Science.gov

Sample records for additional economic incentives

  1. Economic incentives for additional critical experimentation applicable to fuel dissolution

    SciTech Connect

    Mincey, J.F.; Primm, R.T. III; Waltz, W.R.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel dissolution operations involving soluble absorbers for criticality control are among the most difficult to establish economical subcritical limits. The paucity of applicable experimental data can significantly hinder a precise determination of a bias in the method chosen for calculation of the required soluble absorber concentration. Resorting to overly conservative bias estimates can result in excessive concentrations of soluble absorbers. Such conservatism can be costly, especially if soluble absorbers are used in a throw-away fashion. An economic scoping study is presented which demonstrates that additional critical experimentation will likely lead to reductions in the soluble absorber (i.e., gadolinium) purchase costs for dissolution operations. The results indicate that anticipated savings maybe more than enough to pay for the experimental costs.

  2. Crime and Economic Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Machin, Stephen; Meghir, Costas

    2004-01-01

    The role that economic incentives play in determining crime rates is explored. A number of experiments were carried out with different wage measures and the result that incentives were the most important factor was reinforced by the strong impact of crime of deterrence measures and of a measure of the returns to crime.

  3. Financial incentives for healthy behavior: ethical safeguards for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Lunze, Karsten; Paasche-Orlow, Michael K

    2013-06-01

    Economic incentives to promote healthy behavior are becoming increasingly common and have been suggested as an approach to decreasing healthcare costs. Ethical concerns about programs with such incentives are that they may contribute to inequities, be coercive, interfere with therapeutic relationships, undermine personal responsibility for health, and decrease social solidarity. Additionally, they may be a source of stigma or discrimination, promote dependence, and be unfair for those already engaged in targeted health behaviors or those who cannot fulfill the incentivized behaviors. Incentive programs need to incorporate appropriate safeguards to monitor these risks and support fairness in offering economic incentives to promote healthy behavior.

  4. Economic Growth Challenge/Innovation Incentive: Implementing the Incentive

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ohio Board of Regents, 2006

    2006-01-01

    Economic Growth Challenge / Innovation Incentive, as proposed by the Governor's Commission on Higher Education and the Economy, is a new line item involving reallocation of current higher education funding plus matching levels of performance funding to achieve a major restructuring and refocusing of Ohio's portfolio of doctoral research programs.…

  5. Economic Incentives for Stormwater Control (ISBN9781439845608)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Addressing a huge knowledge gap from a policy perspective, this book focuses on the economic tools available for stormwater runoff control. It provides case studies demonstrating the application of various incentives, such as tradable credits, fees with rebates, and auction mecha...

  6. Tropical forest preservation using economic incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Katzman, M.T. ); Cale, W.G. Jr. )

    1990-12-01

    The authors address the problem of deforestation of the tropical forests in terms of economic factors. They outline the global effects, such as hydrological and climatological changes, that apparently small scale deforestation has, when the forest is destroyed in many different places. The authors suggest that industrialized nations should offer economic incentives for tropical nations to save their forests, since all the world will suffer the effects of tropical deforestation.

  7. Economic incentives: Options for environmental protection

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1991-03-01

    The authors recognize that careful examination of the costs and benefits of further policy action, and of incentives as a way to achieve policy goals, is needed in each case to identify cost-effective program designs and efficient program targets. Because further evaluation is needed, this report does not endorse any of the incentives it describes. The authors hope that this report will encourage more focused study and discussion of these and other incentives. This report reflects what has been learned from EPA's past analyses of incentive approaches, and is intended to encourage new efforts toward creative use of incentives. They encourage debate on these ideas, as well as suggestions for other applications of incentives. Incentives addressed include municipal solid waste incentives, global climate change incentives, water resource incentives, and multimedia incentives.

  8. Sustainable Groundwater Management Using Economic Incentive Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, T.; Shih, J.; Sanchirico, J. N.

    2006-12-01

    Although groundwater accounts for about 20% of the water consumption in the US, recent urban development, land use changes and agricultural activities in many regions (for example, Chesapeake Bay and eastern shore of Maryland) have resulted in deleterious impacts on groundwater quality. These impacts have dramatically increased potential human health and ecological system risks. One example is nitrogen pollution delivered to local waterways from septic systems via groundwater. Conventional approaches for nitrogen removal, such as pumping and treatment (nitrification-denitrification) process, tend to be expensive. On the other hand, economic incentive approaches (such as marketable permits) have the potential to increase the efficiency of environmental policy by reducing compliance costs for regulated entities and individuals and/or achieving otherwise uneconomical pollution reduction. The success of the sulfur dioxide trading market has led to the creation of trading markets for other pollutants, especially at the regional, state, and smaller (e.g. watershed) scales. In this paper, we develop an integrated framework, which includes a groundwater flow and transport model, and a conceptual management model. We apply this framework to a synthetic set up which includes one farm and two development areas in order to investigate the potential of using economic incentive approaches for groundwater quality management. The policy analysis is carried out by setting up the objective of the modeling framework to minimize the total cost of achieving groundwater quality goals at specific observation point using either a transferable development right (TDR) system between development areas and/or using a tax for fertilizer usage in the farm area. The TDR system consists of a planning agency delineating a region into restricted-use (e.g., agriculture, open space) and high intensity zones (e.g., residential, commercial uses). The agency then endows landowners in the restricted area

  9. Economic incentives and foster child adoption.

    PubMed

    Argys, Laura; Duncan, Brian

    2013-06-01

    Every year, a large number of children in the United States enter the foster care system. Many of them are eventually reunited with their biological parents or quickly adopted. A significant number, however, face long-term foster care, and some of these children are eventually adopted by their foster parents. The decision by foster parents to adopt their foster child carries significant economic consequences, including for feiting foster care payments while also assuming responsibility for medical, legal, and educational expenses, to name a few. Since 1980, U.S. states have begun to offer adoption subsidies to offset some of these expenses, significantly lowering the cost of adopting a child who is in the foster care system. This article presents empirical evidence of the role that these economic incentives play in foster parents' decision of when, or if, to adopt their foster child. We find that adoption subsidies increase adoptions through two distinct price mechanisms: by lowering the absolute cost of adoption, and by lowering the relative cost of adoption versus long-term foster care.

  10. Economic Incentives for Cybersecurity: Using Economics to Design Technologies Ready for Deployment

    SciTech Connect

    Vishik, Claire; Sheldon, Frederick T; Ott, David

    2013-01-01

    Cybersecurity practice lags behind cyber technology achievements. Solutions designed to address many problems may and do exist but frequently cannot be broadly deployed due to economic constraints. Whereas security economics focuses on the cost/benefit analysis and supply/demand, we believe that more sophisticated theoretical approaches, such as economic modeling, rarely utilized, would derive greater societal benefits. Unfortunately, today technologists pursuing interesting and elegant solutions have little knowledge of the feasibility for broad deployment of their results and cannot anticipate the influences of other technologies, existing infrastructure, and technology evolution, nor bring the solutions lifecycle into the equation. Additionally, potentially viable solutions are not adopted because the risk perceptions by potential providers and users far outweighs the economic incentives to support introduction/adoption of new best practices and technologies that are not well enough defined. In some cases, there is no alignment with redominant and future business models as well as regulatory and policy requirements. This paper provides an overview of the economics of security, reviewing work that helped to define economic models for the Internet economy from the 1990s. We bring forward examples of potential use of theoretical economics in defining metrics for emerging technology areas, positioning infrastructure investment, and building real-time response capability as part of software development. These diverse examples help us understand the gaps in current research. Filling these gaps will be instrumental for defining viable economic incentives, economic policies, regulations as well as early-stage technology development approaches, that can speed up commercialization and deployment of new technologies in cybersecurity.

  11. Economic incentives to promote innovation in healthcare delivery.

    PubMed

    Luft, Harold S

    2009-10-01

    Economics influences how medical care is delivered, organized, and progresses. Fee-for-service payment encourages delivery of services. Fee-for-individual-service, however, offers no incentives for clinicians to efficiently organize the care their patients need. Global capitation provides such incentives; it works well in highly integrated practices but not for independent practitioners. The failures of utilization management in the 1990s demonstrated the need for a third alternative to better align incentives, such as bundling payment for an episode of care. Building on Medicare's approach to hospital payment, one can define expanded diagnosis-related groups that include all hospital, physician, and other costs during the stay and appropriate preadmission and postdischarge periods. Physicians and hospitals voluntarily forming a new entity (a care delivery team) would receive such bundled payments along with complete flexibility in allocating the funds. Modifications to gainsharing and antikickback rules, as well as reforms to malpractice liability laws, will facilitate the functioning of the care delivery teams. The implicit financial incentives encourage efficient care for the patient; the episode focus will facilitate measuring patient outcomes. Payment can be based on the resources used by those care delivery teams achieving superior outcomes, thereby fostering innovation improving outcomes and reducing waste.

  12. Drug versus vaccine investment: a modelled comparison of economic incentives

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Investment by manufacturers in research and development of vaccines is relatively low compared with that of pharmaceuticals. If current evaluation technologies favour drugs over vaccines, then the vaccines market becomes relatively less attractive to manufacturers. Methods We developed a mathematical model simulating the decision-making process of regulators and payers, in order to understand manufacturers’ economic incentives to invest in vaccines rather than curative treatments. We analysed the objectives and strategies of manufacturers and payers when considering investment in technologies to combat a disease that affects children, and the interactions between them. Results The model confirmed that, for rare diseases, the economically justifiable prices of vaccines could be substantially lower than drug prices, and that, for diseases spread across multiple cohorts, the revenues derived from vaccinating one cohort per year (routine vaccination) could be substantially lower than those generated by treating sick individuals. Conclusions Manufacturers may see higher incentives to invest in curative treatments rather than in routine vaccines. To encourage investment in vaccines, health authorities could potentially revise their incentive schemes by: (1) committing to vaccinate all susceptible cohorts in the first year (catch-up campaign); (2) choosing a long-term horizon for health technology evaluation; (3) committing higher budgets for vaccines than for treatments; and (4) taking into account all intangible values derived from vaccines. PMID:24011090

  13. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-24

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO(2)e, a "mandatory incentive structure," such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163-247 MtCO(2)e/y (20-31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a "basic voluntary incentive structure" modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45-76 MtCO(2)e/y (6-9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements--paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts--an "improved voluntary incentive structure" would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136-207 MtCO(2)e/y (17-26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus.

  14. Structuring economic incentives to reduce emissions from deforestation within Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Busch, Jonah; Lubowski, Ruben N.; Godoy, Fabiano; Steininger, Marc; Yusuf, Arief A.; Austin, Kemen; Hewson, Jenny; Juhn, Daniel; Farid, Muhammad; Boltz, Frederick

    2012-01-01

    We estimate and map the impacts that alternative national and subnational economic incentive structures for reducing emissions from deforestation (REDD+) in Indonesia would have had on greenhouse gas emissions and national and local revenue if they had been in place from 2000 to 2005. The impact of carbon payments on deforestation is calibrated econometrically from the pattern of observed deforestation and spatial variation in the benefits and costs of converting land to agriculture over that time period. We estimate that at an international carbon price of $10/tCO2e, a “mandatory incentive structure,” such as a cap-and-trade or symmetric tax-and-subsidy program, would have reduced emissions by 163–247 MtCO2e/y (20–31% below the without-REDD+ reference scenario), while generating a programmatic budget surplus. In contrast, a “basic voluntary incentive structure” modeled after a standard payment-for-environmental-services program would have reduced emissions nationally by only 45–76 MtCO2e/y (6–9%), while generating a programmatic budget shortfall. By making four policy improvements—paying for net emission reductions at the scale of an entire district rather than site-by-site; paying for reductions relative to reference levels that match business-as-usual levels; sharing a portion of district-level revenues with the national government; and sharing a portion of the national government's responsibility for costs with districts—an “improved voluntary incentive structure” would have been nearly as effective as a mandatory incentive structure, reducing emissions by 136–207 MtCO2e/y (17–26%) and generating a programmatic budget surplus. PMID:22232665

  15. Economics of periodontal care: market trends, competitive forces and incentives.

    PubMed

    Flemmig, Thomas F; Beikler, Thomas

    2013-06-01

    The adoption of new technologies for the treatment of periodontitis and the replacement of teeth has changed the delivery of periodontal care. The objective of this review was to conduct an economic analysis of a mature periodontal service market with a well-developed workforce, including general dentists, dental hygienists and periodontists. Publicly available information about the delivery of periodontal care in the USA was used. A strong trend toward increased utilization of nonsurgical therapy and decreased utilization of surgical periodontal therapy was observed. Although periodontal surgery remained the domain of periodontists, general dentists had taken over most of the nonsurgical periodontal care. The decline in surgical periodontal therapy was associated with an increased utilization of implant-supported prosthesis. Approximately equal numbers of implants were surgically placed by periodontists, oral and maxillofacial surgeons, and general dentists. Porter's framework of the forces driving industry competition was used to analyze the role of patients, dental insurances, general dentists, competitors, entrants, substitutes and suppliers in the periodontal service market. Estimates of out-of-pocket payments of self-pay and insured patients, reimbursement by dental insurances and providers' earnings for various periodontal procedures and alternative treatments were calculated. Economic incentives for providers may explain some of the observed shifts in the periodontal service market. Given the inherent uncertainty about treatment outcomes in dentistry, which makes clinical judgment critical, providers may yield to economic incentives without jeopardizing their ethical standards and professional norms. Although the economic analysis pertains to the USA, some considerations may also apply to other periodontal service markets.

  16. Using Behavioral Economics to Design Physician Incentives That Deliver High-Value Care.

    PubMed

    Emanuel, Ezekiel J; Ubel, Peter A; Kessler, Judd B; Meyer, Gregg; Muller, Ralph W; Navathe, Amol S; Patel, Pankaj; Pearl, Robert; Rosenthal, Meredith B; Sacks, Lee; Sen, Aditi P; Sherman, Paul; Volpp, Kevin G

    2016-01-19

    Behavioral economics provides insights about the development of effective incentives for physicians to deliver high-value care. It suggests that the structure and delivery of incentives can shape behavior, as can thoughtful design of the decision-making environment. This article discusses several principles of behavioral economics, including inertia, loss aversion, choice overload, and relative social ranking. Whereas these principles have been applied to motivate personal health decisions, retirement planning, and savings behavior, they have been largely ignored in the design of physician incentive programs. Applying these principles to physician incentives can improve their effectiveness through better alignment with performance goals. Anecdotal examples of successful incentive programs that apply behavioral economics principles are provided, even as the authors recognize that its application to the design of physician incentives is largely untested, and many outstanding questions exist. Application and rigorous evaluation of infrastructure changes and incentives are needed to design payment systems that incentivize high-quality, cost-conscious care.

  17. 77 FR 69933 - Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-21

    ...In the Notice of Proposed Rulemaking, ``Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions'' (NPRM), released October 2, 2012, the Commission considers matters related to the implementation of Congress's mandate to conduct an incentive auction of broadcast television spectrum as set forth in the Middle Class Tax Relief and Job Creation Act of 2012......

  18. Activity-Based Micro-pricing: Realizing Sustainable Behavior Changes through Economic Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamabe, Tetsuo; Lehdonvirta, Vili; Ito, Hitoshi; Soma, Hayuru; Kimura, Hiroaki; Nakajima, Tatsuo

    In this paper, we further develop the idea of combining pervasive computing techniques with electronic payment systems to create activity-based micro-incentives. Economic incentives are an effective way to influence consumer behavior, and are used in e.g. marketing and resource coordination. Our approach allows marketers and regulators to induce consumers to perform particular actions in new application domains by attaching micro-prices to a wider range of behaviors. A key challenge is designing incentive mechanisms that result in desired behavior changes. We examine two basic incentive models. Based on the results of preliminary experiments, we discuss how economic incentives can affect consumer attitudes and lead to sustainable behavior changes.

  19. Conditional Economic Incentives for Reducing HIV Risk Behaviors: Integration of Psychology and Behavioral Economics

    PubMed Central

    Operario, Don; Kuo, Caroline C.; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Gálarraga, Omar

    2014-01-01

    Objective This paper reviews psychology and behavioral economic approaches to HIV prevention, and examines the integration and application of these approaches in conditional economic incentive (CEI) programs for reducing HIV risk behavior. Methods We discuss the history of HIV prevention approaches, highlighting the important insights and limitations of psychological theories. We provide an overview of the theoretical tenets of behavioral economics that are relevant to HIV prevention, and utilize CEIs as an illustrative example of how traditional psychological theories end behavioral economics can be combined into new approaches for HIV prevention. Results Behavioral economic interventions can complement psychological frameworks for reducing HIV risk by introducing unique theoretical understandings about the conditions under which risky decisions are amenable to intervention. Findings from illustrative CEI programs show mixed but generally promising effects of economic interventions on HIV and STI prevalence, HIV testing, HIV medication adherence, and drug use. Conclusion CEI programs can complement psychological interventions for HIV prevention and behavioral risk reduction. To maximize program effectiveness, CEI programs must be designed according to contextual and population-specific factors that may determine intervention applicability and success. PMID:24001243

  20. The Work Incentive Program: Making Adults Economically Independent. Volume I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klausner, Samuel Z.; And Others

    In an examination of the role of the Work Incentive (WIN) Program, particularly its training activities, in adult resocialization, data were gathered by questionnaires administered, one year apart, to a panel of husbandless mothers receiving Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) and a panel of husbandless mothers who had participated in a…

  1. Economic incentives to promote healthier food purchases: exploring acceptability and key factors for success.

    PubMed

    Ni Mhurchu, Cliona; Eyles, Helen; Dixon, Robyn; Matoe, Leonie; Teevale, Tasileta; Meagher-Lundberg, Patricia

    2012-09-01

    Despite increasing interest, little is known about the beliefs and views of the public in relation to the use of economic incentives as a means to promote healthy eating. This study explores views of ethnically and socioeconomically diverse shoppers regarding acceptability of economic incentives to promote healthier food purchases, and factors likely to affect the success of such schemes. Six focus groups (n = 36 participants; 14 Māori, 12 Pacific, 10 non-ethnic specific low income), were held in Auckland, New Zealand, in October 2009. A general inductive approach was used to identify common themes. The single most important reported food purchasing influence was cost. Focus group participants viewed the concept of economic incentives to promote healthy eating positively, as long as such schemes provided worthwhile incentives, and were simple and convenient to use. The preferred option for delivery was a pre-loaded electronic swipe card. Fruit and vegetables were the food group most participants said they would like to see incentivized. There was marked variability in the incentive amount thought sufficient to promote participation in such a scheme. Our findings suggest economic incentives hold promise as a means to promote healthier household food purchases, and their effectiveness should be evaluated using robust, randomized trials.

  2. Widows Waiting to Wed?: (Re)Marriage and Economic Incentives in Social Security Widow Benefits

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brien Michael J.; Dickert-Conlin, Stacy; Weaver, David A.

    2004-01-01

    A widow(er) is only entitled to get the economic incentives benefits only after she/he attains the age of 60. The rate of remarriages before 60 for widow(er) is gradually going down resulting in marriages after the age of 60 to gain the economic benefits.

  3. Conditional economic incentives to improve HIV treatment adherence: literature review and theoretical considerations.

    PubMed

    Galárraga, Omar; Genberg, Becky L; Martin, Rosemarie A; Barton Laws, M; Wilson, Ira B

    2013-09-01

    We present selected theoretical issues regarding conditional economic incentives (CEI) for HIV treatment adherence. High HIV treatment adherence is essential not only to improve individual health for persons living with HIV, but also to reduce transmission. The incentives literature spans several decades and various disciplines, thus we selectively point out useful concepts from economics, psychology and HIV clinical practice to elucidate the complex interaction between socio-economic issues, psychological perspectives and optimal treatment adherence. Appropriately-implemented CEI can help patients improve their adherence to HIV treatment in the short-term, while the incentives are in place. However, more research is needed to uncover mechanisms that can increase habit formation or maintenance effects in the longer-term. We suggest some potentially fruitful avenues for future research in this area, including the use of concepts from self-determination theory. This general framework may have implications for related research among disadvantaged communities with high rates of HIV/AIDS infection.

  4. Creating New Economic Incentives for Repurposing Generic Drugs for Unsolved Diseases Using Social Finance.

    PubMed

    Bloom, Bruce E

    2015-12-01

    Repurposing research improves patient lives by taking drugs approved for one disease and clinically testing them to create a treatment for a different disease. Repurposing drugs that are generic, inexpensive, and widely available and that can be taken in their current dosage and formulation in the new indication provide a quick, affordable, and effective way to create "new" treatments. However, generic drug repurposing often provides no profit potential, and so there is no economic incentive for industry to pursue this, and philanthropy and government funds are often insufficient. One way to create new economic incentive for the repurposing of generic drugs is through social finance. This perspective describes how social finance can create a new economic incentive by using a social impact bond, or similar financial structure, to repay for-profit investors who fund the repurposing research from the proceeds of healthcare cost reductions generated when these affordable, effective, and widely available repurposed therapies improve healthcare outcomes.

  5. Economic Incentives, Institutions, and Racial Discrimination: The Case of Real Estate Brokers. Discussion Paper D78-4.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yinger, John

    This paper examines the economic incentives and institutions that support racial discrimination by real estate brokers. The economic incentives are derived from a search model of broker behavior in which a broker searches for buyers and listings (i.e., sellers who will sell through him) and then attempts to match buyers with his listings. This…

  6. 77 FR 73969 - Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through Incentive Auctions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-12-12

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office FEDERAL COMMUNICATIONS COMMISSION 47 CFR Parts 1, 27 and 73 Expanding the Economic and Innovation Opportunities of Spectrum Through... implement an incentive auction of broadcast television spectrum. The NPRM set deadlines for filing...

  7. Implementation of retrofit best management practices in a suburban watershed (Cincinnati OH) via economic incentives

    EPA Science Inventory

    There is great potential for managing stormwater runoff quantity; however, implementation in already-developed areas remains a challenge. We assess the viability of economic incentives to place best management practices (BMPs) on parcels in a 1.8 km2 suburban watershed near Cinci...

  8. Capitation and fee-for-service dental benefit plans: economic incentives, utilization, and service-mix.

    PubMed

    Beazoglou, T J; Guay, A H; Heffley, D R

    1988-04-01

    Insurance carriers, corporations, and labor groups are actively developing and marketing dental capitation benefit plans. Incentives to both dentists and patients in these plans differ from those in the traditional fee-for-service system used with conventional benefit plans. This paper describes the likely effects of these incentive differences on utilization and service-mix patterns in both systems. Data for a large (approximately 10,000), homogenous group of subscribers are presented and discussed. Faced with a dual option, at no cost to the employee, 60% of the subscribers chose the fee-for-service plan, and 40% chose the capitation plan. Observed differences in the utilization and mix of services between the two plans cannot be explained solely in terms of dentists' responses. Employee response to altered economic incentives appears to be strong.

  9. 75 FR 51188 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Addition of Incentive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-19

    ... of Incentive for Regulatory Flexibility for Its Environmental Stewardship Program AGENCY... (SIP) to add ] incentives for regulatory flexibility for participants in its Environmental Stewardship... criteria, these establishments receive program incentives including regulatory flexibility,...

  10. The economic incentives of carbon cap and trade regulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witek, Owen Joseph Rice

    This paper will study the effect of cap and trade environmental regulations on the energy output and carbon efficiency of power plants in the United States. By using regression analysis with fixed effects, I analyze the effectiveness of the Regional Greenhouse Gas Initiative (RGGI) in bringing about its policy goals of economically efficient carbon emission reductions. The results suggest that operators who were regulated by this program limited their overall energy output, but may have done so strategically to prepare themselves for future reductions in the emissions cap. I also found that the energy efficiency of regulated power plants improved slightly, especially in the program's later years. Overall, this study shows that cap and trade regulation is a viable option for reducing carbon emissions and future research should focus on the impact of the RGGI after its emission cap has been lowered.

  11. A Study of Economical Incentives for Voltage Profile Control Method in Future Distribution Network

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsuji, Takao; Sato, Noriyuki; Hashiguchi, Takuhei; Goda, Tadahiro; Tange, Seiji; Nomura, Toshio

    In a future distribution network, it is difficult to maintain system voltage because a large number of distributed generators are introduced to the system. The authors have proposed “voltage profile control method” using power factor control of distributed generators in the previous work. However, the economical disbenefit is caused by the active power decrease when the power factor is controlled in order to increase the reactive power. Therefore, proper incentives must be given to the customers that corporate to the voltage profile control method. Thus, in this paper, we develop a new rules which can decide the economical incentives to the customers. The method is tested in one feeder distribution network model and its effectiveness is shown.

  12. Economic incentives in the choice between vaginal delivery and cesarean section.

    PubMed

    Keeler, E B; Brodie, M

    1993-01-01

    The dramatic rise in cesarean-section (C-section) rates, and their high costs and wide variation, has raised interest in understanding the factors affecting decisions to use this procedure. The economic incentives of physicians, hospitals, payers, and mothers are examined. In the economic framework, physicians must balance their short-term interests against their reputation, which is derived from efficiently providing what mothers want. Providers who encounter higher opportunity costs while attending to mothers in prolonged labor can reduce these costs by operating or by restructuring their practices. The mainly indirect evidence on financial incentives indicates that insured mothers have low marginal financial costs when they undergo C-section. Mothers with private, fee-for-service insurance have higher C-section rates than mothers who are covered by staff-model HMOs, who are uninsured, or who are publicly insured. In conclusion, research and payment reforms to reduce distortions to good practice are proposed.

  13. Economic aspect of health care systems. Advantage and disadvantage incentives in different systems.

    PubMed

    Chen, G J; Feldman, S R

    2000-04-01

    European health care delivery systems illustrate the effect of economic incentives on health care delivery. Each country faces the issue of trying to balance the desire for economic efficiency with comprehensive, quality medical care. Without careful use of economic incentives achievable with central control, one gets to pick only two of the three desired goods--high quality, low cost, and comprehensive coverage. In the United States, payment approaches for health care have been undergoing tremendous changes since the early 1980s. These changes have escalated during the 1990s. The basic approach for reimbursing hospital care has been completely restructured by many payers for care, and payment approaches for physicians and long-term care providers also are being restructured. Financing approaches vary from provider to provider and payer to payer, and financing approaches will continue to evolve over time. In the traditional fee-for-service reimbursement system, the incentive to physicians is to do more because more services lead to more revenue. The use of incentives to influence health care practitioners' behavior is common. Incentives are generally financial in nature and expose health care providers to some risk or reward for certain patterns of behavior. Some common incentives used in managed care include capitation payment, in which a physician is paid a fixed fee, regardless of the number of services administered; bonus distribution; and withhold accounts, through which a practitioner stands to gain or lose some amount of money for overuse or underuse of medical resources against budget. In many countries, a strengthening of the position of primary care providers can be observed: Finland, Germany, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Norway, Sweden, the United Kingdom, and now the United States. General practitioners are assumed to function as a gatekeeper to second-line care, such as specialist care, prescription drugs, and hospital care. A further step is to

  14. Political freedom and the response to economic incentives: labor migration in Africa, 1972-1987.

    PubMed

    Barkley, A P; Mcmillan, J

    1994-12-01

    This study examines the thesis that political institutions and the freedoms and civil rights generated by these institutions affect migration decisions. The hypothesis is based on one stated by Adam Smith in 1776, that economic conditions that reflect greater political freedoms and civil liberties harbor higher levels of resource mobility in response to economic incentives. Pooled cross-sectional and time-series analysis is based on data from the World Bank for 32 African countries during 1972-87. Findings support the hypothesis that migration rate is more affected by the expected returns ratio to labor in countries where civil liberties are greater than in nations with fewer civil liberties. The implication, from the inclusion of institutional factors in the model, is that civil liberties have an indirect impact on the rate of labor migration out of agriculture in Africa. The impact is a mix of economic incentives and civil liberties. In the political rights model, the most free countries had the largest migration elasticity. The findings on political rights impacts support findings by Friedman and McMillan that civil liberties are a more important determinant of economic growth than political rights. Further testing for measurement error confirmed that the data were flawed, but not so greatly that the basic findings were overturned. The migration out of African agriculture was found to be sensitive to the effect of price signals, which were conditioned by the degree of political rights and civil liberties. Policy makers are urged to consider both changes in pricing and institutions.

  15. Can economic incentives enhance adoption and use of a household energy technology? Evidence from a pilot study in Cambodia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Usmani, Faraz; Steele, Jason; Jeuland, Marc

    2017-03-01

    While much work has examined approaches to increase uptake of a variety of household environmental, health and energy technologies, researchers and policymakers alike have struggled to ensure long-term use. Drawing on a pilot-scale experiment conducted in rural Cambodia, this study evaluates whether economic incentives enhance continued use of—and fuel savings from—improved cookstoves (ICS). Capital-cost subsidies that have been traditionally employed to enhance ICS adoption were augmented with rebates linked to stated and objectively measured use in order to investigate impacts on both initial and sustained adoption in the treatment group. Results show that households do respond to these rebates by adopting the intervention ICS at significantly higher rates, and by using it more frequently and for longer periods. Consistent with these stove-use patterns, solid-fuel use and time spent collecting or preparing fuels also decline. However, this effect appears to diminish over time. Thus, while economic inducements may significantly increase adoption and use of new environmental health technologies, corresponding reductions in environmental or livelihood burdens are not guaranteed. Additional research on the design and implementation of incentive-based interventions targeting households directly—such as carbon financing or other forms of results-based financing (RBF) for improved cookstoves—therefore seems warranted prior to wider implementation of such solutions.

  16. Willingness-to-accept reductions in HIV risks: conditional economic incentives in Mexico

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G.; Infante, César; Gertler, Paul J.; Bertozzi, Stefano M.

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure willingness-to-accept (WTA) reductions in risks for HIV and other sexually transmitted infections (STI) using conditional economic incentives (CEI) among men who have sex with men (MSM), including male sex workers (MSW) in Mexico City. A survey experiment was conducted with 1,745 MSM and MSW (18-25 years of age) who received incentive offers to decide first whether to accept monthly prevention talks and STI testing; and then a second set of offers to accept to stay free of STIs (verified by quarterly biological testing). The survey used random-starting-point and iterative offers. WTA was estimated with a maximum likelihood double-bounded dichotomous choice model. The average acceptance probabilities were: 73.9% for the monthly model, and 80.4% for the quarterly model. The incentive-elasticity of participation in the monthly model was 0.222, and it was 0.515 in the quarterly model. For a combination program with monthly prevention talks, and staying free of curable STI, the implied WTA was USD$288 per person per year, but it was lower for MSW: USD$156 per person per year. Thus, some of the populations at highest risk of HIV infection (MSM & MSW) seem well disposed to participate in a CEI program for HIV and STI prevention in Mexico. The average willingness-to-accept estimate is within the range of feasible allocations for prevention in the local context. Given the potential impact, Mexico, a leader in conditional cash transfers for human development and poverty reduction, could extend that successful model for targeted HIV/STI prevention. PMID:23377757

  17. Biodiversity conservation, ecosystem functioning, and economic incentives under cocoa agroforestry intensification.

    PubMed

    Bisseleua, D H B; Missoup, A D; Vidal, S

    2009-10-01

    World chocolate demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on tropical rainforests and wild species in cocoa-producing countries. Cocoa, "the chocolate tree," is traditionally produced under a diverse and dense canopy of shade trees that provide habitat for a high diversity of organisms. The current trend to reduce or eliminate shade cover raises concerns about the potential loss of biodiversity. Nevertheless, few studies have assessed the ecological consequences and economic trade-offs under different management options in cocoa plantations. Here we describe the relationships between ant ecology (species richness, community composition, and abundance) and vegetation structure, ecosystem functions, and economic profitability under different land-use management systems in 17 traditional cocoa forest gardens in southern Cameroon. We calculated an index of profitability, based on the net annual income per hectare. We found significant differences associated with the different land-use management systems for species richness and abundance of ants and species richness and density of trees. Ant species richness was significantly higher in floristically and structurally diverse, low-intensity, old cocoa systems than in intensive young systems. Ant species richness was significantly related to tree species richness and density. We found no clear relationship between profitability and biodiversity. Nevertheless, we suggest that improving the income and livelihood of smallholder cocoa farmers will require economic incentives to discourage further intensification and ecologically detrimental loss of shade cover. Certification programs for shade-grown cocoa may provide socioeconomic incentives to slow intensification.

  18. Re-thinking incentives and penalties: Economic aspects of waste management in Italy

    SciTech Connect

    Cossu, R.; Masi, S.

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: • We focused on the dynamics the formation of operational costs of waste management. • We provide the basic elements to compose a picture of economic management. • We present a reflection on the last hidden costs associated with the consumption of goods and packaging. • Reduction of waste production. - Abstract: This paper focuses on the dynamics the formation of operational costs of waste management in Italy and the effect of economic measures. Currently incentives and penalties have been internalized by the system no differently from other cost items and revenues. This has greatly influenced the system directing it towards solutions that are often distant from the real environmental objectives. Based on an analysis of disaggregated costs of collection treatment and recovery, we provide the basic elements to compose a picture of economic management in various technical–organizational scenarios. In the light of the considerations contained in the paper it is proposed, e.g. for controlled landfills, that the ecotax, currently based on weight, could be replaced by one based on the volume consumption. Likewise, for tax reduction on disposal system, instead a pre-treatment might ask an environmental balance of the overall system. The article presents a reflection on the last hidden costs associated with the consumption of goods and packaging, and how to reduce waste production is the necessary path to be followed in ecological and economic perspectives.

  19. Policy support, economic incentives and the adoption of irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2014-11-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in China. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of policy support and economic incentives on the adoption of irrigation technology in China. Based on a unique dataset collected at household and village levels from seven provinces in China, results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption on crop-sown areas was not high, and it was even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analyses results revealed that policy supports via subsidies and extension services have played an important role in promoting the adoption of irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played significant but contradictory roles in promoting the adoption of different types of irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to their substitution relationship, because having higher adoption of household-based irrigation technology reduce the incentives to invest in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  20. Policies, economic incentives and the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cremades, R.; Wang, J.; Morris, J.

    2015-07-01

    The challenges China faces in terms of water availability in the agricultural sector are exacerbated by the sector's low irrigation efficiency. To increase irrigation efficiency, promoting modern irrigation technology has been emphasized by policy makers in the country. The overall goal of this paper is to understand the effect of governmental support and economic incentives on the adoption of modern irrigation technology in China, with a focus on household-based irrigation technology and community-based irrigation technology. Based on a unique data set collected at household and village levels from seven provinces, the results indicated that household-based irrigation technology has become noticeable in almost every Chinese village. In contrast, only about half of Chinese villages have adopted community-based irrigation technology. Despite the relatively high adoption level of household-based irrigation technology at the village level, its actual adoption in crop sown areas was not high, even lower for community-based irrigation technology. The econometric analysis results revealed that governmental support instruments like subsidies and extension services policies have played an important role in promoting the adoption of modern irrigation technology. Strikingly, the present irrigation pricing policy has played a significant but contradictory role in promoting the adoption of different types of modern irrigation technology. Irrigation pricing showed a positive impact on household-based irrigation technology, and a negative impact on community-based irrigation technology, possibly related to the substitution effect that is, the higher rate of adoption of household-based irrigation technology leads to lower incentives for investment in community-based irrigation technology. The paper finally concludes and discusses some policy implications.

  1. Creating Economic Incentives for Waste Disposal in Developing Countries Using the MixAlco Process.

    PubMed

    Lonkar, Sagar; Fu, Zhihong; Wales, Melinda; Holtzapple, Mark

    2017-01-01

    In rapidly growing developing countries, waste disposal is a major challenge. Current waste disposal methods (e.g., landfills and sewage treatment) incur costs and often are not employed; thus, wastes accumulate in the environment. To address this challenge, it is advantageous to create economic incentives to collect and process wastes. One approach is the MixAlco process, which uses methane-inhibited anaerobic fermentation to convert waste biomass into carboxylate salts, which are chemically converted to industrial chemicals and fuels. In this paper, humanure (raw human feces and urine) is explored as a possible nutrient source for fermentation. This work focuses on fermenting municipal solid waste (energy source) and humanure (nutrient source) in batch fermentations. Using the Continuum Particle Distribution Model (CPDM), the performance of continuous countercurrent fermentation was predicted at different volatile solid loading rates (VSLR) and liquid residence times (LRT). For a four-stage countercurrent fermentation system at VSLR = 4 g/(L∙day), LRT = 30 days, and solids concentration = 100 g/L liquid, the model predicts carboxylic acid concentration of 68 g/L and conversion of 78.5 %.

  2. The new nordic diet – consumer expenditures and economic incentives estimated from a controlled intervention

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Several studies suggest that a healthy diet with high emphasis on nutritious, low-energy components such as fruits, vegetables, and seafood tends to be more costly for consumers. Derived from the ideas from the New Nordic Cuisine – and inspired by the Mediterranean diet, the New Nordic Diet (NND) has been developed as a palatable, healthy and sustainable diet based on products from the Nordic region. The objective of the study is to investigate economic consequences for the consumers of the NND, compared with an Average Danish Diet (ADD). Methods Combine quantity data from a randomized controlled ad libitum dietary 6 month intervention for central obese adults (18–65 years) and market retail price data of the products consumed in the intervention. Adjust consumed quantities to market price incentives using econometrically estimated price elasticities. Results Average daily food expenditure of the ADD as represented in the unadjusted intervention (ADD-i) amounted to 36.02 DKK for the participants. The daily food expenditure in the unadjusted New Nordic Diet (NND-i) costs 44.80 DKK per day per head, and is hence about 25% more expensive than the Average Danish Diet (or about 17% when adjusting for energy content of the diet). Adjusting for price incentives in a real market setting, the estimated cost of the Average Danish Diet is reduced by 2.50 DKK (ADD-m), compared to the unadjusted ADD-i diet, whereas the adjusted cost of the New Nordic Diet (NND-m) is reduced by about 3.50 DKK, compared to the unadjusted NND-i. The distribution of food cost is however much more heterogeneous among consumers within the NND than within the ADD. Conclusion On average, the New Nordic Diet is 24–25 per cent more expensive than an Average Danish Diet at the current market prices in Denmark (and 16–17 per cent, when adjusting for energy content). The relatively large heterogeneity in food costs in the NND suggests that it is possible to compose an NND where the cost

  3. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 51 - Examples of Economic Incentive Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... different basic program designs. This section describes common types of EIP's that have been implemented... time. The common feature of such programs is that sources have an ongoing incentive to reduce pollution... could be allowed to participate in a common emissions trading market. Programs involving...

  4. 40 CFR Appendix X to Part 51 - Examples of Economic Incentive Programs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... different basic program designs. This section describes common types of EIP's that have been implemented... time. The common feature of such programs is that sources have an ongoing incentive to reduce pollution... could be allowed to participate in a common emissions trading market. Programs involving...

  5. Cost-Effectiveness of Financial Incentives to Promote Adherence to Depot Antipsychotic Medication: Economic Evaluation of a Cluster-Randomised Controlled Trial

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Catherine; Knapp, Martin; Yeeles, Ksenija; Bremner, Stephen; Eldridge, Sandra; David, Anthony S.; O’Connell, Nicola; Burns, Tom; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Background Offering a modest financial incentive to people with psychosis can promote adherence to depot antipsychotic medication, but the cost-effectiveness of this approach has not been examined. Methods Economic evaluation within a pragmatic cluster-randomised controlled trial. 141 patients under the care of 73 teams (clusters) were randomised to intervention or control; 138 patients with diagnoses of schizophrenia, schizo-affective disorder or bipolar disorder participated. Intervention participants received £15 per depot injection over 12 months, additional to usual acute, mental and community primary health services. The control group received usual health services. Main outcome measures: incremental cost per 20% increase in adherence to depot antipsychotic medication; incremental cost of ‘good’ adherence (defined as taking at least 95% of the prescribed number of depot medications over the intervention period). Findings Economic and outcome data for baseline and 12-month follow-up were available for 117 participants. The adjusted difference in adherence between groups was 12.2% (73.4% control vs. 85.6% intervention); the adjusted costs difference was £598 (95% CI -£4 533, £5 730). The extra cost per patient to increase adherence to depot medications by 20% was £982 (95% CI -£8 020, £14 000). The extra cost per patient of achieving 'good' adherence was £2 950 (CI -£19 400, £27 800). Probability of cost-effectiveness exceeded 97.5% at willingness-to-pay values of £14 000 for a 20% increase in adherence and £27 800 for good adherence. Interpretation Offering a modest financial incentive to people with psychosis is cost-effective in promoting adherence to depot antipsychotic medication. Direct healthcare costs (including costs of the financial incentive) are unlikely to be increased by this intervention. Trial Registration ISRCTN.com 77769281 PMID:26448540

  6. Toward Incentives for Military Transformation: A Review of Economic Models of Compensation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    Intrinsic motivation (to care for sick people, for example, or serve the country) o Peer pressure and mutual monitoring o A corporate culture of hard...local labor market conditions. The recent evidence suggests that factors like peer pressure and the need to pool risks in a team may improve performance...discourage free riding and encourage individual effort is to employ a variety of implicit incentives. For example, it can encourage peer pressure and

  7. Choosing healthier foods in recreational sports settings: a mixed methods investigation of the impact of nudging and an economic incentive

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Nudging is an approach to environmental change that alters social and physical environments to shift behaviors in positive, self-interested directions. Evidence indicates that eating is largely an automatic behavior governed by environmental cues, suggesting that it might be possible to nudge healthier dietary behaviors. This study assessed the comparative and additive efficacy of two nudges and an economic incentive in supporting healthy food purchases by patrons at a recreational swimming pool. Methods An initial pre-intervention period was followed by three successive and additive interventions that promoted sales of healthy items through: signage, taste testing, and 30% price reductions; concluding with a return to baseline conditions. Each period was 8 days in length. The primary outcome was the change in the proportion of healthy items sold in the intervention periods relative to pre- and post-intervention in the full sample, and in a subsample of patrons whose purchases were directly observed. Secondary outcomes included change in the caloric value of purchases, change in revenues and gross profits, and qualitative process observations. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance, chi-square tests and thematic content analysis. Results Healthy items represented 41% of sales and were significantly lower than sales of unhealthy items (p < 0.0001). In the full sample, sales of healthy items did not differ across periods, whereas in the subsample, sales of healthy items increased by 30% when a signage + taste testing intervention was implemented (p < 0.01). This increase was maintained when prices of healthy items were reduced by 30%, and when all interventions were removed. When adults were alone they purchased more healthy items compared to when children were present during food purchases (p < 0.001), however parental choices were not substantially better than choices made by children alone. Conclusions This study found mixed

  8. The MRS (Monitored Retrievable Storage) task force: Economic and non-economic incentives for local public acceptance of a proposed nuclear waste packaging and storage facility

    SciTech Connect

    Peelle, E.

