in lysosomal storage disorders: parents using internet search engines as an efficient diagnostic strategy in rare diseases.

    PubMed

    Bouwman, Machtelt G; Teunissen, Quirine G A; Wijburg, Frits A; Linthorst, Gabor E

    2010-08-01

    The expansion of the internet has resulted in widespread availability of medical information for both patients and physicians. People increasingly spend time on the internet searching for an explanation, diagnosis or treatment for their symptoms. Regarding rare diseases, the use of the internet may be an important tool in the diagnostic process. The authors present two cases in which concerned parents made a correct diagnosis of a lysosomal storage disorder in their child by searching the internet after a long doctor's delay. These cases illustrate the utility of publicly available internet search engines in diagnosing rare disorders and in addition illustrate the lengthy diagnostic odyssey which is common in these disorders.

  6. Diagnostic hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Apgar, B S; DeWitt, D

    1992-11-01

    The hysteroscope is a valuable tool for selective viewing of the uterine cavity and the endocervical canal. With smaller-diameter scopes, hysteroscopy can be performed in the office setting, often without the need for cervical dilatation or local anesthesia. Controlled-rate CO2 insufflators allow safe distention of the uterine cavity with minimal side effects. Indications for office hysteroscopy include the evaluation of abnormal uterine bleeding, genital carcinoma and infertility and the investigation of a "lost" intrauterine device. Hysteroscopy is an adjunct to endometrial sampling, dilatation and curettage, hysterosalpingography and cervical cytology.

  7. Diagnostic application of KRAS mutation testing in uterine microglandular proliferations.

    PubMed

    Hong, Wei; Abi-Raad, Rita; Alomari, Ahmed K; Hui, Pei; Buza, Natalia

    2015-07-01

    Microglandular proliferations often pose a diagnostic challenge in small endocervical and endometrial biopsies. Microglandular hyperplasia (MGH) is one of the most common pseudoneoplastic glandular proliferations of uterine cervix, which can closely mimic endometrial adenocarcinomas (EAC) with a microglandular pattern (microglandular EAC). Although MGH is typically characterized by relatively uniform nuclei and rare to absent mitoses, atypical forms with architectural and/or cytologic deviation from the usual morphology have been previously described. Recently, a series of MGH with high mitotic activity has also been documented. Although careful morphological assessment and immunohistochemical workup can resolve the diagnostic dilemma in some cases, additional differential diagnostic tools are needed to separate both the common and atypical variants of MGH from EAC with microglandular pattern. Frequent KRAS mutation has been previously reported in endometrial complex mucinous lesions and endometrial mucinous carcinomas. However, the diagnostic utility of KRAS mutation analysis has not yet been explored in the context of cervical and endometrial microglandular lesions. Twelve mitotically active MGH cases and 15 cases of EAC with microglandular growth pattern were selected for the study. KRAS mutation analysis was performed in all cases by highly sensitive single-strand conformation polymorphism analysis. Clinical history and follow-up data were retrieved from electronic medical records. KRAS mutation was absent in all MGH cases, whereas 9 (60%) of 15 microglandular EAC cases tested positive for KRAS mutation. Our data indicate that KRAS mutation analysis may offer additional discriminatory power in separating benign MGH from EAC with microglandular pattern.

  8. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  9. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  10. Intelligent diagnostics systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcquiston, Barbara M.; Dehoff, Ronald L.

    1992-01-01

    Intelligent systems have been applied to today's problems and could also be applied to space operations integrity. One of these systems is the XMAN tool designed for 'troubleshooting' jet engines. XMAN is the eXpert MAiNtenance tool developed to be an expert information analysis tool which stores trending and diagnostic data on Air Force engines. XMAN operates with a 'network topology' which follows a flow chart containing engine management information reports required by the governments technical order procedures. With XMAN technology, the user is able to identify engine problems by presenting the assertions of the fault isolation logic and attempting to satisfy individual assertions by referring to the databases created by an engine monitoring system. The troubleshooting process requires interaction between the technician and the computer to acquire new evidence form auxiliary maintenance tests corroboration of analytical results to accurately diagnose equipment malfunctions. This same technology will be required for systems which are functioning in space either with an onboard crew, or with an unmanned system. The technology and lessons learned developing this technology while suggesting definite applications for its use with developing space systems are addressed.

  11. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  12. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-03-17

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil.

