Science.gov

Sample records for additional efforts include

  1. NASA OSMA NDE Program Additive Manufacturing Foundational Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Walker, James; Burke, Eric; Wells, Douglas; Nichols, Charles

    2016-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  2. Photoactive devices including porphyrinoids with coordinating additives

    DOEpatents

    Forrest, Stephen R; Zimmerman, Jeramy; Yu, Eric K; Thompson, Mark E; Trinh, Cong; Whited, Matthew; Diev, Vlacheslav

    2015-05-12

    Coordinating additives are included in porphyrinoid-based materials to promote intermolecular organization and improve one or more photoelectric characteristics of the materials. The coordinating additives are selected from fullerene compounds and organic compounds having free electron pairs. Combinations of different coordinating additives can be used to tailor the characteristic properties of such porphyrinoid-based materials, including porphyrin oligomers. Bidentate ligands are one type of coordinating additive that can form coordination bonds with a central metal ion of two different porphyrinoid compounds to promote porphyrinoid alignment and/or pi-stacking. The coordinating additives can shift the absorption spectrum of a photoactive material toward higher wavelengths, increase the external quantum efficiency of the material, or both.

  3. Summary of NDE of additive manufacturing efforts in NASA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waller, Jess M.; Saulsberry, Regor L.; Parker, Bradford H.; Hodges, Kenneth L.; Burke, Eric R.; Taminger, Karen M.

    2015-03-01

    One of the major obstacles slowing the acceptance of parts made by additive manufacturing (AM) in NASA applications is the lack of a broadly accepted materials and process quality systems; and more specifically, the lack of adequate nondestructive evaluation (NDE) processes integrated into AM. Matching voluntary consensus standards are also needed to control the consistency of input materials, process equipment, process methods, finished part properties, and how those properties are characterized. As for nondestructive characterization, procedures are needed to interrogate features unique to parts made by AM, such as fine-scale porosity, deeply embedded flaws, complex part geometry, and intricate internal features. The NDE methods developed must be tailored to meet materials, design and test requirements encountered throughout the part life cycle, whether during process optimization, real-time process monitoring, finished part qualification and certification (especially of flight hardware), or in situ health monitoring. Restated, individualized process/product-specific NDE methods are needed to satisfy NASA's various quality assurance requirements. To date, only limited data have been acquired by NASA on parts made by AM. This paper summarizes the NASA AM effort, highlights available NDE data, and outlines the approach NASA is taking to apply NDE to its various AM efforts.

  4. Summary of NDE of Additive Manufacturing Efforts in NASA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Saulsberry, Regor; Parker, Bradford; Hodges, Kenneth; Burke, Eric; Taminger, Karen

    2014-01-01

    (1) General Rationale for Additive Manufacturing (AM): (a) Operate under a 'design-to-constraint' paradigm, make parts too complicated to fabricate otherwise, (b) Reduce weight by 20 percent with monolithic parts, (c) Reduce waste (green manufacturing), (e) Eliminate reliance on Original Equipment Manufacturers for critical spares, and (f) Extend life of in-service parts by innovative repair methods; (2) NASA OSMA NDE of AM State-of-the-Discipline Report; (3) Overview of NASA AM Efforts at Various Centers: (a) Analytical Tools, (b) Ground-Based Fabrication (c) Space-Based Fabrication; and (d) Center Activity Summaries; (4) Overview of NASA NDE data to date on AM parts; and (5) Gap Analysis/Recommendations for NDE of AM.

  5. 12 CFR 906.12 - What outreach efforts are included in this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false What outreach efforts are included in this program? 906.12 Section 906.12 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE... Minorities, Women, or Individuals With Disabilities § 906.12 What outreach efforts are included in...

  6. TCGA's Pan-Cancer Efforts and Expansion to Include Whole Genome Sequence - TCGA

    Cancer.gov

    Carolyn Hutter, Ph.D., Program Director of NHGRI's Division of Genomic Medicine, discusses the expansion of TCGA's Pan-Cancer efforts to include the Pan-Cancer Analysis of Whole Genomes (PAWG) project.

  7. Recommended Resources for Planning to Evaluate Program Improvement Efforts (Including the SSIP)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Center for Systemic Improvement at WestEd, 2015

    2015-01-01

    This document provides a list of recommended existing resources for state Part C and Part B 619 staff and technical assistance (TA) providers to utilize to support evaluation planning for program improvement efforts (including the State Systemic Improvement Plan, SSIP). There are many resources available related to evaluation and evaluation…

  8. States and compacts: Issues and events affecting facility development efforts, including the Barnwell opening

    SciTech Connect

    Larson, G.S.

    1995-12-31

    Ten years have passed since the first regional low-level radioactive waste compacts received Congressional consent and initiated their efforts to develop new disposal capacity. During these 10 years, both significant achievements and serious setbacks have marked our efforts and affect our current outlook. Recent events in the waste marketplace, particularly in the operating status of the Barnwell disposal facility, have now raised legitimate questions about the continued rationale for the regional framework that grew out of the original legislation enacted by Congress in 1980. At the same time, licensing activities for new regional disposal facilities are under way in three states, and a fourth awaits the final go-ahead to begin construction. Uncertainty over the meaning and reliability of the marketplace events makes it difficult to gauge long-term implications. In addition, differences in the status of individual state and compact facility development efforts lead to varying assessments of the influence these events will, or should, have on such efforts.

  9. Structured additive distributional regression for analysing landings per unit effort in fisheries research.

    PubMed

    Mamouridis, Valeria; Klein, Nadja; Kneib, Thomas; Cadarso Suarez, Carmen; Maynou, Francesc

    2017-01-01

    We analysed the landings per unit effort (LPUE) from the Barcelona trawl fleet targeting the red shrimp (Aristeus antennatus) using novel Bayesian structured additive distributional regression to gain a better understanding of the dynamics and determinants of variation in LPUE. The data set, covering a time span of 17 years, includes fleet-dependent variables (e.g. the number of trips performed by vessels), temporal variables (inter- and intra-annual variability) and environmental variables (the North Atlantic Oscillation index). Based on structured additive distributional regression, we evaluate (i) the gain in replacing purely linear predictors by additive predictors including nonlinear effects of continuous covariates, (ii) the inclusion of vessel-specific effects based on either fixed or random effects, (iii) different types of distributions for the response, and (iv) the potential gain in not only modelling the location but also the scale/shape parameter of these distributions. Our findings support that flexible model variants are indeed able to improve the fit considerably and that additional insights can be gained. Tools to select within several model specifications and assumptions are discussed in detail as well.

  10. Constant-Pressure Combustion Charts Including Effects of Diluent Addition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Turner, L Richard; Bogart, Donald

    1949-01-01

    Charts are presented for the calculation of (a) the final temperatures and the temperature changes involved in constant-pressure combustion processes of air and in products of combustion of air and hydrocarbon fuels, and (b) the quantity of hydrocarbon fuels required in order to attain a specified combustion temperature when water, alcohol, water-alcohol mixtures, liquid ammonia, liquid carbon dioxide, liquid nitrogen, liquid oxygen, or their mixtures are added to air as diluents or refrigerants. The ideal combustion process and combustion with incomplete heat release from the primary fuel and from combustible diluents are considered. The effect of preheating the mixture of air and diluents and the effect of an initial water-vapor content in the combustion air on the required fuel quantity are also included. The charts are applicable only to processes in which the final mixture is leaner than stoichiometric and at temperatures where dissociation is unimportant. A chart is also included to permit the calculation of the stoichiometric ratio of hydrocarbon fuel to air with diluent addition. The use of the charts is illustrated by numerical examples.

  11. Defense Additive Manufacturing: DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-10-01

    Clip Additively Manufactured • The Navy installed a 3D printer aboard the USS Essex to demonstrate the ability to additively develop and produce...desired result and vision to have the capability on the fleet. These officials stated that the Navy plans to install 3D printers on two additional...DEFENSE ADDITIVE MANUFACTURING DOD Needs to Systematically Track Department-wide 3D Printing Efforts Report to

  12. Using individual interest and conscientiousness to predict academic effort: Additive, synergistic, or compensatory effects?

    PubMed

    Trautwein, Ulrich; Lüdtke, Oliver; Nagy, Nicole; Lenski, Anna; Niggli, Alois; Schnyder, Inge

    2015-07-01

    Although both conscientiousness and domain-specific interest are believed to be major determinants of academic effort, they have rarely been brought together in empirical studies. In the present research, it was hypothesized that both interest and conscientiousness uniquely predict academic effort and statistically interact with each other to predict academic effort. In 4 studies with 2,557, 415, 1,025, and 1,531 students, respectively, conscientiousness and interest meaningfully and uniquely predicted academic effort. In addition, conscientiousness interacted with interest in a compensatory pattern, indicating that conscientiousness is especially important when a student finds a school subject uninteresting and that domain-specific interest plays a particularly important role for students low in conscientiousness.

  13. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  14. 12 CFR 361.6 - What outreach efforts are included in this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.6 What outreach efforts... with the FDIC in minority- and women-owned media; and (5) Monitoring to assure that FDIC...

  15. 12 CFR 361.6 - What outreach efforts are included in this program?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... STATEMENTS OF GENERAL POLICY MINORITY AND WOMEN OUTREACH PROGRAM CONTRACTING § 361.6 What outreach efforts... with the FDIC in minority- and women-owned media; and (5) Monitoring to assure that FDIC...

  16. DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    DOD FINANCIAL MANAGEMENT Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related...REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Financial Management: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit ...Additional Efforts Needed to Improve Audit Readiness of Navy Military Pay and Other Related Activities Why GAO Did This Study DOD continues to work

  17. The Inclusion Audit: Evaluating Your Camp's Efforts To Include Diverse Populations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Maureen; Maurer, Lisa

    1999-01-01

    An inclusion audit looks at the messages that a camp conveys to campers, parents, and the public and evaluates whether those messages are congruent with policies of acceptance and inclusion of diversity. Elements include reviewing camp promotional materials, the camp mission statement, and the location of advertising; evaluating forms; examining…

  18. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  19. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  20. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  1. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  2. 25 CFR 1000.83 - Can additional provisions be included in an AFA?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 2 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? 1000.83... Scope of Annual Funding Agreements § 1000.83 Can additional provisions be included in an AFA? Yes, any provision that the parties mutually agreed upon may be included in an AFA....

  3. VA Health Care. Additional Efforts to Better Assess Joint Ventures Needed

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-03-01

    Kans. Okla. Minn. Iowa Mo. Ark. La. Ill. Miss. Ind. Ky. Tenn. Ala. Ga. S.C. N.C. Va. Ohio N.H. Mass. Mich . Calif. Wash. Wis. N.Y. Maine Vt. W.Va...train VA personnel in a variety of areas, including basic life support and advanced cardiac life support. Finally, VA officials and academic

  4. Synergistic effect of additives including multifunctional acrylates in wood plastic composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khan, Mubarak A.; Idriss Ali, K. M.; Garnett, John L.

    1993-07-01

    Wood Plastic Composite (WPC) was prepared with simul (soft wood, density = 0.4g/cc) and butylmethacrylate (BMA) monomer using 10% methanol as the swelling agent. Effect of additives including (i) multifunctional acrylates such as tripropylene glycol diacrylate (TPGDA), trimethylol propane triacrylate (TMPTA) (ii) oligomer acrylates like the urethane (UA), epoxy (EA) and polyester (PEA) acrylates and (iii) N-vinyl pyrrolidone (NVP) was investigated using 1 to 3 Mrad dose at 0.8 Mrad/h. Synergistic increases in polymer loading yields was achieved in presence of the additives, particularly with the trifunctional acrylate (TMPTA). In addition, acid as well as urea were also used as co-additives and synergistic enhancement in yields of polymer loading were obtained. The synergistic polymer loading by acid addition causes substantial decrease in tensile strength of the composite; but other additives and co-additives increase both the polymer loading and the tensile strength in these systems.

  5. Human Capital: Additional Actions Needed to Enhance DOD’s Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-01

    stress disorder or traumatic brain injury. Additionally, the Defense Suicide Prevention Office reports through the Executive Director of the Office of...Efforts to Address Mental Health Care Stigma Why GAO Did This Study A 2010 DOD task force on suicide prevention concluded that stigma—the negative...Representatives A 2010 Department of Defense (DOD) Task Force on the Prevention of Suicide by Members of the Armed Forces concluded that

  6. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to Support Warfighter Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced

  7. Systems and Methods for Fabricating Objects Including Amorphous Metal Using Techniques Akin to Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hofmann, Douglas (Inventor)

    2017-01-01

    Systems and methods in accordance with embodiments of the invention fabricate objects including amorphous metals using techniques akin to additive manufacturing. In one embodiment, a method of fabricating an object that includes an amorphous metal includes: applying a first layer of molten metallic alloy to a surface; cooling the first layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a first layer including amorphous metal; subsequently applying at least one layer of molten metallic alloy onto a layer including amorphous metal; cooling each subsequently applied layer of molten metallic alloy such that it solidifies and thereby forms a layer including amorphous metal prior to the application of any adjacent layer of molten metallic alloy; where the aggregate of the solidified layers including amorphous metal forms a desired shape in the object to be fabricated; and removing at least the first layer including amorphous metal from the surface.

  8. Combinatorial Synthesis of Linearly Condensed Polycyclic Compounds, Including Anthracyclinones, Through Tandem Diels-Alder Additions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vogel, Pierre

    Double exocyclic 1,3-dienes such as 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane and its 1-substituted derivatives undergo two successive Diels-Alder additions with large reactivity difference between the addition of the first equivalent (k 1) and the second equivalent (k 2) of dienophile. This allows one to prepare, through parallel synthesis, a large number of linearly condensed polycyclic systems containing three annulated six-membered rings, including naphthacenyl systems and anthracyclinones. The large k 1/k 2 rate constant ratio is a consequence of the Dimroth principle, the first cycloaddition being significantly more exothermic then the second one. Control of regio- and stereoselectivity of the two successive cycloadditions is possible by 1-substitution of the 2,3,5,6-tetramethylidene-7-oxabicyclo[2.2.1]heptane, for instance by a 1-(dimethoxymethyl) group, or by stereoselective disubstitution of the double diene by arenesulfenyl substituents. Enantiomerically pure anthracyclinones and analogues are obtained using enantiomerically pure dienophiles such as 3-oxo-but-2-en-2-yl esters. The chemistry so-developed has allowed the preparation of enantiomerically pure 6-((aminoalkoxy)oxy)methyl-6,7-dideoxyidarubicinones that are DNA intercalators and inhibitors of topoisomerase II-induced DNA strained religation.

  9. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  10. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-Student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-Risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to…

  11. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects.

    PubMed

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N

    2010-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children.

  12. Child Effortful Control, Teacher-student Relationships, and Achievement in Academically At-risk Children: Additive and Interactive Effects

    PubMed Central

    Liew, Jeffrey; Chen, Qi; Hughes, Jan N.

