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  1. THE FATE OF FLUOROSILICATE DRINKING WATER ADDITIVES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Periodically, the EPA reexamines its information on regulated drinking water contaminants to deterime if further study is required. Fluoride is one such contaminant undergoing review. The chemical literature indicates that some deficiencies exist in our understanding of the spe...

  2. 75 FR 41725 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-07-19

    ... Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug... regulations for food additives permitted in feed and drinking water of animals to provide for the safe use of ammonium formate as an acidifying agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food...

  3. Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... the safest water supplies in the world, but drinking water quality can vary from place to place. It ... water supplier must give you annual reports on drinking water. The reports include where your water came from ...

  4. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates. PMID:25037820

  5. Benefits of neutral electrolyzed oxidizing water as a drinking water additive for broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Bügener, E; Kump, A Wilms-Schulze; Casteel, M; Klein, G

    2014-09-01

    In the wake of discussion about the use of drugs in food-producing farms, it seems to be more and more important to search for alternatives and supportive measures to improve health. In this field trial, the influence of electrolyzed oxidizing (EO) water on water quality, drug consumption, mortality, and performance parameters such as BW and feed conversion rate was investigated on 2 broiler farms. At each farm, 3 rearing periods were included in the study. With EO water as the water additive, the total viable cell count and the number of Escherichia coli in drinking water samples were reduced compared with the respective control group. The frequency of treatment days was represented by the number of used daily doses per population and showed lower values in EO-water-treated groups at both farms. Furthermore, the addition of EO water resulted in a lower mortality rate. In terms of analyzed performance parameters, no significant differences were determined. In this study, the use of EO water improved drinking water quality and seemed to reduce the drug use without showing negative effects on performance parameters and mortality rates.

  6. Persistence of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in a Drinking Water System after Addition of Filtration Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Elizabeth D.; Covert, Terry C.; Yakrus, Mitchell A.; Harris, Stephanie I.; Donnelly, Sandra F.; Rice, Eugene W.; Toney, Sean; Bailey, Stephanie A.; Stelma, Gerard N.

    2006-01-01

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of infections with pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determine whether we could detect a reduction in the prevalence of NTM recovered from an unfiltered surface drinking water system after the addition of ozonation and filtration treatment and to characterize NTM isolates by using molecular methods. We sampled water from two initially unfiltered surface drinking water treatment plants over a 29-month period. One plant received the addition of filtration and ozonation after 6 months of sampling. Sample sites included those at treatment plant effluents, distributed water, and cold water taps (point-of-use [POU] sites) in public or commercial buildings located within each distribution system. NTM were recovered from 27% of the sites. POU sites yielded the majority of NTM, with >50% recovery despite the addition of ozonation and filtration. Closely related electrophoretic groups of Mycobacterium avium were found to persist at POU sites for up to 26 months. Water collected from POU cold water outlets was persistently colonized with NTM despite the addition of ozonation and filtration to a drinking water system. This suggests that cold water POU outlets need to be considered as a potential source of chronic human exposure to NTM. PMID:16957205

  7. THE PERSISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM IN A DRINKING WATER SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water is increasingly recognized as a major source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) associated with human infection. Our goal was to determine if the prevalence of NTM would decrease after the addition of filtration treatment to an unfiltered surface water...

  8. 78 FR 42692 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-17

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Ammonium Formate AGENCY: Food and Drug Administration, HHS. ACTION: Final...

  9. Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This encyclopedic entry deals with various aspects of microbiology as it relates to drinking water treatment. The use of microbial indicators for assessing fecal contamination is discussed as well as current national drinking water regulations (U.S. EPA) and guidelines proposed ...

  10. WATER, DRINKING

    EPA Science Inventory

    The primary object of the microbiology of drinking water is to prevent waterborne disease. A drinking-water system can minimize waterborne disease by employing proper treatment and cntrol practices, and by monitoring the effectiveness of these practices. Here, these issues are ad...

  11. THE COMBINED CARCINOGENIC RISK FOR EXPOSURE TO MIXTURES OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS MAY BE LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Combined Carcinogenic Risk for Exposure to Mixtures of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products May be Less Than Additive

    Risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume...

  12. Drinking Water FAQ

    MedlinePlus

    ... Water & Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment & Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Drinking Water Healthy Swimming / Recreational Water Global Water, Sanitation, & Hygiene Other Uses of Water Water-related Emergencies & ...

  13. Addition of a Worm Leachate as Source of Humic Substances in the Drinking Water of Broiler Chickens

    PubMed Central

    Gomez-Rosales, S.; de L. Angeles, M.

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water. PMID:25557817

  14. Addition of a worm leachate as source of humic substances in the drinking water of broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Gomez-Rosales, S; de L Angeles, M

    2015-02-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the growth performance, the apparent ileal digestibility of nitrogen and energy, the retention of nutrients and the apparent metabolizable energy corrected to zero nitrogen retention (AMEn) in broiler chickens supplemented with increasing doses of a worm leachate (WL) as a source of humic substances (HS) in the drinking water. In Exp. 1, 140 male broilers were penned individually and assigned to four WL levels (0%, 10%, 20%, and 30%) mixed in the drinking water from 21 to 49 days of age. Water was offered in plastic bottles tied to the cage. In Exp. 2, 600 male broilers from 21 to 49 days of age housed in floor pens were assigned to three levels of WL (0%, 10%, and 20%) mixed in the drinking water. The WL was mixed with tap water in plastic containers connected by plastic tubing to bell drinkers. The results of both experiments were subjected to analysis of variance and polynomial contrasts. In Exp. 1, the daily water consumption was similar among treatments but the consumption of humic, fulvic, and total humic acids increased linearly (p<0.01) as the WL increased in the drinking water. The feed conversion (p<0.01) and the ileal digestibility of energy, the excretion of dry matter and energy, the retention of dry matter, ash and nitrogen and the AMEn showed quadratic responses (p<0.05) relative to the WL levels in drinking water. In Exp. 2, the increasing level of WL in the drinking water had quadratic effects on the final body weight, daily weight gain and feed conversion ratio (p<0.05). The addition of WL as a source of HS in the drinking water had beneficial effects on the growth performance, ileal digestibility of energy, the retention of nutrients as well on the AMEn in broiler chickens; the best results were observed when the WL was mixed at levels of 20% to 30% in the drinking water.

  15. Nitrification in lake sediment with addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Wang, Changhui; Liu, Juanfeng; Wang, Zhixin; Pei, Yuansheng

    2014-06-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs), non-hazardous by-products generated during potable water production, can effectively reduce the lake internal phosphorus (P) loading and improve water quality in lakes. It stands to reason that special attention regarding the beneficial reuse of WTRs should be given not only to the effectiveness of P pollution control, but also to the effects on the migration and transformation of other nutrients (e.g., nitrogen (N)). In this work, based on laboratory enrichment tests, the effects of WTRs addition on nitrification in lake sediment were investigated using batch tests, fluorescence in situ hybridization, quantitative polymerase chain reaction and phylogenetic analysis techniques. The results indicated that WTRs addition had minor effects on the morphologies of AOB and NOB; however, the addition slightly enhanced the sediment nitrification potential from 12.8 to 13.2 μg-N g(-1)-dry sample h(-1) and also increased the ammonia oxidation bacteria (AOB) and nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) abundances, particularly the AOB abundances (P < 0.05), which increased from 1.11 × 10(8) to 1.31 × 10(8) copies g(-1)-dry sample. Moreover, WTRs addition was beneficial to the enrichment of Nitrosomonas and Nitrosospira multiformis and promoted the emergence of a new Nitrospira cluster, causing the increase in AOB and NOB diversities. Further analysis showed that the variations of nitrification in lake sediment after WTRs addition were primarily due to the decrease of bioavailable P, the introduction of new nitrifiers and the increase of favorable carriers for microorganism attachment in sediments. Overall, these results suggested that WTRs reuse for the control of lake internal P loading would also lead to conditions that are beneficial to nitrification.

  16. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS (DBP) WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY -PRODUCTS (DBP) W AS LESS THAN ADDITIVE.

    Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may under or over represent the actual biological res...

  17. Simultaneous enhancement of organics and nitrogen removal in drinking water biofilm pretreatment system with reed addition.

    PubMed

    Feng, Li-Juan; Zhu, Liang; Yang, Qi; Yang, Guang-Feng; Xu, Jian; Xu, Xiang-Yang

    2013-02-01

    A novel drinking water biofilm pretreatment process with reed addition was established for enhancement of simultaneously organics and nitrogen removal. Results showed that nitrate removal efficiency was positively related with the influent C/N ratio, reaching to 87.8±2.8% at the C/N ratio of 4.7. However, the predicted trichloromethane (THM) levels based on total organic carbon (TOC) and UV254 were high with the increase of influent C/N ratio. Combined with the pollutants removal performance and microbial community variation, an appropriate C/N ratio via reed addition was determined at 2.2 for the continuous biofilm reactor. With adjustment of hydraulic retention time (HRT), the highest of nitrate removal efficiency (74.2±1.4%) and organics utilization efficiency (0.63 mg NO3--N mg(-1)TOC) were achieved at an optimum HRT of 18 h, with both low effluent NO3--N (0.88±0.03 mg l(-1)) and TOC (2.86±0.67 mg l(-1)).

  18. Standard addition method for the determination of pharmaceutical residues in drinking water by SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Cimetiere, Nicolas; Soutrel, Isabelle; Lemasle, Marguerite; Laplanche, Alain; Crocq, André

    2013-01-01

    The study of the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical compounds in drinking or waste water processes has become very popular in recent years. Liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry is a powerful analytical tool often used to determine pharmaceutical residues at trace level in water. However, many steps may disrupt the analytical procedure and bias the results. A list of 27 environmentally relevant molecules, including various therapeutic classes and (cardiovascular, veterinary and human antibiotics, neuroleptics, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, hormones and other miscellaneous pharmaceutical compounds), was selected. In this work, a method was developed using ultra performance liquid chromatography coupled to tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) and solid-phase extraction to determine the concentration of the 27 targeted pharmaceutical compounds at the nanogram per litre level. The matrix effect was evaluated from water sampled at different treatment stages. Conventional methods with external calibration and internal standard correction were compared with the standard addition method (SAM). An accurate determination of pharmaceutical compounds in drinking water was obtained by the SAM associated with UPLC-MS/MS. The developed method was used to evaluate the occurrence and fate of pharmaceutical compounds in some drinking water treatment plants in the west of France.

  19. Changes in the structure and function of microbial communities in drinking water treatment bioreactors upon addition of phosphorus.

    PubMed

    Li, Xu; Upadhyaya, Giridhar; Yuen, Wangki; Brown, Jess; Morgenroth, Eberhard; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2010-11-01

    Phosphorus was added as a nutrient to bench-scale and pilot-scale biologically active carbon (BAC) reactors operated for perchlorate and nitrate removal from contaminated groundwater. The two bioreactors responded similarly to phosphorus addition in terms of microbial community function (i.e., reactor performance), while drastically different responses in microbial community structure were detected. Improvement in reactor performance with respect to perchlorate and nitrate removal started within a few days after phosphorus addition for both reactors. Microbial community structures were evaluated using molecular techniques targeting 16S rRNA genes. Clone library results showed that the relative abundance of perchlorate-reducing bacteria (PRB) Dechloromonas and Azospira in the bench-scale reactor increased from 15.2% and 0.6% to 54.2% and 11.7% after phosphorus addition, respectively. Real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) experiments revealed that these increases started within a few days after phosphorus addition. In contrast, after phosphorus addition, the relative abundance of Dechloromonas in the pilot-scale reactor decreased from 7.1 to 0.6%, while Zoogloea increased from 17.9 to 52.0%. The results of this study demonstrated that similar operating conditions for bench-scale and pilot-scale reactors resulted in similar contaminant removal performances, despite dramatically different responses from microbial communities. These findings suggest that it is important to evaluate the microbial community compositions inside bioreactors used for drinking water treatment, as they determine the microbial composition in the effluent and impact downstream treatment requirements for drinking water production. This information could be particularly relevant to drinking water safety, if pathogens or disinfectant-resistant bacteria are detected in the bioreactors.

  20. Odour and flavour thresholds of gasoline additives (MTBE, ETBE and TAME) and their occurrence in Dutch drinking water collection areas.

    PubMed

    van Wezel, Annemarie; Puijker, Leo; Vink, Cees; Versteegh, Ans; de Voogt, Pim

    2009-07-01

    The use of ETBE (ethyl-tert-butylether) as gasoline additive has recently grown rapidly. Contamination of aquatic systems is well documented for MTBE (methyl-tert-butylether), but less for other gasoline additives. Due to their mobility they may easily reach drinking water collection areas. Odour and flavour thresholds of MTBE are known to be low, but for ETBE and TAME (methyl-tert-amylether) hardly information is available. The objective here is to determine these thresholds for MTBE, ETBE and TAME, and relate these to concentrations monitored in thousands of samples from Dutch drinking water collection areas. For ETBE odour and flavour thresholds are low with 1-2microgL(-1), for MTBE and TAME they range from 7 to 16microg L(-1). In most groundwater collection areas MTBE concentrations are below 0.1microg L(-1). In phreatic groundwaters in sandy soils not covered by a protective soil layer, occasionally MTBE occurs at higher concentrations. For surface water collection areas a minority of the locations is free of MTBE. For river bank and dune infiltrates, at a few locations the odour and flavour threshold is exceeded. For ETBE fewer monitoring data are available. ETBE was found in 2 out of 37 groundwater collection areas, in concentrations below 1microgL(-1). In the surface water collection areas monitored ETBE was found in concentrations near to the odour and flavour thresholds. The low odour and flavour thresholds combined with the high mobility and persistence of these compounds, their high production volumes and their increased use may yield problems with future production of drinking water.

  1. THE PERSISTENCE OF MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM IN A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular location within protozoa. Our goal was to determ...

  2. THE PERSISTENCE OF NONTUBERCULOUS MYCOBACTERIA INI A DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM AFTER THE ADDITION OF FILTRATION TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is evidence that drinking water may be a source of pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) infections in humans. One method by which NTM are believed to enter drinking water distribution systems is by their intracellular colonization of protozoa. Our goal was to determ...

  3. Addition of chlorine during water purification reduces iodine content of drinking water and contributes to iodine deficiency.

    PubMed

    Samson, L; Czegeny, I; Mezosi, E; Erdei, A; Bodor, M; Cseke, B; Burman, K D; Nagy, E V

    2012-01-01

    Drinking water is the major natural source of iodine in many European countries. In the present study, we examined possible sites of iodine loss during the usual water purification process.Water samples from 6 sites during the technological process were taken and analyzed for iodine content. Under laboratory circumstances, prepared iodine in water solution has been used as a model to test the effect of the presence of chlorine. Samples from the purification sites revealed that in the presence of chlorine there is a progressive loss of iodine from the water. In the chlorine concentrations employed in the purification process, 24-h chlorine exposure eliminated more than 50% of iodine when the initial iodine concentration was 250 μg/l or less. Iodine was completely eliminated if the starting concentration was 16 μg/l.We conclude that chlorine used during water purification may be a major contributor to iodine deficiency in European communities.

  4. THE CARCINOGENIC RESPONSE OF TSC2 MUTANT LONG EVANS (EKER) RATS TO A MIXTURE OF DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS WAS LESS THAN ADDITIVE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Cancer risk assessment methods for chemical mixtures in drinking water are not well defined. Current default risk assessments for chemical mixtures assume additivity of carcinogenic effects but this may not represent the actual biological response. A rodent model of hereditary ...

  5. Quality of Drinking Water

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roman, Harry T.

    2009-01-01

    The quality of drinking water has been gaining a great deal of attention lately, especially as water delivery infrastructure continues to age. Particles of various metals such as lead and copper, and other substances like radon and arsenic could be entering drinking water supplies. Spilled-on-the-ground hydrocarbon-based substances are also…

  6. Safe drinking water act

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E. )

    1989-01-01

    This book covers drinking water regulations such as disinfectant by-products, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants, volatile organic chemicals, radionuclides, fluoride, toxicological approaches to setting new national drinking water regulations, and trihalomethanes. Gives organic and inorganic compounds scheduled to be regulated in 1989 and candidates for the 1990s regulations.

  7. Drinking-water standards

    SciTech Connect

    Munro, N.B.; Travis, C.C.

    1986-08-01

    This paper discussed the revising of the primary and secondary drinking-water regulations by EPA in accordance with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Since consideration of risk is playing an increasing role in setting environmental standards, questions were raised regarding the adequacy of human health protection afforded by some of the existing and proposed standards. 1 table.

  8. Drinking Water and Health.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Academy of Sciences, Washington, DC.

    In response to a provision of the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 which called for a study that would serve as a scientific basis for revising the primary drinking water regulations that were promulgated under the Act, a study of the scientific literature was undertaken in order to assess the implications for human health of the constituents of…

  9. Ensuring safer drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Christensen, J. . Fluid Delivery and Electrical Markets); Higgins, P. )

    1994-09-01

    Today's regulatory environment has led to the proliferation of voluntary consensus standards and certification programs that are important to ensuring safety and health in a number of areas. One such area -- the treatment and delivery of potable water -- is addressed by the Drinking Water Additives Program.'' At the request of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), this program was developed in the mid-1980s by an independent, voluntary consensus standards organization called NSF International (formerly known as the National Sanitation Foundation). This paper explains the need for and the structure of the Drinking Water Additives Program; the rationale for transferring responsibility for its execution from the EPA to the private sector; and the impact of its standards on users, manufacturers, and state and local regulatory bodies. Understanding the additives program is critically important to industry suppliers because, as it continues to gain greater awareness and acceptance, there are a growing number of manufacturers sourcing materials and products primarily from suppliers whose products meet the program's certification requirements.

  10. Drinking water microbial myths.

    PubMed

    Allen, Martin J; Edberg, Stephen C; Clancy, Jennifer L; Hrudey, Steve E

    2015-01-01

    Accounts of drinking water-borne disease outbreaks have always captured the interest of the public, elected and health officials, and the media. During the twentieth century, the drinking water community and public health organizations have endeavored to craft regulations and guidelines on treatment and management practices that reduce risks from drinking water, specifically human pathogens. During this period there also evolved misunderstandings as to potential health risk associated with microorganisms that may be present in drinking waters. These misunderstanding or "myths" have led to confusion among the many stakeholders. The purpose of this article is to provide a scientific- and clinically-based discussion of these "myths" and recommendations for better ensuring the microbial safety of drinking water and valid public health decisions.

  11. 76 FR 7106 - Food Additives Permitted in Feed and Drinking Water of Animals; Formic Acid

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-02-09

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 573 Food Additives Permitted in Feed and.... SUMMARY: The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is amending the regulations for food additives permitted... agent in swine feed. This action is in response to a food additive petition filed by Kemira Oyj...

  12. Drinking water standards and regulations. Manual for 1977-1986

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1987-01-15

    The following eight important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) EPA Interim Primary Drinking Water Standards; (2) EPA Guidelines establishing Test Procedures for the Analysis of Pollutants Under the Clean Water Act; (3) Massachusetts Dept. of Environmental Quality Engineering, Interpretation of Results of Water Supply Analysis; (4) Thompson, J.C., Updating the Safe Drinking Water Act and the Drinking Water Regulations; (5) Lists of Acceptable Drinking Water Additives; (6) Title XIV of the Public Health Service Act (The Safe Drinking Water Act); (7) Standards for Quality of Public Drinking Water--Connecticut; (8) New York State Sanitary Code of Drinking Water Supplies (Including Drinking Water Standards).

  13. [Drinking water in infants].

    PubMed

    Vitoria Miñana, I

    2004-02-01

    We review types of public drinking water and bottled water and provide recommendations on the composition of water for infants. Water used with any of the commercial infant formulas in Spain should contain less than 25 mg/l of sodium. Drinking water must be boiled for a maximum of one minute (at sea level) to avoid excessive salt concentration. Bottled water need not be boiled. Fluoride content in drinking water should be less than 0.3 mg/l in first year of life to prevent dental fluorosis. Nitrate content in water should be less than 25 mg/l to prevent methemoglobinemia. Water with a calcium concentration of between 50 and 100 mg/l is a dietary source of calcium since it provides 24-56 % of the required daily intake in infancy.

  14. Investigation on the eco-toxicity of lake sediments with the addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-08-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) have a potential to realize eutrophication control objectives by reducing the internal phosphorus (P) load of lake sediments. Information regarding the ecological risk of dewatered WTR reuse in aquatic environments is generally lacking, however. In this study, we analyzed the eco-toxicity of leachates from sediments with or without dewatered WTRs toward algae Chlorella vulgaris via algal growth inhibition testing with algal cell density, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activity, and subcellular structure indices. The results suggested that leachates from sediments unanimously inhibited algal growth, with or without the addition of different WTR doses (10% or 50% of the sediment in dry weight) at different pH values (8-9), as well as from sediments treated for different durations (10 or 180days). The inhibition was primarily the result of P deficiency in the leachates owing to WTR P adsorption, however, our results suggest that the dewatered WTRs were considered as a favorable potential material for internal P loading control in lake restoration projects, as it shows acceptably low risk toward aquatic plants.

  15. Investigation on the eco-toxicity of lake sediments with the addition of drinking water treatment residuals.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Nannan; Wang, Changhui; Pei, Yuansheng

    2016-08-01

    Drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) have a potential to realize eutrophication control objectives by reducing the internal phosphorus (P) load of lake sediments. Information regarding the ecological risk of dewatered WTR reuse in aquatic environments is generally lacking, however. In this study, we analyzed the eco-toxicity of leachates from sediments with or without dewatered WTRs toward algae Chlorella vulgaris via algal growth inhibition testing with algal cell density, chlorophyll content, malondialdehyde content, antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase activity, and subcellular structure indices. The results suggested that leachates from sediments unanimously inhibited algal growth, with or without the addition of different WTR doses (10% or 50% of the sediment in dry weight) at different pH values (8-9), as well as from sediments treated for different durations (10 or 180days). The inhibition was primarily the result of P deficiency in the leachates owing to WTR P adsorption, however, our results suggest that the dewatered WTRs were considered as a favorable potential material for internal P loading control in lake restoration projects, as it shows acceptably low risk toward aquatic plants. PMID:27521931

  16. [Drinking water and parasites].

    PubMed

    Karanis, P; Schoenen, D; Maier, W A; Seitz, H M

    1993-10-01

    Entamoeba histolytica, Giardia lamblia, Cryptosporidium parvum, Isospora belli, Balantidium coli, and Microsporidia spp. are cosmopolitan parasites. They often cause diarrheal diseases. The waterborn transmission of all these parasites is possible (41). Surface water supplies used for drinking water are potential sources of contamination. Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium spp. have received great attention in industrialized countries during the last years because they are the etiological agents of waterborne diseases. The life cycles of Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium are described with a special reference to drinking water technologies aimed at removing these parasites. PMID:8253478

  17. REGULATED CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe drinking water is critical to protecting human health. More than 260 million Americans rely on the safety of tap water provided by water systems that comply with national drinking water standards. EPA's strategy for ensuring safe drinking water includes four key elements, ...

  18. [Herbicides in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Funari, E; Sampaolo, A

    1989-01-01

    Toxicological implications due to the use of herbicide-contaminated drinking water, as well as other organic chemicals, are related to their nature and levels. These implications can be defined for each substance on the basis of an adequate evaluation of epidemiological information and experimental data on animals. In this paper, World Health Organization's procedures for establishing guidelines for 11 herbicides widely used in Italy are described. Furthermore, data and information about the use of these herbicides and their levels in Italian drinking-water supplies are also reported and discussed. Finally, factors and conditions responsible for the groundwater contamination by some herbicides in determined areas are presented and discussed.

  19. DRINKING WATER ISSUES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to recent reports by the California Department of Health Services, the State of Maine, and the United State Geological Survey (USGS); the fuel oxygenate methyl teri-butyl ether (MTBE) is present in 5 to 20 percent of the drinking water sources in California and the nort...

  20. Water Fit to Drink.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Donovan, Edward P.

    The major objective of this module is to help students understand how water from a source such as a lake is treated to make it fit to drink. The module, consisting of five major activities and a test, is patterned after Individualized Science Instructional System (ISIS) modules. The first activity (Planning) consists of a brief introduction and a…

  1. Drinking water and women's health.

    PubMed

    Afzal, Brenda M

    2006-01-01

    Primary health providers in the community must be able to field questions and guide vulnerable populations to informed decisions about drinking water quality and health. This article offers an overview of selected contaminants in drinking water and their possible effects on the health of women over the life span. Historical concerns for drinking water safety, which led to the development of current drinking water regulations, are briefly explored. Several chemical, microbial, and radionuclide contaminants of particular concern to women and children are discussed. Short- and long-term tap water alternatives are suggested for when tap water is deemed unsuitable for use.

  2. STUDIES ON WATER DRINKING

    PubMed Central

    Fowler, C. C.; Hawk, P. B.

    1910-01-01

    The daily drinking of three liters of water with meals, for a period of five days, by a man twenty-two years of age who was in a condition of nitrogen equilibrium through the ingestion of a uniform diet, was productive of the following findings : 1. An increase in body weight, aggregating two pounds in five days. 2. An increased excretion of urinary nitrogen, the excess nitrogen being mainly in the form of urea, ammonia, and creatine. 3. A decreased excretion of creatinine and the coincident appearance of creatine in the urine. The decreased creatinine output is believed to indicate that the copious water drinking has stimulated protein catabolism. The appearance of creatine is considered evidence that the water has caused a partial muscular disintegration resulting in the release of creatine, but not profound enough to yield the total nitrogen content of the muscle. The output of creatine is, therefore, out of all proportion to the increase in the excretion of total nitrogen. 4. An increased output of ammonia which is interpreted as indicating an increased output of gastric juice. 5. A decreased excretion of feces and of fecal nitrogen, the decrease in the excretion of fecal nitrogen being of sufficient magnitude to secure a lowered excretion of both the bacterial and the non-bacterial nitrogen. 6. A decrease in the quantity of bacteria excreted daily. 7. An increase in the percentage of total nitrogen appearing as bacterial nitrogen. 8. A lower creatinine coefficient. 9. A more economical utilization of the protein constituents of the diet. 10. The general conclusion to be reached as the result of this experiment is to the effect that the drinking of a large amount of water with meals was attended by many desirable and by no undesirable features. PMID:19867334

  3. A comparison of additional treatment processes to limit particle accumulation and microbial growth during drinking water distribution.

    PubMed

    Liu, G; Lut, M C; Verberk, J Q J C; Van Dijk, J C

    2013-05-15

    Water quality changes, particle accumulation and microbial growth occurring in pilot-scale water distribution systems fed with normally treated and additional treated groundwater were monitored over a period of almost one year. The treatment processes were ranked in the following order: nanofiltration (NF) > (better than) ultrafiltration (UF) > ion exchange (IEX) for limiting particle accumulation. A different order was found for limiting overall microbial growth: NF > IEX > UF. There were strong correlations between particle load and particle accumulation, and between nutrient load and microbial growth. It was concluded that particle accumulation can be controlled by reducing the particle load in water treatment plants; and the microbial growth can be better controlled by limiting organic nutrients rather than removing biomass in water treatment plants. The major focus of this study was on microbial growth. The results demonstrated that growth occurred in all types of treated water, including the phases of bulk water, biofilm and loose deposits. Considering the growth in different phases, similar growth in bulk water was observed for all treatments; NF strongly reduced growth both in loose deposits and in biofilm; UF promoted growth in biofilm, while strongly limiting growth in loose deposits. IEX had good efficiency in between UF and NF, limiting both growths in loose deposits and in biofilm. Significant growth was found in loose deposits, suggesting that loose deposit biomass should be taken into account for growth evaluation and/or prediction. Strong correlations were found between microbial growth and pressure drop in a membrane fouling simulator which proved that a membrane fouling simulator can be a fast growth predictor (within a week). Different results obtained by adenosine triphosphate and flow cytometry cell counts revealed that ATP can accurately describe both suspended and particle-associated biomass, and flow cytometry files of TCC measurements needs

  4. Lead in School Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    Lead levels in school drinking water merit special concern because children are more at risk than adults from exposure to lead. This manual provides ways in which school officials can minimize this risk. It assists administrators by providing: (1) general information on the significance of lead in school drinking water and its effects on children;…

  5. Drinking Water Treatability Database (Database)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) will provide data taken from the literature on the control of contaminants in drinking water, and will be housed on an interactive, publicly-available USEPA web site. It can be used for identifying effective treatment processes, rec...

  6. Drinking Water Database

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Murray, ShaTerea R.

    2004-01-01

    This summer I had the opportunity to work in the Environmental Management Office (EMO) under the Chemical Sampling and Analysis Team or CS&AT. This team s mission is to support Glenn Research Center (GRC) and EM0 by providing chemical sampling and analysis services and expert consulting. Services include sampling and chemical analysis of water, soil, fbels, oils, paint, insulation materials, etc. One of this team s major projects is the Drinking Water Project. This is a project that is done on Glenn s water coolers and ten percent of its sink every two years. For the past two summers an intern had been putting together a database for this team to record the test they had perform. She had successfully created a database but hadn't worked out all the quirks. So this summer William Wilder (an intern from Cleveland State University) and I worked together to perfect her database. We began be finding out exactly what every member of the team thought about the database and what they would change if any. After collecting this data we both had to take some courses in Microsoft Access in order to fix the problems. Next we began looking at what exactly how the database worked from the outside inward. Then we began trying to change the database but we quickly found out that this would be virtually impossible.

  7. Drinking Water Program 1992 annual report

    SciTech Connect

    Andersen, B.D.; Peterson-Wright, L.J.

    1993-08-01

    EG&G Idaho, Inc., initiated a monitoring program for drinking water in 1988 for the US Department of Energy at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. EG&G Idaho structured this monitoring program to ensure that they exceeded the minimum regulatory requirements for monitoring drinking water. This program involves tracking the bacteriological, chemical, and radiological parameters that are required for a {open_quotes}community water system{close_quotes} (maximum requirements). This annual report describes the drinking water monitoring activities conducted at the 17 EG&G Idaho operated production wells and 11 distribution systems. It also contains all of the drinking water parameters that were detected and the regulatory limits that were exceeded during 1992. In addition, ground water quality is discussed as it relates to contaminants identified at the wellhead for EG&G Idaho production wells.

  8. Investigation of Drinking Water Quality in Kosovo

    PubMed Central

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO. PMID:23509472

  9. Investigation of drinking water quality in Kosovo.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-01-01

    In the recent years, not much environmental monitoring has been conducted in the territory of Kosovo. This study represents the first comprehensive monitoring of the drinking water situation throughout most of the territory of Kosovo. We present the distribution of major and minor trace elements in drinking water samples from Kosovo. During our study we collected 951 samples from four different sources: private-bored wells; naturally flowing artesian water; pumped-drilled wells; and public water sources (tap water). The randomly selected drinking water samples were investigated by routine water analyses using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS) for 32 elements (Li, Be, B, Na, Mg, Al, K, Ca, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Ga, As, Rb, Sr, Mo, Ag, Cd, Sn, Sb, Te, Ba, Tl, Pb, Bi, Th, U). Even though there are set guidelines for elemental exposure in drinking water worldwide, in developing countries, such as Kosovo, the lack of monitoring drinking water continues to be an important health concern. This study reports the concentrations of major and minor elements in the drinking water in Kosovo. Additionally, we show the variation of the metal concentration within different sources. Of the 15 regulated elements, the following five elements: Mn, Fe, Al, Ni, As, and U were the elements which most often exceeded the guidelines set by the EU and/or WHO.

  10. The risks of drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reichhardt, Tony

    1984-04-01

    Three researchers from the Energy and Environmental Policy Center at Harvard University have come up with a new method of calculating the risk from contaminants in drinking water, one that they believe takes into account some of the uncertainties in pronouncing water safe or dangerous to drink. The new method concentrates on the risk of cancer, which authors Edmund Crouch, Richard Wilson, and Lauren Zeise believe has not been properly considered in establishing drinking water standards.Writing in the December 1983 issue of Water Resources Research, the authors state that “current [drinking water] standards for a given chemical or class of chemicals do not account for the presence of other pollutants” that could combine to create dangerous substances. According to Wilson, “Over a hundred industrial pollutants and chlorination byproducts have been found in various samples of drinking water, some of which are known carcinogens, others suspected carcinogens.” The same chlorine that solves one major health problem—the threat of bacterial disease—can thus contribute to another, according to the authors, by increasing the long-term risk of cancer. The largest risks are due to halomethanes such as chloroform and bromoform, produced as chlorine reacts with organic matter in drinking water.

  11. PREDICTING LEAD DISSOLUTION IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS: EFFECT OF FLUORIDE ADDITIVES ON LEAD SOLUBILITY AND CORROSION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many water systems have encountered difficulties in meeting the action levels established by the Lead and Copper Rule. Several chemical parameters contribute to the corrosion of lead plumbing and may influence the nature of the passivating films formed on distribution materials....

  12. [Microbiology of ground water and drinking water].

    PubMed

    Dott, W; Frank, C; Kämpfer, P; Tuschewitzki, G J; Wernicke, F

    1986-10-01

    Groundwater has been considered a safe source for drinking water protected against surface contamination. However, a number of reports about chemical and microbiological contamination have disproved this assumption. Besides hygienical monitoring, little is known about the microbiology of ground- and drinking water. The purpose of this paper is to give a review about the main fields of investigation concerning microbial activity in ground- and drinking-water-action. The hygienical relevant topics are: survival and transport of microorganisms, microbiological degradation of organic pollutants, turn-over of nitrogen compounds, oxidation and reduction of iron and manganese and development of methods for microbiological water examination.

  13. Drinking water for the future.

    PubMed

    Okun, D A

    1976-07-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 represents an important step in improving the quality of public water supply in the United States. However, it fails to address two important problems: (1) The 1970 Public Health Service Community Water Supply Survey revealed that small public water supply systems often deliver poor quality water. The Act does not assure that these supplies will now receive appropriate attention; furthermore, the Act does not address the needs of the 50 million people not now served by public water systems; (2) About one-third of our population draws its drinking waters from polluted sources. The decisions to use these low cost sources were made generations ago when consumers could be protected from water-borne infectious disease. A new problem has now arisen--the presence of numerous synthetic organic chemicals of uncertain health consequence, not removed by conventional water treatment. The Act does not address this problem. Regionalization and the integration of water resource and water pollution control authorities are proposed as a reasonable solution to these problems. The development of dual water supply systems in order to conserve scarce pure water sources for human consumption appears to be a feasible way to avoid using polluted waters for drinking. The development of dual supplies would be enhanced by regionalization and integration of water authorities. PMID:937609

  14. How dogs drink water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gart, Sean; Socha, Jake; Vlachos, Pavlos; Jung, Sunghwan

    2014-11-01

    Animals with incomplete cheeks (i.e. dogs and cats) need to move fluid against gravity into the body by means other than suction. They do this by lapping fluid with their tongue. When a dog drinks, it curls its tongue posteriorly while plunging it into the fluid and then quickly withdraws its tongue back into the mouth. During this fast retraction fluid sticks to the ventral part of the curled tongue and is drawn into the mouth due to inertia. We show several variations of this drinking behavior among many dog breeds, specifically, the relationship between tongue dynamics and geometry, lapping frequency, and dog weight. We also compare the results with the physical experiment of a rounded rod impact onto a fluid surface. Supported by NSF PoLS #1205642.

  15. Lead and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  16. Giardia and Drinking Water from Private Wells

    MedlinePlus

    ... Nutrition Camping, Hiking, Travel Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use Emergency Disinfection of Drinking ... Uses of Water WASH-related Emergencies & Outbreaks Water, Sanitation, & Environmentally-related Hygiene Related Sites Get Email Updates ...

  17. Microbial ecology of drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Berry, David; Xi, Chuanwu; Raskin, Lutgarde

    2006-06-01

    The supply of clean drinking water is a major, and relatively recent, public health milestone. Control of microbial growth in drinking water distribution systems, often achieved through the addition of disinfectants, is essential to limiting waterborne illness, particularly in immunocompromised subpopulations. Recent inquiries into the microbial ecology of distribution systems have found that pathogen resistance to chlorination is affected by microbial community diversity and interspecies relationships. Research indicates that multispecies biofilms are generally more resistant to disinfection than single-species biofilms. Other recent findings are the increased survival of the bacterial pathogen Legionella pneumophila when present inside its protozoan host Hartmannella vermiformis and the depletion of chloramine disinfectant residuals by nitrifying bacteria, leading to increased overall microbial growth. Interactions such as these are unaccounted for in current disinfection models. An understanding of the microbial ecology of distribution systems is necessary to design innovative and effective control strategies that will ensure safe and high-quality drinking water. PMID:16701992

  18. Uranium in Kosovo's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Berisha, Fatlume; Goessler, Walter

    2013-11-01

    The results of this paper are an initiation to capture the drinking water and/or groundwater elemental situation in the youngest European country, Kosovo. We aim to present a clear picture of the natural uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater as it is distributed to the population of Kosovo. Nine hundred and fifty-one (951) drinking water samples were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). The results are the first countrywide interpretation of the uranium concentration in drinking water and/or groundwater, directly following the Kosovo war of 1999. More than 98% of the samples had uranium concentrations above 0.01 μg L(-1), which was also our limit of quantification. Concentrations up to 166 μg L(-1) were found with a mean of 5 μg L(-1) and median 1.6 μg L(-1) were found. Two point six percent (2.6%) of the analyzed samples exceeded the World Health Organization maximum acceptable concentration of 30 μg L(-1), and 44.2% of the samples exceeded the 2 μg L(-1) German maximum acceptable concentrations recommended for infant food preparations.

  19. Drinking water aluminum and bioavailability

    SciTech Connect

    Reiber, S.H.; Kukull, W.; Standish-Lee, P.

    1995-05-01

    This article discusses chemical considerations relative to aluminum uptake in the body and reviews aluminum concentrations, species, and distribution in natural and treated waters. The issues of bioavailability and the likelihood that aluminum in drinking water is more readily assimilated than other forms of aluminum is reviewed and rejected based on issues of solubility and likely chemical transformations that take place in the human gut.

  20. Drink Water, Stay Slimmer?

    MedlinePlus

    ... an overall healthy diet, she noted. Explaining why water intake may be linked with a healthier weight was beyond the scope of the study, Chang said. Chang suggests a simple measure to gauge hydration: "I just say look ...

  1. Fungi contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad; Zheng, Tianling; Yu, Xin

    2014-01-01

    Aquatic fungi commonly infest various aqueous environments and play potentially crucial roles in nutrient and carbon cycling. Aquatic fungi also interact with other organisms to influence food web dynamics. In recent decades, numerous studies have been conducted to address the problem of microorganism contamination of water. The major concern has been potential effects on human health from exposure to certain bacteria, viruses, and protozoa that inhabit water and the microbial metabolites,pigments, and odors which are produced in the water, and their effects on human health and animals. Fungi are potentially important contaminants because they produce certain toxic metabolites that can cause severe health hazards to humans and animals. Despite the potential hazard posed by fungi, relatively few studies on them as contaminants have been reported for some countries.A wide variety of fungi species have been isolated from drinking water, and some of them are known to be strongly allergenic and to cause skin irritation, or immunosuppression in immunocompromised individuals (e.g., AIDS, cancer, or organ transplant patients). Mycotoxins are naturally produced as secondary metabolites by some fungi species, and exposure of humans or animals to them can cause health problems. Such exposure is likely to occur from dietary intake of either food,water or beverages made with water. However, mycotoxins, as residues in water,may be aerosolized when showering or when being sprayed for various purposes and then be subject to inhalation. Mycotoxins, or at least some of them, are regarded to be carcinogenic. There is also some concern that toxic mycotoxins or other secondary metabolites of fungi could be used by terrorists as a biochemical weapon by adding amounts of them to drinking water or non drinking water. Therefore, actions to prevent mycotoxin contaminated water from affecting either humans or animals are important and are needed. Water treatment plants may serve to partially

  2. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  4. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  5. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  6. 30 CFR 75.1718 - Drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water. 75.1718 Section 75.1718 Mineral... SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718 Drinking water. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided for drinking purposes in the active workings of the mine, and such...

  7. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Slides)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  8. THE DRINKING WATER TREATABILITY DATABASE (Conference Paper)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) assembles referenced data on the control of contaminants in drinking water, housed on an interactive, publicly-available, USEPA web site (www.epa.gov/tdb). The TDB is of use to drinking water utilities, treatment process design engin...

  9. Private drinking water quality in rural Wisconsin.

    PubMed

    Knobeloch, Lynda; Gorski, Patrick; Christenson, Megan; Anderson, Henry

    2013-03-01

    Between July 1, 2007, and December 31, 2010, Wisconsin health departments tested nearly 4,000 rural drinking water supplies for coliform bacteria, nitrate, fluoride, and 13 metals as part of a state-funded program that provides assistance to low-income families. The authors' review of laboratory findings found that 47% of these wells had an exceedance of one or more health-based water quality standards. Test results for iron and coliform bacteria exceeded safe limits in 21% and 18% of these wells, respectively. In addition, 10% of the water samples from these wells were high in nitrate and 11% had an elevated result for aluminum, arsenic, lead, manganese, or strontium. The high percentage of unsafe test results emphasizes the importance of water quality monitoring to the health of nearly one million families including 300,000 Wisconsin children whose drinking water comes from a privately owned well.

  10. DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    The purpose of water treatment is threefold: 1. To improve the aethetic quality ofwater, 2. to remove toxic or health-hazardous chemicals, 3. to remove and/or inactivate any disease causing microorganisms. These objectives should be accomplished using a reasonable safety factor...

  11. Effect of hypochlorite-based disinfectants on inactivation of murine norovirus and attempt to eliminate or prevent infection in mice by addition to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Taharaguchi, Motoko; Sakai, Koji; Takagi, Hirotaka; Tohya, Yukinobu; Yamada, Yasuko K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) against murine norovirus (MNV) by plaque assay and compared the efficacy with diluted NaOCl (Purelox) and 70% ethanol. WAHS was as effective as 70% ethanol and diluted Purelox for 0.5-min reactions. For 0.5-min reactions in the presence of mouse feces emulsion, the efficacy of WHAS and 1:600 diluted Purelox was decreased, reducing the virus titers by 2.3 and 2.6 log10, respectively, while 70% ethanol reduced the titer by more than 5 log10. However, WAHS showed more than 5 log10 reductions for the 5-min reaction even in the presence of feces emulsion. Since WAHS showed enough efficacy in inactivating MNV in vitro, we tried to eliminate MNV from MNV-infected mice by substituting WAHS for their drinking water. However, MNV was found to be positive in feces of mice drinking WAHS by an RT-nested PCR and plaque assay. To investigate whether hypochlorite-based disinfectants could prevent infection of a mouse with MNV, WAHS or 1:6,000 diluted Purelox was substituted for the drinking water of mice for 2 or 4 weeks, and then the mice were placed in a cage with an MNV-infected mouse. The supply of disinfectants was continued after cohabitation, but MNV was detected in the feces of all the mice at 1 week after cohabitation. In this study, we tried to eliminate and prevent MNV infection from mice by supplying hypochlorite-based disinfectants as an easy and low-cost method. Unfortunately, drinking disinfectants was ineffective, so it is important to keep the facility environment clean by use of effective disinfectants. Also, animals introduced into facilities should be tested as MNV free by quarantine and periodically confirmed as MNV free by microbiological monitoring. PMID:23903059

  12. Effect of hypochlorite-based disinfectants on inactivation of murine norovirus and attempt to eliminate or prevent infection in mice by addition to drinking water.