  13. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester-A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  14. Process Recovery after CaO Addition Due to Granule Formation in a CSTR Co-Digester—A Tool to Influence the Composition of the Microbial Community and Stabilize the Process?

    PubMed Central

    Liebrich, Marietta; Kleyböcker, Anne; Kasina, Monika; Miethling-Graff, Rona; Kassahun, Andrea; Würdemann, Hilke

    2016-01-01

    The composition, structure and function of granules formed during process recovery with calcium oxide in a laboratory-scale fermenter fed with sewage sludge and rapeseed oil were studied. In the course of over-acidification and successful process recovery, only minor changes were observed in the bacterial community of the digestate, while granules appeared during recovery. Fluorescence microscopic analysis of the granules showed a close spatial relationship between calcium and oil and/or long chain fatty acids. This finding further substantiated the hypothesis that calcium precipitated with carbon of organic origin and reduced the negative effects of overloading with oil. Furthermore, the enrichment of phosphate minerals in the granules was shown, and molecular biological analyses detected polyphosphate-accumulating organisms as well as methanogenic archaea in the core. Organisms related to Methanoculleus receptaculi were detected in the inner zones of a granule, whereas they were present in the digestate only after process recovery. This finding indicated more favorable microhabitats inside the granules that supported process recovery. Thus, the granule formation triggered by calcium oxide addition served as a tool to influence the composition of the microbial community and to stabilize the process after overloading with oil. PMID:27681911

  15. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed.

  16. Diagnostics for Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    McNerney, Ruth

    2015-01-01

    Improving the availability of high quality diagnostic tests for infectious diseases is a global priority. Lack of access by people living in low income countries may deprive them of life saving treatment and reduces opportunities to prevent onward transmission and spread of the disease. Diagnostic laboratories are often poorly resourced in developing countries, and sparsely distributed. Improved access may be achieved by using tests that do not require laboratory support, including rapid tests for use at the point-of-care. Despite increased interest, few new in vitro diagnostic (IVD) products reach the majority populations in low income countries. Barriers to uptake include cost and lack of robustness, with reduced test performances due to environmental pressures such as high ambient temperatures or dust. In addition to environmental factors test developers must consider the local epidemiology. Confounding conditions such as immunosuppression or variations in antigen presentation or genotype can affect test performance. Barriers to product development include access to finance to establish manufacturing capacity and cover the costs of market entry for new devices. Costs and delays may be inflated by current regulatory preregistration processes to ensure product safety and quality, and more harmonized approaches are needed. PMID:26854149

  17. Behavioral diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Bailey, J S; Pyles, D A

    1989-01-01

    The contemporary behavior analyst, to operate ethically and effectively, must be aware of many more factors affecting behavior than simple consequences. Although the literature demonstrating the effectiveness of active behavior management is impressive, a compelling argument can be made that a great number of behavior problem seen in individuals with developmental disabilities may be attributable to factors other than consequences. Our experience has been more often than not that physiological, organic, medication, or situational variables are the actual culprits in maladaptive behavior. Individuals with severe or profound retardation may respond to aversive features of their environment by displaying noncompliance, tantrums, aggression, or self-injurious behavior. These antecedents can affect their behavior just as powerfully as can the consequences of their behavior. Behavior analysts must become sensitive to these potential factors and be prepared to employ behavioral diagnostic strategies in the search for the causes of maladaptive behavior. Finally, they must be prepared to design rather unconventional passive behavior management treatment programs involving the manipulation of the antecedent environment. In the case of Carrie, from the example at the beginning of this paper, the analysis yielded the hypothesis that her face scratching was a reaction to sinus blockage caused by seasonal allergies. Her treatment involved daily dosages of antihistamines administered by our nurses and subsequent elimination of the scratching. Tom was found to be suffering from "wheelchair fatigue." When he was allowed to recline on other surfaces (e.g., bean bag chair, mat, bolster) on a regular basis, he did not attempt any form of self-injury. Melissa was found to have a severe case of Pre Menstrual Syndrome as well as seizure disorder, and was treated with the appropriate medications. Her headbanging was reduced to a few minor incidents per month. Walter's tantrums on closer

  18. Prenatal Clinical Assessment of sFlt-1 (Soluble fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1)/PlGF (Placental Growth Factor) Ratio as a Diagnostic Tool for Preeclampsia, Pregnancy-induced Hypertension, and Proteinuria

    PubMed Central

    Lehnen, H.; Mosblech, N.; Reineke, T.; Puchooa, A.; Menke-Möllers, I.; Zechner, U.; Gembruch, U.