    2009-01-01

    The joint contributions of child effortful control (using inhibitory control and task accuracy as behavioral indices) and positive teacher-student relationships at first grade on reading and mathematics achievement at second grade were examined in 761 children who were predominantly from low-income and ethnic minority backgrounds and assessed to be academically at-risk at entry to first grade. Analyses accounted for clustering effects, covariates, baselines of effortful control measures, and prior levels of achievement. Even with such conservative statistical controls, interactive effects were found for task accuracy and positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement. Results suggest that task accuracy served as a protective factor so that children with high task accuracy performed well academically despite not having positive teacher-student relationships. Further, positive teacher-student relationships served as a compensatory factor so that children with low task accuracy performed just as well as those with high task accuracy if they were paired with a positive and supportive teacher. Importantly, results indicate that the influence of positive teacher-student relationships on future achievement was most pronounced for students with low effortful control on tasks that require fine motor skills, accuracy, and attention-related skills. Study results have implications for narrowing achievement disparities for academically at-risk children. PMID:20161421

  13. 78 FR 67369 - National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-11-12

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Health Resources and Services Administration National Vaccine Injury Compensation Program: Addition to the Vaccine Injury Table to Include All Vaccines Against Seasonal Influenza AGENCY: Health... vaccines against seasonal influenza are covered under the National Vaccine Injury Compensation...

  14. Effortful echolalia.

    PubMed

    Hadano, K; Nakamura, H; Hamanaka, T

    1998-02-01

    We report three cases of effortful echolalia in patients with cerebral infarction. The clinical picture of speech disturbance is associated with Type 1 Transcortical Motor Aphasia (TCMA, Goldstein, 1915). The patients always spoke nonfluently with loss of speech initiative, dysarthria, dysprosody, agrammatism, and increased effort and were unable to repeat sentences longer than those containing four or six words. In conversation, they first repeated a few words spoken to them, and then produced self initiated speech. The initial repetition as well as the subsequent self initiated speech, which were realized equally laboriously, can be regarded as mitigated echolalia (Pick, 1924). They were always aware of their own echolalia and tried to control it without effect. These cases demonstrate that neither the ability to repeat nor fluent speech are always necessary for echolalia. The possibility that a lesion in the left medial frontal lobe, including the supplementary motor area, plays an important role in effortful echolalia is discussed.

  15. Security assessment of power systems including energy storage and with the integration of wind energy. Volume I. Digital transient simulation effort consulting Agreement No. 1. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Anderson, P. M.

    1982-06-30

    The purpose of the effort reported has been to adapt the MOD-2 simulation models for implementation on a digital transient stability program. This has involved: selection of an appropriate host program, examination of the host program interface, analysis of the analog models for digital implementation, FORTRAN coding of the model equations, installation and debugging on the host program, and final model verification. Synchronous machine equations are analyzed, with particular emphasis on numerical solution. (LEW)

  16. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  17. Major histocompatibility complex harbors widespread genotypic variability of non-additive risk of rheumatoid arthritis including epistasis

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Wen-Hua; Bowes, John; Plant, Darren; Viatte, Sebastien; Yarwood, Annie; Massey, Jonathan; Worthington, Jane; Eyre, Stephen

    2016-01-01

    Genotypic variability based genome-wide association studies (vGWASs) can identify potentially interacting loci without prior knowledge of the interacting factors. We report a two-stage approach to make vGWAS applicable to diseases: firstly using a mixed model approach to partition dichotomous phenotypes into additive risk and non-additive environmental residuals on the liability scale and secondly using the Levene’s (Brown-Forsythe) test to assess equality of the residual variances across genotype groups per marker. We found widespread significant (P < 2.5e-05) vGWAS signals within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) across all three study cohorts of rheumatoid arthritis. We further identified 10 epistatic interactions between the vGWAS signals independent of the MHC additive effects, each with a weak effect but jointly explained 1.9% of phenotypic variance. PTPN22 was also identified in the discovery cohort but replicated in only one independent cohort. Combining the three cohorts boosted power of vGWAS and additionally identified TYK2 and ANKRD55. Both PTPN22 and TYK2 had evidence of interactions reported elsewhere. We conclude that vGWAS can help discover interacting loci for complex diseases but require large samples to find additional signals. PMID:27109064

  18. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  19. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  20. 36 CFR 1290.4 - Types of materials included in scope of assassination record and additional records and information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 36 Parks, Forests, and Public Property 3 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Types of materials included..., Forests, and Public Property NATIONAL ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION JFK ASSASSINATION RECORDS... documentary material; (b) Photographs; (c) Motion pictures; (d) Sound and video recordings; (e)...

  1. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  2. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  3. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  4. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... ORDERS; FRUITS, VEGETABLES, NUTS), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  5. 7 CFR 984.437 - Methods for proposing names of additional candidates to be included on walnut growers' nomination...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... to be included on walnut growers' nomination ballots. 984.437 Section 984.437 Agriculture Regulations... Orders; Fruits, Vegetables, Nuts), DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WALNUTS GROWN IN CALIFORNIA Administrative... walnut growers' nomination ballots. (a) With regard to Board grower member positions specified in §...

  6. Benchmarking spliced alignment programs including Spaln2, an extended version of Spaln that incorporates additional species-specific features

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Hiroaki; Gotoh, Osamu

    2012-01-01

    Spliced alignment plays a central role in the precise identification of eukaryotic gene structures. Even though many spliced alignment programs have been developed, recent rapid progress in DNA sequencing technologies demands further improvements in software tools. Benchmarking algorithms under various conditions is an indispensable task for the development of better software; however, there is a dire lack of appropriate datasets usable for benchmarking spliced alignment programs. In this study, we have constructed two types of datasets: simulated sequence datasets and actual cross-species datasets. The datasets are designed to correspond to various real situations, i.e. divergent eukaryotic species, different types of reference sequences, and the wide divergence between query and target sequences. In addition, we have developed an extended version of our program Spaln, which incorporates two additional features to the scoring scheme of the original version, and examined this extended version, Spaln2, together with the original Spaln and other representative aligners based on our benchmark datasets. Although the effects of the modifications are not individually striking, Spaln2 is consistently most accurate and reasonably fast in most practical cases, especially for plants and fungi and for increasingly divergent pairs of target and query sequences. PMID:22848105

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    During the summer and fall of 1977, 533 water and 1226 sediment samples were collected from 1740 locations within the 18,000 km/sup 2/ area of the Newcastle quadrangle, Wyoming. Water samples were collected from wells and springs; sediment samples were collected from stream channels and from springs. Each water sample was analyzed for uranium, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including uranium and thorium. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations (>20 ppB) generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District.

  8. Performance of portland limestone cements: Cements designed to be more sustainable that include up to 15% limestone addition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrett, Timothy J.

    In 2009, ASTM and AASHTO permitted the use of up to 5% interground limestone in ordinary portland cement (OPC) as a part of a change to ASTM C150/AASHTO M85. When this work was initiated a new proposal was being discussed that would enable up to 15% interground limestone cement to be considered in ASTM C595/AASHTO M234. This work served to provide rapid feedback to the state department of transportation and concrete industry for use in discussions regarding these specifications. Since the time this work was initiated, ASTM C595/AASHTO M234 was passed (2012c) and PLCs are now able to be specified, however they are still not widely used. The proposal for increasing the volume of limestone that would be permitted to be interground in cement is designed to enable more sustainable construction, which may significantly reduce the CO2 that is embodied in the built infrastructure while also extending the life of cement quarries. Research regarding the performance of cements with interground limestone has been conducted by the cement industry since these cements became widely used in Europe over three decades ago, however this work focuses on North American Portland Limestone Cements (PLCs) which are specifically designed to achieve similar performance as the OPCs they replace.This thesis presents a two-phase study in which the potential for application of cements containing limestone was assessed. The first phase of this study utilized a fundamental approach to determine whether cement with up to 15% of interground or blended limestone can be used as a direct substitute to ordinary portland cement. The second phase of the study assessed the concern of early age shrinkage and cracking potential when using PLCs, as these cements are typically ground finer than their OPC counterparts. For the first phase of the study, three commercially produced PLCs were obtained and compared to three commercially produced OPCs made from the same clinker. An additional cement was tested

  9. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Newcastle NTMS Quadrangle, Wyoming, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Goff, S.J.; Sandoval, W.F.; Gallimore, D.L.; Talcott, C.L.; Martinez, R.G.; Minor, M.E.; Mills, C.F.

    1980-06-01

    Water and sediment samples were collected and each water sample was analyzed for U, and each sediment sample was analyzed for 43 elements, including U and Th. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.02 ppB to 702.26 ppB and have a median of 1.73 ppB and a mean of 11.76 ppB. Water samples containing high uranium concentrations generally are associated with known uranium mining activity or units known to be uranium bearing. About one-third of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations within the Pumpkin Buttes and Turnercrest-Ross Districts. Nearly half of the water samples containing high uranium concentrations were collected from locations just west of the Monument Hill and Highland Flats-Box Creek Districts. Similar anomalous uranium concentrations in this region have been reported updip from Exxon's Highland uranium deposits. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek-Old Woman Anticline District. Uranium concentrations in sediment samples range from 1.14 to 220.70 ppM and have a median of 3.37 ppM and a mean of 4.03 ppM. Throughout the major uranium mining districts of the Powder River Basin, sediment samples with high uranium concentrations were collected from dry streams located near wells producing water samples with high uranium concentrations. High uranium concentrations were also found associated with the Lance Creek oil field where uranium mineralization is known in the White River formation. High uranium concentrations were also found in sediment samples in areas where uranium mineralization is not known. These samples are from dry streams in areas underlain by the White River formation, the Niobrara formation, and the Pierre, Carlisle, Belle Fourche, and Mowry shales.

  10. International aerospaceplane efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lindley, Charles A.

    1992-01-01

    Although the U.S. began the first reusable space booster effort in the late 1950's, it is no longer an exclusive field. All of the technologically advanced nations, and several groups of nations, have one or more reusable booster efforts in progress. A listing of the entries in the field is presented. The list is somewhat misleading, because it includes both fully reusable and partially reusable boosters, both manned and unmanned, and both flight test and operational proposals. Additionally, not all of the projects are funded, and only a few of the projects will survive. The most likely candidates are the following: France/ESA, Germany/ESA, Great Britain/ESA/(USSR), USSR(past), and Japan. A discussion of the preceding projects is provided.

  11. A comparison of the additional protocols of the five nuclear weapon states and the ensuing safeguards benefits to international nonproliferation efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, M Analisa; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Leitch, Rosalyn M

    2009-01-01

    With the 6 January 2009 entry into force of the Additional Protocol by the United States of America, all five declared Nuclear Weapon States that are part of the Nonproliferation Treaty have signed, ratified, and put into force the Additional Protocol. This paper makes a comparison of the strengths and weaknesses of the five Additional Protocols in force by the five Nuclear Weapon States with respect to the benefits to international nonproliferation aims. This paper also documents the added safeguards burden to the five declared Nuclear Weapon States that these Additional Protocols put on the states with respect to access to their civilian nuclear programs and the hosting of complementary access activities as part of the Additional Protocol.

  12. Documentary effort.

    PubMed

    2006-01-01

    This spring, Virtua Health, the largest health system in Southern New Jersey, launched an innovative campaign aimed at raising overall awareness of its facilities by documenting real-life patients undergoing a variety of experiences (e.g., breast cancer, high-risk pregnancy, spine surgery, and minimally-invasive knee replacement surgery). The effort, called "The Virtua Experience" became a 30-minute hospital documentary that aired on Philadelphia's NBC affiliate this summer.

  13. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible...

  14. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2013-07-01 2012-07-01 true If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer, ultralight vehicle), am I responsible for payment? (a) No,...

  15. 41 CFR 302-7.21 - If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 4 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false If my HHG shipment includes an item for which a weight additive is assessed by the HHG carrier (e.g., boat, trailer... Management Federal Travel Regulation System RELOCATION ALLOWANCES TRANSPORTATION AND STORAGE OF PROPERTY...

  16. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna

    PubMed Central

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J.

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909–1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare. PMID:27667947

  17. Tardigrada of Ireland: a review of records and an updated checklist of species including a new addition to the Irish fauna.

    PubMed

    DeMilio, Erica; Lawton, Colin; Marley, Nigel J

    2016-01-01

    The phylum Tardigrada was not recorded in Ireland until the Clare Island Survey of 1909-1911, with only rare subsequent reports on Irish tardigrade species. In recent decades, significant taxonomic revision has occurred within Tardigrada. This has resulted in the need for a review of all known historical records from Ireland and Northern Ireland in order to produce an updated checklist of valid taxa. The new checklist includes fifty-one tardigrade species and subspecies including a new addition to the Irish fauna reported herein, Echiniscus quadrispinosus quadrispinosus Richters, 1902 from Newtown, Ballyvaughan, Co. Clare.

  18. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  19. Measurement of [Formula: see text] production with additional jet activity, including [Formula: see text] quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at [Formula: see text].