    PubMed

    Takimoto, Kazuhiro; Taharaguchi, Motoko; Sakai, Koji; Takagi, Hirotaka; Tohya, Yukinobu; Yamada, Yasuko K

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the in vitro efficacy of weak acid hypochlorous solution (WAHS) against murine norovirus (MNV) by plaque assay and compared the efficacy with diluted NaOCl (Purelox) and 70% ethanol. WAHS was as effective as 70% ethanol and diluted Purelox for 0.5-min reactions. For 0.5-min reactions in the presence of mouse feces emulsion, the efficacy of WHAS and 1:600 diluted Purelox was decreased, reducing the virus titers by 2.3 and 2.6 log10, respectively, while 70% ethanol reduced the titer by more than 5 log10. However, WAHS showed more than 5 log10 reductions for the 5-min reaction even in the presence of feces emulsion. Since WAHS showed enough efficacy in inactivating MNV in vitro, we tried to eliminate MNV from MNV-infected mice by substituting WAHS for their drinking water. However, MNV was found to be positive in feces of mice drinking WAHS by an RT-nested PCR and plaque assay. To investigate whether hypochlorite-based disinfectants could prevent infection of a mouse with MNV, WAHS or 1:6,000 diluted Purelox was substituted for the drinking water of mice for 2 or 4 weeks, and then the mice were placed in a cage with an MNV-infected mouse. The supply of disinfectants was continued after cohabitation, but MNV was detected in the feces of all the mice at 1 week after cohabitation. In this study, we tried to eliminate and prevent MNV infection from mice by supplying hypochlorite-based disinfectants as an easy and low-cost method. Unfortunately, drinking disinfectants was ineffective, so it is important to keep the facility environment clean by use of effective disinfectants. Also, animals introduced into facilities should be tested as MNV free by quarantine and periodically confirmed as MNV free by microbiological monitoring.

  13. Cleaning Up Our Drinking Water

    SciTech Connect

    Manke, Kristin L.

    2007-08-01

    Imagine drinking water that you wring out of the sponge you’ve just used to wash your car. This is what is happening around the world. Rain and snow pass through soil polluted with pesticides, poisonous metals and radionuclides into the underground lakes and streams that supply our drinking water. “We need to understand this natural system better to protect our groundwater and, by extension, our drinking water,” said Pacific Northwest National Laboratory’s Applied Geology and Geochemistry Group Manager, Wayne Martin. Biologists, statisticians, hydrologists, geochemists, geologists and computer scientists at PNNL work together to clean up contaminated soils and groundwater. The teams begin by looking at the complexities of the whole environment, not just the soil or just the groundwater. PNNL researchers also perform work for private industries under a unique use agreement between the Department of Energy and Battelle, which operates the laboratory for DOE. This research leads to new remediation methods and technologies to tackle problems ranging from arsenic at old fertilizer plants to uranium at former nuclear sites. Our results help regulators, policy makers and the public make critical decisions on complex environmental issues.

  14. Risk assessment of additives through soft drinks and nectars consumption on Portuguese population: a 2010 survey.

    PubMed

    Diogo, Janina S G; Silva, Liliana S O; Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M

    2013-12-01

    This study investigated whether the Portuguese population is at risk of exceeding ADI levels for acesulfame-K, saccharin, aspartame, caffeine, benzoic and sorbic acid through an assessment of dietary intake of additives and specific consumption of four types of beverages, traditional soft drinks and soft drinks based on mineral waters, energetic drinks, and nectars. The highest mean levels of additives were found for caffeine in energetic drinks, 293.5mg/L, for saccharin in traditional soft drinks, 18.4 mg/L, for acesulfame-K and aspartame in nectars, with 88.2 and 97.8 mg/L, respectively, for benzoic acid in traditional soft drinks, 125.7 mg/L, and for sorbic acid in soft drinks based on mineral water, 166.5 mg/L. Traditional soft drinks presented the highest acceptable daily intake percentages (ADIs%) for acesulfame-K, aspartame, benzoic and sorbic acid and similar value for saccharin (0.5%) when compared with soft drinks based on mineral water, 0.7%, 0.08%, 7.3%, and 1.92% versus 0.2%, 0.053%, 0.6%, and 0.28%, respectively. However for saccharin the highest percentage of ADI was obtained for nectars, 0.9%, in comparison with both types of soft drinks, 0.5%. Therefore, it is concluded that the Portuguese population is not at risk of exceeding the established ADIs for the studied additives.

  15. Naphthalene: Drinking water health advisory

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-03-01

    The Drinking Water Health Advisory, Office of Water, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, has issued its report on the chemical, naphthalene. Naphthalene is used in the manufacture of phthalic and anthranilic acids and other derivatives, and in making dyes; in the manufacture of resins, celluloid, lampblack and smokeless gunpowder; and as moth repellant, insecticide, anthelmintic, vermicide, and intestinal antiseptic. The report covers the following areas: the occurrence of the chemical in the environment; its environmental fate; the chemical's absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion in the human body; and its health effects on humans and animals, including its mutagenicity and carcinogenicity characteristics. Also included is the quantification of its toxicological effects.

  16. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite. PMID:26680713

  17. Improving Drinking Water Quality by Remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Luptáková, Anna; Derco, Ján

    2015-01-01

    The reason of low mineral content in source water is its origin in poorly soluble mineral geological structures. There are many areas with very soft low-mineralised water around the world. All people involved in drinking water treatment as well as some public health experts and producers of chemicals used for water treatment may be interested in the study. Enrichment of drinking water by minerals including calcium and magnesium is very important particularly in regions where drinking water is prepared by desalination. The aim of this work was to study and intensify the recarbonization process. Half-calcined dolomite in combination with carbon dioxide constitutes the chemistry of the applied method. Advantages of using a fluidised bed reactor contributed also significantly to the process efficiency enhancement. Continuous input of carbon dioxide into the fluidised bed recarbonization reactor resulted in an increase in the recarbonization rate by about one order of magnitude compared with the process in without carbon dioxide addition. Very good fit of experimental data for hydrodynamic characteristics of fluidised bed was obtained using simple model based on the Richardson and Zaki expansion equation. The first order model describes kinetic data from the recarbonization process with a good accuracy. Higher recarbonization rates were observed with smaller particles of half-calcined dolomite.

  18. Water Treatment: Can You Purify Water for Drinking?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, Mary E.

    1996-01-01

    Presents a three-day mini unit on purification of drinking water that uses the learning cycle approach. Demonstrates the typical technology that water companies use to provide high-quality drinking water. (JRH)

  19. Acid rain and drinking water degradation.

    PubMed

    Middleton, P; Rhodes, S L

    1984-03-01

    Acid deposition-induced drinking water degradation is discussed with respect to the geographical extent of and the potential for dealing with possibly adverse human health impacts. Qualitative evidence from the northeastern United States and Sweden strongly suggests the existence of a linkage between these two environmental concerns. It is argued that water treatment and reduction of acid rain as solutions to the problem of water toxicity need closer evaluation. More research into the causal link is warranted since the addition of human health impacts to acid rain's environmental insults could have a significant bearing on discussions relating to acid rain controls.

  20. MINI PILOT PLANT FOR DRINKING WATER RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Water Supply & Water Resources Division (WSWRD) has constructed 2 mini-pilot plant systems used to conduct drinking water research. These two systems each have 2 parallel trains for comparative research. The mini-pilot plants are small conventional drinking water treatment ...

  1. Pollutants in drinking water and waste water.

    PubMed

    Schröder, H F

    1993-07-23

    Extracts of drinking water and effluents from municipal and industrial sewage treatment plants were analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and by high-performance liquid chromatography combined with ultraviolet and/or mass spectrometric detection. After column chromatography or flow-injection analysis bypassing the analytical column, ionization was performed by a thermospray interface. Identification of the pollutants was carried out by tandem mass spectrometry, generating daughter-ion spectra by collision-induced dissociation. Most pollutants in drinking water and in the effluents of waste water treatment plants are surface-active compounds of anthropogenic origin or their biochemical degradation products. Difficulties encountered during separation, detection and identification are presented and discussed and techniques for solving these problems are proposed.

  2. Safe drinking water act: Amendments, regulations and standards

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Gilbert, C.E.; Pastides, H.

    1989-01-01

    This book approaches the topic of safe drinking water by communicating how the EPA has responded to the mandates of Congress. Chapter 1 summarizes what is and will be involved in achieving safe drinking water. Chapter 2 describes the historical development of drinking water regulations. Chapter 3 summarizes the directives of the Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments of 1986. Chapters 4 through 9 discuss each phase of the regulatory program in turn. Specific problems associated with volatile organic chemicals, synthetic organics, inorganic chemicals, and microbiological contaminants are assessed in Chapter 4 and 5. The unique characteristics of radionuclides and their regulation are treated in Chapter 6. The disinfection process and its resultant disinfection by-products are presented in Chapter 7. The contaminant selection process and the additional contaminants to be regulated by 1989 and 1991 and in future years are discussed in Chapters 8 and 9. EPA's Office of Drinking Water's Health Advisory Program is explained in Chapter 10. The record of public water system compliance with the primary drinking water regulations is detailed in Chapter 11. Chapter 12 offers a nongovernmental perspective on the general quality of drinking water and how this is affected by a wide range of drinking water treatment technologies. Separate abstracts are processed for 5 chapters in this book for inclusion in the appropriate data bases.

  3. Chemical Contamination of California Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Hanafi H.; Jackson, Richard J.; Spath, David P.; Book, Steven A.

    1987-01-01

    Drinking water contamination by toxic chemicals has become widely recognized as a public health concern since the discovery of 1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane in California's Central Valley in 1979. Increased monitoring since then has shown that other pesticides and industrial chemicals are present in drinking water. Contaminants of drinking water also include naturally occurring substances such as asbestos and even the by-products of water chlorination. Public water systems, commercially bottled and vended water and mineral water are regulated, and California is also taking measures to prevent water pollution by chemicals through various new laws and programs. PMID:3321714

  4. DISINFECTION OF WATER: DRINKING WATER, RECREATIONAL WATER, AND WASTEWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This chapter describes and categorizes the methodology used for disinfection of drinking water, recreational water and wastewater including wastewater sludges. It largely is a literature summary and references articles covering the years of 1939 through 1999, with a few reference...

  5. Ensuring the Public's Drinking-Water Welfare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McDermott, James H.

    1978-01-01

    Some questions are answered concerning the justification, intent, and purpose of the Safe Drinking Water Act's regulations. Some points, previously misinterpreted, are placed in clear perspective. (BB)

  6. Drinking water regulations and health advisories

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-05-01

    The report provides maximum contaminant level of goals, maximum contaminant levels, reference doses, and drinking water equivalent levels for over 250 organic and inorganic chemicals, radionuclides, and microbes.

  7. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year.

  8. AIDS Action campaigns for drinking water safety.

    PubMed

    1995-01-01

    AIDS Action Council is sponsoring the Municipal Water Education Project, a program which functions to inform people about water safety and contaminants such as cryptosporidium. People with compromised immune systems are vulnerable to infection from the parasite cryptosporidium in the water supply. Currently, there is no effective treatment for the condition. On June 15, 1995, the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) published guidelines to inform people how to avoid infection with cryptosporidium. The Council publicly supports these guidelines about home filtration, boiling water, and bottled water. In addition, the Council is pushing for a stronger Safe Drinking Water Act, which will be up for reauthorization this year. PMID:11367402

  9. EPA’s Drinking Water Treatability Database: A Tool for All Drinking Water Professionals

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Drinking Water Treatability Database (TDB) is being developed by the USEPA Office of Research and Development to allow drinking water professionals and others to access referenced information gathered from thousands of literature sources and assembled on one site. Currently, ...

  10. New approaches to safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Barron, Gerald; Buchanan, Sharunda; Hase, Denise; Mainzer, Hugh; Ransom, Montrece McNeill; Sarisky, John

    2002-01-01

    Up to half the population of some states in the United States drink water from small systems not regulated by the Safe Drinking Water Act. The quality of the drinking water from these systems is generally unknown and may be suspect. In many jurisdictions, private wells are the primary source of water. In some instances, construction of wells may have met regulatory requirements but may not have adequately prevented disease transmission. Anecdotal information, periodic water-borne outbreaks, and recent well surveys suggest that there are public health concerns associated with these and similar systems. This article provides an assessment of the need for governmental oversight (regulatory and non-regulatory) of drinking water supplies, describes how a "systems-based" approach might be used to evaluate water supply systems and to identify and prevent possible contamination, and presents case studies describing the systems-based approach as well as a comprehensive approach to environmental health that includes drinking water regulation. PMID:12508511

  11. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school.

  12. Availability of drinking water in US public school cafeterias.

    PubMed

    Hood, Nancy E; Turner, Lindsey; Colabianchi, Natalie; Chaloupka, Frank J; Johnston, Lloyd D

    2014-09-01

    This study examined the availability of free drinking water during lunchtime in US public schools, as required by federal legislation beginning in the 2011-2012 school year. Data were collected by mail-back surveys in nationally representative samples of US public elementary, middle, and high schools from 2009-2010 to 2011-2012. Overall, 86.4%, 87.4%, and 89.4% of students attended elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, that met the drinking water requirement. Most students attended schools with existing cafeteria drinking fountains and about one fourth attended schools with water dispensers. In middle and high schools, respondents were asked to indicate whether drinking fountains were clean, and whether they were aware of any water-quality problems at the school. The vast majority of middle and high school students (92.6% and 90.4%, respectively) attended schools where the respondent perceived drinking fountains to be clean or very clean. Approximately one in four middle and high school students attended a school where the survey respondent indicated that there were water-quality issues affecting drinking fountains. Although most schools have implemented the requirement to provide free drinking water at lunchtime, additional work is needed to promote implementation at all schools. School nutrition staff at the district and school levels can play an important role in ensuring that schools implement the drinking water requirement, as well as promote education and behavior-change strategies to increase student consumption of water at school. PMID:24726348

  13. Drinking Water (Environmental Health Student Portal)

    MedlinePlus

    ... water. A Guide to Drinking Water Treatment and Sanitation for Backcountry & Travel Use (Centers for Disease Control ... runoff is and its hazardous effects on the environment. Commercially Bottled Water (Centers for Disease Control and ...

  14. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Au, L.K. Office, Honolulu, HI )

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  15. The relative safety of Hawaii's drinking water.

    PubMed

    Au, L K

    1991-03-01

    There are two types of drinking water sources: groundwater and surface water (the latter includes catchment of rain). Surface water runs over the surface of the earth in rivers and watercourses, or is stored in lakes and reservoirs. groundwater is water that is stored below ground level; it feeds artesian wells and springs. It is important to remember that untreated groundwater may not be the same thing as treated drinking water. A contaminant in groundwater represents a threat to a drinking water source but not necessarily a threat to health, if the contaminant's concentration is decreased before it becomes available as potable.

  16. Drinking Water: A Community Action Guide.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boyd, Susan, Ed.; And Others

    While much of the drinking water in the United States is safe for consumption, protecting its quality and assuring its availability are becoming increasingly difficult. This booklet is written for individuals and groups who are concerned about the drinking water in their communities. It provides a general introduction to the complex issues of…

  17. Monitoring of Microbes in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Internationally there is a move towards managing the provision of safe drinking water by direct assessment of the performance of key pathogen barriers (critical control points), rather than end point testing (i.e. in drinking water). For fecal pathogens that breakthrough the vari...

  18. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC AND PERINATAL OUTCOMES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking Water Arsenic and Perinatal Outcomes
    DT Lobdell, Z Ning, RK Kwok, JL Mumford, ZY Liu, P Mendola

    Many studies have documented an association between drinking water arsenic (DWA) and cancer, vascular diseases, and dermatological outcomes, but few have investigate...

  19. Should children drink more water?: the effects of drinking water on cognition in children.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, Caroline J; Burford, Denise

    2009-06-01

    While dehydration has well-documented negative effects on adult cognition, there is little research on hydration and cognitive performance in children. We investigated whether having a drink of water improved children's performance on cognitive tasks. Fifty-eight children aged 7-9 years old were randomly allocated to a group that received additional water or a group that did not. Results showed that children who drank additional water rated themselves as significantly less thirsty than the comparison group (p=0.002), and they performed better on visual attention tasks (letter cancellation, p=0.02; spot the difference memory tasks, ps=0.019 and 0.014).

  20. Radon in private drinking water wells.

    PubMed

    Otahal, P; Merta, J; Burian, I

    2014-07-01

    At least 10% of inhabitants in the Czech Republic are supplied with water from private sources (private wells, boreholes). With the increasing cost of water, the number of people using their own sources of drinking water will be likely to increase. According to the Decree of the State Office for Nuclear Safety about the Radiation Protection 307/2002 as amended by Decree 499/2005, the guideline limit for the supplied drinking water ('drinking water for public supply') for radon concentration is 50 Bq·l(-1). This guideline does not apply to private sources of drinking water. Radon in water influences human health by ingestion and also by inhalation when radon is released from water during showering and cooking. This paper presents results of measurements of radon concentrations in water from private wells in more than 300 cases. The gross concentration of alpha-emitting radionuclides and the concentrations of radium and uranium were also determined. PMID:24714110

  1. Safe drinking water: the toxicologist's approach.

    PubMed

    van Leeuwen, F X

    2000-01-01

    The production of adequate and safe drinking water is a high priority issue for safeguarding the health and well-being of humans all over the world. Traditionally, microbiological quality of drinking water has been the main concern, but over the last decades the attention of the general public and health officials on the importance of chemical quality and the threat of chemical pollutants have increased with the increase of our knowledge on the hazards of chemical substances. There are many sources of contamination of drinking water. Broadly they can be divided into two categories: contaminants originating from surface and groundwater, and contaminants used or formed during the treatment and distribution of drinking water. Contaminants in surface and groundwater can range from natural substances such as arsenic and manganese leaching from soil, to contaminants introduced by human activities, such as run-off from agricultural activities, controlled discharge from sewage treatment works and industrial plants, and uncontrolled discharges or leakage from landfill sites and from chemical accidents. Disinfectants and disinfectant by-products are well known contaminants resulting from the processes used by the drinking water industry for the treatment and distribution of water. The basic question in the production of drinking water is how to rid drinking water of potentially dangerous microorganisms and chemicals without introducing new hazards that might pose new and different threats to human health. It is the responsibility of toxicologists to provide risk assessments for chemical pollutants and to derive guidelines or standards for drinking water quality below which no significant health risk is encountered, to assure consumers that drinking water is safe and can be consumed without any risk. This paper will focus on the toxicological procedures used by the World Health Organization to derive guideline values for chemical compounds in drinking water, and will touch

  2. Drinking water safely during cancer treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... it down the drain or use it to water your plants or your garden. ... Disease Control and Prevention. A guide to drinking water treatment technologies for household use. Updated March 14, 2014. ...

  3. OVERVIEW OF RADIONUCLIDES IN DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Invited presentation at the 2007 National Rural Water Association National Conference, Philadelphia, PA, September 23-26, 2007. The presentation reviews the chemistry of radium and uranium in drinking water sources, treatment options, and guidelines for disposal. Presentation giv...

  4. The psychology of drinking water quality: An exploratory study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syme, Geoffrey J.; Williams, Katrina D.

    1993-12-01

    Perceptions of drinking water quality were measured for residents at four locations in Western Australia. The total dissolved solid levels for the locations varied. Four scales of drinking water satisfaction were measured: acceptability of water quality; water quality risk judgment; perception of neighborhood water quality; and attitudes toward fluoride as an additive. Responses to each of these scales did not appear to be highly related to total dissolved solids. The relationship between attitudes toward water quality and a variety of psychological, attitudinal, experiential, and demographic variables was investigated. It was found that responses to the acceptability of water quality and water quality risk judgment scales related to perceived credibility of societal institutions and feelings of control over water quality and environmental problems. For the remaining two scales few significant correlations were found. The results support those who advocate localized information and involvement campaigns on drinking water quality issues.

  5. THE EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS OF DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory



    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distrib...

  6. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  7. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  8. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  9. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  10. 30 CFR 71.601 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... drinking water provided shall conform to the Public Health Service Drinking Water Standards, 42 CFR part 72... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 71.601 Section 71.601... Water § 71.601 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions...

  11. Smart Water: Energy-Water Optimization in Drinking Water Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project aims to develop and commercialize a Smart Water Platform – Sensor-based Data-driven Energy-Water Optimization technology in drinking water systems. The key technological advances rely on cross-platform data acquisition and management system, model-based real-time sys...

  12. USEPA Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program

    SciTech Connect

    Feige, M.A.; Madding, C.; Glick, E.M. )

    1993-09-01

    The Drinking Water Laboratory Certification Program has been in existence since 1943 and was adopted by the Drinking Water Program in 1978 under the authority given the US Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). Both USEPA and the states are looking for ways to make the program efficient in the face of dwindling resources. Recent discussions concerning the certification program have included major new approaches. With impending reauthorization of the SDWA and the changing needs of the certification community, the program could be significantly modified.

  13. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination.

  14. Impact of disinfection on drinking water biofilm bacterial community.

    PubMed

    Mi, Zilong; Dai, Yu; Xie, Shuguang; Chen, Chao; Zhang, Xiaojian

    2015-11-01

    Disinfectants are commonly applied to control the growth of microorganisms in drinking water distribution systems. However, the effect of disinfection on drinking water microbial community remains poorly understood. The present study investigated the impacts of different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) and dosages on biofilm bacterial community in bench-scale pipe section reactors. Illumina MiSeq sequencing illustrated that disinfection strategy could affect both bacterial diversity and community structure of drinking water biofilm. Proteobacteria tended to predominate in chloraminated drinking water biofilms, while Firmicutes in chlorinated and unchlorinated biofilms. The major proteobacterial groups were influenced by both disinfectant type and dosage. In addition, chloramination had a more profound impact on bacterial community than chlorination. PMID:26574105

  15. Fluoride in drinking water and dental fluorosis.

    PubMed

    Mandinic, Zoran; Curcic, Marijana; Antonijevic, Biljana; Carevic, Momir; Mandic, Jelena; Djukic-Cosic, Danijela; Lekic, Charles P

    2010-08-01

    In this study we determined the fluoride content in drinking water and hair of 12-year-old schoolchildren from different Serbian municipalities, i.e. Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja. The analyses were performed using composite fluoride ion-selective electrode. Average fluoride levels were 0.10, 0.15, 0.79 and 11 ppm in well water, 0.07, 0.10, 0.17 and 0.15 ppm in tap water, 19.3, 21.5, 25.4, and 32.5 ppm in hair samples, in Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, Kacarevo and Vranjska Banja, respectively. Correlation analysis indicated statistically significant positive relationship between fluoride in wells water and fluoride in hair, for all municipalities: correlation coefficients were 0.54 (p < 0.05), 0.89, 0.97 and 0.99 (p < 0.001), in Vranjska Banja, Valjevo, Veliko Gradiste, and Kacarevo, respectively. Positive correlation was obtained also between fluoride in tap water and hair samples in all regions under the study, with statistical significance only in Valjevo municipality, p < 0.05. Dental examination of schoolchildren confirmed dental fluorosis only in the region of Vranjska Banja. Moreover, in endemic fluorotic region of Vranjska Banja, positive and statistically significant correlations were confirmed between fluoride in well water and dental fluorosis level (r = 0.61; p < 0.01) and additionally between fluoride in hair and dental fluorosis level (0.62; p < 0.01). The primary findings from this study have shown that fluoride content in hair is highly correlated with fluoride content in drinking water and dental fluorosis level, indicating that hair may be regarded as biomaterial of high informative potential in evaluating prolonged exposure to fluorides and to individuate children at risk of fluorosis regardless of the phase of teeth eruption. PMID:20580811

  16. Risk management for assuring safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hrudey, Steve E; Hrudey, Elizabeth J; Pollard, Simon J T

    2006-12-01

    Millions of people die every year around the world from diarrheal diseases much of which is caused by contaminated drinking water. By contrast, drinking water safety is largely taken for granted by many citizens of affluent nations. The ability to drink water that is delivered into households without fear of becoming ill may be one of the key defining characteristics of developed nations in relation to the majority of the world. Yet there is well-documented evidence that disease outbreaks remain a risk that could be better managed and prevented even in affluent nations. A detailed retrospective analysis of more than 70 case studies of disease outbreaks in 15 affluent nations over the past 30 years provides the basis for much of our discussion [Hrudey, S.E. and Hrudey, E.J. Safe Drinking Water--Lessons from Recent Outbreaks in Affluent Nations. London, UK: IWA Publishing; 2004.]. The insights provided can assist in developing a better understanding within the water industry of the causes of drinking water disease outbreaks, so that more effective preventive measures can be adopted by water systems that are vulnerable. This preventive feature lies at the core of risk management for the provision of safe drinking water.

  17. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges.

    PubMed

    Prest, Emmanuelle I; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C M; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  18. Biological Stability of Drinking Water: Controlling Factors, Methods, and Challenges

    PubMed Central

    Prest, Emmanuelle I.; Hammes, Frederik; van Loosdrecht, Mark C. M.; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S.

    2016-01-01

    Biological stability of drinking water refers to the concept of providing consumers with drinking water of same microbial quality at the tap as produced at the water treatment facility. However, uncontrolled growth of bacteria can occur during distribution in water mains and premise plumbing, and can lead to hygienic (e.g., development of opportunistic pathogens), aesthetic (e.g., deterioration of taste, odor, color) or operational (e.g., fouling or biocorrosion of pipes) problems. Drinking water contains diverse microorganisms competing for limited available nutrients for growth. Bacterial growth and interactions are regulated by factors, such as (i) type and concentration of available organic and inorganic nutrients, (ii) type and concentration of residual disinfectant, (iii) presence of predators, such as protozoa and invertebrates, (iv) environmental conditions, such as water temperature, and (v) spatial location of microorganisms (bulk water, sediment, or biofilm). Water treatment and distribution conditions in water mains and premise plumbing affect each of these factors and shape bacterial community characteristics (abundance, composition, viability) in distribution systems. Improved understanding of bacterial interactions in distribution systems and of environmental conditions impact is needed for better control of bacterial communities during drinking water production and distribution. This article reviews (i) existing knowledge on biological stability controlling factors and (ii) how these factors are affected by drinking water production and distribution conditions. In addition, (iii) the concept of biological stability is discussed in light of experience with well-established and new analytical methods, enabling high throughput analysis and in-depth characterization of bacterial communities in drinking water. We discussed, how knowledge gained from novel techniques will improve design and monitoring of water treatment and distribution systems in order

  19. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  20. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  1. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  2. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  3. 30 CFR 71.603 - Drinking water; dispensing requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; dispensing requirements. 71.603... COAL MINES Drinking Water § 71.603 Drinking water; dispensing requirements. (a) Water shall be dispensed through a drinking fountain or from a water storage container with an adequate supply of...

  4. Re-use of drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) sludge: Characterization and technological behaviour of cement mortars with atomized sludge additions

    SciTech Connect

    Husillos Rodriguez, N.; Martinez Ramirez, S.; Blanco Varela, M.T.; Guillem, M.; Puig, J.; Larrotcha, E.; Flores, J.

    2010-05-15

    This paper aims to characterize spray-dried DWTP sludge and evaluate its possible use as an addition for the cement industry. It describes the physical, chemical and micro-structural characterization of the sludge as well as the effect of its addition to Portland cements on the hydration, water demand, setting and mechanical strength of standardized mortars. Spray drying DWTP sludge generates a readily handled powdery material whose particle size is similar to those of Portland cement. The atomized sludge contains 12-14% organic matter (mainly fatty acids), while its main mineral constituents are muscovite, quartz, calcite, dolomite and seraphinite (or clinoclor). Its amorphous material content is 35%. The mortars were made with type CEM I Portland cement mixed with 10 to 30% atomized sludge exhibited lower mechanical strength than the control cement and a decline in slump. Setting was also altered in the blended cements with respect to the control.

  5. Drinking Water: Health Hazards Still Not Resolved

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wade, Nicholas

    1977-01-01

    Despite the suggested link between cancer deaths and drinking obtained from the Mississippi River, New Orleans still treats its water supply in the same manner as before the Environmental Defense Fund's epidemiological study. (BT)

  6. Vaccination against Fowlpox virus via drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ariyoshi, Rikako; Takase, Kozo; Matsuura, Yuichi; Deguchi, Kazuhiro; Ginnaga, Akihiro; Fujikawa, Hideo

    2003-10-01

    The oral vaccination against Fowlpox was investigated via drinking water containing the F132-c strain of Fowlpox virus to be effective even though the vaccine virus-titer was 10(4) TCID (50)/dose each time. When the virus-titer of the F132-c strain was 10(4-5 )TCID(50)/dose per single drinking water vaccination, 90% or more of chickens were not protected, however, they were protected when vaccinated twice via drinking water. A weak immune response occurred by a slight infection after the first vaccination, and due to memory cells, a booster could work well after the second vaccination. These results suggest the possibility of reducing both the amount of virus required for a vaccine via drinking water and the labor cost in the field.

  7. ALTERNATIVE DISINFECTANTS FOR DRINKING WATER TREATMENT

    EPA Science Inventory

    During a one-year study at Jefferson Parish, Louisiana the chemical, microbiological, and mutagenic effects of using the major drinking water disinfectants (chlorine, chlorine dioxide, chloramine, ozone) were evaluated. ests were performed on samples collected from various treatm...

  8. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods.

    PubMed

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-15

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml(-1) and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 10(4) L mol(-1)cm(-1). All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  9. Cisapride a green analytical reagent for rapid and sensitive determination of bromate in drinking water, bread and flour additives by oxidative coupling spectrophotometric methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al Okab, Riyad Ahmed

    2013-02-01

    Green analytical methods using Cisapride (CPE) as green analytical reagent was investigated in this work. Rapid, simple, and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for the determination of bromate in water sample, bread and flour additives were developed. The proposed methods based on the oxidative coupling between phenoxazine and Cisapride in the presence of bromate to form red colored product with max at 520 nm. Phenoxazine and Cisapride and its reaction products were found to be environmentally friendly under the optimum experimental condition. The method obeys beers law in concentration range 0.11-4.00 g ml-1 and molar absorptivity 1.41 × 104 L mol-1 cm-1. All variables have been optimized and the presented reaction sequences were applied to the analysis of bromate in water, bread and flour additive samples. The performance of these method was evaluated in terms of Student's t-test and variance ratio F-test to find out the significance of proposed methods over the reference method. The combination of pharmaceutical drugs reagents with low concentration create some unique green chemical analyses.

  10. Water hyacinth removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water.

    PubMed

    Misbahuddin, Mir; Fariduddin, Atm

    2002-01-01

    Water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes) removes arsenic from arsenic-contaminated drinking water. This effect depends on several factors, such as the amount of water hyacinth, amount of arsenic present in the water, duration of exposure, and presence of sunlight and air. On the basis of the present study, the authors suggest that water hyacinth is useful for making arsenic-contaminated drinking water totally arsenic free. Water hyacinth provides a natural means of removing arsenic from drinking water at the household level without monetary cost. PMID:12696647

  11. Pollution of drinking water with nitrate

    SciTech Connect

    Cabel, B.; Kozicki, R.; Lahl, U.; Podbielshi, A.; Stachel, B.; Struss, S.

    1982-01-01

    The main sources of nitrate in man are food and drinking water. The legislature in West Germany intends to lower the permitted level of nitrate in drinking water from the present 90 mg/l to 50 mg/l in 1982. The European Community has issued a directive that recommends a level of only 25 mg/l, and for babies 10 mg/l nitrate should not be exceeded. At present, nitrate cannot be removed from raw water at an acceptable cost. The problem of high nitrate content is mainly one of drinking water generation from ground water. Several analyses indicate rising concentrations of nitrate in ground water in different regions of West Germany, especially in the last few years. The following sources of nitrate-contamination of ground water aquifers in West are discussed: natural sources; over-manuring of agricultural areas with natural organic fertilizers; over-manuring of agricultural areas with synthetic fertilizers.

  12. Manganese deposition in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Gerke, Tammie L; Little, Brenda J; Barry Maynard, J

    2016-01-15

    This study provides a physicochemical assessment of manganese deposits on brass and lead components from two fully operational drinking water distributions systems. One of the systems was maintained with chlorine; the other, with secondary chloramine disinfection. Synchrotron-based in-situ micro X-ray adsorption near edge structure was used to assess the mineralogy. In-situ micro X-ray fluorescence mapping was used to demonstrate the spatial relationships between manganese and potentially toxic adsorbed metal ions. The Mn deposits ranged in thickness from 0.01 to 400 μm. They were composed primarily of Mn oxides/oxhydroxides, birnessite (Mn(3+) and Mn(4+)) and hollandite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), and a Mn silicate, braunite (Mn(2+) and Mn(4+)), in varying proportions. Iron, chromium, and strontium, in addition to the alloying elements lead and copper, were co-located within manganese deposits. With the exception of iron, all are related to specific health issues and are of concern to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA). The specific properties of Mn deposits, i.e., adsorption of metals ions, oxidation of metal ions and resuspension are discussed with respect to their influence on drinking water quality.

  13. Sustaining Waters: From Hydrology to Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toch, S.

    2003-04-01

    Around the world, disastrous effects of floods and droughts are painful evidence of our continuing struggle between human resource demands and the sustainability of our hydrologic systems. Too much or too little rainfall is often deemed the culprit in these water crises, focussing on water "lacks and needs" instead of exploring the mechanisms of the hydrologic functions and processes that sustain us. Applicable to regions around the world, this unified approach is about our human and environmental qualities with user friendly concepts and how-to guides backed up by real life experiences. From the poorest parts of Africa to Urban France to the wealthest state in the USA, examples from surface to groundwater to marine environments demonstrate how the links between vulerable natural areas, and the basins that they support are integral to the availability, adequacy and accessibility of our drinking water. Watershed management can be an effective means for crisis intervention and pollution control. This project is geared as a reference for groups, individuals and agencies concerned with watershed management, a supplement for interdisciplinary high school through university curriculam, for professional development in technical and field assistance, and for community awareness in the trade-offs and consequences of resource decisions that affect hydrologic systems. This community-based project demonstrates how our human resource demands can be managed within ecological constraints. An inter-disciplinary process is developed that specifically assesses risk to human health from resource use practices, and explores the similarities and interations between our human needs and those of the ecosystems in which we all must live together. Disastrous conditions worldwide have triggered reactions in crisis relief rather than crisis prevention. Through a unified management approach to the preservation of water quality, the flows of water that connect all water users can serve as a

  14. [Radioactivity in Harz area drinking water after Chernobyl].

    PubMed

    Hennighausen, R H

    1999-11-01

    After the reactor accident in Chernobyl on April 26th, 1986 drinking water pollution was in Lower Saxony a problem in the Harz mountains. With the rainout of the radioactive clouds radioactivity came into the water-barrages, brooks und pools for drinking water supply. Good drinking water management supervised by the district community physician limited radioactive nuclides in drinking water. Drinking water path was approximately only 5% of the exposure to radioactive nuclides in the Harz region due to Chernobyl in 1986.

  15. Isotopic Fingerprint for Phosphorus in Drinking Water Supplies.

    PubMed

    Gooddy, Daren C; Lapworth, Dan J; Ascott, Matthew J; Bennett, Sarah A; Heaton, Timothy H E; Surridge, Ben W J

    2015-08-01

    Phosphate dosing of drinking water supplies, coupled with leakage from distribution networks, represents a significant input of phosphorus to the environment. The oxygen isotope composition of phosphate (δ(18)OPO4), a novel stable isotope tracer for phosphorus, offers new opportunities to understand the importance of phosphorus derived from sources such as drinking water. We report the first assessment of δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies. A total of 40 samples from phosphate-dosed distribution networks were analyzed from across England and Wales. In addition, samples of the source orthophosphoric acid used for dosing were also analyzed. Two distinct isotopic signatures for drinking water were identified (average = +13.2 or +19.7‰), primarily determined by δ(18)OPO4 of the source acid (average = +12.4 or +19.7‰). Dependent upon the source acid used, drinking water δ(18)OPO4 appears isotopically distinct from a number of other phosphorus sources. Isotopic offsets from the source acid ranging from -0.9 to +2.8‰ were observed. There was little evidence that equilibrium isotope fractionation dominated within the networks, with offsets from temperature-dependent equilibrium ranging from -4.8 to +4.2‰. While partial equilibrium fractionation may have occurred, kinetic effects associated with microbial uptake of phosphorus or abiotic sorption and dissolution reactions may also contribute to δ(18)OPO4 within drinking water supplies.

  16. Biological Instability in a Chlorinated Drinking Water Distribution Network

    PubMed Central

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×103 cells mL−1 to 4.66×105 cells mL−1 in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×104 cells mL−1 in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×105 cells mL−1. This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability. PMID:24796923

  17. Biological instability in a chlorinated drinking water distribution network.

    PubMed

    Nescerecka, Alina; Rubulis, Janis; Vital, Marius; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of a drinking water distribution system is to deliver drinking water to the consumer, preferably with the same quality as when it left the treatment plant. In this context, the maintenance of good microbiological quality is often referred to as biological stability, and the addition of sufficient chlorine residuals is regarded as one way to achieve this. The full-scale drinking water distribution system of Riga (Latvia) was investigated with respect to biological stability in chlorinated drinking water. Flow cytometric (FCM) intact cell concentrations, intracellular adenosine tri-phosphate (ATP), heterotrophic plate counts and residual chlorine measurements were performed to evaluate the drinking water quality and stability at 49 sampling points throughout the distribution network. Cell viability methods were compared and the importance of extracellular ATP measurements was examined as well. FCM intact cell concentrations varied from 5×10(3) cells mL(-1) to 4.66×10(5) cells mL(-1) in the network. While this parameter did not exceed 2.1×10(4) cells mL(-1) in the effluent from any water treatment plant, 50% of all the network samples contained more than 1.06×10(5) cells mL(-1). This indisputably demonstrates biological instability in this particular drinking water distribution system, which was ascribed to a loss of disinfectant residuals and concomitant bacterial growth. The study highlights the potential of using cultivation-independent methods for the assessment of chlorinated water samples. In addition, it underlines the complexity of full-scale drinking water distribution systems, and the resulting challenges to establish the causes of biological instability.

  18. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    PubMed

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring.

  19. [Hydraulic fracturing - a hazard for drinking water?].

    PubMed

    Ewers, U; Gordalla, B; Frimmel, F

    2013-11-01

    Hydraulic fracturing (fracking) is a technique used to release and promote the extraction of natural gas (including shale gas, tight gas, and coal bed methane) from deep natural gas deposits. Among the German public there is great concern with regard to the potential environmental impacts of fracking including the contamination of ground water, the most important source of drinking water in Germany. In the present article the risks of ground water contamination through fracking are discussed. Due to the present safety requirements and the obligatory geological and hydrogeological scrutiny of the underground, which has to be performed prior to fracking, the risk of ground water contamination by fracking can be regarded as very low. The toxicity of chemical additives of fracking fluids is discussed. It is recommended that in the future environmental impact assessment and approval of fracs should be performed by the mining authorities in close cooperation with the water authorities. Furthermore, it is recommended that hydraulic fracturing in the future should be accompanied by obligatory ground water monitoring. PMID:24285158

  20. REMOVAL OF RADIUM FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report summarizes processes for removal of radium from drinking water. Ion exchange, including strong acid and weak acid resin, is discussed. Both processes remove better than 95 percent of the radium from the water. Weak acid ion exchange does not add sodium to the water...

  1. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  2. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink. PMID:25162651

  3. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-04-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L.

  4. Renal effects of uranium in drinking water.

    PubMed Central

    Kurttio, Päivi; Auvinen, Anssi; Salonen, Laina; Saha, Heikki; Pekkanen, Juha; Mäkeläinen, Ilona; Väisänen, Sari B; Penttilä, Ilkka M; Komulainen, Hannu

    2002-01-01

    Animal studies and small studies in humans have shown that uranium is nephrotoxic. However, more information about its renal effects in humans following chronic exposure through drinking water is required. We measured uranium concentrations in drinking water and urine in 325 persons who had used drilled wells for drinking water. We measured urine and serum concentrations of calcium, phosphate, glucose, albumin, creatinine, and beta-2-microglobulin to evaluate possible renal effects. The median uranium concentration in drinking water was 28 microg/L (interquartile range 6-135, max. 1,920 microg/L) and in urine 13 ng/mmol creatinine (2-75), resulting in the median daily uranium intake of 39 microg (7-224). Uranium concentration in urine was statistically significantly associated with increased fractional excretion of calcium and phosphate. Increase of uranium in urine by 1 microg/mmol creatinine increased fractional excretion of calcium by 1.5% [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.6-2.3], phosphate by 13% (1.4-25), and glucose excretion by 0.7 micromol/min (-0.4-1.8). Uranium concentrations in drinking water and daily intake of uranium were statistically significantly associated with calcium fractional excretion, but not with phosphate or glucose excretion. Uranium exposure was not associated with creatinine clearance or urinary albumin, which reflect glomerular function. In conclusion, uranium exposure is weakly associated with altered proximal tubulus function without a clear threshold, which suggests that even low uranium concentrations in drinking water can cause nephrotoxic effects. Despite chronic intake of water with high uranium concentration, we observed no effect on glomerular function. The clinical and public health relevance of the findings are not easily established, but our results suggest that the safe concentration of uranium in drinking water may be within the range of the proposed guideline values of 2-30 microg/L. PMID:11940450

  5. National drinking water program redirection strategy

    SciTech Connect

    1996-06-07

    During 1995, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA) conducted an extensive reassessment of its drinking water protection program in response to a number of issues which were being raised within the Agency, by a wide range of interested parties, and by Congress. The purpose of the reassessment was to assist the Agency in; formulation comprehensive redirection objectives that can serve to guide Agency activities related to drinking water; identifying and implementing high-priority activities that will maximize risk reduction; realigning resources within the Office of Water`s Drinking Water Program at EPA headquarters to support as many of the activities as possible; and utilizing improved coordination with other Agency offices and the Regions to support the redirection effort. This document is intended for public comment.

  6. Drinking water consumption patterns of residents in a Canadian community.

    PubMed

    Jones, A Q; Dewey, C E; Doré, K; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Waltner-Toews, D

    2006-03-01

    A cross-sectional survey using computer-assisted telephone interviewing was performed to assess the drinking water consumption patterns in a Canadian community, and to examine the associations between these patterns and various demographic characteristics. The median amount of water consumed daily was four 250 ml servings (1.01), although responses were highly variable (0 to 8.01). Bottled water consumption was common, and represented the primary source of drinking water for approximately 27% of respondents. Approximately 49% of households used water treatment devices to treat their tap water. The observed associations between some demographic characteristics and drinking water consumption patterns indicated potential differences in risk of exposure to waterborne hazards in the population. Our results lend support to the federal review of the bottled water regulations currently in progress in Canada. Additionally, they may lend support to a provincial/territorial government review of bottled water regulations, and both federal and provincial/territorial level reviews of the water treatment device industry. Further investigation of the use of alternative water sources and the perceptions of drinking water in Canada is also needed to better understand, and subsequently address, concerns among Canadians.