    2013-01-01

    Background: Aim of the study was a critical assessment of the clinical validity of the prenatal determination of sFlt-1/PlGF for preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and proteinuria. Our analysis was based on a specificity of 95 % and a sensitivity of 82 % for the prediction of preeclampsia, as described by Elecsys (Roche). Methods: In this retrospective study the ratio of the prenatal antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) to the proangiogenic factor PIGF (placental growth factor) was analyzed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in 173 pregnant women. Sixty-three women with PE, 34 women with PIH and 6 women with proteinuria were compared to 72 controls. On average, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was determined 8 (controls), 2.4 (PE), 3.2 (PIH) and 4.1 (proteinuria) weeks before delivery. The PE and PIH cases were further subdivided into early (< 34 weeks of gestation) and late (≥ 34 weeks of gestation) onset groups. Statistical data analysis was done using the usual descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. ROC curves were calculated, and the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value (NPV, PPV) were estimated for a threshold of 85. Results: Although the specificity of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was high for PE, the sensitivity was low (only 59.4 %), thus giving unsatisfying results for PE. The sensitivity only increased to 62.5 % for the early-onset PE group. Intriguingly, a high ratio was detected for the combination of IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) and PE in the early-onset PE group (8 cases). In the control group, 4 cases exceeded the cut-off value of 85 but showed no clinical signs of PE and the birth was unremarkable. In summary, we found that the sFlt-1/PIGF ratio could not be used as a predictive test for preeclampsia but rather as an indicator for the development and estimation of the severity of

  19. Prenatal Clinical Assessment of sFlt-1 (Soluble fms-like Tyrosine Kinase-1)/PlGF (Placental Growth Factor) Ratio as a Diagnostic Tool for Preeclampsia, Pregnancy-induced Hypertension, and Proteinuria.

    PubMed

    Lehnen, H; Mosblech, N; Reineke, T; Puchooa, A; Menke-Möllers, I; Zechner, U; Gembruch, U

    2013-05-01

    Background: Aim of the study was a critical assessment of the clinical validity of the prenatal determination of sFlt-1/PlGF for preeclampsia (PE), pregnancy-induced hypertension (PIH), and proteinuria. Our analysis was based on a specificity of 95 % and a sensitivity of 82 % for the prediction of preeclampsia, as described by Elecsys (Roche). Methods: In this retrospective study the ratio of the prenatal antiangiogenic factor sFlt-1 (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1) to the proangiogenic factor PIGF (placental growth factor) was analyzed using the electrochemiluminescence immunoassay of Elecsys (Roche Diagnostics, Mannheim, Germany) in 173 pregnant women. Sixty-three women with PE, 34 women with PIH and 6 women with proteinuria were compared to 72 controls. On average, the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was determined 8 (controls), 2.4 (PE), 3.2 (PIH) and 4.1 (proteinuria) weeks before delivery. The PE and PIH cases were further subdivided into early (< 34 weeks of gestation) and late (≥ 34 weeks of gestation) onset groups. Statistical data analysis was done using the usual descriptive statistics and logistic regression analysis. ROC curves were calculated, and the sensitivity, specificity, and negative and positive predictive value (NPV, PPV) were estimated for a threshold of 85. Results: Although the specificity of the sFlt-1/PlGF ratio was high for PE, the sensitivity was low (only 59.4 %), thus giving unsatisfying results for PE. The sensitivity only increased to 62.5 % for the early-onset PE group. Intriguingly, a high ratio was detected for the combination of IUGR (intrauterine growth restriction) and PE in the early-onset PE group (8 cases). In the control group, 4 cases exceeded the cut-off value of 85 but showed no clinical signs of PE and the birth was unremarkable. In summary, we found that the sFlt-1/PIGF ratio could not be used as a predictive test for preeclampsia but rather as an indicator for the development and estimation of the severity of

  20. Diagnostics and Microelectronics

    SciTech Connect

    Balch, J.W.