    1987-03-01

    A joint Oak Ridge - Roane County citizen task force (TF) evaluated the Department of Energy's (DOE) proposal to site a Monitored Retrievable Storage facility in Tennessee in terms of environmental, transportation, and socioeconomic impacts. The case study examines how the TF used mitigation, compensation and incentives (economic and non-economic) to address the problem of distrust of DOE and to change the net local impact balance from negative to positive. Intensive group interaction during their investigations and development of trust within the TF led to consensus decisions on safety and conditional acceptance. DOE accepted most of the TF conditions after informal negotiations. The siting process was stopped by extensive state-wide opposition resulting in legal challenge by the state and vetoes by the governor and state legislature.

  9. An analysis of the impacts of economic incentive programs on commercial nuclear power plant operations and maintenance costs

    SciTech Connect

    Kavanaugh, D.C.; Monroe, W.H.; Wood, R.S.

    1996-02-01

    Operations and Maintenance (O and M) expenditures by nuclear power plant owner/operators possess a very logical and vital link in considerations relating to plant safety and reliability. Since the determinants of O and M outlays are considerable and varied, the potential linkages to plant safety, both directly and indirectly, can likewise be substantial. One significant issue before the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission is the impact, if any, on O and M spending from state programs that attempt to improve plant operating performance, and how and to what extent these programs may affect plant safety and pose public health risks. The purpose of this study is to examine the role and degree of impacts from state promulgated economic incentive programs (EIPs) on plant O and M spending. A multivariate regression framework is specified, and the model is estimated on industry data over a five-year period, 1986--1990. Explanatory variables for the O and M spending model include plant characteristics, regulatory effects, financial strength factors, replacement power costs, and the performance incentive programs. EIPs are found to have statistically significant effects on plant O and M outlays, albeit small in relation to other factors. Moreover, the results indicate that the relatively financially weaker firms are more sensitive in their O and M spending to the presence of such programs. Formulations for linking spending behavior and EIPs with plant safety performance remains for future analysis.

  10. Economic incentives and recommended development for commercial use of high burnup fuels in the once-through LWR fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Stout, R.B.; Merckx, K.R.; Holm, J.S.

    1981-01-01

    This study calculates the reduced uranium requirements and the economic incentives for increasing the burnup of current design LWR fuels from the current range of 25 to 35 MWD/Kg to a range of 45 to 55 MWD/Kg. The changes in fuel management strategies which may be required to accommodate these high burnup fuels and longer fuel cycles are discussed. The material behavior problems which may present obstacles to achieving high burnup or to license fuel are identified and discussed. These problems are presented in terms of integral fuel response and the informational needs for commercial and licensing acceptance. Research and development programs are outlined which are aimed at achieving a licensing position and commercial acceptance of high burnup fuels.

  11. An economic analysis of private incentives to adopt DNA barcoding technology for fish species authentication in Canada.

    PubMed

    Ugochukwu, Albert I; Hobbs, Jill E; Phillips, Peter W B; Gray, Richard

    2015-12-01

    The increasing spate of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets has become a concern to the public and a challenge to both the food industry and regulators. Species substitution and mislabelling within fish supply chains occurs because of price incentives to misrepresent products for economic gain. Emerging authenticity technologies, such as the DNA barcoding technology that has been used to identify plants and animal (particularly fish) species through DNA sequencing, offer a potential technological solution to this information problem. However, the adoption of these authenticity technologies depends also on economic factors. The present study uses economic welfare analysis to examine the effects of species substitution and mislabelling in fish markets, and examines the feasibility of the technology for a typical retail store in Canada. It is assumed that increased accuracy of the technology in detecting fraud and enforcement of legal penalties and other associated costs would be likely to discourage cheating. Empirical results suggest that DNA barcoding technology would be feasible presently for a typical retail store only if authentication is done in a third party laboratory, as it may not be feasible on an individual retail store level once fixed and other associated costs of the technology are considered.

  12. Seat Belts Pay Off. The Use of Economic Incentives and Public Education to Increase Seat Belt Use in a Community. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Campbell, B. J.; And Others

    A six-month campaign to increase seat belt use in Chapel Hill and Carrboro, North Carolina centered around the idea of giving out economic incentives for seat belt wearing. The approach was to stop vehicles at random and give all belted vehicle occupants a small prize and a chance for a large cash prize. Precampaign activities involve collecting…

  13. Stimulating the Manufacturing and Distribution of Rehabilitation Products: Economic and Policy Incentives and Disincentives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Scadden, Lawrence A.

    Personal interviews and written correspondence were used to obtain information from 39 officers of companies involved in the manufacture and distribution of rehabilitation-related products, regarding their perceptions of the potential effects of various economic factors and governmental policies. An attempt was made to identify disincentives to…

  14. Economic Incentives in Content-Centric Networking: Implications for Protocol Design and Public Policy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Agyapong, Parick Kwadwo

    2013-01-01

    Content-centric networking (CCN) has emerged as a dominant paradigm for future Internet architecture design due to its efficient support for content dissemination, which currently dominates Internet use. This dissertation shows how economic and social welfare analysis can be used to inform the design of a CCN architecture that provides network…

  15. A comparative assessment of economic-incentive and command-and-control instruments for air pollution and CO2 control in China's iron and steel sector.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhaoyang; Mao, Xianqiang; Tu, Jianjun; Jaccard, Mark

    2014-11-01

    China's iron and steel sector is faced with increasing pressure to control both local air pollutants and CO2 simultaneously. Additional policy instruments are needed to co-control these emissions in this sector. This study quantitatively evaluates and compares two categories of emission reduction instruments, namely the economic-incentive (EI) instrument of a carbon tax, and the command-and-control (CAC) instrument of mandatory application of end-of-pipe emission control measures for CO2, SO2 and NOx. The comparative evaluation tool is an integrated assessment model, which combines a top-down computable general equilibrium sub-model and a bottom-up technology-based sub-model through a soft-linkage. The simulation results indicate that the carbon tax can co-control multiple pollutants, but the emission reduction rates are limited under the tax rates examined in this study. In comparison, the CAC instruments are found to have excellent effects on controlling different pollutants separately, but not jointly. Such results indicate that no single EI or CAC instrument is overwhelmingly superior. The environmental and economic effectiveness of an instrument highly depends on its specific attributes, and cannot be predicted by the general policy category. These findings highlight the necessity of clearer identification of policy target priorities, and detail-oriented and integrated policy-making among different governmental departments.

  16. The disproportionate burden of HIV and STIs among male sex workers in Mexico City and the rationale for economic incentives to reduce risks

    PubMed Central

    Galárraga, Omar; Sosa-Rubí, Sandra G; González, Andrea; Badial-Hernández, Florentino; Conde-Glez, Carlos J; Juárez-Figueroa, Luis; Bautista-Arredondo, Sergio; Kuo, Caroline; Operario, Don; Mayer, Kenneth H

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The objective of this article is to present the rationale and baseline results for a randomized controlled pilot trial using economic incentives to reduce HIV and sexually transmitted infection (STI) risk among male sex workers (MSWs) in Mexico City. Methods Participants (n=267) were tested and treated for STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea, syphilis and HIV) and viral hepatitis (hepatitis B and C), received HIV and STI prevention education and were randomized into four groups: (1) control, (2) medium conditional incentive ($50/six months), (3) high conditional incentive ($75/six months) and (4) unconditional incentive ($50/six months). In the conditional arms, incentives were contingent upon testing free of new curable STIs (chlamydia, gonorrhoea and syphilis) at follow-up assessments. Results Participants’ mean age was 25 years; 8% were homeless or lived in a shelter, 16% were unemployed and 21% lived in Mexico City less than 5 years. At baseline, 38% were living with HIV, and 32% tested positive for viral hepatitis or at least one STI (other than HIV). Participants had a mean of five male clients in the previous week; 18% reported condomless sex with their last client. For 37%, sex work was their main occupation and was conducted mainly on the streets (51%) or in bars/discotheques (24%) and hotels (24%). The average price for a sex transaction was $25 with a 35% higher payment for condomless sex. Conclusions The findings suggest that economic incentives are a relevant approach for HIV prevention among MSWs, given the market-based inducements for unprotected sex. This type of targeted intervention seems to be justified and should continue to be explored in the context of combination prevention efforts. PMID:25399543

  17. RELATIVE ECONOMIC INCENTIVES FOR HYDROGEN FROM NUCLEAR, RENEWABLE, AND FOSSIL ENERGY SOURCES

    SciTech Connect

    Gorensek, M; Charles W. Forsberg, C

    2008-08-04

    The specific hydrogen market determines the value of hydrogen from different sources. Each hydrogen production technology has its own distinct characteristics. For example, steam reforming of natural gas produces only hydrogen. In contrast, nuclear and solar hydrogen production facilities produce hydrogen together with oxygen as a by-product or co-product. For a user who needs both oxygen and hydrogen, the value of hydrogen from nuclear and solar plants is higher than that from a fossil plant because 'free' oxygen is produced as a by-product. Six factors that impact the relative economics of fossil, nuclear, and solar hydrogen production to the customer are identified: oxygen by-product, avoidance of carbon dioxide emissions, hydrogen transport costs, storage costs, availability of low-cost heat, and institutional factors. These factors imply that different hydrogen production technologies will be competitive in different markets and that the first markets for nuclear and solar hydrogen will be those markets in which they have a unique competitive advantage. These secondary economic factors are described and quantified in terms of dollars per kilogram of hydrogen.

  18. Added Bonus? The Relationship between California School Districts' Specialized Teacher Staffing Needs and the Use of Economic Incentive Policies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strunk, Katharine O.; Zeehandelaar, Dara B.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the use and efficacy of fiscal incentive policies in California school districts. We ask whether districts with high need for teachers with English as a second language (ESL) or special education credentials are more likely to implement incentives targeting these teachers. We find mixed evidence that districts align their…

  19. Economic incentive for applying vetiver grass to remediate lead, copper and zinc contaminated soils.

    PubMed

    Danh, Luu Thai; Truong, Paul; Mammucari, Raffaella; Fostert, Neil

    2011-01-01

    The application of vetiver grass (Chrysopogon zizaniodes) for phytoremediation of heavy metal contaminated soils can be promoted by economic return through essential oil production. Four levels of lead (0, 500, 2000, and 8000 mg kg(-1) dry soil), copper (0, 100, 400, and 1600 mg kg(-1) dry soil) and zinc (0, 400, 1600, and 6400 mg kg(-1) dry soil) were used to study their effects on vetiver growth, essential oil composition and yield. This study also investigated the effect of nitrogen concentrations on vetiver oil yield. Vetiver accumulated high concentrations of Pb, Cu and Zn in roots (3246, 754 and 2666 mg kg(-1), respectively) and small amounts of contaminants in shoots (327, 55, and 642 mg kg(-1), respectively). Oil content and yield were not affected at low and moderate concentrations of Cu and Zn. Only the application of Pb had a significant detrimental effect on oil composition. Extraction of vetiver essential oils by hydrodistillation produced heavy metal free products. High level of nitrogen reduced oil yields. Results show that phytoremediation of Cu and Zn contaminated soils by vetiver can generate revenue from the commercialization of oil extracts.

  20. Design and baseline characteristics of participants in the TRial of Economic Incentives to Promote Physical Activity (TRIPPA): a randomized controlled trial of a six month pedometer program with financial incentives.

    PubMed

    Finkelstein, Eric A; Sahasranaman, Aarti; John, Geraldine; Haaland, Benjamin A; Bilger, Marcel; Sloan, Robert A; Nang, Ei Ei Khaing; Evenson, Kelly R

    2015-03-01

    Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) are emerging as the predominant global health challenge of this century. Physical inactivity is one of the primary risk factors for NCDs. Therefore, increasing physical activity levels is a public health imperative. The arrival of affordable wearable technologies, such as wireless pedometers, provides one strategy for encouraging walking. However, the effectiveness of these technologies in promoting sustained behavior change has not been established. Insights from economics suggest that incentives may be a useful strategy for increasing maintenance and effectiveness of behavior change interventions, including physical activity interventions that rely on wearable technologies. The aim of this trial is to test the effectiveness of a common wireless pedometer with or without one of two types of incentives (cash or donations to charity) for reaching weekly physical activity goals. We present here the design and baseline characteristics of participants of this four arm randomized controlled trial. 800 full-time employees (desk-bound office workers) belonging to 15 different worksites (on average, 53 (sd: 37) employees at each worksite) were successfully randomized to one of four study arms. If shown to be effective, wearable technologies in concert with financial incentives may provide a scalable and affordable health promotion strategy for governments and employers seeking to increase the physical activity levels of their constituents.

  1. Photovoltaic Incentive Design Handbook

    SciTech Connect

    Hoff, T. E.

    2006-12-01

    Investments in customer-owned grid-connected photovoltaic (PV) energy systems are growing at a steady pace. This is due, in part, to the availability of attractive economic incentives offered by public state agencies and utilities. In the United States, these incentives have largely been upfront lump payments tied to the system capacity rating. While capacity-based ''buydowns'' have stimulated the domestic PV market, they have been criticized for subsidizing systems with potentially poor energy performance. As a result, the industry has been forced to consider alternative incentive structures, particularly ones that pay based on long-term measured performance. The industry, however, lacks consensus in the debate over the tradeoffs between upfront incentive payments versus longer-term payments for energy delivery. This handbook is designed for agencies and utilities that offer or intend to offer incentive programs for customer-owned PV systems. Its purpose is to help select, design, and implement incentive programs that best meet programmatic goals. The handbook begins with a discussion of the various available incentive structures and then provides qualitative and quantitative tools necessary to design the most appropriate incentive structure. It concludes with program administration considerations.

  2. Impact of gender and professional education on attitudes towards financial incentives for organ donation: results of a survey among 755 students of medicine and economics in Germany

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background There is an ongoing expert debate with regard to financial incentives in order to increase organ supply. However, there is a lacuna of empirical studies on whether citizens would actually support financial incentives for organ donation. Methods Between October 2008 and February 2009 a quantitative survey was conducted among German students of medicine and economics to gain insights into their point of view regarding living and deceased organ donation and different forms of commercialization (n = 755). Results The average (passive) willingness to donate is 63.5% among medical students and 50.0% among students of economics (p = 0.001), while only 24.1% of the respondents were actually holding an organ donor card. 11.3% of students of economics had signed a donor card, however, the number is significantly higher among students of medicine (31.9%, p < 0.001). Women held donor cards significantly more often (28.6%) than men (19.4%, p = 0.004). The majority of students were against direct payments as incentives for deceased and living donations. Nevertheless, 37.5% of the respondents support the idea that the funeral expenses of deceased organ donors should be covered. Women voted significantly less often for the coverage of expenses than men (women 31.6%, men 44.0%, p = 0.003). The number of those in favor of allowing to sell one’s organs for money (living organ donation) was highest among students of economics (p = 0.034). Conclusion Despite a generally positive view on organ donation the respondents refuse to consent to commercialization, but are in favor of removing disincentives or are in favor of indirect models of reward. PMID:24996438

  3. End-stage renal disease and economic incentives: the International Study of Health Care Organization and Financing (ISHCOF).

    PubMed

    Dor, Avi; Pauly, Mark V; Eichleay, Margaret A; Held, Philip J

    2007-09-01

    End-stage renal disease (ESRD) is a debilitating, costly, and increasingly common condition. Little is known about how different financing approaches affect ESRD outcomes and delivery of care. This paper presents results from a comparative review of 12 countries with alternative models of incentives and benefits, collected under the International Study of Health Care Organization and Financing, a substudy within the Dialysis Outcomes and Practice Patterns Study. Variation in spending per ESRD patient is relatively small, but correlated with overall per capita health care spending. Remaining differences in costs and outcomes do not seem strongly linked to differences in incentives.

  4. Paying the Piper: Productivity, Incentives, and Financing in U.S. Higher Education. The Economics of Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McPherson, Michael S.; And Others

    This volume contains 14 papers on productivity, incentives, and financing in U.S. higher education, issues of particular urgency in light of revenue shortfalls, expenditure pressures, and controversies that have shaken public confidence in higher education. Part 1 contains two background papers: "Introduction" (Michael S. McPherson, Morton O.…

  5. The influence of economic incentives linked to road safety indicators on accidents: the case of toll concessions in Spain.

    PubMed

    Rangel, Thais; Vassallo, José Manuel; Herraiz, Israel

    2013-10-01

    The goal of this paper is to evaluate whether the incentives incorporated in toll highway concession contracts in order to encourage private operators to adopt measures to reduce accidents are actually effective at improving safety. To this end, we implemented negative binomial regression models using information about highway characteristics and accident data from toll highway concessions in Spain from 2007 to 2009. Our results show that even though road safety is highly influenced by variables that are not managed by the contractor, such as the annual average daily traffic (AADT), the percentage of heavy vehicles on the highway, number of lanes, number of intersections and average speed; the implementation of these incentives has a positive influence on the reduction of accidents and injuries. Consequently, this measure seems to be an effective way of improving safety performance in road networks.

  6. Fertility incentives and disincentives.

    PubMed

    Financioglu, N

    1984-06-01

    Some 40 countries use some form of incentives and disincentives in support of population policies, about half with the aim of reducing fertility and half with the aim of increasing it. These schemes range from limitations on tax and family allowances or maternity benefits after a given family size has been reached to payments to acceptors of fertility control methods. Some schemes aim to eliminate or reduce the cost and inconvenience people may face in achieving their fertility preferences, whereas others contain an element of deterrence. It is difficult to isolate and measure the impact of incentives on fertility from the effects of other factors such as family planning service availability or modernization. Studies in pronatalist countries suggest that incentive schemes produce short-term fertility increases without a change in average family size. Monetary incentives must be constantly increased to keep pace with inflation, placing a heavy burden on government budgets. Administrative capacity to operate the scheme is critical in terms of both manpower and efficient systems for record keeping, monitoring, and close supervision to prevent abuse. There is also considerable debate on the moral and ethical implications of incentives and disincentives as policy tools. Incentives offered for the acceptance of a particular fertility control method potentially contravene the principle of voluntary and informed consent. In addition, the relative value of the reward is greater for those in the lower income groups. The discriminatory nature of certain types of incentives and disincentives is illustrated by measures introduced in Singapore that give highest priority in school enrollment to the children of highly educated mothers with 2-3 children. This ruling is expected to further intensify the controversy surrounding incentive and disincentive schemes.

  7. Using Incentives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Seymour, Kathryn

    2012-01-01

    This article explores the ethical implications of using incentives to encourage and recognise youth participation in research. While the complexity of research projects and the diversity of research subjects necessarily preclude simple solutions, the author argues that social research can successfully and ethically use a mix of extrinsic and…

  8. Economic Incentives in the Purchase and Use of Energy-Using Products: Past Practices and New Developments

    SciTech Connect

    Bjornstad, D.J.

    2003-03-27

    This paper reviews the set of analytical tools commonly used to describe the purchase and use of energy-saving technologies and compares them with recent advances in applied microeconomics. Its goal is to determine if supplementing or replacing parts of the traditional tool kit will better equip the Department of Energy's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE) to design and promote the superior energy-using technologies of the future. The paper was prepared at the request of EERE's Jerry Dion, and is part of a larger set of white paper's intended to inform EERE's senior managers and program officers about the state of the art on a number of topics of special relevance to the EERE program. The advances in applied microeconomics discussed herein can be generally described as the theory of investment under uncertainty, behavioral economics, and the economics of asymmetrical information. While these concepts are quite familiar to economic methodologists and well entrenched in many applied topics, they are only now beginning to be applied to the field of energy technology analysis. If this work proves accurate, the new concepts would appear to hold substantial interest for those designing energy-saving technologies and promoting their penetration into markets. Two principal lessons arise from this exercise: First, because consumer demands for energy technologies are usually derived from their demands for products that make use of energy services, energy technologies are rarely evaluated in isolation. Hence, the analysis would benefit from much greater attention to the context and circumstances in which the technologies would be used. Second, in considering products that contain advanced energy technologies, consumers bring with them constrained budgets and competing demands for budget resources, face uncertain information, and are wary about advice on how to spend their money. Thus, decision-making is less mechanical and much more complex than that

  9. Analysis of economics of a TV broadcasting satellite for additional nationwide TV programs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Becker, D.; Mertens, G.; Rappold, A.; Seith, W.

    1977-01-01

    The influence of a TV broadcasting satellite, transmitting four additional TV networks was analyzed. It is assumed that the cost of the satellite systems will be financed by the cable TV system operators. The additional TV programs increase income by attracting additional subscribers. Two economic models were established: (1) each local network is regarded as an independent economic unit with individual fees (cost price model) and (2) all networks are part of one public cable TV company with uniform fees (uniform price model). Assumptions are made for penetration as a function of subscription rates. Main results of the study are: the installation of a TV broadcasting satellite improves the economics of CTV-networks in both models; the overall coverage achievable by the uniform price model is significantly higher than that achievable by the cost price model.

  10. Micro-level economic factors and incentives in Children’s energy balance related behaviours - findings from the ENERGY European cross-section questionnaire survey

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background To date, most research on obesogenic environments facing school children has focused on physical and socio-cultural environments. The role of economic factors has been investigated to a much lesser extent. Our objective was to explore the association of micro-level economic factors and incentives with sports activities and intake of soft drinks and fruit juice in 10-12 year-old school children across Europe, and to explore price sensitivity in children’s soft drink consumption and correlates of this price sensitivity. Methods Data for the study originate from a cross-sectional survey undertaken in seven European countries (Belgium, Greece, Hungary, Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia and Spain) in 2010 among 10-12 year-old school children and their parents. In total, 7234 child questionnaires and 6002 parent questionnaires were completed. The child questionnaire included questions addressing self-reported weekly intake of soft drinks and fruit juices and time spent on sports activities, perception of parental support for sports activities, use of pocket money for soft drinks and perceived price responsiveness. Parent questionnaires included questions addressing the role of budget and price considerations in decisions regarding children’s sports activities, soft drink consumption, home practices and rules and socio-demographic background variables. Data were analysed using multiple linear regression and discrete-choice (ordered probit) modelling. Results Economic factors were found to be associated with children’s sports participation and sugary drink consumption, explaining 27% of the variation in time for sports activities, and 27% and 12% of the variation in the children’s soft drink and juice consumption, respectively. Parents’ financial support was found to be an important correlate (Beta =0.419) of children’s sports activities. Children’s pocket money was a strong correlate (Beta =21.034) of soft drink consumption. The majority of the

  11. Environmental policy and technological change: The effects of economic incentives and direct regulation on energy-saving innovation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newell, Richard G., Jr.

    rate of innovation. Looking forward, we estimate that energy taxes of 10 to 30 percent of retail prices could significantly increase the energy efficiency of the product menu. We predict that such taxes would lead to additional efficiency increases in air conditioners of 6 to 26 percent. We conclude that the price-induced component of energy-efficiency innovation should not be ignored when assessing alternative climate change policies.

  12. The Effect of Incentives on Achievement & Behavior of Disadvantaged Students.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnard, Douglas P.

    The Mesa School District (Arizona) "Incentives Only" Project--carried out via a performance contract with the U.S. Office of Economic Opportunity in 1970-71 through the Mesa Education Association (MEA)--is described in terms of rationale for the use of incentives, background, program procedures, the incentives model, the delivery system,…

  13. Analysis of Federal incentives used to stimulate energy production

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B.W.; Brenchley, D.L.; Brix, V.L.

    1980-02-01

    Solar energy's share in the national energy budget has caused policy makers to speculate on the reasons for the large difference between present and potential use. Complex technical, economic, legal, institutional, and political interrelationships appear and an attempt is made to present an understanding of that relationship and to enhance the design of solar energy policy. Federal incentives that have been previously used on other energy sources are examined and the report identifies, quantifies, and analyzes such incentives and relates them to current thought about solar energy. The chapters presented are: A Theoretical Approach to Analyzing Incentives for Energy Production; Generic Analysis of Energy Incentives; Nuclear Energy Incentives; Hydroenergy Incentives; Coal Energy Incentives; Oil Energy Incentives; Natural Gas Energy Incentives; and Electricity. Conclusions with respect to solar energy policy for each of these are summed. (MCW)

  14. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  15. Dental indications for the instrumental functional analysis in additional consideration of health-economic aspects

    PubMed Central

    Tinnemann, Peter; Stöber, Yvonne; Roll, Stephanie; Vauth, Christoph; Willich, Stefan N.; Greiner, Wolfgang

    2010-01-01

    Background Besides clinical and radiological examination instrumental functional analyses are performed as diagnostic procedures for craniomandibular dysfunctions. Instrumental functional analyses cause substantial costs and shows a considerable variability between individual dentist practices. Objectives On the basis of published scientific evidence the validity of the instrumental functional analysis for the diagnosis of craniomandibular dysfunctions compared to clinical diagnostic procedures; the difference of the various forms of the instrumental functional analysis; the existence of a dependency on additional other factors and the need for further research are determined in this report. In addition, the cost effectiveness of the instrumental functional analysis is analysed in a health-policy context, and social, legal and ethical aspects are considered. Methods A literature search is performed in over 27 databases and by hand. Relevant companies and institutions are contacted concerning unpublished studies. The inclusion criteria for publications are (i) diagnostic studies with the indication “craniomandibular malfunction”, (ii) a comparison between clinical and instrumental functional analysis, (iii) publications since 1990, (iv) publications in English or German. The identified literature is evaluated by two scientists regarding the relevance of content and methodical quality. Results The systematic database search resulted in 962 hits. 187 medical and economic complete publications are evaluated. Since the evaluated studies are not relevant enough to answer the medical or health economic questions no study is included. Discussion The inconsistent terminology concerning craniomandibular dysfunctions and instrumental functional analyses results in a broad literature search in databases and an extensive search by hand. Since no relevant results concerning the validity of the instrumental functional analysis in comparison to the clinical functional analysis

  16. 75 FR 36395 - Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-06-25

    ... DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY Office of Thrift Supervision Guidance on Sound Incentive Compensation Policies... 2009, the Federal Reserve issued and requested comment on Proposed Guidance on Sound Incentive.... In addition, because sound incentive compensation practices are important to protect the safety...

  17. The addition of E (Empowerment and Economics) to the ABCD algorithm in diabetes care.

    PubMed

    Khazrai, Yeganeh Manon; Buzzetti, Raffaella; Del Prato, Stefano; Cahn, Avivit; Raz, Itamar; Pozzilli, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    The ABCD (Age, Body weight, Complications, Duration of disease) algorithm was proposed as a simple and practical tool to manage patients with type 2 diabetes. Diabetes treatment, as for all chronic diseases, relies on patients' ability to cope with daily problems concerning the management of their disease in accordance with medical recommendations. Thus, it is important that patients learn to manage and cope with their disease and gain greater control over actions and decisions affecting their health. Healthcare professionals should aim to encourage and increase patients' perception about their ability to take informed decisions about disease management and to improve patient self-esteem and feeling of self-efficacy to become agents of their own health. E for Empowerment is therefore an additional factor to take into account in the management of patients with type 2 diabetes. E stands also for Economics to be considered in diabetes care. Attention should be paid to public health policies as well as to the physician faced with the dilemma of delivering the best possible care within the problem of limited resources. The financial impact of the new treatment modalities for diabetes represents an issue that needs to be addressed at multiple strata both globally and nationally.

  18. Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC) - additional modifications to final report as per GTP's request.

    SciTech Connect

    Gowda, Varun; Hogue, Michael

    2015-07-17

    This report will discuss the methods and the results from economic impact analysis applied to the development of Enhanced Geothermal Systems (EGS), conventional hydrothermal, low temperature geothermal and coproduced fluid technologies resulting in electric power production. As part of this work, the Energy & Geoscience Institute (EGI) has developed a web-based Geothermal Economics Calculator (Geothermal Economics Calculator (GEC)) tool that is aimed at helping the industry perform geothermal systems analysis and study the associated impacts of specific geothermal investments or technological improvements on employment, energy and environment. It is well-known in the industry that geothermal power projects will generate positive economic impacts for their host regions. Our aim in the assessment of these impacts includes quantification of the increase in overall economic output due to geothermal projects and of the job creation associated with this increase. Such an estimate of economic impacts of geothermal investments on employment, energy and the environment will also help us understand the contributions that the geothermal industry will have in achieving a sustainable path towards energy production.

  19. Incentives from Curriculum Tracking

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koerselman, Kristian

    2013-01-01

    Curriculum tracking creates incentives in the years before its start, and we should therefore expect test scores to be higher during those years. I find robust evidence for incentive effects of tracking in the UK based on the UK comprehensive school reform. Results from the Swedish comprehensive school reform are inconclusive. Internationally, I…

  20. Barriers and Incentives to Orphan Care in a Time of AIDS and Economic Crisis: A Cross-Sectional Survey of Caregivers in Rural Zimbabwe

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Howard, Brian H.; Phillips, Carl V.; Matinhure, Nelia; Goodman, Karen J.; McCurdy, Sheryl A; Johnson, Cary A.

    2007-01-01

    Background: Africa is in an orphan-care crisis. In Zimbabwe, where one-fourth of adults are HIV-positive and one-fifth of children are orphans, AIDS and economic decline are straining society's ability to care for orphans within their extended families. Lack of stable care is putting thousands of children at heightened risk of malnourishment,…

  1. Employment Testing and Incentives To Learn.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, John

    Employment tests predict job performance because they measure or are correlated with a large set of malleable developed abilities, which are causally related to productivity. Our economy currently under-rewards the achievements that are measured by these tests. Consequently, economic incentives to study hard in high school are minimal, and this…

  2. Incentives, Teachers, and Gender at Work

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robert, Sarah A.

    2013-01-01

    Incentive pay programs have become panacea for a multitude of educational challenges. When aimed at teachers the assumption is that rewards entice them to work in particular ways or particular schools. However, the assumption is based on an economic formula that does not take into consideration the gendered nature of policy processes. This study…

  3. A neural computational model of incentive salience.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jun; Berridge, Kent C; Tindell, Amy J; Smith, Kyle S; Aldridge, J Wayne

    2009-07-01

    Incentive salience is a motivational property with 'magnet-like' qualities. When attributed to reward-predicting stimuli (cues), incentive salience triggers a pulse of 'wanting' and an individual is pulled toward the cues and reward. A key computational question is how incentive salience is generated during a cue re-encounter, which combines both learning and the state of limbic brain mechanisms. Learning processes, such as temporal-difference models, provide one way for stimuli to acquire cached predictive values of rewards. However, empirical data show that subsequent incentive values are also modulated on the fly by dynamic fluctuation in physiological states, altering cached values in ways requiring additional motivation mechanisms. Dynamic modulation of incentive salience for a Pavlovian conditioned stimulus (CS or cue) occurs during certain states, without necessarily requiring (re)learning about the cue. In some cases, dynamic modulation of cue value occurs during states that are quite novel, never having been experienced before, and even prior to experience of the associated unconditioned reward in the new state. Such cases can include novel drug-induced mesolimbic activation and addictive incentive-sensitization, as well as natural appetite states such as salt appetite. Dynamic enhancement specifically raises the incentive salience of an appropriate CS, without necessarily changing that of other CSs. Here we suggest a new computational model that modulates incentive salience by integrating changing physiological states with prior learning. We support the model with behavioral and neurobiological data from empirical tests that demonstrate dynamic elevations in cue-triggered motivation (involving natural salt appetite, and drug-induced intoxication and sensitization). Our data call for a dynamic model of incentive salience, such as presented here. Computational models can adequately capture fluctuations in cue-triggered 'wanting' only by incorporating

  4. Using an incentive spirometer

    MedlinePlus

    do Nascimento Jr P, Módolo NSP, Andrade S, et al. Incentive spirometry for prevention of postoperative pulmonary complications in upper abdominal surgery. Cochrane Database Sys Rev . Published online February 8, ...

  5. Innovation in Workforce Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-13

    Performance • Superior weapon systems • Cost, Schedule, Performance challenges • Acquisition Improvement & Workforce Incentives • Academic ...statistical difference but both showed a 22% improvement in performance Academic Research on Incentives • Mark Huselid in The Impact of Human Resource...5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) Defense Acquisition University ,9820 Belvoir Road ,Fort Belvoir,VA,22060 8

  6. Worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use. A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Leeks, Kimberly D; Hopkins, David P; Soler, Robin E; Aten, Adam; Chattopadhyay, Sajal K

    2010-02-01

    The Guide to Community Preventive Service (Community Guide) methods for systematic reviews were used to evaluate the evidence of effectiveness of worksite-based incentives and competitions to reduce tobacco use among workers. These interventions offer a reward to individuals or to teams of individuals on the basis of participation or success in a specified smoking behavior change (such as abstaining from tobacco use for a period of time). The review team identified a total of 26 published studies, 14 of which met study design and quality of execution criteria for inclusion in the final assessment. Only one study, which did not qualify for review, evaluated the use of incentives when implemented alone. All of the 14 qualifying studies evaluated incentives and competitions when implemented in combination with a variety of additional interventions, such as client education, smoking cessation groups, and telephone cessation support. Of the qualifying studies, 13 evaluated differences in tobacco-use cessation among intervention participants, with a median follow-up period of 12 months. The median change in self-reported tobacco-use cessation was an increase of 4.4 percentage points (a median relative percentage improvement of 67%). The present evidence is insufficient to determine the effectiveness of incentives or competitions, when implemented alone, to reduce tobacco use. However, the qualifying studies provide strong evidence, according to Community Guide rules, that worksite-based incentives and competitions in combination with additional interventions are effective in increasing the number of workers who quit using tobacco. In addition, these multicomponent interventions have the potential to generate positive economic returns over investment when the averted costs of tobacco-associated illnesses are considered. A concurrent systematic review identified four studies with economic evidence. Two of these studies provided evidence of net cost savings to employers

  7. Exploring the comparative cost-effectiveness of economic incentive and command-and-control instruments, and of renewable energy technologies in PM10 emission control: A case study of Lima-Callao, Peru

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kroeger, Timm

    Much economic literature expounds the superior cost-effectiveness of economic incentive (EI) policies over command-and-control (CAC) ones, based on appealing theoretical arguments. However, one of the assumptions underlying much of this literature is that monitoring and enforcement (M&E) of policies are not only feasible, but essentially costless. In reality, M&E are never costless and sometimes infeasible, and, crucially, M&E requirements vary across policy types. Furthermore, in technical economic terms, cost-effectiveness is defined with respect to variable costs only; however, in choosing among policies, the objective generally is to identify that with the lowest total (variable plus fixed) cost per unit abatement, which in its own right may be termed cost-effective. The neglect of M&E and of fixed costs throws up the question of the validity of much of the policy advice that draws on the environmental economics literature for developing countries, where the institutional capacity for effective M&E often is strongly limited, and where creating this capacity will require considerable infrastructure investments. The limited institutional capacity also has led to the suggestion that in developing countries, conventional environmental policies, such as input or output taxes, emission charges, or standards, may be less cost-effective than non-conventional environmental policies, such as direct public provision of electricity from renewable sources, because the M&E capacity required for the implementation of non-conventional policies is often less stringent. I test the hypotheses of superior cost-effectiveness of EI over CAC and of non-conventional over conventional environmental policy instruments. The samples of pollution control policies used to test the hypotheses are drawn from a list of frequently recommended urban air pollution abatement measures for developing countries, plus two renewable energy sources. Both sets of environmental policy types are compared

  8. Incentive Pay for Remotely Piloted Aircraft Career Fields

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    attracting and retaining pilots and sensor operators.” This mono- graph addresses this subject using an econometric model of officer and enlisted...Incentive Pays Evaluating incentive pays requires estimates of their effect on retention and their cost. We used an econometric model of officer and...theoretical overview of how and why pilots and SOs should receive incentive pays. Additionally, the Air Force was tasked with using an econometric

  9. State Clean Energy Policies Analysis (SCEPA): State Tax Incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Doris, E.

    2009-10-01

    As a policy tool, state tax incentives can be structured to help states meet clean energy goals. Policymakers often use state tax incentives in concert with state and federal policies to support renewable energy deployment or reduce market barriers. This analysis used case studies of four states to assess the contributions of state tax incentives to the development of renewable energy markets. State tax incentives that are appropriately paired with complementary state and federal policies generally provide viable mechanisms to support renewable energy deployment. However, challenges to successful implementation of state tax incentives include serving project owners with limited state tax liability, assessing appropriate incentive levels, and differentiating levels of incentives for technologies with different costs. Additionally, state tax incentives may result in moderately higher federal tax burdens. These challenges notwithstanding, state tax incentives that consider certain policy design characteristics can support renewable energy markets and state clean energy goals.The scale of their impact though is directly related to the degree to which they support the renewable energy markets for targeted sectors and technologies. This report highlights important policy design considerations for policymakers using state tax incentives to meet clean energy goals.

  10. Economics.

    PubMed

    Palley, Paul D; Parcero, Miriam E

    2016-10-01

    A review of literature in the calendar year 2015 dedicated to environmental policies and sustainable development, and economic policies. This review is divided into these sections: sustainable development, irrigation, ecosystems and water management, climate change and disaster risk management, economic growth, water supply policies, water consumption, water price regulation, and water price valuation.

  11. Incentive Funding Meets Incentive-Based Budgeting: Can They Coexist?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Daniel W.

    2016-01-01

    Two major developments in the financial management of higher education have occurred more or less contemporaneously: incentive or performance funding on the part of government and incentive-based budgeting on the part of institutions. Both are based on fiscal incentives. Despite their several inherent and interconnected similarities, incentive…

  12. Cooperative Performance Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Raham, Helen

    2000-01-01

    Discusses what is known about cooperative performance incentive (CPI) plans, which are award programs that offer teachers and other school staff pay bonuses for achievement of specific schoolwide educational objectives. The paper describes and compares existing CPI models worldwide, analyzes their impact on student learning and school practices,…

  13. Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banashak, Joan M.

    The Innovative Instructional Incentive Plan represents a set of goals and action strategies for implementing the school improvement plan of the Fairway Elementary School in Miramar, Florida, where instructional time was being lost due to disruptive student behavior, and where behavioral infractions were not always dealt with quickly or…

  14. Incentives for health.

    PubMed

    Anderson, Peter; Harrison, Oliver; Cooper, Cary; Jané-Llopis, Eva

    2011-08-01

    This article discusses incentives to help make healthy choices the easy choices for individuals, operating at the levels of the individual, producers and service providers, and governments. Whereas paying individuals directly to be healthier seems to have a limited effect, offering financial incentives through health insurance improves health. Changing the environment to make healthier choices more accessible acts as an incentive to improve health. Employers can provide incentives to improve the health of their employees. Producers and service providers can take voluntary action to make their products less harmful, and they can be nudged into marketing healthier products within a regulatory environment. International agreements and monitoring systems can incentivize governments to do more for health. Lessons from climate change adaptation suggest that multilevel governance and policy integration are greater obstacles to policy change and implementation than knowing what has to be done. Policy change and implementation are triggered by many drivers, many of which are side effects of other policy pressures rather than of the direct policy goal itself. Effective action to reduce noncommunicable diseases will require leveraging social networks into a new ways of thinking about health; making better health prestigious and aspirational, and giving health and wellness a brand that encourages positive behavior change.

  15. Incentives for Recruiters

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-09-01

    promotions, with prizes for the kids: anything from football ti’kets to trips to Disneyland ." [Ref. 10:p. 68] Any publisher who wants a successful...such as a trip to Disneyland . The latter focuses more on providing an 29 incentive to the carrier to get a certain number of new customers in a short

  16. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy production: an executive summary

    SciTech Connect

    Cone, B. W.; Brenchley, D. L.; Brix, V. L.; Brown, M. L.; Cochran, K. E.; Cohn, P. D.; Cole, R. J.; Curry, M. G.; Davidson, R.; Easterling, J.; Emery, J. C.; Fassbender, A. G.; Fattorini, Jr. J S; Gordon, B.; Harty, H.; Mazzucchi, R.; Maurizi, A. R.; McClain, C.; Moore, D. D.; Sheppard, E. J.; Maxwell, J. H.; Solomon, S.; Sommers, P.

    1980-02-01

    The purpose of this research was to analyze past and present federal incentives to production of various energy sources and thereby assist the Division of Conservation and Solar Applications, Department of Energy, in the study and recommendation of federal incentives for the development of solar energy. The research was divided into five parts: a survey of current thought about incentives for solar energy production; the theoretical approach to analyzing and characterizing incentives; a generic view of the energy incentive creating landscape for 1978; analysis of the major energy sources (nuclear, hydro, coal, electricity, oil, and gas) along their trajectories from exploration to waste management, including their costs in 1978 dollars; and insights into potential incentives for solar policy. Economic, political, organizational, and legal viewpoints were considered in formulating the typology of incentives. Eight types of incentives were identified.

  17. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    James, L. D.

    1978-01-01

    Presents a literature review of the economic aspects of water pollution control covering publications of 1976-77. This review also includes the policy issues of water management. A list of 77 references is presented. (HM)

  18. Improving Air Quality with Economic Incentive Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This document may be of assistance in applying the New Source Review (NSR) air permitting regulations including the Prevention of Significant Deterioration (PSD) requirements. This document is part of the NSR Policy and Guidance Database. Some documents in the database are a scanned or retyped version of a paper photocopy of the original. Although we have taken considerable effort to quality assure the documents, some may contain typographical errors. Contact the office that issued the document if you need a copy of the original.