    PubMed

    Khachatryan, V; Sirunyan, A M; Tumasyan, A; Adam, W; Asilar, E; Bergauer, T; Brandstetter, J; Brondolin, E; Dragicevic, M; Erö, J; Friedl, M; Frühwirth, R; Ghete, V M; Hartl, C; Hörmann, N; Hrubec, J; Jeitler, M; Knünz, V; König, A; Krammer, M; Krätschmer, I; Liko, D; Matsushita, T; Mikulec, I; Rabady, D; Rahbaran, B; Rohringer, H; Schieck, J; Schöfbeck, R; Strauss, J; Treberer-Treberspurg, W; Waltenberger, W; Wulz, C-E; Mossolov, V; Shumeiko, N; Suarez Gonzalez, J; Alderweireldt, S; Cornelis, T; De Wolf, E A; Janssen, X; Knutsson, A; Lauwers, J; Luyckx, S; Van De Klundert, M; Van Haevermaet, H; Van Mechelen, P; Van Remortel, N; Van Spilbeeck, A; Abu Zeid, S; Blekman, F; D'Hondt, J; Daci, N; De Bruyn, I; Deroover, K; Heracleous, N; Keaveney, J; Lowette, S; Moreels, L; Olbrechts, A; Python, Q; Strom, D; Tavernier, S; Van Doninck, W; Van Mulders, P; Van Onsem, G P; Van Parijs, I; Barria, P; Brun, H; Caillol, C; Clerbaux, B; De Lentdecker, G; Fasanella, G; Favart, L; Grebenyuk, A; Karapostoli, G; Lenzi, T; Léonard, A; Maerschalk, T; Marinov, A; Perniè, L; Randle-Conde, A; Reis, T; Seva, T; Vander Velde, C; Yonamine, R; Vanlaer, P; Yonamine, R; Zenoni, F; Zhang, F; Adler, V; Beernaert, K; Benucci, L; Cimmino, A; Crucy, S; Dobur, D; Fagot, A; Garcia, G; Gul, M; Mccartin, J; Ocampo Rios, A A; Poyraz, D; Ryckbosch, D; Salva, S; Sigamani, M; Strobbe, N; Tytgat, M; Van Driessche, W; Yazgan, E; Zaganidis, N; Basegmez, S; Beluffi, C; Bondu, O; Brochet, S; Bruno, G; Caudron, A; Ceard, L; Da Silveira, G G; Delaere, C; Favart, D; Forthomme, L; Giammanco, A; Hollar, J; Jafari, A; Jez, P; Komm, M; Lemaitre, V; Mertens, A; Musich, M; Nuttens, C; Perrini, L; Pin, A; Piotrzkowski, K; Popov, A; Quertenmont, L; Selvaggi, M; Vidal Marono, M; Beliy, N; Hammad, G H; Júnior, W L Aldá; Alves, F L; Alves, G A; Brito, L; Correa Martins Junior, M; Hamer, M; Hensel, C; Mora Herrera, C; Moraes, A; Pol, M E; Rebello Teles, P; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E; Carvalho, W; Chinellato, J; Custódio, A; Da Costa, E M; De Jesus Damiao, D; De Oliveira Martins, C; Fonseca De Souza, S; Huertas Guativa, L M; Malbouisson, H; Matos Figueiredo, D; Mundim, L; Nogima, H; Prado Da Silva, W L; Santoro, A; Sznajder, A; Tonelli Manganote, E J; Vilela Pereira, A; Ahuja, S; Bernardes, C A; De Souza Santos, A; Dogra, S; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T R; Gregores, E M; Mercadante, P G; Moon, C S; Novaes, S F; Padula, Sandra S; Romero Abad, D; Ruiz Vargas, J C; Aleksandrov, A; Hadjiiska, R; Iaydjiev, P; Rodozov, M; Stoykova, S; Sultanov, G; Vutova, M; Dimitrov, A; Glushkov, I; Litov, L; Pavlov, B; Petkov, P; Ahmad, M; Bian, J G; Chen, G M; Chen, H S; Chen, M; Cheng, T; Du, R; Jiang, C H; Plestina, R; Romeo, F; Shaheen, S M; Spiezia, A; Tao, J; Wang, C; Wang, Z; Zhang, H; Asawatangtrakuldee, C; Ban, Y; Li, Q; Liu, S; Mao, Y; Qian, S J; Wang, D; Xu, Z; Avila, C; Cabrera, A; Chaparro Sierra, L F; Florez, C; Gomez, J P; Gomez Moreno, B; Sanabria, J C; Godinovic, N; Lelas, D; Puljak, I; Ribeiro Cipriano, P M; Antunovic, Z; Kovac, M; Brigljevic, V; Kadija, K; Luetic, J; Micanovic, S; Sudic, L; Attikis, A; Mavromanolakis, G; Mousa, J; Nicolaou, C; Ptochos, F; Razis, P A; Rykaczewski, H; Bodlak, M; Finger, M; Finger, M; El Sawy, M; El-Khateeb, E; Elkafrawy, T; Mohamed, A; Salama, E; Calpas, B; Kadastik, M; Murumaa, M; Raidal, M; Tiko, A; Veelken, C; Eerola, P; Pekkanen, J; Voutilainen, M; Härkönen, J; Karimäki, V; Kinnunen, R; Lampén, T; Lassila-Perini, K; Lehti, S; Lindén, T; Luukka, P; Mäenpää, T; Peltola, T; Tuominen, E; Tuominiemi, J; Tuovinen, E; Wendland, L; Talvitie, J; Tuuva, T; Besancon, M; Couderc, F; Dejardin, M; Denegri, D; Fabbro, B; Faure, J L; Favaro, C; Ferri, F; Ganjour, S; Givernaud, A; Gras, P; Hamel de Monchenault, G; Jarry, P; Locci, E; Machet, M; Malcles, J; Rander, J; Rosowsky, A; Titov, M; Zghiche, A; Antropov, I; Baffioni, S; Beaudette, F; Busson, P; Cadamuro, L; Chapon, E; Charlot, C; Dahms, T; Davignon, O; Filipovic, N; Florent, A; Granier de Cassagnac, R; Lisniak, S; Mastrolorenzo, L; Miné, P; Naranjo, I N; Nguyen, M; Ochando, C; Ortona, G; Paganini, P; Pigard, P; Regnard, S; Salerno, R; Sauvan, J B; Sirois, Y; Strebler, T; Yilmaz, Y; Zabi, A; Agram, J-L; Andrea, J; Aubin, A; Bloch, D; Brom, J-M; Buttignol, M; Chabert, E C; Chanon, N; Collard, C; Conte, E; Coubez, X; Fontaine, J-C; Gelé, D; Goerlach, U; Goetzmann, C; Le Bihan, A-C; Merlin, J A; Skovpen, K; Van Hove, P; Gadrat, S; Beauceron, S; Bernet, C; Boudoul, G; Bouvier, E; Carrillo Montoya, C A; Chierici, R; Contardo, D; Courbon, B; Depasse, P; El Mamouni, H; Fan, J; Fay, J; Gascon, S; Gouzevitch, M; Ille, B; Lagarde, F; Laktineh, I B; Lethuillier, M; Mirabito, L; Pequegnot, A L; Perries, S; Ruiz Alvarez, J D; Sabes, D; Sgandurra, L; Sordini, V; Vander Donckt, M; Verdier, P; Viret, S; Toriashvili, T; Lomidze, D; Autermann, C; Beranek, S; Edelhoff, M; Feld, L; Heister, A; Kiesel, M K; Klein, K; Lipinski, M; Ostapchuk, A; Preuten, M; Raupach, F; Schael, S; Schulte, J F; Verlage, T; Weber, H; Wittmer, B; Zhukov, V; Ata, M; Brodski, M; Dietz-Laursonn, E; Duchardt, D; Endres, M; Erdmann, M; Erdweg, S; Esch, T; Fischer, R; Güth, A; Hebbeker, T; Heidemann, C; Hoepfner, K; Klingebiel, D; Knutzen, S; Kreuzer, P; Merschmeyer, M; Meyer, A; Millet, P; Olschewski, M; Padeken, K; Papacz, P; Pook, T; Radziej, M; Reithler, H; Rieger, M; Scheuch, F; Sonnenschein, L; Teyssier, D; Thüer, S; Cherepanov, V; Erdogan, Y; Flügge, G; Geenen, H; Geisler, M; Hoehle, F; Kargoll, B; Kress, T; Kuessel, Y; Künsken, A; Lingemann, J; Nehrkorn, A; Nowack, A; Nugent, I M; Pistone, C; Pooth, O; Stahl, A; Aldaya Martin, M; Asin, I; Bartosik, N; Behnke, O; Behrens, U; Bell, A J; Borras, K; Burgmeier, A; Campbell, A; Choudhury, S; Costanza, F; Diez Pardos, C; Dolinska, G; Dooling, S; Dorland, T; Eckerlin, G; Eckstein, D; Eichhorn, T; Flucke, G; Gallo, E; Garcia, J Garay; Geiser, A; Gizhko, A; Gunnellini, P; Hauk, J; Hempel, M; Jung, H; Kalogeropoulos, A; Karacheban, O; Kasemann, M; Katsas, P; Kieseler, J; Kleinwort, C; Korol, I; Lange, W; Leonard, J; Lipka, K; Lobanov, A; Lohmann, W; Mankel, R; Marfin, I; Melzer-Pellmann, I-A; Meyer, A B; Mittag, G; Mnich, J; Mussgiller, A; Naumann-Emme, S; Nayak, A; Ntomari, E; Perrey, H; Pitzl, D; Placakyte, R; Raspereza, A; Roland, B; Sahin, M Ö; Saxena, P; Schoerner-Sadenius, T; Schröder, M; Seitz, C; Spannagel, S; Trippkewitz, K D; Walsh, R; Wissing, C; Blobel, V; Centis Vignali, M; Draeger, A R; Erfle, J; Garutti, E; Goebel, K; Gonzalez, D; Görner, M; Haller, J; Hoffmann, M; Höing, R S; Junkes, A; Klanner, R; Kogler, R; Lapsien, T; Lenz, T; Marchesini, I; Marconi, D; Meyer, M; Nowatschin, D; Ott, J; Pantaleo, F; Peiffer, T; Perieanu, A; Pietsch, N; Poehlsen, J; Rathjens, D; Sander, C; Schettler, H; Schleper, P; Schlieckau, E; Schmidt, A; Schwandt, J; Sola, V; Stadie, H; Steinbrück, G; Tholen, H; Troendle, D; Usai, E; Vanelderen, L; Vanhoefer, A; Vormwald, B; Akbiyik, M; Barth, C; Baus, C; Berger, J; Böser, C; Butz, E; Chwalek, T; Colombo, F; De Boer, W; Descroix, A; Dierlamm, A; Fink, S; 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Milenovic, P; Mitselmakher, G; Rank, D; Rossin, R; Shchutska, L; Snowball, M; Sperka, D; Terentyev, N; Thomas, L; Wang, J; Wang, S; Yelton, J; Hewamanage, S; Linn, S; Markowitz, P; Martinez, G; Rodriguez, J L; Adams, J R; Ackert, A; Adams, T; Askew, A; Bochenek, J; Diamond, B; Haas, J; Hagopian, S; Hagopian, V; Johnson, K F; Khatiwada, A; Prosper, H; Weinberg, M; Baarmand, M M; Bhopatkar, V; Colafranceschi, S; Hohlmann, M; Kalakhety, H; Noonan, D; Roy, T; Yumiceva, F; Adams, M R; Apanasevich, L; Berry, D; Betts, R R; Bucinskaite, I; Cavanaugh, R; Evdokimov, O; Gauthier, L; Gerber, C E; Hofman, D J; Kurt, P; O'Brien, C; Sandoval Gonzalez, L D; Silkworth, C; Turner, P; Varelas, N; Wu, Z; Zakaria, M; Bilki, B; Clarida, W; Dilsiz, K; Durgut, S; Gandrajula, R P; Haytmyradov, M; Khristenko, V; Merlo, J-P; Mermerkaya, H; Mestvirishvili, A; Moeller, A; Nachtman, J; Ogul, H; Onel, Y; Ozok, F; Penzo, A; Snyder, C; Tiras, E; Wetzel, J; Yi, K; Anderson, I; Anderson, I; Barnett, B A; Blumenfeld, B; Eminizer, N; Fehling, D; Feng, L; Gritsan, A V; Maksimovic, P; Martin, C; Osherson, M; Roskes, J; Sady, A; Sarica, U; Swartz, M; Xiao, M; Xin, Y; You, C; Xiao, M; Baringer, P; Bean, A; Benelli, G; Bruner, C; Kenny, R P; Majumder, D; Majumder, D; Malek, M; Murray, M; Sanders, S; Stringer, R; Wang, Q; Ivanov, A; Kaadze, K; Khalil, S; Makouski, M; Maravin, Y; Mohammadi, A; Saini, L K; Skhirtladze, N; Toda, S; Lange, D; Rebassoo, F; Wright, D; Anelli, C; Baden, A; Baron, O; Belloni, A; Calvert, B; Eno, S C; Ferraioli, C; Gomez, J A; Hadley, N J; Jabeen, S; Jabeen, S; Kellogg, R G; Kolberg, T; Kunkle, J; Lu, Y; Mignerey, A C; Shin, Y H; Skuja, A; Tonjes, M B; Tonwar, S C; Apyan, A; Barbieri, R; Baty, A; Bierwagen, K; Brandt, S; Bierwagen, K; Busza, W; Cali, I A; Demiragli, Z; Di Matteo, L; Gomez Ceballos, G; Goncharov, M; Gulhan, D; Iiyama, Y; Innocenti, G M; Klute, M; Kovalskyi, D; Lai, Y S; Lee, Y-J; Levin, A; Luckey, P D; Marini, A C; Mcginn, C; Mironov, C; Narayanan, S; Niu, X; Paus, C; Ralph, D; Roland, C; Roland, G; Salfeld-Nebgen, J; Stephans, G S F; Sumorok, K; Varma, M; Velicanu, D; Veverka, J; Wang, J; Wang, T W; Wyslouch, B; Yang, M; Zhukova, V; Dahmes, B; Evans, A; Finkel, A; Gude, A; Hansen, P; Kalafut, S; Kao, S C; Klapoetke, K; Kubota, Y; Lesko, Z; Mans, J; Nourbakhsh, S; Ruckstuhl, N; Rusack, R; Tambe, N; Turkewitz, J; Acosta, J G; Oliveros, S; Avdeeva, E; Bloom, K; Bose, S; Claes, D R; Dominguez, A; Fangmeier, C; Gonzalez Suarez, R; Kamalieddin, R; Keller, J; Knowlton, D; Kravchenko, I; Meier, F; Monroy, J; Ratnikov, F; Siado, J E; Snow, G R; Alyari, M; Dolen, J; George, J; Godshalk, A; Harrington, C; Iashvili, I; Kaisen, J; Kharchilava, A; Kumar, A; Rappoccio, S; Roozbahani, B; Alverson, G; Barberis, E; Baumgartel, D; Chasco, M; Hortiangtham, A; Massironi, A; Morse, D M; Nash, D; Orimoto, T; Teixeira De Lima, R; Trocino, D; Wang, R-J; Wood, D; Zhang, J; Hahn, K A; Kubik, A; Mucia, N; Odell, N; Pollack, B; Pozdnyakov, A; Schmitt, M; Stoynev, S; Sung, K; Trovato, M; Velasco, M; Brinkerhoff, A; Dev, N; Hildreth, M; Jessop, C; Karmgard, D J; Kellams, N; Lannon, K; Lynch, S; Marinelli, N; Meng, F; Mueller, C; Musienko, Y; Pearson, T; Planer, M; Reinsvold, A; Ruchti, R; Smith, G; Taroni, S; Valls, N; Wayne, M; Wolf, M; Woodard, A; Antonelli, L; Brinson, J; Bylsma, B; Durkin, L S; Flowers, S; Hart, A; Hill, C; Hughes, R; Ji, W; Kotov, K; Ling, T Y; Liu, B; Luo, W; Puigh, D; Rodenburg, M; Winer, B L; Wulsin, H W; Driga, O; Elmer, P; Hardenbrook, J; Hebda, P; Koay, S A; Lujan, P; Marlow, D; Medvedeva, T; Mooney, M; Olsen, J; Palmer, C; Piroué, P; Saka, H; Stickland, D; Tully, C; Zuranski, A; Malik, S; Barnes, V E; Benedetti, D; Bortoletto, D; Gutay, L; Jha, M K; Jones, M; Jung, K; Miller, D H; Neumeister, N; Primavera, F; Radburn-Smith, B C; Shi, X; Shipsey, I; Silvers, D; Sun, J; Svyatkovskiy, A; Wang, F; Xie, W; Xu, L; Parashar, N; Stupak, J; Adair, A; Akgun, B; Chen, Z; Ecklund, K M; Geurts, F J M; Guilbaud, M; Li, W; Michlin, B; Northup, M; Padley, B P; Redjimi, R; Roberts, J; Rorie, J; Tu, Z; Zabel, J; Betchart, B; Bodek, A; de Barbaro, P; Demina, R; Eshaq, Y; Ferbel, T; Galanti, M; Galanti, M; Garcia-Bellido, A; Han, J; Harel, A; Hindrichs, O; Hindrichs, O; Khukhunaishvili, A; Petrillo, G; Tan, P; Verzetti, M; Arora, S; Barker, A; Chou, J P; Contreras-Campana, C; Contreras-Campana, E; Duggan, D; Ferencek, D; Gershtein, Y; Gray, R; Halkiadakis, E; Hidas, D; Hughes, E; Kaplan, S; Kunnawalkam Elayavalli, R; Lath, A; Nash, K; Panwalkar, S; Park, M; Salur, S; Schnetzer, S; Sheffield, D; Somalwar, S; Stone, R; Thomas, S; Thomassen, P; Walker, M; Foerster, M; Riley, G; Rose, K; Spanier, S; York, A; Bouhali, O; Castaneda Hernandez, A; Dalchenko, M; De Mattia, M; Delgado, A; Dildick, S; Dildick, S; Eusebi, R; Gilmore, J; Kamon, T; Krutelyov, V; Krutelyov, V; Mueller, R; Osipenkov, I; Pakhotin, Y; Patel, R; Patel, R; Perloff, A; Rose, A; Safonov, A; Tatarinov, A; Ulmer, K A; Akchurin, N; Cowden, C; Damgov, J; Dragoiu, C; Dudero, P R; Faulkner, J; Kunori, S; Lamichhane, K; Lee, S W; Libeiro, T; Undleeb, S; Volobouev, I; Appelt, E; Delannoy, A G; Greene, S; Gurrola, A; Janjam, R; Johns, W; Maguire, C; Mao, Y; Melo, A; Ni, H; Sheldon, P; Snook, B; Tuo, S; Velkovska, J; Xu, Q; Arenton, M W; Cox, B; Francis, B; Goodell, J; Hirosky, R; Ledovskoy, A; Li, H; Lin, C; Neu, C; Sinthuprasith, T; Sun, X; Wang, Y; Wolfe, E; Wood, J; Xia, F; Clarke, C; Harr, R; Karchin, P E; Kottachchi Kankanamge Don, C; Lamichhane, P; Sturdy, J; Belknap, D A; Carlsmith, D; Cepeda, M; Dasu, S; Dodd, L; Duric, S; Gomber, B; Grothe, M; Hall-Wilton, R; Herndon, M; Hervé, A; Klabbers, P; Lanaro, A; Levine, A; Long, K; Loveless, R; Mohapatra, A; Ojalvo, I; Perry, T; Pierro, G A; Polese, G; Ruggles, T; Sarangi, T; Savin, A; Sharma, A; Smith, N; Smith, W H; Taylor, D; Woods, N; Collaboration, Authorinst The Cms

    2016-01-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ([Formula: see text]) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7[Formula: see text]. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels ([Formula: see text], [Formula: see text], and [Formula: see text]). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for [Formula: see text] production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional [Formula: see text] jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  20. Including xpc® feed additive in the diet of inoculated broilers during grow-out helps control salmonella associated with their carcasses after processing

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The objective of this study was to test XPC® feed additive for control of Salmonella in poultry meat products. Day of hatch broiler chicks were gavaged with 106 cells of a nalidixic acid resistant marker strain of Salmonella Typhimurium and placed on clean pine shavings in 9 separate floor pens (25 ...