  7. Perceived agricultural runoff impact on drinking water.

    PubMed

    Crampton, Andrea; Ragusa, Angela T

    2014-09-01

    Agricultural runoff into surface water is a problem in Australia, as it is in arguably all agriculturally active countries. While farm practices and resource management measures are employed to reduce downstream effects, they are often either technically insufficient or practically unsustainable. Therefore, consumers may still be exposed to agrichemicals whenever they turn on the tap. For rural residents surrounded by agriculture, the link between agriculture and water quality is easy to make and thus informed decisions about water consumption are possible. Urban residents, however, are removed from agricultural activity and indeed drinking water sources. Urban and rural residents were interviewed to identify perceptions of agriculture's impact on drinking water. Rural residents thought agriculture could impact their water quality and, in many cases, actively avoided it, often preferring tank to surface water sources. Urban residents generally did not perceive agriculture to pose health risks to their drinking water. Although there are more agricultural contaminants recognised in the latest Australian Drinking Water Guidelines than previously, we argue this is insufficient to enhance consumer protection. Health authorities may better serve the public by improving their proactivity and providing communities and water utilities with the capacity to effectively monitor and address agricultural runoff.

  8. Caffeine as a flavor additive in soft-drinks.

    PubMed

    Keast, Russell S J; Riddell, Lynnette J

    2007-07-01

    Over 60% of soft-drinks sold in the United States contain caffeine, a mildly addictive psycho-active chemical, as a flavor additive. Using sweeteners as controls, we assessed whether caffeine has flavor activity in a cola soft-drink. A forced-choice triangle discrimination methodology was used to determine detection thresholds of caffeine in sweeteners and a cola beverage. The subjects (n=30, 28 female, 23+/-4 years old) were trained tasters and completed over 1600 discrimination tests during the study. The mean detection thresholds for caffeine in the sweet solutions were: 0.333+/-0.1mM sucrose; 0.467+/-0.29 mM aspartame; 0.462+/-0.3mM sucralose, well below the concentration in common cola beverages (0.55-0.67 mM). A fixed concentration of caffeine, corresponding to the concentration of caffeine in a common cola beverage (0.67 mM) was added to the sweeteners and a non-caffeinated cola beverage. Subjects could distinguish between caffeinated and non-caffeinated sweeteners (p<0.001), but all subjects failed to distinguish between caffeinated and non-caffeinated cola beverage (p=1.0). Caffeine has no flavor activity in soft-drinks yet will induce a physiologic and psychologic desire to consume the drink.

  9. Drinking water regulations under the Safe Drinking Water Act. Fact sheet

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-12-01

    The fact sheet describes the requirements covered under the 1986 amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. Levels of various contaminants (including radio nuclides) are explained. Also discussed are the Surface Water Treatment Rule and the Total Coliforms Rule.

  10. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbes...

  11. ASBESTOS IN DRINKING WATER PERFORMANCE EVALUATION STUDIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Performance evaluations of laboratories testing for asbestos in drinking water according to USEPA Test Method 100.1 or 100.2 are complicated by the difficulty of providing stable sample dispersions of asbestos in water. Reference samples of a graduated series of chrysotile asbest...

  12. Small Drinking Water Systems Research and Development

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the United States, there are 152,002 public water systems (PWS) in operation. Of these, 97% are considered small systems under the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA)—meaning they serve 10,000 or fewer people. While many of these small systems consistently provide safe, relia...

  13. [Drinking water decontamination with isolative sorbent disinfectants].

    PubMed

    Krasnov, M S

    2004-01-01

    Drinking water can be decontaminated with the use of isolative sorbent disinfectants. Consideration of the effectiveness of water disinfectants and the sorptive power of porous materials against bacteria and viruses attested to the favour of iodine and silver-containing disinfectants and their compositions on porous aggressive carriers to be employed in extreme conditions such as on board crewed space vehicles.

  14. Drinking water consumption patterns in Sweden.

    PubMed

    Westrell, Therese; Andersson, Yvonne; Stenström, Thor Axel

    2006-12-01

    Estimates on drinking water consumption are necessary in risk assessments on microbial hazards in drinking water. Large differences in consumption habits between countries have been reported. In order to establish estimates for the Swedish population, water consumption data from a waterborne outbreak investigation (157 people), a small water consumption study (75 people) and a large study on health and environmental factors (10,957 people) were analysed. A lognormal distribution for the daily direct/cold water intake in litres with mu = - 0.299 and sigma = 0.570 was fitted to the quantitative data, representing the general population. The average daily consumption of tap water as plain drinking water and as heated tap water, e.g. in coffee and tea, was 0.86 +/- 0.48 l and 0.94 +/- 0.69 l, respectively. Women consumed more cold tap water than did men, while men appeared to have a higher consumption of heated tap water. Cold tap water intake was highest in the oldest age group, (> or =70 years). The consumption of bottled water was very low (mean 0.06 l/d) when compared to other countries.

  15. Stability of florfenicol in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hayes, John M; Eichman, Jonathan; Katz, Terry; Gilewicz, Rosalia

    2003-01-01

    Florfenicol, a broad-spectrum antibiotic, is being developed for veterinary application as an oral concentrate intended for dilution with drinking water. When a drug product is dosed via drinking water in a farm setting, a number of variables, including pH, chlorine content, hardness of the water used for dilution, and container material, may affect its stability, leading to a decrease in drug potency. The stability of florfenicol after dilution of Florfenicol Drinking Water Concentrate Oral Solution, 23 mg/mL, with drinking water was studied. A stability-indicating, validated liquid chromatographic method was used to evaluate florfenicol stability at 25 degrees C at 5, 10, and 24 h after dilution. The results indicate that florfenicol is stable under a range of simulated field conditions, including various pipe materials and conditions of hard or soft and chlorinated or nonchlorinated water at low or high pH. Significant degradation (> 10%) was observed only for isolated combinations in galvanized pipes. Analysis indicated that the florfenicol concentration in 8 of the 12 water samples stored in galvanized pipes remained above 90% of the initial concentration (100 mg/L) for 24 h after dilution.

  16. Microbial quality of drinking water from microfiltered water dispensers.

    PubMed

    Sacchetti, R; De Luca, G; Dormi, A; Guberti, E; Zanetti, F

    2014-03-01

    A comparison was made between the microbial quality of drinking water obtained from Microfiltered Water Dispensers (MWDs) and that of municipal tap water. A total of 233 water samples were analyzed. Escherichia coli (EC), enterococci (ENT), total coliforms (TC), Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) at 22 °C and 37 °C were enumerated. In addition, information was collected about the principal structural and functional characteristics of each MWD in order to study the various factors that might influence the microbial quality of the water. EC and ENT were not detected in any of the samples. TC were never detected in the tap water but were found in 5 samples taken from 5 different MWDs. S. aureus was found in a single sample of microfiltered water. P. aeruginosa was found more frequently and at higher concentrations in the samples collected from MWDs. The mean HPCs at 22 °C and 37 °C were significantly higher in microfiltered water samples compared to those of the tap water. In conclusion, the use of MWDs may increase the number of bacteria originally present in tap water. It is therefore important to monitor the quality of the dispensed water over time, especially if it is destined for vulnerable users.

  17. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  18. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  19. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  20. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  1. 30 CFR 71.602 - Drinking water; distribution.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; distribution. 71.602 Section 71... Drinking Water § 71.602 Drinking water; distribution. (a) Water shall be piped or transported in sanitary containers. Water systems and appurtenances thereto shall be constructed and maintained in accordance...

  2. Anencephalus, drinking water, geomagnetism and cosmic radiation.

    PubMed

    Archer, V E

    1979-01-01

    The mortality rates from anencephalus from 1950-1969 in Canadian cities are shown to be strongly correlated with city growth rate and with horizontal geomagnetic flux, which is directly related to the intensity of cosmic radiation. They are also shown to have some association with the magnesium content of drinking water. Prior work with these data which showed associations with magnesium in drinking water, mean income, latitude and longitude was found to be inadequate because it dismissed the observed geographic associations as having little biological meaning, and because the important variables of geomagnetism and city growth rate were overlooked. PMID:433919

  3. VOC concentration in Taiwan's household drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kuo, H W; Chiang, T F; Lo, I I; Lai, J S; Chan, C C; Wang, J D

    1997-12-01

    The objective of this study is to analyze volatile organic compound (VOC) concentrations in Taiwan's drinking water supply. Focusing on Taiwan's three major metropolitan areas--Taipei, Taichung and Kaohsiung (in the north, middle and south, respectively)--171 samples were taken from tap water and 68 from boiled water. Tests showed VOC concentrations were highest in Kaohsiung. This is due to different water sources and methods of treatment. Except for bromoform, trihalomethane (THM) concentrations were highest. Detection rates of toluene and 1,2-dichloroethane were slightly higher than other VOC compounds. VOC concentrations decreased significantly after water was boiled. THMs had a removal rate from 61% to 82%. The authors conclude that the three metropolitan areas contain significantly different levels of VOCs and that boiling can significantly reduce the presence of VOCs. Other sources of pollution that contaminate drinking water such as industrial plants and gas stations must be further investigated.

  4. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Hopke, P.K. Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.

    2000-03-15

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for {sup 222}Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient {sup 222}Rn concentration and the increment of {sup 222}Rn to the indoor-air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air-producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such multimedia mitigation programs were explored.

  5. Health risks due to radon in drinking water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hopke, P.K.; Borak, T.B.; Doull, J.; Cleaver, J.E.; Eckerman, K.F.; Gundersen, L.C.S.; Harley, N.H.; Hess, C.T.; Kinner, N.E.; Kopecky, K.J.; Mckone, T.E.; Sextro, R.G.; Simon, S.L.

    2000-01-01

    Following more than a decade of scientific debate about the setting of a standard for 222Rn in drinking water, Congress established a timetable for the promulgation of a standard in the 1996 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act. As a result of those Amendments, the EPA contracted with the National Academy of Sciences to undertake a risk assessment for exposure to radon in drinking water. In addition, the resulting committee was asked to address several other scientific issues including the national average ambient 222Rn concentration and the increment of 222Rn to the indoor- air concentration arising from the use of drinking water in a home. A new dosimetric analysis of the cancer risk to the stomach from ingestion was performed. The recently reported risk estimates developed by the BEIR VI Committee for inhalation of radon decay products were adopted. Because the 1996 Amendments permit states to develop programs in which mitigation of air- producing health-risk reductions equivalent to that which would be achieved by treating the drinking water, the scientific issues involved in such 'multimedia mitigation programs' were explored.

  6. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed Central

    Boorman, G A

    1999-01-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  7. Drinking water disinfection byproducts: review and approach to toxicity evaluation.

    PubMed

    Boorman, G A

    1999-02-01

    There is widespread potential for human exposure to disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water because everyone drinks, bathes, cooks, and cleans with water. The need for clean and safe water led the U.S. Congress to pass the Safe Drinking Water Act more than 20 years ago in 1974. In 1976, chloroform, a trihalomethane (THM) and a principal DBP, was shown to be carcinogenic in rodents. This prompted the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (U.S. EPA) in 1979 to develop a drinking water rule that would provide guidance on the levels of THMs allowed in drinking water. Further concern was raised by epidemiology studies suggesting a weak association between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and the occurrence of bladder, colon, and rectal cancer. In 1992 the U.S. EPA initiated a negotiated rulemaking to evaluate the need for additional controls for microbial pathogens and DBPs. The goal was to develop an approach that would reduce the level of exposure from disinfectants and DBPs without undermining the control of microbial pathogens. The product of these deliberations was a proposed stage 1 DBP rule. It was agreed that additional information was necessary on how to optimize the use of disinfectants while maintaining control of pathogens before further controls to reduce exposure beyond stage 1 were warranted. In response to this need, the U.S. EPA developed a 5-year research plan to support the development of the longer term rules to control microbial pathogens and DBPs. A considerable body of toxicologic data has been developed on DBPs that occur in the drinking water, but the main emphasis has been on THMs. Given the complexity of the problem and the need for additional data to support the drinking water DBP rules, the U.S. EPA, the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, and the U.S. Army are working together to develop a comprehensive biologic and mechanistic DBP database. Selected DBPs will be tested using 2-year toxicity and

  8. [Pollution of drinking water by tetrachloroethylene].

    PubMed

    Möse, J R; Wilfinger, G; Zeichen, R

    1985-06-01

    At the end of the year 1983 and at the beginning of 1984, groundwater contamination with tetrachloroethylene was discovered south of Graz. Many wells showed an elevated concentration of tetrachloroethylene. 1210 persons living in this area were examined. As tetrachloroethylene may cause liver damage, screening tests were carried out in order to detect pathological liver function tests (LFT), such as gamma-GT elevation. In most cases, initially elevated LFT could be attributed to alcohol abuse. After thorough medical examinations, two cases remained unclear; later on, however, the initially elevated LFT could no longer be detected. This is a certain indication that there was some type of stress on the liver shortly before the blood sample was taken. In all other cases of liver disease, the causes could be determined. The pollution of drinking water was not the cause of pathological LFT. Nevertheless, the inhabitants of this region will receive drinking water from the public water supply for safety reasons. However, one thing that needs to be stated very clearly is that these findings which fortunately show no detrimental effect due to the pollution of drinking water, do not allow any conclusions concerning the possibility of injury to health, i.e. they do not preclude possible impairment of health as a consequence of prolonged consumption of the polluted drinking water.

  9. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  10. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  11. Climate change influence on drinking water quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kovacs, Melinda Haydee; Ristoiu, Dumitru; Voica, Cezara; Moldovan, Zaharie

    2013-11-01

    Although it are quite well known the possible effects of climate changes on surface waters availability and their hydrological risks, their consequences on drinking water quality is not well defined yet. Disinfection agents (as Cl2, O3, etc.) or multiple combinations of them for water treatment and disinfection purposes are applied by water treatment plants at worldwide level. Unfortunately, besides the benefits of these processes were also highlighted some undesirable effects such as formation of several disinfection by-products (DBPs) after reaction of disinfection agent with natural organic matter (NOM) from water body. DBPs formation in drinking water, suspected to posses adverse health effects to humans are strongly regulated in our days. Thus, throughout this study kinetics experiments both the main physicochemical factors that influencing the quality of drinking waters were evaluated as well how they act through possible warming or the consequences of extreme events. Increasing water temperatures with 1 - 5 °C above its normal value has showed that NOMs are presented in higher amount which led to the need for greater amount of disinfectant agent (5 - 15 %). Increasing the amount of disinfecting agent resulted in the formation of DBPs in significantly higher concentrations (between 5 - 30 %).

  12. Decision support system for drinking water management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janža, M.

    2012-04-01

    The problems in drinking water management are complex and often solutions must be reached under strict time constrains. This is especially distinct in case of environmental accidents in the catchment areas of the wells that are used for drinking water supply. The beneficial tools that can help decision makers and make program of activities more efficient are decision support systems (DSS). In general they are defined as computer-based support systems that help decision makers utilize data and models to solve unstructured problems. The presented DSS was developed in the frame of INCOME project which is focused on the long-term stable and safe drinking water supply in Ljubljana. The two main water resources Ljubljana polje and Barje alluvial aquifers are characterized by a strong interconnection of surface and groundwater, high vulnerability, high velocities of groundwater flow and pollutant transport. In case of sudden pollution, reactions should be very fast to avoid serious impact to the water supply. In the area high pressures arising from urbanization, industry, traffic, agriculture and old environmental burdens. The aim of the developed DSS is to optimize the activities in cases of emergency water management and to optimize the administrative work regarding the activities that can improve groundwater quality status. The DSS is an interactive computer system that utilizes data base, hydrological modelling, and experts' and stakeholders' knowledge. It consists of three components, tackling the different abovementioned issues in water management. The first one utilizes the work on identification, cleaning up and restoration of illegal dumpsites that are a serious threat to the qualitative status of groundwater. The other two components utilize the predictive capability of the hydrological model and scenario analysis. The user interacts with the system by a graphical interface that guides the user step-by-step to the recommended remedial measures. Consequently, the

  13. [Quality standards and hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water].

    PubMed

    Zhao, Qing; Shu, Weiqun; Gao, Jingsheng

    2004-05-01

    The consumption of bottled drinking-water increases worldwide and relevant regulation for inspection and supervision work of bottled drinking-water were established in many countries. However, regulation mentioned above is lower than that for tap water. The hygienic problems of bottled drinking-water is emphasized, especially on microbial contamination. In this paper, some issues in regards were reviewed and discussed.

  14. Evaluating Nanoparticle Breakthrough during Drinking Water Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Chalew, Talia E. Abbott; Ajmani, Gaurav S.; Huang, Haiou

    2013-01-01

    Background: Use of engineered nanoparticles (NPs) in consumer products is resulting in NPs in drinking water sources. Subsequent NP breakthrough into treated drinking water is a potential exposure route and human health threat. Objectives: In this study we investigated the breakthrough of common NPs—silver (Ag), titanium dioxide (TiO2), and zinc oxide (ZnO)—into finished drinking water following conventional and advanced treatment. Methods: NPs were spiked into five experimental waters: groundwater, surface water, synthetic freshwater, synthetic freshwater containing natural organic matter, and tertiary wastewater effluent. Bench-scale coagulation/flocculation/sedimentation simulated conventional treatment, and microfiltration (MF) and ultrafiltration (UF) simulated advanced treatment. We monitored breakthrough of NPs into treated water by turbidity removal and inductively coupled plasma–mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). Results: Conventional treatment resulted in 2–20%, 3–8%, and 48–99% of Ag, TiO2, and ZnO NPs, respectively, or their dissolved ions remaining in finished water. Breakthrough following MF was 1–45% for Ag, 0–44% for TiO2, and 36–83% for ZnO. With UF, NP breakthrough was 0–2%, 0–4%, and 2–96% for Ag, TiO2, and ZnO, respectively. Variability was dependent on NP stability, with less breakthrough of aggregated NPs compared with stable NPs and dissolved NP ions. Conclusions: Although a majority of aggregated or stable NPs were removed by simulated conventional and advanced treatment, NP metals were detectable in finished water. As environmental NP concentrations increase, we need to consider NPs as emerging drinking water contaminants and determine appropriate drinking water treatment processes to fully remove NPs in order to reduce their potential harmful health outcomes. Citation: Abbott Chalew TE, Ajmani GS, Huang H, Schwab KJ. 2013. Evaluating nanoparticle breakthrough during drinking water treatment. Environ Health Perspect 121

  15. Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    This article provides a concise and abbreviated summary of AWWA Manual of Practice M53, Microfiltration and Ultrafiltration Membranes for Drinking Water, to serve as a quick point of reference. For convenience, the article’s organization matches that of M53, as follows: • wate...

  16. MUTAGENICITY OF DRINKING WATER FOLLOWING DISINFECTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many drinking water utilities in the USA are considering alternatives to chlorine for disinfection in order to comply with federal regulations regarding disinfection by-products. An evaluation is thus needed of the potential risks associated with the use of alternative disinfecta...

  17. Emerging Contaminants in the Drinking Water Cycle.

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the past decade, the scientific community and general public have become increasingly aware of the potential for the presence of unregulated, and generally unmonitored contaminants, found at low concentrations (sub-g/L) in surface, ground and drinking water. The most common...

  18. Compliance Monitoring of Drinking Water Supplies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Haukebo, Thomas; Bernius, Jean

    1977-01-01

    The most frequent testing required under the Safe Drinking Water Act of 1974 is for turbidity and coliform. Free chlorine residual testing can be substituted for part of the coliform requirement. Described are chemical procedures for performing this test. References are given. (Author/MA)

  19. Treatment Strategies for Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lead pipes are capable of lasting hundreds of years. Conservatively, there are over 12 million, still serving drinking water in the US. Probably, this is a substantial underestimate. Leaded solder joining copper pipe abounds. Leaded brasses have dominated the materials used for...

  20. Drinking Water. The Food Guide Pyramid.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frost, Helen

    This booklet for young children is part of a series that supports national science standards related to physical health and nutrition, describing and illustrating the importance of drinking water. Colorful photographs support early readers in understanding the text. The repetition of words and phrases helps early readers learn new words. The book…

  1. Lead in the School's Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, DC. Office of Water Programs.

    The purpose of this manual is to assist school officials by providing information on the effects of lead in school drinking water on children, how to detect the presence of lead, how to reduce the lead, and how to provide training for sampling and remedial programs. A protocol is provided for procedures to determine the location and source of lead…

  2. CONTROL OF ZOONOTIC DISEASES IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    For over a century, the process of providing hygienically safe drinking water has focused on utilizing treatment processes to provide barriers to the passage of infectious disease-causing organisms to humans. This concept is often considered the cornerstone of sanitary engineerin...

  3. DRINKING WATER FROM AGRICULTURALLY CONTAMINATED GROUNDWATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sharp increases in fertilizer and pesticide use throughout the 1960s and 1970s along with generally less attachment to soil particles may result in more widespread contamination of drinking water supplies. he purpose of this study was to highlight the use of agricultural chemical...

  4. [Hygienic bases for management of bottled drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Rakhmanin, D V; Mikhaĭlova, R I

    2011-01-01

    The paper analyzes the existing normative requirements, by controlling the packaged drinking waters versus tap water; substantiates additions into a list, the regulated levels of a number of indices for this type of products, including those for the waters designed for babies, and the narrowed list of indices for state control. To assure the high quality of finished products, it is shown to be important to perform a sanitary-and-epidemiological study of raw water for pouring and finished products in full conformity with normative documents and to use current water conditioning technologies by the level of major biogenic elements to have physiologically adequate waters of high quality.

  5. Drinking water quality concerns and water vending machines

    SciTech Connect

    McSwane, D.Z. . School of Public and Environmental Affairs); Oleckno, W.A.; Eils, L.M.

    1994-06-01

    Drinking water quality is a vital public health concern to consumers and regulators alike. This article describes some of the current microbiological, chemical, and radiological concerns about drinking water and the evolution of water vending machines. Also addressed are the typical treatment processes used in water vending machines and their effectiveness, as well as a brief examination of a certification program sponsored by the National Automatic Merchandising Association (NAMA), which provides a uniform standard for the design and construction of food and beverage vending machines. For some consumers, the water dispensed from vending machines is an attractive alternative to residential tap water which may be objectionable for aesthetic or other reasons.

  6. The Effect of Oxidant and Redox Potential on Metal Corrosion in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Future drinking water regulatory action may require some water utilities to consider additional and/or alternative oxidation and disinfection practices. There is little known about the effect of oxidant changes on the corrosion of drinking water distribution system materials and ...

  7. Something in the water: contaminated drinking water and infant health

    PubMed Central

    Currie, Janet; Zivin, Joshua Graff; Meckel, Katherine; Neidell, Matthew; Schlenker, Wolfram

    2016-01-01

    This paper provides estimates of the effects of in utero exposure to contaminated drinking water on fetal health. To do this, we examine the universe of birth records and drinking water testing results for the state of New Jersey from 1997 to 2007. Our data enable us to compare outcomes across siblings who were potentially exposed to differing levels of harmful contaminants from drinking water while in utero. We find small effects of drinking water contamination on all children, but large and statistically significant effects on birth weight and gestation of infants born to less educated mothers. We also show that those mothers who were most affected by contamination were the least likely to move between births in response to contamination. PMID:27134285

  8. Regulatory Considerations to Ensure Clean and Safe Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Federal drinking water regulations are based on risk assessment of human health effects and research conducted on source water, treatment technologies, residuals, and distribution systems. The book chapter summarizes the role that EPA research plays in ensuring pure drinking wat...

  9. 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted with Toxic Chemicals

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_160327.html 6 Million Americans Drink Water Tainted With Toxic Chemicals: Report Many systems contain ... unsafe levels of dangerous chemicals in their drinking water that may trigger a host of health problems, ...

  10. An Environmental Assessment of United States Drinking Water Watersheds

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is an emerging recognition that natural lands and their conservation are important elements of a sustainable drinking water infrastructure. We conducted a national, watershed-level environmental assessment of drinking water watersheds using data on land cover, hydrography a...

  11. RESPONDING TO THREATS AND INCIDENTS OF INTENTIONAL DRINKING WATER CONTAMINATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    All drinking water systems have some degree of vulnerability to contamination, and analysis shows that it is possible to contaminate drinking water at levels causing varying degrees of harm. Furthermore, experience indicates that the threat of contamination, overt or circumstant...

  12. A Drop to Drink. . .A Report on the Quality of Our Drinking Water.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tait, Jack

    Basic information about the quality of our nation's drinking water is contained in this brochure. Written for the general public to familiarize them with the situation, it will also help them evaluate the state of the nation's drinking water as well as that of their own communities. The need to assure reliable sources of healthful drinking water…

  13. Emergency Disinfection of Drinking Water

    MedlinePlus

    ... menu Learn the Issues Air Chemicals and Toxics Climate Change Emergencies Greener Living Health and Safety Land and Cleanup Pesticides Waste Water Science & Technology Air Climate Change Ecosystems Health Land, Waste and Cleanup Pesticides Substances ...

  14. Handbook of ozone technology and applications. Vol. 2. Ozone for drinking water treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, R.G.; Netzer, A.

    1984-01-01

    This volume of the handbook series concerns the application of ozone for the treatment of drinking water. Great emphasis is given ozone's powerful disinfectant and oxidant properties with the added advantage of the non-production of undesirable by-products. European sources have been heavily drawn upon since that is where most of the experience has been. Over one-third of the volume is devoted to a bibliography of some 1600 citations (in addition to 260 as chapter references). Contents: Ozone disinfection of drinking water. Removal of color from drinking water with ozone. Removal of ammonia and other nitrogen derivatives from drinking water with ozone. Raw water preozonation. Recent developments in the treatment of drinking water. Ozone for drinking water treatment - a bibliography. Index.

  15. Learning guide for state/local drinking water agreements

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-01

    The 1986 Amendments to the Safe Drinking Water Act mandated sweeping changes in the scope and costs of state drinking water programs. Some states are maximizing available resources by relying on local governments to carry out some of their drinking water responsibilities. The guidebook was developed to provide states and local governments using this approach with practical advice and suggestions about formal agreements related to Safe Drinking Water Act responsibilities.

  16. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium.

  17. Postexercise rehydration: potassium-rich drinks versus water and a sports drink.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Idárraga, Alexandra; Aragón-Vargas, Luis Fernando

    2014-10-01

    Fluid retention, thirst quenching, tolerance, and palatability of different drinks were assessed. On 4 different days, 12 healthy, physically active volunteers (24.4 ± 3.2 years old, 74.75 ± 11.36 kg body mass (mean ± S.D)), were dehydrated to 2.10% ± 0.24% body mass by exercising in an environmental chamber (32.0 ± 0.4 °C dry bulb, 53.8 ± 5.2% relative humidity). Each day they drank 1 of 4 beverages in random order: fresh coconut water (FCW), bottled water (W), sports drink (SD), or potassium-rich drink (NEW); volume was 120% of weight loss. Urine was collected and perceptions self-reported for 3 h. Urine output was higher (p < 0.05) for W (894 ± 178 mL) than SD (605 ± 297 mL) and NEW (599 ± 254 mL). FCW (686 ± 250 mL) was not different from any other drink (p > 0.05). Fluid retention was higher for SD than W (68.2% ± 13.0% vs. 51.3% ± 12.6%, p = 0.013), but not for FCW and NEW (62.5% ± 15.4% and 65.9% ± 15.4%, p > 0.05). All beverages were palatable and well tolerated; none maintained a positive net fluid balance after 3 h, but deficit was greater in W versus SD (p = 0.001). FCW scored higher for sweetness (p = 0.03). Thirst increased immediately after exercise but returned to baseline after drinking a small volume (p < 0.0005). In conclusion, additional potassium in FCW and NEW did not result in additional rehydration benefits over those already found in a conventional sports drink with sodium. PMID:25017113

  18. Norovirus Outbreaks from Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Miettinen, Ilkka T.; von Bonsdorff, Carl-Henrik

    2005-01-01

    As part of an intensified monitoring program for foodborne disease outbreaks in Finland, waterborne outbreaks were investigated for viruses. The diagnostic procedure included analysis of patients' stool samples by electron microscopy and reverse transcription–polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for noroviruses and astroviruses. When these test results were positive for a virus, the water sample was analyzed. Virus concentration was based on positively charged filters from 1-L samples. Of the total 41 waterborne outbreaks reported during the observation period (1998–2003), samples from 28 outbreaks were available for analysis. As judged by RT-PCR results from patient samples, noroviruses caused 18 outbreaks. In 10 outbreaks, the water sample also yielded a norovirus. In all but 1 instance, the amplicon sequence was identical to that recovered from the patients. The ubiquity of waterborne norovirus outbreaks calls for measures to monitor water for viruses. PMID:16318723

  19. Drinking water health advisory for boron

    SciTech Connect

    Cantilli, R.

    1991-04-01

    The Health Advisory Program, sponsored by the Environmental Protection Agency's Office of Water, has issued its report on the element boron: included are the compounds boric acid and borax(sodium tetraborate). It provides information on the health effects, analytical methodology, and treatment technology that would be useful in dealing with the contamination of drinking water. Health Advisories (HAs) describe nonregulatory concentrations of drinking water contaminants at which adverse health effects would not be anticipated to occur over specific exposure durations. HAs serve as informal technical guidance to assist Federal, State, and local officials responsible for protecting public health when emergency spills or contamination situations occur. They are not legally enforceable Federal Standards and are subject to change as new information becomes available.

  20. Climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selmeczi, Pál; Homolya, Emese; Rotárné Szalkai, Ágnes

    2016-04-01

    Extreme weather conditions in Hungary led to difficulties in drinking water management on diverse occasions in the past. Due to reduced water resources and the coexisting high demand for drinking water in dry summer periods the availability of a number of water supplies became insufficient therefore causing limitations in water access. In some other cases, as a result of floods and flash floods over karstic areas evolving in consequence of excessive precipitation, several water supplies had to be excluded in order to avoid the risk of infections. More frequent occurrence of extreme weather conditions and further possible changes in the future induce the necessity for an analysis of the vulnerability of drinking water resources to climate change. Since 95% of the total drinking water supply in Hungary originates from subsurface layers, significance of groundwater resources is outstanding. The aim of our work carried out in the frames of the NAGiS (National Adaptation Geo-information System) project was to build up a methodology for the study and determination of the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to climate. The task covered analyses of climatic parameters influencing drinking water supplies principally and hydrogeological characteristics of the geological media that significantly determines vulnerability. Effects on drinking water resources and their reduction or exclusion may imply societal and economic consequences therefore we extended the analyses to the investigation of possibilities concerning the adaptation capacity to changed conditions. We applied the CIVAS (Climate Impact and Vulnerability Assessment Scheme) model developed in the frames of the international climate research project CLAVIER (Climate Change and Variability: Impact on Central and Eastern Europe) to characterize climate vulnerability of drinking water supplies. The CIVAS model, being based on the combined evaluation of exposure, sensitivity and adaptability, provides a unified

  1. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  2. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  3. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  4. 21 CFR 520.2325a - Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. 520.2325a Section... Sulfaquinoxaline drinking water. (a) Sponsor. See § 510.600(c) of this chapter for identification of the sponsors... tolerances. See § 556.685 of this chapter. (c) Conditions of use. It is used in drinking water as follows:...

  5. BOOK REVIEW OF "DRINKING WATER REGULATION AND HEALTH"

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since the enactment of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974, several amendments and other new regulations have been developed for drinking water. The book, "Drinking Water Regulation and Health", explains these regulations and provides background on why they were developed ...

  6. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    , it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration.

  7. Recent advances in drinking water disinfection: successes and challenges.

    PubMed

    Ngwenya, Nonhlanhla; Ncube, Esper J; Parsons, James

    2013-01-01

    , it is recommended that water disinfection should never be compromised by attempting to control DBPs. The reason for this is that the risks of human illness and death from pathogens in drinking water are much greater than the risks from exposure to disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Nevertheless, if DBP levels exceed regulatory limits, strategies should focus on eliminating organic impurities that foster their formation, without compromising disinfection. As alternatives to chlorine, disinfectants such as chloramines, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and UV disinfection are gaining popularity. Chlorine and each of these disinfectants have individual advantage and disadvantage in terms of cost, efficacy-stability, ease of application, and nature of disinfectant by-products (DBPs). Based on efficiency, ozone is the most efficient disinfectant for inactivating bacteria, viruses, and protozoa. In contrast, chloramines are the least efficient and are not recommended for use as primary disinfectants. Chloramines are favored for secondary water disinfection, because they react more slowly than chlorine and are more persistent in distribution systems. In addition, chloramines produce lower DBP levels than does chlorine, although microbial activity in the distribution system may produce nitrate from monochloramine, when it is used as a residual disinfectant, Achieving the required levels of water quality, particularly microbial inactivation levels, while minimizing DBP formation requires the application of proper risk and disinfection management protocols. In addition, the failure of conventional treatment processes to eliminate critical waterborne pathogens in drinking water demand that improved and/or new disinfection technologies be developed. Recent research has disclosed that nanotechnology may offer solutions in this area, through the use of nanosorbents, nanocatalysts, bioactive nanoparticles, nanostructured catalytic membranes, and nanoparticle-enhanced filtration

  8. Solar purifier of drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Fawzy, I.O.

    1987-01-01

    Around 1920, ultraviolet radiation was used in Switzerland and France for water purification. Now, it is in use in more than 2000 European water works. In the United States, between 1916 and 1928, four municipal water installations of ultraviolet apparatus were in operation. By 1939, they were all abandoned in favor of chlorination primarily because of economy and the inadequacy of technology available at that time. In recent years, ultraviolet purification has had a comeback, partly because of the realization of what chlorination is doing to the environment and partly due to the vast advances in UV technology. Although solar ultraviolet radiation has a marginal biocidal effect, a property designed solar purifier could be a viable option in certain application. Among possible uses are: (1) rural single-family dwellings; (2) underdeveloped countries; and (3) small usage rates where electric power is not available. A solar purifier model is presented in this study. The data it provided illustrates that it can be effective in treating partially contaminated water.

  9. GLYPHOSATE REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Activated-carbon, oxidation, conventional-treatment, filtration, and membrane studies are conducted to determine which process is best suited to remove the herbicide glyphosate from potable water. Both bench-scale and pilot-scale studies are completed. Computer models are used ...

  10. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS RESEARCH

    EPA Science Inventory

    There are 159,796 Community Water Systems (CWSs) in the United States. Ninety-three percent of CWSs are considered very small to medium-sized systems that serve roughly 19% of the CWS population. In contrast, large to very large systems comprise just 7% of CWSs, but serve 81% of ...

  11. Removal of estrogens and estrogenicity through drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Schenck, Kathleen; Rosenblum, Laura; Wiese, Thomas E; Wymer, Larry; Dugan, Nicholas; Williams, Daniel; Mash, Heath; Merriman, Betty; Speth, Thomas

    2012-03-01

    Estrogenic compounds have been shown to be present in surface waters, leading to concerns over their possible presence in finished drinking waters. In this work, two in vitro human cell line bioassays for estrogenicity were used to evaluate the removal of estrogens through conventional drinking water treatment using a natural water. Bench-scale studies utilizing chlorine, alum coagulation, ferric chloride coagulation, and powdered activated carbon (PAC) were conducted using Ohio River water spiked with three estrogens, 17β-estradiol, 17α-ethynylestradiol, and estriol. Treatment of the estrogens with chlorine, either alone or with coagulant, resulted in approximately 98% reductions in the concentrations of the parent estrogens, accompanied by formation of by-products. The MVLN reporter gene and MCF-7 cell proliferation assays were used to characterize the estrogenic activity of the water before and after treatment. The observed estrogenic activities of the chlorinated samples showed that estrogenicity of the water was reduced commensurate with removal of the parent estrogen. Therefore, the estrogen chlorination by-products did not contribute appreciably to the estrogenic activity of the water. Coagulation alone did not result in significant removals of the estrogens. However, addition of PAC, at a typical drinking water plant dose, resulted in removals ranging from approximately 20 to 80%. PMID:22361701

  12. Minerals leached into drinking water from rubber stoppers

    SciTech Connect

    Kennedy, B.W.; Beal, T.S. )

    1991-06-01

    Drinking water and its delivery system are potential sources of variation in animal research. Concern arose that rubber stoppers used to cork water bottles might be a source of some nutritionally required minerals which could leach into drinking water. Six types of stoppers, each having different compositions, were cleaned with stainless-steel sipper tubes inserted into them and attached to polypropylene bottles filled with either deionized water (pH 4.5) or acidified-deionized water (pH 2.5). After six days of contact, water levels of copper, magnesium, iron, manganese, zinc, chromium, and selenium were determined by atomic absorption spectroscopy. Additionally, three of the stopper types were analyzed for mineral content. Minerals were present in both stoppers and drinking water. Acidified-deionized water generally leached minerals from the stoppers than did deionized water. The black stopper which is commonly used in animal facilities contained and leached measurable levels of some minerals, but it still can be recommended for typical animal husbandry uses, although other types of stoppers would be more suitable for specific nutritional and toxicologic studies.

  13. Arsenic in drinking water and pregnancy outcomes.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmad, S A; Sayed, M H; Barua, S; Khan, M H; Faruquee, M H; Jalil, A; Hadi, S A; Talukder, H K

    2001-01-01

    We studied a group of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were chronically exposed to arsenic through drinking water to identify the pregnancy outcomes in terms of live birth, stillbirth, spontaneous abortion, and preterm birth. We compared pregnancy outcomes of exposed respondents with pregnancy outcomes of women of reproductive age (15-49 years) who were not exposed to arsenic-contaminated water. In a cross-sectional study, we matched the women in both exposed and nonexposed groups for age, socioeconomic status, education, and age at marriage. The total sample size was 192, with 96 women in each group (i.e., exposed and nonexposed). Of the respondents in the exposed group, 98% had been drinking water containing [Greater and equal to] 0.10 mg/L arsenic and 43.8% had been drinking arsenic-contaminated water for 5-10 years. Skin manifestation due to chronic arsenic exposure was present in 22.9% of the respondents. Adverse pregnancy outcomes in terms of spontaneous abortion, stillbirth, and preterm birth rates were significantly higher in the exposed group than those in the nonexposed group (p = 0.008, p = 0.046, and p = 0.018, respectively). PMID:11445518

  14. Accuracy of bottled drinking water label content.

    PubMed

    Khan, Nazeer B; Chohan, Arham N

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the accuracy of the concentration of fluoride (F), calcium (Ca), pH, and total dissolved solids (TDS) levels mentioned on the labels of the various brands of bottled drinking water available in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Twenty-one different brands of locally produced non-carbonated (still water) bottled drinking water were collected from the supermarkets of Riyadh. The concentration of F, Ca, TDS, and pH values were noted from the labels of the bottles. The samples were analyzed for concentrations in the laboratory using the atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The mean level of F, Ca, and pH were found as 0.86 ppm, 38.47 ppm, and 7.5, respectively, which were significantly higher than the mean concentration of these elements reported in the labels. Whereas, the mean TDS concentration was found 118.87 ppm, which was significantly lower than the mean reported on the labels. In tropical countries like Saudi Arabia, the appropriate level of F concentration in drinking water as recommended by World Health Organization (WHO) should be 0.6-0.7 ppm. Since the level of F was found to be significantly higher than the WHO recommended level, the children exposed to this level could develop objectionable fluorosis. The other findings, like pH value, concentrations of Ca, and TDS, were in the range recommended by the WHO and Saudi standard limits and therefore should have no obvious significant health implications.

  15. [Human exposure to trihalomethanes in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Tominaga, M Y; Midio, A F

    1999-08-01

    Halogenated hydrocarbon compounds, some of them recognized as carcinogenic to different animal species can be found in drinking water. Chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in potable water. They are produced in natural waters during chlorinated desinfection by the halogenation of precursors, specially humic and fulvic compounds. The review, in the MEDLINE covers the period from 1974 to 1998, presents the general aspects of the formation of trihalomethanes, sources of human exposure and their toxicological meaning for exposed organisms: toxicokinetic disposition and spectrum of toxic effects (carcinogenic, mutagenic and teratogenic).

  16. Phosphorus limitation on bacterial regrowth in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Sang, Jun-qiang; Zhang, Xi-hui; Yu, Guo-zhong; Wang, Zhan-sheng

    2003-11-01

    Assimilable organic carbon (AOC) test and bacterial regrowth potential (BRP) analysis were used to investigate the effect of phosphorus on bacterial regrowth in the drinking water that was made from some raw water taken from a reservoir located in northern China. It was shown that AOC of the drinking water samples increased by 43.9%-59.6% and BRP increased by 100%-235% when 50 microg/L PO4(3-)-P(as NaH2 PO4) was added alone to the drinking water samples. This result was clear evidence of phosphorus limitation on bacteria regrowth in the drinking water. This investigation indicated the importance of phosphorus in ensuring biological stability of drinking water and offered a novel possible option to restrict microbial regrowth in drinking water distribution system by applying appropriate technologies to remove phosphorus efficiently from drinking water in China.

  17. Effects of slightly acidic electrolysed drinking water on mice.

    PubMed

    Inagaki, Hideaki; Shibata, Yoshiko; Obata, Takahiro; Kawagoe, Masami; Ikeda, Katsuhisa; Sato, Masayoshi; Toida, Kazumi; Kushima, Hidemi; Matsuda, Yukihisa

    2011-10-01

    Slightly acidic electrolysed (SAE) water is a sanitizer with strong bactericidal activity due to hypochlorous acid. We assessed the safety of SAE water as drinking water for mice at a 5 ppm total residual chlorine (TRC) concentration to examine the possibility of SAE water as a labour- and energy-saving alternative to sterile water. We provided SAE water or sterile water to mice for 12 weeks, during which time we recorded changes in body weight and weekly water and food intakes. At the end of the experiment, all of the subject animals were sacrificed to assess serum aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and creatinine levels and to examine the main organs histopathologically under a light microscope. In addition, we investigated the bacteria levels of both types of water. We found no difference in functional and morphological health condition indices between the groups. Compared with sterile water, SAE water had a relatively higher ability to suppress bacterial growth. We suggest that SAE water at 5 ppm TRC is a safe and useful alternative to sterile water for use as drinking water in laboratory animal facilities.

  18. Purification of drinking water by low cost method in Ethiopia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abatneh, Yasabie; Sahu, Omprakash; Yimer, Seid

    2014-12-01

    Nowadays, water treatment is a big issue in rural areas especially in African country. Due to lack of facilities available in those areas and the treatment are expensive. In this regard's an attempt has been made to find alternative natural way to treat the rural drinking water. The experiment trials were undertaken on the most promising plant extracts, namely: Moringa oleifera, Jatropha curcas and Guar gum. The extracts were used to treat contaminated water obtained from a number of wells. The results showed that the addition of M. oleifera can considerably improve the quality of drinking water. A 100 % improvement both in turbidity and reduction in Escherichia coli was noted for a number of the samples, together with significant improvements in colour.

  19. [Uranium Concentration in Drinking Water from Small-scale Water Supplies in Schleswig-Holstein, Germany].

    PubMed

    Ostendorp, G

    2015-04-01

    In this study the drinking water of 212 small-scale water supplies, mainly situated in areas with intensive agriculture or fruit-growing, was analysed for uranium. The median uranium concentration amounted to 0.04 µg/lL, the 95(th) percentile was 2.5 µg/L. The maximum level was 14 µg/L. This sample exceeded the guideline value for uranium in drinking water. The uranium concentration in small-scale water supplies was found to be slightly higher than that in central water works in Schleswig-Holstein. Water containing more than 10 mg/L nitrate showed significantly higher uranium contents. The results indicate that the uranium burden in drinking water from small wells is mainly determined by geological factors. An additional anthropogenic effect of soil management cannot be excluded. Overall uranium concentrations were low and not causing health concerns. However, in specific cases higher concentrations may occur.