  19. Do medical doctors respond to economic incentives?

    PubMed

    Andreassen, Leif; Di Tommaso, Maria Laura; Strøm, Steinar

    2013-03-01

    A longitudinal analysis of married physicians labor supply is carried out on Norwegian data from 1997 to 1999. The model utilized for estimation implies that physicians can choose among 10 different job packages which are a combination of part time/full time, hospital/primary care, private/public sector, and not working. Their current choice is influenced by past available options due to a habit persistence parameter in the utility function. In the estimation we take into account the budget constraint, including all features of the tax system. Our results imply that an overall wage increase or less progressive taxation moves married physicians toward full time job packages, in particular to full time jobs in the private sector. But the overall and aggregate labor supply elasticities in the population of employed doctors are rather low compared to previous estimates.

  20. Incentives for organ donation: some ethical issues.

    PubMed

    Sells, Robert

    2004-01-01

    Objections to commerce in organs has not stopped the spread of such practice around the world. In most countries the gap between supply and demand for organs continues to increase. Kidneys from living donors are considered a valuable addition to the donor pool, and in a more acquisitive world, donor incentives are becoming thinkable, even acceptable. Current incentives for cadaver and living organ donation are reviewed from ethical and legal perspectives. A new principle of reimbursement for the living donor's risk and pain is defined and presented for debate.

  1. The Use of Financial Incentives in Promoting Smoking Cessation

    PubMed Central

    Sigmon, Stacey C.; Patrick, Mollie E.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Cigarette smoking is the leading cause of preventable death in the U.S. and world. Despite the availability of numerous therapies for smoking cessation, additional efficacious interventions are greatly needed. We provide a narrative review of published studies evaluating financial incentives for smoking cessation and discuss the parameters important for ensuring the efficacy of incentive interventions for smoking cessation. Methods Published studies that evaluated the impact of incentives to promote smoking cessation and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were identified and reviewed. Results Incentives are efficacious for promoting smoking abstinence across the general population of smokers as well as substance abusers, adolescents, patients with pulmonary disease, patients with serious mental illness and other challenging subgroups. To develop and implement an effective incentive treatment for smoking, special attention should be paid to biochemical verification of smoking status, incentive magnitude and the schedule of incentive delivery. Conclusion Consistent with the extensive literature showing that incentives are effective in reducing illicit drug use, a large body of evidence supports their effectiveness in reducing smoking. Continued efforts are warranted to further develop and disseminate incentive-based treatments for smoking cessation across clinical settings and populations. PMID:22525802

  2. 75 FR 63147 - Solicitation of Applications for the Public Works, Economic Adjustment Assistance, and Global...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-10-14

    ... Assistance, and Global Climate Change Mitigation Incentive Fund (GCCMIF) Economic Development Assistance...) ] Economic Adjustment Assistance Program; and (iii) Global Climate Change Mitigation Incentive Fund (GCCMIF... Development Facilities Program; (ii) Economic Adjustment Assistance Program; and (iii) Global Climate...

  3. Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kemp, Rodger

    This course presents basic economic concepts and explores issues such as how goods and services are produced and distributed, what affects costs and profits, and how wealth is spread around or concentrated. The course is designed to be used with students enrolled in an adult high school diploma program; course content is appropriate to meet social…

  4. Incentives, health promotion and equality.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Kristin

    2012-07-01

    The use of incentives to encourage individuals to adopt 'healthier' behaviours is an increasingly popular instrument in health policy. Much of the literature has been critical of 'negative' incentives, often due to concerns about equality; 'positive' incentives, however, have largely been welcomed as an instrument for the improvement of population health and possibly the reduction of health inequalities. The aim of this paper is to provide a more systematic assessment of the use of incentives from the perspective of equality. The paper begins with an overview of existing and proposed incentive schemes. I then suggest that the distinction between 'positive' and 'negative' incentives - or 'carrots' and 'sticks' - is of limited use in distinguishing those incentive schemes that raise concerns of equality from those that do not. The paper assesses incentive schemes with respect to two important considerations of equality: equality of access and equality of outcomes. While our assessment of incentive schemes will, ultimately, depend on various empirical facts, the paper aims to advance the debate by identifying some of the empirical questions we need to ask. The paper concludes by considering a number of trade-offs and caveats relevant to the assessment of incentive schemes.

  5. Financial incentives to improve progression through the HIV treatment cascade

    PubMed Central

    Bassett, Ingrid V.; Wilson, David; Taaffe, Jessica; Freedberg, Kenneth A.

    2015-01-01

    Purpose of review We reviewed recent literature on conditional and unconditional financial incentives for their impact on improving movement through the HIV care cascade and HIV prevention. Recent findings Concepts from behavioral economics may help improve engagement in HIV care by addressing upstream structural risk factors for HIV, such as poverty, or by providing conditional rewards for immediate, measurable outcomes related to HIV care. Incentives have been shown to increase uptake of HIV testing. Yet, few studies to date focus on linkage to care: one large US-based randomized trial failed to show an effect of incentives; a smaller trial showed improved linkage to care among drug users, but no difference in virologic suppression. Several small US-based studies have shown an impact of financial incentives on antiretroviral therapy adherence, but without durability beyond the incentive period. HIV prevention has the most robust evidence for decreasing HIV risk-taking behavior among adolescents and may serve as a model for research on the care cascade. Summary Financial incentives show promise for improving engagement in HIV testing, care, and prevention. Understanding the durability, scalability, ease of implementation, and cost-effectiveness of these different approaches will be critical for maximizing the impact of incentives in curtailing the HIV epidemic. PMID:26371461

  6. Profit incentives and the hospital industry: are we expecting too much?

    PubMed Central

    Register, C A; Sharp, A M; Bivin, D G

    1985-01-01

    In the recent past, a great deal of faith has been placed in the idea that the performance of the hospital industry could be improved significantly by relying more heavily on profit incentives. This article considers the effect of profit incentives on hospital behavior and finds that the existence of profit incentives has not led the for-profit hospitals in the sample to behave in significantly different economic fashions than the nonprofits. PMID:3924860

  7. Assessing the addition of mineral processing waste to green waste-derived compost: an agronomic, environmental and economic appraisal.

    PubMed

    Jones, D L; Chesworth, S; Khalid, M; Iqbal, Z

    2009-01-01

    The overall aim of this study was to evaluate the benefit of mixing two large volume wastes, namely mineral processing waste and source-segregated green waste compost, on the growth performance of plants targeted towards high (horticulture/agriculture) and low (amenity/restoration) value markets. The secondary aims were to evaluate the influence of mineral waste type on plant growth performance and to undertake a simple economic analysis of the use of mineral-compost mixtures in land restoration. Our results showed that in comparison to organic wastes, mineral wastes contained a low available nutrient content which reduces compost quality. This is supported by growth trials with tomato, wheat and grass which showed that, irrespective of mineral source, plants performed poorly in compost blended with mineral waste in comparison to those grown in green waste or peat-based compost alone. In terms of consumer confidence, unlike other wastes (e.g. biosolids and construction/demolition waste) the mineral quarry wastes can be expected to be free of potentially toxic elements, however, the production costs of compost-mineral waste mixtures and subsequent transport costs may limit its widespread use. In addition, handling of the material can be difficult under wet conditions and effective blending may require the purchase of specialist equipment. From our results, we conclude that mineral fines may prove useful for low quality, low value landscaping activities close to the source of production but are unsuited to high value markets.

  8. Incentives for Accountability. ERIC Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lashway, Larry

    Policymakers and educators are taking a new look at incentives as they work to improve accountability systems. This ERIC Digest examines the role of rewards and sanctions in school reform and identifies key issues in implementing incentive systems. The new accountability is based on five components: carefully designed standards, assessments…

  9. Incentives for retaining and motivating health workers in Pacific and Asian countries

    PubMed Central

    Henderson, Lyn N; Tulloch, Jim

    2008-01-01

    This paper was initiated by the Australian Agency for International Development (AusAID) after identifying the need for an in-depth synthesis and analysis of available literature and information on incentives for retaining health workers in the Asia-Pacific region. The objectives of this paper are to: 1. Highlight the situation of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries to gain a better understanding of the contributing factors to health worker motivation, dissatisfaction and migration. 2. Examine the regional and global evidence on initiatives to retain a competent and motivated health workforce, especially in rural and remote areas. 3. Suggest ways to address the shortages of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries by using incentives. The review draws on literature and information gathered through a targeted search of websites and databases. Additional reports were gathered through AusAID country offices, UN agencies, and non-government organizations. The severe shortage of health workers in Pacific and Asian countries is a critical issue that must be addressed through policy, planning and implementation of innovative strategies – such as incentives – for retaining and motivating health workers. While economic factors play a significant role in the decisions of workers to remain in the health sector, evidence demonstrates that they are not the only factors. Research findings from the Asia-Pacific region indicate that salaries and benefits, together with working conditions, supervision and management, and education and training opportunities are important. The literature highlights the importance of packaging financial and non-financial incentives. Each country facing shortages of health workers needs to identify the underlying reasons for the shortages, determine what motivates health workers to remain in the health sector, and evaluate the incentives required for maintaining a competent and motivated health workforce. Decision-making factors and

  10. An Argument for Early Retirement Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baenen, Leonard B.; Ernest, Robert C.

    1982-01-01

    Early retirement incentive programs are discussed as a humanitarian way of reducing payroll costs and rewarding long-tenured employees. The incentives to be considered, program communication, and problems found in incentive programs are addressed. (Author/MLF)

  11. Financial Incentives and Student Achievement: Evidence from Randomized Trials. NBER Working Paper No. 15898

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fryer, Roland G., Jr.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes a series of school-based randomized trials in over 250 urban schools designed to test the impact of financial incentives on student achievement. In stark contrast to simple economic models, our results suggest that student incentives increase achievement when the rewards are given for inputs to the educational production…

  12. Institutions, incentives and the future of fisheries

    PubMed Central

    Hilborn, Ray; Orensanz, J. M. (Lobo); Parma, Ana M.

    2005-01-01

    Fisheries around the world are managed with a broad range of institutional structures. Some of these have been quite disastrous, whereas others have proven both biologically and economically successful. Unsuccessful systems have generally involved either open access, attempts at top-down control with poor ability to monitor and implement regulations, or reliance on consensus. Successful systems range from local cooperatives to strong governmental control, to various forms of property rights, but usually involve institutional systems that provide incentives to individual operators that lead to behaviour consistent with conservation. PMID:15744918

  13. Promoting Population Stabilization: Incentives for Small Families. Worldwatch Paper 54.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobsen, Judith

    A wide variety of incentive and disincentive programs are presented in an effort to stabilize the population and prevent bankruptcy of physical, economic, and social resources, particularly in countries like India and China. Following an introduction, the document discusses several programs, including (1) the use of small one-time payments for…

  14. Incentives and Accountability: Instruments of Change in Higher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Daniel, John

    2004-01-01

    This article presents the closing address delivered by Sir John Daniel of UNESCO at the Institutional Management in Higher Education (IMHE) General Conference on "Incentives and Accountabilty: Instruments of Change in Higher Education," which was held at the Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD) headquarters in Paris on…

  15. The Impacts of Seed Grants as Incentives for Engagement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zuiches, James J.

    2013-01-01

    This article reports on an assessment of North Carolina State University's Extension, Engagement, and Economic Development Seed Grant Program (2004-2009). The research questions addressed the extent to which the grants (1) stimulated faculty interest in the engagement and outreach mission of the university; (2) served as incentives for faculty…

  16. Acceptability of Financial Incentives for Health Behaviours: A Discrete Choice Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Giles, Emma L.; Becker, Frauke; Ternent, Laura; Sniehotta, Falko F.; McColl, Elaine

    2016-01-01

    Background Healthy behaviours are important determinants of health and disease, but many people find it difficult to perform these behaviours. Systematic reviews support the use of personal financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviours. There is concern that financial incentives may be unacceptable to the public, those delivering services and policymakers, but this has been poorly studied. Without widespread acceptability, financial incentives are unlikely to be widely implemented. We sought to answer two questions: what are the relative preferences of UK adults for attributes of financial incentives for healthy behaviours? Do preferences vary according to the respondents’ socio-demographic characteristics? Methods We conducted an online discrete choice experiment. Participants were adult members of a market research panel living in the UK selected using quota sampling. Preferences were examined for financial incentives for: smoking cessation, regular physical activity, attendance for vaccination, and attendance for screening. Attributes of interest (and their levels) were: type of incentive (none, cash, shopping vouchers or lottery tickets); value of incentive (a continuous variable); schedule of incentive (same value each week, or value increases as behaviour change is sustained); other information provided (none, written information, face-to-face discussion, or both); and recipients (all eligible individuals, people living in low-income households, or pregnant women). Results Cash or shopping voucher incentives were preferred as much as, or more than, no incentive in all cases. Lower value incentives and those offered to all eligible individuals were preferred. Preferences for additional information provided alongside incentives varied between behaviours. Younger participants and men were more likely to prefer incentives. There were no clear differences in preference according to educational attainment. Conclusions Cash or shopping voucher

  17. Incentive spirometry after abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Davis, Suja P

    Patients face various possible complications after abdominal surgery. This article examines best practice in guiding and teaching them how to use an incentive spirometer to facilitate recovery and prevent respiratory complications.

  18. [Financial incentives in workers' health management].

    PubMed

    Rydlewska-Liszkowska, Izabela

    2008-01-01

    In the countries of the European Union, several million workers meet with an accident every year. In the national economy, the costs of accidents at work and occupational diseases are born by different institutions in different proportions, and they are estimated at several percent of the gross domestic product of each of these countries. The issue concerning economic consequences of occupational diseases and accidents at work has been emphasized in the section on health and safety at work of the Community Strategy for 2007-2012. Bearing this in mind, the need have arose to strengthen the efficiency of legal instruments and economic stimuli to motivate actions aimed at improving work conditions. Economic stimuli and legal instruments complement each other in the process of motivating various institutions. The following kinds of economic stimuli have been distinguished: subsidies, grants and financial assistance of the state and stimuli incorporated into tax and insurance systems. Economic evaluation at the information, allocation and educational levels, being an economic tool, may support policymakers who can use this tool to asses economic efficiency of decisions made in the area of health and safety of workers as well as to asses economic consequences of the functioning of legal instruments. The aim of the project, implemented under the Seventh Framework Program by the Nofer Institute of Occupational Medicine, is to promote the system of economic stimuli understood as an incentive to undertake actions for the improvement of work conditions. Owing to this project the discussion forum, addressed to relevant and interested social partners, will be established, and experts in the field will assist in determining directions of further actions aimed at advancing motivation systems.

  19. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate

    PubMed Central

    Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul

    2015-01-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere. PMID:26633821

  20. Incentives Increase Participation in Mass Dog Rabies Vaccination Clinics and Methods of Coverage Estimation Are Assessed to Be Accurate.

    PubMed

    Minyoo, Abel B; Steinmetz, Melissa; Czupryna, Anna; Bigambo, Machunde; Mzimbiri, Imam; Powell, George; Gwakisa, Paul; Lankester, Felix

    2015-12-01

    In this study we show that incentives (dog collars and owner wristbands) are effective at increasing owner participation in mass dog rabies vaccination clinics and we conclude that household questionnaire surveys and the mark-re-sight (transect survey) method for estimating post-vaccination coverage are accurate when all dogs, including puppies, are included. Incentives were distributed during central-point rabies vaccination clinics in northern Tanzania to quantify their effect on owner participation. In villages where incentives were handed out participation increased, with an average of 34 more dogs being vaccinated. Through economies of scale, this represents a reduction in the cost-per-dog of $0.47. This represents the price-threshold under which the cost of the incentive used must fall to be economically viable. Additionally, vaccination coverage levels were determined in ten villages through the gold-standard village-wide census technique, as well as through two cheaper and quicker methods (randomized household questionnaire and the transect survey). Cost data were also collected. Both non-gold standard methods were found to be accurate when puppies were included in the calculations, although the transect survey and the household questionnaire survey over- and under-estimated the coverage respectively. Given that additional demographic data can be collected through the household questionnaire survey, and that its estimate of coverage is more conservative, we recommend this method. Despite the use of incentives the average vaccination coverage was below the 70% threshold for eliminating rabies. We discuss the reasons and suggest solutions to improve coverage. Given recent international targets to eliminate rabies, this study provides valuable and timely data to help improve mass dog vaccination programs in Africa and elsewhere.

  1. Postoperative incentive spirometry use.

    PubMed

    Hassanzadeh, Hamid; Jain, Amit; Tan, Eric W; Stein, Benjamin E; Van Hoy, Megan L; Stewart, Nadine N; Lemma, Mesfin A

    2012-06-01

    The authors hypothesized that the use of incentive spirometry by orthopedic patients is less than the recommended level and is affected by patient-related factors and type of surgery. To determine its postoperative use, the authors prospectively surveyed all patients in their institution's general orthopedic ward who had undergone elective spine surgery or total knee or hip arthroplasty during a consecutive 3-month period in 2010, excluding patients with postoperative delirium or requiring a monitored bed. All 182 patients (74 men, 108 women; average age, 64.5 years; range, 32-88 years; spine group, n=55; arthroplasty group, n=127), per protocol, received preoperative spirometry education by a licensed respiratory therapist (recommended use, 10 times hourly) and reinforcement education by nurses. Patients were asked twice daily (morning and evening) regarding their spirometry use during the previous 1-hour period by a registered nurse on postoperative days 1 through 3. All data were collected by the same 2 nurses using the same standardized questionnaire. Spirometry use was correlated with surgery type, postoperative day/time, and patient's age and sex. Student's t test, Spearman test, and one-way analysis of variance were used to compare differences (P<.05). Spirometry use averaged 4.1 times per hour (range, 0-10 times). No statistical correlations were found between spirometry use and age. Sex did not influence spirometry use. The arthroplasty group reported significantly higher use than did the spine group: 4.3 and 3.5 times per hour, respectively. Mean use increased significantly between postoperative days 1, 2, and 3.

  2. Incentives to promote family planning

    PubMed Central

    Heil, Sarah H.; Gaalema, Diann E.; Herrmann, Evan S.

    2012-01-01

    Objective Over the past 60 years, population control has become an increasingly urgent issue worldwide as a growing population strains already limited resources. The use of financial incentives to promote family planning is an innovative approach that has potential to make a contribution to efforts to better manage population growth. This report reviews eight studies that examined the effect of incentives on family planning. Method Published studies that tested the impact of incentives to promote some aspect of family planning and included an appropriate control or comparison condition were reviewed. Results Incentives have been used to promote attendance at contraceptive education sessions, adoption and continuation of contraceptive methods, sterilization, and to limit family size. All but one of the eight studies reviewed reported positive outcomes, but weaknesses in study design and execution limit the strength of the conclusions that can be drawn. Conclusion Review of this literature suggests that family planning behaviors, like other behaviors, are sensitive to incentives. Given the tremendous need for efficacious interventions in global efforts to manage population growth, further research on this topic using more rigorous experimental methods is warranted. PMID:22743293

  3. Developing policy solutions for a more active nation: Integrating economic and public health perspectives.

    PubMed

    Bleich, Sara N; Sturm, Roland

    2009-10-01

    Both economic and public health/medical perspectives play an important role in the policy process but often approach policy questions in an incompatible way. Harnessing any synergy requires an understanding of the other perspective. We begin by comparing and contrasting the economic and public health perspectives, including introducing relevant economic concepts. We next identify economic considerations for the development of environmental incentives that promote physical activity. We then assess features of the political environment which could impact the success of policy alternatives aimed at increasing physical activity. We conclude with several policy levers that may promote active living. Throughout the manuscript, we use the term economics to refer to classical economics and utility maximization rather than behavioral economics. In addition, we focus mostly on normative economics (which offers prescriptions for what should be done) rather than positive economics (which offers predictions of economic outcomes conditional on various hypothetical scenarios).

  4. Incentives and provider payment methods.

    PubMed

    Barnum, H; Kutzin, J; Saxenian, H

    1995-01-01

    The mode of payment creates powerful incentives affecting provider behavior and the efficiency, equity and quality outcomes of health finance reforms. This article examines provider incentives as well as administrative costs, and institutional conditions for successful implementation associated with provider payment alternatives. The alternatives considered are budget reforms, capitation, fee-for-service, and case-based reimbursement. We conclude that competition, whether through a regulated private sector or within a public system, has the potential to improve the performance of any payment method. All methods generate both adverse and beneficial incentives. Systems with mixed forms of provider payment can provide tradeoffs to offset the disadvantages of individual modes. Low-income countries should avoid complex payment systems requiring higher levels of institutional development.

  5. Economics of Occupational Social Work.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ozawa, Martha N.

    1985-01-01

    Describes the economic incentives to employees and employers for providing occupational social services. Suggests that growth in such services will coincide with growth in high-technology industries and service industries employing highly skilled workers. (BL)

  6. Aligning incentives in supply chains.

    PubMed

    Narayanan, V G; Raman, Ananth

    2004-11-01

    Most companies don't worry about the behavior of their supply chain partners. Instead, they expect the supply chain to work efficiently without interference, as if guided by Adam Smith's famed invisible hand. In their study of more than 50 supply networks, V.G. Narayanan and Ananth Raman found that companies often looked out for their own interests and ignored those of their network partners. Consequently, supply chains performed poorly. Those results aren't shocking when you consider that supply chains extend across several functions and many companies, each with its own priorities and goals. Yet all those functions and firms must pull in the same direction for a chain to deliver goods and services to consumers quickly and cost-effectively. According to the authors, a supply chain works well only if the risks, costs, and rewards of doing business are distributed fairly across the network. In fact, misaligned incentives are often the cause of excess inventory, stock-outs, incorrect forecasts, inadequate sales efforts, and even poor customer service. The fates of all supply chain partners are interlinked: If the firms work together to serve consumers, they will all win. However, they can do that only if incentives are aligned. Companies must acknowledge that the problem of incentive misalignment exists and then determine its root cause and align or redesign incentives. They can improve alignment by, for instance, adopting revenue-sharing contracts, using technology to track previously hidden information, or working with intermediaries to build trust among network partners. It's also important to periodically reassess incentives, because even top-performing networks find that changes in technology or business conditions alter the alignment of incentives.

  7. Impact of Provider Incentives on Quality and Value of Health Care.

    PubMed

    Doran, Tim; Maurer, Kristin A; Ryan, Andrew M

    2017-03-20

    The use of financial incentives to improve quality in health care has become widespread. Yet evidence on the effectiveness of incentives suggests that they have generally had limited impact on the value of care and have not led to better patient outcomes. Lessons from social psychology and behavioral economics indicate that incentive programs in health care have not been effectively designed to achieve their intended impact. In the United States, Medicare's Hospital Readmission Reduction Program and Hospital Value-Based Purchasing Program, created under the Affordable Care Act (ACA), provide evidence on how variations in the design of incentive programs correspond with differences in effect. As financial incentives continue to be used as a tool to increase the value and quality of health care, improving the design of programs will be crucial to ensure their success.

  8. Technical and economic evaluation of organic acid addition to a commercial FGD system. Final report, August 1983-December 1984

    SciTech Connect

    Burke, J.M.

    1985-04-01

    The report summarizes the results of organic acid addition tests at a commercial FGD system. The tests were conducted at San Miguel Electric Cooperative's 410 MW lignite-fired Unit 1, outside Jourdanton, TX. During the program, several organic acid mixtures were tested over a range of operating conditions to determine if the use of organic acids would allow San Miguel to reduce FGD system operating costs. Based on the test results, a cost analysis indicated that the use of organic acid addition at San Miguel will result in a first-year cost savings of over $600,000. In terms of cumulative net present worth, the estimated savings over a 15-year period will be $7.2 million in 1984 dollars.

  9. State Incentive Funding: Leveraging Quality.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Holland, Barbara

    1990-01-01

    This newsletter summarizes the debate on the use of state-level initiatives as levers to effect fundamental changes in higher education. It provides several perspectives on the use of incentive/enhancement programs to achieve state higher education goals. The concept of budgetary leverage is outlined, and the growth in enhancement programs…

  10. Motivating employees: an incentive program.

    PubMed

    Barczewski, R W; Michelson, L D

    1991-01-01

    Motivating employees is a challenging and critical task for all managers--no matter what the field. Robert Barczewski, M.B.A., and Linda Michelson describe how a successful incentive program at the Washington University School of Medicine was developed.

  11. 43 CFR 3103.4 - Production incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 43 Public Lands: Interior 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Production incentives. 3103.4 Section 3103.4 Public Lands: Interior Regulations Relating to Public Lands (Continued) BUREAU OF LAND MANAGEMENT... Production incentives....

  12. Federal Incentives for Wind Power (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2013-05-01

    This fact sheet describes the federal incentives available as of April 2013 that encourage increased development and deployment of wind energy technologies, including research grants, tax incentives, and loan programs.

  13. Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... Issue Past Issues Research News From NIH Behavioral Therapy, Incentives Enhance Addiction Treatment Past Issues / Summer 2006 Table of Contents For ... their addiction to marijuana can benefit from a treatment program that combines motivational incentives with cognitive-behavioral ...

  14. Utility Incentives for Combined Heat and Power

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This report describes the results of EPA's research and analysis into utility incentives for CHP. It provides information about utility-initiated policies, programs, and incentives for CHP systems, and includes case studies and tools and resources.

  15. Recruitment of Rural Teachers in Developing Countries: An Economic Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McEwan, Patrick J.

    1999-01-01

    Monetary and nonmonetary incentives for rural teacher recruitment are common in developing-country education systems. This paper interprets incentive policies within the framework of the economic theory of compensating differentials, clarifying implicit assumptions of incentive policies and aids in organizing further empirical work on their…

  16. Functional relationships between leaf hydraulics and leaf economic traits in response to nutrient addition in subtropical tree species.

    PubMed

    Villagra, Mariana; Campanello, Paula I; Bucci, Sandra J; Goldstein, Guillermo

    2013-12-01

    Leaves can be both a hydraulic bottleneck and a safety valve against hydraulic catastrophic dysfunctions, and thus changes in traits related to water movement in leaves and associated costs may be critical for the success of plant growth. A 4-year fertilization experiment with nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) addition was done in a semideciduous Atlantic forest in northeastern Argentina. Saplings of five dominant canopy species were grown in similar gaps inside the forests (five control and five N + P addition plots). Leaf lifespan (LL), leaf mass per unit area (LMA), leaf and stem vulnerability to cavitation, leaf hydraulic conductance (K(leaf_area) and K(leaf_mass)) and leaf turgor loss point (TLP) were measured in the five species and in both treatments. Leaf lifespan tended to decrease with the addition of fertilizers, and LMA was significantly higher in plants with nutrient addition compared with individuals in control plots. The vulnerability to cavitation of leaves (P50(leaf)) either increased or decreased with the nutrient treatment depending on the species, but the average P50(leaf) did not change with nutrient addition. The P50(leaf) decreased linearly with increasing LMA and LL across species and treatments. These trade-offs have an important functional significance because more expensive (higher LMA) and less vulnerable leaves (lower P50(leaf)) are retained for a longer period of time. Osmotic potentials at TLP and at full turgor became more negative with decreasing P50(leaf) regardless of nutrient treatment. The K(leaf) on a mass basis was negatively correlated with LMA and LL, indicating that there is a carbon cost associated with increased water transport that is compensated by a longer LL. The vulnerability to cavitation of stems and leaves were similar, particularly in fertilized plants. Leaves in the species studied may not function as safety valves at low water potentials to protect the hydraulic pathway from water stress-induced cavitation

  17. A primer on incentive regulation for electric utilities

    SciTech Connect

    Hill, L.J.

    1995-10-01

    In contemplating a regulatory approach, the challenge for regulators is to develop a model that provides incentives for utilities to engage in socially desirable behavior. In this primer, we provide guidance on this process by discussing (1) various models of economic regulation, (2) problems implementing these models, and (3) the types of incentives that various models of regulation provide electric utilities. We address five regulatory models in depth. They include cost-of-service regulation in which prudently incurred costs are reflected dollar-for-dollar in rates and four performance-based models: (1) price-cap regulation, in which ceilings are placed on the average price that a utility can charge its customers; (2) revenue-cap regulation, in which a ceiling is placed on revenues; (3) rate-of-return bandwidth regulation, in which a utility`s rates are adjusted if earnings fall outside a {open_quotes}band{close_quotes} around equity returns; and (4) targeted incentives, in which a utility is given incentives to improve specific components of its operations. The primary difference between cost-of-service and performance-based approaches is the latter sever the tie between costs and prices. A sixth, {open_quotes}mixed approach{close_quotes} combines two or more of the five basic ones. In the recent past, a common mixed approach has been to combine targeted incentives with cost-of-service regulation. A common example is utilities that are subject to cost-of-service regulation are given added incentives to increase the efficiency of troubled electric-generating units.

  18. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  19. 28 CFR 544.72 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.72 Section 544.72 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Literacy Program § 544.72 Incentives. The Warden shall establish a system of incentives to encourage...

  20. 75 FR 57907 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-23

    ... 1810-AB08 Teacher Incentive Fund ACTION: Interim final requirements; request for comments. SUMMARY: The Secretary of Education (Secretary) amends the final requirements for the Teacher Incentive Fund program to... Secondary Education (Attention: Teacher Incentive Fund Comments), U.S. Department of Education, 400...

  1. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  2. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  3. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  4. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690...) MEDICAL DEVICES ANESTHESIOLOGY DEVICES Therapeutic Devices § 868.5690 Incentive spirometer. (a) Identification. An incentive spirometer is a device that indicates a patient's breathing volume or flow and...

  5. Industry Related Financial Incentives.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-29

    toxic chemicals. Campbell hazards were more specific to concerns of the food processing industry -- preventing food contamination. Celanese, citing...Maintenance of production Control of Toxic chemicals HCESCHT Hiazarcs -pecific to tre chemical industry. CE LANE SE 3-2 Exhibit 3-2 IDENTIFICATION OF...of the event and that no one was harmed. Additionally, Johnson and Johnson called upon Campbell’s expertise during the more recent Tylenol recall

  6. Identifying the Cost of Non-monetary Incentives (ICONIC)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-12-01

    release; distribution is unlimited 12b. DISTRIBUTION CODE 13. ABSTRACT There is growing research that explores using an array of non-monetary...and geographic stability. This research experiments with the cost of non-monetary incentives for potential reenlistment by using a linear programming...offered increases and the heuristic assignment methodology . This proof-of-concept will continue to revolutionize the most economical way to attract

  7. [Postoperative respiratory therapy using incentive spirometry].

    PubMed

    Mang, H; Weindler, J; Zapf, C L

    1989-04-01

    The optimal methods of prophylaxis and therapy of postoperative respiratory complications in surgical patients are still open to discussion. In spite of numerous recent clinical investigations, there is still no specific and universally acceptable therapeutic concept. In our department, we identify patients at risk of pulmonary complications by adequate screening, i.e. medical history, physical examination, chest X-ray, and spirometry. In the postoperative period there are a sequence of stages starting with early mobilization, respiratory therapy (including incentive spirometry and IPPB), and when necessary, controlled mechanical ventilation. We have measured and documented the flows and volumes required of patients using various types of incentive spirometer. In addition, we review on the literature and describe our experience with the technique, handling, and organization of sustained maximal inspiration (SMI). After thoracic or major upper abdominal surgery, all lung volumes decrease due to impairment of rib cage movement, changes in chest wall muscle tone, an increase in lung recoil, and airway closure. At the end of each expiration some of the smallest airways collapse either partly or totally. This process continues to some extent until, normally, a deep breath recruits the alveoli. Sighs to the limit of total lung capacity or oscillations of the expiratory baseline ought to be responsible for this effect in healthy humans; the same purpose is intended in incentive spirometry. For this therapy, it is mandatory that the central airways are not occluded by mucus and that the patient is able to breath volumes exceeding his normal tidal volume.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  8. Intrinsic motivation and extrinsic incentives jointly predict performance: a 40-year meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Cerasoli, Christopher P; Nicklin, Jessica M; Ford, Michael T

    2014-07-01

    More than 4 decades of research and 9 meta-analyses have focused on the undermining effect: namely, the debate over whether the provision of extrinsic incentives erodes intrinsic motivation. This review and meta-analysis builds on such previous reviews by focusing on the interrelationship among intrinsic motivation, extrinsic incentives, and performance, with reference to 2 moderators: performance type (quality vs. quantity) and incentive contingency (directly performance-salient vs. indirectly performance-salient), which have not been systematically reviewed to date. Based on random-effects meta-analytic methods, findings from school, work, and physical domains (k = 183, N = 212,468) indicate that intrinsic motivation is a medium to strong predictor of performance (ρ = .21-45). The importance of intrinsic motivation to performance remained in place whether incentives were presented. In addition, incentive salience influenced the predictive validity of intrinsic motivation for performance: In a "crowding out" fashion, intrinsic motivation was less important to performance when incentives were directly tied to performance and was more important when incentives were indirectly tied to performance. Considered simultaneously through meta-analytic regression, intrinsic motivation predicted more unique variance in quality of performance, whereas incentives were a better predictor of quantity of performance. With respect to performance, incentives and intrinsic motivation are not necessarily antagonistic and are best considered simultaneously. Future research should consider using nonperformance criteria (e.g., well-being, job satisfaction) as well as applying the percent-of-maximum-possible (POMP) method in meta-analyses.

  9. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour.

    PubMed

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here.

  10. Paying people to eat or not to eat? Carryover effects of monetary incentives on eating behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Dolan, Paul; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Navarro-Martinez, Daniel

    2015-01-01

    There is no evidence comparing head-to-head the effects of monetary incentives to act and to abstain from acting on behaviour. We present an experiment, conducted between June and September 2012, that directly compares the effects of those two different monetary incentive schemes on eating behaviour: we evaluate incentives to eat against incentives not to eat. A large number of participants (n = 353) had bowls of sweets next to them while they watched different videos over two experimental sessions that were two days apart. Sweets eating was monitored and monetary incentives to eat or not to eat were introduced during one of the videos for participants randomly allocated to these conditions. Our results show that, while both types of incentives were effective in changing sweets-eating behaviour when they were in place, only incentives not to eat had significant carryover effects after they were removed. Those effects were still significant two days after the monetary incentives had been eliminated. We also present some additional results on personality and health-related variables that shed further light on these effects. Overall, our study shows that incentives not to eat can be more effective in producing carryover effects on behaviour in domains like the one explored here. PMID:25864152

  11. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  12. Understanding Child Stunting in India: A Comprehensive Analysis of Socio-Economic, Nutritional and Environmental Determinants Using Additive Quantile Regression

    PubMed Central

    Fenske, Nora; Burns, Jacob; Hothorn, Torsten; Rehfuess, Eva A.

    2013-01-01

    Background Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. Objective We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. Design Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0–24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. Results At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. Conclusions Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role. PMID:24223839

  13. Employee incentives in the healthcare industry.

    PubMed

    McKinnies, Richard C; Collins, Sandra K; Collins, Kevin S

    2008-01-01

    *Employee incentives are an important part of a radiology department's ability to attract and maintain employees. For incentive programs to be successful, radiology managers must diligently look for the incentives that motivate each particular employee. *The types of incentives being used frequently in the field of healthcare vary between technical, managerial, and executive positions. The process of identifying the right employee incentive for each group of individuals may be challenging, but if the result is a more productive and satisfied group of employees, the process is worth the effort.

  14. Challenges and opportunities for developing and implementing incentives to improve health-related behaviors in older adults.

    PubMed

    Klein, Eran; Karlawish, Jason

    2010-09-01

    There is growing interest in using patient-directed incentives to change health-related behaviors. Advocates of incentive programs have proposed an ambitious research agenda for moving patient incentive programs forward. The unique cognitive and psychological features of older adults, however, present a challenge to this agenda. In particular, age-related changes in emotional regulation, executive function, and cognitive capacities, and a preference for collaborative decision-making raise questions about the suitability of these programs, particularly the structure of current financial incentives, for older adults. Differences in decision-making in older adults need to be accounted for in the design and implementation of financial incentive programs. Financial incentive programs adjusted to characteristics of older adult populations may be more likely to improve the lives of older persons and the economic success of programs that serve them.

  15. Additive effects of growth promoting technologies on performance of grazing steers and economics of the wheat pasture enterprise.

    PubMed

    Beck, P; Hess, T; Hubbell, D; Hufstedler, G D; Fieser, B; Caldwell, J

    2014-03-01

    This research was designed to evaluate the effect of monensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) supplementation via mineral or pressed protein block with or without a growth-promoting implant on performance of steers grazing wheat pasture in Arkansas over 2 yr. Preconditioned steers (n = 360, BW = 238 ± 5.1 kg) grazed 15 1.6-ha wheat pastures in the fall (n = 60 steers each fall, stocking rate of 2.5 steers/ha) or 30 0.8-ha wheat pastures in the spring (n = 120 steers each spring, stocking rate of 5 steers/ha). Steers in each pasture were given free-choice access to nonmedicated mineral (CNTRL; MoorMan's WeatherMaster Range Minerals A 646AAA; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc., Quincy, IL), or were supplemented with monensin (Elanco Animal Health, Greenfield, IN) via mineral containing 1.78 g monensin/kg (RMIN; MoorMan's Grower Mineral RU-1620 590AR; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc.), or pressed protein block containing 0.33 g monensin/kg (RBLCK; MoorMan's Mintrate Blonde Block RU; ADM Alliance Nutrition, Inc.). Additionally, one-half of the steers in each pasture were implanted (IMPL) with 40 mg trenbolone acetate and 8 mg estradiol (Component TE-G with Tylan; Elanco Animal Health). There was no interaction (P ≥ 0.71) between supplement treatment and growth-promoting implants, and ADG for RMIN and RBLCK were increased (P < 0.01) over CNTRL by 0.07 to 0.09 kg/d, respectively. Implanting steers with Component TE-G increased (P < 0.01) ADG by 0.14 kg/d. The combination of these growth-promoting technologies are a cost-effective means of increasing beef production by 22% without increasing level of supplementation or pasture acreage. Utilizing ionophores and implants together for wheat pasture stocker cattle decreased cost of gain by 26%. Utilizing both IMPL and monensin increased net return by $30 to $54/steer for RMIN or $18 to $43/steer for RBLCK compared with UNIMPL CNTRL at Low and High values of BW gain, respectively.

  16. Incentives to adopt irrigation water saving measures for wetlands preservation: An integrated basin scale analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikouei, Alireza; Zibaei, Mansour; Ward, Frank A.

    2012-09-01

    SummaryPreserving natural wetlands is a growing challenge as the world faces increased demand for water. Drought, climate change and growing demands by users aggravate the issue. The conflict between irrigated agriculture and wetland services presents a classic case of competition. This paper examines an institutional mechanism that offers an incentive to farmers to adopt water conservation measures, which in turn could reduce overall water use in irrigated agriculture within a selected basin. Reduced water demands could provide the additional water needed for wetland preservation. We present an analytical empirical model implemented through the development of an integrated basin framework, in which least-cost measures for securing environmental flows to sustain wetlands are examined for the Zayandeh-Rud River Basin of central Iran. To test this idea, two policies - one with and one without an incentive - are analyzed: (a) reduced agricultural diversions without a water conservation subsidy, and (b) reduced agricultural diversions with a water conservation subsidy. The policies are evaluated against a background of two alternative water supply scenarios over a 10-year period. Results reveal that a water conservation subsidy can provide incentives for farmers to shift out of flood irrigation and bring more land into production by adopting water-saving irrigation technologies. The policy increases crop yields, raises profitability of farming, and increases the shadow price of water. Although the conservation subsidy policy incurs a financial cost to the taxpayer, it could be politically and economically attractive for both irrigators and environmental stakeholders. Results open the door for further examination of policy measures to preserve wetlands.

  17. Incentives and enablers to improve adherence in tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Lutge, Elizabeth E; Wiysonge, Charles Shey; Knight, Stephen E; Sinclair, David; Volmink, Jimmy

    2015-01-01

    Background Patient adherence to medications, particularly for conditions requiring prolonged treatment such as tuberculosis (TB), is frequently less than ideal and can result in poor treatment outcomes. Material incentives to reward good behaviour and enablers to remove economic barriers to accessing care are sometimes given in the form of cash, vouchers, or food to improve adherence. Objectives To evaluate the effects of material incentives and enablers in patients undergoing diagnostic testing, or receiving prophylactic or curative therapy, for TB. Search methods We undertook a comprehensive search of the Cochrane Infectious Diseases Group Specialized Register; Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL); MEDLINE; EMBASE; LILACS; Science Citation Index; and reference lists of relevant publications up to 5 June 2015. Selection criteria Randomized controlled trials of material incentives in patients being investigated for TB, or on treatment for latent or active TB. Data collection and analysis At least two review authors independently screened and selected studies, extracted data, and assessed the risk of bias in the included trials. We compared the effects of interventions using risk ratios (RR), and presented RRs with 95% confidence intervals (CI). The quality of the evidence was assessed using GRADE. Main results We identified 12 eligible trials. Ten were conducted in the USA: in adolescents (one trial), in injection drug or cocaine users (four trials), in homeless adults (three trials), and in prisoners (two trials). The remaining two trials, in general adult populations, were conducted in Timor-Leste and South Africa. Sustained incentive programmes Only two trials have assessed whether material incentives and enablers can improve long-term adherence and completion of treatment for active TB, and neither demonstrated a clear benefit (RR 1.04, 95% CI 0.97 to 1.14; two trials, 4356 participants; low quality evidence). In one trial, the incentive

  18. Incentives for new antibiotics: the Options Market for Antibiotics (OMA) model

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat resulting from the convergence of biological, economic and political pressures. Investment in research and development of new antimicrobials has suffered secondary to these pressures, leading to an emerging crisis in antibiotic resistance. Methods Current policies to stimulate antibiotic development have proven inadequate to overcome market failures. Therefore innovative ideas utilizing market forces are necessary to stimulate new investment efforts. Employing the benefits of both the previously described Advanced Market Commitment and a refined Call Options for Vaccines model, we describe herein a novel incentive mechanism, the Options Market for Antibiotics. Results This model applies the benefits of a financial call option to the investment in and purchase of new antibiotics. The goal of this new model is to provide an effective mechanism for early investment and risk sharing while maintaining a credible purchase commitment and incentives for companies to ultimately bring new antibiotics to market. Conclusions We believe that the Options Market for Antibiotics (OMA) may help to overcome some of the traditional market failures associated with the development of new antibiotics. Additional work must be done to develop a more robust mathematical model to pave the way for practical implementation. PMID:24199835

  19. Higher incentives can impair performance: neural evidence on reinforcement and rationality.

    PubMed

    Achtziger, Anja; Alós-Ferrer, Carlos; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Steinhauser, Marco

    2015-11-01

    Standard economic thinking postulates that increased monetary incentives should increase performance. Human decision makers, however, frequently focus on past performance, a form of reinforcement learning occasionally at odds with rational decision making. We used an incentivized belief-updating task from economics to investigate this conflict through measurements of neural correlates of reward processing. We found that higher incentives fail to improve performance when immediate feedback on decision outcomes is provided. Subsequent analysis of the feedback-related negativity, an early event-related potential following feedback, revealed the mechanism behind this paradoxical effect. As incentives increase, the win/lose feedback becomes more prominent, leading to an increased reliance on reinforcement and more errors. This mechanism is relevant for economic decision making and the debate on performance-based payment.