    1993-03-01

    This report discusses activities of the Diagnostics and Microelectronics thrust area which conducts activities in semiconductor devices and semiconductor fabrication technology for programs at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Our multidisciplinary engineering and scientific staff use modern computational tools and semi-conductor microfabrication equipment to develop high-performance devices. Our work concentrates on three broad technologies of semiconductor microdevices: (1) silicon on III-V semiconductor microeletronics, (2) lithium niobate-based and III-V semiconductor-based photonics, and (3) silicon-based micromaching for application to microstructures and microinstruments. In FY-92, we worked on projects in seven areas, described in this report: novel photonic detectors; a wideband phase modulator; an optoelectronic terahertz beam system; the fabrication of microelectrode electrochemical sensors; diamond heatsinks; advanced micromachining technologies; and electrophoresis using silicon microchannels.

  1. Diagnostic evaluation of rhabdomyolysis.

    PubMed

    Nance, Jessica R; Mammen, Andrew L

    2015-06-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days after an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. Clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbances, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid β-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle-cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. Muscle Nerve 51: 793-810, 2015. PMID:25678154

  2. Diagnostic Evaluation of Rhabdomyolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nance, Jessica R.; Mammen, Andrew L.

    2015-01-01

    Rhabdomyolysis is characterized by severe acute muscle injury resulting in muscle pain, weakness, and/or swelling with release of myofiber contents into the bloodstream. Symptoms develop over hours to days following an inciting factor and may be associated with dark pigmentation of the urine. Serum creatine kinase and urine myoglobin levels are markedly elevated. The clinical examination, history, laboratory studies, muscle biopsy, and genetic testing are useful tools for diagnosis of rhabdomyolysis, and they can help differentiate acquired from inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis. Acquired causes include substance abuse, medication or toxic exposures, electrolyte abnormalities, endocrine disturbance, and autoimmune myopathies. Inherited predisposition to rhabdomyolysis can occur with disorders of glycogen metabolism, fatty acid beta-oxidation, and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation. Less common inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis include structural myopathies, channelopathies, and sickle cell disease. This review focuses on the differentiation of acquired and inherited causes of rhabdomyolysis and proposes a practical diagnostic algorithm. PMID:25678154

  3. Emerging technologies in extracellular vesicle-based molecular diagnostics.

    PubMed

    Jia, Shidong; Zocco, Davide; Samuels, Michael L; Chou, Michael F; Chammas, Roger; Skog, Johan; Zarovni, Natasa; Momen-Heravi, Fatemeh; Kuo, Winston Patrick

    2014-04-01

    Extracellular vesicles (EVs), including exosomes and microvesicles, have been shown to carry a variety of biomacromolecules including mRNA, microRNA and other non-coding RNAs. Within the past 5 years, EVs have emerged as a promising minimally invasive novel source of material for molecular diagnostics. Although EVs can be easily identified and collected from biological fluids, further research and proper validation is needed in order for them to be useful in the clinical setting. In addition, innovative and more efficient means of nucleic acid profiling are needed to facilitate investigations into the cellular and molecular mechanisms of EV function and to establish their potential as useful clinical biomarkers and therapeutic tools. In this article, we provide an overview of recent technological improvements in both upstream EV isolation and downstream analytical technologies, including digital PCR and next generation sequencing, highlighting future prospects for EV-based molecular diagnostics.

  4. Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schwabacher, Mark A.; Martin, Rodney Alexander; Waterman, Robert D.; Oostdyk, Rebecca Lynn; Ossenfort, John P.; Matthews, Bryan

    2010-01-01

    The automation of pre-launch diagnostics for launch vehicles offers three potential benefits: improving safety, reducing cost, and reducing launch delays. The Ares I-X Ground Diagnostic Prototype demonstrated anomaly detection, fault detection, fault isolation, and diagnostics for the Ares I-X first-stage Thrust Vector Control and for the associated ground hydraulics while the vehicle was in the Vehicle Assembly Building at Kennedy Space Center (KSC) and while it was on the launch pad. The prototype combines three existing tools. The first tool, TEAMS (Testability Engineering and Maintenance System), is a model-based tool from Qualtech Systems Inc. for fault isolation and diagnostics. The second tool, SHINE (Spacecraft Health Inference Engine), is a rule-based expert system that was developed at the NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory. We developed SHINE rules for fault detection and mode identification, and used the outputs of SHINE as inputs to TEAMS. The third tool, IMS (Inductive Monitoring System), is an anomaly detection tool that was developed at NASA Ames Research Center. The three tools were integrated and deployed to KSC, where they were interfaced with live data. This paper describes how the prototype performed during the period of time before the launch, including accuracy and computer resource usage. The paper concludes with some of the lessons that we learned from the experience of developing and deploying the prototype.