  1. Quantum ring-polymer contraction method: Including nuclear quantum effects at no additional computational cost in comparison to ab initio molecular dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    John, Christopher; Spura, Thomas; Habershon, Scott; Kühne, Thomas D.

    2016-04-01

    We present a simple and accurate computational method which facilitates ab initio path-integral molecular dynamics simulations, where the quantum-mechanical nature of the nuclei is explicitly taken into account, at essentially no additional computational cost in comparison to the corresponding calculation using classical nuclei. The predictive power of the proposed quantum ring-polymer contraction method is demonstrated by computing various static and dynamic properties of liquid water at ambient conditions using density functional theory. This development will enable routine inclusion of nuclear quantum effects in ab initio molecular dynamics simulations of condensed-phase systems.

  2. Study Modules for Calculus-Based General Physics. [Includes Modules 1 and 2: Dimensions and Vector Addition; Rectilinear Motion; plus a Trigonometry and Calculus Review].

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Robert G., Ed.; And Others

    This is part of a series of 42 Calculus Based Physics (CBP) modules totaling about 1,000 pages. The modules include study guides, practice tests, and mastery tests for a full-year individualized course in calculus-based physics based on the Personalized System of Instruction (PSI). The units are not intended to be used without outside materials;…

  3. Localization of eight additional genes in the human major histocompatibility complex, including the gene encoding the casein kinase II {beta} subunit (CSNK2B)

    SciTech Connect

    Albertella, M.R.; Jones, H.; Thomson, W.

    1996-09-01

    A wide range of autoimmune and other diseases are known to be associated with the major histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility complex. Many of these diseases are linked to the genes encoding the polymorphic histocompatibility antigens in the class I and class II regions, but some appear to be more strongly associated with genes in the central 1100-kb class III region, making it important to characterize this region fully for the presence of novel genes. An {approximately}220-kb segment of DNA in the class III region separating the Hsp70 (HSPA1L) and BAT1 (D6S8IE) genes, which was previously known to contain 14 genes. Genomic DNA fragments spanning the gaps between the known genes were used as probes to isolate cDNAs corresponding to five new genes within this region. Evidence from Northern blot analysis and exon trapping experiments that suggested the presence of at least two more new genes was also obtained. Partial cDNA and complete exonic genomic sequencing of one of the new genes has identified it as the casein kinase II{beta} subunit (CSNK2B). Two of the other novel genes lie within a region syntenic to that implicated in susceptibility to experimental allergic orchitis in the mouse, an autoimmune disease of the testis, and represent additional candidates for the Orch-1 locus associated with this disease. In addition, characterization of the 13-kb intergenic gap separating the RD (D6545) and G11 (D6S60E) genes has revealed the presence of a gene encoding a 1246-amino-acid polypeptide that shows significant sequence similarity to the yeast anti-viral Ski2p gene product. 49 refs., 8 figs.

  4. Petrographic and Geochemical Characterization of Ore-Bearing Intrusions of the Noril'sk type, Siberia; With Discussion of Their Origin, Including Additional Datasets and Core Logs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Czamanske, Gerald K.

    2002-01-01

    The Noril'sk I, Talnakh, and Kharaelakh intrusions of the Noril'sk district host one of the outstanding metal concentrations in the world; contained Cu-Ni resources are comparable to the deposits at Sudbury, Ontario and the platinum group element (PGE) resource is second only to that of the Bushveld Complex. Our opportunity to cooperatively sample and study this district in Siberian Russia arose in 1990 through a memorandum of understanding between the U.S. Geological Survey and the former Ministry of Geology of the U.S.S.R. The world-class significance of these deposits and the possibility that understanding their geologic context, including construction of a credible 'ore-deposit model,' will lead to discovery of similar deposits elsewhere, inspired extensive studies of the ores, the mafic-intrusions which host them, and associated flood basalts.

  5. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance of the Dalhart NTMS quadrangle, New Mexico/Texas/Oklahoma, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Morgan, T.L.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 1583 water samples and 503 sediment samples were collected from 2028 locations within the 20 000-km/sup 2/ area of the quadrangle at an average density of one location per 9.86 km/sup 2/. Water samples were collected from wells, springs, and streams and were analyzed for uranium. Sediment samples were collected from streams and springs and were analyzed for uranium, thorium, and 41 additional elements. All field and analytical data are listed in the appendixes of this report. Discussion is limited to anomalous samples, which are considered to be those containing over 20 ppB uranium for waters and over 5 ppM uranium for sediments. Uranium concentrations in water samples range from below the detection limit of 0.2 ppB to 1457.65 ppB and average 7.41 ppB. Most of the seventy anomalous water samples (4.4% of all water samples) are grouped spatially into five clusters or areas of interest. Samples in three of the clusters were collected along the north edge of the quadrangle where Mesozoic strata are exposed. The other two clusters are from the central and southern portions where the Quaternary Ogallala formation is exposed. Sediment samples from the quadrangle have uranium concentrations that range from 0.90 ppM to 27.20 ppM and average 3.27 ppM. Fourteen samples (2.8% of all sediment samples) contain over 5 ppM uranium and are considered anomalous. The five samples with the highest concentrations occur where downcutting streams expose Cretaceous units beneath the Quaternary surficial deposits. The remaining anomalous sediment samples were collected from scattered locations and do not indicate any single formation or unit as a potential source for the anomalous concentrations.

  6. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Elk City NTMS Quadrangle, Idaho/Montana, including concentrations of forty-five additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Broxton, D.E.; Beyth, M.

    1980-07-01

    Totals of 1580 water and 1720 sediment samples were collected from 1754 locations in the quadrangle. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters in Appendix I-A and for sediments in Appendix I-B. Uranium/thorium ratios for sediment samples are also included in Appendix I-B. All elemental analyses were performed at the LASL. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 parts per billion (ppB) uranium were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting (DNC). A supplemental report containing the multielement analyses of water samples will be open filed in the near future. Sediments were analyzed for uranium and thorium as well as aluminum, antimony, arsenic, barium, beryllium, bismuth, cadmium, calcium, cerium, cesium, chlorine, chromium, cobalt, copper, dysprosium, europium, gold, hafnium, iron, lanthanum, lead, lithium, lutetium, magnesium, manganese, nickel, niobium, potassium, rubidium, samarium, selenium, scandium, silver, sodium, strontium, tantalum, terbium, tin, titanium, tungsten, vanadium, ytterbium, zinc, and zirconium. Basic statistics for 40 of these elements are presented. All sediments were analyzed for uranium by delayed-neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron-activation analysis for 30 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 12 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results for sediments are reported as parts per million.

  7. Uranium hydrogeochemical and stream sediment reconnaissance data release for the Lewistown NTMS Quadrangle, Montana, including concentrations of forty-two additional elements

    SciTech Connect

    Shannon, S.S. Jr.

    1980-08-01

    Totals of 758 water and 1170 sediment samples were collected from 1649 locations in the Levistown quadrangle. Water samples were collected at streams, springs, wells, ponds, and marshes; sediment samples were obtained from streams, springs, and ponds. Histograms and statistical data for uranium concentrations in water and sediment samples and thorium concentrations in sediment samples are given. All samples were collected at the nominal reconnaissance density of one sample location per 10 km/sup 2/. Elemental concentration, field measurement, weather, geologic, and geographic data for each sample location are listed for waters and for sediments. Uranium to thorium (U/Th) ratios for sediment samples are included. Water samples were initially analyzed for uranium by fluorometry. All water samples containing more than 40 ppB U were reanalyzed by delayed-neutron counting. Sediments were analyzed for U and Th as well as Al, Sb, Ba, Be, Bi, Cd, Ca, Ce, Cs, Cl, Cr, Co, Cu, Dy, Eu, Au, Hf, Fe, La, Pb, Li, Lu, Mg, Mn, Ni, Nb, K, Rb, Sa, Sc, Ag, Na, Sr, Ta, Tb, Sn, Ti, W, V, Yb, and Zn. All sediments were analyzed for U by delayed neutron counting. Other elemental concentrations in sediments were determined by neutron activation analysis for 31 elements, by x-ray fluorescence for 9 elements, and by arc-source emission spectrography for 2 elements. Analytical results are reported as parts per million. Descriptions of procedures used for analysis of water and sediments samples as well as analytical precisions and detection limits are given.

  8. Cognitive effort: A neuroeconomic approach

    PubMed Central

    Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive effort has been implicated in numerous theories regarding normal and aberrant behavior and the physiological response to engagement with demanding tasks. Yet, despite broad interest, no unifying, operational definition of cognitive effort itself has been proposed. Here, we argue that the most intuitive and epistemologically valuable treatment is in terms of effort-based decision-making, and advocate a neuroeconomics-focused research strategy. We first outline psychological and neuroscientific theories of cognitive effort. Then we describe the benefits of a neuroeconomic research strategy, highlighting how it affords greater inferential traction than do traditional markers of cognitive effort, including self-reports and physiologic markers of autonomic arousal. Finally, we sketch a future series of studies that can leverage the full potential of the neuroeconomic approach toward understanding the cognitive and neural mechanisms that give rise to phenomenal, subjective cognitive effort. PMID:25673005

  9. Respiratory effort from the photoplethysmogram.

    PubMed

    Addison, Paul S

    2017-03-01

    The potential for a simple, non-invasive measure of respiratory effort based on the pulse oximeter signal - the photoplethysmogram or 'pleth' - was investigated in a pilot study. Several parameters were developed based on a variety of manifestations of respiratory effort in the signal, including modulation changes in amplitude, baseline, frequency and pulse transit times, as well as distinct baseline signal shifts. Thirteen candidate parameters were investigated using data from healthy volunteers. Each volunteer underwent a series of controlled respiratory effort maneuvers at various set flow resistances and respiratory rates. Six oximeter probes were tested at various body sites. In all, over three thousand pleth-based effort-airway pressure (EP) curves were generated across the various airway constrictions, respiratory efforts, respiratory rates, subjects, probe sites, and the candidate parameters considered. Regression analysis was performed to determine the existence of positive monotonic relationships between the respiratory effort parameters and resulting airway pressures. Six of the candidate parameters investigated exhibited a distinct positive relationship (p<0.001 across all probes tested) with increasing upper airway pressure repeatable across the range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions studied. These were: the three fundamental modulations in amplitude (AM-Effort), baseline (BM-Effort) and respiratory sinus arrhythmia (RSA-Effort); two pulse transit time modulations - one using a pulse oximeter probe and an ECG (P2E-Effort) and the other using two pulse oximeter probes placed at different peripheral body sites (P2-Effort); and baseline shifts in heart rate, (BL-HR-Effort). In conclusion, a clear monotonic relationship was found between several pleth-based parameters and imposed respiratory loadings at the mouth across a range of respiratory rates and flow constrictions. The results suggest that the pleth may provide a measure of changing upper

  10. NASA Efforts on Nanotechnology

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miranda, Felix A.

    2003-01-01

    An overview of the field of nanotechnology within the theme of "New efforts in Nanotechnology Research," will be presented. NASA's interest, requirements and current efforts in this emerging field will be discussed. In particular, NASA efforts to develop nanoelectronic devices, fuel cells, and other applications of interest using this novel technology by collaborating with academia will be addressed. Progress on current collaborations in this area with the University of Puerto Rico will be highlighted.

  11. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort.

    PubMed

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  12. Effort in Multitasking: Local and Global Assessment of Effort

    PubMed Central

    Kiesel, Andrea; Dignath, David

    2017-01-01

    When performing multiple tasks in succession, self-organization of task order might be superior compared to external-controlled task schedules, because self-organization allows optimizing processing modes and thus reduces switch costs, and it increases commitment to task goals. However, self-organization is an additional executive control process that is not required if task order is externally specified and as such it is considered as time-consuming and effortful. To compare self-organized and externally controlled task scheduling, we suggest assessing global subjective and objectives measures of effort in addition to local performance measures. In our new experimental approach, we combined characteristics of dual tasking settings and task switching settings and compared local and global measures of effort in a condition with free choice of task sequence and a condition with cued task sequence. In a multi-tasking environment, participants chose the task order while the task requirement of the not-yet-performed task remained the same. This task preview allowed participants to work on the previously non-chosen items in parallel and resulted in faster responses and fewer errors in task switch trials than in task repetition trials. The free-choice group profited more from this task preview than the cued group when considering local performance measures. Nevertheless, the free-choice group invested more effort than the cued group when considering global measures. Thus, self-organization in task scheduling seems to be effortful even in conditions in which it is beneficiary for task processing. In a second experiment, we reduced the possibility of task preview for the not-yet-performed tasks in order to hinder efficient self-organization. Here neither local nor global measures revealed substantial differences between the free-choice and a cued task sequence condition. Based on the results of both experiments, we suggest that global assessment of effort in addition to

  13. Kennedy Space Center (KSC) Launch Pad Avian Abatement Efforts Including Related KSC Road Kill Reduction Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schlierf, Roland; Hight, Ron; Payne, Stephen J.; Shaffer, John P.; Missimer, Brad; Willis, Christopher

    2007-01-01

    While birds might seem harmless, there's a good reason for the concern. During the July 2005 launch of Discovery on mission STS-1 14, a vulture soaring around the launch pad impacted the shuttle's external tank just after liftoff. With a vulture's average weight ranging from 3 to 5 pounds. a strike at a critical point on the Shuttle -- like the nose or wing leading thermal protection panels -- could cause catastrophic damage to the vehicle. The foam chunk that fatefully struck Columbia's wing in 2003 weighed only 1.7 pounds. (Cheryl L. Mansfield "Bye Bye Birdies" 2006) To address this issue, NASA formed an "Avian Abatement Team". The team goal is to have safer Shuttle missions by reducing the vulture population at KSC near the pad area thereby reducing the probability of another vulture strike during a Shuttle launch.