  20. Higher incentives can impair performance: neural evidence on reinforcement and rationality

    PubMed Central

    Achtziger, Anja; Hügelschäfer, Sabine; Steinhauser, Marco

    2015-01-01

    Standard economic thinking postulates that increased monetary incentives should increase performance. Human decision makers, however, frequently focus on past performance, a form of reinforcement learning occasionally at odds with rational decision making. We used an incentivized belief-updating task from economics to investigate this conflict through measurements of neural correlates of reward processing. We found that higher incentives fail to improve performance when immediate feedback on decision outcomes is provided. Subsequent analysis of the feedback-related negativity, an early event-related potential following feedback, revealed the mechanism behind this paradoxical effect. As incentives increase, the win/lose feedback becomes more prominent, leading to an increased reliance on reinforcement and more errors. This mechanism is relevant for economic decision making and the debate on performance-based payment. PMID:25816816

  1. The Economics of Aging.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ross, Myron H., Ed.

    Papers included are as follows: "An Overview" (Ross); "The Outlook for Social Security in the Wake of the 1983 Amendments" (Munnell); "The Economics of Aging: Doomsday or Shangrila?" (Schulz); "Retirement Incentives--the Carrot and the Stick. (Why No One Works beyond 65 Anymore)" (Quinn); "Inflation and…

  2. HIV Testing, Subjective Beliefs and Economic Behavior

    PubMed Central

    Thornton, Rebecca L.

    2013-01-01

    This paper examines the effects of learning HIV status on economic behavior among rural Malawians. According to economic life-cycle models, if learning HIV results is informative about additional years of life, being diagnosed HIV-positive or negative should predict changes in consumption, investment and savings behavior with important micro and macro-economic implications. Using an experiment that randomly assigned incentives to learn HIV results, I find that while learning HIV results had short term effects on subjective belief of HIV infection, these differences did not persist after two years. Consistent with this, there were relatively few differences two years later in savings, income, expenditures, and employment between those who learned and did not learn their status. PMID:24369439

  3. Incentive value, unclear task difficulty, and cardiovascular reactivity in active coping.

    PubMed

    Richter, Michael; Gendolla, Guido H E

    2007-03-01

    An experiment with 44 participants assessed the moderating effects of four levels of incentive value on cardiovascular responses in active coping. Randomly assigned to one of four different incentive conditions, participants performed a memory task without knowing its difficulty in advance. By means of successfully performing the task participants could either win no reward, 10 Swiss Francs, 20 Swiss Francs, or 30 Swiss Francs. In accordance with the theoretical predictions derived from motivational intensity theory, reactivity of systolic blood pressure and heart rate monotonically increased with incentive value. Thereby, these findings provide additional empirical evidence for the predictions of motivational intensity theory with regard to unclear task difficulty and extend recent research (Richter, M., Gendolla, G.H.E., 2006. Incentive effects on cardiovascular reactivity in active coping with unclear task difficulty. Int. J. Psychophysiol. 61, 216-225.), which was not conclusive regarding the predicted monotonic relationship between incentive value and cardiovascular reactivity under conditions of unclear task difficulty.

  4. A randomized controlled trial of financial incentives for weight loss

    PubMed Central

    Volpp, Kevin G.; John, Leslie K; Troxel, Andrea B; Norton, Laurie; Fassbender, Jennifer; Loewenstein, George

    2012-01-01

    incentive systems were successful in keeping participants engaged in the study. Conclusions Incentive approaches based on behavioral economic concepts could have a major impact in reducing the incidence of obesity-related illnesses. PMID:19066383

  5. Private versus social incentives for pharmaceutical innovation.

    PubMed

    González, Paula; Macho-Stadler, Inés; Pérez-Castrillo, David

    2016-12-01

    We provide a theoretical framework to contribute to the current debate regarding the tendency of pharmaceutical companies to direct their R&D toward marketing products that are "follow-on" drugs of already existing drugs, rather than toward the development of breakthrough drugs. We construct a model with a population of patients who can be treated with drugs that are horizontally and vertically differentiated. In addition to a pioneering drug, a new drug can be marketed as the result of an innovative process. We analyze physician prescription choices and the optimal pricing decision of an innovative firm. We also characterize the incentives of the innovative firm to conduct R&D activities, disentangling the quest for breakthrough drugs from the firm effort to develop follow-on drugs. Our results offer theoretical support for the conventional wisdom that pharmaceutical firms devote too many resources to conducting R&D activities that lead to incremental innovations.

  6. Effectiveness of incentives for agri-environment measure in Mediterranean degraded and eroded vineyards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Galati, Antonino; Gristina, Luciano; Crescimanno, Maria; Barone, Ettore; Novara, Agata

    2015-04-01

    The evaluation of the economic damage caused by soil erosion assumes great importance. It serves to increase awareness of the problem among farmers and policy makers. Moreover, it can promote the implementation of conservative measures at the field and basin level by spurring the development of more sustainable soil management practices. In the present study we have developed a new approach to evaluate the incentive for the adoption of Agri-Environment Measure (AEM) in Mediterranean degraded and eroded vineyards. In order to estimate this incentive, the replacement cost and the loss of income are calculated under two different soil management such as Conventional Tillage (CT) and Cover crop (AEM). Our findings show that the incentive could range between the loss of income due to AEM adoption and ecosystem service benefit (RCCT - RC AEM). In the case of study the incentive ranged between 315 € ha-1 (loss of income) and 1,087.86 € ha-1 (Ecosystem service benefit). Within this range, the incentive amount is determined according to efficiency criteria taking into account the morphological conditions of the territory in which operate the farms. Moreover, a conceptual model on the public spending efficiency has been developed to allocate the incentives where the economic return in term of ecosystem service is higher.

  7. For love or money? Attitudes toward financial incentives among actual living kidney donors.

    PubMed

    van Buren, M C; Massey, E K; Maasdam, L; Zuidema, W C; Hilhorst, M T; Ijzermans, J N; Weimar, W

    2010-11-01

    Due to lengthening waiting lists for kidney transplantation, a debate has emerged as to whether financial incentives should be used to stimulate living kidney donation. In recent surveys among the general public approximately 25% was in favor of financial incentives while the majority was opposed or undecided. In the present study, we investigated the opinion of living kidney donors regarding financial incentives for living kidney donation. We asked 250 living kidney donors whether they, in retrospect, would have wanted a financial reward for their donation. We also investigated whether they were in favor of using financial incentives in a government-controlled system to stimulate living anonymous donation. Additionally, the type of incentive deemed most appropriate was also investigated. In general almost half (46%) of the study population were positive toward introducing financial incentives for living donors. The majority (78%) was not in favor of any kind of reward for themselves as they had donated out of love for the recipient or out of altruistic principles. Remarkably, 60% of the donors were in favor of a financial incentive for individuals donating anonymously. A reduced premium or free health insurance was the preferred incentive.

  8. Financial incentives and maternal health: where do we go from here?

    PubMed

    Morgan, Lindsay; Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Balster, Robert L; Bellows, Ben W; Brandes, Neal; Comfort, Alison B; Eichler, Rena; Glassman, Amanda; Hatt, Laurel E; Conlon, Claudia M; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Health financing strategies that incorporate financial incentives are being applied in many low- and middle-income countries, and improving maternal and neonatal health is often a central goal. As yet, there have been few reviews of such programmes and their impact on maternal health. The US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives was convened on 24-25 April 2012 to address this gap. This article, the final in a series assessing the effects of financial incentives--performance-based incentives (PBIs), insurance, user fee exemption programmes, conditional cash transfers, and vouchers--summarizes the evidence and discusses issues of context, programme design and implementation, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. We suggest key areas to consider when designing and implementing financial incentive programmes for enhancing maternal health and highlight gaps in evidence that could benefit from additional research. Although the methodological rigor of studies varies, the evidence, overall, suggests that financial incentives can enhance demand for and improve the supply of maternal health services. Definitive evidence demonstrating a link between incentives and improved health outcomes is lacking; however, the evidence suggests that financial incentives can increase the quantity and quality of maternal health services and address health systems and financial barriers that prevent women from accessing and providers from delivering quality, lifesaving maternal healthcare.

  9. Optimal Incentives for Public Sector Workers: The Case of Teacher-Designed Incentive Pay in Texas. Working Paper 2009-05

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Taylor, Lori L.; Springer, Matthew G.

    2009-01-01

    Pay for performance is a popular public education reform, and millions of dollars are currently being targeted for pay for performance programs. These reforms are popular because economic and management theories suggest that well-designed incentive pay programs could improve teacher effectiveness. There is little evidence about the characteristics…

  10. Overconfidence, Incentives and Digit Ratio

    PubMed Central

    Neyse, Levent; Bosworth, Steven; Ring, Patrick; Schmidt, Ulrich

    2016-01-01

    This paper contributes to a better understanding of the biological underpinnings of overconfidence by analyzing performance predictions in the Cognitive Reflection Test with and without monetary incentives. In line with the existing literature we find that the participants are too optimistic about their performance on average; incentives lead to higher performance; and males score higher than females on this particular task. The novelty of this paper is an analysis of the relation between participants’ performance prediction accuracy and their second to fourth digit ratio. It has been reported that the digit ratio is a negatively correlated bio-marker of prenatal testosterone exposure. In the un-incentivized treatment, we find that males with low digit ratios, on average, are significantly more overconfident about their performance. In the incentivized treatment, however, we observe that males with low digit ratios, on average, are less overconfident about their performance. These effects are not observed in females. We discuss how these findings fit into the literature on testosterone and decision making and how they might help to explain seemingly opposing evidence. PMID:27039893

  11. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and...

  12. 48 CFR 16.402-1 - Cost incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost incentives. 16.402-1... AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-1 Cost incentives. (a) Most incentive contracts include only cost incentives, which take the form of a profit or fee adjustment formula and...

  13. USSR Report, Economic Affairs, No. 1037.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-01-24

    This report from the USSR contains articles on Economic Affairs. The articles are PLANNING AND PLAN IMPLEMENTATION: Overall Approach to Solution of Planning, Incentive Problems Urged, and REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT : Union Republic Statistical Officials Quantify Progress.

  14. 21 CFR 868.5690 - Incentive spirometer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Incentive spirometer. 868.5690 Section 868.5690 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED... provides an incentive to the patient to improve his or her ventilation. (b) Classification. Class...

  15. 75 FR 30007 - Teacher Incentive Fund

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-28

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION Teacher Incentive Fund Catalog of Federal Domestic Assistance (CFDA) Numbers: 84.385 and 84.374. AGENCY... FY 2010 (NIA) for the Teacher Incentive Fund. This notice makes a correction to the May 21 NIA....

  16. Incentive theory: IV. Magnitude of reward

    PubMed Central

    Killeen, Peter R.

    1985-01-01

    Incentive theory is successfully applied to data from experiments in which the amount of food reward is varied. This is accomplished by assuming that incentive value is a negatively accelerated function of reward duration. The interaction of the magnitude of a reward with its delay is confirmed, and the causes and implications of this interaction are discussed. PMID:16812421

  17. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  18. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  19. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  20. 12 CFR 708a.311 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.311 Section 708a.311 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS BANK... raffle, every reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to...

  1. Building on Student Achievement through Incentive Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buchanan, Saneik

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine if incentive programs like Renaissance impact high school students and faculty. Incentives can go a long way for students in schools. At Lehigh Senior High School (LSHS), for example, students were introduced to the Renaissance Program this school year, by receiving goodies. Coupons at Dairy Queen,…

  2. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  3. 28 CFR 544.43 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives. 544.43 Section 544.43 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT EDUCATION Mandatory English-as-a-Second Language Program (ESL) § 544.43 Incentives. The Warden or designee...

  4. DEVELOPMENT OF INCENTIVE VALUES IN CHILDHOOD.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    WITRYOL, SAM L.; AND OTHERS

    THE USE OF REWARDS AS INCENTIVES TO INFLUENCE BEHAVIOR WAS STUDIED AND AN EVALUATION WAS MADE OF THE INCENTIVE VALUE OF EACH OF THE REWARDS. PORTABLE VERSIONS OF THE WISCONSIN GENERAL TEST APPARATUS WERE USED TO TEST 120 CHILDREN FROM GRADES 1, 3, AND 5. FOR A DISCRIMINATION LEARNING TEST EACH CHILD WAS PRESENTED 5 STIMULI THAT WERE SELECTED FROM…

  5. 7 CFR 3560.656 - Incentives offers.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Incentives offers. 3560.656 Section 3560.656 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL HOUSING SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE DIRECT MULTI-FAMILY HOUSING LOANS AND GRANTS Housing Preservation § 3560.656 Incentives offers....

  6. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12 Banks and Banking NATIONAL CREDIT UNION ADMINISTRATION REGULATIONS AFFECTING CREDIT UNIONS CONVERSION OF... reference to such incentive made by the credit union in a written communication to its members must...

  7. 75 FR 76079 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-12-07

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  8. 75 FR 22679 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-29

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0NEW. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  9. 75 FR 53023 - Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-08-30

    ... Office of Thrift Supervision Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance AGENCY: Office of Thrift Supervision... collection. Title of Proposal: Sound Incentive Compensation Guidance. OMB Number: 1550-0129. Form Number: N/A... principles and the guidance are consistent with the Principles for Sound Compensation Practices adopted...

  10. Perspective: Hospital support for anesthesiology departments: aligning incentives and improving productivity.

    PubMed

    Hill, Laureen L; Evers, Alex S

    2012-03-01

    Anesthesiology groups, particularly academic departments, are increasingly dependent on hospital support for financial viability. Economic stresses are driven by higher patient acuity, by multiple subspecialty service and call demands, by high-risk obstetric services, and by long case durations attributable to both case complexity and time for teaching. An unfavorable payer mix, university taxation, and other costs associated with academic education and research missions further compound these stresses. In addition, the current economic climate and the uncertainty surrounding health care reform measures will continue to increase performance pressures on hospitals and anesthesiology departments.Although many researchers have published on the mechanics of operating room (OR) productivity, their investigations do not usually address the motivational forces that drive individual and group behaviors. Institutional tradition, surgical convenience, and parochial interests continue to play predominant roles in OR governance and scheduling practices. Efforts to redefine traditional relationships, to coordinate operational decision-making processes, and to craft incentives that align individual performance goals with those of the institution are all essential for creating greater economic stability. Using the principles of shared costs, department autonomy, hospital flexibility and control over institutional issues, and alignment between individual and institutional goals, the authors developed a template to redefine the hospital-anesthesiology department relationship. Here, they describe both this contractual template and the results that followed implementation (2007-2009) at one institution.

  11. The Impact of Lottery Incentives on Student Survey Response Rates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Stephen R.; Whitcomb, Michael E.

    2003-01-01

    A controlled experiment tested the effects of lottery incentives using a prospective college applicant Web survey, with emails sent to more than 9,000 high school students. Found minimal effect of postpaid incentives for increasing levels of incentive. (EV)

  12. The efficacy of incentive spirometers in post-operative protocols for low-risk patients.

    PubMed

    Davies, B L; MacLeod, J P; Ogilvie, H M

    1990-01-01

    Incentive spirometry offered no statistically significant advantages to pulmonary function when compared to unstructured or structured deep breathing and coughing exercise programs, for patients at low risk of developing pulmonary complications. The additional cost of incentive spirometer equipment does not seem warranted in these patients. Furthermore, patients with or without an incentive spirometer were willing to comply with a structured breathing exercise program with the same frequency of practice sessions. Patients in this diagnostic category did not require a technical device to reward and motivate them for performing maximal inspiratory manoeuvres.

  13. Incentive spirometer for bedside studies.

    PubMed

    Scheinhorn, D J; Warner, W; Ellis, E

    1982-06-01

    We evaluated an incentive spirometer (IS) for monitoring changes in lung function in hospitalized patients. Accuracy and reproducibility of IS measurements of known volumes were adequate (r = 0.87). Flow dependency was demonstrated but was not significant in the clinically useful range. Reproducibility of IS measurements in five normal subjects was good, with a small training effect uncovered. In 15 patients with asthma and chronic obstructive lung disease, change in IS values closely correlated with spirometrically measured changes in volume and flows (best correlation: IS versus FEV1/FVC%, r = 0.98) and in peak flow. The performance of the IS as tested and its availability in most hospitals outweigh its limitations. We advocate its use as an adjunct in monitoring progress of hospitalized patients with obstructive lung disease.

  14. Hospital cost incentives in a fragmented health care system.

    PubMed

    Manheim, L M; Feinglass, J

    1994-01-01

    During the mid-1980s, hospital prospective payment regulation was associated with major changes in medical practice, resulting in initially significant reductions in the rate of growth of inpatient costs. More recently, the rate of growth of hospital costs has returned to historic levels, yet most hospitals have been reluctant to intensify their economic monitoring of physicians. Using data from a large teaching hospital in the Midwest, this article presents a model of marginal profitability by payor and by relative physician costliness. The results illustrate the mixed incentives for hospitals to reduce costly medical practice variations.

  15. 48 CFR 1816.402 - Application of predetermined, formula-type incentives. (NASA paragraphs 1, 2 and 3).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...) Performance above the target (or minimum, if there are no negative incentives) level is of significant value to the Government; (ii) The value of the higher level of performance is worth the additional cost/fee... incentive is generally not appropriate unless— (i) A target level of performance can be established,...

  16. Florida doctors seeing Medicaid patients show broad interest in federal incentives for adopting electronic health records.

    PubMed

    Menachemi, Nir; Yeager, Valerie A; Bilello, Lori; Harle, Christopher A; Sullivan, Christopher B; Siler-Marsiglio, Kendra I

    2011-08-01

    The Health Information Technology for Economic and Clinical Health (HITECH) Act of 2009 aims to expand the use of electronic health records by offering financial incentives to physicians to fully adopt and implement them. We surveyed Florida physicians who deliver care to Medicaid participants to identify their interest in participating in the incentive program. More than 60 percent of all respondents expressed interest in applying for the incentives; of those already using electronic health record systems, 86 percent intend to apply for funding. This relatively high proportion of physicians creates the potential to reach the overall policy goals of the law. Among those not planning to seek incentives, common barriers--especially among nonusers of electronic health records--were "costs involved" (69 percent), "need more information about incentive program" (42 percent), and uncertainty about what system to purchase (42 percent). We suggest that these findings hold implications for the Regional Extension Centers working to help physicians achieve the federal meaningful-use criteria that are a condition of receiving the incentives. In particular, the centers should focus on providing physicians with information about costs of electronic health record systems.

  17. Humans Integrate Monetary and Liquid Incentives to Motivate Cognitive Task Performance

    PubMed Central

    Yee, Debbie M.; Krug, Marie K.; Allen, Ariel Z.; Braver, Todd S.

    2016-01-01

    It is unequivocal that a wide variety of incentives can motivate behavior. However, few studies have explicitly examined whether and how different incentives are integrated in terms of their motivational influence. The current study examines the combined effects of monetary and liquid incentives on cognitive processing, and whether appetitive and aversive incentives have distinct influences. We introduce a novel task paradigm, in which participants perform cued task-switching for monetary rewards that vary parametrically across trials, with liquid incentives serving as post-trial performance feedback. Critically, the symbolic meaning of the liquid was held constant (indicating successful reward attainment), while liquid valence was blocked. In the first experiment, monetary rewards combined additively with appetitive liquid feedback to improve subject task performance. Aversive liquid feedback counteracted monetary reward effects in low monetary reward trials, particularly in a subset of participants who tended to avoid responding under these conditions. Self-report motivation ratings predicted behavioral performance above and beyond experimental effects. A follow-up experiment replicated the predictive power of motivation ratings even when only appetitive liquids were used, suggesting that ratings reflect idiosyncratic subjective values of, rather than categorical differences between, the liquid incentives. Together, the findings indicate an integrative relationship between primary and secondary incentives and potentially dissociable influences in modulating motivational value, while informing hypotheses regarding candidate neural mechanisms. PMID:26834668

  18. Financial Incentives and Maternal Health: Where Do We Go from Here?

    PubMed Central

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S.; Balster, Robert L.; Bellows, Ben W.; Brandes, Neal; Comfort, Alison B.; Eichler, Rena; Glassman, Amanda; Hatt, Laurel E.; Conlon, Claudia M.; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-01-01

    Health financing strategies that incorporate financial incentives are being applied in many low- and middle-income countries, and improving maternal and neonatal health is often a central goal. As yet, there have been few reviews of such programmes and their impact on maternal health. The US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives was convened on 24-25 April 2012 to address this gap. This article, the final in a series assessing the effects of financial incentives—performance-based incentives (PBIs), insurance, user fee exemption programmes, conditional cash transfers, and vouchers—summarizes the evidence and discusses issues of context, programme design and implementation, cost-effectiveness, and sustainability. We suggest key areas to consider when designing and implementing financial incentive programmes for enhancing maternal health and highlight gaps in evidence that could benefit from additional research. Although the methodological rigor of studies varies, the evidence, overall, suggests that financial incentives can enhance demand for and improve the supply of maternal health services. Definitive evidence demonstrating a link between incentives and improved health outcomes is lacking; however, the evidence suggests that financial incentives can increase the quantity and quality of maternal health services and address health systems and financial barriers that prevent women from accessing and providers from delivering quality, lifesaving maternal healthcare.

  19. Do Monetary Incentives Matter in Classroom Experiments? Effects on Course Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rousu, Matthew C.; Corrigan, Jay R.; Harris, David; Hayter, Jill K.; Houser, Scott; Lafrancois, Becky A.; Onafowora, Olugbenga; Colson, Gregory; Hoffer, Adam

    2015-01-01

    Using 641 principles of economics students across four universities, the authors examine whether providing monetary incentives in a prisoner's dilemma game enhances student learning as measured by a set of common exam questions. Subjects either play a two-player prisoner's dilemma game for real money, play the same game with no money at stake…

  20. A simulation modeling framework to optimize programs using financial incentives to motivate health behavior change

    PubMed Central

    Basu, Sanjay; Kiernan, Michaela

    2015-01-01

    Introduction While increasingly popular among mid- to large-size employers, using financial incentives to induce health behavior change among employees has been controversial, in part due to poor quality and generalizability of studies to date. Thus, fundamental questions have been left unanswered: to generate positive economic returns on investment, what level of incentive should be offered for any given type of incentive program and among which employees? Methods We constructed a novel modeling framework that systematically identifies how to optimize marginal return on investment from programs incentivizing behavior change by integrating commonly-collected data on health behaviors and associated costs. We integrated “demand curves” capturing individual differences in response to any given incentive with employee demographic and risk factor data. We also estimated the degree of self-selection that could be tolerated, i.e., the maximum percentage of already-healthy employees who could enroll in a wellness program while still maintaining positive absolute return on investment. In a demonstration analysis, the modeling framework was applied to data from 3,000 worksite physical activity programs across the nation. Results For physical activity programs, the incentive levels that would optimize marginal return on investment ($367/employee/year) were higher than average incentive levels currently offered ($143/employee/year). Yet a high degree of self-selection could undermine the economic benefits of the program; if more than 17% of participants came from the top 10% of the physical activity distribution, the cost of the program would be expected to always be greater than its benefits. Discussion Our generalizable framework integrates individual differences in behavior and risk to systematically estimate the incentive level that optimizes marginal return on investment. PMID:25977362

  1. Contingency management in cocaine abusers: a dose-effect comparison of goods-based versus cash-based incentives.

    PubMed

    Vandrey, Ryan; Bigelow, George E; Stitzer, Maxine L

    2007-08-01

    Goods-based contingency management interventions (e.g., those using vouchers or prizes as incentives) have demonstrated efficacy in reducing cocaine use, but cost has limited dissemination to community clinics. Recent research suggests that development of a cash-based contingency management approach may improve treatment outcomes while reducing operational costs of the intervention. However, the clinical safety of providing cash-based incentives to substance abusers has been a concern. The present 16-week study compared the effects of goods-based versus cash-based incentives worth $0, $25, $50, and $100 on short-term cocaine abstinence in a small sample of cocaine-dependent methadone patients (N = 12). A within-subject design was used; a 9-day washout period separated each of 8 incentive conditions. Higher magnitude ($50 and $100) cash-based incentives (checks) produced greater cocaine abstinence compared with the control ($0) condition, but a magnitude effect was not seen for goods-based incentives (vouchers). A trend was observed for greater rates of abstinence in the cash-based versus goods-based incentives at the $50 and $100 magnitudes. Receipt of $100 checks did not increase subsequent rates of cocaine use above those seen in control conditions. The efficacy and safety data provided in this and other recent studies suggest that use of cash-based incentives deserves consideration for clinical applications of contingency management, but additional confirmation in research using larger samples and more prolonged periods of incentive delivery is needed.

  2. Beyond Payoffs: Understanding Sustainable Economic Incentives at the Tactical Level

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-05-19

    strategic in nature with little construct to translate their ideas to the tactical level. Ultimately, these new initiatives, similar to those of the past...Scoundrel,” New York Times, February 17, 2002. However, despite the rhetoric, the government has not sufficiently funded an expanded Department of...in tummies, you know.” – The Lorax (Dr. Seuss)5 5 Dr. Seuss, The Lorax ( New York, NY: Random

  3. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  4. Greenhouse gas emissions control by economic incentives: Survey and analysis

    SciTech Connect

    South, D.W.; Kosobud, R.F.; Quinn, K.G.

    1991-12-31

    This paper presents a survey of issues and concerns raised in recent literature on the application of market-based approaches to greenhouse effect policy with an emphasis on tradeable emission permits. The potential advantages of decentralized decision-making -- cost-effectiveness or allocation efficiency, stimulation of innovations, and political feasibility are discussed. The potential difficulties of data recording, monitoring, enforcement, and of creating viable emission permit contracts and markets are examined. Special attention is given to the problem of designing a greenhouse effect policy that is cost-effective over time, a problem that has been given little attention to date. Proposals to reduce or stabilize greenhouse gas emission (especially CO{sub 2}) in the short run require high carbon tax rates or permit prices and impose heavy adjustment costs on the fossil fuel industry. A more cost-effective time path of permit prices is proposed that achieves the same long-run climate change stabilization goals. 21 refs., 3 figs.

  5. Enrollments in Higher Education: Do Economic Incentives Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lauer, Charlotte

    2002-01-01

    Higher education enrollment in Germany is mainly influenced by social origin. High unemployment risk and a high expected wage premium seem to increase enrollment probability; a higher propensity of unemployment or part-time employment decreases it. Extending the coverage of public financial support seems to be more efficient in increasing…

  6. Meta-analysis of randomised trials of monetary incentives and response to mailed questionnaires

    PubMed Central

    Edwards, P.; Cooper, R.; Roberts, I.; Frost, C.

    2005-01-01

    Study objective: To quantify the increase in mailed questionnaire response attributable to a monetary incentive. Design: A systematic search for randomised controlled trials of monetary incentives and mailed questionnaire response was conducted. For each trial identified, logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for response per $0.01 incentive increase. Odds ratios were pooled in a series of random effect meta-analyses stratified by the minimum and maximum amounts offered. Piecewise logistic regression was used to estimate the odds ratio for response per $0.01 increase given in each of five incentive ranges. Setting: Populations in several developed countries, predominantly the USA. Participants: 85 671 randomised participants from 88 trials. Main results: The pooled odds ratios for response per $0.01 incentive decreased monotonically as the maximum amount of incentive offered increased. The piecewise logistic regression model estimated that for incentive amounts up to $0.50, each additional $0.01 increased the odds of response by about 1% (pooled OR = 1.012, 95%CI 1.007 to 1.016). The effects on response above $0.50 were smaller and decreased monotonically in the ranges: $0.50–0.99, $1–1.99, $2–4.99, $5.00 and over, but remained statistically significant up to $5. Conclusions: This meta-analysis of the best available evidence shows that monetary incentives increase mailed questionnaire response. Researchers should include small amounts of money with mailed questionnaires rather than give no incentive at all. PMID:16234429

  7. Incentive spirometry decreases respiratory complications following major abdominal surgery.

    PubMed

    Westwood, K; Griffin, M; Roberts, K; Williams, M; Yoong, K; Digger, T

    2007-12-01

    Pulmonary complications are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality following major abdominal surgery. Chest physiotherapy aims to decrease the likelihood of these complications and hasten recovery. Exercises aimed at maximising inspiratory effort are the most beneficial for the patients. The incentive spirometer is a handheld device that patients use to achieve effective inspiration. In a nonrandomised pilot study of 263 patients we have found that the addition of the incentive spirometer, as part of an intensive post-operative physiotherapy programme, decreased the occurrence of pulmonary complications (6 vs 17%, p = 0.01) and length of stay on the surgical high dependency unit (3.1 vs 4 days p = 0.03). The two groups were comparable when age, sex, smoking history, the need for emergency surgery and post-operative analgesia were compared.

  8. A crowdsourced nickel-and-dime approach to analog OBM research: A behavioral economic framework for understanding workforce attrition.

    PubMed

    Henley, Amy J; DiGennaro Reed, Florence D; Reed, Derek D; Kaplan, Brent A

    2016-09-01

    Incentives are a popular method to achieve desired employee performance; however, research on optimal incentive magnitude is lacking. Behavioral economic demand curves model persistence of responding in the face of increasing cost and may be suitable to examine the reinforcing value of incentives on work performance. The present use-inspired basic study integrated an experiential human operant task within a crowdsourcing platform to evaluate the applicability of behavioral economics for quantifying changes in workforce attrition. Participants included 88 Amazon Mechanical Turk Workers who earned either a $0.05 or $0.10 incentive for completing a progressively increasing response requirement. Analyses revealed statistically significant differences in breakpoint between the two groups. Additionally, a novel translation of the Kaplan-Meier survival-curve analyses for use within a demand curve framework allowed for examination of elasticity of workforce attrition. Results indicate greater inelastic attrition in the $0.05 group. We discuss the benefits of a behavioral economic approach to modeling employee behavior, how the metrics obtained from the elasticity of workforce attrition analyses (e.g., P max ) may be used to set goals for employee behavior while balancing organizational costs, and how economy type may have influenced observed outcomes.

  9. Integrating Monetary and Non-monetary Reenlistment Incentives Utilizing the Combinatorial Retention Auction Mechanism (CRAM)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-12-01

    distributive justice and benefit satisfaction. 37 Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Robert S. Smith, Modern Labor Economics Theory and Public Policy, 10th...Boening et al., “Benefit Packages,” 521. 53 Van Boening et al., “Benefit Packages,” 522. 54 Ronald G. Ehrenberg and Robert S. Smith, Modern Labor...Warfare Incentives,” (MBA professional report, Naval Postgraduate School, 2007). Ehrenberg , Ronald G. and Robert S. Smith, Modern Labor Economics

  10. An Incentive-Based Employee Fitness Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brown, Jim

    1981-01-01

    As part of an incentives plan, Davidson Louisiana, Inc., a building products distributor, conducts a unique employee physical fitness program in which the participants are rewarded with credit toward expense paid vacations around the world. (JN)

  11. What nurses want: the nurse incentives project.

    PubMed

    Wieck, K Lynn; Dols, Jean; Northam, Sally

    2009-01-01

    Today's nurse executives are struggling with leadership challenges of managing the multigenerational workforce, financial imperatives to deliver better care for lower costs, and competition to provide the optimal work environment to retain nurses. The purpose of the Nurse Incentives Project was to determine satisfaction with current employment incentives and potential managerial actions which might decrease or delay turnover by registered nurses. This study spawned recommendations regarding the role of incentives in designing an environment where benefits and perks will be seen as incentives to stay and thrive in the current nursing workplace. The results show that nurses know what they want. Attention to generational priorities and flexible benefits programs may help to create the cohesive work environment that nurses seek. Investment into creating delivery arenas where satisfied nurses are caring for satisfied patients is a worthwhile goal.

  12. Should we pay the patient? Review of financial incentives to enhance patient compliance.

    PubMed Central

    Giuffrida, A.; Torgerson, D. J.

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine whether financial incentives increase patients' compliance with healthcare treatments. DATA SOURCES: Systematic literature review of computer databases--Medline, Embase, PsychLit, EconLit, and the Cochrane Database of Clinical Trials. In addition, the reference list of each retrieved article was reviewed and relevant citations retrieved. STUDY SELECTION: Only randomised trials with quantitative data concerning the effect, of financial incentives (cash, vouchers, lottery tickets, or gifts) on compliance with medication, medical advice, or medical appointments were included in the review. Eleven papers were identified as meeting the selection criteria. DATA EXTRACTION: Data on study populations, interventions, and outcomes were extracted and analysed using odds ratios and the number of patients needed to be treated to improve compliance by one patient. RESULTS: 10 of the 11 studies showed improvements in patient compliance with the use of financial incentives. CONCLUSIONS: Financial incentives can improve patient compliance. PMID:9314754

  13. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics...

  14. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentive. 1852... 1852.216-88 Performance incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(f), insert the following clause: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware...

  15. 48 CFR 16.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Performance incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-2 Performance incentives. (a) Performance incentives may be considered in connection with specific product characteristics...

  16. 48 CFR 1852.216-88 - Performance incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentive... 1852.216-88 Performance incentive. As prescribed in 1816.406-70(f), insert the following clause: Performance Incentive (JAN 1997) (a) A performance incentive applies to the following hardware...

  17. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2012-04-01 2011-04-01 true Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  18. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  19. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  20. 26 CFR 1.422-2 - Incentive stock options defined.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 26 Internal Revenue 5 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Incentive stock options defined. 1.422-2 Section... (CONTINUED) INCOME TAXES (CONTINUED) Certain Stock Options § 1.422-2 Incentive stock options defined. (a) Incentive stock option defined—(1) In general. The term incentive stock option means an option that...

  1. 45 CFR 305.31 - Amount of incentive payment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... payment. (a) The incentive payment for a State for a fiscal year is equal to the incentive payment pool for the fiscal year, multiplied by the State incentive payment share for the fiscal year. (b) The incentive payment pool is: (1) $422,000,000 for fiscal year 2000; (2) $429,000,000 for fiscal year 2001;...

  2. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is...

  3. 48 CFR 16.402-3 - Delivery incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Delivery incentives. 16... CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 16.402-3 Delivery incentives. (a) Delivery incentives should be considered when improvement from a required delivery schedule is...

  4. 45 CFR 305.36 - Incentive phase-in.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Incentive phase-in. 305.36 Section 305.36 Public... PROGRAM PERFORMANCE MEASURES, STANDARDS, FINANCIAL INCENTIVES, AND PENALTIES § 305.36 Incentive phase-in... year 2000, a State will receive two-thirds of what it would have received under the incentive...

  5. Tax incentives as the tool for stimulating hard to recover oil reserves development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharf, I. V.; Borzenkova, D. N.; Grinkevich, L. S.

    2015-11-01

    The share of hard-to-recover oil reserves, principally from unconventional hydrocarbon sources, has significantly increased in the world petroleum market. Russian policy of subsurface management is directed to stimulate the development, survey and involvement into production of hard-to-recover oil reserves by tax-financial and economic-organizational tools among which tax incentives is the most effective one. The article highlights different categories of hard-to-recover oil reserves as a basis for generating tax incentives. Also the aspects of tax influence on petroleum business (involved in production of had to recover reserves) in Tomsk region are revealed, both positive and negative.

  6. Energy Efficiency Tax Incentives Act

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Sen. Cardin, Benjamin L. [D-MD

    2014-04-01

    05/07/2014 Committee on Banking, Housing, and Urban Affairs Subcommittee on Economic Policy. Hearings held. With printed Hearing: S.Hrg. 113-466. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  7. Economics and the Environment - EcoDetectives. EconomicsAmerica.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schug, Mark C.; Morton, John S.; Wentworth, Donald R.

    This book helps middle school and high school students address environmental issues in an intelligent and productive manner. The lessons introduce economic reasoning and show students how to apply it to environmental problems. The 18 lessons are divided into four units addressing: the environment and the economy; incentives; use of market forces…

  8. Informant: Detecting Sybils Using Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Margolin, N. Boris; Levine, Brian N.

    We propose an economic approach to Sybil attack detection. In our Informant protocol, a detective offers a reward for Sybils to reveal themselves. The detective accepts from one identity a security deposit and the name of target peer; the deposit and a reward are given to the target. We prove the optimal strategy for the informant is to play the game if and only if she is Sybil with a low opportunity cost, and the target will cooperate if and only if she is identical to the informant. Informant uses a Dutch auction to find the minimum possible reward that will reveal a Sybil attacker. Because our approach is economic, it is not limited to a specific application and does not rely on a physical device or token.

  9. Pay-for-performance: toxic to quality? Insights from behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Himmelstein, David U; Ariely, Dan; Woolhandler, Steffie

    2014-01-01

    Pay-for-performance programs aim to upgrade health care quality by tailoring financial incentives for desirable behaviors. While Medicare and many private insurers are charging ahead with pay-for-performance, researchers have been unable to show that it benefits patients. Findings from the new field of behavioral economics challenge the traditional economic view that monetary reward either is the only motivator or is simply additive to intrinsic motivators such as purpose or altruism. Studies have shown that monetary rewards can undermine motivation and worsen performance on cognitively complex and intrinsically rewarding work, suggesting that pay-for-performance may backfire.

  10. Breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding: a mixed methods study of acceptability.

    PubMed

    Crossland, Nicola; Thomson, Gill; Morgan, Heather; MacLennan, Graeme; Campbell, Marion; Dykes, Fiona; Hoddinott, Pat

    2016-10-01

    Increasing breastfeeding rates would improve maternal and child health, but multiple barriers to breastfeeding persist. Breast pump provision has been used as an incentive for breastfeeding, although effectiveness is unclear. Women's use of breast pumps is increasing and a high proportion of mothers express breastmilk. No research has yet reported women's and health professionals' perspectives on breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. In the Benefits of Incentives for Breastfeeding and Smoking cessation in pregnancy (BIBS) study, mixed methods research explored women's and professionals' views of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. A survey of health professionals across Scotland and North West England measured agreement with 'a breast pump costing around £40 provided for free on the NHS' as an incentive strategy. Qualitative interviews and focus groups were conducted in two UK regions with a total of 68 participants (pregnant women, new mothers, and their significant others and health professionals) and thematic analysis undertaken. The survey of 497 health professionals found net agreement of 67.8% (337/497) with the breast pump incentive strategy, with no predictors of agreement shown by a multiple ordered logistic regression model. Qualitative research found interrelated themes of the 'appeal and value of breast pumps', 'sharing the load', 'perceived benefits', 'perceived risks' and issues related to 'timing'. Qualitative participants expressed mixed views on the acceptability of breast pumps as an incentive for breastfeeding. Understanding the mechanisms of action for pump type, timing and additional support required for effectiveness is required to underpin trials of breast pump provision as an incentive for improving breastfeeding outcomes. © 2016 The Authors. Maternal & Child Nutrition published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. Pay as You Speed, ISA with incentive for not speeding: results and interpretation of speed data.

    PubMed

    Lahrmann, Harry; Agerholm, Niels; Tradisauskas, Nerius; Berthelsen, Kasper K; Harms, Lisbeth

    2012-09-01

    To simulate a market introduction of Intelligent Speed Adaptation (ISA) and to study the effect of a Pay as You Speed (PAYS) concept, a field trial with 153 drivers was conducted during 2007-2009. The participants drove under PAYS conditions for a shorter or a longer period. The PAYS concept consisted of informative ISA linked with economic incentive for not speeding, measured through automatic count of penalty points whenever the speed limit was exceeded. The full incentive was set to 30% of a participant's insurance premium. The participants were exposed to different treatments, with and without incentive crossed with informative ISA present or absent. The results showed that ISA is an efficient tool for reducing speeding particularly on rural roads. The analysis of speed data demonstrated that the proportion of distance driven above the speed where the ISA equipment responded (PDA) was a sensitive measure for reflecting the effect of ISA, whereas mean free flow speed and the 85th percentile speed, were less sensitive to ISA effects. The PDA increased a little over time but still remained at a low level; however, when ISA was turned off, the participants' speeding relapsed to the baseline level. Both informative ISA and incentive ISA reduced the PDA, but there was no statistically significant interaction. Informative reduced it more than the incentive.

  12. Do Market Incentives Crowd Out Charitable Giving?

    PubMed Central

    Deck, Cary; Kimbrough, Erik O.

    2013-01-01

    Donations and volunteerism can be conceived as market transactions with a zero explicit price. However, evidence suggests people may not view zero as just another price when it comes to pro-social behavior. Thus, while markets might be expected to increase the supply of assets available to those in need, some worry such financial incentives will crowd out altruistic giving. This paper reports laboratory experiments directly investigating the degree to which market incentives crowd out large, discrete charitable donations in a setting related to deceased organ donation. The results suggest markets increase the supply of assets available to those in need. However, as some critics fear, market incentives disproportionately influence the relatively poor. PMID:24348002

  13. Incentive relativity in middle aged rats.

    PubMed

    Justel, N; Mustaca, A; Boccia, M; Ruetti, E

    2014-01-24

    Response to a reinforcer is affected by prior experience with different reward values of that reward, a phenomenon known as incentive relativity. Two different procedures to study this phenomenon are the incentive downshift (ID) and the consummatory anticipatory negative contrast (cANC), the former is an emotional-cognitive protocol and the latter cognitive one. Aged rodents, as also well described in aged humans, exhibit alterations in cognitive functions. The main goal of this work was to evaluate the effect of age in the incentive' assessment using these two procedures. The results indicated that aged rats had an adequate assessment of the rewards but their performance is not completely comparable to that of young subjects. They recover faster from the ID and they had a cognitive impairment in the cANC. The results are discussed in relation to age-related changes in memory and emotion.