  20. Magnesium in drinking water - a case for prevention?

    PubMed

    Rylander, Ragnar

    2014-03-01

    Studies in many countries have demonstrated a relationship between drinking water mineral content and the risk of death in cardiovascular disease (CVD). Particularly strong relationships have been found for magnesium and it has been suggested that magnesium be added to drinking water. The aim of this article is to evaluate the validity of this suggestion by reviewing information on possible causative agents. Major epidemiological studies on the drinking water content of calcium, magnesium, and hardness were analysed regarding exposure specificity, confounding factors, dose-response relationships and biological plausibility. Intervention experiments were analysed. The risk of death in CVD was related to the content of Ca, Mg and HCO(3-). The data demonstrate that Ca and Mg need to be considered together, and that HCO(3-) could play a role by intervening with the body acid load. There is no evidence to justify the addition of magnesium only to drinking water for preventive purposes. The data suggest that Ca and Mg could be administered together but no data are available regarding the relative proportions for an optimal effect.

  1. Geospatial examination of lithium in drinking water and suicide mortality

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Lithium as a substance occurring naturally in food and drinking water may exert positive effects on mental health. In therapeutic doses, which are more than 100 times higher than natural daily intakes, lithium has been proven to be a mood-stabilizer and suicide preventive. This study examined whether natural lithium content in drinking water is regionally associated with lower suicide rates. Methods Previous statistical approaches were challenged by global and local spatial regression models taking spatial autocorrelation as well as non-stationarity into account. A Geographically Weighted Regression model was applied with significant independent variables as indicated by a spatial autoregressive model. Results The association between lithium levels in drinking water and suicide mortality can be confirmed by the global spatial regression model. In addition, the local spatial regression model showed that the association was mainly driven by the eastern parts of Austria. Conclusions According to old anecdotic reports the results of this study support the hypothesis of positive effects of natural lithium intake on mental health. Both, the new methodological approach and the results relevant for health may open new avenues in the collaboration between Geographic Information Science, medicine, and even criminology, such as exploring the spatial association between violent or impulsive crime and lithium content in drinking water. PMID:22695110

  2. Detection of Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae in drinking water from pig farms.

    PubMed

    Loera-Muro, Victor M; Jacques, Mario; Tremblay, Yannick D N; Avelar-González, Francisco J; Loera Muro, Abraham; Ramírez-López, Elsa M; Medina-Figueroa, Alejandra; González-Reynaga, Higinio M; Guerrero-Barrera, Alma L

    2013-03-01

    Actinobacillus pleuropneumoniae is the aetiological agent of porcine pleuropneumonia and is normally transmitted by aerosols and direct contact between animals. A. pleuropneumoniae has traditionally been considered an obligate pathogen of pigs and its presence in the environment has yet to be investigated. Here, the presence of A. pleuropneumoniae was detected in drinking water of pig farms in Mexico using a PCR specific for the RTX toxin gene, apxIV. The presence of A. pleuropneumoniae in farm drinking water was confirmed by indirect immunofluorescence using an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific polyclonal antibody and by fluorescent in situ hybridization. Viable bacteria from the farm drinking water were detected using the Live/Dead BacLight stain. Additionally, viable A. pleuropneumoniae was selected and isolated using the cAMP test and the identity of the isolated bacteria were confirmed by Gram staining, a specific polyclonal antibody and an A. pleuropneumoniae-specific PCR. Furthermore, biofilms were observed by scanning electron microscopy in A. pleuropneumoniae-positive samples. In conclusion, our data suggest that viable A. pleuropneumoniae is present in the drinking water of swine farms and may use biofilm as a strategy to survive in the environment.

  3. Astrovirus survival in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Abad, F X; Pintó, R M; Villena, C; Gajardo, R; Bosch, A

    1997-08-01

    A method based on infection of CaCo-2 cultured cell monolayers (CC) and reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) was developed for the specific detection of infectious astrovirus. The procedure was validated by titrating poliovirus stocks in parallel in CaCo-2 cells by determining the most probable number of cytopathogenic units and by cell culture and subsequent RT-PCR (CC-RT-PCR). CC-RT-PCR was then employed to measure the persistence of astrovirus suspended in dechlorinated tap water. After 60 days, the decay of astrovirus infectivity was 2 log units at 4 +/- 1 degrees C and 3.2 log units at 20 +/- 1 degrees C, while after 90 days, the titer reduction was 3.3 and 5 log units at 4 +/- 1 degrees C and 20 +/- 1 degrees C, respectively. Astrovirus decay in the presence of free chlorine (FC) was monitored by CC-RT-PCR. Residual infectivity was found after 2 h in the presence of 1 mg of FC/liter. Under these conditions, astrovirus shows a log titer reduction (LTR) or 4, while 0.5 mg of FC/liter induced an LTR of 2.4. The possibility of acquiring data on the survival of fastidious viruses in the environment opens new perspectives on the epidemiology of some significant infections transmitted by the fecal-oral route. PMID:9251198

  4. Leaching of Heavy Metals from Water Bottle Components into the Drinking Water of Rodents

    PubMed Central

    Nunamaker, Elizabeth A; Otto, Kevin J; Artwohl, James E; Fortman, Jeffrey D

    2013-01-01

    Providing high-quality, uncontaminated drinking water is an essential component of rodent husbandry. Acidification of drinking water is a common technique to control microbial growth but is not a benign treatment. In addition to its potential biologic effects, acidified water might interact with the water-delivery system, leading to the leaching of heavy metals into the drinking water. The goal of the current study was to evaluate the effects of water acidification and autoclaving on water-bottle assemblies. The individual components of the system (stainless-steel sipper tubes, rubber stoppers, neoprene stoppers, and polysulfone water bottles) were acid-digested and analyzed for cadmium, chromium, copper, iron, lead, magnesium, manganese, selenium, and zinc to quantify the metal composition of each material. In addition the amounts of these metals that leached into tap and acidified water with and without autoclaving were quantified after 1 wk of contact time. On a weight basis, sipper tubes contained the largest quantities of all metals except magnesium and zinc, which were greatest in the neoprene stoppers. Except for cadmium and selenium, all metals had leached into the water after 1 wk, especially under the acidified condition. The quantities of copper, lead, and zinc that leached into the drinking water were the most noteworthy, because the resulting concentrations had the potential to confound animal experiments. On the basis of these findings, we suggest that water-quality monitoring programs include heavy metal analysis at the level of water delivery to animals. PMID:23562029

  5. Chemical quality of maternal drinking water and congenital heart disease.

    PubMed

    Zierler, S; Theodore, M; Cohen, A; Rothman, K J

    1988-09-01

    We undertook a case-control study to investigate the association between chemicals in maternal drinking water consumed during pregnancy and congenital heart disease in the offspring. Two hundred and seventy affected children and 665 healthy children were enrolled in the study. Information on contaminant levels in maternal drinking water was available from records of routine water analysis of samples taken from public taps in the communities where the mothers resided during pregnancy. Mothers provided information during a telephone interview on their health, pregnancy management, and demographic characteristics. Nine inorganic metals were analysed for detection of an association with congenital heart disease. The chemical exposures of particular interest were arsenic, lead, mercury and selenium. None of the chemicals was associated materially with an increase in the frequency of congenital heart disease overall. Arsenic exposure at any detectable level was associated with a threefold increase in occurrence of coarctation of the aorta (prevalence odds ratio = 3.4, 95% confidence interval = 1.3-8.9). Detectable traces of selenium in drinking water were associated with a lower frequency of any congenital heart disease than was observed among children exposed to drinking water not containing detectable levels of selenium (prevalence odds ratio = 0.62, 95% confidence limits = 0.40-0.97). A dose-response effect was observed over four levels of selenium exposure. Non-differential errors in the measurement and classification of exposure to contaminants routinely monitored in drinking water could account for lack of positive findings. In addition, most of the contaminant levels were below the maximum levels set by the Environmental Protection Agency, so that lack of evidence of effect may have been due to the low exposure levels in this population.

  6. Removal of alkanes from drinking water using membrane technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Fronk, C.A.

    1995-10-01

    Increasingly, the public is concerned about the quality of its drinking water. The chlorinated alkanes are saturated, aliphatic, synthetic organic compounds (SOC`s). When hydrocarbon feedstocks are chlorinated, a wide variety of chlorocarbons and chlorohydrocarbons are produced that are used as industrial solvents, degreasers and intermediaries. Because compounds such as Carbon Tetrachloride and 1,2-Dichloroethane are widely used, they often find their way into drinking water, particularly groundwaters. Surface waters are somewhat less affected bemuse of the high volatility of many chlorinated alkanes. The Drinking Water Research Division is responsible for evaluating various membrane technologies that may be feasible for meeting Maximum Contaminant Levels. Several membrane processes are under investigation to determine their effectiveness in removing SOC`s from drinking water. One study addressed the removal of a variety of alkanes from spiked groundwater by six reverse osmosis membranes: a cellulose acetate, a polyamide (hollow fiber), and four different types of thin-film composite membranes. Progressive chlorination of methanes, ethanes and propanes produces compounds that exhibit differing physicochemical properties. The differences in compound properties have an effect on the removal of these compounds by reverse osmosis membranes. For example only 25% of the methylene chloride (Dichloromethane) was removed by one thin-film composite versus 90% removal of the carbon tetrachloride. In addition, the various membranes are made of different polymeric materials and showed a wide range of removals. Generally, the thin-film composite membranes out performed the other membranes and the more highly chlorinated the compound the better the removal. Pervaporation is yet another membrane process that may prove effective in removal of alkanes and future studies will address its usefulness as a drinking water.

  7. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater.

  8. Protecting health from metal exposures in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Armour, Margaret-Ann

    2016-03-01

    Drinking water is essential to us as human beings. According to the World Health Organization "The quality of drinking-water is a powerful environmental determinant of health" (http://www.who.int/water_sanitation_health/dwq/en/), but clean drinking water is a precious commodity not always readily available. Surface and ground water are the major sources of drinking water. Both can be contaminated, surface water with bacteria while ground water frequently contains salts of metals that occur naturally or are introduced by human activity. This paper will briefly review the metallic salts found in drinking water in areas around the world, as well as list some of the methods used to reduce or remove them. It will then discuss our research on reducing the risk of pollution of drinking water by removal of metal ions from wastewater. PMID:26953706

  9. [Revision of the drinking water regulations].

    PubMed

    Hauswirth, S

    2011-11-01

    The revision the Drinking Water Regulations will come into effect on 01.11.2011. Surveillance authorities and owners of drinking water supply systems had hoped for simplifications and reductions because of the new arrangements. According to the official statement for the revision the legislature intended to create more clarity, consider new scientific findings, to change regulations that have not been proved to close regulatory gaps, to deregulate and to increase the high quality standards. A detailed examination of the regulation text, however, raises doubts. The new classification of water supply systems requires different modalities of registration, water analyses and official observation, which will complicate the work of the authorities. In particular, the implementation of requirements of registration and examination for the owners of commercial and publicly-operated large hot-water systems in accordance with DVGW Worksheet W 551 requires more effort. According to the estimated 30 000 cases of legionellosis in Germany the need for a check of such systems for Legionella, however, is not called into question. Furthermore, the development of sampling plans and the monitoring of mobile water supply systems requires more work for the health authorities.

  10. Diarrhoea following contamination of drinking water with copper.

    PubMed

    Stenhammar, L

    1999-06-28

    Three cases of children with suspected copper intoxication from the drinking water are described. The children presented with protracted diarrhoea, which promptly disappeared, when they were given drinking water of low copper concentration but reappeared when given their domestic water. It is concluded that the use of copper tubing in the water pipes may under certain circumstances result in the presence of copper in the drinking water and the risk of intoxication, especially in small children. PMID:10383874

  11. Water, Water Everywhere, But is it Safe to Drink?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water disinfection by-products (DBPs) have been associated with adverse human health effects, including bladder cancer, early term miscarriage, and birth defects. While it is vitally important to kill harmful pathogens in water, it is also important to minimize harmful ...

  12. Drinking water and biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like reaction.

    PubMed

    Gosselin, F; Madeira, L M; Juhna, T; Block, J C

    2013-10-01

    A Fenton-like disinfection process was conducted with Fenton's reagent (H2O2) at pH 3 or 5 on autochthonous drinking water biofilms grown on corroded or non-corroded pipe material. The biofilm disinfection by Fenton-like oxidation was limited by the low content of iron and copper in the biomass grown on non-corroded plumbing. It was slightly improved by spiking the distribution system with some additional iron source (soluble iron II or ferrihydrite particles appeared as interesting candidates). However successful in situ disinfection of biofilms was only achieved in fully corroded cast iron pipes using H2O2 and adjusting the pH to 5. These new results provide additional support for the use of Fenton's processes for cleaning drinking water distribution systems contaminated with biological agents or organics.

  13. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Falkinham, Joseph O; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-06-09

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators.

  14. Opportunistic Premise Plumbing Pathogens: Increasingly Important Pathogens in Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Falkinham, Joseph O.; Pruden, Amy; Edwards, Marc

    2015-01-01

    Opportunistic premise plumbing pathogens are responsible for a significant number of infections whose origin has been traced to drinking water. These opportunistic pathogens represent an emerging water borne disease problem with a major economic cost of at least $1 billion annually. The common features of this group of waterborne pathogens include: disinfectant-resistance, pipe surface adherence and biofilm formation, growth in amoebae, growth on low organic concentrations, and growth at low oxygen levels. Their emergence is due to the fact that conditions resulting from drinking water treatment select for them. As such, there is a need for novel approaches to reduce exposure to these pathogens. In addition to much-needed research, controls to reduce numbers and human exposure can be instituted independently by utilities and homeowners and hospital- and building-operators. PMID:26066311

  15. Why Do People Stop Treating Contaminated Drinking Water with Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS)?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tamas, Andrea; Mosler, Hans-Joachim

    2011-01-01

    Solar Water Disinfection (SODIS) is a simple method designed to treat microbiologically contaminated drinking water at household level. This article characterizes relapse behavior in comparison with continued SODIS use after a 7-month nonpromotion period. In addition, different subtypes among relapsers and continuers were assumed to diverge mainly…

  16. [Drinking water supply with reference to geogenic arsenic contamination].

    PubMed

    Kevekordes, S; Suchenwirth, R; Gebel, T; Demuth, J; Dunkelberg, H; Küntzel, H

    1998-10-01

    Geogenic Arsenic in Drinking Water. Drinking water production of surface spring water in southern Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen, Germany) was reduced because of microbiological contaminations and unreliably variable water reserves. Surface spring water in general has a low arsenic content. As a consequence ground water has been increasingly used for drinking water. Thus, high geogenic concentrations of arsenic in the central "Buntsandstein" in southern Lower Saxony caused high arsenic contents in the groundwater. Under the regulation of the German Drinking Water Ordinance (1986) the limit for total arsenic (40 micrograms/l) was exceeded in 2% of 150 fountains, wells and sources in southern Lower Saxony. Because of the well-known cancerogenic potential of arsenic the limit for total arsenic in drinking water was reduced from 40 micrograms/l to 10 micrograms/l suspending the new standard value until January 1996. This regulation based on new calculations revealing a skin cancer risk of roughly 6:10,000 and a mortality risk of roughly 1:10(6) in respect of lifetime in case of arsenic concentrations of 10 micrograms As/l drinking water. After that limit change 40% of 150 wells and sources in southern Lower Saxony exceeded the arsenic limit of 10 micrograms/l drinking water. As a matter of fact, it became necessary for a large number of water supply works to eliminate arsenic from the drinking water by technical means or to dilute drinking water with high concentrations of arsenic.

  17. Ammonia pollution characteristics of centralized drinking water sources in China.

    PubMed

    Fu, Qing; Zheng, Binghui; Zhao, Xingru; Wang, Lijing; Liu, Changming

    2012-01-01

    The characteristics of ammonia in drinking water sources in China were evaluated during 2005-2009. The spatial distribution and seasonal changes of ammonia in different types of drinking water sources of 22 provinces, 5 autonomous regions and 4 municipalities were investigated. The levels of ammonia in drinking water sources follow the order of river > lake/reservoir > groundwater. The levels of ammonia concentration in river sources gradually decreased from 2005 to 2008, while no obvious change was observed in the lakes/reservoirs and groundwater drinking water sources. The proportion of the type of drinking water sources is different in different regions. In river drinking water sources, the ammonia level was varied in different regions and changed seasonally. The highest value and wide range of annual ammonia was found in South East region, while the lowest value was found in Southwest region. In lake/reservoir drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were not varied obviously in different regions. In underground drinking water sources, the ammonia levels were varied obviously in different regions due to the geological permeability and the natural features of regions. In the drinking water sources with higher ammonia levels, there are enterprises and wastewater drainages in the protected areas of the drinking water sources.

  18. ATRAZOME CHLORINATION TRANSFORMATION PRODUCTS UNDER DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM CONDITIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorination is a commonly-used disinfectant step in drinking water treatment. Should free chlorine be added to water used as a drinking water source, it is widely understood that many biological species in the water, along with dissolved organic and inorganic chemicals, will rea...

  19. 75 FR 48329 - Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-10

    ... AGENCY Tribal Drinking Water Operator Certification Program AGENCY: Environmental Protection Agency (EPA... Water Operator Certification Program, effective October 1, 2010. The program enables qualified drinking water operators at public water systems in Indian country to be recognized as certified operators by...

  20. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  1. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  2. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  3. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  4. 30 CFR 71.600 - Drinking water; general.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; general. 71.600 Section 71.600 Mineral Resources MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR COAL MINE SAFETY AND HEALTH... Water § 71.600 Drinking water; general. An adequate supply of potable water shall be provided...

  5. Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go

    MedlinePlus

    ... Here's Help White House Lunch Recipes Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go KidsHealth > For Kids > Why Drinking Water Is the Way to Go Print A A ... have in common? Give up? You all need water. All living things must have water to survive, ...

  6. Factors effecting aluminum speciation in drinking water by laboratory research.

    PubMed

    Wang, Wendong; Yang, Hongwei; Wang, Xiaochang; Jiang, Jing; Zhu, Wanpeng

    2010-01-01

    Effects of aluminum on water distribution system and human health mainly attribute to its speciation in drinking water. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate factors that may influence aluminum speciation in water supply system. The concentration of soluble aluminum and its transformation among other aluminum species were mainly controlled by kinetics processes of related reactions. Total aluminum concentration had a notable effect on the concentrations of mononuclear and soluble aluminum in the first 4 day; then its effect became weak. At pH above 7.50, both fluoride and orthophosphate had little effect on aluminum speciation; while, when the solution pH was below 7.50, the concentrations of mononuclear and soluble aluminum were proportional to the concentration of fluoride and inversely proportional to the concentration of orthophosphate. Both mononuclear and polynuclear silicic acids could complex with mononuclear aluminum by forming soluble aluminosilicates. In addition, the adding sequence of orthophosphate and aluminum into drinking water would also affect the distribution of aluminum species in the first 4 day. In order to minimize aluminum bioavailability in drinking water, it was suggested that orthophosphate should be added prior to coagulant process, and that the concentrations of fluoride and silicic acids should be controlled below 2.0 and 25 mg/L, respectively, prior to the treatment. The solution pH in coagulation and filtration processes should be controlled in the range of 6.50-7.50.

  7. Portable Nanomesh Creates Safer Drinking Water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2008-01-01

    Providing astronauts with clean water is essential to space exploration to ensure the health and well-being of crewmembers away from Earth. For the sake of efficient and safe long-term space travel, NASA constantly seeks to improve the process of filtering and re-using wastewater in closed-loop systems. Because it would be impractical for astronauts to bring months (or years) worth of water with them, reducing the weight and space taken by water storage through recycling and filtering as much water as possible is crucial. Closed-loop systems using nanotechnology allow wastewater to be cleaned and reused while keeping to a minimum the amount of drinking water carried on missions. Current high-speed filtration methods usually require electricity, and methods without electricity usually prove impractical or slow. Known for their superior strength and electrical conductivity, carbon nanotubes measure only a few nanometers in diameter; a nanometer is one billionth of a meter, or roughly one hundred-thousandth the width of a human hair. Nanotubes have improved water filtration by eliminating the need for chemical treatments, significant pressure, and heavy water tanks, which makes the new technology especially appealing for applications where small, efficient, lightweight materials are required, whether on Earth or in space. "NASA will need small volume, effective water purification systems for future long-duration space flight," said Johnson Space Center s Karen Pickering. NASA advances in water filtration with nanotechnology are now also protecting human health in the most remote areas of Earth.

  8. Genotoxicity of drinking water from Chao Lake

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Q.; Jiao, Q.C.; Huang, X.M.; Jiang, J.P.; Cui, S.Q.; Yao, G.H.; Jiang, Z.R.; Zhao, H.K.; Wang, N.Y.

    1999-02-01

    Genotoxic activity appears to originate primarily from reactions of chlorine with humic substances in the source waters. Comparisons of extracts of settled versus chlorinated water have confirmed that chlorinating during water treatment produces mutagenic activity in the mutagenicity tests. Present work on XAD-2 extracts of raw, chlorinated (treated), and settled water from the Chao Lake region of China has involved a battery of mutagenicity assays for various genetic endpoints: the Salmonella test, the sister-chromatid exchange (SCE) induction in Chinese hamster lung (CHL) cells, and the micronucleus (MN) induction in the peripheral blood erythrocytes of silver carp. Extracts of raw and treated water but not the settled water are mutagenic in the Salmonella assay. On the other hand, extracts of three water samples show activity in the SCE and MN assays, especially the raw and treated water. These data show that contamination and chlorinating contribute mutagens to drinking water and suggest that the mammalian assays may be more sensitive for detecting mutagenicity in aquatic environment than the Salmonella test.

  9. Safe drinking water: a public health challenge.

    PubMed

    Wigle, D T

    1998-01-01

    Disinfection of drinking water through processes including filtration and chlorination was one of the major achievements of public health, beginning in the late 1800s and the early 1900s. Chloroform and other chlorination disinfection by-products (CBPs) in drinking water were first reported in 1974. Chloroform and several other CBPs are known to cause cancer in experimental animals, and there is growing epidemiologic evidence of a causal role for CBPs in human cancer, particularly for bladder cancer. It has been estimated that 14 16% of bladder cancers in Ontario may be attributable to drinking water containing relatively high levels of CBPs; the US Environmental Protection Agency has estimated the attributable risk to be 2 17%. These estimates are based on the assumption that the associations observed between bladder cancer and CBP exposure reflect a cause-effect relation. An expert working group (see Workshop Report in this issue) concluded that it was possible (60% of the group) to probable (40% of the group) that CBPs pose a significant cancer risk, particularly of bladder cancer. The group concluded that the risk of bladder and possibly other types of cancer is a moderately important public health problem. There is an urgent need to resolve this and to consider actions based on the body of evidence which, at a minimum, suggests that lowering of CBP levels would prevent a significant fraction of bladder cancers. In fact, given the widespread and prolonged exposure to CBPs and the epidemiologic evidence of associations with several cancer sites, future research may establish CBPs as the most important environmental carcinogens in terms of the number of attributable cancers per year.

  10. Arsenic removal from household drinking water by adsorption.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Tao; Hu, Jiang Yong; Ong, Say Leong; Luo, Qi Fang; Ng, Wern Jun

    2002-10-01

    Geogenic inorganic arsenic contamination in drinking water has been raising public health concern especially in developing countries. Cost-effective and stopgap arsenic removal method for household use (cooking and drinking) is very urgent. Several iron treated natural materials such as Fe-treated activated carbon (FeAC), Fe-treated gel beads (FeGB) and iron oxide-coated sand (IOCS), were investigated in this study for arsenic removal from dispersed household drinking water supply (scattered wells in the endemic arsenic poisoning areas). IOCS showed consistently good performance in terms of As(III) and As(V) removal in batch tests, column tests and field experiment. As(V) adsorption decreased slightly but As(III) adsorption maintained relatively stable when the pH value was increased from 5 to 9. In strong hardness water (612.5 mg/L CaCO3), As(III) adsorption efficiency was noted to decrease. The adsorption data obtained in column test fitted well to the Langmuir isotherm model. The adsorbent recovery efficiency was above 94% when using 0.2N NaOH regenerated the columns. In addition, 200 L of product water was produced by the household device (containing 3.0 kg IOCS produced) when the influent arsenic concentration ranging from 0.202 to 1.733 mg/L was encountered during the field experimental study conducted in Shanyin County, China. Neither the iron leaching nor other water quality deterioration was observed. It was noted in this study that IOCS is a promising medium for arsenic removal from household drinking water supplies.

  11. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  12. Genotoxicity of Swimming Pool Water and Carcinogenicity of Drinking Water**

    EPA Science Inventory

    Among the 11 disinfection by-products (DBPs) in drinking water that are regulated by the U.S. EPA, (a) 2 DBPs (chloroaceticacid and chlorite) are not carcinogenic-in either of2 species; (b) chlorite is not carcinogenic in 3 rodent assays and has never been tested for genotoxicity...

  13. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons in drinking water of Tehran, Iran

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Distribution and seasonal variation of sixteen priority polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) were investigated in the drinking water of Tehran, the capital of Iran. Detected single and total PAHs concentrations were in the range of 2.01-38.96 and 32.45-733.10 ng/L, respectively, which were quite high compared to the values recorded in other areas of the world. The average occurrence of PAHs with high molecular weights was 79.55%; for example, chrysene occurred in 60.6% of the samples, with a maximum concentration of 438.96 ng/L. In addition, mean carcinogen to non-carcinogen PAHs ratio was 63.84. Although the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene, as an indicator of water pollution to PAHs, was lower than the guideline value proposed by World Health Organization (WHO) as well as that of Iranian National Drinking Water Standards for all of the samples, the obtained results indicated that carcinogen PAHs present in the drinking water of Tehran can cause threats to human health. PMID:24499505

  14. Review of fluoride removal from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mohapatra, M; Anand, S; Mishra, B K; Giles, Dion E; Singh, P

    2009-10-01

    Fluoride in drinking water has a profound effect on teeth and bones. Up to a small level (1-1.5mg/L) this strengthens the enamel. Concentrations in the range of 1.5-4 mg/L result in dental fluorosis whereas with prolonged exposure at still higher fluoride concentrations (4-10mg/L) dental fluorosis progresses to skeletal fluorosis. High fluoride concentrations in groundwater, up to more than 30 mg/L, occur widely, in many parts of the world. This review article is aimed at providing precise information on efforts made by various researchers in the field of fluoride removal for drinking water. The fluoride removal has been broadly divided in two sections dealing with membrane and adsorption techniques. Under the membrane techniques reverse osmosis, nanofiltration, dialysis and electro-dialysis have been discussed. Adsorption, which is a conventional technique, deals with adsorbents such as: alumina/aluminium based materials, clays and soils, calcium based minerals, synthetic compounds and carbon based materials. Studies on fluoride removal from aqueous solutions using various reversed zeolites, modified zeolites and ion exchange resins based on cross-linked polystyrene are reviewed. During the last few years, layered double oxides have been of interest as adsorbents for fluoride removal. Such recent developments have been briefly discussed.

  15. Defluoridation of drinking water using adsorption processes.

    PubMed

    Loganathan, Paripurnanda; Vigneswaran, Saravanamuthu; Kandasamy, Jaya; Naidu, Ravi

    2013-03-15

    Excessive intake of fluoride (F), mainly through drinking water, is a serious health hazard affecting humans worldwide. There are several methods used for the defluoridation of drinking water, of which adsorption processes are generally considered attractive because of their effectiveness, convenience, ease of operation, simplicity of design, and for economic and environmental reasons. In this paper, we present a comprehensive and a critical literature review on various adsorbents used for defluoridation, their relative effectiveness, mechanisms and thermodynamics of adsorption, and suggestions are made on choice of adsorbents for various circumstances. Effects of pH, temperature, kinetics and co-existing anions on F adsorption are also reviewed. Because the adsorption is very weak in extremely low or high pHs, depending on the adsorbent, acids or alkalis are used to desorb F and regenerate the adsorbents. However, adsorption capacity generally decreases with repeated use of the regenerated adsorbent. Future research needs to explore highly efficient, low cost adsorbents that can be easily regenerated for reuse over several cycles of operations without significant loss of adsorptive capacity and which have good hydraulic conductivity to prevent filter clogging during the fixed-bed treatment process.

  16. Development of the revised drinking water standard for chromium.

    PubMed

    Goldhaber, S; Vogt, C

    1989-10-01

    Comprehensive regulations are being developed to limit human exposure to contamination in drinking water by the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) under the authority of the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA). These regulations are being developed in several phases and include synthetic organic chemicals, inorganic chemicals, microbiological contaminants and radionuclides. This paper addresses the fundamental concepts and approaches used by EPA in setting drinking water regulations and how EPA is using these concepts to revise the drinking water standard for chromium. PMID:2602936

  17. Water drinking as a treatment for orthostatic syndromes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shannon, John R.; Diedrich, Andre; Biaggioni, Italo; Tank, Jens; Robertson, Rose Marie; Robertson, David; Jordan, Jens

    2002-01-01

    PURPOSE: Water drinking increases blood pressure in a substantial proportion of patients who have severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure. We tested the hypothesis that water drinking can be used as a practical treatment for patients with orthostatic and postprandial hypotension, as well as those with orthostatic tachycardia. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: We studied the effect of drinking water on seated and standing blood pressure and heart rate in 11 patients who had severe orthostatic hypotension due to autonomic failure and in 9 patients who had orthostatic tachycardia due to idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. We also tested the effect of water drinking on postprandial hypotension in 7 patients who had autonomic failure. Patients drank 480 mL of tap water at room temperature in less than 5 minutes. RESULTS: In patients with autonomic failure, mean (+/- SD) blood pressure after 1 minute of standing was 83 +/- 6/53 +/- 3.4 mm Hg at baseline, which increased to 114 +/- 30/66 +/- 18 mm Hg (P <0.01) 35 minutes after drinking. After a meal, blood pressure decreased by 43 +/- 36/20 +/- 13 mm Hg without water drinking, compared with 22 +/- 10/12 +/- 5 mm Hg with drinking (P <0.001). In patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance, water drinking attenuated orthostatic tachycardia (123 +/- 23 beats per minute) at baseline to 108 +/- 21 beats per minute after water drinking ( P <0.001). CONCLUSION: Water drinking elicits a rapid pressor response in patients with autonomic failure and can be used to treat orthostatic and postprandial hypotension. Water drinking moderately reduces orthostatic tachycardia in patients with idiopathic orthostatic intolerance. Thus, water drinking may serve as an adjunctive treatment in patients with impaired orthostatic tolerance.

  18. ADVANCES IN DRINKING WATER TREATMENT IN THE UNITED STATES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States drinking water public health protection goal is to provide water that meets all health-based standards to ninety-five percent of the population served by public drinking water supplies by 2005. In 2002, the level of compliance with some eighty-five health-based ...

  19. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  20. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  1. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  2. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  3. 30 CFR 75.1718-1 - Drinking water; quality.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 30 Mineral Resources 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Drinking water; quality. 75.1718-1 Section 75... AND HEALTH MANDATORY SAFETY STANDARDS-UNDERGROUND COAL MINES Miscellaneous § 75.1718-1 Drinking water; quality. (a) Potable water provided in accordance with the provisions of § 75.1718 shall meet...

  4. Disinfection By-Products: Formation and Occurrence in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the twentieth century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended he...

  5. Visions of the Future in Drinking Water Microbiology.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water microbiology will have a tremendous impact on defining a safe drinking water in the future. There will be breakthroughs in realtime testing of process waters for pathogen surrogates with results made available within 1 hour for application to treatment adjustments ...

  6. The Next Generation of Drinking Water Disinfection By-Products

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Millions of people worldwide receive quality drinking water every day from their public water systems. However, chemical disinfection has also produced an unintended healt...

  7. The Safe Drinking Water Act First 180 Days

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehr, Jay H.

    1975-01-01

    The Safe Drinking Water Act protects our drinking and ground water resources. The Water Advisory Council interprets and implements the law. Implementation principles include high priorities for public health, cost considerations, state and local participation, environmental impact, decentralized decision making, and use of federal and state…

  8. Antibiotic administration in the drinking water of mice.

    PubMed

    Marx, James O; Vudathala, Daljit; Murphy, Lisa; Rankin, Shelley; Hankenson, F Claire

    2014-05-01

    Although antibiotics frequently are added to the drinking water of mice, this practice has not been tested to confirm that antibiotics reach therapeutic concentrations in the plasma of treated mice. In the current investigation, we 1) tested the stability of enrofloxacin and doxycycline in the drinking water of adult, female C57BL/6 mice; 2) measured the mice's consumption of water treated with enrofloxacin, doxycycline, amoxicillin, or trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole; and 3) used HPLC to measure plasma antibiotic concentrations in mice that had ingested treated water for 1 wk. Plasma concentrations of antibiotic were measured 1 h after the start of both the light and dark cycle. The main findings of the study were that both enrofloxacin and nonpharmaceutical, chemical-grade doxycycline remained relatively stable in water for 1 wk. In addition, mice consumed similar volumes of antibiotic-treated and untreated water. The highest plasma antibiotic concentrations measured were: enrofloxacin, 140.1 ± 10.4 ng/mL; doxycycline, 56.6 ± 12.5 ng/mL; amoxicillin, 299.2 ± 64.1 ng/mL; and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, 5.9 ± 1.2 ng/mL. Despite the stability of the antibiotics in the water and predictable water consumption by mice, the plasma antibiotic concentrations were well below the concentrations required for efficacy against bacterial pathogens, except for those pathogens that are exquisitely sensitive to the antibiotic. The findings of this investigation prompt questions regarding the rationale of the contemporary practice of adding antibiotics to the drinking water of mice for systemic antibacterial treatments.

  9. Mean Residence Time and Emergency Drinking Water Supply.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kralik, Martin; Humer, Franko

    2013-04-01

    Mean Residence Times (MRTs) of the raw water of drinking water supplies is the measurement of the water-isotopes (oxygen-18, hydrogen-2 and tritium (3H)). The traceability and the quality oft he lumped model calculation is based on the quality and the density of input (meteorological) stations in the region with monthly measurements. In addition, noble gas measurements in the groundwater (helium-3, krypton-85) and of industrial tracer gases (chlorofluorocarbon (CFC) and sulphurhexaflorid (SF6)) are important tools to estimate the MRTs of the raw water in the aquifers. To exclude the presence of small amounts of very recent waters, which are in cases of accidents some times heavily polluted, the raw water is tested for natural radionuclides (beryllium-7 or sulphur-35) with very short half-life or artificial fluorescence tracers. In addition, the estimate of the MRTs of groundwater is an essential part of the vulnerability assessment of drinking water supplies due to climate change impacts (frequency of droughts and floods in the recharge area) and offers a valuable tool to specify a sustainable water abstraction. The applicability of this approach was tested in several springs and groundwater monitoring wells used for raw water abstraction for drinking water supply in Austria.

  10. Boiling over: A Descriptive Analysis of Drinking Water Advisories in First Nations Communities in Ontario, Canada

    PubMed Central

    Galway, Lindsay P.

    2016-01-01

    Access to safe and reliable drinking water is commonplace for most Canadians. However, the right to safe and reliable drinking water is denied to many First Nations peoples across the country, highlighting a priority public health and environmental justice issue in Canada. This paper describes trends and characteristics of drinking water advisories, used as a proxy for reliable access to safe drinking water, among First Nations communities in the province of Ontario. Visual and statistical tools were used to summarize the advisory data in general, temporal trends, and characteristics of the drinking water systems in which advisories were issued. Overall, 402 advisories were issued during the study period. The number of advisories increased from 25 in 2004 to 75 in 2013. The average advisory duration was 294 days. Most advisories were reported in summer months and equipment malfunction was the most commonly reported reason for issuing an advisory. Nearly half of all advisories occurred in drinking water systems where additional operator training was needed. These findings underscore that the prevalence of drinking water advisories in First Nations communities is a problem that must be addressed. Concerted and multi-faceted efforts are called for to improve the provision of safe and reliable drinking water First Nations communities. PMID:27196919

  11. Arsenic occurrence in New Hampshire drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, S.C.; Blum, J.D.; Klaue, B.; Karagas, M.R.

    1999-05-01

    Arsenic concentrations were measured in 992 drinking water samples collected from New Hampshire households using online hydride generation ICP-MS. These randomly selected household water samples contain much less arsenic than those voluntarily submitted for analysis to the New Hampshire Department of Environmental Services (NHDES). Extrapolation of the voluntarily submitted sample set to all New Hampshire residents significantly overestimates arsenic exposure. In randomly selected households, concentrations ranged from <0.0003 to 180 {micro}g/L, with water from domestic wells containing significantly more arsenic than water from municipal sources. Water samples from drilled bedrock wells had the highest arsenic concentrations, while samples from surficial wells had the lowest arsenic concentrations. The authors suggest that much of the groundwater arsenic in New Hampshire is derived from weathering of bedrock materials and not from anthropogenic contamination. The spatial distribution of elevated arsenic concentrations correlates with Late-Devonian Concord-type granitic bedrock. Field observations in the region exhibiting the highest groundwater arsenic concentrations revealed abundant pegmatite dikes associated with nearby granites. Analysis of rock digests indicates arsenic concentrations up to 60 mg/kg in pegmatites, with much lower values in surrounding schists and granites. Weak acid leaches show that approximately half of the total arsenic in the pegmatites is labile and therefore can be mobilized during rock-water interaction.

  12. Analysis of physical and chemical parameters of bottled drinking water.

    PubMed

    Mahajan, Rakesh Kumar; Walia, T P S; Lark, B S; Sumanjit

    2006-04-01

    Seventeen different brands of bottled drinking water, collected from different retail shops in Amritsar, were analyzed for different physical and chemical parameters to ascertain their compliability with the prescribed/recommended limits of the World Heath Organization (WHO) and the United States Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA). It was found that the majority of the brands tested were over-treated. Lower values of hardness, total dissolved solids (TDS) and conductance than the prescribed limits of WHO showed that water was deficient in essential minerals. Minerals like magnesium, potassium, calcium and fluoride were present in some cases in such a low concentration that water seemed to be as good as distilled water. Samples showing fluoride lesser than 0.5 mg/l warranted additional sources of fluoride for the people consuming only bottled water for drinking purposes. Zero values for chlorine demand as shown by all the bottled water samples showed that water samples were safe from micro-organisms. In case of heavy metals, only lead had been found to be greater than the limit of 0.015 mg/l as prescribed by WHO and USEPA, in seven out of 17 samples. Lead even at such a low concentration can pose a great health hazard.

  13. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  14. Vulnerability of drinking water supplies to engineered nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Troester, Martin; Brauch, Heinz-Juergen; Hofmann, Thilo

    2016-06-01

    The production and use of engineered nanoparticles (ENPs) inevitably leads to their release into aquatic environments, with the quantities involved expected to increase significantly in the future. Concerns therefore arise over the possibility that ENPs might pose a threat to drinking water supplies. Investigations into the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs are hampered by the absence of suitable analytical methods that are capable of detecting and quantifiying ENPs in complex aqueous matrices. Analytical data concerning the presence of ENPs in drinking water supplies is therefore scarce. The eventual fate of ENPs in the natural environment and in processes that are important for drinking water production are currently being investigated through laboratory based-experiments and modelling. Although the information obtained from these studies may not, as yet, be sufficient to allow comprehensive assessment of the complete life-cycle of ENPs, it does provide a valuable starting point for predicting the significance of ENPs to drinking water supplies. This review therefore addresses the vulnerability of drinking water supplies to ENPs. The risk of ENPs entering drinking water is discussed and predicted for drinking water produced from groundwater and from surface water. Our evaluation is based on reviewing published data concerning ENP production amounts and release patterns, the occurrence and behavior of ENPs in aquatic systems relevant for drinking water supply and ENP removability in drinking water purification processes. Quantitative predictions are made based on realistic high-input case scenarios. The results of our synthesis of current knowledge suggest that the risk probability of ENPs being present in surface water resources is generally limited, but that particular local conditions may increase the probability of raw water contamination by ENPs. Drinking water extracted from porous media aquifers are not generally considered to be prone to ENP

  15. THE USE OF RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIALS OF IN-HOME DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TO STUDY ENDEMIC WATERBORNE DISEASE

    EPA Science Inventory

    Randomized trials of water treatment have demonstrated the ability of simple water treatments to significantly reduce the incidence of gastrointestinal illnesses in developing countries where drinking water is of poor quality. Whether or not additional treatment at the tap reduc...

  16. [The EU drinking water recommendations: objectives and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Blöch, H

    2011-12-01

    Protection of our drinking water resources and provision of safe drinking water are key requirements of modern water management and health policy. Microbiological and chemical quality standards have been established in the EU water policy since 1980, and are now complemented by a comprehensive protection of water as a resource. This contribution reflects a presentation at the scientific conference of the Federal Associations of Physicians and Dentists within the Public Health Service in May 2011 and provides an overview on objectives and challenges for drinking water protection at the European level.

  17. Drinking water microbiology--new directions toward water quality enhancement.

    PubMed

    Geldreich, E E

    1989-12-01

    Drinking water microbiology has emerged from decades of relative complacency to recognize there can be major concerns with potable water quality. Many of these issues are a result of an explosion of information on new waterborne agents, treatment problems with raw-source water qualities, biofilm development in some distribution systems and specialized requirements in water quality unique to hospitals and industries. Protozoan cyst survival after some disinfection practices involving surface water impoundments and virus occurrence in poorly protected groundwaters have provided reasons for expanding minimum treatment of surface waters and for requiring disinfection of all groundwaters unless there is a demonstrative data base to support exceptions in treatment requirements. Official monitoring of small water supplies must be increased on a monthly basis and a rapid alert established to inform water plant operators of unsatisfactory water qualities. As an option, application of operational tests to analyse water quality in terms of chlorine residual, turbidity, total coliforms and heterotrophic bacterial counts in small water plant operations should be encouraged. This would provide the operator at remote locations with the opportunity to utilize the information to make necessary treatment adjustments or corrections in water distribution deficiencies promptly and be a supplement to the official regional monitoring program. Application of drinking water alternative sources (bottled water and water from point-of-use treatment devices) should be viewed by the health authorities as only a temporary solution, not as a permanent fix for a public water supply known to present some established health risk to consumers. The public must also recognize that bottled water is not frequently monitored by health laboratories for acceptable quality and the use of home treatment devices places the responsibility of proper maintenance on the user. Microbial quality improvements in

  18. [KEEPING THE ELECTRON-DONOR PROPERTIES OF DRINKING WATER].

    PubMed

    Gibert, K K; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V; Sul'ina, Iu S

    2015-01-01

    In a study there was performed the experimental evaluation of long-term structural--physical changes of the phase of associated water in drinking water treated in hypomagnetic conditions according to the the technology providing the retention of of ortho/para isomers of water in the presence of a catalyst--triplet oxygen. According to the results of measurements ofparameters of nano-associates formed in the water there was found a series ofconsistencies, allowing to determine the mechanisms of the impact of hypomagnetic treatment on the catalytic properties ofwater and long-term stability of its activated state, that provides the long-term maintenance of high biological activity of drinking water. In particular, under hypomagnetic conditions of the treatment there is formed denser packing of amorphous ice--VI in the composition of associates peroxide, serving as a kind of "reservoir" of atmospheric gases. In such a "reservoir" there realized higher pressure, compared with normal geophysical conditions, that stimulates the gas-phase reactions with the formation of dimers and trimers of oxygen existing in the 2-electron--active configurations with binding energies of 0.3 eVand ~0.2 eV providing phase modulation, resulting in condensation of environment additional electrons on paramagnetic oxygen, which provides the long-term maintenance of the electron--donor ability of water and electrically non-equilibrium state.