  14. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs

    PubMed Central

    Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie

    2017-01-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost–benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation. PMID:28234892

  15. Neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective valuation of effort costs.

    PubMed

    Chong, Trevor T-J; Apps, Matthew; Giehl, Kathrin; Sillence, Annie; Grima, Laura L; Husain, Masud

    2017-02-01

    In everyday life, we have to decide whether it is worth exerting effort to obtain rewards. Effort can be experienced in different domains, with some tasks requiring significant cognitive demand and others being more physically effortful. The motivation to exert effort for reward is highly subjective and varies considerably across the different domains of behaviour. However, very little is known about the computational or neural basis of how different effort costs are subjectively weighed against rewards. Is there a common, domain-general system of brain areas that evaluates all costs and benefits? Here, we used computational modelling and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to examine the mechanisms underlying value processing in both the cognitive and physical domains. Participants were trained on two novel tasks that parametrically varied either cognitive or physical effort. During fMRI, participants indicated their preferences between a fixed low-effort/low-reward option and a variable higher-effort/higher-reward offer for each effort domain. Critically, reward devaluation by both cognitive and physical effort was subserved by a common network of areas, including the dorsomedial and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, the intraparietal sulcus, and the anterior insula. Activity within these domain-general areas also covaried negatively with reward and positively with effort, suggesting an integration of these parameters within these areas. Additionally, the amygdala appeared to play a unique, domain-specific role in processing the value of rewards associated with cognitive effort. These results are the first to reveal the neurocomputational mechanisms underlying subjective cost-benefit valuation across different domains of effort and provide insight into the multidimensional nature of motivation.

  16. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report V, Volume 4 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Instrument and Plant Air Systems (Plant 36), Telecommunication Systems (Plant 37), Inert Gas Systems (Plant 38), Purge and Flush Oil Systems (Plant 39), Site Development and Roads (Plant 40), Buildings (Plant 41), Solid Waste Management (Plant 42), and Landfill (Plant 44). Instrument and Plant Air Systems (Plant 36) includes all equipment and piping necessary to supply instrument and utility air to the process plants and offsite facilities. Telecommunication Systems (Plant 37) includes the equipment and wiring for: communication throughout the facility; communication between plant data processing systems and offsite computing facilities; and communication with transportation carriers. Inert Gas Systems (Plant 38) provides high purity and low purity nitrogen streams for plant startup and normal operation. Purge and Flush Oil Systems (Plant 39) provides purge and flush oils to various plants. Site Development and Roads (Plant 40) provides site leveling, the addition of roads, fencing, and drainage, and the placement of fills, pilings, footings, and foundations for plants. Buildings (Plant 41) provides buildings for equipment and for personnel, including utilities, lighting, sanitary facilities, heating, air conditioning, and ventilation. Solid Waste Management (Plant 42) identifies, characterizes, segregates, and transports the various types of solid wastes to either Landfill (Plant 44) or outside disposal sites. Landfill (Plant 44) provides disposal of both nonhazardous and hazardous solid wastes. Information is included (as applicable) for each of the eight plants described.

  17. Worldwide effort against smoking.

    PubMed

    1986-07-01

    The 39th World Health Assembly, which met in May 1986, recognized the escalating health problem of smoking-related diseases and affirmed that tobacco smoking and its use in other forms are incompatible with the attainment of "Health for All by the Year 2000." If properly implemented, antismoking campaigns can decrease the prevalence of smoking. Nations as a whole must work toward changing smoking habits, and governments must support these efforts by officially stating their stand against smoking. Over 60 countries have introduced legislation affecting smoking. The variety of policies range from adopting a health education program designed to increase peoples' awareness of its dangers to increasing taxes to deter smoking by increasing tobacco prices. Each country must adopt an antismoking campaign which works most effectively within the cultural parameters of the society. Other smoking policies include: printed warnings on cigarette packages; health messages via radio, television, mobile teams, pamphlets, health workers, clinic walls, and newspapers; prohibition of smoking in public areas and transportation; prohibition of all advertisement of cigarettes and tobacco; and the establishment of upper limits of tar and nicotine content in cigarettes. The tobacco industry spends about $2000 million annually on worldwide advertising. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), controlling this overabundance of tobacco advertisements is a major priority in preventing the spread of smoking. Cigarette and tobacco advertising can be controlled to varying degrees, e.g., over a dozen countries have enacted a total ban on advertising on television or radio, a mandatory health warning must accompany advertisements in other countries, and tobacco companies often are prohibited from sponsoring sports events. Imposing a substantial tax on cigarettes is one of the most effective means to deter smoking. However, raising taxes and banning advertisements is not enough because

  18. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2012-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  19. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2011-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  20. ASME Code Efforts Supporting HTGRs

    SciTech Connect

    D.K. Morton

    2010-09-01

    In 1999, an international collaborative initiative for the development of advanced (Generation IV) reactors was started. The idea behind this effort was to bring nuclear energy closer to the needs of sustainability, to increase proliferation resistance, and to support concepts able to produce energy (both electricity and process heat) at competitive costs. The U.S. Department of Energy has supported this effort by pursuing the development of the Next Generation Nuclear Plant, a high temperature gas-cooled reactor. This support has included research and development of pertinent data, initial regulatory discussions, and engineering support of various codes and standards development. This report discusses the various applicable American Society of Mechanical Engineers (ASME) codes and standards that are being developed to support these high temperature gascooled reactors during construction and operation. ASME is aggressively pursuing these codes and standards to support an international effort to build the next generation of advanced reactors so that all can benefit.

  1. The Ideal Promotion Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Edward L.

    The ideal promotional effort for an educational television (ETV) station is dependent on a professional approach to the problem. This means that each ETV station should employ a public relations manager and should keep him informed about all major station decisions. The Public Broadcasting Service (PBS) has a campaign of its own to bring attention…

  2. Assessing Public Relations Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Doris; Johnson, T. Earle, Jr.

    1977-01-01

    The need to establish goals and objectives for public relations activities is discussed, followed by descriptions of several evaluation techniques for public relations programs. The continuous education of faculty regarding costs and logistics of publicity, and long-term continuity in the public relations effort are stressed as essential elements…

  3. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  4. Telecommunications: Additional Federal Efforts Could Help Advance Digital Television Transition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2002-11-01

    The transition to broadcast digital television(DTV) will provide new television services and the improved picture quality of 'high definition television'. It will also allow some portions of the radiofrequency spectrum used for broadcasting to be returned for public safety and commercial uses. The Congress set December 2006 as the target date for completing the DTV transition and turning the analog broadcast signals. However, this date can be extended if fewer than 85 percent of households in a market are able to receive the digital signals. GAO (General Accounting Office) was asked to assess issues related to the DTV transition.

  5. UV RESEARCH - FUNDED AND IN HOUSE EFFORTS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The National Risk Management research Laboratory (NRMRL) has performed or funded limited in-house and extramural research on the disinfection of CCL listed organisms using ultraviolet (UV) irradiation. In addition, multiple extramural efforts have been funded to assess operation...

  6. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-01-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  7. Navy superconductivity efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gubser, D. U.

    1990-04-01

    Both the new high temperature superconductors (HTS) and the low temperature superconductors (LTS) are important components of Navy's total plan to integrate superconductivity into field operational systems. Fundamental research is an important component of the total Navy program and focuses on the HTS materials. Power applications (ship propulsion, etc.) use LTS materials while space applications (MMW electronics, etc.) use HTS materials. The Space Experiment being conducted at NRL will involve space flight testing of HTS devices built by industry and will demonstrate the ability to engineer and space qualify these devices for systems use. Another important component of the Navy's effort is the development of Superconducting Quantum Interference Device (SQUID) magnetometers. This program will use LTS materials initially, but plans to implement HTS materials as soon as possible. Hybrid HTS/LTS systems are probable in many applications. A review of the status of the Navy's HTS materials research is given as well as an update on the Navy's development efforts in superconductivity, with particular emphasis on the related SDIO sponsored program on HTS applications.

  8. Cassini launch contingency effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; O'Neil, John M.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Brenza, Pete T.

    2002-01-01

    On 15 October 1997 at 4:43 AM EDT, the Cassini spacecraft was successfully launched on a Titan IVB/Centaur on a mission to explore the Saturnian system. It carried three Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generators (RTGs) and 117 Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs). As part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA)/U.S. Department of Energy (DoE) safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbital reentry. The objective of the plan was to develop procedures to predict, within hours, the Earth impact footprints (EIFs) for the nuclear heat sources released during the atmospheric reentry. The footprint predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. As part of a multi-agency team, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had the responsibility to predict the EIFs of the heat sources after a reentry, given the heat sources' release conditions from the main spacecraft. (No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing.) JHU/APL's other role was to predict the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used were a three degree-of-freedom trajectory code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the heat sources, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. In the weeks and days prior to launch, all the codes and procedures were exercised. Notional EIFs were derived from hypothetical reentry conditions. EIFs predicted by JHU/APL were compared to those by JPL and US SPACECOM, and were found to be in good agreement. The reentry time from orbital decay for a booster rocket for the Russian Progress M-36 freighter, a cargo ship for the Mir space station, was predicted to within 5 minutes more than two hours before reentry. For the

  9. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    None, None

    1982-09-01

    Report III, Volume 1 contains those specifications numbered A through J, as follows: General Specifications (A); Specifications for Pressure Vessels (C); Specifications for Tanks (D); Specifications for Exchangers (E); Specifications for Fired Heaters (F); Specifications for Pumps and Drivers (G); and Specifications for Instrumentation (J). The standard specifications of Bechtel Petroleum Incorporated have been amended as necessary to reflect the specific requirements of the Breckinridge Project, and the more stringent specifications of Ashland Synthetic Fuels, Inc. These standard specifications are available to the Initial Effort (Phase Zero) work performed by all contractors and subcontractors. Report III, Volume 1 also contains the unique specifications prepared for Plants 8, 15, and 27. These specifications will be substantially reviewed during Phase I of the project, and modified as necessary for use during the engineering, procurement, and construction of this project.

  10. The Effect of Age on Listening Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Degeest, Sofie; Keppler, Hannah; Corthals, Paul

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of age on listening effort. Method: A dual-task paradigm was used to evaluate listening effort in different conditions of background noise. Sixty adults ranging in age from 20 to 77 years were included. A primary speech-recognition task and a secondary memory task were performed…

  11. Attention, effort, and fatigue: Neuropsychological perspectives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cohen, Ronald A.; Odonnell, Brian F.

    1988-01-01

    Models of attention, effort, and fatigue are reviewed. Methods are discussed for measuring these phenomena from a neuropsychological and psychophysiological perspective. The following methodologies are included: (1) the autonomic measurement of cognitive effort and quality of encoding; (2) serial assessment approaches to neurophysiological assessment; and (3) the assessment of subjective reports of fatigue using multidimensional ratings and their relationship to neurobehavioral measures.

  12. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960s. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  13. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 4, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Gas Plant (Plant 7). The Gas Plant (Plant 7) receives feed gas streams from various process plants. The Gas Plant compresses, treats, and fractionates the gas streams into intermediate and final products. The following information is included for the plant described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  14. New Horizons Launch Contingency Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yale; Lear, Matthew H.; McGrath, Brian E.; Heyler, Gene A.; Takashima, Naruhisa; Owings, W. Donald

    2007-01-01

    On 19 January 2006 at 2:00 PM EST, the NASA New Horizons spacecraft (SC) was launched from the Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS), FL, onboard an Atlas V 551/Centaur/STAR™ 48B launch vehicle (LV) on a mission to explore the Pluto Charon planetary system and possibly other Kuiper Belt Objects. It carried a single Radioisotope Thermoelectric Generator (RTG). As part of the joint NASA/US Department of Energy (DOE) safety effort, contingency plans were prepared to address the unlikely events of launch accidents leading to a near-pad impact, a suborbital reentry, an orbital reentry, or a heliocentric orbit. As the implementing organization. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory (JHU/APL) had expanded roles in the New Horizons launch contingency effort over those for the Cassini mission and Mars Exploration Rovers missions. The expanded tasks included participation in the Radiological Control Center (RADCC) at the Kennedy Space Center (KSC), preparation of contingency plans, coordination of space tracking assets, improved aerodynamics characterization of the RTG's 18 General Purpose Heat Source (GPHS) modules, and development of spacecraft and RTG reentry breakup analysis tools. Other JHU/APL tasks were prediction of the Earth impact footprints (ElFs) for the GPHS modules released during the atmospheric reentry (for purposes of notification and recovery), prediction of the time of SC reentry from a potential orbital decay, pre-launch dissemination of ballistic coefficients of various possible reentry configurations, and launch support of an Emergency Operations Center (EOC) on the JHU/APL campus. For the New Horizons launch, JHU/APL personnel at the RADCC and at the EOC were ready to implement any real-time launch contingency activities. A successful New Horizons launch and interplanetary injection precluded any further contingency actions. The New Horizons launch contingency was an interagency effort by several organizations. This paper

  15. Swedish nuclear waste efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Rydberg, J.

    1981-09-01

    After the introduction of a law prohibiting the start-up of any new nuclear power plant until the utility had shown that the waste produced by the plant could be taken care of in an absolutely safe way, the Swedish nuclear utilities in December 1976 embarked on the Nuclear Fuel Safety Project, which in November 1977 presented a first report, Handling of Spent Nuclear Fuel and Final Storage of Vitrified Waste (KBS-I), and in November 1978 a second report, Handling and Final Storage of Unreprocessed Spent Nuclear Fuel (KBS II). These summary reports were supported by 120 technical reports prepared by 450 experts. The project engaged 70 private and governmental institutions at a total cost of US $15 million. The KBS-I and KBS-II reports are summarized in this document, as are also continued waste research efforts carried out by KBS, SKBF, PRAV, ASEA and other Swedish organizations. The KBS reports describe all steps (except reprocessing) in handling chain from removal from a reactor of spent fuel elements until their radioactive waste products are finally disposed of, in canisters, in an underground granite depository. The KBS concept relies on engineered multibarrier systems in combination with final storage in thoroughly investigated stable geologic formations. This report also briefly describes other activities carried out by the nuclear industry, namely, the construction of a central storage facility for spent fuel elements (to be in operation by 1985), a repository for reactor waste (to be in operation by 1988), and an intermediate storage facility for vitrified high-level waste (to be in operation by 1990). The R and D activities are updated to September 1981.

  16. Disrupting the supplementary motor area makes physical effort appear less effortful.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2015-06-10

    The perception of physical effort is relatively unaffected by the suppression of sensory afferences, indicating that this function relies mostly on the processing of the central motor command. Neural signals in the supplementary motor area (SMA) correlate with the intensity of effort, suggesting that the motor signal involved in effort perception could originate from this area, but experimental evidence supporting this view is still lacking. Here, we tested this hypothesis by disrupting neural activity in SMA, in primary motor cortex (M1), or in a control site by means of continuous theta-burst transcranial magnetic stimulation, while measuring effort perception during grip forces of different intensities. After each grip force exertion, participants had the opportunity to either accept or refuse to replicate the same effort for varying amounts of reward. In addition to the subjective rating of perceived exertion, effort perception was estimated on the basis of the acceptance rate, the effort replication accuracy, the influence of the effort exerted in trial t on trial t+1, and pupil dilation. We found that disruption of SMA activity, but not of M1, led to a consistent decrease in effort perception, whatever the measure used to assess it. Accordingly, we modeled effort perception in a structural equation model and found that only SMA disruption led to a significant alteration of effort perception. These findings indicate that effort perception relies on the processing of a signal originating from motor-related neural circuits upstream of M1 and that SMA is a key node of this network.