  5. Diagnostic vitrectomy for infectious uveitis

    PubMed Central

    Jeroudi, Abdallah; Yeh, Steven

    2014-01-01

    The identification of an infectious or noninfectious uveitis syndrome is important to determine the range of therapeutic and prognostic implications of that disease entity. Diagnostic dilemmas arise with atypical history, atypical clinical presentations, inconclusive diagnostic workup, and persistent or worsened inflammation despite appropriate immunosuppression. More invasive intraocular testing is indicated in these situations particularly in infectious uveitis where a delay in treatment may result in worsening of the patient’s disease and a poor visual outcome. Laboratory analysis of vitreous fluid via diagnostic pars plana vitrectomy is an important technique in the diagnostic armamentarium, but the most important aspects of sample collection include rapid processing, close coordination with an ophthalmic pathology laboratory, and directed testing on this limited collected sample. Culture and staining has utility in bacterial, fungal, and nocardial infection. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis has shown promising results for bacterial endophthalmitis and infection with mycobacterium tuberculosis whereas PCR testing for viral retinitides and ocular toxoplasmosis has a more established role. Antibody testing is appropriate for toxoplasmosis and toxocariasis, and may be complementary to PCR for viral retinitis. Masquerade syndromes represent neoplastic conditions that clinically appear as infectious or inflammatory conditions and should be considered as part of the differential diagnosis. Diagnostic vitrectomy and chorioretinal biopsy are thus critical tools for the management of patients in whom an infectious etiology of uveitis is suspected. PMID:24613892

  6. Diagnostic Immunohistochemistry in Cutaneous Neoplasia: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Compton, Leigh A.; Murphy, George F.; Lian, Christine G.

    2015-01-01

    Immunohistochemistry (IHC) is an important adjunct in the diagnosis of neoplastic skin diseases. In addition to the many established IHC markers currently in use, new markers continue to emerge, although their general acceptance and routine application requires robust validation. Here, we summarize the most well-established and commonly used biomarkers along with an array of newer ones reported in the past several decades that either demonstrate or hold high clinical promise in the field of cutaneous pathology. We also highlight recent applications of novel IHC markers in melanoma diagnosis including genetic mutation status markers [e.g. BRAF (v-raf murine sarcoma viral oncogene homolog B) and NRAS (neuroblastoma RAS viral oncogene homolog)] and an epigenetic alteration marker (e.g. 5-hydroxymethylcytosine). We specifically focus on the role of IHC in the differential diagnosis of cutaneous lesions that fall under the following categories: melanoma, epidermal tumors with an intraepidermal epitheliomatous pattern, spindle cell lesions of the dermis, small round blue cell tumors of the dermis, and cutaneous adnexal tumors. While IHC is a valuable tool in diagnostic dermatopathology, marker selection and interpretation must be highly informed by clinical context and the histologic differential diagnosis. With rapid progress in our understanding of the genetic and epigenetic mechanisms of tumorigenesis, new IHC markers will continue to emerge in the field of diagnostic dermatopathology. PMID:27047932

  7. Elevation of neuron specific enolase and brain iron deposition on susceptibility-weighted imaging as diagnostic clues for beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration in early childhood: Additional case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Takano, Kyoko; Shiba, Naoko; Wakui, Keiko; Yamaguchi, Tomomi; Aida, Noriko; Inaba, Yuji; Fukushima, Yoshimitsu; Kosho, Tomoki

    2016-02-01

    Beta-propeller protein-associated neurodegeneration (BPAN), also known as static encephalopathy of childhood with neurodegeneration in adulthood (SENDA), is a subtype of neurodegeneration with brain iron accumulation (NBIA). BPAN is caused by mutations in an X-linked gene WDR45 that is involved in autophagy. BPAN is characterized by developmental delay or intellectual disability until adolescence or early adulthood, followed by severe dystonia, parkinsonism, and progressive dementia. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) shows iron deposition in the bilateral globus pallidus (GP) and substantia nigra (SN). Clinical manifestations and laboratory findings in early childhood are limited. We report a 3-year-old girl with BPAN who presented with severe developmental delay and characteristic facial features. In addition to chronic elevation of serum aspartate transaminase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase, and soluble interleukin-2 receptor, she had persistent elevation of neuron specific enolase (NSE) in serum and cerebrospinal fluid. MRI using susceptibility-weighted imaging (SWI) demonstrated iron accumulation in the GP and SN bilaterally. Targeted next-generation sequencing identified a de novo splice-site mutation, c.831-1G>C in WDR45, which resulted in aberrant splicing evidenced by reverse transcriptase-PCR. Persistent elevation of NSE and iron deposition on SWI may provide clues for diagnosis of BPAN in early childhood.