  19. Research plan for arsenic in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    1998-02-01

    The document stresses the implications of recent research findings and emphasizes identification of key strengths and sources of uncertainty and variability in the arsenic risk assessment. This document also explains how information gained through research can: impact the method used in new investigations to assess the risks of arsenic, and support or suggest changes in the assumptiosn and methods used in arsenic risk assessments. This Arsenic Research Plan addresses the protection of human health, especially the research needed to implement the 1996 Safe Drinking Water Act Amendments (SDWAA). It is intended to serve as a blueprint that will be discussed with parties interested in addressing key strengths and uncertainties in the arsenic risk assessment.

  20. Climate Adaptation Capacity for Conventional Drinking Water Treatment Facilities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Levine, A.; Goodrich, J.; Yang, J.

    2013-12-01

    Water supplies are vulnerable to a host of climate- and weather-related stressors such as droughts, intense storms/flooding, snowpack depletion, sea level changes, and consequences from fires, landslides, and excessive heat or cold. Surface water resources (lakes, reservoirs, rivers, and streams) are especially susceptible to weather-induced changes in water availability and quality. The risks to groundwater systems may also be significant. Typically, water treatment facilities are designed with an underlying assumption that water quality from a given source is relatively predictable based on historical data. However, increasing evidence of the lack of stationarity is raising questions about the validity of traditional design assumptions, particularly since the service life of many facilities can exceed fifty years. Given that there are over 150,000 public water systems in the US that deliver drinking water to over 300 million people every day, it is important to evaluate the capacity for adapting to the impacts of a changing climate. Climate and weather can induce or amplify changes in physical, chemical, and biological water quality, reaction rates, the extent of water-sediment-air interactions, and also impact the performance of treatment technologies. The specific impacts depend on the watershed characteristics and local hydrological and land-use factors. Water quality responses can be transient, such as erosion-induced increases in sediment and runoff. Longer-term impacts include changes in the frequency and intensity of algal blooms, gradual changes in the nature and concentration of dissolved organic matter, dissolved solids, and modulation of the microbiological community structure, sources and survival of pathogens. In addition, waterborne contaminants associated with municipal, industrial, and agricultural activities can also impact water quality. This presentation evaluates relationships between climate and weather induced water quality variability and

  1. DRINKING WATER ARSENIC IN UTAH: A COHORT MORTALITY STUDY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The association of drinking water arsenic and mortality outcome was investigated in a cohort of residents from Millard County, Utah. Median drinking water arsenic concentrations for selected study towns ranged from 14 to 166 ppb and were from public and private samples collected ...

  2. Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The disinfection of drinking water has been rightly hailed as a public health triumph of the 20th century. Before its widespread use, millions of people died from waterborne diseases. Now, people in developed nations receive quality drinking water every day from their public wa...

  3. Studies on Disinfection By-Products and Drinking Water

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rostad, Colleen E.

    2007-01-01

    Drinking water is disinfected with chemicals to remove pathogens, such as Giardia and Cryptosproridium, and prevent waterborne diseases such as cholera and typhoid. During disinfection, by-products are formed at trace concentrations. Because some of these by-products are suspected carcinogens, drinking water utilities must maintain the effectiveness of the disinfection process while minimizing the formation of by-products.

  4. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  5. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  6. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  7. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  8. Bilogical Treatment for Ammonia Oxidation in Drinking Water Facilities

    EPA Science Inventory

    Ammonia is an unregulated compound, but is naturally occurring in many drinking water sources. It is also used by some treatment facilities to produce chloramines for disinfection purposes. Because ammonia is non-toxic, its presence in drinking water is often disregarded. Thro...

  9. Safety on Tap: A Citizen's Drinking Water Handbook.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loveland, David Gray; Reichheld, Beth

    This citizen's guide to ensuring a safe supply of drinking water for all provides the information and analysis that individuals need to understand the issues and to participate in local decision making. The sources of drinking water, the types of human activities that results in contamination, and the contaminants that are of most concern are…

  10. TREATMENT OF ARSENIC RESIDUALS FROM DRINKING WATER REMOVAL PROCESSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The drinking water MCL was recently lowered from 0.05 mg/L to 0.01 mg/L. One concern was that reduction in the TCLP arsenic limit in response to the drinking water MCL could be problematic with regard to disposal of solid residuals generated at arsenic removal facilities. This pr...

  11. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  12. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  13. SEMINAR PUBLICATION: CONTROL OF LEAD AND COPPER IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    This publication presents subjects relating to the control of lead and copper in drinking water systems. t is of interest to system owners, operators, managers, and local decision makers, such as town officials, regarding drinking water treatment requirements and the treatment te...

  14. NEUROXOTOXICITY PRODUCED BY DIBROMOACETIC ACID IN DRINKING WATER OF RATS.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act requires that EPA consider noncancer endpoints for the assessment of adverse human health effects of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). Dibromoacetic acid (DBA) is one of many DBPs produced by the chlorination of drinking water. Its chlorinated analog, ...

  15. AFM Structural Characterization of Drinking Water Biofilm under Physiological Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to the complexity of mixed culture drinking water biofilm, direct visual observation under in situ conditions has been challenging. In this study, atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed the three dimensional morphology and arrangement of drinking water relevant biofilm in air...

  16. Health-risk assessment of trichlorofluoromethane in California drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Reed, N.R.; Reed, W.; Weir, K.; Beltran, K.; Babapour, R.

    1988-12-22

    Existing literature is reviewed that is pertinent to the health risk posed by the use of Freon-11 contaminated drinking water, an estimation of the Freon-11 exposure for California residents based on the most recent data on Freon-11 concentrations in California drinking-water supplies, and a delineation of the level of Freon-11 that may cause a noncarcinogenic health effect.

  17. U.S. DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS: TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES AND COST.

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Safe Drinking Water Act and its Amendments have imposed a large number of new regulations on the U.S. drinking water industry. A major set of regulations currently under consideration will control disinfectants and disinfection by-products. Included in the development of th...

  18. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  19. 9 CFR 3.115 - Food and drinking water requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Food and drinking water requirements..., and Transportation of Marine Mammals Transportation Standards § 3.115 Food and drinking water... commerce must be offered food as often as necessary and appropriate for the species involved or...

  20. IDENTIFICATION OF NEW BROMINATED ACIDS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Since chloroform was identified as the first disinfection by-product (DBP) in drinking water, there has been more than 25 years of research on DBPs. Despite these efforts, more than 50% of the total organic halide (TOX) formed in chlorinated drinking water remains unknown. Ther...

  1. ARSENIC IN WATER USED FOR DRINKING - AN ENVIRONMENTAL TECHNOLOGY VERIFICATION

    EPA Science Inventory

    In October 2001, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) announced a new federal standard for concentrations of arsenic found in drinking water. The new standard was to be 10 parts-per-million (ppm). This new standard will be required by the Safe Drinking Water Act in...

  2. Reducing Lead in Drinking Water: A Manual for Minnesota's Schools.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Health, St. Paul.

    This manual was designed to assist Minnesota's schools in minimizing the consumption of lead in drinking water by students and staff. It offers step-by-step instructions for testing and reducing lead in drinking water. The manual answers: Why is lead a health concern? How are children exposed to lead? Why is lead a special concern for schools? How…

  3. Reducing Lead in School Drinking Water: A Case Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odell, Lee

    1991-01-01

    The Seattle School District began a program in 1990 to identify lead levels in the district's drinking water and to implement measures to lower any high lead levels. Recounts each of the seven steps of the program, discusses what the district found, and explains how it lowered lead levels in the drinking water. (MLF)

  4. 21 CFR 520.2240a - Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. 520.2240a Section 520.2240a Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... Sulfaethoxypyridazine drinking water. (a) Chemical name. N′-(6-Ethoxy-3-pyridazinyl) sulfanilamide. (b)...

  5. Removal of dibromochloropropane from drinking water: laboratory and field experiences

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Dibromochloropropane (1,2-dibromo-3-chloropropane or DBCP) is regulated by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency under the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations to a maximum of 0.2 µg/L (0.2 ppb) in drinking water. DBCP was primarily used as an unclassified nematicide for vegetables and per...

  6. Water addition, evaporation and water holding capacity of poultry litter.

    PubMed

    Dunlop, Mark W; Blackall, Patrick J; Stuetz, Richard M

    2015-12-15

    Litter moisture content has been related to ammonia, dust and odour emissions as well as bird health and welfare. Improved understanding of the water holding properties of poultry litter as well as water additions to litter and evaporation from litter will contribute to improved litter moisture management during the meat chicken grow-out. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate how management and environmental conditions over the course of a grow-out affect the volume of water A) applied to litter, B) able to be stored in litter, and C) evaporated from litter on a daily basis. The same unit of measurement has been used to enable direct comparison-litres of water per square metre of poultry shed floor area, L/m(2), assuming a litter depth of 5cm. An equation was developed to estimate the amount of water added to litter from bird excretion and drinking spillage, which are sources of regular water application to the litter. Using this equation showed that water applied to litter from these sources changes over the course of a grow-out, and can be as much as 3.2L/m(2)/day. Over a 56day grow-out, the total quantity of water added to the litter was estimated to be 104L/m(2). Litter porosity, water holding capacity and water evaporation rates from litter were measured experimentally. Litter porosity decreased and water holding capacity increased over the course of a grow-out due to manure addition. Water evaporation rates at 25°C and 50% relative humidity ranged from 0.5 to 10L/m(2)/day. Evaporation rates increased with litter moisture content and air speed. Maintaining dry litter at the peak of a grow-out is likely to be challenging because evaporation rates from dry litter may be insufficient to remove the quantity of water added to the litter on a daily basis.

  7. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public.

  8. What's next after 40 years of drinking water regulations?

    PubMed

    Roberson, J Alan

    2011-01-01

    The quality of drinking water in the United States has continued to improve over the past 40 years. The formation of the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) in 1971, the passage of the initial Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA, PL 93-523) in 1974, and the passage of the 1996 SDWA Amendments (PL 104-208) represent significant progress in drinking water quality. While the widespread adoption of filtration and disinfection in the early 1900s virtually eliminated waterborne typhoid fever, some residual risks still remained 40 years ago. These national regulatory developments compelled USEPA and the drinking water community to address these remaining risks in drinking water and optimize risk reduction for the public. PMID:21141882

  9. Factorial analysis of trihalomethanes formation in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Shakhawat; Champagne, Pascale; McLellan, P James

    2010-06-01

    Disinfection of drinking water reduces pathogenic infection, but may pose risks to human health through the formation of disinfection byproducts. The effects of different factors on the formation of trihalomethanes were investigated using a statistically designed experimental program, and a predictive model for trihalomethanes formation was developed. Synthetic water samples with different factor levels were produced, and trihalomethanes concentrations were measured. A replicated fractional factorial design with center points was performed, and significant factors were identified through statistical analysis. A second-order trihalomethanes formation model was developed from 92 experiments, and the statistical adequacy was assessed through appropriate diagnostics. This model was validated using additional data from the Drinking Water Surveillance Program database and was applied to the Smiths Falls water supply system in Ontario, Canada. The model predictions were correlated strongly to the measured trihalomethanes, with correlations of 0.95 and 0.91, respectively. The resulting model can assist in analyzing risk-cost tradeoffs in the design and operation of water supply systems.

  10. OVERVIEW OF USEPA MICROBIOLOGICAL RESEARCH IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Microbial Contaminants Control Branch (MCCB) conducts research on microbiological problems related to drinking water treatment, distribution and storage, and has recently become involved in watershed and source water quality issues such as fecal indicator bacteria and fecal p...

  11. Arsenic in Drinking Water-A Global Environmental Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Joanna Shaofen; Wai, Chien M.

    2004-01-01

    Information on the worldwide occurrence of groundwater pollution by arsenic, the ensuing health hazards, and the debatable government regulations of arsenic in drinking water, is presented. Diagnostic identification of arsenic, and methods to eliminate it from water are also discussed.

  12. APPLICATION OF USEPA'S DRINKING WATER REGULATIONS TOWARDS RAINWATER CATCHMENT SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Rainwater harvesting is receiving increased attention worldwide as an alternative source of drinking water. Although federal agencies such as the USEPA acknowledge the existence of rainwater collection systems, the monitoring of this water source is still typically carried out b...

  13. Investigation of natural biofilms formed during the production of drinking water from surface water embankment filtration.

    PubMed

    Emtiazi, Farahnaz; Schwartz, Thomas; Marten, Silke Mareike; Krolla-Sidenstein, Peter; Obst, Ursula

    2004-03-01

    Populations of bacteria in biofilms from different sites of a drinking water production system were analysed. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) analyses revealed changing DNA band patterns, suggesting a population shift during bank filtration and processing at the waterworks. In addition, common DNA bands that were attributed to ubiquitous bacteria were found. Biofilms even developed directly after UV disinfection (1-2m distance). Their DNA band patterns only partly agreed with those of the biofilms from the downstream distribution system. Opportunistic pathogenic bacteria in biofilms were analysed using PCR and Southern blot hybridisation (SBH). Surface water appeared to have a direct influence on the composition of biofilms in the drinking water distribution system. In spite of preceding filtration and UV disinfection, opportunistic pathogens such as atypical mycobacteria and Legionella spp. were found in biofilms of drinking water, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa was detected sporadically. Enterococci were not found in any biofilm. Bacterial cell counts in the biofilms from surface water to drinking water dropped significantly, and esterase and alanine-aminopeptidase activity decreased. beta-glucosidase activity was not found in the biofilms. Contrary to the results for planktonic bacteria, inhibitory effects were not observed in biofilms. This suggested an increased tolerance of biofilm bacteria against toxic compounds.

  14. 75 FR 61751 - National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-06

    ... AGENCY National Drinking Water Advisory Council: Request for Nominations AGENCY: Environmental Protection... National Drinking Water Advisory Council (Council). This 15-member Council was established by the Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) to provide practical and independent advice, consultation and recommendations...

  15. Rural drinking water issues in India’s drought-prone area: a case of Maharashtra state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Udmale, Parmeshwar; Ichikawa, Yutaka; Nakamura, Takashi; Shaowei, Ning; Ishidaira, Hiroshi; Kazama, Futaba

    2016-07-01

    Obtaining sufficient drinking water with acceptable quality under circumstances of lack, such as droughts, is a challenge in drought-prone areas of India. This study examined rural drinking water availability issues during a recent drought (2012) through 22 focus group discussions (FGDs) in a drought-prone catchment of India. Also, a small chemical water quality study was undertaken to evaluate the suitability of water for drinking purpose based on Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS). The drought that began in 2011 and further deteriorated water supplies in 2012 caused a rapid decline in reservoir storages and groundwater levels that led, in turn, to the failure of the public water supply systems in the Upper Bhima Catchment. Dried up and low-yield dug wells and borewells, tanker water deliveries from remote sources, untimely water deliveries, and degraded water quality were the major problems identified in the FGDs. In addition to severe drinking water scarcity during drought, the quality of the drinking water was found to be a major problem, and it apparently was neglected by local governments and users. Severe contamination of the drinking water with nitrate-nitrogen, ammonium-nitrogen, and chlorides was found in the analyzed drinking water samples. Hence, in addition to the water scarcity, the results of this study point to an immediate need to investigate the problem of contaminated drinking water sources while designing relief measures for drought-prone areas of India.

  16. Occurrence of uranium in Swiss drinking water.

    PubMed

    Stalder, E; Blanc, A; Haldimann, M; Dudler, V

    2012-02-01

    The results of a nationwide survey of uranium in Swiss drinking water are reported. Elevated concentrations of uranium in groundwater are found mainly in the alpine regions and can be traced back to the geology of the bedrock. Water sources were systematically surveyed and analysed for the presence of Li, B, Si, Sc, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, As, Se, Sr, Cd, Sn, Sb, Ba, Tl, Pb and U and the results were analysed to determine if any correlation with uranium concentration was apparent. No correlation was found. The results are interpreted in relation to the current WHO guideline and those of other countries with a view to determining which areas would be affected if a maximum value were to be adopted and which areas require further investigation. Uranium content varied considerably, from below the limit of detection to almost 100 μg L(-1). Of the 5548 data samples, 98% are below the 2004 WHO provisional guideline value of 15 μg L(-1) and 99.7% below the revised (2011) value of 30 μg L(-1).

  17. Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater drinking water in high-fat/cholesterol fed hamsters.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Chin-Lin; Chang, Yuan-Yen; Chiu, Chih-Hsien; Yang, Kuo-Tai; Wang, Yu; Fu, Shih-Guei; Chen, Yi-Chen

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular protection of deep-seawater (DSW) drinking water was assessed using high-fat/cholesterol-fed hamsters in this study. All hamsters were fed a high-fat/cholesterol diet (12% fat/0.2% cholesterol), and drinking solutions were normal distiled water (NDW, hardness: 2.48ppm), DSW300 (hardness: 324.5ppm), DSW900 (hardness: 858.5ppm), and DSW1500 (hardness: 1569.0ppm), respectively. After a 6-week feeding period, body weight, heart rates, and blood pressures of hamsters were not influenced by DSW drinking waters. Serum total cholesterol (TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), atherogenic index, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were decreased (p<0.05) in the DSW-drinking-water groups, as compared to those in the NDW group. Additionally, increased (p<0.05) serum Trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity (TEAC), and faecal TC, TAG, and bile acid outputs were measured in the DSW-drinking-water groups. Hepatic low-density-lipoprotein receptor (LDL receptor) and cholesterol-7α-hydroxylase (CYP7A1) gene expressions were upregulated (p<0.05) by DSW drinking waters. These results demonstrate that DSW drinking water benefits the attenuation of high-fat/cholesterol-diet-induced cardiovascular disorders in hamsters.

  18. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms and cause illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation. With few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This policy statement provides recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children.

  19. [The drinking water ordinance--successful or requiring revision?].

    PubMed

    Bartel, Hartmut; Krüger, W; Mendel, B; Suhr, R

    2007-03-01

    The current regulatory approach in Germany combines regulations defined in the Drinking Water Ordinance with a comprehensive catalogue of technical rules as well as with guidelines and recommendations by the Federal Environment Agency and the Drinking Water Commission. This approach has proven successful in practice. Some parts would benefit from revision. The regulator is currently contemplating some revision in order to take experience of federal, state and local authorities as well as of water suppliers with implementation of the current Ordinance into account. The intention is improvement particularly towards reducing bureaucracy without compromising the current high level of public health protection through drinking water hygiene in Germany.

  20. [Special aspects of microbiological monitoring of drinking water quality].

    PubMed

    Feuerpfeil, I; Hummel, A; Renner, P

    2007-03-01

    The new drinking water ordinance (TrinkwV 2001) entered into force in 2003. In this paper we report about experiences with monitoring microbiological quality of drinking water. Special problems, for instance requirements concerning the quality of raw water, new and "old" microbiological parameters, microbiological methods, assessment of parametric values, especially in the case of values higher than the imperative value, are also described. Possible developments in this field are discussed. The paper should support microbiological laboratories, public health officers and other public authorities in monitoring and assessment of drinking water quality.

  1. Polychlorinated biphenyl concentrations in Hudson River water and treated drinking water at Waterford, New York

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Schroeder, R.A.; Barnes, C.R.

    1983-01-01

    Past discharge of PCBs into the Hudson River has resulted in contaminant concentrations of a few tenths of a microgram per liter in the water. Waterford is one of two large municipal users of the Hudson River for drinking-water supply. The treatment scheme at the Waterford plant, which processes approximately 1 million gallons per day, is similar to that of most conventional treatment plants except for the addition of powdered activated carbon during flocculation. Comparison of PCB concentrations in river water and intake water at the plant to concentrations in treated drinking-water samples indicates that purification processes remove 80 to 90 percent of the PCBs and that final concentrations seldom exceed 0.1 microgram per liter. No significant difference was noted between the removal efficiencies during periods of high river discharge, when PCBs are associated with suspended sediment, and low discharge, when PCBs are generally dissolved. (USGS)

  2. Cardiovascular responses to water drinking: does osmolality play a role?

    PubMed

    Brown, Clive M; Barberini, Luc; Dulloo, Abdul G; Montani, Jean-Pierre

    2005-12-01

    Water drinking activates the autonomic nervous system and induces acute hemodynamic changes. The actual stimulus for these effects is undetermined but might be related to either gastric distension or to osmotic factors. In the present study, we tested whether the cardiovascular responses to water drinking are related to water's relative hypoosmolality. Therefore, we compared the cardiovascular effects of a water drink (7.5 ml/kg body wt) with an identical volume of a physiological (0.9%) saline solution in nine healthy subjects (6 male, 3 female, aged 26 +/- 2 years), while continuously monitoring beat-to-beat blood pressure (finger plethysmography), cardiac intervals (electrocardiography), and cardiac output (thoracic impedance). Total peripheral resistance was calculated as mean blood pressure/cardiac output. Cardiac interval variability (high-frequency power) was assessed by spectral analysis as an index of cardiac vagal tone. Baroreceptor sensitivity was evaluated using the sequence technique. Drinking water, but not saline, decreased heart rate (P = 0.01) and increased total peripheral resistance (P < 0.01), high-frequency cardiac interval variability (P = 0.03), and baroreceptor sensitivity (P = 0.01). Neither water nor saline substantially increased blood pressure. These responses suggest that water drinking simultaneously increases sympathetic vasoconstrictor activity and cardiac vagal tone. That these effects were absent after drinking physiological saline indicate that the cardiovascular responses to water drinking are influenced by its hypoosmotic properties.

  3. SMALL DRINKING WATER SYSTEMS: STATE OF THE INDUSTRY AND TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES TO MEET THE SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT REQUIREMENTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report reviews current national data for small drinking water treatment systems, regulations pertaining to small systems, current treatment technologies, disposal of wastes, source water protection, security, and monitoring. The document serves as a roadmap for future small...

  4. [Justification of the significance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa index in assessing the quality of drinking water].

    PubMed

    Ivanova, L V; Artemova, T Z; Gipp, E K; Zagaĭnova, A V; Maksimkina, T N; Krasniak, A V; Korneĭchuk, S S

    2013-01-01

    The analysis of literature data was carried out and performed research justifying the epidemic value of detection in water P. aeruginosa in drinking and domestic water use. The were revealed features of the vital activity of P aeruginosa in water bodies as opposed to conventional microbiological indicators. It was shown that the coliform group indices can not guarantee the epidemic safety of drinking water use in relation to P aeruginosa. The data obtained justify the need for the introduction of P aeruginosa as an additional index in monitoring the water quality of centralized and decentralized water supply.

  5. Deriving uncertainty factors for threshold chemical contaminants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Leonard; Totman, Céline; Krishnan, Kannan; Carrier, Richard; Vézina, Anne; Morisset, Véronique

    2007-10-01

    Uncertainty factors are used in the development of drinking-water guidelines to account for uncertainties in the database, including extrapolations of toxicity from animal studies and variability within humans, which result in some uncertainty about risk. The application of uncertainty factors is entrenched in toxicological risk assessment worldwide, but is not applied consistently. This report, prepared in collaboration with Health Canada, provides an assessment of the derivation of the uncertainty factor assumptions used in developing drinking-water quality guidelines for chemical contaminants. Assumptions used by Health Canada in the development of guidelines were compared to several other major regulatory jurisdictions. This assessment has revealed that uncertainty factor assumptions have been substantially influenced by historical practice. While the application of specific uncertainty factors appears to be well entrenched in regulatory practice, a well-documented and disciplined basis for the selection of these factors was not apparent in any of the literature supporting the default assumptions of Canada, the United States, Australia, or the World Health Organization. While there is a basic scheme used in most cases in developing drinking-water quality guidelines for nonthreshold contaminants by the jurisdictions included in this report, additional factors are sometimes included to account for other areas of uncertainty. These factors may include extrapolating subchronic data to anticipated chronic exposure, or use of a LOAEL instead of a NOAEL. The default value attributed to each uncertainty factor is generally a factor of 3 or 10; however, again, no comprehensive guidance to develop and apply these additional uncertainty factors was evident from the literature reviewed. A decision tree has been developed to provide guidance for selection of appropriate uncertainty factors, to account for the range of uncertainty encountered in the risk assessment process

  6. Deriving uncertainty factors for threshold chemical contaminants in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Ritter, Leonard; Totman, Céline; Krishnan, Kannan; Carrier, Richard; Vézina, Anne; Morisset, Véronique

    2007-10-01

    Uncertainty factors are used in the development of drinking-water guidelines to account for uncertainties in the database, including extrapolations of toxicity from animal studies and variability within humans, which result in some uncertainty about risk. The application of uncertainty factors is entrenched in toxicological risk assessment worldwide, but is not applied consistently. This report, prepared in collaboration with Health Canada, provides an assessment of the derivation of the uncertainty factor assumptions used in developing drinking-water quality guidelines for chemical contaminants. Assumptions used by Health Canada in the development of guidelines were compared to several other major regulatory jurisdictions. This assessment has revealed that uncertainty factor assumptions have been substantially influenced by historical practice. While the application of specific uncertainty factors appears to be well entrenched in regulatory practice, a well-documented and disciplined basis for the selection of these factors was not apparent in any of the literature supporting the default assumptions of Canada, the United States, Australia, or the World Health Organization. While there is a basic scheme used in most cases in developing drinking-water quality guidelines for nonthreshold contaminants by the jurisdictions included in this report, additional factors are sometimes included to account for other areas of uncertainty. These factors may include extrapolating subchronic data to anticipated chronic exposure, or use of a LOAEL instead of a NOAEL. The default value attributed to each uncertainty factor is generally a factor of 3 or 10; however, again, no comprehensive guidance to develop and apply these additional uncertainty factors was evident from the literature reviewed. A decision tree has been developed to provide guidance for selection of appropriate uncertainty factors, to account for the range of uncertainty encountered in the risk assessment process

  7. Occurrence and elimination of cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water treatment plants

    SciTech Connect

    Hoeger, Stefan J.; Hitzfeld, Bettina C.; Dietrich, Daniel R

    2005-03-15

    Toxin-producing cyanobacteria (blue-green algae) are abundant in surface waters used as drinking water resources. The toxicity of one group of these toxins, the microcystins, and their presence in surface waters used for drinking water production has prompted the World Health Organization (WHO) to publish a provisional guideline value of 1.0 {mu}g microcystin (MC)-LR/l drinking water. To verify the efficiency of two different water treatment systems with respect to reduction of cyanobacterial toxins, the concentrations of MC in water samples from surface waters and their associated water treatment plants in Switzerland and Germany were investigated. Toxin concentrations in samples from drinking water treatment plants ranged from below 1.0 {mu}g MC-LR equiv./l to more than 8.0 {mu}g/l in raw water and were distinctly below 1.0 {mu}g/l after treatment. In addition, data to the worldwide occurrence of cyanobacteria in raw and final water of water works and the corresponding guidelines for cyanobacterial toxins in drinking water worldwide are summarized.

  8. An inflight refill unit for replenishing research animal drinking water

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Savage, P. D.; Hines, M. L.; Barnes, R.

    1995-01-01

    This paper presents the design process and development approach for a method of maintaining sufficient quantities of water for research animals during a Shuttle mission of long duration. An inflight refill unit (IRU) consisting of two major subsystems, a fluid pumping unit (FPU) and a collapsible water reservoir (CWR), were developed. The FPU provides the system measurement and controls, pump, water lines, and plumbing necessary to collect water coming into the unit from the potable water system and pump it out into the RAHF drinking water tanks. The CWR is a Kevlar (TM) reinforced storage bladder connected to the FPU, which has a capacity of 6 liters in its expanded volume and functions to store the water collected from the potable water system, allowing for transport of the water back to the Spacelab where it is pumped into each of two research animal holding facilities. Additional components of the IRU system include the inlet and outlet fluid hoses, a power cable for providing 29V direct current spacecraft electrical power to the pump within the FPU, a tether system for the unit when in use in Spacelab, and an adapter for mating the unit to the orbiter waste collection system in order to dump excess water after use in Spacelab.

  9. Failure of drinking water sanitisation to reduce the incidence of natural salmonella in broiler chickens.

    PubMed

    Al-Chalaby, Z A; Hinton, M H; Linton, A H

    1985-04-01

    The addition of a sanitiser, containing a mixture of organic acids and other approved additives, to water offered to broiler chickens was effective in eliminating salmonella from the drinking water. However, it failed to influence salmonella carriage by the chickens which were still shedding salmonella at market age (seven weeks old).

  10. Can we protect everybody from drinking water contaminants?

    PubMed

    Howd, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Dozens of chemicals, both natural and manmade, are often found in drinking water. Some, such as the natural contaminants uranium and arsenic, are well-known toxicants with a large toxicology database. Other chemicals, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from leaking fuel tanks, we learn about as we go along. For still others, such as the alkyl benzenes, there are very little available data, and few prospects of obtaining more. In some cases, chemicals are purposely added to drinking water for beneficial purposes (e.g., chlorine, fluoride, alum), which may cause a countervailing hazard. Removing all potentially toxic chemicals from the water is virtually impossible and is precluded for beneficial uses and for economic reasons. Determination of safe levels of chemicals in drinking water merges the available toxicity data with exposure and human effect assumptions into detailed hazard assessments. This process should incorporate as much conservatism as is needed to allow for uncertainty in the toxicity and exposure estimates. Possible sensitive subpopulations such as unborn children, infants, the elderly, and those with common diseases such as impaired kidney function must also be considered. However, the range of sensitivity and the variability of toxicity and exposure parameters can never be fully documented. In addition, the validity of the low-dose extrapolations, and whether the toxic effect found in animals occurs at all in humans, is never clear. This publication discusses how these competing needs and uncertainties intersect in the development of Public Health Goals for uranium, fluoride, arsenic, perchlorate, and other highly debated chemicals.

  11. Can we protect everybody from drinking water contaminants?

    PubMed

    Howd, Robert A

    2002-01-01

    Dozens of chemicals, both natural and manmade, are often found in drinking water. Some, such as the natural contaminants uranium and arsenic, are well-known toxicants with a large toxicology database. Other chemicals, such as methyl tertiary-butyl ether (MTBE) from leaking fuel tanks, we learn about as we go along. For still others, such as the alkyl benzenes, there are very little available data, and few prospects of obtaining more. In some cases, chemicals are purposely added to drinking water for beneficial purposes (e.g., chlorine, fluoride, alum), which may cause a countervailing hazard. Removing all potentially toxic chemicals from the water is virtually impossible and is precluded for beneficial uses and for economic reasons. Determination of safe levels of chemicals in drinking water merges the available toxicity data with exposure and human effect assumptions into detailed hazard assessments. This process should incorporate as much conservatism as is needed to allow for uncertainty in the toxicity and exposure estimates. Possible sensitive subpopulations such as unborn children, infants, the elderly, and those with common diseases such as impaired kidney function must also be considered. However, the range of sensitivity and the variability of toxicity and exposure parameters can never be fully documented. In addition, the validity of the low-dose extrapolations, and whether the toxic effect found in animals occurs at all in humans, is never clear. This publication discusses how these competing needs and uncertainties intersect in the development of Public Health Goals for uranium, fluoride, arsenic, perchlorate, and other highly debated chemicals. PMID:12396685

  12. Public exposure to radon in drinking water in Serbia.

    PubMed

    Todorovic, Natasa; Nikolov, Jovana; Forkapic, Sofija; Bikit, Istvan; Mrdja, Dusan; Krmar, Miodrag; Veskovic, Miroslav

    2012-03-01

    Radon is the main source of natural radiation that is received by population. The results of radon activity measurements in water from public drinking fountain, from bottled drinking water and from tap water in the city of Novi Sad, Serbia, are presented in this paper. The measurements were performed by RAD 7 radon detector manufactured by DURRIDGE COMPANY Inc. The corrected value of radon concentration in one sample exceeded the European Commission recommendation reference level for radon in drinking water of 100 Bql(-1). In order to make the correlation between radon and radium concentrations in the tap water and in the water from public drinking fountain, the gamma-spectrometric measurements were performed. The results of (222)Rn activity concentration measurements from soil in the city of Novi Sad using RAD 7 detector are presented.

  13. Toxicological relevance of emerging contaminants for drinking water quality.

    PubMed

    Schriks, Merijn; Heringa, Minne B; van der Kooi, Margaretha M E; de Voogt, Pim; van Wezel, Annemarie P

    2010-01-01

    The detection of many new compounds in surface water, groundwater and drinking water raises considerable public concern, especially when human health based guideline values are not available it is questioned if detected concentrations affect human health. In an attempt to address this question, we derived provisional drinking water guideline values for a selection of 50 emerging contaminants relevant for drinking water and the water cycle. For only 10 contaminants, statutory guideline values were available. Provisional drinking water guideline values were based upon toxicological literature data. The maximum concentration levels reported in surface waters, groundwater and/or drinking water were compared to the (provisional) guideline values of the contaminants thus obtained, and expressed as Benchmark Quotient (BQ) values. We focused on occurrence data in the downstream parts of the Rhine and Meuse river basins. The results show that for the majority of compounds a substantial margin of safety exists between the maximum concentration in surface water, groundwater and/or drinking water and the (provisional) guideline value. The present assessment therefore supports the conclusion that the majority of the compounds evaluated pose individually no appreciable concern to human health.

  14. Diversity and significance of mold species in Norwegian drinking water.

    PubMed

    Hageskal, Gunhild; Knutsen, Ann Kristin; Gaustad, Peter; de Hoog, G Sybren; Skaar, Ida

    2006-12-01

    In order to determine the occurrence, distribution, and significance of mold species in groundwater- and surface water-derived drinking water in Norway, molds isolated from 273 water samples were identified. Samples of raw water, treated water, and water from private homes and hospital installations were analyzed by incubation of 100-ml membrane-filtered samples on dichloran-18% glycerol agar. The total count (number of CFU per 100 ml) of fungal species and the species diversity within each sample were determined. The identification of mold species was based on morphological and molecular methods. In total, 94 mold species belonging to 30 genera were identified. The mycobiota was dominated by species of Penicillium, Trichoderma, and Aspergillus, with some of them occurring throughout the drinking water system. Several of the same species as isolated from water may have the potential to cause allergic reactions or disease in humans. Other species are common contaminants of food and beverages, and some may cause unwanted changes in the taste or smell of water. The present results indicate that the mycobiota of water should be considered when the microbiological safety and quality of drinking water are assessed. In fact, molds in drinking water should possibly be included in the Norwegian water supply and drinking water regulations.

  15. An assessment of drinking-water quality post-Haiyan

    PubMed Central

    Anarna, Maria Sonabel; Fernando, Arturo

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Access to safe drinking-water is one of the most important public health concerns in an emergency setting. This descriptive study reports on an assessment of water quality in drinking-water supply systems in areas affected by Typhoon Haiyan immediately following and 10 months after the typhoon. Methods Water quality testing and risk assessments of the drinking-water systems were conducted three weeks and 10 months post-Haiyan. Portable test kits were used to determine the presence of Escherichia coli and the level of residual chlorine in water samples. The level of risk was fed back to the water operators for their action. Results Of the 121 water samples collected three weeks post-Haiyan, 44% were contaminated, while 65% (244/373) of samples were found positive for E. coli 10 months post-Haiyan. For the three components of drinking-water systems – source, storage and distribution – the proportions of contaminated systems were 70%, 67% and 57%, respectively, 10 months after Haiyan. Discussion Vulnerability to faecal contamination was attributed to weak water safety programmes in the drinking-water supply systems. Poor water quality can be prevented or reduced by developing and implementing a water safety plan for the systems. This, in turn, will help prevent waterborne disease outbreaks caused by contaminated water post-disaster. PMID:26767136

  16. Detection of enteroviruses in untreated and treated drinking water supplies in South Africa.

    PubMed

    Ehlers, M M; Grabow, W O K; Pavlov, D N

    2005-06-01

    Enteric viruses have been detected in many drinking water supplies all over the world. A meaningful number of these supplies were treated and disinfected according to internationally acceptable methods. In addition, counts of bacterial indicators (coliform bacteria and heterotrophic plate count organisms) in these water supplies were within limits generally recommended for treated drinking water and these findings have been supported by epidemiological data on infections associated with drinking water. The shortcomings of conventional treatment methods and indicator organisms to confirm the absence of enteric viruses from drinking water, was generally ascribed to the exceptional resistance of these viruses. In this study, the prevalence of enteroviruses detected from July 2000 to June 2002 in sewage, river-, borehole-, spring- and dam water as well as drinking water supplies treated and disinfected according to international specifications for the production of safe drinking water was analysed. A glass wool adsorption-elution technique was used to recover viruses from 10--20 l of sewage as well as environmental water samples, in the case of drinking water from more than 100 l. Recovered enteroviruses were inoculated onto two cell culture types (BGM and PLC/PRF/5 cells) for amplification of viral RNA with nested-PCR being used to detect the amplified viral RNA. Results from the study demonstrated the presence of enteroviruses in 42.5% of sewage and in 18.7% of treated drinking water samples. Furthermore, enteroviruses were detected in 28.5% of river water, in 26.7% of dam/spring water and in 25.3% of borehole water samples. The high prevalence of coxsackie B viruses found in this study suggested, that a potential health risk and a burden of disease constituted by these viruses might be meaningful. These findings indicated that strategies, other than end-point analysis of treated and disinfected drinking water supplies, may be required to ensure the production of

  17. Contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water from pharmaceutical production.

    PubMed

    Fick, Jerker; Söderström, Hanna; Lindberg, Richard H; Phan, Chau; Tysklind, Mats; Larsson, D G Joakim

    2009-12-01

    Low levels of pharmaceuticals are detected in surface, ground, and drinking water worldwide. Usage and incorrect disposal have been considered the major environmental sources of these microcontaminants. Recent publications, however, suggest that wastewater from drug production can potentially be a source of much higher concentrations in certain locations. The present study investigated the environmental fate of active pharmaceutical ingredients in a major production area for the global bulk drug market. Water samples were taken from a common effluent treatment plant near Hyderabad, India, which receives process water from approximately 90 bulk drug manufacturers. Surface water was analyzed from the recipient stream and from two lakes that are not contaminated by the treatment plant. Water samples were also taken from wells in six nearby villages. The samples were analyzed for the presence of 12 pharmaceuticals with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. All wells were determined to be contaminated with drugs. Ciprofloxacin, enoxacin, cetirizine, terbinafine, and citalopram were detected at more than 1 microg/L in several wells. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (14 mg/L) and cetirizine (2.1 mg/L) were found in the effluent of the treatment plant, together with high concentrations of seven additional pharmaceuticals. Very high concentrations of ciprofloxacin (up to 6.5 mg/L), cetirizine (up to 1.2 mg/L), norfloxacin (up to 0.52 mg/L), and enoxacin (up to 0.16 mg/L) were also detected in the two lakes, which clearly shows that the investigated area has additional environmental sources of insufficiently treated industrial waste. Thus, insufficient wastewater management in one of the world's largest centers for bulk drug production leads to unprecedented drug contamination of surface, ground, and drinking water. This raises serious concerns regarding the development of antibiotic resistance, and it creates a major challenge for producers and regulatory

  18. Does calcium in drinking water modify the association between nitrate in drinking water and risk of death from colon cancer?

    PubMed

    Chiu, Hui-Fen; Tsai, Shang-Shyue; Chen, Pei-Shih; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-09-01

    The objective of this study was to explore whether calcium (Ca) levels in drinking water modified the effects of nitrate on colon cancer risk. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from colon cancer and exposure to nitrate in drinking water in Taiwan. All colon cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2007 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cases by gender, year of birth and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO(3)-N) and Ca in drinking water have been collected from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cases and controls was assumed to be the source of the subject's NO(3)-N and Ca exposure via drinking water. We observed evidence of an interaction between drinking water NO(3)-N and Ca intake via drinking water. This is the first study to report effect modification by Ca intake from drinking water on the association between NO(3)-N exposure and risk of colon cancer mortality.

  19. Future challenges to protecting public health from drinking-water contaminants.

    PubMed

    Murphy, Eileen A; Post, Gloria B; Buckley, Brian T; Lippincott, Robert L; Robson, Mark G

    2012-04-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation.

  20. Future Challenges to Protecting Public Health from Drinking-Water Contaminants

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, Eileen A.; Post, Gloria B.; Buckley, Brian T.; Lippincott, Robert L.; Robson, Mark G.

    2014-01-01

    Over the past several decades, human health protection for chemical contaminants in drinking water has been accomplished by development of chemical-specific standards. This approach alone is not feasible to address current issues of the occurrence of multiple contaminants in drinking water, some of which have little health effects information, and water scarcity. In this article, we describe the current chemical-specific paradigm for regulating chemicals in drinking water and discuss some potential additional approaches currently being explored to focus more on sustaining quality water for specific purposes. Also discussed are strategies being explored by the federal government to screen more efficiently the toxicity of large numbers of chemicals to prioritize further intensive testing. Water reuse and water treatment are described as sustainable measures for managing water resources for potable uses as well as other uses such as irrigation. PMID:22224887

  1. First investigations into the prevalence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia spp. in Hungarian drinking water.

    PubMed

    Plutzer, J; Takó, M H; Márialigeti, K; Törökné, A; Karanis, P

    2007-12-01

    Safe drinking water is a top priority in preventing disease outbreaks and is of general concern to everyone. This study examines the occurrence of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Hungarian drinking water supplies for the first time. A total of 76 raw and drinking water samples were examined using the U.S. EPA Method 1623. From these 15 of 34 (48.4%) raw water samples tested positive for Giardia and 7 (26.6%) for Cryptosporidium. Twelve of 45 (26.7%) drinking water samples were positive for Giardia and 6 (13.3%) for Cryptosporidium. Overall, Giardia cysts and/or Cryptosporidium oocysts were detected in 48% of the raw water samples and 35% of the drinking water samples. The highest levels in drinking water were found to be 3 oocysts/100 litres of Cryptosporidium and 63.6 cysts/100 litres for Giardia, enough to cause giardiasis. The highest levels in raw water were 1,030 cysts/100 litres for Giardia and 50 oocysts/100 litres for Cryptosporidium and higher oocyst densities were associated with source water receiving effluents from sewage treatment plants or originating from a forest environment. In addition to this monitoring, riverbank filtrated water and raw water from the River Danube in Budapest were monitored in order to ascertain protozoan removal efficiency of riverbank filtration (RBF). A total of 157 samples, including 87 samples from the River Danube and 70 samples post RBF, were examined. Cryptosporidium and Giardia were detected regularly in the river water but never in riverbank filtered water suggesting the effectiveness of RBF as a purification method. The occurrence of Cryptosporidium oocysts and Giardia cysts in the investigated water supplies may require the water utilities and water authorities in Hungary to apply additional monitoring and treatment and/or watershed controls.