  14. Incentive spirometry: its value after cardiac surgery.

    PubMed

    Gale, G D; Sanders, D E

    1980-09-01

    Treatment with intermittent positive pressure breathing (IPPB) and incentive spirometry (I.S.) was compared in 109 patients after heart surgery with cardiopulmonary bypass. Assessment was done by measurement of vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension and identification of the radiological signs of atelectasis. All patients were instructed pre-operatively in the treatment which was to be used. Vital capacity, arterial oxygen tension while breathing air for the first three postoperative days and the incidence of atelectasis showed no significant difference between groups. Ten minutes after treatment the arterial oxygen tension fell, but this was only statistically significant after I.P.P.B. At 60 minutes the arterial oxygen tension had returned to pretreatment level in both groups. The use of the incentive spirometer four times daily is no better than I.P.P.B., in preventing atelectasis after open-heart surgery. Possibly incentive spirometer treatment given more frequently may be more effective.

  15. Powerplant productivity improvements and regulatory incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Hardy, D; Brown, D

    1980-10-27

    The purpose of this study was to examine the benefits to be gained from increased powerplant productivity and to validate and demonstrate the use of incentives within the regulatory process to promote the improvement of powerplant productivity. The system-wide costs savings to be gained from given productivity improvement scenarios are estimated in both the short and long term. Numerous reports and studies exist which indicate that productivity improvements at the powerplant level are feasible and cost effective. The efforts of this study widen this focus and relate system-wide productivity improvements with system-wide cost savings. The initial thrust of the regulatory section of this study is to validate the existence of reasonable incentive procedures which would enable regulatory agencies to better motivate electric utilities to improve productivity on both the powerplant and system levels. The voluntary incentive format developed in this study was designed to facilitate the link between profit and efficiency which is typically not clear in most regulated market environments. It is concluded that at the present time, many electric utilities in this country could significantly increase the productivity of their base load units, and the adoption of an incentive program of the general type recommended in this study would add to rate of return regulation the needed financial incentives to enable utilities to make such improvements without losing long-run profit. In light of the upcoming oil import target levels and mandatory cutbacks of oil and gas as boiler fuels for electric utilities, the use of incentive programs to encourage more efficient utilization of coal and nuclear base load capacity will become far more inviting over the next two decades.

  16. Financial incentives: Possible options for sustainable rangeland management?

    PubMed

    Louhaichi, Mounir; Yigezu, Yigezu A; Werner, Jutta; Dashtseren, Lojoo; El-Shater, Tamer; Ahmed, Mohamed

    2016-09-15

    Large-scale mismanagement of natural resources emanating from lack of appropriate policies and regulatory framework is arguably one of the reasons that led to resource degradation and poor livelihoods in many countries in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region. Sustainable rangeland management practices (SRMPs) are considered to be a solution to feed shortages and rangeland degradation. However, the scope for SRMP adoption, has been a subject of debate. Using a case study from Syria and the application of the Minimum Data Analysis method (TOA-MD), this paper provides empirical evidence for ensuring wider adoption of SRMP. The paper argues that the introduction of financial incentives in the form of payments for agricultural-environmental services can increase the economic viability and enhance the adoption of SRMPs and is a better alternative to the unsustainable state subsidies for fodder purchases and barley cultivation on rangelands. Model results indicate that further investment in reasearch toward generating low cost technologies and tailored governance strategies including a financial incentive system would lead to better management of rangelands and improve livelihoods in the Syrian Badia. These findings are valuable for policy makers, donors as well as development and extension practitioners in the MENA region as they can better inform future courses of actions.

  17. The Impact of Hybrid Electric Vehicles Incentives on Demand and the Determinants of Hybrid-Vehicle Adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riggieri, Alison

    incentives. Overall, these results suggest automobile manufacturing did not impact whether these policies were implemented, nor were they implemented to address air quality issues or gas price increases. Rather these policies were responses to popular support for hybrid vehicles. In addition, this dissertation identifies the average treatment effect of these incentives on state-level demand for hybrid vehicles. These effects are estimated using traditional parametric techniques, difference-in-difference regression, and fixed effects on two comparison groups: (1) the natural control group, states that did not adopt subsidies, and (2) a constructed control group, states that proposed subsidies during this same time period but did not adopt them. In addition to these parametric models, propensity score matching was used to construct a third comparison group using the models that identified determinants of the policy adoption. These findings were supplemented by exploratory analyses using the individual-level National Household Travel Survey. This multitude of evaluative analyses shows that overall, monetary hybrid incentives are not overwhelming effective in promoting the diffusion of this technology, but that HOV lane exemptions, however, if implemented in places with high traffic congestion, were found to impact aggregate demand and an individual's propensity to adopt a hybrid. The other two types of incentives, sales tax exemptions and income tax credits, were not found to be effective at the aggregate or the individual level. In addition, travel behavior was found to strongly predict adoption, more so than socioeconomic variables, stated attitudes, or characteristics of the built environment. The number of walking trips per month and the number of times a person used public transportation were found to be significant predictors of hybrid adoption, implying the decision to adopt a hybrid includes factors other than purely economic ones, such as environmental attitudes. These

  18. Environmental management and economic development

    SciTech Connect

    Schramm, G.; Warford, J.J.

    1989-01-01

    Contents include: environmental management and economic policy in developing countries; environmental and natural resource accounting; marginal opportunity cost as a planning concept in natural resource management; the environmental basis of sustainable development; economic incentives for sustainable production; deforestation in Brazil's Amazon region: magnitude, rate, and causes; an economic justification for rural afforestation: the case of Ethiopia; managing the supply of and demand for fuelwood in Africa; economic aspects of afforestation and soil-conservation projects; multilevel resource analysis and management: the case of watersheds.

  19. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  20. Are policy incentives for solar power effective? Evidence from residential installations in the Northeast

    SciTech Connect

    Crago, Christine Lasco; Chernyakhovskiy, Ilya

    2017-01-01

    State incentives for solar power have grown significantly in the past several years. This paper examines the effectiveness of policy incentives to increase residential solar photovoltaic (PV) capacity. We use county-level panel data and control for demographic characteristics, solar resources, and pro-environmental preferences. Results show that among financial incentives, rebates have the most impact with an additional $1 per watt rebate increasing annual PV capacity additions by close to 50%. Factors that affect financial returns to solar PV such as electricity price and solar insolation are also found to be significant. Results also point to a significant positive relationship between hybrid vehicle sales and residential PV capacity growth, indicating the importance of pro-environmental preferences as a predictor of solar PV demand. Back of the envelope calculations suggest that the cost of carbon mitigation through rebates is around $184 per ton of CO2.

  1. Regulation, financial incentives, and the production of quality.

    PubMed

    Avery, George; Schultz, Jennifer

    2007-01-01

    An economic model for the production of health care quality is presented, encompassing financial and altruistic returns, penalties and rewards, and transaction costs. After maximizing returns from quality and service volume, the role of regulatory policies and pay-for-performance proposals in producing quality is examined. The tension between the production of quantity and quality is demonstrated. Specifically, the model shows that increasing the costs of a quality improvement program reduces program effectiveness, sanctions for low quality will not improve the performance of high-quality providers, noncompliance with regulation can be a rational decision, and some pay-for-performance programs will not improve quality for low-quality providers. The model suggests incentive structures to improve quality for all providers. This model has application to a variety of social regulatory programs of importance in public health and health care, including health care quality (ie, regulation of nursing homes or medical laboratories) and environmental and food safety regulation.

  2. Managing dual warehouses with an incentive policy for deteriorating items

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Jonas C. P.; Wang, Kung-Jeng; Lin, Yu-Siang

    2016-02-01

    Distributors in a supply chain usually limit their own warehouse in finite capacity for cost reduction and excess stock is held in a rent warehouse. In this study, we examine inventory control for deteriorating items in a two-warehouse setting. Assuming that there is an incentive offered by a rent warehouse that allows the rental fee to decrease over time, the objective of this study is to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor. An optimisation procedure is developed to derive the optimal joint economic lot size policy. Several criteria are identified to select the most appropriate warehouse configuration and inventory policy on the basis of storage duration of materials in a rent warehouse. Sensitivity analysis is done to examine the results of model robustness. The proposed model enables a manufacturer with a channel distributor to coordinate the use of alternative warehouses, and to maximise the joint profit of the manufacturer and the distributor.

  3. Federal Tax Incentives for Battery Storage Systems

    SciTech Connect

    2017-01-01

    Investments in renewable energy can be more attractive with the contribution of two key federal tax incentives. NREL provides basic information about the investment tax credit (ITC) and the Modified Accelerated Cost Recovery System (MACRS) depreciation deduction, which may apply to battery storage systems owned by a private party (i.e., a tax-paying business).

  4. Incentives for Cheating Given Imperfect Detection

    SciTech Connect

    Canavan, G.H.

    1998-10-01

    The incentives for cheating given imperfect detection can be discussed within the context of first strike stability. The cost reduction due to is balanced against the sanctions that would be imposed if cheating was detected. For small political sanctions, the optimum level is at high levels of cheating. For large sanctions, the optimum is at quite low levels, which discourages cheating.

  5. 75 FR 71325 - Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-23

    ... specific impacts, and these impacts ] affect a host of non-market valued attributes ecosystem services... Conservation Service 7 CFR Part 636 RIN 0578-AA49 Wildlife Habitat Incentive Program AGENCY: Commodity Credit Corporation, Natural Resources Conservation Service, United States Department of Agriculture. ACTION:...

  6. 36 CFR 906.7 - Incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... POLICY AND PROCEDURE Development Program § 906.7 Incentives. (a) At the request of the developer, the... the developer's compliance with the goals set forth in the approved Affirmative Action Plan... the developer 120 days to achieve at least that level of compliance. If, at the end of that 120...

  7. Incentives in IT Yield Success at MIT.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanson, Mary

    2001-01-01

    Describes the role of information technology (IT) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, explaining that attention to the unique characteristics of an MIT education and incentives for sustainable change are central to its IT efforts. Discusses various IT initiatives, such as Project Athena, provision on campus, international efforts, and…

  8. 12 CFR 708a.12 - Voting incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voting incentives. 708a.12 Section 708a.12... CONVERSIONS AND MERGERS Conversion of Insured Credit Unions to Mutual Savings Banks § 708a.12 Voting..., § 708a.12 was redesignated as § 708a.112, effective Jan. 27, 2011....

  9. Early Retirement Incentive Programs for Teachers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tarter, Scott E.; McCarthy, Martha M.

    1989-01-01

    Despite their popularity, early retirement incentive programs (ERIPs) remain controversial. Although early retirement may be appealing to some teachers, others bristle at being shoved into retirement. Following a historical overview, this article summarizes recent state legislation and addresses ERIP legal status under the Age Discrimination in…

  10. Incentive Issues in Information Security Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lee, Chul Ho

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation studies three incentive issues in information security management. The first essay studies contract issues between a firm that outsources security functions and a managed security service provider (MSSP) that provides security functions to the firm. Since MSSP and firms cannot observe each other's actions, both can suffer…

  11. Rewarding Excellence: Teacher Compensation and Incentive Plans.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Amundson, Kristen J.

    This monograph provides information on the many aspects of teacher compensation and incentive plans, focusing on those programs that seek to attract and retain high-quality teachers in the profession. Information was synthesized from reports provided by various school districts around the nation. The monograph presents state-by-state data on…

  12. Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. 1981 Winners.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Brief descriptions of 47 college programs recognized for awards in the National Association of College and University Officers/U. S. Steel Foundation Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program are given. They include awards for: shower stall repair; chemical waste exchange; vibrating alarms for hearing-imparied; self-funding insurance consortium;…

  13. Financial Incentives to Promote Active Travel

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Adam; Suhrcke, Marc; Ogilvie, David

    2012-01-01

    Context Financial incentives, including taxes and subsidies, can be used to encourage behavior change. They are common in transport policy for tackling externalities associated with use of motor vehicles, and in public health for influencing alcohol consumption and smoking behaviors. Financial incentives also offer policymakers a compromise between “nudging,” which may be insufficient for changing habitual behavior, and regulations that restrict individual choice. Evidence acquisition The literature review identified studies published between January 1997 and January 2012 of financial incentives relating to any mode of travel in which the impact on active travel, physical activity, or obesity levels was reported. It encompassed macroenvironmental schemes, such as gasoline taxes, and microenvironmental schemes, such as employer-subsidized bicycles. Five relevant reviews and 20 primary studies (of which nine were not included in the reviews) were identified. Evidence synthesis The results show that more-robust evidence is required if policymakers are to maximize the health impact of fiscal policy relating to transport schemes of this kind. Conclusions Drawing on a literature review and insights from the SLOTH (sleep, leisure, occupation, transportation, and home-based activities) time-budget model, this paper argues that financial incentives may have a larger role in promoting walking and cycling than is acknowledged generally. PMID:23159264

  14. Motivation and Incentives in Manpower Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cogan, Eugene A.

    Except for several Human Resources Research Organization studies of the military, no systematic study has been made of the effects of attitudes and incentives on manpower availability. One such study explored the effects of early Army experience in the career orientation of Army recruits and found that early positive motivation for service was…

  15. Targeted Business Incentives and Local Labor Markets

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Freedman, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    This paper uses a regression discontinuity design to examine the effects of geographically targeted business incentives on local labor markets. Unlike elsewhere in the United States, enterprise zone (EZ) designations in Texas are determined in part by a cutoff rule based on census block group poverty rates. Exploiting this discontinuity as a…

  16. High-Performance Government: Structure, Leadership, Incentives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-01-01

    responses to incentive systems vary as a function of school and classroom context characteristics, including the ability lev- els of students in their... management approaches that af- ford agencies far more flexibility and responsiveness in packaging at- tractive job offers at the entry level, while...with lean, senior management levels, composed of operating agencies sharing similar substantive responsibilities . Government leaders would have the

  17. Incentives, School Organization and Teacher Compensation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Odden, Allan

    In order for teacher compensation to serve as an incentive that reinforces broader organizational goals, the norms of the compensation structure must be aligned with the norms of the school organization. The first section of this paper presents a brief overview of changes in teacher compensation from 1820 to 1950. It describes how such changes…

  18. Teacher Incentives: A Tool for Effective Management.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cresap, McCormick, and Paget, Inc., Washington, DC.

    Teacher incentive systems enable school districts to address the current concerns of their constituencies: teachers' concern with salaries, administrators' concern for attracting good people into the teaching profession, and community concern that increased expenditures for teacher salaries have not improved education. Accordingly, this handbook…

  19. The Cornell Staff Retirement Incentive Program

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whelan, Kenneth T.; Ehrenberg, Ronald G.; Hallock, Kevin F.; Seeber, Ronald L.

    2011-01-01

    We evaluate potential determinants of enrollment in an early retirement incentive program for non-tenure-track employees at a large university. Using administrative records on the eligible, population of employees not covered by collective bargaining agreements, historical employee count and layoff data by budget units, and public information on…

  20. Incentives, equity and the Able Chooser Problem.

    PubMed

    Grill, Kalle

    2017-03-01

    Health incentive schemes aim to produce healthier behaviours in target populations. They may do so both by making incentivised options more salient and by making them less costly. Changes in costs only result in healthier behaviour if the individual rationally assesses the cost change and acts accordingly. Not all people do this well. Those who fail to respond rationally to incentives will typically include those who are least able to make prudent choices more generally. This group will typically include the least advantaged more generally, since disadvantage inhibits one's effective ability to choose well and since poor choices tend to cause or aggravate disadvantage. Therefore, within the target population, health benefits to the better off may come at the cost of aggravated inequity. This is one instance of a problem I name the Able Chooser Problem, previously emphasised by Richard Arneson in relation to coercive paternalism. I describe and discuss this problem by distinguishing between policy options and their effects on the choice situation of individuals. Both positive and negative incentives, as well as mandates that are less than perfectly effective, require some sort of rational deliberation and action and so face the Able Chooser Problem. In contrast, effective restriction of what options are physically available, as well as choice context design that makes some options more salient or appealing, does not demand rational agency. These considerations provide an equity-based argument for preferring smart design of our choice and living environment to incentives and mandates.

  1. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  2. 48 CFR 1816.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Performance incentives. 1816.402-2 Section 1816.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE... Performance incentives....

  3. Glossary – dCHPP (CHP Policies and incentives database)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This glossary provides descriptions of the policy and incentive types included in the CHP Partnership's CHP Policies and incentives database (dCHPP), as well as the frequency with which the EPA updates each type.

  4. Recovery Act Incentives for Wind Energy Equipment Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    2009-10-01

    This document lists some of the federal incentives available to manufacturers of wind energy equipment. These incentives were authorized by or expanded under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009.

  5. Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies

    MedlinePlus

    ... news/fullstory_163124.html Incentives May Spur Poor Families to Buy More Fruits, Veggies Many may not ... HealthDay News) -- A quick chat with low-income families about financial incentives to eat more fruits and ...

  6. 48 CFR 16.204 - Fixed-price incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... establishing the final contract price by a formula based on the relationship of final negotiated total cost to total target cost. Fixed-price incentive contracts are covered in subpart 16.4, Incentive Contracts....

  7. Should financial incentives be used to differentially reward 'me-too' and innovative drugs?

    PubMed

    Pekarsky, Brita

    2010-01-01

    Strategies to change the existing mix of innovative and 'me-too' drugs are intended to increase societal value of a given investment in R&D by providing an incentive for firms to invest in drugs that are more likely to be clinically innovative. How can financial incentives be used to change this mix? Will a strategy have its intended consequence or will it have the unintended outcome of reducing the rate at which the population burden of disease is reduced? The perspective of this review is a country such as Australia, Canada or the UK that has universal health insurance and a drug reimbursement process that is informed by economic evidence. A review of the literature was performed and the views of both the proponents and the opponents of such strategies and the mechanisms by which they could be implemented were summarized. The debate is based largely on hypothesized responses by firms to changes in incentives rather than empirical evidence. The main point of contention is whether a changed mix of new molecular entities (NMEs) increases or decreases the total amount of clinical innovation launched each year. The argument presented in this article is that, despite the limited empirical evidence, it is possible to improve our assessment of the likely costs and consequences of a proposed strategy by appealing to economic theory and observations about the reimbursement process. First, the empirical evidence supporting the view that changing a mix of drugs will improve clinical innovation is based on the average launched drug, not the marginal innovative drug otherwise not developed, and therefore could be misleading. Second, the dynamic and complex nature of evidence of clinical innovation will reduce the feasibility of using contractually based mechanisms to implement such a strategy. Also, a single country is unlikely to have an impact on R&D decisions, and variation in the per capita economic value of new drugs would make multi-jurisdiction contracts with one firm

  8. An economic analysis of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources in the state of Indiana

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Giraldo, Juan S.

    Anaerobic digestion is a process that is a common part of organic waste management systems and is used in concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs), wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs), and municipal solid waste (MSW) landfills. The process produces biogas, which contains methane, and it can be burned to generate electricity. Previous reports have indicated that based on the availability of feedstocks there is a large potential for biogas production and use for electricity generation in the state of Indiana. However, these reports varied in their consideration of important factors that affect the technical and economic feasibility of being able to develop the resources available. The goal of this thesis is to make a more targeted assessment of the electricity generation potential from biogas resources at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills in Indiana. A capital budgeting model is used to estimate the net present value (NPV) of biogas electricity projects at facilities that are identified as technically suitable. A statewide estimate of the potential generation capacity is made by estimating the number of facilities that could profitably undertake a biogas electricity project. In addition this thesis explored the impact that different incentive policies would have on the economic viability of these projects. The results indicated that the electricity generation potential is much smaller when technical and economic factors are taken into account in addition to feedstock availability. In particular it was found that projects at hog farms are unlikely to be economically feasible in the present even when financial incentives are considered. In total, 47.94 MW of potential generating capacity is estimated from biogas production at CAFOs, WWTPs, and MSW landfills. Though results indicated that 37.10 MW of capacity are economically feasible under current operating conditions, sensitivity analysis reveals that these projects are very sensitive to capital cost assumptions

  9. Incentive Early Retirement Programs for Faculty: Innovative Responses to a Changing Environment. ASHE-ERIC Higher Education Report No. 1, 1987.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chronister, Jay L.; Kepple, Thomas R., Jr.

    The literature on incentive early retirement for faculty members is reviewed, including the findings of studies that have assessed the effectiveness of such programs. In addition to describing different types of programs and the incentives offered, attention is directed to legal issues, costs and benefits, assessing whether a program is feasible,…

  10. An Analysis of the California State University and Colleges Early Retirement Incentive Program: A Report Pursuant to Chapter 656 of the Statutes of 1979.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reinhard, Raymond M.

    The California State University and Colleges' (CSUC) Early Retirement Incentive (ERI) Program is described, and information is presented of those who retire during a three-month period with an incentive bonus of two additional years of (unearned) retirement service credit. During the eligibility period 1,047 CSUC employees retired, and it appears…

  11. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  12. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  13. 46 CFR 393.5 - Incentives, Impediments and Solutions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. 393.5 Section 393... AMERICA'S MARINE HIGHWAY PROGRAM § 393.5 Incentives, Impediments and Solutions. (a) Summary. The purpose of this section is to identify short term incentives and solutions to impediments in order...

  14. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... any later than CY 2016. (2) Subsequent annual payment years. (i) For subsequent payment years, payment... receiving incentive payments for any year after FY 2016, and after FY 2016, a hospital may not receive an incentive payment unless it received an incentive payment in the prior fiscal year. (6) Prior to FY...

  15. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  16. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  17. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  18. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  19. 49 CFR 538.9 - Dual fuel vehicle incentive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION MANUFACTURING INCENTIVES FOR ALTERNATIVE FUEL VEHICLES § 538.9 Dual fuel vehicle incentive. The application of 49 U.S.C. 32905(b) and (d) to qualifying dual fuel vehicles... 49 Transportation 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Dual fuel vehicle incentive. 538.9 Section...

  20. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  1. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  2. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  3. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  4. 10 CFR 451.6 - Duration of incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Duration of incentive payments. 451.6 Section 451.6 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION RENEWABLE ENERGY PRODUCTION INCENTIVES § 451.6 Duration of incentive... part with respect to a qualified renewable energy facility for 10 consecutive fiscal years. Such...

  5. 42 CFR 495.102 - Incentive payments to EPs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Incentive payments to EPs. 495.102 Section 495.102... PROGRAM Requirements Specific to the Medicare Program § 495.102 Incentive payments to EPs. (a) General...) Increase in incentive payment limit for EPs who predominantly furnish services in a geographic HPSA. In...

  6. 33 CFR 402.5 - New Business Incentive Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false New Business Incentive Program..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TARIFF OF TOLLS § 402.5 New Business Incentive Program (a) To be eligible for the rebate applicable under the New Business Incentive Program, a carrier must submit an...

  7. 33 CFR 402.5 - New Business Incentive Program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false New Business Incentive Program..., DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION TARIFF OF TOLLS § 402.5 New Business Incentive Program (a) To be eligible for the rebate applicable under the New Business Incentive Program, a carrier must submit an...

  8. 45 CFR 96.87 - Leveraging incentive program.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 97-35 (42 U.S.C. 8626a). (2)(i) The only entities eligible to receive leveraging incentive funds from... period for which leveraging incentive funds are sought; and tribes and tribal organizations described in... under section 2602(b) in the award period, will receive leveraging incentive funds allocable to them...

  9. Development of cost-effective media to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction of natural food additives by Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger.

    PubMed

    Salgado, José Manuel; Rodríguez, Noelia; Cortés, Sandra; Domínguez, José Manuel

    2009-11-11

    Yeast extract (YE) is the most common nitrogen source in a variety of bioprocesses in spite of the high cost. Therefore, the use of YE in culture media is one of the major technical hurdles to be overcome for the development of low-cost fermentation routes, making the search for alternative-cheaper nitrogen sources particularly desired. The aim of the current study is to develop cost-effective media based on corn steep liquor (CSL) and locally available vinasses in order to increase the economic potential for larger-scale bioproduction. Three microorganisms were evaluated: Lactobacillus rhamnosus , Debaryomyces hansenii , and Aspergillus niger . The amino acid profile and protein concentration was relevant for the xylitol and citric acid production by D. hansenii and A. niger , respectively. Metals also played an important role for citric acid production, meanwhile, D. hansenii showed a strong dependence with the initial amount of Mg(2+). Under the best conditions, 28.8 g lactic acid/L (Q(LA) = 0.800 g/L.h, Y(LA/S) = 0.95 g/g), 35.3 g xylitol/L (Q(xylitol) = 0.380 g/L.h, Y(xylitol/S) = 0.69 g/g), and 13.9 g citric acid/L (Q(CA) = 0.146 g/L.h, Y(CA/S) = 0.63 g/g) were obtained. The economic efficiency (E(p/euro)) parameter identify vinasses as a lower cost and more effective nutrient source in comparison to CSL.

  10. From prediction error to incentive salience: mesolimbic computation of reward motivation

    PubMed Central

    Berridge, Kent C.

    2011-01-01

    Reward contains separable psychological components of learning, incentive motivation and pleasure. Most computational models have focused only on the learning component of reward, but the motivational component is equally important in reward circuitry, and even more directly controls behavior. Modeling the motivational component requires recognition of additional control factors besides learning. Here I will discuss how mesocorticolimbic mechanisms generate the motivation component of incentive salience. Incentive salience takes Pavlovian learning and memory as one input and as an equally important input takes neurobiological state factors (e.g., drug states, appetite states, satiety states) that can vary independently of learning. Neurobiological state changes can produce unlearned fluctuations or even reversals in the ability of a previously-learned reward cue to trigger motivation. Such fluctuations in cue-triggered motivation can dramatically depart from all previously learned values about the associated reward outcome. Thus a consequence of the difference between incentive salience and learning can be to decouple cue-triggered motivation of the moment from previously learned values of how good the associated reward has been in the past. Another consequence can be to produce irrationally strong motivation urges that are not justified by any memories of previous reward values (and without distorting associative predictions of future reward value). Such irrationally strong motivation may be especially problematic in addiction. To comprehend these phenomena, future models of mesocorticolimbic reward function should address the neurobiological state factors that participate to control generation of incentive salience. PMID:22487042

  11. The effect of framing incentives as either losses or gains with contingency management for smoking cessation.

    PubMed

    Romanowich, Paul; Lamb, R J

    2013-04-01

    Cumulative prospect theory predicts that losses motivate behavior more than equal gains. Contingency management procedures effectively reduce drug use by placing incentives in direct competition with the drug taking behavior. Therefore, framing incentives as losses, rather than gains should decrease drug use to a greater extent, given equivalent incentives. We examined whether contingent vouchers described as either losses or gains differentially affected smoking abstinence rates. Over 5 consecutive days, participants could either gain $75 per day for verified abstinence or lose $75 per day (initial endowment=$375) for continuing to smoke. As a result, loss-framed participants were more likely to achieve at least one day of abstinence. There was a trend towards loss-framed participants reducing the amount smoked more than gain-framed participants. However, participants in the gain-framed group were more likely to maintain abstinence, once initiated. The results partially support cumulative prospect theory and suggest additional ways to initiate behavior change using incentives, outside of using larger magnitude incentives in contingency management procedures.

  12. An analysis of cost effective incentives for initial commercial deployment of advanced clean coal technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Spencer, D.F.

    1997-12-31

    This analysis evaluates the incentives necessary to introduce commercial scale Advanced Clean Coal Technologies, specifically Integrated Coal Gasification Combined Cycle (ICGCC) and Pressurized Fluidized Bed Combustion (PFBC) powerplants. The incentives required to support the initial introduction of these systems are based on competitive busbar electricity costs with natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, in baseload service. A federal government price guarantee program for up to 10 Advanced Clean Coal Technology powerplants, 5 each ICGCC and PFBC systems is recommended in order to establish the commercial viability of these systems by 2010. By utilizing a decreasing incentives approach as the technologies mature (plants 1--5 of each type), and considering the additional federal government benefits of these plants versus natural gas fired combined cycle powerplants, federal government net financial exposure is minimized. Annual net incentive outlays of approximately 150 million annually over a 20 year period could be necessary. Based on increased demand for Advanced Clean Coal Technologies beyond 2010, the federal government would be revenue neutral within 10 years of the incentives program completion.

  13. Perceptions and experiences of financial incentives: a qualitative study of dialysis care in England

    PubMed Central

    Abma, Inger; Jayanti, Anuradha; Bayer, Steffen; Mitra, Sandip; Barlow, James

    2014-01-01

    Objective The objective of the study was to understand the extent to which financial incentives such as Payment by Results and other payment mechanisms motivate kidney centres in England to change their practices. Design The study followed a qualitative design. Data collection involved 32 in-depth semistructured interviews with healthcare professionals and managers, focusing on their subjective experience of payment structures. Participants Participants were kidney healthcare professionals, clinical directors, kidney centre managers and finance managers. Healthcare commissioners from different parts of England were also interviewed. Setting Participants worked at five kidney centres from across England. The selection was based on the prevalence of home haemodialysis, ranging from low (<3%), medium (5–8%) and high (>8%) prevalence, with at least one centre in each one of these categories at the time of selection. Results While the tariff for home haemodialysis is not a clear incentive for its adoption due to uncertainty about operational costs, Commissioning for Quality and Innovation (CQUIN) targets and the Best Practice Tariff for vascular access were seen by our case study centres as a motivator to change practices. Conclusions The impact of financial incentives designed at a policy level is influenced by the understanding of cost and benefits at the local operational level. In a situation where costs are unclear, incentives which are based on the improvement of profit margins have a smaller impact than incentives which provide an additional direct payment, even if this extra financial support is relatively small. PMID:24523426

  14. The State of 21st Century Financial Incentives for Americans with Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Council on Disability, 2008

    2008-01-01

    This National Council on Disability (NCD) report defines or describes financial incentives affecting people with disabilities and presents research findings in key areas of people's lives, such as education and health care. It also describes selected state-level innovations affecting asset development and wealth accumulation. In addition, the…

  15. Public and Private Incentives for Investment in Higher Education: Are They Sufficient, Especially for Black Males?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Appiah, Elizabeth N.

    2013-01-01

    The institutional costs of higher education have been rising. With diminishing public support per student, tuition and fees private costs have also been rising. But so have the real earnings of college graduates. Are there still sufficient incentives on efficiency grounds for additional public investment in higher education? And in particular,…

  16. 77 FR 67449 - Medicare Program; End-Stage Renal Disease Prospective Payment System, Quality Incentive Program...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-11-09

    ...This final rule updates and makes revisions to the end-stage renal disease (ESRD) prospective payment system (PPS) for calendar year (CY) 2013. This rule also sets forth requirements for the ESRD quality incentive program (QIP), including for payment year (PY) 2015 and beyond. In addition, this rule implements changes to bad debt reimbursement for all Medicare providers, suppliers, and other......

  17. 48 CFR 46.707 - Pricing aspects of fixed-price incentive contract warranties.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 46.708), the estimated cost of the warranty to the contractor should be considered in establishing the incentive target price and the ceiling price of the contract. All costs incurred, or estimated to... final price shall be at no additional cost to the Government....

  18. 77 FR 13697 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-03-07

    ...This proposed rule would specify the Stage 2 criteria that eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) must meet in order to qualify for Medicare and/or Medicaid electronic health record (EHR) incentive payments. In addition, it would specify payment adjustments under Medicare for covered professional services and hospital services provided by EPs,......

  19. 77 FR 53967 - Medicare and Medicaid Programs; Electronic Health Record Incentive Program-Stage 2

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-09-04

    ...This final rule specifies the Stage 2 criteria that eligible professionals (EPs), eligible hospitals, and critical access hospitals (CAHs) must meet in order to qualify for Medicare and/or Medicaid electronic health record (EHR) incentive payments. In addition, it specifies payment adjustments under Medicare for covered professional services and hospital services provided by EPs, eligible......

  20. Shared vision and autonomous motivation vs. financial incentives driving success in corporate acquisitions

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Byron C.

    2015-01-01

    Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives. PMID:25610406

  1. The effects of different recruitment and incentive strategies for body acceptance programs on college women

    PubMed Central

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K.; Bruening, Amanda B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The objective of this study—getting individuals to participate in eating disorder prevention programs—is difficult yet crucial for dissemination efforts. Little research has investigated what incentive strategies can be particularly efficacious, and even less is published on their cost-effectiveness. The following study examined two types of email advertisements and six incentive strategies in an empirically supported body acceptance program disseminated at a large university. A total of 5,978 undergraduate women received email advertisements, of which 430 signed up to participate. An additional 588 who did not participate were assessed. Results suggest the most effective incentives were offering gift certificates for free manicure services and free personal fashion style training gift certificates from a student organization. Undergraduate women were least likely to attend due to lack of knowledge about the program, not having a friend to attend with them, or inconvenient times. Implications for future research are explored. PMID:27310136

  2. The effects of different recruitment and incentive strategies for body acceptance programs on college women.

    PubMed

    Perez, Marisol; Ohrt, Tara K; Bruening, Amanda B

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study-getting individuals to participate in eating disorder prevention programs-is difficult yet crucial for dissemination efforts. Little research has investigated what incentive strategies can be particularly efficacious, and even less is published on their cost-effectiveness. The following study examined two types of email advertisements and six incentive strategies in an empirically supported body acceptance program disseminated at a large university. A total of 5,978 undergraduate women received email advertisements, of which 430 signed up to participate. An additional 588 who did not participate were assessed. Results suggest the most effective incentives were offering gift certificates for free manicure services and free personal fashion style training gift certificates from a student organization. Undergraduate women were least likely to attend due to lack of knowledge about the program, not having a friend to attend with them, or inconvenient times. Implications for future research are explored.

  3. Shared vision and autonomous motivation vs. financial incentives driving success in corporate acquisitions.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Byron C

    2014-01-01

    Successful corporate acquisitions require its managers to achieve substantial performance improvements in order to sufficiently cover acquisition premiums, the expected return of debt and equity investors, and the additional resources needed to capture synergies and accelerate growth. Acquirers understand that achieving the performance improvements necessary to cover these costs and create value for investors will most likely require a significant effort from mergers and acquisitions (M&A) management teams. This understanding drives the common and longstanding practice of offering hefty performance incentive packages to key managers, assuming that financial incentives will induce in-role and extra-role behaviors that drive organizational change and growth. The present study debunks the assumptions of this common M&A practice, providing quantitative evidence that shared vision and autonomous motivation are far more effective drivers of managerial performance than financial incentives.

  4. Adopting electronic medical records: what do the new federal incentives mean to your individual physician practice?

    PubMed

    Neclerio, John M; Cheney, Kathleen; Goldman, C Mitchell; Clark, Lisa W

    2009-01-01

    Under President Obama's American Recovery and Reinvestment Act of 2009, the federal government is offering incentives to physicians to adopt electronic health records. The goal is to improve quality of care and constrain costs. Higher incentive payments are available for those physicians who act quickly to meet the government's standards. Physicians who practice in "health professional shortage areas" and who serve mainly Medicaid recipients may qualify for additional incentives. Although compliance is "voluntary, "physicians who have not met the standards by 2015 will face reductions in their Medicare reimbursements unless they can show a significant hardship. Physicians can get started by contacting hospitals with which they are affiliated and professional associations to find out what vendors are being used in their service area. Agreements for electronic health records should be reviewed carefully to ensure that physicians' interests are protected.

  5. Essays in public economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seligman, Jason Scott

    2002-01-01

    Three essays in the field of public economics are included in this thesis. Chapter 1 begins this work with an introduction to public economics and places the remaining chapters in context. Like all economic agents, the government must manage its cash position. Chapter 2 considers this activity. Short-term financial requirements cause the government to solicit the market for bills not previously scheduled (Cash Management Bills). Using data from the US Treasury's Proprietary Domestic Finance Database, this chapter shows that these bills have higher costs than normal bills, suggesting that both Treasury and financial markets appreciate that demand is more inelastic for these instruments. In addition, this research identifies several factors that increase finance costs for Treasury in meeting short-term financial need. Chapter 3 explores location choices for generation investment in a re-regulated electricity market. Recently, there have been significant changes in the regulation of electricity in the State of California. These changes may affect generation investment behavior within the State, an important consideration for policy makers. This work identifies the impact of public sector regulatory change on private sector investment outcomes, by comparing the location and scope of electricity generation projects before and after two specific regulatory changes in air quality management and transmission tariff charges, while controlling for expected population growth patterns within the State. Significant changes in location preference are identified using factors for the northern and southern transmission zones, NP15 and SP15, the intermediate zone ZP26, and for areas outside of ISO control. Chapter 4 considers Disability Insurance and individual public pension investment accounts. Current debate on the Social Security Administration's long-term finance of benefits includes proposals for independent private investment via individual accounts. The author investigates

  6. Outcome-based and Participation-based Wellness Incentives

    PubMed Central

    Barleen, Nathan A.; Marzec, Mary L.; Boerger, Nicholas L.; Moloney, Daniel P.; Zimmerman, Eric M.; Dobro, Jeff

    2017-01-01

    Objective: This study examined whether worksite wellness program participation or achievement of health improvement targets differed according to four incentive types (participation-based, hybrid, outcome-based, and no incentive). Methods: The study included individuals who completed biometric health screenings in both 2013 and 2014 and had elevated metrics in 2013 (baseline year). Multivariate logistic regression modeling tested for differences in odds of participation and achievement of health improvement targets between incentive groups; controlling for demographics, employer characteristics, incentive amounts, and other factors. Results: No statistically significant differences between incentive groups occurred for odds of participation or achievement of health improvement target related to body mass index, blood pressure, or nonhigh-density lipoprotein cholesterol. Conclusions: Given the null findings of this study, employers cannot assume that outcome-based incentives will result in either increased program participation or greater achievement of health improvement targets than participation-based incentives. PMID:28146041

  7. Incentives for solar energy in industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bergeron, K. D.

    1981-05-01

    Several issues are analyzed on the effects that government subsidies and other incentives have on the use of solar energy in industry, as well as on other capital-intensive alternative energy supplies. Discounted cash flow analysis is used to compare tax deductions for fuel expenses with tax credits for capital investments for energy. The result is a simple expression for tax equity. The effects that market penetration of solar energy has on conventional energy prices are analyzed with a free market model. It is shown that net costs of a subsidy program to the society can be significantly reduced by price. Several government loan guarantee concepts are evaluated as incentives that may not require direct outlays of government funds; their relative effectiveness in achieving loan leverage through project financing, and their cost and practicality, are discussed.

  8. Developmental Effects of Incentives on Response Inhibition

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Charles F.; Luna, Beatriz

    2012-01-01

    Inhibitory control and incentive processes underlie decision-making, yet few studies have explicitly examined their interaction across development. Here, the effects of potential rewards and losses on inhibitory control in sixty-four adolescents (13-17-year-olds) and forty-two young adults (18-29-year-olds) were examined using an incentivized antisaccade task. Notably, measures were implemented to minimize age-related differences in reward valuation and potentially confounding motivation effects. Incentives affected antisaccade metrics differently across the age groups. Younger adolescents generated more errors than adults on reward trials, but all groups performed well on loss trials. Adolescent saccade latencies also differed from adults across the range of reward trials. Overall, results suggest persistent immaturities in the integration of reward and inhibitory control processes across adolescence. PMID:22540668

  9. WORK INCENTIVES IN AN AGE OF AUTOMATION.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LEVENSTEIN, AARON

    HISTORICAL AND PHILOSOPHICAL PREMISES ABOUT THE MEANING OF WORK AND THE ROLE OF WORK IN MAN'S LIFE ARE EXPLORED. ATTITUDES TOWARD WORK CHANGE AS INCENTIVES CHANGED. WORK HAD MEANING WHEN IT MEANT SURVIVAL OR WAS CONNECTED TO A FEAR OF GOD. FREUD SAW WORK AS A FORCE WHICH BINDS MAN TO REALITY. OTHERS SEE IT AS A MEANS TO SELF-FULLFILLMENT, OR AS A…

  10. Applying incentive sensitization models to behavioral addiction.

    PubMed

    Rømer Thomsen, Kristine; Fjorback, Lone O; Møller, Arne; Lou, Hans C

    2014-09-01

    The incentive sensitization theory is a promising model for understanding the mechanisms underlying drug addiction, and has received support in animal and human studies. So far the theory has not been applied to the case of behavioral addictions like Gambling Disorder, despite sharing clinical symptoms and underlying neurobiology. We examine the relevance of this theory for Gambling Disorder and point to predictions for future studies. The theory promises a significant contribution to the understanding of behavioral addiction and opens new avenues for treatment.

  11. A new device of incentive spirometry.

    PubMed

    Su, M Y; Chiang, C D; Huang, W L; Li, S J; King, S L; P'eng, F K

    1991-10-01

    Incentive spirometry is a feedback system to encourage patients to take a deep breath and produce a sustained maximal inspiration (SMI) for the primary purpose of opening and stabilizing atelectatic areas of the lung. However, currently available incentive devices are not reusable, expensive, and emphasize inspiratory effort only. We have designed a new device of incentive spirometer based on pursed-lip breathing technique. The device consists of a piece of paper hanging on a frame. The patient is instructed to take a deep and slow inspiration followed by holding the breath for 5 seconds. Then, using pursed-lip technique, the patient generates a flow to keep the paper attached to a bar as long as possible. The duration of paper blowing is recorded and is compared with vital capacity. In the present study 96 cases were recorded. Vital capacity was correlated well with paper blowing time (multiple regression test r = 0.87, p less than 0.0001). The advantages of our device include (1) reusibility and less cost, (2) equal emphasis of both inspiration and expiration, and (3) being especially helpful for patients with chronic obstructive lung disease (COPD). This is a preliminary result and further clinical study is needed.