  17. Quadratic Programming for Allocating Control Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singh, Gurkirpal

    2005-01-01

    A computer program calculates an optimal allocation of control effort in a system that includes redundant control actuators. The program implements an iterative (but otherwise single-stage) algorithm of the quadratic-programming type. In general, in the quadratic-programming problem, one seeks the values of a set of variables that minimize a quadratic cost function, subject to a set of linear equality and inequality constraints. In this program, the cost function combines control effort (typically quantified in terms of energy or fuel consumed) and control residuals (differences between commanded and sensed values of variables to be controlled). In comparison with prior control-allocation software, this program offers approximately equal accuracy but much greater computational efficiency. In addition, this program offers flexibility, robustness to actuation failures, and a capability for selective enforcement of control requirements. The computational efficiency of this program makes it suitable for such complex, real-time applications as controlling redundant aircraft actuators or redundant spacecraft thrusters. The program is written in the C language for execution in a UNIX operating system.

  18. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 7 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to the Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) and Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The Oxygen Plant (Plant 15) utilizes low-pressure air separation to manufacture the oxygen required in Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). The Oxygen Plant also supplies nitrogen as needed by the H-COAL process. Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18) upgrades the raw H-COAL naphtha. The following information is provided for both plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams; an equipment list including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components (Oxygen Plant only); and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  19. Is Effort Praise Motivational? The Role of Beliefs in the Effort-Ability Relationship

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lam, Shui-fong; Yim, Pui-shan; Ng, Yee-lam

    2008-01-01

    In two studies, we investigated how beliefs in the effort-ability relationship moderated the effects of effort praise on student motivation. Study 1 showed that the more the participants believed that effort and ability were related positively (the positive rule) versus related negatively (the inverse rule), the more they would have positive…

  20. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 5, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), and the Sulfur Plant (Plant 10). Cryogenic Hydrogen Purification (Plant 8) purifies the purge gas stream from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4) to a 93% purity hydrogen product. Sour Water Treating (Plant 9) removes free ammonia and acid gases from sour water and separates them to recover a high quality anhydrous ammonia product. The Sulfur Plant (Plant 10) recovers, as a saleable liquid product, approximately 95% of the sulfur in feed streams from the Gas Plant (Plant 7, described in Report IV, Volume 4), Sour Water Treating (Plant 9), Gasification and Purification (Plant 12, described in Report IV, Volume 6), and Stack Gas Scrubbing (Plant 35, described in Report V, Volume 3). The following information is included for each of the three plants described in this volume: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  1. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 6 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) produces makeup hydrogen for H-COAL Preheating and Reaction (Plant 3), and produces a medium Btu fuel gas for consumption in fired heaters. The following information is included: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume. Gasification and Purification (Plant 12) utilizes process technology from three licensors: gasification of vacuum bottoms using the Texaco process, shift conversion using the Haldor Topsoe process, and purification of fuel gas and shifted gas using the Allied Chemical Selexol process. This licensed technology is proprietary in nature. As a result, this volume does not contain full disclosure of these processes although a maximum of information has been presented consistent with the confidentiality requirements. Where data appears incomplete in this volume, it is due to the above described limitations. Full data concerning this plant are available for DOE review at the Houston offices of Bechtel Petroleum, Inc.

  2. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report IV, Volume 3, provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5), H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6), and H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17). H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation (Plant 5) receives a slurry stream from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4), and then pumps the slurry through hydrocyclones, producing two slurry streams. One, dilute in solids is recycled back to the reactor. The other, concentrated in solids, is further processed to recover liquid products and is then transferred to Gasification and Purification (Plant 12). H-COAL Recycle Hydrogen Compression (Plant 6) compresses and recycles back to the reactor system hydrogen-rich vapor from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4). This recycling maintains a hydrogen partial pressure and gas flow through the reactor vessel. H-COAL Distillate Separation (Plant 17) processes products from H-COAL Primary Separation (Plant 4) and H-COAL Recycle Slurry Preparation to produce light naphtha for the Gas Plant (Plant 7), middle and heavy distillates for tank farms, and heavy naphtha for Naphtha Hydrotreating and Reforming (Plant 18). The following information is included for each of the three plants: a description of the plant's process design, including the utility balance, heat and material balance (if applicable), and a process flow diagram; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for the piping and instrument diagrams included in this volume.

  3. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Report V, Volume 1 provides descriptions, data, and drawings pertaining to Flare System (Plant 19), Tankage (Plant 20), Interconnecting Piping (Plant 21), River Facilities (Plant 22), Rail, Truck, Pipeline (Plant 23), and Electrical Distribution (Plant 30). Flare System (Plant 19) provides primary and auxiliary flare systems for safe collection and disposal of overpressure relief discharges, and operational and emergency venting of flammable vapors and liquids from the various processing plants and loading facilities. Tankage (Plant 20) provides storage for propane and heavier liquid hydrocarbon products, as well as for by-product ammonia, phenols, and liquid sulfur. Interconnecting Piping (Plant 21) includes the fuel gas blending and distribution system and the interconnecting process and utility piping between process plants and offsites. River Facilities (Plant 22) provides the loading of liquid products and by-products into barges for marine surface transportation, and the unloading of coal from barges. Rail, Truck, Pipeline (Plant 23) provides loading and unloading of products shipped by either rail or truck. Electrical Distribution (Plant 30) receives main utility power from the Big River Electric Corporation and distributes the power to the other plants. The following information is included for each of the six plants: a description of the plant's design, including the utility balance, catalysts and chemicals usage, and process flow diagrams, as applicable; an equipment list, including item numbers and descriptions; data sheets and sketches for major plant components; and pertinent engineering drawings. An appendix contains: an overall site plan showing the locations of all plants; and the symbols and legend for piping and instrument diagrams.

  4. APS Education and Diversity Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prestridge, Katherine; Hodapp, Theodore

    2015-11-01

    American Physical Society (APS) has a wide range of education and diversity programs and activities, including programs that improve physics education, increase diversity, provide outreach to the public, and impact public policy. We present the latest programs spearheaded by the Committee on the Status of Women in Physics (CSWP), with highlights from other diversity and education efforts. The CSWP is working to increase the fraction of women in physics, understand and implement solutions for gender-specific issues, enhance professional development opportunities for women in physics, and remedy issues that impact gender inequality in physics. The Conferences for Undergraduate Women in Physics, Professional Skills Development Workshops, and our new Professional Skills program for students and postdocs are all working towards meeting these goals. The CSWP also has site visit and conversation visit programs, where department chairs request that the APS assess the climate for women in their departments or facilitate climate discussions. APS also has two significant programs to increase participation by underrepresented minorities (URM). The newest program, the APS National Mentoring Community, is working to provide mentoring to URM undergraduates, and the APS Bridge Program is an established effort that is dramatically increasing the number of URM PhDs in physics.

  5. Breckinridge Project, initial effort

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    The project cogeneration plant supplies electric power, process steam and treated boiler feedwater for use by the project plants. The plant consists of multiple turbine generators and steam generators connected to a common main steam header. The major plant systems which are required to produce steam, electrical power and treated feedwater are discussed individually. The systems are: steam, steam generator, steam generator fuel, condensate and feedwater deaeration, condensate and blowdown collection, cooling water, boiler feedwater treatment, coal handling, ash handling (fly ash and bottom ash), electrical, and control system. The plant description is based on the Phase Zero design basis established for Plant 31 in July of 1980 and the steam/condensate balance as presented on Drawing 31-E-B-1. Updating of steam requirements as more refined process information becomes available has generated some changes in the steam balance. Boiler operation with these updated requirements is reflected on Drawing 31-D-B-1A. The major impact of updating has been that less 600 psig steam generated within the process units requires more extraction steam from the turbine generators to close the 600 psig steam balance. Since the 900 psig steam generation from the boilers was fixed at 1,200,000 lb/hr, the additional extraction steam required to close the 600 psig steam balance decreased the quantity of electrical power available from the turbine generators. In the next phase of engineering work, the production of 600 psig steam will be augmented by increasing convection bank steam generation in the Plant 3 fired heaters by 140,000 to 150,000 lb/hr. This modification will allow full rated power generation from the turbine generators.

  6. Measurement of $\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $\\sqrt{s} =$ 8 TeV

    SciTech Connect

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-+μ- and e±μ). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.

  7. Measurement of $$\\mathrm{ t \\bar{t} } $$ production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at $$\\sqrt{s} =$$ 8 TeV

    DOE PAGES

    Khachatryan, Vardan

    2016-07-07

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair (tt-bar) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 fb-1. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e+e-,μ+μ- and e±μ∓). Furthermore, the absolute and normalized differential cross sections for tt-bar production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential tt-barb and tt-barbb-bar cross sections are presented formore » the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. Finally, the data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading ordercalculation.« less

  8. Measurement of toverline{t} production with additional jet activity, including b quark jets, in the dilepton decay channel using pp collisions at √{s} = 8 {TeV}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khachatryan, V.; Sirunyan, A. M.; Tumasyan, A.; Adam, W.; Asilar, E.; Bergauer, T.; Brandstetter, J.; Brondolin, E.; Dragicevic, M.; Erö, J.; Friedl, M.; Frühwirth, R.; Ghete, V. M.; Hartl, C.; Hörmann, N.; Hrubec, J.; Jeitler, M.; Knünz, V.; König, A.; Krammer, M.; Krätschmer, I.; Liko, D.; Matsushita, T.; Mikulec, I.; Rabady, D.; Rahbaran, B.; Rohringer, H.; Schieck, J.; Schöfbeck, R.; Strauss, J.; Treberer-Treberspurg, W.; Waltenberger, W.; Wulz, C.-E.; Mossolov, V.; Shumeiko, N.; Suarez Gonzalez, J.; Alderweireldt, S.; Cornelis, T.; de Wolf, E. A.; Janssen, X.; Knutsson, A.; Lauwers, J.; Luyckx, S.; van de Klundert, M.; van Haevermaet, H.; van Mechelen, P.; van Remortel, N.; van Spilbeeck, A.; Abu Zeid, S.; Blekman, F.; D'Hondt, J.; Daci, N.; de Bruyn, I.; Deroover, K.; Heracleous, N.; Keaveney, J.; Lowette, S.; Moreels, L.; Olbrechts, A.; Python, Q.; Strom, D.; Tavernier, S.; van Doninck, W.; van Mulders, P.; van Onsem, G. P.; van Parijs, I.; Barria, P.; Brun, H.; Caillol, C.; Clerbaux, B.; de Lentdecker, G.; Fasanella, G.; Favart, L.; Grebenyuk, A.; Karapostoli, G.; Lenzi, T.; Léonard, A.; Maerschalk, T.; Marinov, A.; Perniè, L.; Randle-Conde, A.; Reis, T.; Seva, T.; Vander Velde, C.; Yonamine, R.; Vanlaer, P.; Yonamine, R.; Zenoni, F.; Zhang, F.; Adler, V.; Beernaert, K.; Benucci, L.; Cimmino, A.; Crucy, S.; Dobur, D.; Fagot, A.; Garcia, G.; Gul, M.; McCartin, J.; Ocampo Rios, A. A.; Poyraz, D.; Ryckbosch, D.; Salva, S.; Sigamani, M.; Strobbe, N.; Tytgat, M.; van Driessche, W.; Yazgan, E.; Zaganidis, N.; Basegmez, S.; Beluffi, C.; Bondu, O.; Brochet, S.; Bruno, G.; Caudron, A.; Ceard, L.; da Silveira, G. G.; Delaere, C.; Favart, D.; Forthomme, L.; Giammanco, A.; Hollar, J.; Jafari, A.; Jez, P.; Komm, M.; Lemaitre, V.; Mertens, A.; Musich, M.; Nuttens, C.; Perrini, L.; Pin, A.; Piotrzkowski, K.; Popov, A.; Quertenmont, L.; Selvaggi, M.; Vidal Marono, M.; Beliy, N.; Hammad, G. H.; Júnior, W. L. Aldá; Alves, F. L.; Alves, G. A.; Brito, L.; Correa Martins Junior, M.; Hamer, M.; Hensel, C.; Mora Herrera, C.; Moraes, A.; Pol, M. E.; Rebello Teles, P.; Belchior Batista Das Chagas, E.; Carvalho, W.; Chinellato, J.; Custódio, A.; da Costa, E. M.; de Jesus Damiao, D.; de Oliveira Martins, C.; Fonseca de Souza, S.; Huertas Guativa, L. M.; Malbouisson, H.; Matos Figueiredo, D.; Mundim, L.; Nogima, H.; Prado da Silva, W. L.; Santoro, A.; Sznajder, A.; Tonelli Manganote, E. J.; Vilela Pereira, A.; Ahuja, S.; Bernardes, C. A.; de Souza Santos, A.; Dogra, S.; Fernandez Perez Tomei, T. R.; Gregores, E. M.; Mercadante, P. G.; Moon, C. S.; Novaes, S. F.; Padula, Sandra S.; Romero Abad, D.; Ruiz Vargas, J. C.; Aleksandrov, A.; Hadjiiska, R.; Iaydjiev, P.; Rodozov, M.; Stoykova, S.; Sultanov, G.; Vutova, M.; Dimitrov, A.; Glushkov, I.; Litov, L.; Pavlov, B.; Petkov, P.; Ahmad, M.; Bian, J. G.; Chen, G. M.; Chen, H. S.; Chen, M.; Cheng, T.; Du, R.; Jiang, C. H.; Plestina, R.; Romeo, F.; Shaheen, S. M.; Spiezia, A.; Tao, J.; Wang, C.; Wang, Z.; Zhang, H.; Asawatangtrakuldee, C.; Ban, Y.; Li, Q.; Liu, S.; Mao, Y.; Qian, S. J.; Wang, D.; Xu, Z.; Avila, C.; Cabrera, A.; Chaparro Sierra, L. F.; Florez, C.; Gomez, J. P.; Gomez Moreno, B.; Sanabria, J. C.; Godinovic, N.; Lelas, D.; Puljak, I.; Ribeiro Cipriano, P. M.; Antunovic, Z.; Kovac, M.; Brigljevic, V.; Kadija, K.; Luetic, J.; Micanovic, S.; Sudic, L.; Attikis, A.; Mavromanolakis, G.; Mousa, J.; Nicolaou, C.; Ptochos, F.; Razis, P. A.; Rykaczewski, H.; Bodlak, M.; Finger, M.; Finger, M.; El Sawy, M.; El-Khateeb, E.; Elkafrawy, T.; Mohamed, A.; Salama, E.; Calpas, B.; Kadastik, M.; Murumaa, M.; Raidal, M.; Tiko, A.; Veelken, C.; Eerola, P.; Pekkanen, J.; Voutilainen, M.; Härkönen, J.; Karimäki, V.; Kinnunen, R.; Lampén, T.; Lassila-Perini, K.; Lehti, S.; Lindén, T.; Luukka, P.; Mäenpää, T.; Peltola, T.; Tuominen, E.; Tuominiemi, J.; Tuovinen, E.; Wendland, L.; Talvitie, J.; Tuuva, T.; Besancon, M.; Couderc, F.; Dejardin, M.; Denegri, D.; Fabbro, B.; Faure, J. L.; Favaro, C.; Ferri, F.; Ganjour, S.; Givernaud, A.; Gras, P.; Hamel de Monchenault, G.; Jarry, P.; Locci, E.; Machet, M.; Malcles, J.; Rander, J.; Rosowsky, A.; Titov, M.; Zghiche, A.; Antropov, I.; Baffioni, S.; Beaudette, F.; Busson, P.; Cadamuro, L.; Chapon, E.; Charlot, C.; Dahms, T.; Davignon, O.; Filipovic, N.; Florent, A.; Granier de Cassagnac, R.; Lisniak, S.; Mastrolorenzo, L.; Miné, P.; Naranjo, I. N.; Nguyen, M.; Ochando, C.; Ortona, G.; Paganini, P.; Pigard, P.; Regnard, S.; Salerno, R.; Sauvan, J. B.; Sirois, Y.; Strebler, T.; Yilmaz, Y.; Zabi, A.; Agram, J.-L.; Andrea, J.; Aubin, A.; Bloch, D.; Brom, J.-M.; Buttignol, M.; Chabert, E. C.; Chanon, N.; Collard, C.; Conte, E.; Coubez, X.; Fontaine, J.-C.; Gelé, D.; Goerlach, U.; Goetzmann, C.