  8. Nuclear Diagnostics of ICF

    SciTech Connect

    Izumi, N; Ierche, R A; Moran, M J; Phillips, T W; Sangster, T C; Schmid, G J; Stoyer, M A; Disdier, L; Bourgade, J L; Rouyer, A; Fisher, R K; Gerggren, R R; Caldwen, S E; Faulkner, J R; Mack, J M; Oertel, J A; Young, C S; Glebov, V Y; Jaanimagi, P A; Meyerhofer, D D; Soures, J M; Stockel, C; Frenje, J A; Li, C K; Petrasso, R D

    2001-10-18

    , a spatial resolution of {approx} 5 {micro}m is required for imaging systems. Fourth, the diagnostics operate in a harsh background. In implosion experiments, strong bursts of electromagnetic pulses, x-rays, neutrons, and neutron-induced radioactivity are produced. Therefore the diagnostics have to be designed to survive in these backgrounds. In addition, to prevent materials ablated from diagnostic components close to the target from being deposited on the laser optics, these components are excluded from a zone around the target with a radius in the range of 0.5 m to 5 m. This exclusion zone has a large impact on diagnostic design.

  9. Far infrared fusion plasma diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Peebles, W.A.

    1990-01-01

    Over the last several years, reflectometry has grown in importance as a diagnostic for both steady-state density Profiles as well as for the investigation of density fluctuations and turbulence. As a diagnostic for density profile measurement, it is generally believed to be well understood in the tokamak environment. However, its use as a fluctuation diagnostic is hampered by a lack of quantitative experimental understanding of its wavenumber sensitivity and spatial resolution. Several researchers, have theoretically investigated these questions. However, prior to the UCLA laboratory investigation, no group has experimentally investigated these questions. Because of the reflectometer's importance to the world effort in understanding plasma turbulence and transport, UCLA has, over the last year, made its primary Task IIIA effort the resolution of these questions. UCLA has taken the lead in a quantitative experimental understanding of reflectometer data as applied to the measurement of density fluctuations. In addition to this, work has proceeded on the design, construction, and installation of a reflectometer system on UCLA's CCT tokamak. This effort will allow a comparison between the improved confinement regimes (H-mode) observed on both the DIII-D and CCT machines with the goal of achieving a physics understanding of the phenomena. Preliminary investigation of a new diagnostic technique to measure density profiles as a function of time has been initiated at UCLA. The technique promises to be a valuable addition to the range of available plasma diagnostics. Work on advanced holographic reflectometry technique as applied to fluctuation diagnostics has awaited a better understanding of the reflectometer signal itself as discussed above. Efforts to ensure the transfer of the diagnostic developments have continued with particular attention devoted to the preliminary design of a multichannel FIR interferometer for MST.

  10. Beam diagnostics

    SciTech Connect

    Bogaty, J.; Clifft, B.E.; Zinkann, G.P.; Pardo, R.C.

    1995-08-01

    The ECR-PII injector beam line is operated at a fixed ion velocity. The platform high voltage is chosen so that all ions have a velocity of 0.0085c at the PII entrance. If a previous tune configuration for the linac is to be used, the beam arrival time must be matched to the previous tune as well. A nondestructive beam-phase pickup detector was developed and installed at the entrance to the PII linac. This device provides continuous phase and beam current information and allows quick optimization of the beam injected into PII. Bunches traverse a short tubular electrode thereby inducing displacement currents. These currents are brought outside the vacuum interface where a lumped inductance resonates electrode capacitance at one of the bunching harmonic frequencies. This configuration yields a basic sensitivity of a few hundred millivolts signal per microampere of beam current. Beam-induced radiofrequency signals are summed against an offset frequency generated by our master oscillator. The resulting kilohertz difference frequency conveys beam intensity and bunch phase information which is sent to separate processing channels. One channel utilizes a phase locked loop which stabilizes phase readings if beam is unstable. The other channel uses a linear full wave active rectifier circuit which converts kilohertz sine wave signal amplitude to a D.C. voltage representing beam current. A prototype set of electronics is now in use with the detector and we began to use the system in operation to set the arrival beam phase. A permanent version of the electronics system for the phase detector is now under construction. Additional nondestructive beam intensity and phase monitors at the {open_quotes}Booster{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}ATLAS{close_quotes} linac sections are planned as well as on some of the high-energy beam lines. Such a monitor will be particularly useful for FMA experiments where the primary beam hits one of the electric deflector plates.