  2. Time to revisit arsenic regulations: comparing drinking water and rice

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Current arsenic regulations focus on drinking water without due consideration for dietary uptake and thus seem incoherent with respect to the risks arising from rice consumption. Existing arsenic guidelines are a cost-benefit compromise and, as such, they should be periodically re-evaluated. Discussion Literature data was used to compare arsenic exposure from rice consumption relative to exposure arising from drinking water. Standard risk assessment paradigms show that arsenic regulations for drinking water should target a maximum concentration of nearly zero to prevent excessive lung and bladder cancer risks (among others). A feasibility threshold of 3 μg As l-1 was determined, but a cost-benefit analysis concluded that it would be too expensive to target a threshold below 10 μg As l-1. Data from the literature was used to compare exposure to arsenic from rice and rice product consumption relative to drinking water consumption. The exposure to arsenic from rice consumption can easily be equivalent to or greater than drinking water exposure that already exceeds standard risks and is based on feasibility and cost-benefit compromises. It must also be emphasized that many may disagree with the implications for their own health given the abnormally high cancer odds expected at the cost-benefit arsenic threshold. Summary Tighter drinking water quality criteria should be implemented to properly protect people from excessive cancer risks. Food safety regulations must be put in place to prevent higher concentrations of arsenic in various drinks than those allowed in drinking water. Arsenic concentrations in rice should be regulated so as to roughly equate the risks and exposure levels observed from drinking water. PMID:24884827

  3. Organochlorine pesticides residues in bottled drinking water from Mexico City.

    PubMed

    Díaz, Gilberto; Ortiz, Rutilio; Schettino, Beatriz; Vega, Salvador; Gutiérrez, Rey

    2009-06-01

    This work describes concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in bottled drinking water (BDW) in Mexico City. The results of 36 samples (1.5 and 19 L presentations, 18 samples, respectively) showed the presence of seven pesticides (HCH isomers, heptachlor, aldrin, and p,p'-DDE) in bottled water compared with the drinking water standards set by NOM-127-SSA1-1994, EPA, and World Health Organization. The concentrations of the majority of organochlorine pesticides were within drinking water standards (0.01 ng/mL) except for beta-HCH of BW 3, 5, and 6 samples with values of 0.121, 0.136, and 0.192 ng/mL, respectively. It is important monitoring drinking bottled water for protecting human health.

  4. [Research development on disinfection technology for viruses in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yun; Zhang, Qiang; Liu, Yan; Dai, Ruihua; Liu, Xiang

    2010-09-01

    With the deterioration of water source pollution, the quality requirements for drinking water of countries will become stricter and stricter, and the microbe index has been one of the important aspects. The introduction of the virus index and the development of disinfection technology focusing on virus have significant importance for the improvement of the drinking water standards and for the protection of people health in every country. To be familiar with the domestic and abroad research development of the disinfection control technology focusing on virus provides certain theory guidance and technological support for continuously improving drinking water standard in our country and for establishing safer drinking water processing technologies. So, this article will comprehensively describes 4 aspects: resistance comparison of virus over every disinfection technology, influential factors of disinfection, research development of new technology, and the mechanisms.

  5. Unsealed Tubewells Lead to Increased Fecal Contamination of Drinking Water

    PubMed Central

    Knappett, Peter S. K.; McKay, Larry D.; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E.; Alam, Md. J.; Mailloux, Brian J.; Ferguson, Andrew S.; Culligan, Patricia J.; Serre, Marc L.; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M.; Sayler, Gary S.; van Geen, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, 6 unsealed) were monitored for cultured E. coli over 18 months. Additionally, two “snap shot” sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (ETEC E. coli), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using qPCR. No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained cultured E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p<0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality. PMID:23165714

  6. Unsealed tubewells lead to increased fecal contamination of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Knappett, Peter S K; McKay, Larry D; Layton, Alice; Williams, Daniel E; Alam, Md J; Mailloux, Brian J; Ferguson, Andrew S; Culligan, Patricia J; Serre, Marc L; Emch, Michael; Ahmed, Kazi M; Sayler, Gary S; van Geen, Alexander

    2012-12-01

    Bangladesh is underlain by shallow aquifers in which millions of drinking water wells are emplaced without annular seals. Fecal contamination has been widely detected in private tubewells. To evaluate the impact of well construction on microbial water quality 35 private tubewells (11 with intact cement platforms, 19 without) and 17 monitoring wells (11 with the annulus sealed with cement, six unsealed) were monitored for culturable Escherichia coli over 18 months. Additionally, two 'snapshot' sampling events were performed on a subset of wells during late-dry and early-wet seasons, wherein the fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) E. coli, Bacteroidales and the pathogenicity genes eltA (enterotoxigenic E. coli; ETEC), ipaH (Shigella) and 40/41 hexon (adenovirus) were detected using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). No difference in E. coli detection frequency was found between tubewells with and without platforms. Unsealed private wells, however, contained culturable E. coli more frequently and higher concentrations of FIB than sealed monitoring wells (p < 0.05), suggestive of rapid downward flow along unsealed annuli. As a group the pathogens ETEC, Shigella and adenovirus were detected more frequently (10/22) during the wet season than the dry season (2/20). This suggests proper sealing of private tubewell annuli may lead to substantial improvements in microbial drinking water quality.

  7. Microbiological safety of drinking water: United States and global perspectives.

    PubMed Central

    Ford, T E

    1999-01-01

    Waterborne disease statistics only begin to estimate the global burden of infectious diseases from contaminated drinking water. Diarrheal disease is dramatically underreported and etiologies seldom diagnosed. This review examines available data on waterborne disease incidence both in the United States and globally together with its limitations. The waterborne route of transmission is examined for bacterial, protozoal, and viral pathogens that either are frequently associated with drinking water (e.g., Shigella spp.), or for which there is strong evidence implicating the waterborne route of transmission (e.g., Leptospira spp.). In addition, crucial areas of research are discussed, including risks from selection of treatment-resistant pathogens, importance of environmental reservoirs, and new methodologies for pathogen-specific monitoring. To accurately assess risks from waterborne disease, it is necessary to understand pathogen distribution and survival strategies within water distribution systems and to apply methodologies that can detect not only the presence, but also the viability and infectivity of the pathogen. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:10229718

  8. Safe and Affordable Drinking Water for Developing Countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gadgil, Ashok

    2008-09-01

    Safe drinking water remains inaccessible for about 1.2 billion people in the world, and the hourly toll from biological contamination of drinking water is 200 deaths mostly among children under five years of age. This chapter summarizes the need for safe drinking water, the scale of the global problem, and various methods tried to address it. Then it gives the history and current status of an innovation ("UV Waterworks™") developed to address this major public health challenge. It reviews water disinfection technologies applicable to achieve the desired quality of drinking water in developing countries, and specifically, the limitations overcome by one particular invention: UV Waterworks. It then briefly describes the business model and financing option than is accelerating its implementation for affordable access to safe drinking water to the unserved populations in these countries. Thus this chapter describes not only the innovation in design of a UV water disinfection system, but also innovation in the delivery model for safe drinking water, with potential for long term growth and sustainability.

  9. Drinking water infrastructure and environmental disparities: evidence and methodological considerations.

    PubMed

    VanDerslice, James

    2011-12-01

    Potable drinking water is essential to public health; however, few studies have investigated income or racial disparities in water infrastructure or drinking water quality. There were many case reports documenting a lack of piped water or serious water quality problems in low income and minority communities, including tribal lands, Alaskan Native villages, colonias along the United States-Mexico border, and small communities in agricultural areas. Only 3 studies compared the demographic characteristics of communities by the quality of their drinking water, and the results were mixed in these studies. Further assessments were hampered by difficulties linking specific water systems to the sociodemographic characteristics of communities, as well as little information about how well water systems operated and the effectiveness of governmental oversight.

  10. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health.

  11. The U.S. Geological Survey Drinking Water Initiative

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    1997-01-01

    Safe drinking-water supplies are critical to maintaining and preserving public health. Although the Nation's drinking water is generally safe, natural and introduced contaminants in water supplies throughout the country have adversely affected human health. This new U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) initiative will provide information on the vulnerability of water supplies to be used by water-supply and regulatory agencies who must balance water-supply protection with the wise use of public funds. Using the results of the initiative, they will be better able to focus on the supplies most at risk and the variability of contaminants of most concern, and so address the mandates of the Safe Drinking Water Act. With its store of geologic, hydrologic, and land use and land cover data and its network of information in every State, the USGS can help to identify potential sources of contamination, delineate source areas, determine the vulnerability of waters to potential contamination, and evaluate strategies being used to protect source waters in light of the scientific information available. Many recent and ongoing studies by the USGS concern drinking-water issues. This fact sheet highlights four particular studies begun under the Drinking Water Initiative.

  12. Drinking-water quality management: the Australian framework.

    PubMed

    Sinclair, Martha; Rizak, Samantha

    The most effective means of assuring drinking-water quality and the protection of public health is through adoption of a preventive management approach that encompasses all steps in water production from catchment to consumer. However, the reliance of current regulatory structures on compliance monitoring of treated water tends to promote a reactive management style where corrective actions are initiated after monitoring reveals that prescribed levels have been exceeded, and generally after consumers have received the noncomplying water. Unfortunately, the important limitations of treated water monitoring are often not appreciated, and there is a widespread tendency to assume that intensification of compliance monitoring or lowering of compliance limits is an effective strategy to improving the protection of public health. To address these issues and emphasize the role of preventive system management, the Australian National Health and Medical Research Council in collaboration with the Co-operative Research Centre for Water Quality and Treatment has developed a comprehensive quality management approach for drinking water. This Framework for Management of Drinking Water Quality will assist water suppliers in providing a higher level of assurance for drinking water quality and safety. The framework integrates quality and risk management principles, and provides a comprehensive, flexible, and proactive means of optimizing, drinking-water quality and protecting public health. It does not eliminate the requirement for compliance monitoring but allows it to be viewed in the proper perspective as providing verification that preventive measures are effective, rather than as the primary means of protecting public health. PMID:15371202

  13. The persistence of Mycobacterium avium in a drinking water system, what is the risk to human health?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Drinking water is believed to be a major source of human exposure to nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) such as Mycobacterium avium. We monitored the prevalence of M. avium in a drinking water system during the addition of filtration treatment. Our goal was to determine if the pre...

  14. INTEGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  15. INTERGRATING SOURCE WATER PROTECTION AND DRINKING WATER TREATMENT: U.S. ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY'S WATER SUPPLY AND WATER RESOURCES DIVISION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Water Supply and Water Resources Division (WSWRD) is an internationally recognized water research organization established to assist in responding to public health concerns related to drinking water supplies. WSWRD has evolved from...

  16. [DIRECTIONALITY OF THE BIOLOGICAL EFFECT OF DRINKING WATER].

    PubMed

    Gibert, K K; Karasev, A K; Marasanov, A V; Stekhin, A A; Iakovleva, G V

    2015-01-01

    There have been performed the studies of the dimensional parameters of peroxide associates in drinking water, per- forming regulatory functions in cellular metabolism, that determine the character of the biological response of the human body to drinking water The direction of action of peroxide associates type Σ [(HO2-(*) ... OH-(*) (H2O) tp)]q, (where (H2O) tp is an associate with the tetragonal structure (Walrafen pentamer Is ice VI), q is the degree of association p--parameter of ion coordination) on the cellular structures of the organism is associated with their quantum properties, determining the macroscopic parameters of the electron wave packets. Research has confirmed the addressness of the nonlocal entering electron to certain cellular structures of the body, which is determined by the structural similarity of centers of condensation of electrons in the cells of systems and organs of the body with the parameters of the electron wave packets in the associates. Methodology for the estimation of the orientation of biological effect of the drinking water to the systems of the body on the base of the analysis of variations in heart rhythm under non-contact influence of water on the human body and its relationship with the dimensional parameters and peroxide activity of associates in drinking water can be suggested for the implementation of screening tests for drinking water quality, taking into account both the individualfeatures of responses of body systems to drinking water and its group action.

  17. Arsenic drinking water regulations in developing countries with extensive exposure.

    PubMed

    Smith, Allan H; Smith, Meera M Hira

    2004-05-20

    The United States Public Health Service set an interim standard of 50 microg/l in 1942, but as early as 1962 the US Public Health Service had identified 10 microg/l as a goal which later became the World Health Organization Guideline for drinking water in 1992. Epidemiological studies have shown that about one in 10 people drinking water containing 500 microg/l of arsenic over many years may die from internal cancers attributable to arsenic, with lung cancer being the surprising main contributor. A prudent public health response is to reduce the permissible drinking water arsenic concentrations. However, the appropriate regulatory response in those developing countries with large populations with much higher concentrations of arsenic in drinking water, often exceeding 100 microg/l, is more complex. Malnutrition may increase risks from arsenic. There is mounting evidence that smoking and arsenic act synergistically in causing lung cancer, and smoking raises issues of public health priorities in developing countries that face massive mortality from this product. Also, setting stringent drinking water standards will impede short term solutions such as shallow dugwells. Developing countries with large populations exposed to arsenic in water might reasonably be advised to keep their arsenic drinking water standards at 50 microg/l.

  18. Can drinking water standards be reliably derived from industrial TLVs?

    PubMed

    Calabrese, E J

    1979-06-01

    The accuracy of TLV derived drinking water standards is evaluated. When using the identical TLV conversion methodology which Stokinger and Woodward (1) used in deriving the standard for barium in drinking water, standards for arsenic, cadmium, chromium and lead offer 6, 200, 60, and 10 times less protection than the present drinking water standards, respectively. However, using the same methodology, the TLV derived drinking water standard for fluoride offers greater protection than the present standard by a factor of approximately 2. Thus, the use of the TLV conversion factor should be viewed in as one of many lines of potential evidence which should be reviewed in the standard derivation process - but it should not, if at all possible, be considered alone - as in the case of barium.

  19. MOLECULAR DIVERSITY OF DRINKING WATER MICROBIAL COMMUNITIES: A PHYLOGENETIC APPROACH

    EPA Science Inventory

    Culture-based methods are traditionally used to determine microbiological quality of drinking water even though these methods are highly selective and tend to underestimate the densities and diversity bacterial populations inhabiting distribution systems. In order to better under...

  20. Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Strategies

    EPA Science Inventory

    Radium and Other Radiological Chemicals: Drinking Water Treatment Technologies Topics include: Introduction to Rad Chemistry, Summary of the Rad, Regulations Treatment Technology, and Disposal. The introductions cover atoms, ions, radium and uranium and the removal of radioac...

  1. REMOVAL OF URANIUM FROM DRINKING WATER BY CONVENTIONAL TREATMENT METHODS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The USEPA currently does not regulate uranium in drinking water but will be revising the radionuclide regulations during 1989 and will propose a maximum contaminant level for uranium. The paper presents treatment technology information on the effectiveness of conventional method...

  2. EPA Study of Hydraulic Fracturing and Drinking Water Resources

    EPA Science Inventory

    In its FY2010 Appropriations Committee Conference Report, Congress directed EPA to study the relationship between hydraulic fracturing and drinking water, using: • Best available science • Independent sources of information • Transparent, peer-reviewed process • Consultatio...

  3. IDENTIFICATION OF TI02/UV DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Due to concern over the presence of trihalomethanes (THMs) and other chlorinated byproducts in chlorinated drinking water, alternative disinfection methods are being explored. One of the alternative treatment methods currently being evaluated for potential use with small systems ...

  4. Fate of High Priority Pesticides During Drinking Water Treatment

    EPA Science Inventory

    The fate of organophosphorus (OP) pesticides in the presence of chlorinated oxidants was investigated under drinking water treatment conditions. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, intrinsic rate coefficients were found for the reaction of hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion ...

  5. Monochloramine Cometabolism by Nitrosomonas europaea under Drinking Water Conditions

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chloramine use is widespread in United States drinking water systems as a secondary disinfectant. While beneficial from the perspective of controlling disinfectant by-product formation, chloramination may promote the growth of nitrifying bacteria because ammonia is present. At ...

  6. Scientific and Regulatory Challenges of Controlling Lead in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    Safe Drinking Water Act 1986 Amendments Corrections when necessary, mandatory review every 6 years Lead and Copper Rule section of SDWA Proposed 1988 Proposal revised and promulgated 1991 Many minor revisions, primarily administrative clarifications Major admin. revisions and te...

  7. DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BY-PRODUCTS: WHAT IS KNOWN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Chlorine, ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine are currently the major disinfectants being used to disinfect drinking water. Although the alternative disinfectants (ozone, chlorine dioxide, and chloramine) are increasing in popularity in the United States, chlorine is still us...

  8. Communicating Research to Small Drinking Water Systems: Dissemination by Researchers

    EPA Science Inventory

    This talk discusses the challenges of disseminating research relevant to small systems. The presentation discusses efforts by the U.S. EPA’s Office of Research and Development to effectively communicating drinking water information. In particular, communication approaches ...

  9. Institutional solutions to drinking water problems: Maine case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1993-03-01

    The paper recounts how four Maine communities sought and found institutional solutions to drinking water problems. Each scenario describes the system, outlines the problems, reviews the chronology of events, points out the lessons learned and gives the system's current status.

  10. Chloramination of Organophosphorus Pesticides Found in Drinking Water Sources

    EPA Science Inventory

    The degradation of commonly detected organophosphorus (OP) pesticides, in drinking water sources, was investigated under simulated chloramination conditions. Due to monochloramine autodecomposition, it is difficult to observe the direct reaction of monochloramine with each OP pe...

  11. Seasonal dynamics of bacterial community structure and composition in cold and hot drinking water derived from surface water reservoirs.

    PubMed

    Henne, Karsten; Kahlisch, Leila; Höfle, Manfred G; Brettar, Ingrid

    2013-10-01

    In temperate regions, seasonal variability of environmental factors affects the bacterial community in source water and finished drinking water. Therefore, the bacterial core community and its seasonal variability in cold and the respective hot drinking water was investigated. The bacterial core community was studied by 16S rRNA-based SSCP fingerprint analyses and band sequencing of DNA and RNA extracts of cold and hot water (60 °C). The bacterial communities of cold and hot drinking water showed a highly different structure and phylogenetic composition both for RNA and DNA extracts. For cold drinking water substantial seasonal dynamics of the bacterial community was observed related to environmental factors such as temperature and precipitation affecting source and drinking water. Phylogenetic analyses of the cold water community indicated that the majority of phylotypes were very closely affiliated with those detected in former studies of the same drinking water supply system (DWSS) in the preceding 6 years, indicating a high stability over time. The hot water community was very stable over time and seasons and highly distinct from the cold water with respect to structure and composition. The hot water community displayed a lower diversity and its phylotypes were mostly affiliated with bacteria of high temperature habitats with high growth rates indicated by their high RNA content. The conversion of the cold to the hot water bacterial community is considered as occurring within a few hours by the following two processes, i) by decay of most of the cold water bacteria due to heating, and ii) rapid growth of the high temperature adapted bacteria present in the hot water (co-heated with the cold water in the same device) using the nutrients released from the decaying cold water bacteria. The high temperature adapted bacteria originated partially from low abundant but beforehand detected members of the cold water; additionally, the rare members ("seed bank ") of the

  12. Designing water supplies: Optimizing drinking water composition for maximum economic benefit.

    PubMed

    Rygaard, M; Arvin, E; Bath, A; Binning, P J

    2011-06-01

    It is possible to optimize drinking water composition based on a valuation of the impacts of changed water quality. This paper introduces a method for assessing the potential for designing an optimum drinking water composition by the use of membrane desalination and remineralization. The method includes modeling of possible water quality blends and an evaluation of corrosion indices. Based on concentration-response relationships a range of impacts on public health, material lifetimes and consumption of soap have been valued for Perth, Western Australia and Copenhagen, Denmark. In addition to water quality aspects, costs of water production, fresh water abstraction and CO(2)-emissions are integrated into a holistic economic assessment of the optimum share of desalinated water in water supplies. Results show that carefully designed desalination post-treatment can have net benefits up to €0.3 ± 0.2 per delivered m(3) for Perth and €0.4(±0.2) for Copenhagen. Costs of remineralization and green house gas emission mitigation are minor when compared to the potential benefits of an optimum water composition. Finally, a set of optimum water quality criteria is proposed for the guidance of water supply planning and management.

  13. Unregulated drinking water initiative for environmental surveillance and public health.

    PubMed

    Backer, Lorraine C; Tosta, Nancy

    2011-03-01

    The critical public health need to assess and protect the drinking water used by 37 million Americans requires attention and resources. NCEH, in partnership with states, has begun the process to identify information available on unregulated drinking water sources to improve the availability of data to support decisive public health actions and resource allocation. Far more attention and resources are needed to complete this process.

  14. Nitrates in drinking water and the risk of death from brain cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Ho, Chi-Kung; Yang, Ya-Hui; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2011-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between nitrate levels in public water supplies and risk of death from brain cancer and (2) determine whether calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg) levels in drinking water might modify the influence of nitrates on development of brain cancer. A matched cancer case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death from brain cancer and exposure to nitrates in drinking water in Taiwan. All brain cancer deaths of Taiwan residents from 2003 through 2008 were obtained from the Bureau of Vital Statistics of the Taiwan Provincial Department of Health. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Information on the levels of nitrate-nitrogen (NO₃-N), Ca, and Mg in drinking water was obtained from Taiwan Water Supply Corporation (TWSC). The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's NO₃-N, Ca, and Mg exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose NO₃-N exposure level was <0.38 ppm, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for brain cancer occurrence was 1.04 (0.85-1.27) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a NO₃-N exposure ≥ 0.38 ppm. No marked effect modification was observed due to Ca and Mg intake via drinking water on brain cancer occurrence.

  15. An Analysis of the Vulnerability of Global Drinking Water Access to Climate-related Hazards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elliott, M.; Banerjee, O.; Christenson, E.; Holcomb, D.; Hamrick, L.; Bartram, J.

    2014-12-01

    Global drinking water access targets are formulated around "sustainable access." Global climate change (GCC) and associated hazards threaten the sustainability of drinking water supply. Extensive literature exists on the impacts of GCC on precipitation and water resources. However, the literature lacks a credible analysis of the vulnerability of global drinking water access. This research reports on an analysis of the current vulnerability of drinking water access due to three climate-related hazardous events: cyclone, drought and flood. An ArcGIS database was built incorporating the following: population density, hazardous event frequency, drinking water technologies in use and adaptive capacity. Two global grids were incorporated first: (1) LandScanTM global population distribution; and (2) frequency of cyclone, drought and flood from ~1980-2000 from Columbia University Center for Hazards Risk Research (CHRR). Population density was used to characterize cells as urban or rural and country-level urban/rural drinking water technologies in use were added based on the WHO/UNICEF Joint Monitoring Programme data. Expert assessment of the resilience of each technology to each hazardous event based on WHO/DFID Vision 2030 were quantified and added to the database. Finally, country-level adaptive capacity was drawn from the "readiness" parameter of the Global Adaptation Index (GaIn). ArcGIS Model Builder and Python were used to automate the addition of datasets. This presentation will report on the results of this analysis, the first credible attempt to assess the vulnerability of global drinking water access to climate-related hazardous events. This analysis has yielded country-level scores and maps displaying the ranking of exposure score (for flood, drought, cyclone, and all three in aggregate) and the corresponding country-level vulnerability scores and rankings incorporating the impact of drinking water technologies and adaptive capacity (Figure 1).

  16. Toenail arsenic concentrations, GSTT1 gene polymorphisms, and arsenic exposure from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Kile, Molly L; Houseman, E Andres; Rodrigues, Ema; Smith, Thomas J; Quamruzzaman, Quazi; Rahman, Mahmuder; Mahiuddin, Golam; Su, Li; Christiani, David C

    2005-10-01

    Toenail arsenic (As) concentrations were evaluated as a biomarker of inorganic As (As(in)) exposure in a population residing in an As-endemic region of Bangladesh. Drinking water and toenail samples were collected from 48 families (n = 223) every 3 months for 2 years and analyzed for As using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. Drinking water collected 3, 6, and 9 months before each toenail sample collection was combined into a weighted lagged exposure variable. The contribution of each water sample to the measured toenail As concentration was estimated using maximum likelihood that accounted for fluctuations in drinking water exposure and toenail growth. The best model attributed 69%, 14%, and 17% of the toenail As content to drinking water exposures that occurred 3, 6, and 9 months before toenail collection [95% confidence intervals (95% CI), 0.46-0.97, 0.00-0.31, and 0.03-0.35, respectively]. Generalized additive mixed models using penalized regression splines were employed to model the data. Below a drinking water concentration of 2 mug As/L, no relationship between drinking water As and toenail As concentrations was observed. Above this concentration, toenail As content increased in a dose-dependent fashion as drinking water As increased. Age was a significant effect modifier of drinking water As exposure on toenail As (beta = 0.01; 95% CI, 0.002-0.02). Individuals possessing GSTT1-null genotypes had significantly more As in their toenails in contrast to GSTT1 wild-type individuals (beta = 0.11; 95% CI, 0.06-0.2). Therefore, it seems that GSTT1 modifies the relationship between As(in) exposure and toenail As(in) content.

  17. Standards for chemical quality of drinking water: a critical assessment.

    PubMed

    Zielhuis, R L

    1982-01-01

    The author critically reviews present standards for the chemical quality of drinking water, particularly the limits proposed by the Commission of the European Communities (CEC) in 1979. Particularly, the general principles of standard setting are discussed. It appears that there exists a surprisingly high similarity in drinking water limits, issued by various national and international authorities, although for other environmental compartments important discrepancies exist. Usually, drinking water limits lack adequate documentation, and appear often to be copied from other existing lists. There is an apparent lack of logical consistency in limits set for food, ambient or workroom air, and drinking water, probably due to lack of communication between health experts and decision-making authorities. Moreover, there is a lack of toxicologic studies, explicitly aimed at setting limits. Extrapolation from the acceptable daily intakes (ADI) for food or the Threshold Limit Value (TLV)-Maximum Acceptable Concentration (MAC) for workroom air could be undertaken to derive tentative drinking water limits, as long as explicitly designed studies for drinking water are not yet available. PMID:6749691

  18. Formation of disinfection byproducts in typical Chinese drinking water.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wenbo; Zhao, Yanmei; Chow, Christopher W K; Wang, Dongsheng

    2011-01-01

    Eight typical drinking water supplies in China were selected in this study. Both source and tap water were used to investigate the occurrence of chlorinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs), and seasonal variation in the concentrations of trihalomethanes (THMs) of seven water sources was compared. The results showed that the pollution level for source water in China, as shown by DBP formation potential, was low. The most encountered DBPs were chloroform, dichloroacetic acid, trichloroacetic acid, and chlorodibromoacetic acid. The concentration of every THMs and haloacetic acid (HAA) compound was under the limit of standards for drinking water quality. The highest total THMs concentrations were detected in spring.

  19. [Acute gastric lesions induced by drinking water, in rats].

    PubMed

    Laudano, O M

    1994-01-01

    The ability of certain beverages and drinking waters to induce acute gastric lesions was studied and the measurement of their pH was performed. 1) Saline; 2) tap water; 3) well-water; 4) well water plus puritabs; 5) saline plus 2 Cl drips; 6) saline plus 4 Cl drops; 7) saline plus 8 Cl drops; 8) boiled water after 30 min; 9) apartment deposit water; 10) WC bowl water; 11) ice water; 12) Paraná river water (Northern Rosario); 13) Paraná river water (Southern Rosario); 14) rain water (Rosario); 15) rain water) countryside); 16) carbonated mineral water; 17) non-carbonated mineral water; 18) soda; 19) flavored electrolytic water I; 20) flavored electrolytic water II; and 21) cola drink. We can conclude that: 1) a remarkable variance in saline and tap water pH is observed. 2) Rain water and Paraná river water were slightly acid, in contrast electrolytic carbonated beverages and cola drink were strongly acid (pH 2.5). 3) Saline, pH 6.68; saline plus 2 Cl drops; and non-carbonated mineral water were the only beverages that did not induce acute gastric lesions in rats.

  20. [Parasitic zoonoses transmitted by drinking water. Giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis].

    PubMed

    Exner, M; Gornik, V

    2004-07-01

    Nowadays, the parasitic zoonose organisms Giardia lamblia und Cryptosporidium spp. are among the most relevant pathogens of drinking water-associated disease outbreaks. These pathogens are transmitted via a fecal-oral route; in both cases the dose of infection is low. Apart from person-to-person or animal-to-person transmissions, the consumption of contaminated food and water are further modes of transmission. The disease is mainly characterized by gastrointestinal symptoms. In industrialized countries, the prevalence rate of giardiasis is 2-5 % and of cryptosporidiosis 1-3%. Throughout the world, a large number of giardiasis and cryptosporidiosis outbreaks associated with drinking water were published; in 2001 the first case in Germany was identified. Giardia and Cryptosporidium are detected in surface water and sporadically in unprotected groundwater. Use of these waters for drinking water abstraction makes high demands on the technology of the treatment process: because of the disinfectant resistance of the parasites, safe elimination methods are needed, which even at high contamination levels of source water guarantee safe drinking water. Further measures for prevention and control are implementation of the HACCP concept, which includes the whole chain of procedures of drinking water supply from catchment via treatment to tap and a quality management system.

  1. Single particle ICP-MS characterization of titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-02-01

    One of the most direct means for human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) released into the environment is drinking water. Therefore, it is critical to understand the occurrence and fate of NPs in drinking water systems. The objectives of this study were to develop rapid and reliable analytical methods and apply them to investigate the fate and transportation of NPs during drinking water treatments. Rapid single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) methods were developed to characterize and quantify titanium-containing, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold NP concentration, size, size distribution, and dissolved metal element concentration in surface water and treated drinking water. The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatments (including lime softening, alum coagulation, filtration, and disinfection) to remove NPs from surface water was evaluated using six-gang stirrer jar test simulations. The selected NPs were nearly completely (97 ± 3%) removed after lime softening and alum coagulation/activated carbon adsorption treatments. Additionally, source and drinking waters from three large drinking water treatment facilities utilizing similar treatments with the simulation test were collected and analyzed by the SP-ICP-MS methods. Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti were present in the river water samples, but Ag and Au were not present. Treatments used at each drinking water treatment facility effectively removed over 93% of the Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti from the source water. PMID:26347937

  2. Single particle ICP-MS characterization of titanium dioxide, silver, and gold nanoparticles during drinking water treatment.

    PubMed

    Donovan, Ariel R; Adams, Craig D; Ma, Yinfa; Stephan, Chady; Eichholz, Todd; Shi, Honglan

    2016-02-01

    One of the most direct means for human exposure to nanoparticles (NPs) released into the environment is drinking water. Therefore, it is critical to understand the occurrence and fate of NPs in drinking water systems. The objectives of this study were to develop rapid and reliable analytical methods and apply them to investigate the fate and transportation of NPs during drinking water treatments. Rapid single particle ICP-MS (SP-ICP-MS) methods were developed to characterize and quantify titanium-containing, titanium dioxide, silver, and gold NP concentration, size, size distribution, and dissolved metal element concentration in surface water and treated drinking water. The effectiveness of conventional drinking water treatments (including lime softening, alum coagulation, filtration, and disinfection) to remove NPs from surface water was evaluated using six-gang stirrer jar test simulations. The selected NPs were nearly completely (97 ± 3%) removed after lime softening and alum coagulation/activated carbon adsorption treatments. Additionally, source and drinking waters from three large drinking water treatment facilities utilizing similar treatments with the simulation test were collected and analyzed by the SP-ICP-MS methods. Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti were present in the river water samples, but Ag and Au were not present. Treatments used at each drinking water treatment facility effectively removed over 93% of the Ti-containing particles and dissolved Ti from the source water.

  3. ETV REPORT: REMOVAL OF CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER — PALL/KINETICO PUREFECTA DRINKING WATER TREATMENT SYSTEM

    EPA Science Inventory

    The Pall/Kinetico Purefecta™ POU drinking water treatment system was tested for removal of aldicarb, benzene, cadmium, carbofuran, cesium, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, fenamiphos, mercury, mevinphos, oxamyl, strontium, and strychnine. The Purefecta™ employs several compon...

  4. Sources of chlorate ion in US drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Bolyard, M. ); Fair, P.S. ); Hautman, D.P. )

    1993-09-01

    Samples of untreated source water and finished drinking water were obtained from 42 water utilities which treated their water with oxidants-disinfectants that included chlorine dioxide (ClO[sub 2]), gaseous chlorine, hypochlorite solutions, and chloramines. Chlorite ion was only detected in water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2]. Finished water from utilities that used ClO[sub 2] or hypochlorite solutions contained comparable concentrations of chlorate ion (ClO[sub 3][sup [minus

  5. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  6. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  7. 40 CFR 799.5075 - Drinking water contaminants subject to testing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 33 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Drinking water contaminants subject to... TESTING REQUIREMENTS Multichemical Test Rules § 799.5075 Drinking water contaminants subject to testing... performed using drinking water. However, if, due to poor stability or palatability, a drinking water test...

  8. 76 FR 72703 - Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council-Notice of Public Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-25

    ... AGENCY Meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council--Notice of Public Meeting AGENCY... meeting of the National Drinking Water Advisory Council (NDWAC or Council), established under the Safe Drinking Water Act. The Council will consider various issues associated with drinking water protection...

  9. Refractive Errors in Northern China Between the Residents with Drinking Water Containing Excessive Fluorine and Normal Drinking Water.

    PubMed

    Bin, Ge; Liu, Haifeng; Zhao, Chunyuan; Zhou, Guangkai; Ding, Xuchen; Zhang, Na; Xu, Yongfang; Qi, Yanhua

    2016-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the refractive errors and the demographic associations between drinking water with excessive fluoride and normal drinking water among residents in Northern China. Of the 1843 residents, 1415 (aged ≥40 years) were divided into drinking-water-excessive fluoride (DWEF) group (>1.20 mg/L) and control group (≤1.20 mg/L) on the basis of the fluoride concentrations in drinking water. Of the 221 subjects in the DWEF group, with 1.47 ± 0.25 mg/L (fluoride concentrations in drinking water), the prevalence rates of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 38.5 % (95 % confidence interval [CI] = 32.1-45.3), 19.9 % (95 % CI = 15-26), and 41.6 % (95 % CI = 35.1-48.4), respectively. Of the 1194 subjects in the control group with 0.20 ± 0.18 mg/L, the prevalence of myopia, hyperopia, and astigmatism were 31.5 % (95 % CI = 28.9-34.2), 27.6 % (95 % CI = 25.1-30.3), and 45.6 % (95 % CI = 42.8-48.5), respectively. A statistically significant difference was not observed in the association of spherical equivalent and fluoride concentrations in drinking water (P = 0.84 > 0.05). This report provides the data of the refractive state of the residents consuming drinking water with excess amounts of fluoride in northern China. The refractive errors did not result from ingestion of mild excess amounts of fluoride in the drinking water.

  10. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively. PMID:24275108

  11. The accumulation of radioactive contaminants in drinking water distribution systems.

    PubMed

    Lytle, Darren A; Sorg, Thomas; Wang, Lili; Chen, Abe

    2014-03-01

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution system sediment and scales has been documented, raising concerns that the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential human exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of concern because of their known health effects and because of their persistence within associated distribution system materials. The objective of this work was to measure the amount of a number of radioactive contaminants (radium, thorium, and uranium isotopes, and gross alpha and beta activity) in distribution solids collected from water systems in four states (Wisconsin, Illinois, Minnesota, and Texas). The water utilities chosen had measurable levels of radium in their source waters. In addition, 19 other elements in the solids were quantified. Water systems provided solids primarily collected during routine fire hydrant flushing. Iron was the dominant element in nearly all of the solids and was followed by calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, manganese, silicon, aluminum and barium in descending order. Gross alpha and beta radiation averaged 255 and 181 pCi/g, and were as high as 1602 and 1169 pCi/g, respectively. Total radium, thorium and uranium averaged 143, 40 and 6.4 pCi/g, respectively. Radium-226 and -228 averaged 74 and 69 pCi/g, and were as high as 250 and 351 pCi/g, respectively.

  12. A review of arsenic presence in China drinking water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Jing; Charlet, Laurent

    2013-06-01

    Chronic endemic arsenicosis areas have been discovered in China since 1960s. Up to 2012, 19 provinces had been found to have As concentration in drinking water exceeding the standard level (0.05 mg/L). Inner Mongolia, Xinjiang and Shanxi Province are historical well-known “hotspots” of geogenic As-contaminated drinking water. The goal of this review is to examine, summarize and discuss the information of As in drinking water for all provinces and territories in China. Possible natural As sources for elevating As level in drinking water, were documented. Geogenic As-contaminated drinking water examples were taken to introduce typical environmental conditions where the problems occurred: closed basins in arid or semi-arid areas and reducing aquifers under high pH conditions. Geothermal water or mineral water in mountains areas can be high-As water as well. For undiscovered areas, prediction of potential As-affected groundwater has been carried out by some research groups by use of logistic regression. Modeled maps of probability of geogenic As contamination in groundwater are promising to be used as references to discover unknown areas. Furthermore, anthropogenic As contaminations were summarized and mining, smelters and chemical industries were found to be major sources for As pollution in China.

  13. Review of Campylobacter spp. in drinking and environmental waters.

    PubMed

    Pitkänen, Tarja

    2013-10-01

    Consumption of contaminated drinking water is a significant cause of Campylobacter infections. Drinking water contamination is known to result from septic seepage and wastewater intrusion into non-disinfected sources of groundwater and occasionally from cross-connection into drinking water distribution systems. Wastewater effluents, farm animals and wild birds are the primary sources contributing human-infectious Campylobacters in environmental waters, impacting on recreational activities and drinking water sources. Culturing of Campylobacter entails time-consuming steps that often provide qualitative or semi-quantitative results. Viable but non-culturable forms due to environmental stress are not detected, and thus may result in false-negative assessments of Campylobacter risks from drinking and environmental waters. Molecular methods, especially quantitative PCR applications, are therefore important to use in the detection of environmental Campylobacter spp. Processing large volumes of water may be required to reach the desired sensitivity for either culture or molecular detection methods. In the future, applications of novel molecular techniques such as isothermal amplification and high-throughput sequencing applications are awaited to develop and become more affordable and practical in environmental Campylobacter research. The new technologies may change the knowledge on the prevalence and pathogenicity of the different Campylobacter species in the water environment.

  14. Using silicates to lower lead levels in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-09-01

    York is a small resort town on the coast of Maine, near the New Hampshire border. The town's population of 5,000 usually doubles during the summer tourist season. Like many small water systems in New England, its soft, moderately alkaline water corrodes its unlined, cast-iron pipe distribution system, picking up significant quantities of iron along the way. Customers served by these lines have complained about the red water. York Water District officials hoped that a new 4-mgd treatment facility brought into service in spring 1990 would alleviate the red water problems, but they were also considering ways to address the requirements of the Lead and Copper Rule from the EPA promulgated in 1991. With the assistance of their consulting engineering firm, York Water District officials evaluated treatment strategies and decided against using polyphosphates to control lead and copper because of their ability to complex with the metals, possibly causing an increase in concentration. The officials eventually chose sodium silicates to lower the iron, lead, and copper levels in the system. Several utilities in Maine had reported using sodium silicate as a common strategy for red water problems. In addition, sodium silicate was favored because it reacts with metal for form a barrier to corrosion. York Water District, with assistance from its consultant, designed an 18-month program to add sodium silicates to its system, track metal concentrations, and monitor red water complaints. The district prepared a report for the EPA, covering data collected over the first 12 months of the program -- essentially calendar year 1991. According to Michael R. Schock, research chemist with the EPA's Drinking Water Research Division in Cincinnati, the agency is anxious to obtain as much quantitative information as possible on using sodium silicate for pH and/or corrosion control. This article describes the monitoring system, water treatment and study results.

  15. REDUCING ARSENIC LEVELS IN DRINKING WATER: APPROACHES AND CONSIDERATIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The recently promulgated Arsenic Rule will require that many new drinking water systems treat their water to remove arsenic. It has been projected that the State of Ohio will have nearly 140 community and non-community non-transient water systems in violation of the Rule. This ...

  16. Condition Assessment for Drinking Water Transmission and Distribution Mains

    EPA Science Inventory

    This project seeks to improve the capability to characterize the condition of water infrastructure. The integrity of buried drinking water mains is critical, as it influences water quality, losses, pressure and cost. This research complements the U.S. Environmental Protection A...

  17. MYCOBACTERIUM AVIUM AND DRINKING WATER WHAT ARE THE CONNECTIONS?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Background: Human Mycobacterium avium infections are only known to be acquired from environmental sources such as water and soil. We compared M. avium isolates from clinical and drinking water sources using molecular tools. Methods: M. avium was isolated from water samples colle...

  18. Microflora of drinking water distributed through decentralized supply systems (Tomsk)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvaschevskaya, A. A.; Nalivaiko, N. G.; Shestakova, A. V.

    2016-03-01

    The paper considers microbiological quality of waters from decentralized water supply systems in Tomsk. It has been proved that there are numerous microbial contaminants of different types. The authors claim that the water distributed through decentralized supply systems is not safe to drink without preliminary treatment.

  19. Particulate Arsenic Release in a Drinking Water Distribution System

    EPA Science Inventory

    Trace contaminants, such as arsenic, have been shown to accumulate in solids found in drinking water distribution systems. The obvious concern is that the contaminants in these solids could be released back into the water resulting in elevated levels in a consumer’s tap water. Th...

  20. Federal regulation of lead in drinking water

    SciTech Connect

    Reiss, K.M.

    1991-12-31

    The decline of the Roman Empire has been attributed, in part, to lead poisoning. Scholars have reported that Roman food, water and wine all contained excessive amounts of lead. Although Americans ingest considerably less lead than did the ancient Romans, lead poisoning still poses a significant public health threat in this country, particularly to children. The Federal Centers for Disease Control (CDC) recently reported that more than four million children suffer from lead poisoning. The director of the CDC has stated that {open_quotes}lead poisoning is the No. 1 environmental problem facing America`s children.{close_quotes} In addition to threatening children, lead poisoning presents health dangers to adults and, ironically, to federal government officials themselves. For example, at the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) headquarters, water samples at nineteen sources were found to contain excessive amounts of lead. Additionally, a survey of twelve Capitol Hill buildings found that twenty-one percent of the water sources tested contained excessive lead levels.

  1. [The survey on arsenism caused by drinking water].

    PubMed

    Wu, D

    1993-08-01

    This paper reports the epidemiologic and clinical observations on arsenism caused by drinking water in Zhi Ji Liang and Tie Men Gen, Huhhot. Results showed that the content of arsenic in drinking water was eleven times as much as that of the national standard. The incidence rate of arsenism increased with the rise of arsenic content in water. In contrast to the high As content, the contents of Pb, Zn, Se were low in water and the pH value was slightly acidic. Arsenic contents in hair, fingernails and urine were all higher than those of the control. Patients with arsenism showed symptoms of anaemia.

  2. [The hardness of drinking water and cardiovascular diseases].

    PubMed

    Belojević, G

    1992-01-01

    The paper deals with the results of the investigations so far, which have pointed out an inverse correlation between drinking-water hardness and morbidity and mortality rates of cardiovascular diseases. Among the water hardness elements special attention has been given to magnesium, as its deficiency in organism is likely to present an important risk factor for cardiovascular disorders. The options of preventive measures in this field are discussed-adding of magnesium to soft drinking-waters, salt enriched with magnesium, consumption of natural mineral waters, or Mg supplements.

  3. Monitoring of Cryptosporidium and Giardia in Czech drinking water sources.

    PubMed

    Dolejs, P; Ditrich, O; Machula, T; Kalousková, N; Puzová, G

    2000-01-01

    In Czech raw water sources for drinking water supply, Cryptosporidium was found in numbers from 0 to 7400 per 100 liters and Giardia from 0 to 485 per 100 liters. The summer floods of 1997 probably brought the highest numbers of Cryptosporidium oocysts into one of the reservoirs sampled; since then these numbers decreased steadily. A relatively high number of Cryptosporidium oocysts was found in one sample of treated water. Repeated sampling demonstrated that this was a sporadic event. The reason for the presence of Cryptosporidium in a sample of treated drinking-water is unclear and requires further study.