  12. The right incentives enable ocean sustainability successes and provide hope for the future.

    PubMed

    Lubchenco, Jane; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B; Reimer, Jessica N; Levin, Simon A

    2016-12-20

    Healthy ocean ecosystems are needed to sustain people and livelihoods and to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Using the ocean sustainably requires overcoming many formidable challenges: overfishing, climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution. Despite gloomy forecasts, there is reason for hope. New tools, practices, and partnerships are beginning to transform local fisheries, biodiversity conservation, and marine spatial planning. The challenge is to bring them to a global scale. We dissect recent successes using a complex adaptive-systems (CAS) framework, which acknowledges the interconnectedness of social and ecological systems. Understanding how policies and practices change the feedbacks in CASs by altering the behavior of different system components is critical for building robust, sustainable states with favorable emergent properties. Our review reveals that altering incentives-either economic or social norms, or both-can achieve positive outcomes. For example, introduction of well-designed rights-based or secure-access fisheries and ecosystem service accounting shifts economic incentives to align conservation and economic benefits. Modifying social norms can create conditions that incentivize a company, country, or individual to fish sustainably, curb illegal fishing, or create large marine reserves as steps to enhance reputation or self-image. In each example, the feedbacks between individual actors and emergent system properties were altered, triggering a transition from a vicious to a virtuous cycle. We suggest that evaluating conservation tools by their ability to align incentives of actors with broader goals of sustainability is an underused approach that can provide a pathway toward scaling sustainability successes. In short, getting incentives right matters.

  13. Insurance companies’ point of view toward moral hazard incentives

    PubMed Central

    Khorasani, Elahe; Keyvanara, Mahmoud; Etemadi, Manal; Asadi, Somayeh; Mohammadi, Mahan; Barati, Maryam

    2016-01-01

    Moral hazards are the result of an expansive range of factors mostly originating in the patients’ roles. The objective of the present study was to investigate patient incentives for moral hazards using the experiences of experts of basic Iranian insurance organizations. This was a qualitative research. Data were collected through semi-structured interviews. The study population included all experts of basic healthcare insurance agencies in the City of Isfahan, Iran, who were familiar with the topic of moral hazards. A total of 18 individuals were selected through purposive sampling and interviewed and some criteria such as data reliability and stability were considered. The anonymity of the interviewees was preserved. The data were transcribed, categorized, and then, analyzed through thematic analysis method. Through thematic analysis, 2 main themes and 11 subthemes were extracted. The main themes included economic causes and moral-cultural causes affecting the phenomenon of moral hazards resulted from patients’ roles. Each of these themes has some sub-themes. False expectations from insurance companies are rooted in the moral and cultural values of individuals. People with the insurance coverage make no sense if using another person insurance identification or requesting physicians for prescribing the medicines. These expectations will lead them to moral hazards. Individuals with any insurance coverage should consider the rights of insurance agencies as third party payers and supportive organizations which disburden them from economical loads in the time of sickness. PMID:28050242

  14. United States/Mexico electricity exchanges. [History, incentives, and constraints

    SciTech Connect

    None,

    1980-05-01

    As a result of the agreement between the respective presidents, a joint study was undertaken to analyze the possibilities of increasing the international electricity exchange between the two countries. Responsibility for this undertaking was assigned to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and to the Direccion de Energia de Mexico (DEM) through the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE). Representatives from Mexico and the US were chosen from the regional utilities along the border between the two countries and made up working groups that particiated in the study. With the support of both governments, and a high degree of cooperation between the two countries, work on the study was completed within fourteen months The completion of the study has been a major step in broadening the base of bilateral energy relations. the study highlights the opportunities for increased electricity exchanges, which could increase cooperation along the common border. Expansion of electricity interchange could offer substantial economic benefit to both countries, both directly and indirectly. Direct benefits include increased reliability of electric power and cost savings through economies of scale and diversity of peak demand patterns. Indirect benefits include improved economic and employment opportunities, especially in the border areas of both countries. This report provides background on the history of past exchanges and the characteristics of the US and Mexico electric systems, a summary of opportunities and incentives, and suggestions for procedures to remove obstacles and constraints.

  15. Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration. [Applicability to USA

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1980-04-01

    During the 1970s a number of different exploration and production incentive programs were put in place in Canada, in particular in the Province of Alberta, Canada's principal oil- and gas-producing province. The DOE/RA is evaluating Canadian incentives for oil and gas exploration, and this study is intended to provide information that will help guide DOE/RA in determining the applicability of Canadian incentive programs in US energy policy. The study describes and documents the fiscal structure in which the Canadian oil industry operates. The incentive features of pricing policy, taxation policy, and provincial royalty systems are discussed. A principal focus of the study is on one of the most important of Canada's specific incentive programs, the Alberta Exploratory Drilling Incentive Credit Program (EDICP). The study describes and evaluates the effect of the EDICP on increased oil and gas exploration activity. Similarly, the study also reviews and evaluates other specific incentive programs such as the Alberta Geophysical Incentive Program, Frontier Exploration Allowances, and various tar sand and heavy oil development incentives. Finally the study evaluates the applicability of Canadian incentives to US energy policy.

  16. 7 CFR 1455.21 - Additional responsibilities of grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 1455.21 Additional responsibilities of grantee. (a) Before receiving grant... grant amount reduced by 25 percent if opening dates for migratory bird hunting in the State are...

  17. 7 CFR 1455.21 - Additional responsibilities of grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 1455.21 Additional responsibilities of grantee. (a) Before receiving grant... grant amount reduced by 25 percent if opening dates for migratory bird hunting in the State are...

  18. 7 CFR 1455.21 - Additional responsibilities of grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 1455.21 Additional responsibilities of grantee. (a) Before receiving grant... owners or operators that enroll farm, ranch, and forest land; and (3) Provide an accounting for the...

  19. 7 CFR 1455.21 - Additional responsibilities of grantee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... HABITAT INCENTIVE PROGRAM § 1455.21 Additional responsibilities of grantee. (a) Before receiving grant... owners or operators that enroll farm, ranch, and forest land; and (3) Provide an accounting for the...

  20. Merit-Based Incentive Payment System: Meaningful Changes in the Final Rule Brings Cautious Optimism.

    PubMed

    Manchikanti, Laxmaiah; Helm Ii, Standiford; Calodney, Aaron K; Hirsch, Joshua A

    2017-01-01

    The Medicare Access and CHIP Reauthorization Act of 2015 (MACRA) eliminated the flawed Sustainable Growth Rate (SGR) act formula - a longstanding crucial issue of concern for health care providers and Medicare beneficiaries. MACRA also included a quality improvement program entitled, "The Merit-Based Incentive Payment System, or MIPS." The proposed rule of MIPS sought to streamline existing federal quality efforts and therefore linked 4 distinct programs into one. Three existing programs, meaningful use (MU), Physician Quality Reporting System (PQRS), value-based payment (VBP) system were merged with the addition of Clinical Improvement Activity category. The proposed rule also changed the name of MU to Advancing Care Information, or ACI. ACI contributes to 25% of composite score of the four programs, PQRS contributes 50% of the composite score, while VBP system, which deals with resource use or cost, contributes to 10% of the composite score. The newest category, Improvement Activities or IA, contributes 15% to the composite score. The proposed rule also created what it called a design incentive that drives movement to delivery system reform principles with the inclusion of Advanced Alternative Payment Models (APMs).Following the release of the proposed rule, the medical community, as well as Congress, provided substantial input to Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services (CMS),expressing their concern. American Society of Interventional Pain Physicians (ASIPP) focused on 3 important aspects: delay the implementation, provide a 3-month performance period, and provide ability to submit meaningful quality measures in a timely and economic manner. The final rule accepted many of the comments from various organizations, including several of those specifically emphasized by ASIPP, with acceptance of 3-month reporting period, as well as the ability to submit non-MIPS measures to improve real quality and make the system meaningful. CMS also provided a mechanism for

  1. Maximizing Energy Savings Reliability in BC Hydro Industrial Demand-side Management Programs: An Assessment of Performance Incentive Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gosman, Nathaniel

    For energy utilities faced with expanded jurisdictional energy efficiency requirements and pursuing demand-side management (DSM) incentive programs in the large industrial sector, performance incentive programs can be an effective means to maximize the reliability of planned energy savings. Performance incentive programs balance the objectives of high participation rates with persistent energy savings by: (1) providing financial incentives and resources to minimize constraints to investment in energy efficiency, and (2) requiring that incentive payments be dependent on measured energy savings over time. As BC Hydro increases its DSM initiatives to meet the Clean Energy Act objective to reduce at least 66 per cent of new electricity demand with DSM by 2020, the utility is faced with a higher level of DSM risk, or uncertainties that impact the costeffective acquisition of planned energy savings. For industrial DSM incentive programs, DSM risk can be broken down into project development and project performance risks. Development risk represents the project ramp-up phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not materialize due to low customer response to program incentives. Performance risk represents the operational phase and is the risk that planned energy savings do not persist over the effective measure life. DSM project development and performance risks are, in turn, a result of industrial economic, technological and organizational conditions, or DSM risk factors. In the BC large industrial sector, and characteristic of large industrial sectors in general, these DSM risk factors include: (1) capital constraints to investment in energy efficiency, (2) commodity price volatility, (3) limited internal staffing resources to deploy towards energy efficiency, (4) variable load, process-based energy saving potential, and (5) a lack of organizational awareness of an operation's energy efficiency over time (energy performance). This research assessed the capacity

  2. Innovative business approaches for incenting health promotion in sub-Saharan Africa: progress and persisting challenges.

    PubMed

    Patel, Deepak N; Nossel, Craig; Alexander, Eleanore; Yach, Derek

    2013-01-01

    Non-communicable chronic diseases related to behaviors such as tobacco use, overeating, excess alcohol intake and physical inactivity account for increasing morbidity and mortality in South Africa. Over the last 15 years, Discovery Health, the largest private health plan in South Africa, has developed a voluntary health promotion program called Vitality with over 1.5 million members. Vitality was designed with many applications drawn from the growing field of behavioral economics, including the use of incentives and rewards. Incentives offered on the program are aimed at lowering the financial barriers to activities such as visiting the gym, buying healthy food or receiving preventive screening. Members accrue points for engagement which translate into discounts on a range of goods and services. Although the full impact of the program cannot yet be quantified, engagement with the program is continually increasing and there is compelling evidence that this translates into better health and cost outcomes.

  3. Benefits of Government Incentives for Reusable Launch Vehicle Development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaw, Eric J.; Hamaker, Joseph W.; Prince, Frank A.

    1998-01-01

    Many exciting new opportunities in space, both government missions and business ventures, could be realized by a reduction in launch prices. Reusable launch vehicle (RLV) designs have the potential to lower launch costs dramatically from those of today's expendable and partially-expendable vehicles. Unfortunately, governments must budget to support existing launch capability, and so lack the resources necessary to completely fund development of new reusable systems. In addition, the new commercial space markets are too immature and uncertain to motivate the launch industry to undertake a project of this magnitude and risk. Low-cost launch vehicles will not be developed without a mature market to service; however, launch prices must be reduced in order for a commercial launch market to mature. This paper estimates and discusses the various benefits that may be reaped from government incentives for a commercial reusable launch vehicle program.

  4. Modeling regulated water utility investment incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Padula, S.; Harou, J. J.

    2014-12-01

    This work attempts to model the infrastructure investment choices of privatized water utilities subject to rate of return and price cap regulation. The goal is to understand how regulation influences water companies' investment decisions such as their desire to engage in transfers with neighbouring companies. We formulate a profit maximization capacity expansion model that finds the schedule of new supply, demand management and transfer schemes that maintain the annual supply-demand balance and maximize a companies' profit under the 2010-15 price control process in England. Regulatory incentives for costs savings are also represented in the model. These include: the CIS scheme for the capital expenditure (capex) and incentive allowance schemes for the operating expenditure (opex) . The profit-maximizing investment program (what to build, when and what size) is compared with the least cost program (social optimum). We apply this formulation to several water companies in South East England to model performance and sensitivity to water network particulars. Results show that if companies' are able to outperform the regulatory assumption on the cost of capital, a capital bias can be generated, due to the fact that the capital expenditure, contrarily to opex, can be remunerated through the companies' regulatory capital value (RCV). The occurrence of the 'capital bias' or its entity depends on the extent to which a company can finance its investments at a rate below the allowed cost of capital. The bias can be reduced by the regulatory penalties for underperformances on the capital expenditure (CIS scheme); Sensitivity analysis can be applied by varying the CIS penalty to see how and to which extent this impacts the capital bias effect. We show how regulatory changes could potentially be devised to partially remove the 'capital bias' effect. Solutions potentially include allowing for incentives on total expenditure rather than separately for capex and opex and allowing

  5. Investment Incentives and the Implementation of the Framework Convention on Tobacco Control: Evidence from Zambia

    PubMed Central

    Drope, Jeffrey; Labonte, Ronald; Zulu, Richard; Goma, Fastone

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Policy misalignment across different sectors of government serves as one of the pivotal barriers to WHO Framework convention on Tobacco Control (FCTC) implementation. This paper examines the logic used by government officials to justify providing investment incentives to increase tobacco processing and manufacturing in the context of FCTC implementation in Zambia. Methods We conducted qualitative semi-structured interviews with key informants from government, civil society and intergovernmental economic organizations (n=23). We supplemented the interview data with an analysis of public documents pertaining to economic development policy in Zambia. Results We found gross misalignments between the policies of the economic sector and efforts to implement the provisions of the FCTC. Our interviews uncovered the rationale used by officials in the economic sector to justify providing economic incentives to bolster tobacco processing and manufacturing in Zambia: 1) tobacco is not consumed by Zambians/tobacco is an export commodity, 2) economic benefits outweigh health costs, and 3) tobacco consumption is a personal choice. Conclusions Much of the struggle Zambia has experienced implementing the FCTC can be attributed to misalignments between the economic and health sectors. Zambia’s development agenda seeks to bolster agricultural processing and manufacturing. Tobacco control proponents must understand and work within this context of economic development in order to foster productive strategies with those working on tobacco supply issues. These findings are broadly applicable to the global analysis on the barriers and facilitators of FCTC implementation. It is important that the Ministry of Health monitors the tobacco policy of other sectors and engages with these sectors to find ways of harmonizing FCTC implementation across sectors. PMID:26135987

  6. Initial uncertainty in Pavlovian reward prediction persistently elevates incentive salience and extends sign-tracking to normally unattractive cues.

    PubMed

    Robinson, Mike J F; Anselme, Patrick; Fischer, Adam M; Berridge, Kent C

    2014-06-01

    Uncertainty is a component of many gambling games and may play a role in incentive motivation and cue attraction. Uncertainty can increase the attractiveness for predictors of reward in the Pavlovian procedure of autoshaping, visible as enhanced sign-tracking (or approach and nibbles) by rats of a metal lever whose sudden appearance acts as a conditioned stimulus (CS+) to predict sucrose pellets as an unconditioned stimulus (UCS). Here we examined how reward uncertainty might enhance incentive salience as sign-tracking both in intensity and by broadening the range of attractive CS+s. We also examined whether initially induced uncertainty enhancements of CS+ attraction can endure beyond uncertainty itself, and persist even when Pavlovian prediction becomes 100% certain. Our results show that uncertainty can broaden incentive salience attribution to make CS cues attractive that would otherwise not be (either because they are too distal from reward or too risky to normally attract sign-tracking). In addition, uncertainty enhancement of CS+ incentive salience, once induced by initial exposure, persisted even when Pavlovian CS-UCS correlations later rose toward 100% certainty in prediction. Persistence suggests an enduring incentive motivation enhancement potentially relevant to gambling, which in some ways resembles incentive-sensitization. Higher motivation to uncertain CS+s leads to more potent attraction to these cues when they predict the delivery of uncertain rewards. In humans, those cues might possibly include the sights and sounds associated with gambling, which contribute a major component of the play immersion experienced by problematic gamblers.

  7. Early Retirement Incentives and Student Achievement.

    PubMed

    Fitzpatrick, Maria D; Lovenheim, Michael F

    2014-08-01

    Early retirement incentives (ERIs) are increasingly prevalent in education as districts seek to close budget gaps by replacing expensive experienced teachers with lower-cost newer teachers. Combined with the aging of the teacher workforce, these ERIs are likely to change the composition of teachers dramatically in the coming years. We use exogenous variation from an ERI program in Illinois in the mid-1990s to provide the first evidence in the literature of the effects of large-scale teacher retirements on student achievement. We find the program did not reduce test scores; likely, it increased them, with positive effects most pronounced in lower-SES schools.

  8. Financial incentives for reducing proliferation risks

    SciTech Connect

    Weise, Rachel A.; Hund, Gretchen

    2016-08-15

    This article submitted for publication to the Bulletin of Atomic Scientists explains the possible financial incentives for financial institutions and large integrators to reduce nuclear proliferation risks by including anti-proliferation measures in their due diligence and requiring their suppliers to meet heightened compliance standards. Because manufacturers of dual-use nuclear goods are diverse and numerous outreach is difficult. However, financial institutions and large integrators work with nearly all dual-use manufacturers, making financial institutions and integrators well-positioned to increase awareness of proliferation and trafficking risks throughout the nuclear supply chain

  9. Incentive-Based Conservation Programs in Developing Countries: A Review of Some Key Issues and Suggestions for Improvements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepalz, Sanjay K.

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in developing countries has been a challenge because of the combination of rising human populations, rapid technological advances, severe social hardships, and extreme poverty. To address the social, economic, and ecological limitations of people-free parks and reserves, incentives have been incorporated into conservation programs in the hopes of making conservation meaningful to local people. However, such incentive-based programs have been implemented with little consideration for their ability to fulfill promises of greater protection of biodiversity. Evaluations of incentive-based conservation programs indicate that the approach continually falls short of the rhetoric. This article provides an overview of the problems associated with incentive-based conservation approaches in developing countries. It argues that existing incentive-based programs (IBPs) have yet to realize that benefits vary greatly at different “community” scales and that a holistic conceptualization of a community is essential to incorporate the complexities of a heterogeneous community when designing and implementing the IBPs. The spatial complexities involved in correctly identifying the beneficiaries in a community and the short-term focus of IBPs are two major challenges for sustaining conservation efforts. The article suggests improvements in three key areas: accurate identification of “target” beneficiaries, greater inclusion of marginal communities, and efforts to enhance community aptitudes.

  10. Incentive-based conservation programs in developing countries: a review of some key issues and suggestions for improvements.

    PubMed

    Spiteri, Arian; Nepalz, Sanjay K

    2006-01-01

    Biodiversity conservation in developing countries has been a challenge because of the combination of rising human populations, rapid technological advances, severe social hardships, and extreme poverty. To address the social, economic, and ecological limitations of people-free parks and reserves, incentives have been incorporated into conservation programs in the hopes of making conservation meaningful to local people. However, such incentive-based programs have been implemented with little consideration for their ability to fulfill promises of greater protection of biodiversity. Evaluations of incentive-based conservation programs indicate that the approach continually falls short of the rhetoric. This article provides an overview of the problems associated with incentive-based conservation approaches in developing countries. It argues that existing incentive-based programs (IBPs) have yet to realize that benefits vary greatly at different "community" scales and that a holistic conceptualization of a community is essential to incorporate the complexities of a heterogeneous community when designing and implementing the IBPs. The spatial complexities involved in correctly identifying the beneficiaries in a community and the short-term focus of IBPs are two major challenges for sustaining conservation efforts. The article suggests improvements in three key areas: accurate identification of "target" beneficiaries, greater inclusion of marginal communities, and efforts to enhance community aptitudes.

  11. A National Perspective: Teacher Incentives and Educational Reform Measures. Policy Perspectives on Teacher Incentive Planning.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bartell, Carol A.

    Many recent reports have predicted an impending crisis in the teaching profession. At the heart of the reports and the reform effort lies the notion that in order to improve school experience for children, school experiences for teachers ought to be improved. This paper deals with teacher incentives as a means of attracting, retaining, and…

  12. Practical implications of incentive systems are utilized by dental franchises.

    PubMed

    Yavner, S B

    1989-01-01

    The success of any dental practice depends, among other factors, on the critical role of staff employees. In order to encourage desired staff behaviors, incentive systems can be designed for employee dentists, assistants/hygienists and managers. A survey of dental franchises was conducted in 1987 for the purpose of examining their incentive control systems. The specific incentives employed by these dental franchises for their employees are analyzed. The implications of these incentive systems used by dental franchise organizations for all dental practices are then discussed.

  13. Incentives and the siting of radioactive waste facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Carnes, S.A.; Copenhaver, E.D.; Reed, J.H.; Soderstrom, E.J.; Sorensen, J.H.; Peelle, E.; Bjornstad, D.J.

    1982-08-01

    The importance of social and institutional issues in the siting of nuclear waste facilities has been recognized in recent years. Limited evidence from a survey of rural Wisconsin residents in 1980 indicates that incentives may help achieve the twin goals of increasing local support and decreasing local opposition to hosting nuclear waste facilities. Incentives are classified according to functional categories (i.e., mitigation, compensation, and reward) and the conditions which may be prerequisites to the use of incentives are outlined (i.e., guarantee of public health and safety, some measure of local control, and a legitimation of negotiations during siting). Criteria for evaluating the utility of incentives in nuclear waste repository siting are developed. Incentive packages may be more useful than single incentives, and nonmonetary incentives, such as independent monitoring and access to credible information, may be as important in eliciting support as monetary incentives. Without careful attention to prerequisites in the siting process it is not likely that incentives will facilitate the siting process.

  14. USSR Report, Economic Affairs No. 1067

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Prigozhin Economic Incentives for Design Organizations (P. Degtyarev; PRAVDA, 6 Jul 83) 8 PLANNING AND PLAN IMPLEMENTATION Supply...Authorizations in Goal Program Planning (V. Shalimov; EKONOMICHESKAYA GAZETA, No 24, Jun 83) . 12 Methodological Problems of Planning Examined (S...MATERIAL’NO-TEKHNICHESKOYE SNABZHENIYE, No 7, Jul 83) 19 REGIONAL DEVELOPMENT Progress, Plans for Georgian SSR Viewed (Various sources

  15. A utility that believes in incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Leonard, J.W.

    1992-12-01

    PSI Energy, not so long ago a ship in distress, is developing internal practices and regulatory proposals designed to provide incentives at every level of the company. When Jim Rogers can to PSI Energy (then Public Service Co. of Indiana) in 1988 as chairman, president and chief executive officer, he faced a difficult task. First, he had to rebuild the financial health of a utility that had virtually all its common equity wiped out by the write-off of the abandoned Marble Hill nuclear project, in which the company had 83% interest. Second, he had to restore the company's public image and the credibility gap between PSI and most of its stakeholders. Lastly, he had to restore the pride and energy of a work force that had been beaten down by over ten years of dealing with the Marble Hill problem. This article discusses the changes implemented at PSI that have involved not only various proposals to regulators for more incentive-based regulatory mechanisms, but also innovations in how employee performance is measured and rewarded. 7 refs., 3 figs.

  16. The effect of task demand and incentive on neurophysiological and cardiovascular markers of effort.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Ewing, Kate

    2017-01-19

    According to motivational intensity theory, effort is proportional to the level of task demand provided that success is possible and successful performance is deemed worthwhile. The current study represents a simultaneous manipulation of demand (working memory load) and success importance (financial incentive) to investigate neurophysiological (EEG) and cardiovascular measures of effort. A 2×2 repeated-measures study was conducted where 18 participants performed a n-back task under three conditions of demand: easy (1-back), hard (4-back) and very hard (7-back). In addition, participants performed these tasks in the presence of performance-contingent financial incentive or in a no-incentive (pilot trial) condition. Three bands of EEG activity were quantified: theta (4-7Hz), lower-alpha (7.5-10Hz) and upper-alpha (10.5-13Hz). Fronto-medial activity in the theta band and activity in the upper-alpha band at frontal, central and parietal sites were sensitive to demand and indicated greatest effort when the task was challenging and success was possible. Mean systolic blood pressure and activity in the lower-alpha band at parietal sites were also sensitive to demand but also increased in the incentive condition across all levels of task demand. The results of the study largely support the predictions of motivational intensity using neurophysiological markers of effort.

  17. Can Economic Analysis Contribute to Disease Elimination and Eradication? A Systematic Review

    PubMed Central

    Sicuri, Elisa; Evans, David B.; Tediosi, Fabrizio

    2015-01-01

    Background Infectious diseases elimination and eradication have become important areas of focus for global health and countries. Due to the substantial up-front investments required to eliminate and eradicate, and the overall shortage of resources for health, economic analysis can inform decision making on whether elimination/eradication makes economic sense and on the costs and benefits of alternative strategies. In order to draw lessons for current and future initiatives, we review the economic literature that has addressed questions related to the elimination and eradication of infectious diseases focusing on: why, how and for whom? Methods A systematic review was performed by searching economic literature (cost-benefit, cost-effectiveness and economic impact analyses) on elimination/eradication of infectious diseases published from 1980 to 2013 from three large bibliographic databases: one general (SCOPUS), one bio-medical (MEDLINE/PUBMED) and one economic (IDEAS/REPEC). Results A total of 690 non-duplicate papers were identified from which only 43 met the inclusion criteria. In addition, only one paper focusing on equity issues, the “for whom?” question, was found. The literature relating to “why?” is the largest, much of it focusing on how much it would cost. A more limited literature estimates the benefits in terms of impact on economic growth with mixed results. The question of how to eradicate or eliminate was informed by an economic literature highlighting that there will be opportunities for individuals and countries to free-ride and that forms of incentives and/or disincentives will be needed. This requires government involvement at country level and global coordination. While there is little doubt that eliminating infectious diseases will eventually improve equity, it will only happen if active steps to promote equity are followed on the path to elimination and eradication. Conclusion The largest part of the literature has focused on costs and

  18. Designing effective incentives for energy conservation in the public sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drezner, Jeffrey Alan

    Understanding why government officials behave in certain ways under particular circumstances is an important theme in political science. This research explores the design of policies and incentives targeted at public sector officials, in particular the use of market based policy tools in a non-market environment, and the influence of that organizational environment on the effectiveness of the policy. The research examines the case of Department of Defense (DoD) facility energy management. DoD energy policy includes a provision for the retention of savings generated by conservation activities: two-thirds of the savings is retained at the installation generating the savings, half to used for further investment in energy conservation, and half to be used for general morale, welfare, and recreation activities. This policy creates a financial incentive for installation energy managers to establish higher quality and more active conservation programs. A formal written survey of installation energy managers within DoD was conducted, providing data to test hypotheses regarding policy effectiveness and factors affecting policy implementation. Additionally, two detailed implementation case studies were conducted in order to gain further insights. Results suggest that policy design needs to account for the environment within which the policy will be implemented, particularly organizational culture and standard operating procedures. The retention of savings policy failed to achieve its intended outcome---retention of savings for re-investment in energy conservation---because the role required of the financial management community was outside its normal mode of operation and interests and the budget process for allocating resources did not include a mechanism for retention of savings. The policy design did not adequately address these start-up barriers to implementation. This analysis has shown that in order for retention of savings, or similar policies based on market

  19. Household response to environmental incentives for rain garden adoption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newburn, David A.; Alberini, Anna

    2016-02-01

    A decentralized approach to encourage the voluntary adoption of household stormwater management practices is increasingly needed to mitigate urban runoff and to comply with more stringent water quality regulations. We analyze the household response to a hypothetical rebate program to incentivize rain garden adoption using household survey data from the Baltimore-Washington corridor. We asked respondents whether the household would adopt a rain garden without a rebate or when offered a randomly assigned rebate. An interval-data model is used to estimate household demand on the willingness to pay (WTP) for a rain garden as a function of demographic factors, gardening activities, environmental attitudes, and other household characteristics. Estimation results indicate that mean WTP for a rain garden in our sample population is approximately $6.72 per square foot, corresponding to almost three-fourths of the installation cost. The expected adoption rate more than tripled when comparing no rebate versus a government rebate set at one-third of the installation cost, indicating that economic incentives matter. There is substantial heterogeneity in the WTP among households. Higher levels of WTP are estimated for households with higher environmental concern for the Chesapeake Bay and local streams, garden experience, higher income, and non-senior citizen adults. We conclude that a cost-share rebate approach is likely to significantly affect household adoption decisions, and the partial contributions paid by households can assist with lowering the substantial compliance costs for local governments to meet water quality requirements.

  20. External Economic Drivers and U.S. Agricultural Production Systems

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    U.S agriculture operates in a market driven economy. As with other businesses, agricultural producers respond to economic incentives and disincentives and make decisions to maximize their welfare. In this paper we examine external economic drivers that shape agricultural systems. Specifically, we c...

  1. Payment systems and incentives in dentistry.

    PubMed

    Grytten, Jostein

    2016-11-03

    In this commentary, we discuss the advantages and disadvantages of the following incentive-based remuneration systems in dentistry: fee-for-service remuneration, per capita remuneration, a mixed payment system (a combination of fee-for-service remuneration and per capita remuneration) and pay-for-performance. The two latter schemes are fairly new in dentistry. Fee-for-service payments secure high quality, but lead to increased costs, probably due to supplier-induced demand. Per capita payments secure effectiveness, but may lead to under-treatment and patient selection. A mixed payment scheme produces results somewhere between over- and under-treatment. The prospective component (the per capita payment) promotes efficiency, while the retrospective component (the fee-for-service payment) secures high quality of the care that is provided. A pay-for-performance payment scheme is specifically designed towards improvements in dental health. This is done by linking provider reimbursements directly to performance indicators measuring dental health outcomes and quality of the services. Experience from general health services is that pay-for-performance payment has not been very successful. This is due to significant design and implementation obstacles and lack of provider acceptance. A major criticism of all the incentive-based remuneration schemes is that they may undermine the dentists' intrinsic motivation for performing a task. This is a crowding-out effect, which is particularly strong when monetary incentives are introduced for care that is cognitively demanding and complex, for example as in dentistry. One way in which intrinsic motivation may not be undermined is to introduce a fixed salary component into the remuneration scheme. Dentists would then be able to choose their type of contract according to their abilities and their preferences for nonmonetary rewards as opposed to monetary rewards. If a fixed salary component cannot be introduced into the remuneration

  2. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA.... Within twelve months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD the final tax incentives... Renewal Community. (c) Community participation. The CoRA must ensure that the preliminary and final...

  3. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ....507 Tax incentives utilization plan. (a) Preliminary plan. Within six months of designation, the CoRA.... Within twelve months of designation, the CoRA must prepare and submit to HUD the final tax incentives... Renewal Community. (c) Community participation. The CoRA must ensure that the preliminary and final...

  4. Encouraging Contributions in Learning Networks Using Incentive Mechanisms

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hummel, H. G. K.; Burgos, D.; Tattersall, C.; Brouns, F.; Kurvers, H.; Koper, R.

    2005-01-01

    We investigate incentive mechanisms to increase active participation in Learning Networks (LNs). The LN under study is LN4LD, an LN for the exchange of information about the IMS Learning Design specification. We examine how to encourage learners in LN4LD to contribute their knowledge, and whether incentive mechanisms can increase the level of…

  5. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  6. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  7. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  8. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... RELATED PROGRAMS PREVIOUSLY ADMINISTERED UNDER THIS PART § 701.45 Forestry Incentives Program...

  9. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  10. 7 CFR 701.45 - Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 7 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. 701.45 Section 701.45 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FARM SERVICE AGENCY... Forestry Incentives Program (FIP) contracts. The regulations governing the FIP as of July 31, 2002,...

  11. Technology Incentives: Motivating Teachers to Attend Professional Development Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Richard, Virginia

    2007-01-01

    Technology incentives are a great way to motivate teachers to learn to use technology. Polk County Schools in Florida has proven that technology incentives work to their advantage. A highlight that motivates Polk County teachers, is that a technology coaching program is in place to assist teachers at different schools. In this article, the author…

  12. 1985 Winners of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards. Tenth Anniversary.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Association of College and University Business Officers, Washington, DC.

    Fifty-two cost reduction efforts on college and university campuses are described, as part of the Cost Reduction Incentive Awards Program sponsored by the National Association of College and University Business Officers and the United States Steel Foundation. The incentive program is designed to stimulate cost-effective ideas and awareness of the…

  13. 48 CFR 3416.402-2 - Performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Performance incentives. 3416.402-2 Section 3416.402-2 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATION...-2 Performance incentives. (b) Award-term contracting may be used for performance-based contracts...

  14. 42 CFR 495.310 - Medicaid provider incentive payments.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... may not begin receiving payments any later than CY 2016. (2) Subsequent annual payment years. (i) For... after FY 2016, and after FY 2016, a hospital may not receive an incentive payment unless it received an incentive payment in the prior fiscal year. (6) Prior to FY 2016, payments can be made to an...

  15. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (other than a facilities contract) is contemplated: Incentive Fee (JUN... determined as provided in this contract. (b) Target cost and target fee. The target cost and target fee... (d) below. (1) Target cost, as used in this contract, means the estimated cost of this contract...

  16. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (other than a facilities contract) is contemplated: Incentive Fee (JUN... determined as provided in this contract. (b) Target cost and target fee. The target cost and target fee... (d) below. (1) Target cost, as used in this contract, means the estimated cost of this contract...

  17. 48 CFR 52.216-10 - Incentive Fee.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... cost-plus-incentive-fee contract (other than a facilities contract) is contemplated: Incentive Fee (JUN... determined as provided in this contract. (b) Target cost and target fee. The target cost and target fee... (d) below. (1) Target cost, as used in this contract, means the estimated cost of this contract...

  18. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar incentives of the contract. To that end, when performance, design-to-cost, or similar targets are set...

  19. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  20. 12 CFR 2.4 - Bonus and incentive plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Bonus and incentive plans. 2.4 Section 2.4 Banks and Banking COMPTROLLER OF THE CURRENCY, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY SALES OF CREDIT LIFE INSURANCE § 2.4 Bonus and incentive plans. A bank employee or officer may participate in a bonus or...

  1. Bioethical Issues in Providing Financial Incentives to Research Participants.

    PubMed

    Resnik, David B

    2015-06-24

    Offering research subjects financial incentives for their participation is a common practice that boosts recruitment but also raises ethical concerns, such as undue inducement, exploitation, and biased enrollment. This article reviews the arguments for providing participants with financial incentives, ethical concerns about payment, and approaches to establishing appropriate compensation levels. It also makes recommendations for investigators, institutions, and oversight committees.

  2. Incentives: Getting and Keeping Workers Involved in Health Promotion Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McKenzie, James F.; And Others

    1992-01-01

    The article explores motivation as it relates to worksite health promotion participation, addressing incentive use as a motivational means of getting and keeping employees involved in health promotion programs. It suggests various incentives to help program planners, categorizing them as social or material reinforcers. (SM)

  3. Early-Retirement Incentive Programs for Medical School Faculty.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jones, Robert F.

    1992-01-01

    A survey of 115 medical schools concerning early retirement benefits and incentives for faculty found that defined-contribution plans were preferred and were available at 37 percent of institutions. Incentive programs were used by 70 percent of schools during 1987-91. However, few early retirements have occurred. Program characteristics,…

  4. Individual Teacher Incentives, Student Achievement and Grade Inflation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martins, Pedro S.

    2010-01-01

    There is great interest in understanding the potential of teacher incentives to improve student achievement. In fact, teacher incentives, either individual or collective, may improve student achievement if they succeed in aligning the public or social goals with the goals of the teacher. However, an approach in which reward is based on outputs can…

  5. Teachers' Perceptions of Administrative Support in Incentive Grant Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Crowder, William J., Jr.

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate teachers' perceptions of administrative support in incentive grant schools. The primary objective of this study is to determine the effect of participation in an incentive grant on the perceived level of administrative support. The research questions were as follows: 1) Do teachers who are participating…

  6. Creating Teacher Incentives for School Excellence and Equity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berry, Barnett; Eckert, Jon

    2012-01-01

    Ensuring that all students in America's public schools are taught by good teachers is an educational and moral imperative. Teacher incentive proposals are rarely grounded on what high-quality research indicates are the kinds of teacher incentives that lead to school excellence and equity. Few of the current approaches to creating teacher…

  7. Offering Financial Incentives to Increase Adherence to Antipsychotic Medication

    PubMed Central

    Highton-Williamson, Elizabeth; Barnicot, Kirsten; Kareem, Tarrannum; Priebe, Stefan

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Financial incentives for medication adherence in patients with psychotic disorders are controversial. It is not yet known whether fears expressed by clinicians are borne out in reality. We aimed to explore community mental health clinicians’ experiences of the consequences of giving patients with psychotic disorders a financial incentive to take their depot medication. We implemented descriptive and thematic analyses of semistructured interviews with the clinicians of patients assigned to receive incentives within a randomized controlled trial. Fifty-nine clinicians were interviewed with regard to the effect of the incentives on 73 of the 78 patients allocated to receive incentives in the trial. Most commonly, the clinicians reported benefits for clinical management including improved adherence, contact, patient monitoring, communication, and trust (n = 52). Positive effects on symptoms, insight, or social functioning were reported for some (n = 33). Less commonly, problems for patient management were reported (n = 19) such as monetarization of the therapeutic relationship or negative consequences for the patient (n = 15) such as increased drug and alcohol use. Where requests for increased money occurred, they were rapidly resolved. It seems that, in most cases, the clinicians found that using incentives led to benefits for patient management and for patient health. However, in 33% of cases, some adverse effects were reported. It remains unclear whether certain clinical characteristics are associated with increased risk for adverse effects of financial incentives. The likelihood of benefit versus the smaller risk for adverse effects should be weighed up when deciding whether to offer incentives to individual patients. PMID:25692797

  8. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  9. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  10. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  11. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  12. 48 CFR 916.405 - Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Cost-reimbursement incentive contracts. 916.405 Section 916.405 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY CONTRACTING METHODS AND CONTRACT TYPES TYPES OF CONTRACTS Incentive Contracts 916.405...

  13. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... utilization plan for achieving the State and local commitments made at the time of application as required by... authorized to assist the CoRA in preparing the required tax incentives utilization plans. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization...

  14. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... utilization plan for achieving the State and local commitments made at the time of application as required by... authorized to assist the CoRA in preparing the required tax incentives utilization plans. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization...

  15. 24 CFR 599.507 - Tax incentives utilization plan.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... utilization plan for achieving the State and local commitments made at the time of application as required by... authorized to assist the CoRA in preparing the required tax incentives utilization plans. ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Tax incentives utilization...

  16. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  17. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  18. School and Teacher Performance Incentives: The Latin American Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mizala, Alejandra; Romaguera, Pilar

    2004-01-01

    This paper discusses performance evaluation and the introduction of incentives into education in Latin America from an analytical and methodological perspective. The aim is to describe ongoing strategies and learn from practical experiences in this field. The cases analyzed reveal that school-level evaluations and collective incentives adapt…

  19. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  20. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  1. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  2. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  3. 7 CFR 250.68 - Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). 250.68 Section 250.68 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) FOOD AND NUTRITION... Donated Food Outlets § 250.68 Nutrition Services Incentive Program (NSIP). (a) Distribution of...

  4. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  5. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  6. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  7. 48 CFR 1816.402-270 - NASA technical performance incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false NASA technical performance incentives. 1816.402-270 Section 1816.402-270 Federal Acquisition Regulations System NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND....402-270 NASA technical performance incentives. (a) Pursuant to the guidelines in 1816.402, NASA...

  8. Adaptive Incentive Controls for Stackelberg Games with Unknown Cost Functionals.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Games with Incentives," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the Modelling and Control of National Economies, Washington, D. C., June 1983...34Robustness of Incentive Policies in Team Problems with Discrepancies in Goal Perceptions," Preprints of the 4th IFAC/IFORS/ IIASA Conf. on the

  9. Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharp, J. K.

    1981-11-01

    Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated utilization rate with the proper incentives.

  10. Using Incentives To Promote Employee Health. WBGH Worksite Wellness Series.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yenney, Sharon L.

    The use of incentives by businesses is a well-accepted pattern of management-employee collaboration. Increasingly, U.S. businesses are using incentives to encourage employees to stay healthy. Research in the field of behavior modification indicates that positive reinforcement, negative consequences and restrictions, and feedback have great…

  11. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Incentives for RDAP participation. 550.54 Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An...

  12. 28 CFR 550.54 - Incentives for RDAP participation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 28 Judicial Administration 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Incentives for RDAP participation. 550.54 Section 550.54 Judicial Administration BUREAU OF PRISONS, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE INSTITUTIONAL MANAGEMENT DRUG PROGRAMS Drug Abuse Treatment Program § 550.54 Incentives for RDAP participation. (a) An...

  13. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar incentives of the contract. To that end, when performance, design-to-cost, or similar targets are set and incentivized, the targets of such incentives affected by the VECP are not to be adjusted because of...

  14. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  15. 10 CFR 212.78 - Tertiary incentive crude oil.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Tertiary incentive crude oil. 212.78 Section 212.78 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY OIL MANDATORY PETROLEUM PRICE REGULATIONS Producers of Crude Oil § 212.78 Tertiary incentive crude oil. Annual prepaid expenses report. By January 31 of each year after 1980, the...

  16. Economic potential of inertial fusion

    SciTech Connect

    Nuckolls, J.H.

    1984-04-01

    Beyond the achievement of scientific feasibility, the key question for fusion energy is: does it have the economic potential to be significantly cheaper than fission and coal energy. If fusion has this high economic potential then there are compelling commercial and geopolitical incentives to accelerate the pace of the fusion program in the near term, and to install a global fusion energy system in the long term. Without this high economic potential, fusion's success depends on the failure of all alternatives, and there is no real incentive to accelerate the program. If my conjectures on the economic potential of inertial fusion are approximately correct, then inertial fusion energy's ultimate costs may be only half to two-thirds those of advanced fission and coal energy systems. Relative cost escalation is not assumed and could increase this advantage. Both magnetic and inertial approaches to fusion potentially have a two-fold economic advantage which derives from two fundamental properties: negligible fuel costs and high quality energy which makes possible more efficient generation of electricity. The wining approach to fusion may excel in three areas: electrical generating efficiency, minimum material costs, and adaptability to manufacture in automated factories. The winning approach must also rate highly in environmental potential, safety, availability factor, lifetime, small 0 and M costs, and no possibility of utility-disabling accidents.

  17. Incentives and barriers to siting biomass ethanol plants

    SciTech Connect

    Donovan, C.T.; Fehrs, J.E.