  11. Advances in Diagnostic Assays for Tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Lawn, Stephen D

    2015-08-07

    Approximately one-third of the global burden of tuberculosis (TB) remains undiagnosed each year and the vast majority of cases of multidrug-resistant TB remain undetected. Many countries still place heavy reliance on outdated technologies that are blunt and ineffective tools for controlling this epidemic. However, during the past 10 years, there has been substantial progress within the TB diagnostics developmental pipeline. Old technologies have been reviewed and improved and new technologies have been developed and evaluated and are now being implemented. This review summarizes these developments and describes the currently available diagnostic tools. Consideration is given to the requirements of future diagnostic tests and how these should be evaluated not only with regard to their diagnostic accuracy and operational feasibility, but ultimately in terms of whether they impact clinical outcomes cost effectively, especially for those most in need.

  12. Fungal diagnostics in pneumonia.

    PubMed

    Lease, Erika D; Alexander, Barbara D

    2011-12-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. Although standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstays of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serological and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This article reviews the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  13. Fungal Diagnostics in Pneumonia

    PubMed Central

    Lease, Erika D.; Alexander, Barbara D.

    2014-01-01

    Fungal pneumonia is increasingly common, particularly in highly immunosuppressed patients, such as solid organ or hematopoietic stem cell transplant recipients, and the diagnosis is evolving. While standard techniques such as microscopy and culture remain the mainstay of diagnosis, relatively recent advances in serologic and molecular testing are important additions to the field. This chapter will review the laboratory tools used to diagnose fungal respiratory disease. PMID:22167394

  14. Observations and diagnostics in high brightness beams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cianchi, A.; Anania, M. P.; Bisesto, F.; Castellano, M.; Chiadroni, E.; Pompili, R.; Shpakov, V.

    2016-09-01

    The brightness is a figure of merit largely used in the light sources, like FEL (Free Electron Lasers), but it is also fundamental in several other applications, as for instance Compton backscattering sources, beam driven plasma accelerators and THz sources. Advanced diagnostics are essential tools in the development of high brightness beams. 6D electron beam diagnostics will be reviewed with emphasis on emittance measurement.

  15. Rapid infectious diseases diagnostics using Smartphones

    PubMed Central

    Bates, Matthew

    2015-01-01

    The “Smartphone” is an almost universal possession in high-income populations, and is rapidly becoming so in lower-income regions, particularly among urban populations, and serves social networking and a quest for information and knowledge. The field of infectious disease diagnostics is at a potential watershed moment, with the essential building blocks for the development of diagnostic assays being ever more available and affordable, which is leading to creative innovative approaches to developing much-needed accurate and simple point-of-care (POC) diagnostic tools for high disease burden, low-income settings. We review the importance and implications of a paper published in Science Translational Medicine on the development of a smartphone-powered and -controlled multiplex immunological assay that tests for HIV and syphilis simultaneously. This is reviewed in the context of other prototype smartphone-enabled/assisted diagnostic devices, and how such developments might shape the future of the POC diagnostics field. PMID:26488011

  16. Highly parallel microbial diagnostics using oligonucleotide microarrays.

    PubMed

    Loy, Alexander; Bodrossy, Levente

    2006-01-01

    Oligonucleotide microarrays are highly parallel hybridization platforms, allowing rapid and simultaneous identification of many different microorganisms and viruses in a single assay. In the past few years, researchers have been confronted with a dramatic increase in the number of studies reporting development and/or improvement of oligonucleotide microarrays for microbial diagnostics, but use of the technology in routine diagnostics is still constrained by a variety of factors. Careful development of microarray essentials (such as oligonucleotide probes, protocols for target preparation and hybridization, etc.) combined with extensive performance testing are thus mandatory requirements for the maturation of diagnostic microarrays from fancy technological gimmicks to robust and routinely applicable tools.

  17. Molecular diagnostics in tuberculosis.