  4. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  5. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea.

    PubMed

    Luby, Stephen P; Halder, Amal K; Huda, Tarique Md; Unicomb, Leanne; Islam, M Sirajul; Arnold, Benjamin F; Johnston, Richard B

    2015-11-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water.

  6. Microbiological Contamination of Drinking Water Associated with Subsequent Child Diarrhea

    PubMed Central

    Luby, Stephen P.; Halder, Amal K.; Huda, Tarique Md.; Unicomb, Leanne; Sirajul Islam, M.; Arnold, Benjamin F.; Johnston, Richard B.

    2015-01-01

    We used a prospective, longitudinal cohort enrolled as part of a program evaluation to assess the relationship between drinking water microbiological quality and child diarrhea. We included 50 villages across rural Bangladesh. Within each village field-workers enrolled a systematic random sample of 10 households with a child under the age of 3 years. Community monitors visited households monthly and recorded whether children under the age of 5 years had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days. Every 3 months, a research assistant visited the household and requested a water sample from the source or container used to provide drinking water to the child. Laboratory technicians measured the concentration of Escherichia coli in the water samples using membrane filtration. Of drinking water samples, 59% (2,273/3,833) were contaminated with E. coli. Of 12,192 monthly follow-up visits over 2 years, mothers reported that their child had diarrhea in the preceding 2 days in 1,156 (9.5%) visits. In a multivariable general linear model, the log10 of E. coli contamination of the preceding drinking water sample was associated with an increased prevalence of child diarrhea (prevalence ratio = 1.14, 95% CI = 1.05, 1.23). These data provide further evidence of the health benefits of improved microbiological quality of drinking water. PMID:26438031

  7. Drinking water from private wells and risks to children.

    PubMed

    Rogan, Walter J; Brady, Michael T

    2009-06-01

    Drinking water for approximately one sixth of US households is obtained from private wells. These wells can become contaminated by pollutant chemicals or pathogenic organisms, leading to significant illness. Although the US Environmental Protection Agency and all states offer guidance for construction, maintenance, and testing of private wells, there is little regulation, and with few exceptions, well owners are responsible for their own wells. Children may also drink well water at child care or when traveling. Illness resulting from children's ingestion of contaminated water can be severe. This report reviews relevant aspects of groundwater and wells; describes the common chemical and microbiologic contaminants; gives an algorithm with recommendations for inspection, testing, and remediation for wells providing drinking water for children; reviews the definitions and uses of various bottled waters; provides current estimates of costs for well testing; and provides federal, national, state, and, where appropriate, tribal contacts for more information.

  8. Artificial sweetener sucralose in U.S. drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Mawhinney, Douglas B; Young, Robert B; Vanderford, Brett J; Borch, Thomas; Snyder, Shane A

    2011-10-15

    The artificial sweetener sucralose has recently been shown to be a widespread of contaminant of wastewater, surface water, and groundwater. In order to understand its occurrence in drinking water systems, water samples from 19 United States (U.S.) drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) serving more than 28 million people were analyzed for sucralose using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Sucralose was found to be present in source water of 15 out of 19 DWTPs (47-2900 ng/L), finished water of 13 out of 17 DWTPs (49-2400 ng/L) and distribution system water of 8 out of the 12 DWTPs (48-2400 ng/L) tested. Sucralose was only found to be present in source waters with known wastewater influence and/or recreational usage, and displayed low removal (12% average) in the DWTPs where finished water was sampled. Further, in the subset of DWTPs with distribution system water sampled, the compound was found to persist regardless of the presence of residual chlorine or chloramines. In order to understand intra-DWTP consistency, sucralose was monitored at one drinking water treatment plant over an 11 month period from March 2010 through January 2011, and averaged 440 ng/L in the source water and 350 ng/L in the finished water. The results of this study confirm that sucralose will function well as an indicator compound for anthropogenic influence on source, finished drinking and distribution system (i.e., tap) water, as well as an indicator compound for the presence of other recalcitrant compounds in finished drinking water in the U.S.

  9. High prevalence of enteric viruses in untreated individual drinking water sources and surface water in Slovenia.

    PubMed

    Steyer, Andrej; Torkar, Karmen Godič; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, Ion; Poljšak-Prijatelj, Mateja

    2011-09-01

    Waterborne infections have been shown to be important in outbreaks of gastroenteritis throughout the world. Although improved sanitary conditions are being progressively applied, fecal contaminations remain an emerging problem also in developed countries. The aim of our study was to investigate the prevalence of fecal contaminated water sources in Slovenia, including surface waters and groundwater sources throughout the country. In total, 152 water samples were investigated, of which 72 samples represents groundwater from individual wells, 17 samples from public collection supplies and 63 samples from surface stream waters. Two liters of untreated water samples were collected and concentrated by the adsorption/elution technique with positively charged filters followed by an additional ultracentrifugation step. Group A rotaviruses, noroviruses (genogroups I and II) and astroviruses were detected with real-time RT-PCR method in 69 (45.4%) out of 152 samples collected, of which 31/89 (34.8%) drinking water and 38/63 (60.3%) surface water samples were positive for at least one virus tested. In 30.3% of drinking water samples group A rotaviruses were detected (27/89), followed by noroviruses GI (2.2%; 2/89) and astroviruses (2.2%; 2/89). In drinking groundwater samples group A rotaviruses were detected in 27 out of 72 tested samples (37.5%), genogroup I noroviruses in two (2.8%), and human astroviruses in one (1.4%) samples. In surface water samples norovirus genogroup GII was the most frequently detected (41.3%; 26/63), followed by norovirus GI (33.3%; 21/63), human astrovirus (27.0%; 17/63) and group A rotavirus (17.5%; 11/63). Our study demonstrates relatively high percentage of groundwater contamination in Slovenia and, suggests that raw groundwater used as individual drinking water supply may constitute a possible source of enteric virus infections. In the future, testing for enteric viruses should be applied for drinking water sources in waterborne outbreaks.

  10. The need for congressional action to finance arsenic reductions in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Levine, Rebecca Leah

    2012-11-01

    Many public water systems in the U.S. are unsafe because the communities cannot afford to comply with the current 10 parts per billion (ppb) federal arsenic standard for drinking water. Communities unable to afford improvements remain vulnerable to adverse health effects associated with higher levels of arsenic exposure. Scientific and bipartisan political consensus exists that the arsenic standard should not be less stringent than 10 ppb, and new data suggest additional adverse health effects related to arsenic exposure through drinking water. Congress has failed to reauthorize the Drinking Water State Revolving Fund program to provide reliable funding to promote compliance and reduce the risk of adverse health effects. Congress's recent ad hoc appropriations do not allow long-term planning and ongoing monitoring and maintenance. Investing in water infrastructure will lower health care costs and create American jobs. Delaying necessary upgrades will only increase the costs of improvements over time.

  11. Drinking-Water Standards and Regulations. Volume 2. Manual for 1982-88

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, L.K.; Wang, M.H.S.

    1988-04-10

    The following 11 important documents are compiled for Drinking Water Standards and Regulations: (1) U.S. Environmental Agency Water Programs, National Interim Primary Drinking Water Regulations; (2) New Jersey Safe Drinking Water Act; (3) Summary of New Jersey Drinking Water Standards; (4) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency Safe Drinking Water Act of 1986 Amendments; (5) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency National Primary Drinking Water Standards; (6) Canadian National Health and Welfare Drinking Water Quality Guidelines--Maximum Acceptable Concentrations; (7) U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Primary Drinking Water Regulations, Filtration and Disinfection Turbidity, Giardia Lamblia, Viruses, Legionella, and Heterotrophic Bacteria; (8) Public Water Supply Manual--Guide to the Safe Drinking Water Program; (9) Public Water Supply Manual--Emergency Response; (10) U.S. EPA Approved Krofta Chemicals; (11) NY-DOH Approved Krofta Chemicals.

  12. Mechanisms of post-supply contamination of drinking water in Bagamoyo, Tanzania.

    PubMed

    Harris, Angela R; Davis, Jennifer; Boehm, Alexandria B

    2013-09-01

    Access to household water connections remains low in sub-Saharan Africa, representing a public health concern. Previous studies have shown water stored in the home to be more contaminated than water at the source; however, the mechanisms of post-supply contamination remain unclear. Using water quality measurements and structured observations of households in Bagamoyo, Tanzania, this study elucidates the causal mechanisms of the microbial contamination of drinking water after collection from a communal water source. The study identifies statistically significant loadings of fecal indicator bacteria (FIB) occurring immediately after filling the storage container at the source and after extraction of the water from the container in the home. Statistically significant loadings of FIB also occur with various water extraction methods, including decanting from the container and use of a cup or ladle. Additionally, pathogenic genes of Escherichia coli were detected in stored drinking water but not in the source from which it was collected, highlighting the potential health risks of post-supply contamination. The results of the study confirm that storage containers and extraction utensils introduce microbial contamination into stored drinking water, and suggest that further research is needed to identify methods of water extraction that prevent microbial contamination of drinking water.

  13. Chlorine stress mediates microbial surface attachment in drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Le, Yang; Jin, Juliang; Zhou, Yuliang; Chen, Guowei

    2015-03-01

    Microbial attachment to drinking water pipe surfaces facilitates pathogen survival and deteriorates disinfection performance, directly threatening the safety of drinking water. Notwithstanding that the formation of biofilm has been studied for decades, the underlying mechanisms for the origins of microbial surface attachment in biofilm development in drinking water pipelines remain largely elusive. We combined experimental and mathematical methods to investigate the role of environmental stress-mediated cell motility on microbial surface attachment in chlorination-stressed drinking water distribution systems. Results show that at low levels of disinfectant (0.0-1.0 mg/L), the presence of chlorine promotes initiation of microbial surface attachment, while higher amounts of disinfectant (>1.0 mg/L) inhibit microbial attachment. The proposed mathematical model further demonstrates that chlorination stress (0.0-5.0 mg/L)-mediated microbial cell motility regulates the frequency of cell-wall collision and thereby controls initial microbial surface attachment. The results reveal that transport processes and decay patterns of chlorine in drinking water pipelines regulate microbial cell motility and, thus, control initial surface cell attachment. It provides a mechanistic understanding of microbial attachment shaped by environmental disinfection stress and leads to new insights into microbial safety protocols in water distribution systems.

  14. New perspectives in monitoring drinking water microbial quality.

    PubMed

    Figueras, M José; Borrego, Juan J

    2010-12-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of drinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated.

  15. Drinking water quality in household supply infrastructure--A survey of the current situation in Germany.

    PubMed

    Völker, Sebastian; Schreiber, Christiane; Kistemann, Thomas

    2010-06-01

    As a result of the amendment to the German Drinking Water Ordinance in 2001, local public health authorities are obliged to monitor the water supply in installations providing water for public use (Section 18 German Drinking Water Ordinance). With a systematic and nationwide survey of locally available data relating to hygienic drinking water quality and the existing drinking water infrastructure in buildings, the extent of microbial contamination of in-building distribution systems in Germany is intended to be assessed. To gain an overview of the microbial contamination of drinking water in public buildings all 419 local public health authorities in Germany were contacted in 2007. In a detailed study with a representative cooperation level of 5% of these local public health authorities, the available data relating to microbiological, chemical, physical and technical parameters gained from in-building distribution systems were collected. Drinking water parameters were combined with regard to the total number of analyses and the absolute number as well as the percentage of limit compliance failures (n=108,288). Limits exceeded were classified as the failure to comply with the German Drinking Water Ordinance, DVGW technical regulations and Federal Environment Agency recommended limits. The highest rates of samples exceeding these limits were found for the parameter Legionella sp. which contaminated 12.8% of all samples (n=22,786; limit: 100 CFU/100ml), followed by heterotrophic plate count at 36 degrees C (3.5%, n=10,928; limit: 100 CFU/1 ml) and Pseudomonas sp. (2.9%, n=3468; limit: 0 CFU/100ml). Legionella sp. and Pseudomonas sp. pose a direct health risk to immunosuppressed users. Additionally, for some chemical parameters, such as nickel, iron and lead, a potential risk for the health of consumers was detected. Further data analysis may reveal whether this contamination is related to stagnation where there is only sporadic use or whether other factors are

  16. Are Endocrine Disrupting Compounds a Health Risk in Drinking Water?

    PubMed Central

    Falconer, Ian R.

    2006-01-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17β-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water. In

  17. Are endocrine disrupting compounds a health risk in drinking water?

    PubMed

    Falconer, Ian R

    2006-06-01

    There has been a great deal of international discussion on the nature and relevance of endocrine disrupting compounds in the environment. Changes in reproductive organs of fish and mollusks have been demonstrated in rivers downstream of sewage discharges in Europe and in North America, which have been attributed to estrogenic compounds in the effluent. The anatomical and physiological changes in the fauna are illustrated by feminization of male gonads. The compounds of greatest hormonal activity in sewage effluent are the natural estrogens 17Beta-estradiol, estrone, estriol and the synthetic estrogen ethinylestradiol. Androgens are also widely present in wastewaters. Investigations of anthropogenic chemical contaminants in freshwaters and wastewaters have shown a wide variety of organic compounds, many of which have low levels of estrogenic activity. In many highly populated countries the drinking water is sourced from the same rivers and lakes that are the recipients of sewage and industrial discharge. The River Thames which flows through London, England, has overall passed through drinking water and sewage discharge 5 times from source to mouth of the river. Under these types of circumstance, any accumulation of endocrine disrupting compounds from sewage or industry potentially affects the quality of drinking water. Neither basic wastewater treatment nor basic drinking water treatment will eliminate the estrogens, androgens or detergent breakdown products from water, due to the chemical stability of the structures. Hence a potential risk to health exists; however present data indicate that estrogenic contamination of drinking water is very unlikely to result in physiologically detectable effects in consumers. Pesticide, detergent and industrial contamination remain issues of concern. As a result of this concern, increased attention is being given to enhanced wastewater treatment in locations where the effluent is directly or indirectly in use for drinking water

  18. Ensuring safe drinking water in regional NSW: the role of regulation.

    PubMed

    Byleveld, Paul M; Cretikos, Michelle A; Leask, Sandy D; Durrheim, David N

    2008-01-01

    In regional and rural areas of NSW, drinking water is provided by 107 local water utilities serving a total population of some 1.7 million and operating 323 water supply systems. NSW Health exercises public health oversight of these regional water utilities through the NSW Health Drinking Water Monitoring Program, which provides guidance to water utilities on implementing elements of the Australian Drinking Water Guidelines 2004, including drinking water monitoring.

  19. 75 FR 54872 - Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)-Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-09

    ... AGENCY Drinking Water Strategy Contaminants as Group(s)--Notice of Public Stakeholder Meeting AGENCY... Agency (EPA) Administrator Lisa P. Jackson announced the Drinking Water Strategy, a new vision to expand public health protection for drinking water by going beyond the traditional framework. The Drinking...

  20. Palatability of colonic lavage solution is improved by the addition of artificially sweetened flavored drink mixes.

    PubMed

    Gruber, M; Fay, D; Pudhorodsky, T; Lance, P

    1991-12-01

    A frequent complaint of patients asked to drink polyethylene glycol (PEG) colonic lavage solution is the salty flavor. This often results in failure to ingest the entire 4 liters of the solution and compromises bowel cleansing. The purpose of this study was to determine systematically whether the addition of a flavored drink mix sweetened with aspartame to the PEG lavage solution would improve palatability without significantly altering the osmolality of the solution. Eighty-seven (87) staff volunteers participated in a taste test of PEG lavage solutions containing varying amounts of commercially available drink mixes. The solution containing two packages of lemon-flavored KoolAid drink mix sweetened with aspartame was significantly more palatable than the others (p less than 0.005), while osmolality remained within the range specified by the manufacturer of Colyte.

  1. Occurrence of organophosphate flame retardants in drinking water from China.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Yu, Nanyang; Zhang, Beibei; Jin, Ling; Li, Meiying; Hu, Mengyang; Zhang, Xiaowei; Wei, Si; Yu, Hongxia

    2014-05-01

    Several organophosphate flame retardants (OPFRs) have been identified as known or suspected carcinogens or neurotoxic substances. Given the potential health risks of these compounds, we conducted a comprehensive survey of nine OPFRs in drinking water in China. We found total concentrations of OPFRs in tap water ranging from 85.1 ng/L to 325 ng/L, and tris(2-butoxyethyl) phosphate (TBEP), triphenyl phosphate (TPP), and tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCPP) were the most common components. Similar OPFR concentrations and profiles were observed in water samples processed through six different waterworks in Nanjing, China. However, boiling affected OPFR levels in drinking water by either increasing (e.g., TBEP) or decreasing (e.g., tributyl phosphate, TBP) concentrations depending on the particular compound and the state of the indoor environment. We also found that bottled water contained many of the same major OPFR compounds with concentrations 10-25% lower than those in tap water, although TBEP contamination in bottled water remained a concern. Finally, we concluded that the risk of ingesting OPFRs through drinking water was not a major health concern for either adults or children in China. Nevertheless, drinking water ingestion represents an important exposure pathway for OPFRs.

  2. Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health.

  3. Metal contamination of drinking water from corrosion of distribution pipes.

    PubMed

    Alam, I A; Sadiq, M

    1989-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to evaluate metal contamination of drinking water resulting from the corrosion of distribution pipes and its significance to human health. A community in Dhahran, which is served from its own desalination facilities, was chosen for this study. About 150 drinking water samples were collected and analyzed for metal concentrations using an inductively coupled argon plasma analyzer. It was found that copper, iron and zinc in the drinking water increased during its transportation from the desalination plant to the consumers. This increase was related to the length and material of distribution pipes. Concentrations of copper and zinc were increased during overnight storage of water in the appliances. Metal concentrations found in this study are discussed with reference to human health. PMID:15092461

  4. Detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water using microring resonator.

    PubMed

    Bahadoran, Mahdi; Noorden, Ahmad Fakhrurrazi Ahmad; Mohajer, Faeze Sadat; Abd Mubin, Mohamad Helmi; Chaudhary, Kashif; Jalil, Muhammad Arif; Ali, Jalil; Yupapin, Preecha

    2016-01-01

    A new microring resonator system is proposed for the detection of the Salmonella bacterium in drinking water, which is made up of SiO2-TiO2 waveguide embedded inside thin film layer of the flagellin. The change in refractive index due to the binding of the Salmonella bacterium with flagellin layer causes a shift in the output signal wavelength and the variation in through and drop port's intensities, which leads to the detection of Salmonella bacterium in drinking water. The sensitivity of proposed sensor for detecting of Salmonella bacterium in water solution is 149 nm/RIU and the limit of detection is 7 × 10(-4)RIU.

  5. [Nitrate water pollution of drinking water in the Bydgoszcz district].

    PubMed

    Sinkiewicz, J; Doboszyńska, B

    1992-01-01

    The study was undertaken to evaluate the degree of drinking water pollution in the towns and countryside of the Bydgoszcz District, supplied by various installations, on the basis of the results of investigations of sanitary-epidemiological stations. Evaluation was done according to the state in 1985 as compared with that of 1981 to establish the eventual dynamics of the changes. The data presented in the tables indicate that the water supplied by the big water lines (public and institutional) does not contain nitrate quantities exceeding the norm (above 10 mg N/dm3). Their presence at a 20 mg N level/dm3 was found only in four (1.5%) lines supplying large state farms. Small installations were much more frequently polluted with nitrates, especially public wells and those of local institutions, a total of 8.8% in towns and as many as 17% in the country, where a tendency to deterioration of this state is also visible in contrast to the towns. Among the plants and institutions supplied by these water sources the situation is most unfavourable in agriculture, schools, educational and food producing and distributing establishments. The nitrate concentration in the analysed water varied in general within the limits of 10-30 mg N/dm3, maximal amounts within 60-200 mg N/dm3, showing an about 50% decrease in the compared time periods. Nitrates occur most frequently and in highest concentrations in water of wells belonging to individual households which supply about 50% of the rural population and about 11% of town dwellers.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources. PMID:27148185

  7. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters.

    PubMed

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources.

  8. Investigation of organic matter migrating from polymeric pipes into drinking water under different flow manners.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ling; Liu, Shuming; Liu, Wenjun

    2014-02-01

    Polymeric pipes, such as unplasticized polyvinyl chloride (uPVC) pipes, polypropylene random (PPR) pipes and polyethylene (PE) pipes are increasingly used for drinking water distribution lines. Plastic pipes may include some additives like metallic stabilizers and other antioxidants for the protection of the material during its production and use. Thus, some compounds can be released from those plastic pipes and cast a shadow on drinking water quality. This work develops a new procedure to investigate three types of polymer pipes (uPVC, PE and PPR) with respect to the migration of total organic carbon (TOC) into drinking water. The migration test was carried out in stagnant conditions with two types of migration processes, a continuous migration process and a successive migration process. These two types of migration processes are specially designed to mimic the conditions of different flow manners in drinking water pipelines, i.e., the situation of continuous stagnation with long hydraulic retention times and normal flow status with regular water renewing in drinking water networks. The experimental results showed that TOC release differed significantly with different plastic materials and under different flow manners. The order of materials with respect to the total amount of TOC migrating into drinking water was observed as PE > PPR > uPVC under both successive and continuous migration conditions. A higher amount of organic migration from PE and PPR pipes was likely to occur due to more organic antioxidants being used in pipe production. The results from the successive migration tests indicated the trend of the migration intensity of different pipe materials over time, while the results obtained from the continuous migration tests implied that under long stagnant conditions, the drinking water quality could deteriorate quickly with the consistent migration of organic compounds and the dramatic consumption of chlorine to a very low level. Higher amounts of TOC

  9. Community Analysis and Recovery of Phenol-degrading Bacteria from Drinking Water Biofilters

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Qihui; Wu, Qingping; Zhang, Jumei; Guo, Weipeng; Wu, Huiqing; Sun, Ming

    2016-01-01

    Phenol is a ubiquitous organic contaminant in drinking water. Biodegradation plays an important role in the elimination of phenol pollution in the environment, but the information about phenol removal by drinking water biofilters is still lacking. Herein, we study an acclimated bacterial community that can degrade over 80% of 300 mg/L phenol within 3 days. PCR detection of genotypes involved in bacterial phenol degradation revealed that the degradation pathways contained the initial oxidative attack by phenol hydroxylase, and subsequent ring fission by catechol 1,2-dioxygenase. Based on the PCR denatured gradient gel electrophoresis (PCR-DGGE) profiles of bacteria from biological activated carbon (BAC), the predominant bacteria in drinking water biofilters including Delftia sp., Achromobacter sp., and Agrobacterium sp., which together comprised up to 50% of the total microorganisms. In addition, a shift in bacterial community structure was observed during phenol biodegradation. Furthermore, the most effective phenol-degrading strain DW-1 that correspond to the main band in denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) profile was isolated and identified as Acinetobacter sp., according to phylogenetic analyses of the 16S ribosomal ribonucleic acid (rRNA) gene sequences. The strain DW-1 also produced the most important enzyme, phenol hydroxylase, and it also exhibited a good ability to degrade phenol when immobilized on granular active carbon (GAC). This study indicates that the enrichment culture has great potential application for treatment of phenol-polluted drinking water sources, and the indigenous phenol-degrading microorganism could recover from drinking water biofilters as an efficient resource for phenol removal. Therefore, the aim of this study is to draw attention to recover native phenol-degrading bacteria from drinking water biofilters, and use these native microorganisms as phenolic water remediation in drinking water sources. PMID:27148185

  10. SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES FOR COMPLIANCE WITH THE ENHANCED SURFACE WATER TREATMENT RULES

    EPA Science Inventory

    According to FY2003 statistics compiled by the Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water, the U.S. regulates about 160,000 small drinking water systems that impact close to 70 million people. Small systems (serving transient and non-transient populations of 10,000 people or less...

  11. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt.

    PubMed

    Geriesh, Mohamed H; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E

    2008-03-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06x10(6) m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6x10(6) m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application.

  12. Problems of drinking water treatment along Ismailia Canal Province, Egypt*

    PubMed Central

    Geriesh, Mohamed H.; Balke, Klaus-Dieter; El-Rayes, Ahmed E.

    2008-01-01

    The present drinking water purification system in Egypt uses surface water as a raw water supply without a preliminary filtration process. On the other hand, chlorine gas is added as a disinfectant agent in two steps, pre- and post-chlorination. Due to these reasons most of water treatment plants suffer low filtering effectiveness and produce the trihalomethane (THM) species as a chlorination by-product. The Ismailia Canal represents the most distal downstream of the main Nile River. Thus its water contains all the proceeded pollutants discharged into the Nile. In addition, the downstream reaches of the canal act as an agricultural drain during the closing period of the High Dam gates in January and February every year. Moreover, the wide industrial zone along the upstream course of the canal enriches the canal water with high concentrations of heavy metals. The obtained results indicate that the canal gains up to 24.06×106 m3 of water from the surrounding shallow aquifer during the closing period of the High Dam gates, while during the rest of the year, the canal acts as an influent stream losing about 99.6×106 m3 of its water budget. The reduction of total organic carbon (TOC) and suspended particulate matters (SPMs) should be one of the central goals of any treatment plan to avoid the disinfectants by-products. The combination of sedimentation basins, gravel pre-filtration and slow sand filtration, and underground passage with microbiological oxidation-reduction and adsorption criteria showed good removal of parasites and bacteria and complete elimination of TOC, SPM and heavy metals. Moreover, it reduces the use of disinfectants chemicals and lowers the treatment costs. However, this purification system under the arid climate prevailing in Egypt should be tested and modified prior to application. PMID:18357626

  13. Occurrence, Monitoring and Treatment of Cyanobacterial Toxins in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    In the summer of 2014 a number of drinking water treatment plants (DWTPs) on Lake Erie supplied water samples on a monthly basis for analysis. Chlorophyll-a measurements, LC/MS/MS and ELISA techniques specific to microcystins were employed to measure potential harmful algal bloom...

  14. SAFE DRINKING WATER FROM SMALL SYSTEMS: TREATMENT OPTIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bringing small water systems into compliance with the ever-increasing number of regulations will require flexibility in terms of technology application and institional procedures. his article looks at the means by which small systems can provide safe drinking water, focusing on t...

  15. Wastewater to Drinking Water: Are Emerging Contaminants Making it Through?

    EPA Science Inventory

    Lake Mead serves as the primary drinking water source for Las Vegas, Nevada and surrounding communities. Besides snow-melt from the Rockies water levels in the lake are supplemented by the inflow of treated wastewater from communities along the Colorado River, including Las Vegas...

  16. The Accumulation of Radioactive Contaminants in Drinking Water Distribution Systems

    EPA Science Inventory

    The accumulation of trace contaminants in drinking water distribution systems has been documented and the subsequent release of the contaminants back to the water is a potential exposure pathway. Radioactive contaminants are of particular concern because of their known health eff...

  17. LABORATORY ANALYSIS FOR ARSENIC IN DRINKING WATER SAMPLES

    EPA Science Inventory

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) has established maximum contaminant levels ( MCLs ), for many inorganic contaminants found in drinking water, to protect the health of consumers. Some of these chemicals occur naturally in source waters while some are the result o...

  18. INTERACTIVE WORKSHOP ON ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    In 2005, EPA's Office of Water and Office of Research and Development collaborated to present eleven arsenic training events. The workshops provided in-depth treatment technology training to help those affected; state drinking water staff, design engineers, system owners and cert...

  19. ARSENIC REMOVAL FROM DRINKING WATER BY IRON REMOVAL PLANTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    This report documents a long term performance study of two iron removal water treatment plants to remove arsenic from drinking water sources. Performance information was collected from one system located in midwest for one full year and at the second system located in the farwest...

  20. Photocatalytic Coats in Glass Drinking-Water Bottles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Andren, Anders W.; Armstrong, David E.; Anderson, Marc A.

    2005-01-01

    According to a proposal, the insides of glass bottles used to store drinking water would be coated with films consisting of or containing TiO2. In the presence of ultraviolet light, these films would help to remove bacteria, viruses, and trace organic contaminants from the water.

  1. USEPA'S RESEARCH EFFORTS IN SMALL DRINKING WATER TREATMENT TECHNOLOGIES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Currently, in the United States there are approximately 50,000 small community and 130,000 non-community systems providing water to over 25 million people. The drinking water treatment systems at these locations are not always adequate to comply with current and pending regulati...

  2. Phosphate Removal and Recovery using Drinking Water Plant Waste Residuals

    EPA Science Inventory

    Water treatment plants are used to provide safe drinking water. In parallel, however, they also produce a wide variety of waste products which, in principle, could be possible candidates as resources for different applications. Calcium carbonate is one of such residual waste in ...

  3. Fluoride concentration in drinking water of Karachi city (Pakistan).

    PubMed

    Siddique, Azhar; Mumtaz, Majid; Saied, Sumayya; Karim, Zahida; Zaigham, Nayyer A

    2006-09-01

    The ground and municipal water supply samples of Karachi city were analyzed for their fluoride contents. The fluoride contents in water samples collected from the subsurface and river sources were found below the WHO recommended value for the general health of the people. However, in some industrial areas the groundwater sample showed higher level of fluoride concentration. Continuous monitoring of water resources and cautious fluoridation is suggested to maintain proper status of fluoride concentration in the drinking water.

  4. Energy-efficient drinking water disinfection for greenhouse gas mitigation

    SciTech Connect

    Gadgil, A.J.; Greene, D.M.; Rosenfeld, A.

    1998-07-01

    Anecdotal evidence suggests that approximately one billion people worldwide use cookstoves to boil their drinking water. About half of this population is in China. Some populations (e.g. Jakarta) spend 1% of their GDP on boiling drinking water. Impoverished and/or ignorant populations not yet boiling their drinking water will do so when they can both afford it and understand the risks of unsafe drinking water. A recently developed water disinfection technology (UV Waterworks) can produce safe drinking water while earning tradable carbon credits (or credit as a clean development mechanism) when implemented as part of national energy, health, and carbon emissions trading policy, UV Waterworks uses approximately 6,000 times less energy than boiling over a biomass cookstove. Each unit that replaces boiling may save up to 175 or 300 tons/year of carbon-equivalent GHG emissions, depending on if it replaces sustainably harvested biomass (SHB) or non-SHB. For the approximately 500M Chinese boiling their drinking water over biomass (assumed SHB), this suggests a technical potential (that is, potential under the limiting case of 100% market adoption) of saving 87M tons/year of carbon-equivalent non-CO{sub 2} GHG emissions. The energy savings and corresponding emissions reductions will vary with cookstove fuels and stove efficiency: non-SHB and kerosene represent the most and least GHG-producing cookstove fuels, respectively, among those readily available to the populations of interest. The authors bracket the global technical potential for carbon emission reductions resulting from implementation of UV Waterworks, and estimate the value of tradable carbon credits earned from these reductions.

  5. Developments in microbiological risk assessment models for drinking water--a short review.

    PubMed

    Gale, P

    1996-10-01

    Microbiological risk assessment (MRA) is emerging method to predict the risks of infection from waterborne pathogens (e.g. rotavirus and Cryptosporidium parvum) in the drinking water supply. The objectives of this paper are to review the appropriateness of current models, with emphasis on pathogen exposures through drinking water, and to consider the information necessary to further their development. Calculating pathogen exposures in MRA is currently limited by the fact that pathogen density data for drinking water supplies are only available for very large volume samples--much larger than imbibed daily by any consumer. To develop MRA, information is needed on how pathogens are dispersed within those volumes at the resolution of volumes typically consumed daily by individuals. Available evidence suggests that micro-organisms, including pathogens, are clustered to some degree, even within small volumes, exposing some drinking water consumers to much higher doses than others. By assuming pathogens are randomly dispersed, current models overestimate the risk from the more infectious agents (e.g. rotaviruses) but underestimate the risk from less infectious pathogens (e.g. C. parvum). Approaches to modelling pathogen densities in drinking water from source water data and treatment removal efficiencies require additional information on the degree to which treatment processes (e.g. filtration and coagulation) increase pathogen clustering. The missing information could be obtained from large-scale pilot plant studies.

  6. [On the rating of Helicobacter pylori in drinking water].

    PubMed

    Fedichkina, T P; Solenova, L G; Zykova, I E

    2014-01-01

    There are considered the issues related to the possibility to rate of Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) content in drinking water. There is described the mechanism of of biofilm formation. The description refers to the biofilm formation mechanism in water supply systems and the existence of H. pylori in those systems. The objective premises of the definition of H. pylori as a potential limiting factor for assessing the quality of drinking water have been validated as follows: H. pylori is an etiologic factor associated to the development of chronic antral gastritis, gastric ulcer and duodenal ulcer, and gastric cancer either, in the Russian population the rate of infection with H. pylori falls within range of 56 - 90%, water supply pathway now can be considered as a source of infection of the population with H. pylori, the existence of WHO regulatory documents considering H. pylori as a candidate for standardization of the quality of the drinking water quite common occurrence of biocorrosion, the reduction of sanitary water network reliability, that creates the possibility of concentrating H. pylori in some areas of the water system and its delivery to the consumer of drinking water, and causes the necessity of the prevention of H. pylori-associated gastric pathology of the population. A comprehensive and harmonized approach to H. pylori is required to consider it as a candidate to its rating in drinking water. Bearing in mind the large economic losses due to, on the one hand, the prevalence of disease caused by H. pylori, and, on the other hand, the biocorrosion of water supply system, the problem is both relevant in terms of communal hygiene and economy.

  7. Monitoring dissolved organic carbon in surface and drinking waters.

    PubMed

    Volk, Christian; Wood, Larry; Johnson, Bruce; Robinson, Jeff; Zhu, Hai Wei; Kaplan, Louis

    2002-02-01

    The presence of natural organic matter (NOM) strongly impacts drinking water treatment, water quality, and water behavior during distribution. Dissolved organic carbon (DOC) concentrations were determined daily over a 22 month period in river water before and after conventional drinking water treatment using an on-line total organic carbon (TOC) analyzer. Quantitative and qualitative variations in organic matter were related to precipitation and runoff, seasons and operating conditions. Following a rainfall event, DOC levels could increase by 3.5 fold over baseflow concentrations, while color, UV absorbance values and turbidity increased by a factor of 8, 12 and 300, respectively. Treated water DOC levels were closely related to the source water quality, with an average organic matter removal of 42% after treatment.

  8. [The protection of drinking water in a public health department].

    PubMed

    Monari, R; Petrolo, A; Mascelli, M; Vannucchi, G

    2008-01-01

    The protection of drinking water is a key issue in a Public Health Department's activity. A substantial amount of planning and monitoring work is involved in the development and implementation of a water safety plan, aimed not only at the enforcement of public health regulations, but also at the improvement of the quality water. We provide an overview of the quality monitoring program of the municipality of Prato, a highly populated and industrialized area, where ground water is contaminated by anthropogenic pollutants such as trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene and nitrate. We show how, in spite of the intrinsically poor quality of the basic water resource, the careful application of an appropriate prevention plan, with the cooperation of the local water authority, allows the delivery of drinking water of increasing safety and quality.

  9. Effects of chlorinated drinking water on human lipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Wones, R.G.; Glueck, C.J.

    1986-11-01

    Atherosclerosis with its complications is the most important health problem affecting American adults. The levels of serum cholesterol, of high and low density lipoproteins, and of apolipoproteins A1, A2, and B are major risk factors for the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Animals studies suggest that chlorinated drinking water may elevate the serum cholesterol. Studies are too limited to confirm or refute this effect in humans. Since millions of humans have had daily exposure to chlorinated drinking water, it is essential to study the effects of such exposure on human lipid metabolism. The authors have begun a protocol to discover whether consuming chlorinated drinking water elevates serum cholesterol and the other lipid components of blood known to be associated with atherosclerosis. This protocol has been designed to improve the change of observing an effect while preserving the ability to generalize the data.

  10. Pathogens in drinking water: Are there any new ones

    SciTech Connect

    Reasoner, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    Since 1976 three newly recognized human pathogens have become familiar to the drinking water industry as waterborne disease agents. These are: the legionnaires disease agent, Legionella pneumophila and related species; and two protozoan pathogens, Giardia lamblia and Cryptosporidium parvum, both of which form highly disinfectant resistant cysts that are shed in the feces of infected individuals. The question frequently arises - are there other emerging waterborne pathogens that may pose a human health problem that the drinking water industry will have to deal with. The paper will review the current state of knowledge of the occurrence and incidence of pathogens and opportunistic pathogens other than Legionella, Giardia and Cryptosporidium in treated and untreated drinking water. Bacterial agents that will be reviewed include Aeromonas, Pseudomonas, Campylobacter, Mycobacterium, Yersinia and Plesiomonas. Aspects of detection of these agents including detection methods and feasibility of monitoring will be addressed.

  11. Estimating effects of improved drinking water and sanitation on cholera.

    PubMed

    Leidner, Andrew J; Adusumilli, Naveen C

    2013-12-01

    Demand for adequate provision of drinking-water and sanitation facilities to promote public health and economic growth is increasing in the rapidly urbanizing countries of the developing world. With a panel of data on Asia and Africa from 1990 to 2008, associations are estimated between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks, the case rates in given outbreaks, the mortality rates associated with cholera and two disease control mechanisms, drinking-water and sanitation services. A statistically significant and negative effect is found between drinking-water services and both cholera case rates as well as cholera-related mortality rates. A relatively weak statistical relationship is found between the occurrence of cholera outbreaks and sanitation services.

  12. Trihalomethanes in drinking water and the risk of death from kidney cancer: does hardness in drinking water matter?

    PubMed

    Liao, Yen-Hsiung; Chen, Chih-Cheng; Chang, Chih-Ching; Peng, Chiung-Yu; Chiu, Hui-Fen; Wu, Trong-Neng; Yang, Chun-Yuh

    2012-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to (1) examine the relationship between total trihalomethanes (TTHM) levels in public water supplies and risk of development of kidney cancer and (2) determine whether hardness levels in drinking water modify the effects of TTHM on risk of kidney cancer induction. A matched case-control study was used to investigate the relationship between the risk of death attributed to kidney cancer and exposure to TTHM in drinking water in 53 municipalities in Taiwan. All kidney cancer deaths in the 53 municipalities from 1998 through 2007 were obtained. Controls were deaths from other causes and were pair-matched to the cancer cases by gender, year of birth, and year of death. Each matched control was selected randomly from the set of possible controls for each cancer case. Data on TTHM levels and levels of hardness in drinking water were also collected. The municipality of residence for cancer cases and controls was presumed to be the source of the subject's TTHM and hardness exposure via drinking water. Relative to individuals whose TTHM exposure level was <4.9 ppb, the adjusted OR (95% CI) for kidney cancer was 0.98 (0.77-1.25) for individuals who resided in municipalities served by drinking water with a TTHM exposure ≥4.9 ppb. However, evidence of an interaction was noted between the use of soft water and drinking water TTHM concentrations. Increased knowledge of the interaction between hardness and TTHM levels in reducing risk of kidney cancer development will aid in public policy decision and establishing standards to prevent disease occurrence.

  13. Assessment of the school drinking water supply and the water quality in Pingtung County, Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chung, Pei-Ling; Chung, Chung-Yi; Liao, Shao-Wei; Miaw, Chang-Ling

    2009-12-01

    In this study, a questionnaire survey of school drinking water quality of 42 schools in Pingtung County was conducted according to the water sources, treatment facilities, location of school as well as different grade levels. Among them, 45% of schools used tap water as the main source of drinking water, and the schools using groundwater and surface water as drinking water source account for 29% and 26%, respectively. The schools above senior high school level in the city used tap water as drinking water more than underground water, while the schools under junior high school level in the rural area used surface water as their main source of drinking water. The surface water was normally boiled before being provided to their students. The reverse osmosis system is a commonly used water treatment equipment for those schools using tap water or underground water. Drinking fountain or boiled water unit is widely installed in schools above senior high school level. For schools under junior high school level, a pipeline is stretched across the campus. Relative test shows that the unqualified rate of microbe in water is 26.2%. All parameters for physical and chemical properties and metal content had met the domestic standards except that the turbidity of schools under junior high school level using tap water is slightly higher than the standard value.

  14. The Occurrence and Comparative Toxicity of Haloacetaldehyde Disinfection Byproducts in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The introduction of drinking water disinfection greatly reduced the incidence of waterborne diseases. However, the reaction between disinfectants and natural organic matter in the source water can lead to an unintended consequence, which is the formation of drinking water disinfe...

  15. Development of EPA Method 525.3 for the Analysis of Semivolatiles in Drinking Water

    EPA Science Inventory

    The United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Office of Ground Water and Drinking Water (OGWDW) collects nationwide occurrence data on contaminants in drinking water using the Unregulated Contaminant Monitoring Regulations (UCMRs). The unregulated contaminants, which ar...

  16. CHEMICAL AND BIOLOGICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF NEWLY DISCOVERED IODOACID DRINKING WATER DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Iodoacid drinking water disinfection byproducts (DBPs) were recently uncovered in drinking water samples from source water with a high bromide/iodide concentration that was disinfected with chloramines. The purpose of this paper is to report the analytical chemical identification...

  17. The epidemiology of chemical contaminants of drinking water.

    PubMed

    Calderon, R L

    2000-01-01

    A number of chemical contaminants have been identified in drinking water. These contaminants reach drinking water supplies from various sources, including municipal and industrial discharges, urban and rural run-off, natural geological formations, drinking water distribution materials and the drinking water treatment process. Chemical contaminants for which epidemiologic studies have reported associations include the following: aluminium, arsenic, disinfection by-products, fluoride, lead, pesticides and radon. Health effects reported have included various cancers, adverse reproductive outcomes, cardiovascular disease and neurological disease. In evaluating epidemiologic studies for risk assessment, considering whether the study design was qualitative (hypothesis generating) or quantitative (hypothesis testing) is important and whether sufficient epidemiologic data of a quantitative nature exists to determine the dose-response curve. Each of the chemical contaminants mentioned are summarized by study designs (qualitative and quantitative) and whether a dose-response curve based on epidemiologic data has been proposed. Environmental epidemiology studies are driven by environmental exposures of interest. For drinking water contaminants, the design of epidemiologic studies and their interpretation should consider the following exposure issues: the source of the contaminant; other sources of the contaminant; the route of exposure; the frequency, duration and magnitude of exposure; the ability to document an actual internal dose; and the ability to document the dose to the target organ. Health effects of concern have other risk factors that must be measured in the conduct of these studies. In evaluating epidemiologic studies, potential errors and biases that may occur must be considered given the very low magnitude of associations (less than 2.0 for either odds ratio or risk ratio). Given the issues, the next generation of drinking water epidemiologic studies should

  18. Lung cancer and arsenic concentrations in drinking water in Chile.

    PubMed

    Ferreccio, C; González, C; Milosavjlevic, V; Marshall, G; Sancha, A M; Smith, A H

    2000-11-01

    Cities in northern Chile had arsenic concentrations of 860 microg/liter in drinking water in the period 1958-1970. Concentrations have since been reduced to 40 microg/liter. We investigated the relation between lung cancer and arsenic in drinking water in northern Chile in a case-control study involving patients diagnosed with lung cancer between 1994 and 1996 and frequency-matched hospital controls. The study identified 152 lung cancer cases and 419 controls. Participants were interviewed regarding drinking water sources, cigarette smoking, and other variables. Logistic regression analysis revealed a clear trend in lung cancer odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) with increasing concentration of arsenic in drinking water, as follows: 1, 1.6 (95% CI = 0.5-5.3), 3.9 (95% CI = 1.2-12.3), 5.2 (95% CI = 2.3-11.7), and 8.9 (95% CI = 4.0-19.6), for arsenic concentrations ranging from less than 10 microg/liter to a 65-year average concentration of 200-400 microg/liter. There was evidence of synergy between cigarette smoking and ingestion of arsenic in drinking water; the odds ratio for lung cancer was 32.0 (95% CI = 7.2-198.0) among smokers exposed to more than 200 microg/liter of arsenic in drinking water (lifetime average) compared with nonsmokers exposed to less than 50 microg/liter. This study provides strong evidence that ingestion of inorganic arsenic is associated with human lung cancer.