    2016-07-01

    Jet multiplicity distributions in top quark pair ({t}{overline{t}}) events are measured in pp collisions at a centre-of-mass energy of 8 TeV with the CMS detector at the LHC using a data set corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 19.7 {fb}^ {-1}. The measurement is performed in the dilepton decay channels (e^+e^-, μ^+ μ^-, and e^{±} μ^{∓}). The absolute and normalized differential cross sections for {t}overline{t} production are measured as a function of the jet multiplicity in the event for different jet transverse momentum thresholds and the kinematic properties of the leading additional jets. The differential {t overline{t} b} and {t overline{t} b overline{b}} cross sections are presented for the first time as a function of the kinematic properties of the leading additional b jets. Furthermore, the fraction of events without additional jets above a threshold is measured as a function of the transverse momenta of the leading additional jets and the scalar sum of the transverse momenta of all additional jets. The data are compared and found to be consistent with predictions from several perturbative quantum chromodynamics event generators and a next-to-leading order calculation.

  9. The effects of sleep loss on capacity and effort

    PubMed Central

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy

    2014-01-01

    Sleep loss appears to affect the capacity for performance and access to energetic resources. This paper reviews research examining the physical substrates referred to as resource capacity, the role of sleep in protecting that capacity and the reaction of the system as it attempts to respond with effort to overcome the limitations on capacity caused by sleep loss. Effort is the extent to which an organism will exert itself beyond basic levels of functioning or attempt alternative strategies to maintain performance. The purpose of this review is to bring together research across sleep disciplines to clarify the substrates that constitute and influence capacity for performance, consider how the loss of sleep influences access to those resources, examine cortical, physiological, perceptual, behavioral and subjective effort responses and consider how these responses reflect a system reacting to changes in the resource environment. When sleep deprived, the ability to perform tasks that require additional energy is impaired and the ability of the system to overcome the deficiencies caused by sleep loss is limited. Taking on tasks that require effort including school work, meal preparation, pulling off the road to nap when driving drowsy appear to be more challenging during sleep loss. Sleep loss impacts the effort-related choices we make and those choices may influence our health and safety. PMID:26483932

  10. Making Life Easier with Effort: Basic Findings and Applied Research on Response Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    This paper summarizes basic research on response effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit-hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, littering, and problem solving. The paper concludes that response effort as an independent variable has potent effects, and research exploring the applied benefits of…

  11. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort

    PubMed Central

    Friman, Patrick C.; Poling, Alan

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort. PMID:16795886

  12. Making life easier with effort: Basic findings and applied research on response effort.

    PubMed

    Friman, P C

    1995-01-01

    Early basic research showed that increases in required response effort (or force) produced effects that resembled those produced by punishment. A recent study by Alling and Poling determined some subtle differences between the two behavior-change strategies, but also confirmed that increasing required effort is an effective response-reduction procedure with enduring effects. In this paper we summarize basic research on response effort and explore the role of effort in diverse applied areas including deceleration of aberrant behavior, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, oral habits, health care appointment keeping, littering, indexes of functional disability, and problem solving. We conclude that renewed interest in response effort as an independent variable is justified because of its potent effects and because the political constraints imposed on punishment- and reinforcement-based procedures have yet to be imposed on procedures that entail manipulations of response effort.

  13. Techniques of Assessing Mental Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cennamo, Katherine S.

    The search for techniques to increase the effort that learners invest in video-based instruction has been hindered by the limitations of the instruments used to assess the construct of mental effort. Several researchers have noted the confusion of terms in the field that refer to the cognitive resources devoted to processing the stimulus. In this…

  14. Learning Environment and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hopland, Arnt O.; Nyhus, Ole Henning

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: The purpose of this paper is to explore the relationship between satisfaction with learning environment and student effort, both in class and with homework assignments. Design/methodology/approach: The authors use data from a nationwide and compulsory survey to analyze the relationship between learning environment and student effort. The…

  15. Grading System and Student Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paredes, Valentina

    2017-01-01

    Several papers have proposed that the grading system affects students' incentives to exert effort. In particular, the previous literature has compared student effort under relative and absolute grading systems, but the results are mixed and the implications of the models have not been empirically tested. In this paper, I build a model where…

  16. {sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for carbonate ions in cement minerals and the use of {sup 13}C, {sup 27}Al and {sup 29}Si MAS NMR in studies of Portland cement including limestone additions

    SciTech Connect

    Sevelsted, Tine F.; Herfort, Duncan

    2013-10-15

    {sup 13}C isotropic chemical shifts and chemical shift anisotropy parameters have been determined for a number of inorganic carbonates relevant in cement chemistry from slow-speed {sup 13}C MAS or {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR spectra (9.4 T or 14.1 T) for {sup 13}C in natural abundance. The variation in the {sup 13}C chemical shift parameters is relatively small, raising some doubts that different carbonate species in Portland cement-based materials may not be sufficiently resolved in {sup 13}C MAS NMR spectra. However, it is shown that by combining {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR carbonate anions in anhydrous and hydrated phases can be distinguished, thereby providing valuable information about the reactivity of limestone in cement blends. This is illustrated for three cement pastes prepared from an ordinary Portland cement, including 0, 16, and 25 wt.% limestone, and following the hydration for up to one year. For these blends {sup 29}Si MAS NMR reveals that the limestone filler accelerates the hydration for alite and also results in a smaller fraction of tetrahedrally coordinated Al incorporated in the C-S-H phase. The latter result is more clearly observed in {sup 27}Al MAS NMR spectra of the cement–limestone blends and suggests that dissolved aluminate species in the cement–limestone blends readily react with carbonate ions from the limestone filler, forming calcium monocarboaluminate hydrate. -- Highlights: •{sup 13}C chemical shift anisotropies for inorganic carbonates from {sup 13}C MAS NMR. •Narrow {sup 13}C NMR chemical shift range (163–171 ppm) for inorganic carbonates. •Anhydrous and hydrated carbonate species by {sup 13}C MAS and {sup 13}C({sup 1}H) CP/MAS NMR. •Limestone accelerates the hydration for alite in Portland – limestone cements. •Limestone reduces the amount of aluminium incorporated in the C-S-H phase.

  17. EA Shuttle Document Retention Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, Howard A.

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the effort of code EA at Johnson Space Center (JSC) to identify and acquire databases and documents from the space shuttle program that are adjudged important for retention after the retirement of the space shuttle.

  18. Rain Hampers Tsunami Relief Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2005-01-01

    The cleanup and relief efforts from the recent tsunamis continue in coastal communities that were ravaged by the waves all across the Indian Ocean. Heavy rains have further complicated the matter and added to the misery in parts of eastern Sri Lanka. Between December 28, 2004, and January 5, 2005, up to 10 to 15 inches of rain may have fallen along the southeast coast of the island, and as much as 20 inches (red areas) fell just offshore. This rainfall map was created by the TRMM-based, near-real time Multi-satellite Precipitation Analysis (MPA) at the NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, which monitors rainfall over the global tropics. The map shows that many other regions around the Indian Ocean were also affected by the rains, including Malaysia and parts of Sumatra. The heaviest rains fell on December 31 and January 4. The rains were likely the result of a combination of the northeast monsoon interacting with the topography and an active phase of what is known as the Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) (or 30-60 day oscillation). The MJO is a large-scale disturbance that propagates eastward from the Indian Ocean into the West Pacific Ocean, bringing extended periods of unsettled weather with it. Individual convective complexes within the MJO can last on the order of a day. TRMM is a joint mission between NASA and the Japanese space agency JAXA. NASA image produced by Hal Pierce (SSAI/NASA GSFC) and caption by Steve Lang (SSAI/NASA GSFC).

  19. Update on research software citation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, Alice

    2017-01-01

    Research software citation has received a lot of attention the past few years, as evidenced by numerous efforts that have discussed it, including WSSSPE, Force11 Software Citation Working Group, the Center for Open Science's Transparency and Openness Promotion (TOP) Guidelines, a workshop on Engineering Academic Software, and the CodeMeta project. This presentation briefly covers recent broad efforts to improve research transparency across disciplines through software availability and citation, and the Software Citation Principles that have recently been published as a result of the work done through Force11.

  20. Information Management System for Site Remediation Efforts.

    PubMed

    Laha; Mukherjee; Nebhrajani

    2000-05-01

    / Environmental regulatory agencies are responsible for protecting human health and the environment in their constituencies. Their responsibilities include the identification, evaluation, and cleanup of contaminated sites. Leaking underground storage tanks (USTs) constitute a major source of subsurface and groundwater contamination. A significant portion of a regulatory body's efforts may be directed toward the management of UST-contaminated sites. In order to manage remedial sites effectively, vast quantities of information must be maintained, including analytical dataon chemical contaminants, remedial design features, and performance details. Currently, most regulatory agencies maintain such information manually. This makes it difficult to manage the data effectively. Some agencies have introduced automated record-keeping systems. However, the ad hoc approach in these endeavors makes it difficult to efficiently analyze, disseminate, and utilize the data. This paper identifies the information requirements for UST-contaminated site management at the Waste Cleanup Section of the Department of Environmental Resources Management in Dade County, Florida. It presents a viable design for an information management system to meet these requirements. The proposed solution is based on a back-end relational database management system with relevant tools for sophisticated data analysis and data mining. The database is designed with all tables in the third normal form to ensure data integrity, flexible access, and efficient query processing. In addition to all standard reports required by the agency, the system provides answers to ad hoc queries that are typically difficult to answer under the existing system. The database also serves as a repository of information for a decision support system to aid engineering design and risk analysis. The system may be integrated with a geographic information system for effective presentation and dissemination of spatial data.

  1. Dopamine, behavioral economics, and effort.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M; Nunes, Eric J; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders.

  2. Dopamine, Behavioral Economics, and Effort

    PubMed Central

    Salamone, John D.; Correa, Merce; Farrar, Andrew M.; Nunes, Eric J.; Pardo, Marta

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous problems with the hypothesis that brain dopamine (DA) systems, particularly in the nucleus accumbens, directly mediate the rewarding or primary motivational characteristics of natural stimuli such as food. Research and theory related to the functions of mesolimbic DA are undergoing a substantial conceptual restructuring, with the traditional emphasis on hedonia and primary reward yielding to other concepts and lines of inquiry. The present review is focused upon the involvement of nucleus accumbens DA in behavioral activation and effort-related processes. Viewed from the framework of behavioral economics, the effects of accumbens DA depletions and antagonism on food-reinforced behavior are highly dependent upon the work requirements of the instrumental task, and DA depleted rats are more sensitive to increases in response costs (i.e., ratio requirements). Moreover, interference with accumbens DA transmission exerts a powerful influence over effort-related choice behavior. Rats with accumbens DA depletions or antagonism reallocate their instrumental behavior away from food-reinforced tasks that have high response requirements, and instead these rats select a less-effortful type of food-seeking behavior. Nucleus accumbens DA and adenosine interact in the regulation of effort-related functions, and other brain structures (anterior cingulate cortex, amygdala, ventral pallidum) also are involved. Studies of the brain systems regulating effort-based processes may have implications for understanding drug abuse, as well as energy-related disorders such as psychomotor slowing, fatigue or anergia in depression and other neurological disorders. PMID:19826615

  3. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  4. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Green, Michael F.; Horan, William P.; Barch, Deanna M.; Gold, James M.

    2015-01-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks. PMID:26089350

  5. Effort-Based Decision Making: A Novel Approach for Assessing Motivation in Schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael F; Horan, William P; Barch, Deanna M; Gold, James M

    2015-09-01

    Because negative symptoms, including motivational deficits, are a critical unmet need in schizophrenia, there are many ongoing efforts to develop new pharmacological and psychosocial interventions for these impairments. A common challenge of these studies involves how to evaluate and select optimal endpoints. Currently, all studies of negative symptoms in schizophrenia depend on ratings from clinician-conducted interviews. Effort-based decision-making tasks may provide a more objective, and perhaps more sensitive, endpoint for trials of motivational negative symptoms. These tasks assess how much effort a person is willing to exert for a given level of reward. This area has been well-studied with animal models of effort and motivation, and effort-based decision-making tasks have been adapted for use in humans. Very recently, several studies have examined physical and cognitive types of effort-based decision-making tasks in cross-sectional studies of schizophrenia, providing evidence for effort-related impairment in this illness. This article covers the theoretical background on effort-based decision-making tasks to provide a context for the subsequent articles in this theme section. In addition, we review the existing literature of studies using these tasks in schizophrenia, consider some practical challenges in adapting them for use in clinical trials in schizophrenia, and discuss interpretive challenges that are central to these types of tasks.

  6. Increasing Expectations for Student Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schilling, Karen Maitland; Schilling, Karl L.

    1999-01-01

    States that few higher education institutions have publicly articulated clear expectations of the knowledge and skills students are to attain. Describes gap between student and faculty expectations for academic effort. Reports that what is required in students' first semester appears to play a strong role in shaping the time investments made in…

  7. Effort, success, and nonuse determine arm choice.

    PubMed

    Schweighofer, Nicolas; Xiao, Yupeng; Kim, Sujin; Yoshioka, Toshinori; Gordon, James; Osu, Rieko

    2015-07-01

    How do humans choose one arm or the other to reach single targets in front of the body? Current theories of reward-driven decisionmaking predict that choice results from a comparison of "action values," which are the expected rewards for possible actions in a given state. In addition, current theories of motor control predict that in planning arm movements, humans minimize an expected motor cost that balances motor effort and endpoint accuracy. Here, we test the hypotheses that arm choice is determined by comparison of action values comprising expected effort and expected task success for each arm, as well as a handedness bias. Right-handed subjects, in either a large or small target condition, were first instructed to use each hand in turn to shoot through an array of targets and then to choose either hand to shoot through the same targets. Effort was estimated via inverse kinematics and dynamics. A mixed-effects logistic-regression analysis showed that, as predicted, both expected effort and expected success predicted choice, as did arm use in the preceding trial. Finally, individual parameter estimation showed that the handedness bias correlated with mean difference between right- and left-arm success, leading to overall lower use of the left arm. We discuss our results in light of arm nonuse in individuals' poststroke.

  8. Final Report on the NCAR VTMX Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Parsons, David; Pinto, James; Brown, William; Cohen, Stephen; Morley, Bruce

    2007-02-13

    The NCAR effort is primarily focused on the analysis of a diverse suite of measurements taken at the southern end of the Salt Lake City Valley within the Jordan Narrows. These measurements include wind profiler, surface, lidar, radiosonde, multi-layered tether-sonde and sodar measurements. We are also collaborating with other VTMX investigators through linking our measurements within the Jordan Narrows with their investigations. The instrumentation was provided to interested VTMX investigators and was used extensively. Thus the NCAR data set played a large role in the results of the overall experiment. Our work under this proposal includes analysis of the observations, mesoscale modeling efforts in support of our VTMX analysis and general instrumentation development aimed at improving the measurement of vertical transport and mixing under stable conditions. This report is subdivided by research objectives.