    1996-12-31

    Currently, there are 38 facilities in the United States with the capacity to produce approximately 1.5 billion gallons of ethanol annually. Most are located in the Midwest and use corn as feedstock. Others use other starch-rich residues or waste materials, such as cheese whey, potato processing waste, and waste beer as feedstock. Ethanol can also be produced from cellulose-rich materials, such as wood waste, paper sludge, municipal solid waste, and short rotation woody crops. However, the processes to convert cellulosic biomass to ethanol are less technologically mature, which is the primary reason why no commercial facilities produce ethanol from cellulosic materials. A number of technical, economic, and environmental factors indicate there are substantial opportunities for producing ethanol from cellulosic materials. In the 11-state Northeast region alone (from Maine to Maryland), the amount of biomass materials discarded in 1993 and potentially available from energy crops in the future could produce more than 2.7 billion gallons per year of ethanol. If priority were placed in encouraging the use of high ethanol fuels (such as E85) in public vehicle fleets alone, as much as 175 million gallons per year of fuel could be used. Theoretical analyses of air, ash, and wastewater emissions from hypothetical biomass ethanol plants indicate such plants should be able to meet existing environmental standards. Sensitivity analyses of various siting issues indicate that the availability of production incentives, the cost of capital, and feedstock cost have the greatest impact on the economic viability of a biomass ethanol plant.

  18. Incentive motivation is associated with striatal dopamine asymmetry.

    PubMed

    Tomer, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wong, Christopher; Volkow, Nora D

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in modulating incentive motivation, expressed behaviorally as approach behavior. EEG studies report association between approach behavior and asymmetric pattern of activation in anterior cortical regions (as measured by the inverse of EEG alpha power). Therefore, individual differences in incentive motivation may reflect asymmetries in dopaminergic systems. We examined this hypothesis by studying the relationship between self-reported degree of incentive motivation, and asymmetry of D2 receptor availability in healthy volunteers. Nineteen healthy participants were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride to assess the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in left and right striatum. Incentive motivation was assessed by the Achievement scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The Achievement score was negatively correlated with the Asymmetry Index ([R-L]/[R+L]) of D2 receptor availability (r=-.721, p=.001), suggesting that greater positive incentive motivation is associated with higher receptor availability in the left relative to the right hemisphere.

  19. Federal legislative and regulatory incentives and disincentives for industrial waste reduction

    SciTech Connect

    Cordes, R.; Nixon, J.

    1991-10-01

    The Office of Industrial Technologies (OIT) within the US DOE has recently initiated the Industrial Waste Reduction Program, which is designed to reduce industrial energy use and pollution by reducing the amount of waste materials generated. The Program's primary focus is to develop and commercialize waste reduction technologies and practices in conjunction with industrial partners. OIT recognizes that adoption of these technologies is often inhibited by an assortment of institutional barriers that are unrelated to technical or economic performance. Therefore, OIT is examining selected barriers to industrial waste reduction to help identify and remove impediments to wider technology implementation. This report examines the incentives and disincentives to industrial waste reduction that are provided in an assortment of legislation and regulations. The intent is to shed light on how our environmental laws affect industry's implementation of waste reduction, what particular problems exist with current legislation/regulations, and what general options are available for correcting any deficiencies. Our study was confined strictly to federal legislation and regulations. During the course of the study, (March and May 1991), we examined 16 pieces of existing legislation and their attendant regulations plus 22 pieces of proposed legislation. In addition, the authors consulted representatives from industry and from the government agencies administering or sponsoring the legislation. The Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) is by far the most comprehensive and dominant piece of legislation affecting solid waste disposal. This is because RCRA, which governs, the management of both nonhazardous and hazardous waste, places the most restrictive requirements on industry. Other important pieces of legislation that exert a direct influence on waste reduction per se include the Clean Air Act and the Pollution Prevention Act. 90 refs., 12 tabs.

  20. The right incentives enable ocean sustainability successes and provide hope for the future

    PubMed Central

    Lubchenco, Jane; Cerny-Chipman, Elizabeth B.; Reimer, Jessica N.; Levin, Simon A.

    2016-01-01

    Healthy ocean ecosystems are needed to sustain people and livelihoods and to achieve the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals. Using the ocean sustainably requires overcoming many formidable challenges: overfishing, climate change, ocean acidification, and pollution. Despite gloomy forecasts, there is reason for hope. New tools, practices, and partnerships are beginning to transform local fisheries, biodiversity conservation, and marine spatial planning. The challenge is to bring them to a global scale. We dissect recent successes using a complex adaptive-systems (CAS) framework, which acknowledges the interconnectedness of social and ecological systems. Understanding how policies and practices change the feedbacks in CASs by altering the behavior of different system components is critical for building robust, sustainable states with favorable emergent properties. Our review reveals that altering incentives—either economic or social norms, or both—can achieve positive outcomes. For example, introduction of well-designed rights-based or secure-access fisheries and ecosystem service accounting shifts economic incentives to align conservation and economic benefits. Modifying social norms can create conditions that incentivize a company, country, or individual to fish sustainably, curb illegal fishing, or create large marine reserves as steps to enhance reputation or self-image. In each example, the feedbacks between individual actors and emergent system properties were altered, triggering a transition from a vicious to a virtuous cycle. We suggest that evaluating conservation tools by their ability to align incentives of actors with broader goals of sustainability is an underused approach that can provide a pathway toward scaling sustainability successes. In short, getting incentives right matters. PMID:27911770

  1. Catching Fire: An Analysis of Maine's Combined Heat and Power Energy Incentive Policies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Laufer, Joshua A.

    This study qualitatively reviews and analyzes Maine's state-level incentive policies and regulations to catalyze the development of renewably fueled Combined Heat and Power (CHP) facilities by utilizing a framework developed by Janet Sawin. The results of the analysis indicate that additional opportunities exist to promote additional renewable CHP plant development through both strengthening existing state policies and passing new legislation. Maine's Renewable Portfolio Standard and Production-Based Incentive pilot program could be expanded in scope and in their level of support for renewable CHP. New policies could be enacted to further accelerate renewable CHP development in the state, such as a Production Tax Credit (PTC) and the creation of a grant program for level 2 feasibility studies within the existing Public Benefits Fund (PBF), Efficiency Maine Trust.

  2. Avoided electricity subsidy payments can finance substantial appliance efficiency incentive programs: Case study of Mexico

    SciTech Connect

    Leventis, Greg; Gopal, Anand; Rue du Can, Stephane de la; Phadke, Amol

    2013-03-01

    Numerous countries use taxpayer funds to subsidize residential electricity for a variety of socioeconomic objectives. These subsidies lower the value of energy efficiency to the consumer while raising it for the government. Further, while it would be especially helpful to have stringent Minimum Energy Performance Standards (MEPS) for appliances and buildings in this environment, they are hard to strengthen without imposing a cost on ratepayers. In this secondbest world, where the presence of subsidies limits the government’s ability to strengthen standards, we find that avoided subsidies are a readily available source of financing for energy efficiency incentive programs. Here, we introduce the LBNL Energy Efficiency Revenue Analysis (LEERA) model to estimate the appliance efficiency improvements that can be achieved in Mexico by the revenue neutral financing of incentive programs from avoided subsidy payments. LEERA uses the detailed techno-economic analysis developed by LBNL for the Super-efficient Equipment and Appliance Deployment (SEAD) Initiative to calculate the incremental costs of appliance efficiency improvements. We analyze Mexico’s tariff structures and the long-run marginal cost of supply to calculate the marginal savings for the government from appliance efficiency. We find that avoided subsidy payments alone can finance incentive programs that cover the full incremental cost of refrigerators that are 27% more efficient and TVs that are 32% more efficient than baseline models. We find less substantial market transformation potential for room ACs primarily because AC energy savings occur at less subsidized tariffs.

  3. Deal or no deal: can incentives encourage widespread adoption of intelligent speed adaptation devices?

    PubMed

    Chorlton, Kathryn; Hess, Stephane; Jamson, Samantha; Wardman, Mark

    2012-09-01

    Given the burden of injury, economic, environmental and social consequences associated with speeding, reducing road traffic speed remains a major priority. Intelligent speed adaptation (ISA) is a promising but controversial new in-vehicle system that provides drivers with support on the speed-control task. In order to model potential system uptake, this paper explores drivers' preferences for two different types of ISA given a number of alternative fiscal incentives and non-fiscal measures, using a stated preference approach. As would be expected with such a contentious issue, the analysis revealed the presence of significant variations in sensitivities and preferences in the sample. While a non-negligible part of the sample population has such strong opposition to ISA that no reasonable discounts or incentives would lead to them buying or accepting such a system, there is also a large part of the population that, if given the right incentives, would be willing or even keen to equip their vehicle with an ISA device.

  4. The case and opportunity for public-supported financial incentives to implement integrated pest management.

    PubMed

    Brewer, Michael J; Hoard, Robert J; Landis, Joy N; Elworth, Lawrence E

    2004-12-01

    Food, water, and worker protection regulations have driven availability, and loss, of pesticides for use in pest management programs. In response, public-supported research and extension projects have targeted investigation and demonstration of reduced-risk integrated pest management (IPM) techniques. But these new techniques often result in higher financial burden to the grower, which is counter to the IPM principle that economic competitiveness is critical to have IPM adopted. As authorized by the 2002 Farm Bill and administered by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS), conservation programs exist for delivering public-supported financial incentives to growers to increase environmental stewardship on lands in production. NRCS conservation programs are described, and the case for providing financial incentives to growers for implementing IPM is presented. We also explored the opportunity and challenge to use one key program, the Environmental Quality Incentives Program (EQIP), to aid grower adoption of IPM. The EQIP fund distribution to growers from 1997 to 2002 during the last Farm Bill cycle totaled approximately 1.05 billion dollars with a portion of funds supporting an NRCS-designed pest management practice. The average percentage of allocation of EQIP funds to this pest management practice among states was 0.77 +/- 0.009% (mean +/- SD). Using Michigan as an example, vegetable and fruit grower recognition of the program's use to implement IPM was modest (25% of growers surveyed), and their recognition of its use in aiding implementation of IPM was improved after educational efforts (74%). Proposals designed to enhance program usefulness in implementing IPM were delivered through the NRCS advisory process in Michigan. Modifications for using the NRCS pest management practice to address resource concerns were adopted, incentive rates for pest management were adjusted, and an expanded incentive structure for IPM

  5. Game-theory approach to consumer incentives for solar energy

    SciTech Connect

    Sharp, J.K.

    1981-11-01

    Solar energy is currently not competitive with fossil fuels. Fossil fuel price increases may eventually allow solar to compete, but incentives can change the relative price between fossil fuel and solar energy, and make solar compete sooner. Examples are developed of a new type of competitive game using solar energy incentives. Competitive games must have players with individual controls and conflicting objectives, but recent work also includes incentives offered by one of the players to the others. In the incentive game presented here, the Government acts as the leader and offers incentives to consumers, who act as followers. The Government incentives offered in this leader-follower (Stackelberg) game reduce the cost of solar energy to the consumer. Both the Government and consumers define their own objectives with the Government determining an incentive (either in the form of a subsidy or tax) that satisfies its objective. The two hypothetical examples developed show how the Government can achieve a stated solar utilization rate with the proper incentives. In the first example the consumer's utility function guarantees some purchases of solar energy. In the second example, the consumer's utility function allows for no solar purchases because utility is derived only from the amount of energy used and not from the source of the energy. The two examples discuss both subsidy and tax incentives, with the best control over control use coming from fossil fuel taxes dependent upon the amount of solar energy used. Future work will expand this static analysis to develop time varying incentives along a time and quantity dependent learning curve for the solar industry.

  6. Physicians' financial incentives in five dimensions: a conceptual framework for HMO managers.

    PubMed

    Magnus, S A

    1999-01-01

    A conceptual framework for HMO managers who are evaluating physicians' financial incentives proposes that the incentives vary along five dimensions: (1) the percentage of the physician's income at stake, (2) the organizational level, (3) the synergy between multiple financial incentives, (4) the synergy between financial and nonfinancial incentives, and (5) signaling effects. Managers can apply this framework to assess the intensity of physicians' financial incentives and to devise better incentives.

  7. Quadrennial Review of Military Compensation (5th). Volume 3. Special and Incentive Pays.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-01-01

    Incentive Pays related "’,-’’’i-.:._ ’., to the same occupational skill ; Wartime Considerations an issue pertaining , .. .7. to the authorization of...only 34% utilization for these officers in aviation, they possess addi- tional skills for which there are valid authorizations . This creates a buffer...which ’....i. %. ,-. , persons being accessed for the medical skill would not be authorized to draw the additional pay. For example, when the pay was

  8. Do Physicians' Financial Incentives Affect Medical Treatment and Patient Health?†

    PubMed Central

    Clemens, Jeffrey; Gottlieb, Joshua D.

    2014-01-01

    We investigate whether physicians' financial incentives influence health care supply, technology diffusion, and resulting patient outcomes. In 1997, Medicare consolidated the geographic regions across which it adjusts physician payments, generating area-specific price shocks. Areas with higher payment shocks experience significant increases in health care supply. On average, a 2 percent increase in payment rates leads to a 3 percent increase in care provision. Elective procedures such as cataract surgery respond much more strongly than less discretionary services. Non-radiologists expand their provision of MRIs, suggesting effects on technology adoption. We estimate economically small health impacts, albeit with limited precision. PMID:25170174

  9. Measuring and Facilitating Client Engagement with Financial Incentives: Implications for Improving Clinical Outcomes in a Mental Health Setting.

    PubMed

    Kotwicki, Raymond J; Balzer, Alexandra M; Harvey, Philip D

    2016-09-26

    Significant numbers of individuals with severe mental illnesses are difficult to engage in treatment services, presenting challenges for care. To be able to assess the relationship between engagement and discharge outcomes, we modified the "Milestones of Recovery Scale". This scale was modified for content to match the current clinical setting, evaluated for inter-rater reliability after modification in a sample of 233 cases receiving psychiatric rehabilitation, and then was administered to 423 additional psychiatric rehabilitation clients over a 24-month study period. In an effort to determine whether provision of financial incentives lead to sustained increases in client engagement, a cut off for client eligibility for financial incentives was evaluated on the basis of the reliability study and the course of engagement was related to receipt of this incentive and successful completion of treatment in a new sample of 423 patients. Of this sample, 78 % received an initial financial incentive during treatment (were initially engaged), and 93.3 % of that subgroup sustained this level of engagement it over their entire course of treatment. Of the 22 % of cases not receiving an initial incentive, only 5.4 % improved in their engagement to levels required for the incentive. Longitudinal analysis demonstrated that individuals who maintained or increased their level of engagement over time were more likely to complete treatment in accordance with planned treatment goals. The initial engagement and the course of engagement in treatment predicted successful completion, but incentives did not lead to increased engagement in initially poorly engaged patients. These data are interpreted in terms of the likely success of extrinsic rewards to increase engagement in mental health services.

  10. Economic impact

    SciTech Connect

    Technology Transfer Department

    2001-06-01

    In federal fiscal year 2000 (FY00), Berkeley Lab had 4,347 full- and part-time employees. In addition, at any given time of the year, there were more than 1,000 Laboratory guests. These guests, who also reside locally, have an important economic impact on the nine-county Bay Area. However, Berkeley Lab's total economic impact transcends the direct effects of payroll and purchasing. The direct dollars paid to the Lab's employees in the form of wages, salaries, and benefits, and payments made to contractors for goods and services, are respent by employees and contractors again and again in the local and greater economy. Further, while Berkeley Lab has a strong reputation for basic scientific research, many of the Lab's scientific discoveries and inventions have had direct application in industry, spawning new businesses and creating new opportunities for existing firms. This analysis updates the Economic Impact Analysis done in 1996, and its purpose is to describe the economic and geographic impact of Laboratory expenditures and to provide a qualitative understanding of how Berkeley Lab impacts and supports the local community. It is intended as a guide for state, local, and national policy makers as well as local community members. Unless otherwise noted, this analysis uses data from FY00, the most recent year for which full data are available.

  11. Resource Economics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Conrad, Jon M.

    2000-01-01

    Resource Economics is a text for students with a background in calculus, intermediate microeconomics, and a familiarity with the spreadsheet software Excel. The book covers basic concepts, shows how to set up spreadsheets to solve dynamic allocation problems, and presents economic models for fisheries, forestry, nonrenewable resources, stock pollutants, option value, and sustainable development. Within the text, numerical examples are posed and solved using Excel's Solver. These problems help make concepts operational, develop economic intuition, and serve as a bridge to the study of real-world problems of resource management. Through these examples and additional exercises at the end of Chapters 1 to 8, students can make dynamic models operational, develop their economic intuition, and learn how to set up spreadsheets for the simulation of optimization of resource and environmental systems. Book is unique in its use of spreadsheet software (Excel) to solve dynamic allocation problems Conrad is co-author of a previous book for the Press on the subject for graduate students Approach is extremely student-friendly; gives students the tools to apply research results to actual environmental issues

  12. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior.

    PubMed

    Armour, B S; Pitts, M M; Maclean, R; Cangialose, C; Kishel, M; Imai, H; Etchason, J

    2001-05-28

    Managed care organizations use explicit financial incentives to influence physicians' use of resources. This has contributed to concerns regarding conflicts of interest for physicians and adverse effects on the quality of patient care. In light of recent publicized legislative and legal battles about this issue, we reviewed the literature and analyzed studies that examine the effect of these explicit financial incentives on the behavior of physicians. The method used to undertake the literature review followed the approach set forth in the Cochrane Collaboration handbook. Our literature review revealed a paucity of data on the effect of explicit financial incentives. Based on this limited evidence, explicit incentives that place individual physicians at financial risk appear to be effective in reducing physician resource use. However, the empirical evidence regarding the effectiveness of bonus payments on physician resource use is mixed. Similarly, our review revealed mixed effects of the influence of explicit financial incentives on the quality of patient care. The effect of explicit financial incentives on physician behavior is complicated by a lack of understanding of the incentive structure by the managed care organization and the physician. The lack of a universally acceptable definition of quality renders it important that future researchers identify the term explicitly.

  13. Incentive Pass-through for Residential Solar Systems in California

    SciTech Connect

    Dong, C. G.; Wiser, Ryan; Rai, Varun

    2014-10-01

    The deployment of solar photovoltaic (PV) systems has grown rapidly over the last decade, partly because of various government incentives. In the United States, among the largest and longest-running incentives have been those established in California. Building on past research, this report addresses the still-unanswered question: to what degree have the direct PV incentives in California been passed through from installers to consumers? This report helps address this question by carefully examining the residential PV market in California (excluding a certain class of third-party-owned PV systems) and applying both a structural-modeling approach and a reduced-form regression analysis to estimate the incentive pass-through rate. The results suggest an average pass-through rate of direct incentives of nearly 100%, though with regional differences among California counties. While these results could have multiple explanations, they suggest a relatively competitive market and well-functioning subsidy program. Further analysis is required to determine whether similar results broadly apply to other states, to other customer segments, to all third-party-owned PV systems, or to all forms of financial incentives for solar (considering not only direct state subsidies, but also utility electric bill savings and federal tax incentives).

  14. The use of incentives to reinforce medication adherence

    PubMed Central

    DeFulio, Anthony; Silverman, Kenneth

    2012-01-01

    Objective Poor medication adherence is a longstanding problem, and is especially pertinent for individuals with chronic conditions or diseases. Adherence to medications can improve patient outcomes and greatly reduce the cost of care. The purpose of the present review is to describe the literature on the use of incentives as applied to the problem of medication adherence. Methods We conducted a systematic review of peer-reviewed empirical evaluations of incentives provided to patients contingent upon medication adherence. Results This review suggests that incentive-based medication adherence interventions can be very effective, but there are few controlled studies. The studies on incentive-based medication adherence interventions most commonly feature patients taking medication for drug or alcohol dependence, HIV, or latent tuberculosis. Across studies that reported percent adherence comparisons, incentives increased adherence by a mean of 20 percentage points, but effects varied widely. Cross-study comparisons indicate a positive relationship between the value of the incentive and the impact of the intervention. Post-intervention evaluations were rare, but tended to find that adherence effects diminish after the interventions are discontinued. Conclusions Incentive-based medication adherence interventions are promising but understudied. A significant challenge for research in this area is the development of sustainable and cost-effective long-term interventions. PMID:22580095

  15. Alternative approaches to pollution control and waste management: Regulatory and economic instruments. Planteamientos alternos para el control de la contaminacion y el manejo de desechos: instrumentos regulatorios y economicos

    SciTech Connect

    Bernstein, J.D.

    1993-01-01

    The paper examines ways in which developed and developing countries control pollution and manage urban wastes. It addresses pollution issues of concern to local, provincial, and national governments, as well as nongovernmental organizations. Two approaches to pollution management are discussed: direct regulation and economic incentives. Direct regulation sets standards and enforces them through permits, licenses, and controls on land or water use. Economic incentives encourage polluters to adopt control measures and are more flexible and cost effective. Such incentives include charging fees to enterprises for pollution discharges or providing government subsidies for pollution control technology. The author tells how economic incentives can supplement direct regulation and why such incentives, when properly used, offer advantages over direct regulation. The author discusses how governments have used economic incentives to deal with specific environmental issues and what factors policymakers must address when they plan pollution controls.

  16. Do School Incentives and Accountability Measures Improve Skills in the Middle East and North Africa? The Cases of Jordan and Tunisia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shafiq, M. Najeeb

    2011-01-01

    There is general agreement that skill-enhancing school reforms in the Middle East and North Africa (MENA) region are necessary for economic, political and social reasons. Using student-level data from Jordan and Tunisia, this study assesses the relationship between skills and the following school incentive and accountability measures: pedagogical…

  17. The ethics and economics of consuming Canadian drugs.

    PubMed

    Seaman, Rachel M H

    2005-01-01

    Many U.S. citizens are unable to afford prescription medication in their own country, so they purchase them from Canadian pharmacies. This paper examines the ethics of importing drugs from Canada, including economic implications and how physicians should respond to this dilemma. The four basic principles of ethics are balanced by examining financial incentives, current Canadian and U.S. law, safety issues, the burden of research and development, the impact on Canadian physicians, and issues of liability. The paper concludes that the principle of autonomy permits individuals to cross the border and purchase drugs for personal use; however, nonmaleficence prohibits the purchase of these drugs through third parties. In addition, the U.S. government has special obligations to justice and beneficence and may not ethically sponsor the importation of Canadian drugs. Finally, the paper shows that U.S. doctors must not recommend importation on the basis of beneficence and autonomy.

  18. Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2011

    THOMAS, 112th Congress

    Rep. Diaz-Balart, Mario [R-FL-21

    2011-06-01

    06/02/2011 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  19. Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2013

    THOMAS, 113th Congress

    Rep. Diaz-Balart, Mario [R-FL-25

    2013-05-08

    05/09/2013 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  20. Safe Building Code Incentive Act of 2009

    THOMAS, 111th Congress

    Rep. Diaz-Balart, Mario [R-FL-25

    2009-05-21

    05/22/2009 Referred to the Subcommittee on Economic Development, Public Buildings and Emergency Management. (All Actions) Tracker: This bill has the status IntroducedHere are the steps for Status of Legislation:

  1. Health incentives: the science and art of motivating healthy behaviors.

    PubMed

    Hall, Barry

    2008-01-01

    Employers seeking to motivate and encourage healthy behaviors among their employees are increasingly turning to incentive rewards. In fact, a recent Buck Consultants survey of 555 employers, titled Working Well: A Global Survey of Health Promotion and Workplace Wellness Strategies, predicts the use of such rewards to more than double over the next two to three years. This article provides an overview of the key considerations for employers seeking to maximize the value of incentive rewards. Discussion includes incentive strategies, types of rewards, reward amounts and regulatory considerations under the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

  2. Peaks, Cliffs, and Valleys: The Peculiar Incentives in Teacher Retirement Systems and Their Consequences for School Staffing

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Costrell, Robert M.; Podgursky, Michael

    2009-01-01

    This article examines the pattern of incentives for work versus retirement in six state teacher pension systems. We do this by examining the annual accrual of pension wealth from an additional year of work over a teacher's career. Accrual of wealth is highly nonlinear and heavily loaded at arbitrary years that would normally be considered…

  3. What explains DRG upcoding in neonatology? The roles of financial incentives and infant health.

    PubMed

    Jürges, Hendrik; Köberlein, Juliane

    2015-09-01

    We use the introduction of diagnosis related groups (DRGs) in German neonatology to study the determinants of upcoding. Since 2003, reimbursement is based inter alia on birth weight, with substantial discontinuities at eight thresholds. These discontinuities create incentives to upcode preterm infants into classes of lower birth weight. Using data from the German birth statistics 1996-2010 and German hospital data from 2006 to 2011, we show that (1) since the introduction of DRGs, hospitals have upcoded at least 12,000 preterm infants and gained additional reimbursement in excess of 100 million Euro; (2) upcoding rates are systematically higher at thresholds with larger reimbursement hikes and in hospitals that subsequently treat preterm infants, i.e. where the gains accrue; (3) upcoding is systematically linked with newborn health conditional on birth weight. Doctors and midwives respond to financial incentives by not upcoding newborns with low survival probabilities, and by upcoding infants with higher expected treatment costs.

  4. Is a Clean Development Mechanism project economically justified? Case study of an International Carbon Sequestration Project in Iran.

    PubMed

    Katircioglu, Salih; Dalir, Sara; Olya, Hossein G

    2016-01-01

    The present study evaluates a carbon sequestration project for the three plant species in arid and semiarid regions of Iran. Results show that Haloxylon performed appropriately in the carbon sequestration process during the 6 years of the International Carbon Sequestration Project (ICSP). In addition to a high degree of carbon dioxide sequestration, Haloxylon shows high compatibility with severe environmental conditions and low maintenance costs. Financial and economic analysis demonstrated that the ICSP was justified from an economic perspective. The financial assessment showed that net present value (NPV) (US$1,098,022.70), internal rate of return (IRR) (21.53%), and payback period (6 years) were in an acceptable range. The results of the economic analysis suggested an NPV of US$4,407,805.15 and an IRR of 50.63%. Therefore, results of this study suggest that there are sufficient incentives for investors to participate in such kind of Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) projects.

  5. Seeking innovation: incentive funding for biodefense biotechs.

    PubMed

    Nolan, John M; Samad, Emad U; Jindra, Lawrence F; Brozak, Stephen G

    2010-12-01

    In the current venture capital climate, it is easier to secure funding for late-stage, next-in-class therapeutic agents than for early-stage opportunities that have the potential to advance basic science and translational medicine. This funding paradigm is particularly problematic for the development of "dual-use" biothreat countermeasures such as antibiotics, vaccines, and antitoxins that target pathogens in novel ways and that have broad public health and biodefense applications. To address this issue, we propose the creation of the Drug Development Incentive Fund (DDIF), a novel funding mechanism that can stimulate the development of first-in-class agents that also possess the capability to guard against potential biothreats. This program would also support greater synergies between public funding and private venture investment. In a single act, this organization would secure science of national importance from disappearing, invest in projects that yield significant public health returns, advance the promises of preclinical and early phase research, revitalize biopharmaceutical investment, and create valuable innovation-economy jobs.

  6. Environmental controls: Market incentives v. direct regulation

    SciTech Connect

    Kosobud, R.F.; Atallah, D.S.

    1996-12-31

    Cap-and-trade environmental markets, where the commodities are tradable pollution rights, are being introduced in several closely watched applications as a potentially more cost-effective way of cleaning up the environment than direct or command-and-control (CAC) regulation. In this study, we examine the evidence on control cost savings provided by price and transactions data from the first few years of activity in two markets designed to reduce atmospheric pollution. Some observers of both markets have argued that prices for tradable permits lower than expected, and transactions fewer than expected, are evidence that the markets are not achieving the hoped for savings. It was found, on the contrary, that observed prices point toward more flexible and improved pollution control choices and that the number of transactions has been steadily increasing as market incentives are incorporated into enterprise decisions. These new markets during their first few years are generating, according to our estimates, control cost savings in the neighborhood of one to two billion dollars annually. However, there is evidence that the markets have not yet reached their full potential. In the course of this study, several obstacles to market performance were found that are worthy of attention by policy makers. 13 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Mitigating Inadvertent Insider Threats with Incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Debin; Wang, Xiaofeng; Camp, L. Jean

    Inadvertent insiders are trusted insiders who do not have malicious intent (as with malicious insiders) but do not responsibly managing security. The result is often enabling a malicious outsider to use the privileges of the inattentive insider to implement an insider attack. This risk is as old as conversion of a weak user password into root access, but the term inadvertent insider is recently coined to identify the link between the behavior and the vulnerability. In this paper, we propose to mitigate this threat using a novel risk budget mechanism that offers incentives to an insider to behave according to the risk posture set by the organization. We propose assigning an insider a risk budget, which is a specific allocation of risk points, allowing employees to take a finite number of risk-seeking choice. In this way, the employee can complete her tasks without subverting the security system, as with absolute prohibitions. In the end, the organization penalizes the insider if she fails to accomplish her task within the budget while rewards her in the presence of a surplus. Most importantly. the risk budget requires that the user make conscious visible choices to take electronic risks. We describe the theory behind the system, including specific work on the insider threats. We evaluated this approach using human-subject experiments, which demonstrate the effectiveness of our risk budget mechanism. We also present a game theoretic analysis of the mechanism.

  8. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  9. 42 CFR 495.106 - Incentive payments to CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... computers and associated hardware and software, necessary to administer certified EHR technology as defined... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE... of certified EHR technology for a qualifying CAH means the reasonable acquisition costs incurred...

  10. 42 CFR 495.106 - Incentive payments to CAHs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... computers and associated hardware and software, necessary to administer certified EHR technology as defined... (CONTINUED) STANDARDS AND CERTIFICATION STANDARDS FOR THE ELECTRONIC HEALTH RECORD TECHNOLOGY INCENTIVE... of certified EHR technology for a qualifying CAH means the reasonable acquisition costs incurred...

  11. The Assessment of Risk in Educational Incentive Contracts.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morey, Richard C.

    1980-01-01

    Presents a stochastic model and subsequent risk analysis that should enable an administrator to evaluate an incentive contract. A numerical illustration points out the types of issues that can be addressed by the model. (Author/IRT)

  12. Retaining rural doctors: doctors' preferences for rural medical workforce incentives.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinhu; Scott, Anthony; McGrail, Matthew; Humphreys, John; Witt, Julia

    2014-11-01

    Many governments have implemented incentive programs to improve the retention of doctors in rural areas despite a lack of evidence of their effectiveness. This study examines rural general practitioners' (GPs') preferences for different types of retention incentive policies using a discrete choice experiment (DCE). In 2009, the DCE was administered to a group of 1720 rural GPs as part of the "Medicine in Australia: Balancing Employment and Life (MABEL)" study. We estimate both a mixed logit model and a generalized multinomial logit model to account for different types of unobserved differences in GPs' preferences. Our results indicate that increased level of locum relief incentive, retention payments and rural skills loading leads to an increase in the probability of attracting GPs to stay in rural practice. The locum relief incentive is ranked as the most effective, followed by the retention payments and rural skills loading payments. These findings are important in helping to tailor retention policies to those that are most effective.

  13. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... compilation, management information systems, post-program followup activities, and research and evaluation... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for incentive... Corps Center may be used for the administrative costs of establishing and maintaining systems...

  14. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... compilation, management information systems, post-program followup activities, and research and evaluation... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for incentive... Corps Center may be used for the administrative costs of establishing and maintaining systems...

  15. 20 CFR 637.230 - Use of incentive bonuses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... compilation, management information systems, post-program followup activities, and research and evaluation... information collection and compilation, recordkeeping, or the preparation of applications for incentive... Corps Center may be used for the administrative costs of establishing and maintaining systems...

  16. 33 CFR 402.6 - Volume Rebate Incentive program

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... the Volume Rebate Incentive program: (1) A shipper/receiver in the Great Lakes/St. Lawrence Seaway System must submit to the Manager for approval, before June 30th of every season, the commodity,...

  17. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar... rewarded under a value engineering clause....

  18. 48 CFR 48.105 - Relationship to other incentives.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... CONTRACT MANAGEMENT VALUE ENGINEERING Policies and Procedures 48.105 Relationship to other incentives... should not be rewarded both as value engineering shares and under performance, design-to-cost, or similar... rewarded under a value engineering clause....

  19. Leadership, social capital and incentives promote successful fisheries.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez, Nicolás L; Hilborn, Ray; Defeo, Omar

    2011-02-17

    One billion people depend on seafood as their primary source of protein and 25% of the world's total animal protein comes from fisheries. Yet a third of fish stocks worldwide are overexploited or depleted. Using individual case studies, many have argued that community-based co-management should prevent the tragedy of the commons because cooperative management by fishers, managers and scientists often results in sustainable fisheries. However, general and multidisciplinary evaluations of co-management regimes and the conditions for social, economic and ecological success within such regimes are lacking. Here we examine 130 co-managed fisheries in a wide range of countries with different degrees of development, ecosystems, fishing sectors and type of resources. We identified strong leadership as the most important attribute contributing to success, followed by individual or community quotas, social cohesion and protected areas. Less important conditions included enforcement mechanisms, long-term management policies and life history of the resources. Fisheries were most successful when at least eight co-management attributes were present, showing a strong positive relationship between the number of these attributes and success, owing to redundancy in management regulations. Our results demonstrate the critical importance of prominent community leaders and robust social capital, combined with clear incentives through catch shares and conservation benefits derived from protected areas, for successfully managing aquatic resources and securing the livelihoods of communities depending on them. Our study offers hope that co-management, the only realistic solution for the majority of the world's fisheries, can solve many of the problems facing global fisheries.

  20. Fiscal incentives, behavior change and health promotion: what place in the health-in-all-policies toolkit?

    PubMed

    Sassi, Franco; Belloni, Annalisa

    2014-06-01

    Taxes, subsidies and welfare benefits may provide financial incentives to encourage healthy behaviors or discourage less healthy ones. Historically, taxes have been used in many countries to deter behaviors like tobacco smoking or harmful alcohol use. More recently, an increasing number of governments have sought to expand the scope for the use of fiscal measures in health promotion to foods and beverages high in fat, salt or sugar. A strong public health rationale, supported by a growing body of evidence of the health impacts of taxes and other fiscal measures, adds to the more traditional rationale for the use of commodity taxes, which hinges on their revenue-generating potential and their ability to address the costs imposed by consumers of health-related commodities on other individuals. Despite limitations in the existing evidence base, reviewed in this paper, taxes have been shown to generate significant health gains when applied to tobacco products and alcoholic beverages. In the case of foods and non-alcoholic beverages, the effects tend to build up over time and are stronger in people with lower socio-economic status. However, a number of potentially undesirable effects suggest that governments should exercise caution in planning and implementing taxes on health-related commodities. In particular, commodity taxes are generally regressive, and this is especially the case for taxes on tobacco, foods and non-alcoholic beverages, although the actual size of the tax burden involved is relatively modest. In addition, taxes may negatively impact on economic efficiency and social welfare, and may incentivize illicit activities.

  1. Economic analysis of same-sex marriage.

    PubMed

    Portelli, Christopher J

    2004-01-01

    This article applies the neoclassical microeconomic analysis of marriage as developed by Nobel laureate economist Gary Becker to same-sex marriage. The objective is to demonstrate that the economic analysis of marriage supports allowing same-sex marriage, and that same-sex marriages would strengthen the incentive to marry, increase the efficiency of marriage markets, provide for more children to be raised in two-parent optimum environments, and benefit states economically overall. The article concludes with an overview of the economic impact of same-sex marriages on states based on the analysis, data and fiscal information currently available from researchers and economists in the field.

  2. A Systematic Review of Financial Incentives for Dietary Behavior Change

    PubMed Central

    Purnell, Jason Q.; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S.; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-01-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized, controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand upon previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including RCTs, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based upon the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus and whether incentives took the form of assets or savings. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with eleven finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short-term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors even as policymakers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity. PMID:24836967

  3. Feedback, Goal Setting, and Incentives Effects on Organizational Productivity.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-06-01

    feedback, 711, duning te feedback plus goal setting ist tiNe , a 7 Am Incentives we*e added. The positive effects lasted ever tim, aid cuntiues i f s...the mean increase was 751 over baseline. Whm incentives were added to that, the mean Increase was 76% over baseline. The positive effects lasted over...universal concern for some time. Enhancing productivity has implications for our quality of life, our economy, and our competitive position in the world

  4. 5 CFR 576.103 - Offering Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments to employees.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Offering Voluntary Separation Incentive... CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY SEPARATION INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments § 576.103 Offering Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments to employees. (a) Agencies may...

  5. 5 CFR 576.102 - Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment implementation plans.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment... SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY SEPARATION INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments § 576.102 Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment implementation plans. (a) In accordance with section...

  6. 5 CFR 576.105 - Existing Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment authorities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Existing Voluntary Separation Incentive... SERVICE REGULATIONS VOLUNTARY SEPARATION INCENTIVE PAYMENTS Voluntary Separation Incentive Payments § 576.105 Existing Voluntary Separation Incentive Payment authorities. As provided in section 1313(a)(3)...

  7. 48 CFR 16.402-4 - Structuring multiple-incentive contracts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Structuring multiple... multiple-incentive contracts. A properly structured multiple-incentive arrangement should— (a) Motivate the... results may not be attainable for each of the incentive areas, all multiple-incentive contracts...

  8. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  9. Water reclamation and intersectoral water transfer between agriculture and cities--a FAO economic wastewater study.

    PubMed

    Heinz, Ingo; Salgot, Miquel; Koo-Oshima, Sasha

    2011-01-01

    Cost-benefit studies on replacing conventional agricultural water resources with reclaimed water in favour of cities are still rare. Some results of a study under auspices of the Food and Agriculture Organisation (FAO) are presented. By means of an illustrative example at Lobregat River basin in Spain, it could be proved that reclaimed water reuse and intersectoral water transfer can result in economic and environmental benefits at the watershed level. The agricultural community faces cost savings in water pumping and fertilising, increases in yields and incomes; the municipality benefits from additional water resources released by farmers. Farmers should be encouraged to participate by implementing adequate economic incentives. Charging farmers with the full cost of water reclamation may discourage farmers from joining water exchange projects. Particularly in regions with water scarcity, investments in reclaimed water reuse and water exchange arrangements usually pay back and are profitable in the long term.

  10. Quantitative Financial Analysis of Alternative Energy Efficiency Shareholder Incentive Mechanisms

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2008-08-03

    Rising energy prices and climate change are central issues in the debate about our nation's energy policy. Many are demanding increased energy efficiency as a way to help reduce greenhouse gas emissions and lower the total cost of electricity and energy services for consumers and businesses. Yet, as the National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPEE) pointed out, many utilities continue to shy away from seriously expanding their energy efficiency program offerings because they claim there is insufficient profit-motivation, or even a financial disincentive, when compared to supply-side investments. With the recent introduction of Duke Energy's Save-a-Watt incentive mechanism and ongoing discussions about decoupling, regulators and policymakers are now faced with an expanded and diverse landscape of financial incentive mechanisms, Determining the 'right' way forward to promote deep and sustainable demand side resource programs is challenging. Due to the renaissance that energy efficiency is currently experiencing, many want to better understand the tradeoffs in stakeholder benefits between these alternative incentive structures before aggressively embarking on a path for which course corrections can be time-consuming and costly. Using a prototypical Southwest utility and a publicly available financial model, we show how various stakeholders (e.g. shareholders, ratepayers, etc.) are affected by these different types of shareholder incentive mechanisms under varying assumptions about program portfolios. This quantitative analysis compares the financial consequences associated with a wide range of alternative incentive structures. The results will help regulators and policymakers better understand the financial implications of DSR program incentive regulation.

  11. Understanding congestion in China's medical market: an incentive structure perspective.

    PubMed

    Sun, Zesheng; Wang, Shuhong; Barnes, Stephen R

    2016-04-01

    Congestion has become one of the most important factors leading to patient dissatisfaction and doctor-patient conflicts in the medical market of China. In this study, we explore the causes and effects of structural congestion in the Chinese medical market from an incentive structure perspective. Our analysis reveals that prior medical system reforms with price regulation in China have induced hospitals to establish incentives for capital-intensive investments, while ignoring human capital, and have driven medical staff and patients to higher-level hospitals, reinforcing an incentive structure in which congestion in higher-level hospitals and idle resources in lower-level hospitals coexist. The existing incentive structure has led to cost increases and degradation of human capital and specific factor effects. Recent reforms to reduce congestion in the Chinese medical market were not effective. Most of them had no impact on and did not involve the existing distorted incentive structure. Future reforms should consider rebalancing expectations for medical quality, free flow of human capital and price regulation reforms to rebuild a new incentive structure.

  12. Realignment of incentives for health-care providers in China.

    PubMed

    Yip, Winnie Chi-Man; Hsiao, William; Meng, Qingyue; Chen, Wen; Sun, Xiaoming

    2010-03-27

    Inappropriate incentives as part of China's fee-for-service payment system have resulted in rapid cost increase, inefficiencies, poor quality, unaffordable health care, and an erosion of medical ethics. To reverse these outcomes, a strategy of experimentation to realign incentives for providers with the social goals of improvement in quality and efficiency has been initiated in China. This Review shows how lessons that have been learned from international experiences have been improved further in China by realignment of the incentives for providers towards prevention and primary care, and incorporation of a treatment protocol for hospital services. Although many experiments are new, preliminary evidence suggests a potential to produce savings in costs. However, because these experiments have not been scientifically assessed in China, evidence of their effects on quality and health outcome is largely missing. Although a reform of the provider's payment can be an effective short-term strategy, professional ethics need to be re-established and incentives changed to alter the profit motives of Chinese hospitals and physicians alike. When hospitals are given incentives to achieve maximum profit, incentives for hospitals and physicians must be separated.