  19. Fate of perfluorooctanesulfonate and perfluorooctanoate in drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Takagi, Sokichi; Adachi, Fumie; Miyano, Keiichi; Koizumi, Yoshihiko; Tanaka, Hidetsugu; Watanabe, Isao; Tanabe, Shinsuke; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2011-07-01

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) have been recognized as global environmental pollutants. Although PFOS and PFOA have been detected in tap water from Japan and several other countries, very few studies have examined the fate, especially removal, of perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in drinking water treatment processes. In this study, we analyzed PFOS and PFOA at every stages of drinking water treatment processes in several water purification plants that employ advanced water treatment technologies. PFOS and PFOA concentrations did not vary considerably in raw water, sand filtered water, settled water, and ozonated water. Sand filtration and ozonation did not have an effect on the removal of PFOS and PFOA in drinking water. PFOS and PFOA were removed effectively by activated carbon that had been used for less than one year. However, activated carbon that had been used for a longer period of time (>1 year) was not effective in removing PFOS and PFOA from water. Variations in the removal ratios of PFOS and PFOA by activated carbon were found between summer and winter months.

  20. Drinking water consumption patterns in Canadian communities (2001-2007).

    PubMed

    Roche, S M; Jones, A Q; Majowicz, S E; McEwen, S A; Pintar, K D M

    2012-03-01

    A pooled analysis of seven cross-sectional studies from Newfoundland and Labrador, Waterloo and Hamilton Regions, Ontario and Vancouver, East Kootenay and Northern Interior Regions, British Columbia (2001 to 2007) was performed to investigate the drinking water consumption patterns of Canadians and to identify factors associated with the volume of tap water consumed. The mean volume of tap water consumed was 1.2 L/day, with a large range (0.03 to 9.0 L/day). In-home water treatment and interactions between age and gender and age and bottled water use were significantly associated with the volume of tap water consumed in multivariable analyses. Approximately 25% (2,221/8,916) of participants were classified as bottled water users, meaning that 75% or more of their total daily drinking water intake was bottled. Approximately 48.6% (4,307/8,799) of participants used an in-home treatment method to treat their tap water for drinking purposes. This study provides a broader geographic perspective and more current estimates of Canadian water consumption patterns than previous studies. The identified factors associated with daily water consumption could be beneficial for risk assessors to identify individuals who may be at greater risk of waterborne illness.

  1. Evaluation of ATP measurements to detect microbial ingress by wastewater and surface water in drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vang, Óluva K; Corfitzen, Charlotte B; Smith, Christian; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    2014-11-01

    Fast and reliable methods are required for monitoring of microbial drinking water quality in order to protect public health. Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) was investigated as a potential real-time parameter for detecting microbial ingress in drinking water contaminated with wastewater or surface water. To investigate the ability of the ATP assay in detecting different contamination types, the contaminant was diluted with non-chlorinated drinking water. Wastewater, diluted at 10(4) in drinking water, was detected with the ATP assay, as well as 10(2) to 10(3) times diluted surface water. To improve the performance of the ATP assay in detecting microbial ingress in drinking water, different approaches were investigated, i.e. quantifying microbial ATP or applying reagents of different sensitivities to reduce measurement variations; however, none of these approaches contributed significantly in this respect. Compared to traditional microbiological methods, the ATP assay could detect wastewater and surface water in drinking water to a higher degree than total direct counts (TDCs), while both heterotrophic plate counts (HPC 22 °C and HPC 37 °C) and Colilert-18 (Escherichia coli and coliforms) were more sensitive than the ATP measurements, though with much longer response times. Continuous sampling combined with ATP measurements displays definite monitoring potential for microbial drinking water quality, since microbial ingress in drinking water can be detected in real-time with ATP measurements. The ability of the ATP assay to detect microbial ingress is influenced by both the ATP load from the contaminant itself and the ATP concentration in the specific drinking water. Consequently, a low ATP concentration of the specific drinking water facilitates a better detection of a potential contamination of the water supply with the ATP assay.

  2. Bee guide to complying with the Safe Drinking Water Act. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Garland, J.G.; Acker, A.M.

    1991-08-01

    This report provides current information on the Safe Drinking Water Act and recent amendments. The report describes the evolution of the Safe Drinking Water Act and the responsibilities of base personnel involved in compliance with the Act. It also describes the monitoring requirements, analytical requirements, best available technology for controlling contaminants, and public notification requirements for regulated contaminants. The appendixes include proposed contaminants and state water quality agencies. Each Air Force public water distribution system (PWDS) must comply with the SDWA, and the National Primary Drinking Water Regulations (NPDWRs). In the United States and its territories, the provisions of the SDWA and the NPDWRs are enforced by the states except in the few instances in which the state has not been delegated primary enforcement responsibility (primacy) by the EPA. States that have primacy may establish drinking water regulations, monitoring schedules, and reporting requirements more stringent than, or in addition to, those in the NPDWRs. Air Force public water systems in these states are required to comply with these additional requirements as well as federal enforcement actions as carried out by the EPA Regional Office.

  3. Household Pasteurization of Drinking-water: The Chulli Water-treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Islam, Mohammad Fakhrul

    2006-01-01

    A simple flow-through system has been developed which makes use of wasted heat generated in traditional clay ovens (chullis) to pasteurize surface water. A hollow aluminium coil is built into the clay chulli, and water is passed through the coil during normal cooking events. By adjusting the flow rate, effluent temperature can be maintained at approximately 70 °C. Laboratory testing, along with over 400 field tests on chulli systems deployed in six pilot villages, showed that the treatment completely inactivated thermotolerant coliforms. The chulli system produces up to 90 litres per day of treated water at the household level, without any additional time or fuel requirement. The technology has been developed to provide a safe alternative source of drinking-water in arsenic-contaminated areas, but can also have wide application wherever people consume microbiologically-contaminated water. PMID:17366777

  4. New Perspectives in Monitoring Drinking Water Microbial Quality

    PubMed Central

    Figueras, Ma José; Borrego, Juan J.

    2010-01-01

    The safety of drinking water is evaluated by the results obtained from faecal indicators during the stipulated controls fixed by the legislation. However, drinking-water related illness outbreaks are still occurring worldwide. The failures that lead to these outbreaks are relatively common and typically involve preceding heavy rain and inadequate disinfection processes. The role that classical faecal indicators have played in the protection of public health is reviewed and the turning points expected for the future explored. The legislation for protecting the quality of drinking water in Europe is under revision, and the planned modifications include an update of current indicators and methods as well as the introduction of Water Safety Plans (WSPs), in line with WHO recommendations. The principles of the WSP approach and the advances signified by the introduction of these preventive measures in the future improvement of dinking water quality are presented. The expected impact that climate change will have in the quality of drinking water is also critically evaluated. PMID:21318002

  5. Characterization of drinking water treatment sludge after ultrasound treatment.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Zhiwei; Yang, Yanling; Li, Xing; Zhang, Yang; Guo, Xuan

    2015-05-01

    Ultrasonic technology alone or the combination of ultrasound with alkaline or thermal hydrolysis as pretreatment for anaerobic digestion of activated sludge has been extensively documented. However, there are few reports on ultrasound as pretreatment of drinking water treatment sludge (DWTS), and thereby the characteristic variability of sonicated DWTS has not been fully examined. This research presents a lab-scale study on physical, chemical and biological characteristics of a DWTS sample collected from a water plant after ultrasonic treatment via a bath/probe sonoreactor. By doing this work, we provide implications for using ultrasound as pretreatment of enhanced coagulation of recycling sludge, and for the conditioning of water and wastewater mixed sludge by ultrasound combined with polymers. Our results indicate that the most vigorous DWTS disintegration quantified by particles' size reduction and organic solubilization is achieved with 5 W/ml for 30 min ultra-sonication (specific energy of 1590 kWh/kg TS). The Brunauer, Emmett and Teller (BET) specific surface area of sonicated DWTS flocs increase as ultra-sonication prolongs at lower energy densities (0.03 and 1 W/ml), while decrease as ultra-sonication prolongs at higher energy densities (3 and 5 W/ml). Additionally, the pH and zeta potential of sonicated DWTS slightly varies under all conditions observed. A shorter sonication with higher energy density plays a more effective role in restraining microbial activity than longer sonication with lower energy density.

  6. BIOFILM IN DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS

    EPA Science Inventory

    Throughout the world there are millions of miles of water distribution pipe lines which provide potable water for use by individuals and industry. Some of these water distribution systems have been in service well over one hundred years. Treated water moving through a distributio...

  7. Adsorption of Roxarsone onto Drinking Water Treatment Residuals: Preliminary Studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Salazar, J.; Sarkar, D.; Datta, R.; Sharma, S.

    2006-05-01

    Roxarsone (3-nitro-4-hydroxyphenyl-arsonic acid) is an organo-arsenical compound, commonly used as a feed additive in the broiler poultry industry to control coccidial intestinal parasites. Roxarsone is not toxic to the birds not only because of the low dose, and also because it most likely does not convert to toxic inorganic arsenic (As) in their systems. However, upon excretion, roxarsone may undergo transformation to inorganic As, posing a serious risk of contaminating the agricultural land and water bodies via surface runoff or leaching. The use of poultry litter as fertilizer results in As accumulation rates of up to 50 metric tons per year in agricultural lands. The immediate challenge, as identified by the various regulatory bodies in recent years is to develop an efficient, yet cost-effective and environmentally sound approach to cleaning up such As- contaminated soils. Recent studies conducted by our group have suggested that the drinking water treatment residuals (WTRs) can effectively retain As, thereby decreasing its mobility in the environment. The WTRs are byproducts of drinking water treatment processes and are typically composed of amorphous Fe/Al oxides, activated C and cationic polymers. They can be obtained free-of-cost from water treatment plants. It is well demonstrated that the environmental mobility of As is controlled by adsorption/desorption reactions onto mineral surfaces. Hence, knowledge of adsorption and desorption of As onto the WTRs is of environmental relevance. The reported study examined the adsorption and desorption characteristics of As using two types of WTRs, namely the Fe-WTRs (byproduct of Fe salt treatment), and the Al-WTRs (byproduct of Al salt treatment). All adsorption experiments were carried out in batch and As retention on the WTRs was investigated as a function of solid/solution ratio (1:5, 1:10, 1:25 and 1:50), equilibration time (10 min - 48 hr), pH (2 - 10) and initial As load (100, 500, 1000 and 2000 mg As/L). The

  8. Assessing the microbial quality of improved drinking water sources: results from the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Baum, Rachel; Kayser, Georgia; Stauber, Christine; Sobsey, Mark

    2014-01-01

    Millennium Development Goal Target 7c (to halve between 1990 and 2015 the proportion of the global population without sustainable access to safe drinking water), was celebrated as achieved in 2012. However, new studies show that we may be prematurely celebrating. Access to safe drinking water may be overestimated if microbial water quality is considered. The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between microbial drinking water quality and drinking water source in the Puerto Plata region of the Dominican Republic. This study analyzed microbial drinking water quality data from 409 households in 33 communities. Results showed that 47% of improved drinking water sources were of high to very-high risk water quality, and therefore unsafe for drinking. This study provides evidence that the current estimate of safe water access may be overly optimistic, and microbial water quality data are needed to reliably assess the safety of drinking water.

  9. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified.

  10. Lead in drinking water and human blood lead levels in the United States.

    PubMed

    Brown, Mary Jean; Margolis, Stephen

    2012-08-10

    Lead is a pervasive environmental contaminant. The adverse health effects of lead exposure in children and adults are well documented, and no safe blood lead threshold in children has been identified. Lead can be ingested from various sources, including lead paint and house dust contaminated by lead paint, as well as soil, drinking water, and food. The concentration of lead, total amount of lead consumed, and duration of lead exposure influence the severity of health effects. Because lead accumulates in the body, all sources of lead should be controlled or eliminated to prevent childhood lead poisoning. Beginning in the 1970s, lead concentrations in air, tap water, food, dust, and soil began to be substantially reduced, resulting in significantly reduced blood lead levels (BLLs) in children throughout the United States. However, children are still being exposed to lead, and many of these children live in housing built before the 1978 ban on lead-based residential paint. These homes might contain lead paint hazards, as well as drinking water service lines made from lead, lead solder, or plumbing materials that contain lead. Adequate corrosion control reduces the leaching of lead plumbing components or solder into drinking water. The majority of public water utilities are in compliance with the Safe Drinking Water Act Lead and Copper Rule (LCR) of 1991. However, some children are still exposed to lead in drinking water. EPA is reviewing LCR, and additional changes to the rule are expected that will further protect public health. Childhood lead poisoning prevention programs should be made aware of the results of local public water system lead monitoring measurement under LCR and consider drinking water as a potential cause of increased BLLs, especially when other sources of lead exposure are not identified. PMID:22874873

  11. Burden of Cancer from Chemicals in North Carolina Drinking Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    DeFelice, N.

    2013-12-01

    Monitoring programs required by the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) currently do not consider potential differences in chemical exposure patterns and human health risks. Rather, U.S. agencies establish monitoring requirements based on the type of water system and the number of people the system serves; within categories of systems, all potentially carcinogenic chemicals must be monitored with equal frequency, regardless of the potential level of risk these chemicals pose. To inform future policies concerning contaminant monitoring under the SDWA, we examined the potential health threats in North Carolina from the 34 carcinogenic chemicals covered under the SDWA. We analyzed reported contaminant concentration data for all community water systems (CWSs) for the years 1998-2011. We employed an attributable fraction approach that uses probabilistic inputs to evaluate the percent of cancer cases that may be attributable to chemical exposure in drinking water. We found that cancer risks are dominated by 3 of the 34 chemicals and chemical classes (total trihalomethanes (TTHMs), arsenic and gross alpha particles); all other chemicals contribute to less than one cancer case per year in the state. We showed that around 840 cases of cancer annually (2% of annual cancer cases) are attributable to contaminated drinking water. The majority cases are due to TTHMs, arsenic and gross alpha particles, which contributed 810 (95% CI 560-1,280), 14 (95% CI 3 -32), and 13 (95% CI 2-48) cases, respectively. Sixty-seven counties had annual cancer rates higher than 1 in 10,000 attributable to community water systems. Annual cancer rate attributable to chemicals found in drinking water that are regulated under the safe drinking water act.

  12. Use of non-carbonated soft drinks to provide safe drinking water.

    PubMed

    Gracey, M; Burke, V; Robinson, J

    1985-03-01

    Non-carbonated, low-calorie soft drink concentrates (cordials), when diluted according to manufacturers' instructions, had significant antibacterial effects in vitro. Bacteria affected include Vibrio cholerae, Aeromonas hydrophila, Shigella sonnei, Salmonella typhimurium and Escherichia coli. With vibrios, bacterial counts were reduced from 10(6)/ml to undetectable numbers in less than 10 min. Escherichia coli in an initial concentration of 10(6)/ml became undetectable after incubation for 1 h with one brand of cordial. Naturally contaminated water can be rendered potable by incubation with cordials at room temperature for 1 h. This may be a way to reduce the risk of water-borne diarrhoea, particularly where the cleanliness of drinking waters cannot be otherwise assured, for example when making up oral rehydration fluids and for travellers in high-risk areas.

  13. Evaluation of the potential immunotoxicity of chlorinated drinking water in mice.

    PubMed

    French, A S; Copeland, C B; Andrews, D L; Wiliams, W C; Riddle, M M; Luebke, R W

    1998-01-16

    Recent epidemiological studies have reported associations between the consumption of chlorinated drinking water and various types of human cancer; in addition, exposure to chlorine (Cl-) in drinking water has been reported to suppress certain immune functions in laboratory animals. The current studies were conducted to extend our knowledge of the effects of drinking water exposure to Cl-. Female C57BL/6 mice were administered hyperchlorinated drinking water (7.5, 15, or 30 ppm Cl-) for 2 weeks prior to sacrifice for evaluation of spleen and thymus weights, the plaque-forming cell (PFC) response, hemagglutination (HA) titer, and lymphocyte proliferation (LP). Significant reductions in organ weights and immune response were observed in the positive control groups (i.e. dexamethasone- or cyclophosphamide-exposed mice). No consistent differences were observed between the Cl--exposed animals and vehicle control mice for the evaluated parameters. Thus, under the conditions of these experiments, 2 weeks of exposure to hyperchlorinated drinking water had no apparent adverse effects on immune function.

  14. Occurrence and risk assessment of selected phthalates in drinking water from waterworks in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Shi, Jianghong; Bo, Ting; Li, Huiyuan; Crittenden, John C

    2015-07-01

    The first nationwide survey of six phthalates (diethyl phthalate (DEP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP); bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); din-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) in drinking waters from waterworks was conducted across seven geographical zones in China. Of the six target phthalates, DBP and DEHP were the highest abundant phthalates with median (± interquartile range) values of 0.18 ± 0.47 and 0.18 ± 0.97 μg/L, respectively, but did not exceed the limit values in China's Standards for Drinking Water Quality. These phthalates in drinking water were generally higher in the northern regions of China than those in the southern and eastern regions. Based on the investigated concentrations, lifetime exposure risk assessment indicated that phthalates in drinking water did not pose carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks to Chinese residents, even under the conservative scenario (with 95th percentile risk). In addition, we found that DEHP contributed the greatest risk to the total exposure risk of all the selected phthalates and oral ingestion was the main exposure route for phthalates in drinking water. PMID:25752631

  15. Occurrence and risk assessment of selected phthalates in drinking water from waterworks in China.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xiaowei; Shi, Jianghong; Bo, Ting; Li, Huiyuan; Crittenden, John C

    2015-07-01

    The first nationwide survey of six phthalates (diethyl phthalate (DEP); dimethyl phthalate (DMP); di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP); butyl benzyl phthalate (BBP); bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate (DEHP); din-octyl phthalate (DnOP)) in drinking waters from waterworks was conducted across seven geographical zones in China. Of the six target phthalates, DBP and DEHP were the highest abundant phthalates with median (± interquartile range) values of 0.18 ± 0.47 and 0.18 ± 0.97 μg/L, respectively, but did not exceed the limit values in China's Standards for Drinking Water Quality. These phthalates in drinking water were generally higher in the northern regions of China than those in the southern and eastern regions. Based on the investigated concentrations, lifetime exposure risk assessment indicated that phthalates in drinking water did not pose carcinogenic and noncarcinogenic risks to Chinese residents, even under the conservative scenario (with 95th percentile risk). In addition, we found that DEHP contributed the greatest risk to the total exposure risk of all the selected phthalates and oral ingestion was the main exposure route for phthalates in drinking water.

  16. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies. PMID:27234173

  17. Watering holes: The use of arboreal sources of drinking water by Old World monkeys and apes.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Narayan; Huffman, Michael A; Gupta, Shreejata; Nautiyal, Himani; Mendonça, Renata; Morino, Luca; Sinha, Anindya

    2016-08-01

    Water is one of the most important components of an animal's diet, as it is essential for life. Primates, as do most animals, procure water directly from standing or free-flowing sources such as pools, ponds and rivers, or indirectly by the ingestion of certain plant parts. The latter is frequently described as the main source of water for predominantly arboreal species. However, in addition to these, many species are known to drink water accumulated in tree-holes. This has been commonly observed in several arboreal New World primate species, but rarely reported systematically from Old World primates. Here, we report observations of this behaviour from eight great ape and Old World monkey species, namely chimpanzee, orangutan, siamang, western hoolock gibbon, northern pig-tailed macaque, bonnet macaque, rhesus macaque and the central Himalayan langur. We hypothesise three possible reasons why these primates drink water from tree-holes: (1) coping with seasonal or habitat-specific water shortages, (2) predator/human conflict avoidance, and (3) potential medicinal benefits. We also suggest some alternative hypotheses that should be tested in future studies. This behaviour is likely to be more prevalent than currently thought, and may have significant, previously unknown, influences on primate survival and health, warranting further detailed studies.

  18. Determining beryllium in drinking water by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Lytle, D.A.; Schock, M.R.; Dues, N.R.; Doerger, J.U.

    1993-01-01

    A direct graphite furnace atomic absorption spectroscopy method for the analysis of beryllium in drinking water has been derived from a method for determining beryllium in urine. Ammonium phosphomolybdate and ascorbic acid were employed as matrix modifiers. The matrix modifiers successfully eliminated common chemical interferences in drinking water samples analyzed for beryllium content, as well as interferences encountered during jar testing of beryllium removal by alum coagulation. The method proved to be a simple, accurate, and precise alternative to the method of standard additions. Method detection limit was 0.09 microgram/l, with a linear calibration range of 0 to 6 microgram/l.

  19. Demineralization of drinking water: Is it prudent?

    PubMed

    Verma, K C; Kushwaha, A S

    2014-10-01

    Water is the elixir of life. The requirement of water for very existence of life and preservation of health has driven man to devise methods for maintaining its purity and wholesomeness. The water can get contaminated, polluted and become a potential hazard to human health. Water in its purest form devoid of natural minerals can also be the other end of spectrum where health could be adversely affected. Limited availability of fresh water and increased requirements has led to an increased usage of personal, domestic and commercial methods of purification of water. Desalination of saline water where fresh water is in limited supply has led to development of the latest technology of reverse osmosis but is it going to be safe to use such demineralized water over a long duration needs to be debated and discussed.

  20. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  1. Occurrence of perfluorinated compounds in raw water from New Jersey public drinking water systems.

    PubMed

    Post, Gloria B; Louis, Judith B; Lippincott, R Lee; Procopio, Nicholas A

    2013-01-01

    Perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA) and perfluorooctane sulfonic acid (PFOS) were previously detected (≥ 4 ng/L) in 65% and 30%, respectively, of 23 New Jersey (NJ) public drinking water systems (PWS) sampled in 2006. We now report on a 2009 study of the occurrence of PFOA, PFOS, and eight other perfluorinated compounds (PFCs) in raw water samples from 30 intakes (18 groundwater and 12 surface water) from 29 additional NJ PWS. Between 1 and 8 PFCs were detected (≥ 5 ng/L) in 21 (70%) of 30 PWS samples at total PFC concentrations of 5-174 ng/L. Although PFOA was the most commonly detected PFC (57% of samples) and was found at the highest maximum concentration (100 ng/L), some of the higher levels of other PFCs were at sites with little or no PFOA. Perfluorononanoic acid was detected more frequently (30%) and at higher concentrations (up to 96 ng/L) than in raw or finished drinking water elsewhere, and it was found at several sites as the sole or predominant PFC, a pattern not reported in other drinking water studies. PFOS, perfluoropentanoic acid, and perfluorohexanoic acid were each detected in more than 20% of samples, while perfluoroheptanoic acid, perfluorobutane sulfonic acid, and perfluorohexane sulfonic acid were detected less frequently. Perfluorobutanoic acid was found only once (6 ng/L), and perfluorodecanoic acid was not detected. Total PFCs were highest in two reservoirs near an airfield; these were also the only sites with total perfluorosulfonic acids higher than total perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs). PFC levels in raw and finished water from the same source were similar at those sites where both were tested. Five wells of two additional NJ PWS known to be contaminated with PFOA were also each sampled 4-9 times in 2010-13 for nine of the same PFCs. Total PFCs (almost completely PFCAs) at one of these PWS located near an industrial source of PFCs were higher than in any other PWS tested (up to 330 ng/L). These results show that multiple PFCs are

  2. MONOCHLORAMINE MICROELECTRODE FOR IN SITU APPLICATION WITHIN THE BIOFILM OF CHLORAMINATED DRINKING WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEMS- Abstract

    EPA Science Inventory

    Many utilities in the United States are using monochloramine as a secondary disinfectant as a result of the implementation of the Stage 1 and Stage 2 Disinfectants and Disinfection Byproduct Rules. A recent survey suggests that an additional 12% of drinking water utilities are c...

  3. Residential exposure to drinking water arsenic in Inner Mongolia, China.

    PubMed

    Ning, Zhixiong; Lobdell, Danelle T; Kwok, Richard K; Liu, Zhiyi; Zhang, Shiying; Ma, Chenglong; Riediker, Michael; Mumford, Judy L

    2007-08-01

    In the Ba Men region of Inner Mongolia, China, a high prevalence of chronic arsenism has been reported in earlier studies. A survey of the arsenic contamination among wells from groundwater was conducted to better understand the occurrence of arsenic (As) in drinking water. A total of 14,866 wells (30% of all wells in the region) were analyzed for their arsenic-content. Methods used to detect arsenic were Spectrophotometric methods with DCC-Ag (detection limit, 0.5 microg of As/L); Spot method (detection limit, 10 microg of As/L); and air assisted Colorimetry method (detection limit, 20 microg of As/L). Arsenic-concentrations ranged from below limit of detection to 1200 microg of As/L. Elevated concentrations were related to well depth (10 to 29 m), the date the well was built (peaks from 1980-1990), and geographic location (near mountain range). Over 25,900 individuals utilized wells with drinking water arsenic concentrations above 20 microg of As/L (14,500 above 50 microg of As/L-the current China national standard in drinking water and 2198 above 300 microg of As/L). The presented database of arsenic in wells of the Ba Men region provides a useful tool for planning future water explorations when combined with geological information as well as support for designing upcoming epidemiological studies on the effects of arsenic in drinking water for this region.

  4. Analysis of the bacterial communities associated with different drinking water treatment processes.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Dan-Ning; Fan, Zhen-Yu; Chi, Liang; Wang, Xia; Qu, Wei-Dong; Quan, Zhe-Xue

    2013-09-01

    A drinking water plant was surveyed to determine the bacterial composition of different drinking water treatment processes (DWTP). Water samples were collected from different processing steps in the plant (i.e., coagulation, sedimentation, sand filtration, and chloramine disinfection) and from distantly piped water. The samples were pyrosequensed using sample-specific oligonucleotide barcodes. The taxonomic composition of the microbial communities of different DWTP and piped water was dominated by the phylum Proteobacteria. Additionally, a large proportion of the sequences were assigned to the phyla Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes. The piped water exhibited increasing taxonomic diversity, including human pathogens such as the Mycobacterium, which revealed a threat to the safety of drinking water. Surprisingly, we also found that a sister group of SAR11 (LD12) persisted throughout the DWTP, which was always detected in freshwater aquatic systems. Moreover, Polynucleobacter, Rhodoferax, and a group of Actinobacteria, hgcI clade, were relatively consistent throughout the processes. It is concluded that smaller-size microorganisms tended to survive against the present treatment procedure. More improvement should be made to ensure the long-distance transmission drinking water.

  5. Arsenic exposure to drinking water in the Mekong Delta.

    PubMed

    Merola, R B; Hien, T T; Quyen, D T T; Vengosh, A

    2015-04-01

    Arsenic (As) contamination of groundwater drinking sources was investigated in the Mekong Delta, Vietnam in order to assess the occurrence of As in the groundwater, and the magnitude of As exposure of local residents through measurements of As in toenails of residents consuming groundwater as their major drinking water source. Groundwater (n=68) and toenail (n=62) samples were collected in Dong Thap Province, adjacent to the Mekong River, in southern Vietnam. Fifty-three percent (n=36) of the wells tested had As content above the World Health Organization's (WHO) recommended limit of 10 ppb. Samples were divided into Northern (mean As=4.0 ppb) and Southern (329.0 ppb) groups; wells from the Southern group were located closer to the Mekong River. Elevated As contents were associated with depth (<200 m), salinity (low salinity), and redox state (reducing conditions) of the study groundwater. In 79% of the wells, As was primarily composed of the reduced As(III) species. Arsenic content in nails collected from local residents was significantly correlated to As in drinking water (r=0.49, p<0.001), and the relationship improved for pairs in which As in drinking water was higher than 1 ppb (r=0.56, p<0.001). Survey data show that the ratio of As in nail to As in water varied among residents, reflecting differential As bioaccumulation in specific exposed sub-populations. The data show that water filtration and diet, particularly increased consumption of animal protein and dairy, and reduced consumption of seafood, were associated with lower ratios of As in nail to As in water and thus could play important roles in mitigating As exposure in areas where As-rich groundwater is the primary drinking water source.

  6. Trihalomethane hydrolysis in drinking water at elevated temperatures.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiao-Lu; Yang, Hong-Wei; Wang, Xiao-Mao; Karanfil, Tanju; Xie, Yuefeng F

    2015-07-01

    Hydrolysis could contribute to the loss of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the drinking water at elevated temperatures. This study was aimed at investigating THM hydrolysis pertaining to the storage of hot boiled water in enclosed containers. The water pH value was in the range of 6.1-8.2 and the water temperature was varied from 65 to 95 °C. The effects of halide ions, natural organic matter, and drinking water matrix were investigated. Results showed that the hydrolysis rates declined in the order following CHBrCl2 > CHBr2Cl > CHBr3 > CHCl3. THM hydrolysis was primarily through the alkaline pathway, except for CHCl3 in water at relatively low pH value. The activation energies for the alkaline hydrolysis of CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3 were 109, 113, 115 and 116 kJ/mol, respectively. No hydrolysis intermediates could accumulate in the water. The natural organic matter, and probably other constituents, in drinking water could substantially decrease THM hydrolysis rates by more than 50%. When a drinking water was at 90 °C or above, the first order rate constants for THM hydrolysis were in the magnitude of 10(-2)‒10(-1) 1/h. When the boiled real tap water was stored in an enclosed container, THMs continued increasing during the first few hours and then kept decreasing later on due to the competition between hydrolysis and further formation. The removal of THMs, especially brominated THMs, by hydrolysis would greatly reduce one's exposure to disinfection by-products by consuming the boiled water stored in enclosed containers.

  7. Antibiotics in Drinking Water in Shanghai and Their Contribution to Antibiotic Exposure of School Children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Qi; Fang, Hong; Fu, Chaowei; Tang, Chuanxi; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-03-01

    A variety of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environments, but antibiotics in drinking water and their contribution to antibiotic exposure in human are not well-explored. For this, representative drinking water samples and 530 urine samples from schoolchildren were selected in Shanghai, and 21 common antibiotics (five macrolides, two β-lactams, three tetracyclines, four fluoquinolones, four sulfonamides, and three phenicols) were measured in water samples and urines by isotope dilution two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Drinking water included 46 terminal tap water samples from different spots in the distribution system of the city, 45 bottled water samples from 14 common brands, and eight barreled water samples of different brands. Of 21 antibiotics, only florfenicol and thiamphenicol were found in tap water, with the median concentrations of 0.0089 ng/mL and 0.0064 ng/mL, respectively; only florfenicol was found in three bottled water samples from a same brand, with the concentrations ranging from 0.00060 to 0.0010 ng/mL; no antibiotics were found in barreled water. In contrast, besides florfenicol and thiamphenicol, an additional 17 antibiotics were detected in urine samples, and the total daily exposure doses and detection frequencies of florfenicol and thiamphenicol based on urine samples were significantly and substantially higher than their predicted daily exposure doses and detection frequencies from drinking water by Monte Carlo Simulation. These data indicated that drinking water was contaminated by some antibiotics in Shanghai, but played a limited role in antibiotic exposure of children.

  8. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Ruepert, Nienke; van der Laan, Harmen; Bredie, Wender L P; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters. Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water, permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major determinant of the taste perception of water. In general, lowering mineral content in drinking water in the range examined (from <5 to 440 mg/L) shifted the sensory perception of water from fresh towards bitter, dry, and rough sensations. In addition, perceived freshness of the waters correlated positively with calcium concentration. The greatest fresh taste was found for water with a TDS between 190 and 350 mg/L. Remineralisation of water after reverse osmosis can improve drinking quality significantly.

  9. Antibiotics in Drinking Water in Shanghai and Their Contribution to Antibiotic Exposure of School Children.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hexing; Wang, Na; Wang, Bin; Zhao, Qi; Fang, Hong; Fu, Chaowei; Tang, Chuanxi; Jiang, Feng; Zhou, Ying; Chen, Yue; Jiang, Qingwu

    2016-03-01

    A variety of antibiotics have been found in aquatic environments, but antibiotics in drinking water and their contribution to antibiotic exposure in human are not well-explored. For this, representative drinking water samples and 530 urine samples from schoolchildren were selected in Shanghai, and 21 common antibiotics (five macrolides, two β-lactams, three tetracyclines, four fluoquinolones, four sulfonamides, and three phenicols) were measured in water samples and urines by isotope dilution two-dimensional ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry. Drinking water included 46 terminal tap water samples from different spots in the distribution system of the city, 45 bottled water samples from 14 common brands, and eight barreled water samples of different brands. Of 21 antibiotics, only florfenicol and thiamphenicol were found in tap water, with the median concentrations of 0.0089 ng/mL and 0.0064 ng/mL, respectively; only florfenicol was found in three bottled water samples from a same brand, with the concentrations ranging from 0.00060 to 0.0010 ng/mL; no antibiotics were found in barreled water. In contrast, besides florfenicol and thiamphenicol, an additional 17 antibiotics were detected in urine samples, and the total daily exposure doses and detection frequencies of florfenicol and thiamphenicol based on urine samples were significantly and substantially higher than their predicted daily exposure doses and detection frequencies from drinking water by Monte Carlo Simulation. These data indicated that drinking water was contaminated by some antibiotics in Shanghai, but played a limited role in antibiotic exposure of children. PMID:26849047

  10. Sensory quality of drinking water produced by reverse osmosis membrane filtration followed by remineralisation.

    PubMed

    Vingerhoeds, Monique H; Nijenhuis-de Vries, Mariska A; Ruepert, Nienke; van der Laan, Harmen; Bredie, Wender L P; Kremer, Stefanie

    2016-05-01

    Membrane filtration of ground, surface, or sea water by reverse osmosis results in permeate, which is almost free from minerals. Minerals may be added afterwards, not only to comply with (legal) standards and to enhance chemical stability, but also to improve the taste of drinking water made from permeate. Both the nature and the concentrations of added minerals affect the taste of the water and in turn its acceptance by consumers. The aim of this study was to examine differences in taste between various remineralised drinking waters. Samples selected varied in mineral composition, i.e. tap water, permeate, and permeate with added minerals (40 or 120 mg Ca/L, added as CaCO3, and 4 or 24 mg Mg/L added as MgCl2), as well as commercially available bottled drinking waters, to span a relevant product space in which the remineralised samples could be compared. All samples were analysed with respect to their physical-chemical properties. Sensory profiling was done by descriptive analysis using a trained panel. Significant attributes included taste intensity, the tastes bitter, sweet, salt, metal, fresh and dry mouthfeel, bitter and metal aftertaste, and rough afterfeel. Total dissolved solids (TDS) was a major determinant of the taste perception of water. In general, lowering mineral content in drinking water in the range examined (from <5 to 440 mg/L) shifted the sensory perception of water from fresh towards bitter, dry, and rough sensations. In addition, perceived freshness of the waters correlated positively with calcium concentration. The greatest fresh taste was found for water with a TDS between 190 and 350 mg/L. Remineralisation of water after reverse osmosis can improve drinking quality significantly. PMID:26925543

  11. Arsenic in Drinking Water in Bangladesh: Factors Affecting Child Health

    PubMed Central

    Aziz, Sonia N.; Aziz, Khwaja M. S.; Boyle, Kevin J.

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people’s individuals’ time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children’s health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  12. Arsenic in drinking water in bangladesh: factors affecting child health.

    PubMed

    Aziz, Sonia N; Aziz, Khwaja M S; Boyle, Kevin J

    2014-01-01

    The focus of this paper is to present an empirical model of factors affecting child health by observing actions households take to avoid exposure to arsenic in drinking water. Millions of Bangladeshis face multiple health hazards from high levels of arsenic in drinking water. Safe water sources are either expensive or difficult to access, affecting people's individuals' time available for work and ultimately affecting the health of household members. Since children are particularly susceptible and live with parents who are primary decision makers for sustenance, parental actions linking child health outcomes is used in the empirical model. Empirical results suggest that child health is significantly affected by the age and gender of the household water procurer. Adults with a high degree of concern for children's health risk from arsenic contamination, and who actively mitigate their arsenic contaminated water have a positive effect on child health. PMID:24982854

  13. Fluoride occurrence in publicly supplied drinking water in Estonia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karro, Enn; Indermitte, Ene; Saava, Astrid; Haamer, Kadri; Marandi, Andres

    2006-06-01

    A study was undertaken to examine the content and spatial distribution of fluoride in drinking water. Water samples (735) from public water systems covering all Estonian territory were analysed using SPADNS method. In order to specify the natural source of fluoride, the chemistry data from five aquifer systems utilised for water supply were included into the study. Fluoride concentrations in tap water, to a great extent, ranged from 0.01 to 6.95 mg/l. Drinking water in southern Estonia, where terrigenous Middle-Devonian aquifer system is exploited, has a fluoride concentration lower than recommended level (0.5 mg/l), thus promoting susceptibility to dental caries. The western part of the country is supplied by water with excess fluoride content (1.5-6.9 mg/l). Groundwater abstracted for drinking purposes originates from Ordovician and Silurian carbonate rocks. The content of fluoride in Silurian-Ordovician aquifer system is associated with the groundwater abstraction depth and the main controlling factors of dissolved fluoride are the pH value and the chemical type of water.

  14. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  15. Evaluation of Minerals Content of Drinking Water in Malaysia

    PubMed Central

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water. PMID:22649292

  16. Evaluation of minerals content of drinking water in Malaysia.

    PubMed

    Azlan, Azrina; Khoo, Hock Eng; Idris, Mohd Aizat; Ismail, Amin; Razman, Muhammad Rizal

    2012-01-01

    The drinking and mineral water samples obtained from different geographical locations had concentrations of the selected minerals lower than the standard limits, except for manganese, arsenic, and fluoride. The concentrations of manganese and arsenic in two mineral water samples were slightly higher than the standard international recommended limits. One mineral water sample had a fluoride concentration higher than the standard limits, whereas manganese was not detected in nine drinking and mineral water samples. Most of the selected minerals found in the tap water samples were below the international standard limits, except for iron and manganese. The concentrations of iron and manganese in the tap water samples were higher than the standard limits, which were obtained from one and three of the studied locations, respectively. The potable water obtained from various manufacturers and locations in Peninsular Malaysia is safe for consumption, as the minerals concentrations were below the standard limits prescribed by the Malaysian Food Regulations of 1985. The data obtained may also provide important information related to daily intake of these minerals from drinking water.

  17. Diversity and antibiotic resistance in Pseudomonas spp. from drinking water.

    PubMed

    Vaz-Moreira, Ivone; Nunes, Olga C; Manaia, Célia M

    2012-06-01

    Pseudomonas spp. are common inhabitants of aquatic environments, including drinking water. Multi-antibiotic resistance in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa is widely reported and deeply characterized. However, the information regarding other species and environmental isolates of this genus is scant. This study was designed based on the hypothesis that members of the genus Pseudomonas given their high prevalence, wide distribution in waters and genetic plasticity can be important reservoirs of antibiotic resistance in drinking water. With this aim, the diversity and antibiotic resistance phenotypes of Pseudomonas isolated from different drinking water sources were evaluated. The genotypic diversity analyses were based on six housekeeping genes (16S rRNA, rpoD, rpoB, gyrB, recA and ITS) and on pulsed field gel electrophoresis. Susceptibility to 21 antibiotics of eight classes was tested using the ATB PSE EU (08) and disk diffusion methods. Pseudomonas spp. were isolated from 14 of the 32 sampled sites. A total of 55 non-repetitive isolates were affiliated to twenty species. Although the same species were isolated from different sampling sites, identical genotypes were never observed in distinct types of water (water treatment plant/distribution system, tap water, cup fillers, biofilm, and mineral water). In general, the prevalence of antibiotic resistance was low and often the resistance patterns were related with the species and/or the strain genotype. Resistance to ticarcillin, ticarcillin with clavulanic acid, fosfomycin and cotrimoxazol were the most prevalent (69-84%). No resistance to piperacillin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin, tetracycline, gentamicin, tobramycin, amikacin, imipenem or meropenem was observed. This study demonstrates that Pseudomonas spp. are not so widespread in drinking water as commonly assumed. Nevertheless, it suggests that water Pseudomonas can spread acquired antibiotic resistance, preferentially via vertical transmission.

  18. Safe Drinking Water for Alaska: Curriculum for Grades 1-6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    South East Regional Resource Center, Juneau, AK.

    Presented is a set of 10 lessons on safe drinking water in Alaska for use by elementary school teachers. The aim is to provide students with an understanding of the sources of the water they drink, how drinking water can be made safe, and the health threat that unsafe water represents. Although this curriculum relates primarily to science, health,…

  19. MEETING THE REQUIREMENTS OF THE U.S. SAFE DRINKING WATER ACT: THE ROLE OF TECHNOLOGY

    EPA Science Inventory

    The passage of the U.S. Safe Drinking Water Act (SDWA) in 1974 has had a major impact on the way water is treated and delivered in the United States. The Act established national drinking water regulations for more than 170,000 public drinking water systems serving over 250 mill...

  20. Nephrotoxicity of uranium in drinking water from private drilled wells

    SciTech Connect

    Selden, Anders I.; Lundholm, Cecilia; Edlund, Bror; Hoegdahl, Camilla; Ek, Britt-Marie; Bergstroem, Bernt E.; Ohlson, Carl-Goeran

    2009-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the association between uranium in drinking water from drilled wells and aspects of kidney function measured by sensitive urine tests. Methods: Three hundred and one of 398 eligible subjects (75.6%) aged 18-74 years with daily drinking water supplies from private drilled wells located in uranium-rich bedrock (exposed group) volunteered to participate along with 153 of 271 local controls (56.4%) who used municipal water. Participants responded to a questionnaire on their water consumption and general health, and provided a morning urine sample and drinking water for analysis. Results: The uranium content of well water samples (n=153) varied considerably (range <0.20-470 {mu}g/l, median 6.7 {mu}g/l, 5% >100 {mu}g/l), while uranium levels in all samples of municipal water (n=14) were below the limit of quantification (0.2 {mu}g/l). Urinary levels of uranium were more than eight times higher in exposed subjects than in controls (geometric means 38 and 4.3 ng/l, respectively; p<0.001), but their mean urine lead levels were not significantly different. There was a strong curvilinear correlation between uranium in drinking water and in urine (r{sup 2}=0.66). Levels of albumin, {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC as well as kappa and lambda immunoglobulin chains in urine from exposed and controls were similar. The N-acetyl-{beta}-D-glucosaminidase (NAG) activity was significantly lower in the exposed group vs. controls, possibly secondary to differential storage duration of samples from the two groups. Even in regression models adjusting for gender, age and smoking no association of uranium in water and the kidney function parameters was observed. Using uranium in urine in the entire study group as a marker of exposure, however, a tendency of exposure-related increases of {beta}{sub 2}-microglobulin, protein HC and kappa chains were noted. This tendency was enhanced after exclusion of subjects with diabetes mellitus from the analysis