  13. Subthalamic nucleus stimulation affects incentive salience attribution in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Serranová, Tereza; Jech, Robert; Dušek, Petr; Sieger, Tomáš; Růžička, Filip; Urgošík, Dušan; Růžička, Evžen

    2011-10-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) of the subthalamic nucleus (STN) can induce nonmotor side effects such as behavioral and mood disturbances or body weight gain in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients. We hypothesized that some of these problems could be related to an altered attribution of incentive salience (ie, emotional relevance) to rewarding and aversive stimuli. Twenty PD patients (all men; mean age ± SD, 58.3 ± 6 years) in bilateral STN DBS switched ON and OFF conditions and 18 matched controls rated pictures selected from the International Affective Picture System according to emotional valence (unpleasantness/pleasantness) and arousal on 2 independent visual scales ranging from 1 to 9. Eighty-four pictures depicting primary rewarding (erotica and food) and aversive fearful (victims and threat) and neutral stimuli were selected for this study. In the STN DBS ON condition, the PD patients attributed lower valence scores to the aversive pictures compared with the OFF condition (P < .01) and compared with controls (P < .01). The difference between the OFF condition and controls was less pronounced (P < .05). Furthermore, postoperative weight gain correlated with arousal ratings from the food pictures in the STN DBS ON condition (P < .05 compensated for OFF condition). Our results suggest that STN DBS increases activation of the aversive motivational system so that more relevance is attributed to aversive fearful stimuli. In addition, STN DBS-related sensitivity to food reward stimuli cues might drive DBS-treated patients to higher food intake and subsequent weight gain.

  14. The maturation of incentive processing and cognitive control

    PubMed Central

    Geier, Charles; Luna, Beatriz

    2009-01-01

    Understanding how immaturities in the reward system affect decision-making can inform us on adolescent vulnerabilities to risk-taking, which is a primary contributor to mortality and substance abuse in this age group. In this paper, we review the literature characterizing the neurodevelopment of reward and cognitive control and propose a model for adolescent reward processing. While the functional neuroanatomy of the mature reward system has been well-delineated, adolescent reward processing is just beginning to be understood. Results indicate that adolescents relative to adults demonstrate decreased anticipatory processing and assessment of risk, but an increased consummatory response. Such differences could result in suboptimal representations of reward valence and value and bias adolescent decision-making. These functional differences in reward processing occur in parallel with on-going structural and pharmacological maturation in the adolescent brain. In addition to limitations in incentive processing, basic cognitive control abilities, including working memory and inhibitory control, continue to mature during adolescence. Consequently, adolescents may be limited, relative to adults, in their abilities to inhibit impulsive behaviors and reliably hold ‘on-line’ comparisons of potential rewards/punishments during decision-making. PMID:19593842

  15. Economic reasoning and artificial intelligence.

    PubMed

    Parkes, David C; Wellman, Michael P

    2015-07-17

    The field of artificial intelligence (AI) strives to build rational agents capable of perceiving the world around them and taking actions to advance specified goals. Put another way, AI researchers aim to construct a synthetic homo economicus, the mythical perfectly rational agent of neoclassical economics. We review progress toward creating this new species of machine, machina economicus, and discuss some challenges in designing AIs that can reason effectively in economic contexts. Supposing that AI succeeds in this quest, or at least comes close enough that it is useful to think about AIs in rationalistic terms, we ask how to design the rules of interaction in multi-agent systems that come to represent an economy of AIs. Theories of normative design from economics may prove more relevant for artificial agents than human agents, with AIs that better respect idealized assumptions of rationality than people, interacting through novel rules and incentive systems quite distinct from those tailored for people.

  16. Environmental water incentive policy and return flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qureshi, M. E.; Schwabe, K.; Connor, J.; Kirby, M.

    2010-04-01

    With increasing urban, industrial, and agricultural water demand and projected reduced supply under climate change, allocations to the environment are critically low in many arid and semiarid basins. Consequently, many governments are striving to augment environmental flows, often through market-oriented mechanisms that involve compensating irrigated agriculture, the largest water user in most basins, for reducing diversions. A widely documented challenge with policies to recover water for the environment arises because part of the water diversion reduction can form the basis for downstream consumptive water rights or environmental flows. This article gives an empirical comparison of two incentive policies to acquire water for environmental flows for a part of the Murray-Darling Basin (MDB), Australia. One policy consists of paying irrigators and water delivery firms to make capital and management investments that improve on-farm irrigation and water-conveyance; the other policy consists of having the government buy water from irrigators on the active MDB water market. The results show that the first option results in relatively larger return flow reduction, while the second option tends to induce significant irrigated land retirement with relatively large reductions in consumptive use and small reductions in return flow. In cases where irrigation losses result in little useful return flow (e.g., evaporative loss reduction or during drought in some instances), efficiency-improving investments may provide some cost-effective opportunities. Where a large portion of loss forms valuable return flow, it is difficult to make a case for the cost-effectiveness of policies involving payments for investments in irrigation and conveyance system upgrades.

  17. Investigating financial incentives for maternal health: an introduction.

    PubMed

    Stanton, Mary Ellen; Higgs, Elizabeth S; Koblinsky, Marge

    2013-12-01

    Projection of current trends in maternal and neonatal mortality reduction shows that many countries will fall short of the UN Millennium Development Goal 4 and 5. Underutilization of maternal health services contributes to this poor progress toward reducing maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. Moreover, the quality of services continues to lag in many countries, with a negative effect on the health of women and their babies, including deterring women from seeking care. To enhance the use and provision of quality maternal care, countries and donors are increasingly using financial incentives. This paper introduces the JHPN Supplement, in which each paper reviews the evidence of the effectiveness of a specific financial incentive instrument with the aim of improving the use and quality of maternal healthcare and impact. The US Agency for International Development and the US National Institutes of Health convened a US Government Evidence Summit on Enhancing Provision and Use of Maternal Health Services through Financial Incentives on 24-25 April 2012 in Washington, DC. The Summit brought together leading global experts in finance, maternal health, and health systems from governments, academia, development organizations, and foundations to assess the evidence on whether financial incentives significantly and substantially increase provision, use and quality of maternal health services, and the contextual factors that impact the effectiveness of these incentives. Evidence review teams evaluated the multidisciplinary evidence of various financial mechanisms, including supply-side incentives (e.g. performance-based financing, user fees, and various insurance mechanisms) and demand-side incentives (e.g. conditional cash transfers, vouchers, user fee exemptions, and subsidies for care-seeking). At the Summit, the teams presented a synthesis of evidence and initial recommendations on practice, policy, and research for discussion. The Summit enabled structured

  18. The Impact of Region, Nitrogen Use Efficiency, and Grower Incentives on Greenhouse Gas Mitigation in Canola (Brassica napus) Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hammac, W. A.; Pan, W.; Koenig, R. T.; McCracken, V.

    2012-12-01

    The Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has mandated through the second renewable fuel standard (RFS2) that biodiesel meet a minimum threshold requirement (50% reduction) for greenhouse gas (GHG) emission reduction compared to fossil diesel. This designation is determined by life cycle assessment (LCA) and carries with it potential for monetary incentives for biodiesel feedstock growers (Biomass Crop Assistance Program) and biodiesel processors (Renewable Identification Numbers). A national LCA was carried out for canola (Brassica napus) biodiesel feedstock by the EPA and it did meet the minimum threshold requirement. However, EPA's national LCA does not provide insight into regional variation in GHG mitigation. The authors propose for full GHG reduction potential of biofuels to be realized, LCA results must have regional specificity and should inform incentives for growers and processors on a regional basis. The objectives of this work were to determine (1) variation in biofuel feedstock production related GHG emissions between three agroecological zones (AEZs) in eastern Washington State (2) the impact of nitrogen use efficiency (NUE) on GHG mitigation potential for each AEZ and (3) the impact of incentives on adoption of oilseed production. Results from objective (1) revealed there is wide variability in range for GHG estimates both across and within AEZs based on variation in farming practices and environment. It is expected that results for objective (2) will show further GHG mitigation potential due to minimizing N use and therefore fertilizer transport and soil related GHG emission while potentially increasing biodiesel production per hectare. Regional based incentives may allow more timely achievement of goals for bio-based fuels production. Additionally, incentives may further increase GHG offsetting by promoting nitrogen conserving best management practices implementation. This research highlights the need for regional assessment/incentive based

  19. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS.

    PubMed

    Kimball, Miles

    2015-06-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people's minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called "bounded rationality"), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world.

  20. COGNITIVE ECONOMICS

    PubMed Central

    KIMBALL, MILES

    2017-01-01

    Cognitive economics is the economics of what is in people’s minds. It is a vibrant area of research (much of it within behavioural economics, labour economics and the economics of education) that brings into play novel types of data, especially novel types of survey data. Such data highlight the importance of heterogeneity across individuals and highlight thorny issues for welfare economics. A key theme of cognitive economics is finite cognition (often misleadingly called “bounded rationality”), which poses theoretical challenges that call for versatile approaches. Cognitive economics brings a rich toolbox to the task of understanding a complex world. PMID:28149186

  1. Incentives and barriers to retinopathy screening among African-Americans with diabetes.

    PubMed

    Walker, E A; Basch, C E; Howard, C J; Zybert, P A; Kromholz, W N; Shamoon, H

    1997-01-01

    Diabetes-related ophthalmic complications are the leading cause of newly diagnosed blindness among adults. These eye complications are often asymptomatic in the early stages, yet the majority of diabetes patients are not screened yearly. To develop a health promotion intervention to increase the rate of screening for diabetic retinopathy by dilated fundus exam (DFE), we assessed the knowledge and health beliefs related to preventing diabetic eye complications among a sample of African-Americans with diabetes. The study design was cross-sectional, using a telephone interview to collect data. From a random sample of 104 African-Americans with diabetes, 67 (64%) were completed: 54 women; mean age of 58 years. The telephone interview schedule contained items grouped into subscales for Perceived Incentives, Perceived Barriers to getting a DFE, Causes of Eye Problems, Risk of Eye Problems, and Effective Treatments for Eye Problems. Descriptive statistics were used to analyze the quantitative data. Transcribed qualitative responses to the open-ended questions were analyzed for themes. The incentives "having eye problems" and "doctor said it was important to go" each had 91% responding it was an incentive to go for a DFE. Only about one-third agreed that any particular item was a barrier to receiving a DFE (e.g., economic factors). In the subscale for Risk of Eye Problems, "retinopathy" had the lowest level of perceived risk (30%). Only 21% of the sample reported there were effective treatments for retinopathy. Eighty-seven percent reported the faulty belief that "diabetic eye problems have symptoms." Only 36% of the sample said they had heard of retinopathy and of those, only 8% could describe it correctly. Among general response themes were: fear, spirituality (faith and hope), priorities, economic or logistical factors, and external/internal motivation. Perceived incentives for receiving a DFE were acknowledged at far greater rates than perceived barriers. Having a

  2. Incentive learning for morphine-associated stimuli during protracted abstinence increases conditioned drug preference.

    PubMed

    Smith, Rachel J; Aston-Jones, Gary

    2014-01-01

    Previous studies from our laboratory found that rats express increased preference for drug-paired stimuli following 2 or 5 weeks of protracted abstinence from chronic drug exposure as compared with naive animals. Here, we show that this increased morphine place preference depends upon experiencing drug-stimulus pairings specifically in the abstinent state, indicating a critical role for incentive learning. Male Sprague Dawley rats were initially conditioned for morphine place preference (8 mg/kg) and then made dependent on morphine (by subcutaneous morphine pellets) and subjected to forced abstinence. Place preference was tested every 1-2 weeks with no additional drug-cue conditioning. In this paradigm, there was no difference between morphine-pelleted (dependent) and placebo-pelleted (non-dependent) rats in place preference at any time during abstinence (up to 6 weeks). However, these same morphine-pelleted rats expressed significantly increased preference when they were subsequently re-conditioned for morphine place preference during protracted abstinence. Placebo-pelleted rats did not show enhanced preference after re-conditioning. These findings reveal that incentive learning has a key role in increased morphine place preference when drug is experienced during protracted abstinence. This indicates that incentive learning is involved not only in instrumental responding (as previously reported), but also in updating Pavlovian-conditioned responses to morphine-associated stimuli. Therefore, enhanced morphine preference is not a direct consequence of the negative affective state of abstinence, but instead reflects increased acquisition of morphine-stimulus associations during abstinence. These results indicate that, during the development of addiction in humans, drug-associated stimuli acquire increasingly stronger incentive properties each time they are re-experienced.

  3. The economic benefits of fertility control: a critical analysis of the investment approach.

    PubMed

    Badari, V S

    1977-01-01

    Developing countries are experiencing rapid population growth, which hinders development of economic planning. There are 2 ways to determine the gain to the economy resulting from preventing a birth: a macro-economic growth approach, which establishes a comparison of the income per capita of a country with and without fertility control, and the investment approach which weighs the advantages and disadvantages of additional births in terms of the anticipated future production and consumption of these births, compared with the gain of preventing them. If decrease of population growth helps development planning, it makes sense to establish incentive payments for preventing a birth. Arguments against the investment approach are: the amount spent for bonuses could be higher than the amount saved; it could be used for new investment. In the discounting procedure, consumption has been exagerated while reducing the value of production. Leibenstein's contention is that family programs are followed more by middle class families, whose children won't become marginal workers. These critics have been refuted. Enke, main contributor to this approach, states that the incentive payment should not exceede the value of preventing a birth. Also, to avoid the cost of resources the bonus could be given in services and productive goods. The discounting procedure has been considered valid in those cases in which present consumption is more relevant than future consumption and investible funds, in which case discounting is unavoidable. On the other hand, if incentives are offered, more participation of the poorer classes can be expected. Based on the investment approach, some economists, like Enke and Badari, analized the worth of an averted birth in India and agreed that the gains were substantial. This indicated that the investment approach is a useful guide for developing countries.

  4. Analysis of federal incentives used to stimulate energy consumption

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, R.J.; Cone, B.W.; Emery, J.C.; Huelshoff, M.; Lenerz, D.E.; Marcus, A.; Morris, F.A.; Sheppard, W.J.; Sommers, P.

    1981-08-01

    The purpose of the analysis is to identify and quantify Federal incentives that have increased the consumption of coal, oil, natural gas, and electricity. The introductory chapter is intended as a device for presenting the policy questions about the incentives that can be used to stimulate desired levels of energy development. In the theoretical chapter federal incentives were identified for the consumption of energy as Federal government actions whose major intent or result is to stimulate energy consumption. The stimulus comes through changing values of variables included in energy demand functions, thereby inducing energy consumers to move along the function in the direction of greater quantity of energy demanded, or through inducing a shift of the function to a position where more energy will be demanded at a given price. The demand variables fall into one of six categories: price of the energy form, price of complements, price of substitutes, preferences, income, and technology. The government can provide such incentives using six different policy instruments: taxation, disbursements, requirements, nontraditional services, traditional services, and market activity. The four major energy forms were examined. Six energy-consuming sectors were examined: residential, commercial, industrial, agricultural, transportation, and public. Two types of analyses of incentive actions are presented in this volume. The generic chapter focused on actions taken in 1978 across all energy forms. The subsequent chapters traced the patterns of incentive actions, energy form by energy form, from the beginning of the 20th century, to the present. The summary chapter includes the results of the previous chapters presented by energy form, incentive type, and user group. Finally, the implications of these results for solar policy are presented in the last chapter. (MCW)

  5. A systematic review of financial incentives for dietary behavior change.

    PubMed

    Purnell, Jason Q; Gernes, Rebecca; Stein, Rick; Sherraden, Margaret S; Knoblock-Hahn, Amy

    2014-07-01

    In light of the obesity epidemic, there is growing interest in the use of financial incentives for dietary behavior change. Previous reviews of the literature have focused on randomized controlled trials and found mixed results. The purpose of this systematic review is to update and expand on previous reviews by considering a broader range of study designs, including randomized controlled trials, quasi-experimental, observational, and simulation studies testing the use of financial incentives to change dietary behavior and to inform both dietetic practice and research. The review was guided by theoretical consideration of the type of incentive used based on the principles of operant conditioning. There was further examination of whether studies were carried out with an institutional focus. Studies published between 2006 and 2012 were selected for review, and data were extracted regarding study population, intervention design, outcome measures, study duration and follow-up, and key findings. Twelve studies meeting selection criteria were reviewed, with 11 finding a positive association between incentives and dietary behavior change in the short term. All studies pointed to more specific information on the type, timing, and magnitude of incentives needed to motivate individuals to change behavior, the types of incentives and disincentives most likely to affect the behavior of various socioeconomic groups, and promising approaches for potential policy and practice innovations. Limitations of the studies are noted, including the lack of theoretical guidance in the selection of incentive structures and the absence of basic experimental data. Future research should consider these factors, even as policy makers and practitioners continue to experiment with this potentially useful approach to addressing obesity.

  6. Incentive-Based Primary Care: Cost and Utilization Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Hollander, Marcus J; Kadlec, Helena

    2015-01-01

    Context: In its fee-for-service funding model for primary care, British Columbia, Canada, introduced incentive payments to general practitioners as pay for performance for providing enhanced, guidelines-based care to patients with chronic conditions. Evaluation of the program was conducted at the health care system level. Objective: To examine the impact of the incentive payments on annual health care costs and hospital utilization patterns in British Columbia. Design: The study used Ministry of Health administrative data for Fiscal Year 2010–2011 for patients with diabetes, congestive heart failure, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, and/or hypertension. In each disease group, cost and utilization were compared across patients who did, and did not, receive incentive-based care. Main Outcome Measures: Health care costs (eg, primary care, hospital) and utilization measures (eg, hospital days, readmissions). Results: After controlling for patients’ age, sex, service needs level, and continuity of care (defined as attachment to a general practice), the incentives reduced the net annual health care costs, in Canadian dollars, for patients with hypertension (by approximately Can$308 per patient), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (by Can$496), and congestive heart failure (by Can$96), but not diabetes (incentives cost about Can$148 more per patient). The incentives were also associated with fewer hospital days, fewer admissions and readmissions, and shorter lengths of hospital stays for all 4 groups. Conclusion: Although the available literature on pay for performance shows mixed results, we showed that the funding model used in British Columbia using incentive payments for primary care might reduce health care costs and hospital utilization. PMID:26263389

  7. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  8. Effects of financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on dietary intake and weight outcomes among older adults: A randomized pilot study.

    PubMed

    Kral, Tanja V E; Bannon, Annika L; Moore, Reneé H

    2016-05-01

    Providing financial incentives can be a useful behavioral economics strategy for increasing fruit and vegetable intake among consumers. It remains to be determined whether financial incentives can promote intake of other low energy-dense foods and if consumers who are already using promotional tools for their grocery purchases may be especially responsive to receiving incentives. This randomized controlled trial tested the effects of offering financial incentives for the purchase of healthy groceries on 3-month changes in dietary intake, weight outcomes, and the home food environment among older adults. A secondary aim was to compare frequent coupon users (FCU) and non-coupon users (NCU) on weight status, home food environment, and grocery shopping behavior. FCU (n = 28) and NCU (n = 26) were randomly assigned to either an incentive or a control group. Participants in the incentive group received $1 for every healthy food or beverage they purchased. All participants completed 3-day food records and a home food inventory and had their height, weight, and waist circumference measured at baseline and after 3 months. Participants who were responsive to the intervention and received financial incentives significantly increased their daily vegetable intake (P = 0.04). Participants in both groups showed significant improvements in their home food environment (P = 0.0003). No significant changes were observed in daily energy intake or weight-related outcomes across groups (P < 0.12). FCU and NCU did not differ significantly in any anthropometric variables or the level at which their home food environment may be considered 'obesogenic' (P > 0.73). Increased consumption of vegetables did not replace intake of more energy-dense foods. Incentivizing consumers to make healthy food choices while simultaneously reducing less healthy food choices may be important.

  9. Economics, environment, and the limits of legal control

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, R.B.

    1985-01-01

    The assumption of basic conflict between environmental objectives and economic development has won a wide popular and political acceptance in the US. Today, however, after more than a decade of disappointing economic performance and anxiety about international competitiveness, many believe that economic growth must have a higher priority at the expense of environmental objectives. The author challenges this zero sum mentality, and demonstrates that we need basic changes in legal and institutional arrangements in order to erase the perception of this conflict. In particular, a greater use of economic-based incentives will help realize the long-run compatibility between environmental quality and economic growth.

  10. Behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Camerer, Colin F

    2014-09-22

    Behavioral economics uses evidence from psychology and other social sciences to create a precise and fruitful alternative to traditional economic theories, which are based on optimization. Behavioral economics may interest some biologists, as it shifts the basis for theories of economic choice away from logical calculation and maximization and toward biologically plausible mechanisms.

  11. 75 FR 72964 - Disapproval and Promulgation of Air Quality Implementation Plans; Indiana; Addition of Incentive...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-29

    ... http://www.regulations.gov Web site. Although listed in the index, some information is not publicly available, i.e., Confidential Business Information (CBI) or other information whose disclosure is restricted... Region 5 office. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Steven Rosenthal, Environmental Engineer,...

  12. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  13. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  14. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  15. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  16. 43 CFR 418.36 - Incentives for additional long term conservation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... percent (66.9 percent with full delivery) as shown in the Newlands Project Water Budget table, 1995...) There is a deficit created and remaining in Lahontan Reservoir from operations penalties in a prior...

  17. Managing risk selection incentives in health sector reforms.

    PubMed

    Puig-Junoy, J

    1999-01-01

    The object of the paper is to review theoretical and empirical contributions to the optimal management of risk selection incentives ('cream skimming') in health sector reforms. The trade-off between efficiency and risk selection is fostered in health sector reforms by the introduction of competitive mechanisms such as price competition or prospective payment systems. The effects of two main forms of competition in health sector reforms are observed when health insurance is mandatory: competition in the market for health insurance, and in the market for health services. Market and government failures contribute to the assessment of the different forms of risk selection employed by insurers and providers, as the effects of selection incentives on efficiency and their proposed remedies to reduce the impact of these perverse incentives. Two European (Netherlands and Spain) and two Latin American (Chile and Colombia) case studies of health sector reforms are examined in order to observe selection incentives, their effects on efficiency and costs in the health system, and regulation policies implemented in each country to mitigate incentives to 'cream skim' good risks.

  18. Incentive motivation is associated with striatal dopamine asymmetry

    PubMed Central

    Tomer, Rachel; Goldstein, Rita Z; Wang, Gene-Jack; Wong, Christopher; Volkow, Nora D

    2008-01-01

    Dopamine plays an important role in modulating incentive motivation, expressed behaviorally as approach behavior. EEG studies report association between approach behavior and asymmetric pattern of activation in anterior cortical regions (as measured by the inverse of EEG alpha power). Therefore, individual differences in incentive motivation may reflect asymmetries in dopaminergic systems. We examined this hypothesis by studying the relationship between self-reported degree of incentive motivation, and asymmetry of D2 receptor availability in healthy volunteers. Nineteen healthy participants were studied with positron emission tomography (PET) and [11C]raclopride to assess the availability of dopamine D2 receptors in left and right striatum. Incentive motivation was assessed by the Achievement scale of the Multidimensional Personality Questionnaire. The Achievement score was negatively correlated with the Asymmetry Index ([R−L]/[R+L]) of D2 receptor availability (r = −.721, p =.001), suggesting that greater positive incentive motivation is associated with higher receptor availability in the left relative to the right hemisphere. PMID:17868972

  19. Motivating employees through incentives: productive or a counterproductive strategy.

    PubMed

    Qayum, Mehran; Sawal, Shefa Haider; Khan, Hassan Mehmood

    2014-05-01

    The disparity between human resource in health and provision of health services is a growing concern worldwide. Many developing countries are facing this crisis and therefore human resource in health is considered a high priority on their agenda.This imbalance between supplies of human resource is exacerbated by migration of health workers in many countries. Understanding the motivational factor is an important aspect to retain the migrating health workforce. This paper analyses the role of financial and non financial incentives in motivating the health work force. A review of available literature was conducted to understand the role of motivational factor in retaining health workforce. A review of current literature found that an incentive plays a key role in motivating a health worker. Financial incentives are useful in improving the compliance to standard policies and procedures. Comprehensive integrated incentive system approach should be established to develop a sustainable health workforce with required skill. Likewise monetary incentives should be linked to adherence to provincial and national guidelines and procedures. Sustainability could be ensured by commitment of government, political will and involvement of key stakeholders and decision makers.

  20. Anti-double dipping rules for federal tax incentives

    SciTech Connect

    Ing, E.T.C.

    1997-12-31

    Political as well as technological changes are now reshaping the electric utility industry. While accommodating these changes, state legislative and regulatory agencies have the opportunity to promote public policies. In this regard, various state entities are evaluating appropriate incentives for renewable energy development so as to introduce greater competition in electric generation. For example, the California legislature is considering a supplemental production payment and the State of Iowa has instituted a low-interest loan program for wind and other alternative energy generation. By complementing the existing federal tax incentives, state incentives can spur the wind industry`s growth. If structured in the wrong way, however, state assistance programs will undercut the value of the federal tax incentives. The federal anti-double dipping rules apply to certain state programs. If a developer utilizes the wrong type of state assistance for a wind project, the anti-double dipping rules will reduce the federal tax incentives and this in turn will decrease the project`s profitability. Rather than suffer these results, very few if any developer will use the state program. Despite the time and effort a state may expend to enact a program for alternative energy development, the state assistance will be ineffectual. This paper reviews the counterproductive results which state assistance can have on a wind project because of the federal anti-double dipping rules.

  1. Financial Recruitment Incentive Programs for Nursing Personnel in Canada.

    PubMed

    Mathews, Maria; Ryan, Dana

    2015-03-01

    Financial incentives are increasingly offered to recruit nursing personnel to work in underserved communities. The authors describe and compare the characteristics of federal, provincial and territorial financial recruitment incentive programs for registered nurses (RNs), nurse practitioners (NPs), licensed practical nurses (LPNs), registered practical nurses or registered psychiatric nurses. The authors identified incentive programs from government, health ministry and student aid websites and by contacting program officials. Only government-funded recruitment programs providing funding beyond the normal employee wages and benefits and requiring a service commitment were included. The authors excluded programs offered by hospitals, regional or private firms, and programs that rewarded retention. All provinces and territories except QC and NB offer financial recruitment incentive programs for RNs; six provinces (BC, AB, SK, ON, QC and NL) offer programs for NPs, and NL offers a program for LPNs. Programs include student loan forgiveness, tuition forgiveness, education bursaries, signing bonuses and relocation expenses. Programs target trainees, recent graduates and new hires. Funding and service requirements vary by program, and service requirements are not always commensurate with funding levels. This snapshot of government-funded recruitment incentives provides program managers with data to compare and improve nursing workforce recruitment initiatives.

  2. Improving medicaid health incentives programs: lessons from substance abuse treatment research.

    PubMed

    Hand, Dennis J; Heil, Sarah H; Sigmon, Stacey C; Higgins, Stephen T

    2014-06-01

    This commentary addresses the efforts of Medicaid programs in several US states to employ financial incentives to increase healthy behavior among their beneficiaries. While these Medicaid incentive programs have been successful at boosting rates of less effortful behaviors, like semiannual dental visits, they have fallen short in promoting more complex behaviors, like smoking cessation, drug abstinence, and weight management. Incentives have been extensively studied as a treatment for substance use disorders for over 20years, with good success. We identify two variables shown by meta-analysis to moderate the efficacy of incentive interventions in substance abuse treatment, the immediacy of incentive delivery and size (or magnitude) of the incentive, that are lacking in current Medicaid incentive program. We also offer some guidance on how these moderating variables could be addressed within Medicaid programs. This is a critical time for such analysis, as more than 10 states are employing incentives in their Medicaid programs, and some are currently reevaluating their incentive strategies.

  3. Cluster randomised controlled trial of a financial incentive for mothers to improve breast feeding in areas with low breastfeeding rates: the NOSH study protocol

    PubMed Central

    Relton, Clare; Strong, Mark; Renfrew, Mary J; Thomas, Kate; Burrows, Julia; Whelan, Barbara; Whitford, Heather M; Scott, Elaine; Fox-Rushby, Julia; Anoyke, Nana; Sanghera, Sabina; Johnson, Maxine; Sue, Easton; Walters, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Breast feeding can promote positive long-term and short-term health outcomes in infant and mother. The UK has one of the lowest breastfeeding rates (duration and exclusivity) in the world, resulting in preventable morbidities and associated healthcare costs. Breastfeeding rates are also socially patterned, thereby potentially contributing to health inequalities. Financial incentives have been shown to have a positive effect on health behaviours in previously published studies. Methods and analysis Based on data from earlier development and feasibility stages, a cluster (electoral ward) randomised trial with mixed-method process and content evaluation was designed. The ‘Nourishing Start for Health’ (NOSH) intervention comprises a financial incentive programme of up to 6 months duration, delivered by front-line healthcare professionals, in addition to existing breastfeeding support. The intervention aims to increase the prevalence and duration of breast feeding in wards with low breastfeeding rates. The comparator is usual care (no offer of NOSH intervention). Routine data on breastfeeding rates at 6–8 weeks will be collected for 92 clusters (electoral wards) on an estimated 10 833 births. This sample is calculated to provide 80% power in determining a 4% point difference in breastfeeding rates between groups. Content and process evaluation will include interviews with mothers, healthcare providers, funders and commissioners of infant feeding services. The economic analyses, using a healthcare provider's perspective, will be twofold, including a within-trial cost-effectiveness analysis and beyond-trial modelling of longer term expectations for cost-effectiveness. Results of economic analyses will be expressed as cost per percentage point change in cluster level in breastfeeding rates between trial arms. In addition, we will present difference in resource use impacts for a range of acute conditions in babies aged 0–6 months. Ethics and

  4. A Study on the Self-Adaption Incentive Performance Salary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Chuanming; Wang, Yang

    In project managing, the performance salary management mode is often used to motivate project managers and other similar staff to improve performance or reduce the cost. But the engineering activities who own a lot of internal and external uncertain factors can not be known by the principle. It is difficult for to develop a suitable incentive target to project managers etch. This paper thinks that the manager self master the maximum of information on engineering activities. So this paper sets up an incentive model: the project managers themselves report performance objectives; owner gives the managers reward or punishment combined with their reported performance and actual performance. The model to ensure that the project manager is only accurate self reported its results to get the maximum profit. At the same time, it cans incentive managers to improve performance or reduce the cost. This paper focuses on setting up the model, analyzing the model parameters. And cite an example analyze them.

  5. Public Libraries and Community Economic Development: Partnering for Success. Rural Research Report. Volume 18, Issue 10, Winter 2008

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hamilton-Pennell, Christine

    2008-01-01

    In the past decade, economic development experts have moved away from traditional approaches to economic development that have relied upon recruiting or attracting large businesses with offers of tax breaks, financial incentives, and other subsidies. Increasingly, communities are focusing their economic development resources on supporting the…

  6. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  7. Handbook of the Economics of Education. Volume 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hanushek, Erik A., Ed.; Machin, Stephen J., Ed.; Woessmann, Ludger, Ed.

    2011-01-01

    What is the value of an education? Volume 4 of the Handbooks in the Economics of Education combines recent data with new methodologies to examine this and related questions from diverse perspectives. School choice and school competition, educator incentives, the college premium, and other considerations help make sense of the investments and…

  8. Special Section: A Debate on Research Techniques in Economic Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dawson, George G.; And Others

    1976-01-01

    Dawson introduces three articles which debate merits of research techniques in undergraduate economic education. William E. Becker criticizes John C. Soper's models, multicollinearity argument, and student incentives in a research project; Soper replies; Robert Highsmith critically analyzes strengths and weaknesses of each argument. (AV)

  9. Updated Method for Establishing Economic Minor Use Available for Comment

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA has issued a draft Pesticide Registration Notice (PRN) that proposes to clarify and update criteria by which EPA classifies crops as “minor use.” FIFRA 2(ll)(2) defines a minor use as one that does not provide “sufficient economic incentive.”

  10. Understanding and Integrating Local Perceptions of Trees and Forests into Incentives for Sustainable Landscape Management

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfund, Jean-Laurent; Watts, John Daniel; Boissière, Manuel; Boucard, Amandine; Bullock, Renee Marie; Ekadinata, Andree; Dewi, Sonya; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice; Rantala, Salla; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terence Clarence Heethom; Urech, Zora Lea

    2011-08-01

    We examine five forested landscapes in Africa (Cameroon, Madagascar, and Tanzania) and Asia (Indonesia and Laos) at different stages of landscape change. In all five areas, forest cover (outside of protected areas) continues to decrease despite local people's recognition of the importance of forest products and services. After forest conversion, agroforestry systems and fallows provide multiple functions and valued products, and retain significant biodiversity. But there are indications that such land use is transitory, with gradual simplification and loss of complex agroforests and fallows as land use becomes increasingly individualistic and profit driven. In Indonesia and Tanzania, farmers favor monocultures (rubber and oil palm, and sugarcane, respectively) for their high financial returns, with these systems replacing existing complex agroforests. In the study sites in Madagascar and Laos, investments in agroforests and new crops remain rare, despite government attempts to eradicate swidden systems and their multifunctional fallows. We discuss approaches to assessing local values related to landscape cover and associated goods and services. We highlight discrepancies between individual and collective responses in characterizing land use tendencies, and discuss the effects of accessibility on land management. We conclude that a combination of social, economic, and spatially explicit assessment methods is necessary to inform land use planning. Furthermore, any efforts to modify current trends will require clear incentives, such as through carbon finance. We speculate on the nature of such incentive schemes and the possibility of rewarding the provision of ecosystem services at a landscape scale and in a socially equitable manner.

  11. Understanding and integrating local perceptions of trees and forests into incentives for sustainable landscape management.

    PubMed

    Pfund, Jean-Laurent; Watts, John Daniel; Boissière, Manuel; Boucard, Amandine; Bullock, Renee Marie; Ekadinata, Andree; Dewi, Sonya; Feintrenie, Laurène; Levang, Patrice; Rantala, Salla; Sheil, Douglas; Sunderland, Terry; Sunderland, Terence Clarence Heethom; Urech, Zora Lea

    2011-08-01

    We examine five forested landscapes in Africa (Cameroon, Madagascar, and Tanzania) and Asia (Indonesia and Laos) at different stages of landscape change. In all five areas, forest cover (outside of protected areas) continues to decrease despite local people's recognition of the importance of forest products and services. After forest conversion, agroforestry systems and fallows provide multiple functions and valued products, and retain significant biodiversity. But there are indications that such land use is transitory, with gradual simplification and loss of complex agroforests and fallows as land use becomes increasingly individualistic and profit driven. In Indonesia and Tanzania, farmers favor monocultures (rubber and oil palm, and sugarcane, respectively) for their high financial returns, with these systems replacing existing complex agroforests. In the study sites in Madagascar and Laos, investments in agroforests and new crops remain rare, despite government attempts to eradicate swidden systems and their multifunctional fallows. We discuss approaches to assessing local values related to landscape cover and associated goods and services. We highlight discrepancies between individual and collective responses in characterizing land use tendencies, and discuss the effects of accessibility on land management. We conclude that a combination of social, economic, and spatially explicit assessment methods is necessary to inform land use planning. Furthermore, any efforts to modify current trends will require clear incentives, such as through carbon finance. We speculate on the nature of such incentive schemes and the possibility of rewarding the provision of ecosystem services at a landscape scale and in a socially equitable manner.

  12. Transplant surgeon formation: vocation, incentives, between old and new surgeon generations.

    PubMed

    Iaria, G; Cardillo, A

    2006-05-01

    The training of the transplant surgeon is one of the most difficult paths in medicine. The transplant surgeon must be trained as a general and a vascular surgeon; he has to be skilled and upgraded in transplant surgical technique; he has to decide the suitability of the donor and of the organs as well as the immunosuppressive therapy for each recipient; he must know the intensive care unit, hepatology, and nephrology. The transplant surgeon has to deal with surgical, infectious, and metabolic complications after organ transplantation. Thus, clinical formation of the transplant surgeon is multifactorial and always upgraded. However, transplants never happen in the morning; retrivals are more likely to be in the night (especially the holidays ones). "Weekend" is a word not frequently used by transplant surgeons. Moreover, when the transplant procedure happens, the normal activity of the ward and of the outpatient clinic were have to be done. The transplant surgeon must have a sort of "vocation" for such a job. Organ harvesting setting is a good proof of adaptability, always during nighttime, often in small hospitals with operating room nurses unfamiliar with the procedure, sometimes waiting for some colleagues or delaying the surgery. This vocation is enhanced by enthusiasm, but incentives are necessary to feed this love. Incentives should be professional and economic; transplant surgeons should be allowed to make clinical decisions, to choose the surgical technique of transplantation, to control the decision process. Lastly, due to the "total on call," the surgeon should profit from a right salary avoiding extramural activities.

  13. The study on knowledge transferring incentive for information system requirement development

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Yang

    2015-03-10

    Information system requirement development is a process of users’ knowledge sharing and transferring. However the tacit requirements developing is a main problem during requirement development process, for the reason of difficult to encoding, express, and communicate. Knowledge fusion and corporate effort is needed to finding tacit requirements. Under this background, our paper try to find out the rule of effort dynamic evolutionary of software developer and user by building an evolutionary game model on the condition of incentive system. And in addition this paper provides an in depth discussion at the end of this paper.

  14. Incentives, reproductive behavior, and integrated community development in Asia.

    PubMed

    David, H P

    1982-05-01

    Surveying experience with incentives, disincentives, and integrated community development approaches in selected Asian countries, this overview defines concepts, notes policy trends, and discusses ethical and legal constraints, psychosocial and socioeconomic aspects, and cultural-environmental influences on reproductive behavior. Major emphasis is on experience reported from China, India, Indonesia, Korea, Philippines, Singapore, and Thailand. Findings to date suggest that, to be successful, programs using incentives, disincentives, and integrated community development approaches will have to be formulated as consistent, clearly defined, and well-communicated policies, responsive to development needs and sensitive to local autonomy and values, with dynamic leadership to obtain and nurture continued policy backing.

  15. Financial Analysis of Incentive Mechanisms to Promote Energy Efficiency: Case Study of a Prototypical Southwest Utility

    SciTech Connect

    Cappers, Peter; Goldman, Charles; Chait, Michele; Edgar, George; Schlegel, Jeff; Shirley, Wayne

    2009-03-04

    alternative incentive approaches on utility shareholders and customers if energy efficiency is implemented under various utility operating, cost, and supply conditions.We used and adapted a spreadsheet-based financial model (the Benefits Calculator) which was developed originally as a tool to support the National Action Plan for Energy Efficiency (NAPEE). The major steps in our analysis are displayed graphically in Figure ES- 1. Two main inputs are required: (1) characterization of the utility which includes its initial financial and physical market position, a forecast of the utility?s future sales, peak demand, and resource strategy to meet projected growth; and (2) characterization of the Demand-Side Resource (DSR) portfolio ? projected electricity and demand savings, costs and economic lifetime of a portfolio of energy efficiency (and/or demand response) programs that the utility is planning or considering implementing during the analysis period. The Benefits Calculator also estimates total resource costs and benefits of the DSR portfolio using a forecast of avoided capacity and energy costs. The Benefits Calculator then uses inputs provided in the Utility Characterization to produce a ?business-as usual? base case as well as alternative scenarios that include energy efficiency resources, including the corresponding utility financial budgets required in each case. If a decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism are instituted, the Benefits Calculator model readjusts the utility?s revenue requirement and retail rates accordingly. Finally, for each scenario, the Benefits Calculator produces several metrics that provides insights on how energy efficiency resources, decoupling and/or a shareholder incentive mechanism impacts utility shareholders (e.g. overall earnings, return on equity), ratepayers (e.g., average customer bills and rates) and society (e.g. net resource benefits).

  16. Sino-U.S. Economic Relations: Problems and Perspectives

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-06-20

    the Chinese saw considerable advancement with the SEZ’s and there incentives because the CPC Central Committee and State Council adopted a plan in...implementing mandatory or guidance plans are also influenced by changes in prices, taxation and credits, these economic levers are all applied by the...University Press of America, 1987), p6 . 39 technologies. 5 4 As one can see, bilateral economic relations have made a tremendous start. Needless to say

  17. Television Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Owen, Bruce M.; And Others

    Intended as an introduction to the economics of commercial television for the general reader, this volume considers the theory and analytical basis of television and the policy implications of those economics. Part I considers the economics of television markets with particular attention of the determinants of viewer markets; the supply of…

  18. Stimulating Economics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Banaian, King

    2009-01-01

    With the current economic slump possibly the deepest since the Great Depression, interest in the subject of macroeconomics has reignited, and the number of students majoring in economics has increased during the last two years. While this would appear to be good news for educators in the economics field, the profession is nervous about more than…

  19. Economic aspects of mastitis: new developments.

    PubMed

    Hogeveen, H; Huijps, K; Lam, T J G M

    2011-01-01

    Good udder health is not only important for the dairy farmer but, because of increasing interest of consumers in the way dairy products are produced, also for the dairy production chain as a whole. An important role of veterinarians is in advising on production diseases such as mastitis. A large part of this advice is given around the planning of management to maintain or improve the udder health status of a farm. Mastitis is a costly disease, due to losses (a reduction of output due to mastitis) and expenditure (additional inputs to reduce the level of mastitis). Worldwide, published estimates of the economic losses of clinical mastitis range from €61 to €97 per cow on a farm, with large differences between farms, e.g. in The Netherlands, losses due to clinical and subclinical mastitis varied between €17 and €198 per cow per year. Moreover, farmers tended to underestimate these costs. This indicates that for a large proportion of farms there are many avoidable losses. In order to provide good support to farmers' decision-making, it is important to describe the mastitis setting not only in terms of disease, e.g. incidence of clinical mastitis, but also in monetary terms; and to make good decisions, it is necessary to provide the dairy farmer with information on the additional expenditure and reduced losses associated with alternative decisions. Six out of 18 preventive measures were shown to have a positive nett benefit, viz blanket use of dry-cow therapy, keeping cows standing after milking, back-flushing of the milk cluster after milking a cow with clinical mastitis, application of a treatment protocol, washing dirty udders, and the use of milkers' gloves. For those measures that included a large amount of routine labour or investment, the reduced losses did not outweigh the additional expenditure. The advisor cannot expect that measures that are cost-effective are always implemented. Reasons for this are the objectives of the dairy farmer can be other

  20. Economic Means for Human Needs: Social Indicators of Well-Being and Discontent.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Strumpel, Burkhard, Ed.

    This book is concerned with the human conflict between needs and means, between material wants and lack of resources to satisfy them. Looking at both individuals and some segments of society, the authors measure economic well-being and define its objective and psychological bases, its dimensions, and its relationship to economic incentives. In the…