  9. Community Efforts Bringing Research on Learning to the Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Manduca, C. A.; Mogk, D. W.; Kastens, K. A.

    2009-12-01

    synthesis of research on learning in the geosciences is currently expanding the interdisciplinary base for research on geoscience teaching and learning through the collaborative development of papers addressing spatial thinking, geologic time, complex systems, and learning in the field. Participants in this project include anthropologists and philosophers in addition to geologists, oceanographers, atmospheric scientists, education researches and psychologists. The project is currently seeking commentators to respond to an initial set of papers and has initiated the Earth and Mind blog as a mechanism for increased discussion and community interaction. This project builds on the GSA special volume ‘Earth and Mind’ which included writing by geoscience researchers, psychologists and education researchers addressing how we teach and learn about the Earth. These community efforts are an essential aspect of scientific research supporting discussion and synthesis of results and generation of new questions. The breadth of participants in this community indicates the importance of the work within and beyond the geosciences and is an indicator of its robustness.

  10. The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, K.D.

    1995-01-01

    The Telemetry Agile Manufacturing Effort (TAME) is an agile enterprising demonstration sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The project experimented with new approaches to product realization and assessed their impacts on performance, cost, flow time, and agility. The purpose of the project was to design the electrical and mechanical features of an integrated telemetry processor, establish the manufacturing processes, and produce an initial production lot of two to six units. This paper outlines the major methodologies utilized by the TAME, describes the accomplishments that can be attributed to each methodology, and finally, examines the lessons learned and explores the opportunities for improvement associated with the overall effort. The areas for improvement are discussed relative to an ideal vision of the future for agile enterprises. By the end of the experiment, the TAME reduced production flow time by approximately 50% and life cycle cost by more than 30%. Product performance was improved compared with conventional DOE production approaches.

  11. Testosterone and reproductive effort in male primates.

    PubMed

    Muller, Martin N

    2016-09-08

    Considerable evidence suggests that the steroid hormone testosterone mediates major life-history trade-offs in vertebrates, promoting mating effort at the expense of parenting effort or survival. Observations from a range of wild primates support the "Challenge Hypothesis," which posits that variation in male testosterone is more closely associated with aggressive mating competition than with reproductive physiology. In both seasonally and non-seasonally breeding species, males increase testosterone production primarily when competing for fecund females. In species where males compete to maintain long-term access to females, testosterone increases when males are threatened with losing access to females, rather than during mating periods. And when male status is linked to mating success, and dependent on aggression, high-ranking males normally maintain higher testosterone levels than subordinates, particularly when dominance hierarchies are unstable. Trade-offs between parenting effort and mating effort appear to be weak in most primates, because direct investment in the form of infant transport and provisioning is rare. Instead, infant protection is the primary form of paternal investment in the order. Testosterone does not inhibit this form of investment, which relies on male aggression. Testosterone has a wide range of effects in primates that plausibly function to support male competitive behavior. These include psychological effects related to dominance striving, analgesic effects, and effects on the development and maintenance of the armaments and adornments that males employ in mating competition.

  12. 20 CFR 632.123 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Maintenance of effort. 632.123 Section 632.123 Employees' Benefits EMPLOYMENT AND TRAINING ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF LABOR INDIAN AND NATIVE... effort. (a) Funds provided under this Act shall only be used for activities which are in addition...

  13. A Coordinated Effort to Address Space Weather and Environment Needs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joe; Spann, James F.; Edward, David L.; Burns, Howard D.; Gallagher, Dennis; Xapos, Mike; DeGroh, Kim

    2010-01-01

    The growing need for coordination of the many aspects of space environments is directly related to our increasing dependence on space assets. An obvious result is that there is a need for a coordinated effort to organize and make accessible the increasing number of space environment products that include space environment models and observations, material testing, and forecasting tools. This paper outlines a concept to establish a NASA-level Applied Spaceflight Environments (ASE) office that will provide coordination and funding for sustained multi-program support in three technical areas; (1) natural environments characterization and modeling, (2) environmental effects on materials and systems, (3) and operational and forecasting space environments modeling. Additionally the ASE office will serve as an entry point of contact for external users who wish to take advantage of data and assets associated with space environments, including space weather.

  14. New technology emphasizes international offshore effort

    SciTech Connect

    1997-07-01

    While the offshore industry is focusing its major development efforts on the deeper waters of the US Gulf, West Africa and Brazil, technology has not stood still in the world`s many other established and frontier offshore development areas. These selected items drawn from contributions by UK companies and a major joint-venture development in Eastern Canada emphasize this effort. Included here are: (1) announcement of a major six-field, 3 Tcf gas development off Nova Scotia`s Sable Island and award of two drilling contracts; (2) a comprehensive study of mobile production units in the UK by Smith Rea Energy Analysts; (3) four applications of an option to high-pressure swivels on an FPSO with multiple subsea inlet lines; (4) a contract to supply a DC bus drive for 17 ESPs on Texaco`s Captain field; and (5) review of an environmental study of the Falkland Islands in preparation for exploration activity.

  15. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  16. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. NASA cryogenic fluid management space experiment efforts, 1960-1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Glover, Daniel

    1991-01-01

    A history of technological development for subcritical cryogenic fluid management (CFM) through space experiments is given for the period 1960 to 1990. Space experiments with liquid hydrogen were conducted in the early 1960's. Efforts since then have consisted of studies and designs of potential space experiments. A chronology of CFM space experiments and design efforts is included.

  18. Assessing the Army Power and Energy Efforts for the Warfighter

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-03-01

    Stirling devices), and a considerable effort on chemical storage batteries. Not until recently has the effort broadened to include alternative sources of...Neal A. Pollard, and Robert V. Tuohy, Hicks & Associates, Inc., Tyson’s Corner, VA., 2004. 34 National Research Council, Science and Technology for

  19. MEMS packaging efforts at Sandia National Laboratories.

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, Jonathan Sloane

    2003-02-01

    Sandia National Laboratories has programs covering a broad range of MEMS technologies from LIGA to bulk to surface micromachining. These MEMS technologies are being considered for an equally broad range of applications, including sensors, actuators, optics, and microfluidics. As these technologies have moved from the research to the prototype product stage, packaging has been required to develop new capabilities to integrated MEMS and other technologies into functional microsystems. This paper discusses several of Sandia's MEMS packaging efforts, focusing mainly on inserting Sandia's SUMMIT V (5-level polysilicon) surface micromachining technology into fieldable microsystems.

  20. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Sanhueza, Pedro; Smith, Malcolm G.

    2016-10-01

    The AURA Observatory site in northern Chile, which includes Cerro Tololo and Cerro Pachon, has been operational for over 50 years now, facing a variety of challenges to its long-term future. The site now hosts over 20 operational telescopes, ranging from small projects with 0.4m telescopes to the Blanco 4m, the SOAR 4.1m, and the 8m Gemini-South telescopes. In addition, we have recently begun the construction of the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST) on the summit of Cerro Pachon. We summarize our efforts over the past 20-30 years to highlight the importance of site protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  1. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  2. 20 CFR 655.154 - Additional positive recruitment.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... recruitment within a multistate region of traditional or expected labor supply where the CO finds that there... to non-H-2A employers in the area. The CO will ensure that the effort, including the location(s) and... employer made to obtain foreign workers. (c) Nature of the additional positive recruitment. The CO...

  3. Perception of effort in Exercise Science: Definition, measurement and perspectives.

    PubMed

    Pageaux, Benjamin

    2016-11-01

    Perception of effort, also known as perceived exertion or sense of effort, can be described as a cognitive feeling of work associated with voluntary actions. The aim of the present review is to provide an overview of what is perception of effort in Exercise Science. Due to the addition of sensations other than effort in its definition, the neurophysiology of perceived exertion remains poorly understood. As humans have the ability to dissociate effort from other sensations related to physical exercise, the need to use a narrower definition is emphasised. Consequently, a definition and some brief guidelines for its measurement are provided. Finally, an overview of the models present in the literature aiming to explain its neurophysiology, and some perspectives for future research are offered.

  4. Advancing efforts to address youth violence involvement.

    PubMed

    Weist, M D; Cooley-Quille, M

    2001-06-01

    Discusses the increased public attention on violence-related problems among youth and the concomitant increased diversity in research. Youth violence involvement is a complex construct that includes violence experienced in multiple settings (home, school, neighborhood) and in multiple forms (as victims, witnesses, perpetrators, and through family members, friends, and the media). Potential impacts of such violence involvement are considerable, including increased internalizing and externalizing behaviors among youth and future problems in school adjustment and life-course development. This introductory article reviews key dimensions of youth-related violence, describes an American Psychological Association Task Force (Division 12) developed to advance relevant research, and presents examples of national resources and efforts that attempt to address this critical public health issue.

  5. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    DOE PAGES

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes thatmore » play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.« less

  6. Reminiscing about 15 years of interoperability efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Van de Sompel, Herbert; Nelson, Michael L.

    2015-11-01

    Over the past fifteen years, our perspective on tackling information interoperability problems for web-based scholarship has evolved significantly. In this opinion piece, we look back at three efforts that we have been involved in that aptly illustrate this evolution: OAI-PMH, OAI-ORE, and Memento. Understanding that no interoperability specification is neutral, we attempt to characterize the perspectives and technical toolkits that provided the basis for these endeavors. With that regard, we consider repository-centric and web-centric interoperability perspectives, and the use of a Linked Data or a REST/HATEAOS technology stack, respectively. In addition, we lament the lack of interoperability across nodes that play a role in web-based scholarship, but end on a constructive note with some ideas regarding a possible path forward.

  7. Good Faith Efforts? Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zirkel, Perry A.

    2000-01-01

    In 1996, a small group of Roman Catholic parents in a suburban New York district filed suit, claiming that a new program was promoting Satanism, occultism, and New Age spirituality. Activities included a Ganesha story, worry dolls, stories on Buddha and Quetzalcoatl, poetry writing, psychic phenomena, and a cemetery visit. To be continued. (MLH)

  8. Efforts and Programs of the Department of Defense Relating to the Prevention, Mitigation, and Treatment of Blast Injuries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of Blast Injuries Chapter 2 2-8 • Composite Titanium/Bioengineered Dental Tissue Implants : This effort seeks to bioengineer functional...biological replacement teeth from autologous tissues. Methods to augment currently used titanium implants with bioengineered dental tissues are...follow-on cosmetic surgery and novel strategies to repair and restore oral, dental , and craniofacial tissues, including the eye. Additionally, new

  9. Should family planning include STD services?

    PubMed

    Finger, W R

    1994-05-01

    Recent reviews suggest that the addition of programs aimed at preventing and controlling sexually transmitted diseases (STDs), specifically human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), to existing family planning programs does not necessarily dilute overall program effectiveness. In Colombia, Mexico, and Jamaica, where condom distribution and/or information to prevent HIV transmission was integrated into the activities of family planning field workers, no negative effect on the image of condoms as a pregnancy prevention method was observed and there was a great demand on the part of family planning clients for information about acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). In Brazil, family planning staff are receiving training in HIV risk assessment and the counseling of women in partner negotiation skills. However, steps must be taken to reach men since it is their high-risk behavior that puts most women at risk of HIV. Both separate STD clinics for men and condom social marketing projects have yielded promising results. Obstacles to the addition of STD services to family planning programs include the need to treat male partners as well as female clients, a shortage of diagnostic tools and antibiotics for treatment, and the fact that the majority of women with STDs are asymptomatic. Indicative of the increased attention being given this approach, however, is the recent release of guidelines by the US Agency for International Development Office of Population on how family planning programs should approach integration. Suggested activities include condom promotion, behavior change, counseling, information, contraceptive development, and selected efforts at STD treatment.

  10. Predictors of neuropsychological effort test performance in schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Morra, Lindsay F; Gold, James M; Sullivan, Sara K; Strauss, Gregory P

    2015-03-01

    There is some evidence that insufficient effort may be common in schizophrenia, posing significant threats to the validity of neuropsychological test results. Low effort may account for a significant proportion of variance in neuropsychological test scores and the generalized cognitive deficit that characterizes the disorder. The current study evaluated clinical predictors of insufficient effort in schizophrenia using an embedded effort measure, the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) Effort Index (EI). Participants were 330 patients meeting DSM-IV-TR criteria for schizophrenia, schizoaffective disorder, or another psychotic disorder who received a battery of neuropsychological tests, including: Wechsler Test of Adult Reading (WTAR), Wechsler Abbreviated Scale of Intelligence (WASI), and RBANS. Clinical assessments designed to measure functional outcome and symptoms were also obtained. Results indicated that 9.4% of patients failed the EI. Patients who failed had lower full-scale, verbal, and performance IQ, as well as poorer performance on RBANS domains not included in the EI (immediate memory, language, and visuospatial/construction). Patients who failed the EI also displayed poorer community-based vocational outcome, greater likelihood of having "deficit schizophrenia" (i.e., primary and enduring negative symptoms), and increased severity of positive symptoms. Regression analyses revealed that insufficient effort was most significantly predicted by a combination of low IQ, negative symptoms, and positive symptoms. Findings suggest that although insufficient effort may be relatively uncommon in schizophrenia, it is associated with important clinical outcomes. The RBANS EI may be a useful tool in evaluating insufficient effort in schizophrenia.

  11. Standardization efforts in IP telephony

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sengodan, Senthil; Bansal, Raj

    1999-11-01

    The recent interest in IP telephony has led to a tremendous increase of standardization activities in the area. The three main standards bodies in the area of IP telephony are the International Telecommunication Union's (ITU-T) Study Group (SG) 16, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) and the European Telecommunication Standards Institute's (ETSI) TIPHON project. In addition, forums such as the International Multimedia Teleconferencing Consortium (IMTC), the Intelligent Network Forum (INF), the International Softswitch Consortium (ISC), the Electronic Computer Telephony Forum (ECTF), and the MIT's Internet Telephony Consortium (ITC) are looking into various other aspects that aim at the growth of this industry. This paper describes the main tasks (completed and in progress) undertaken by these organizations. In describing such work, an overview of the underlying technology is also provided.

  12. Refraction, including prisms.

    PubMed

    Hiatt, R L

    1991-02-01

    The literature in the past year on refraction is replete with several isolated but very important topics that have been of interest to strabismologists and refractionists for many decades. The refractive changes in scleral buckling procedures include an increase in axial length as well as an increase in myopia, as would be expected. Tinted lenses in dyslexia show little positive effect in the nonasthmatic patients in one study. The use of spectacles or bifocals as a way to control increase in myopia is refuted in another report. It has been shown that in accommodative esotropia not all patients will be able to escape the use of bifocals in the teenage years, even though surgery might be performed. The hope that disposable contact lenses would cut down on the instance of giant papillary conjunctivitis and keratitis has been given some credence, and the conventional theory that sclerosis alone is the cause of presbyopia is attacked. Also, gas permeable bifocal contact lenses are reviewed and the difficulties of correcting presbyopia by this method outlined. The practice of giving an aphakic less bifocal addition instead of a nonaphakic, based on the presumption of increased effective power, is challenged. In the review of prisms, the majority of articles concern prism adaption. The most significant report is that of the Prism Adaptation Study Research Group (Arch Ophthalmol 1990, 108:1248-1256), showing that acquired esotropia in particular has an increased incidence of stable and full corrections surgically in the prism adaptation group versus the control group.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Measuring collections effort improves cash performance.

    PubMed

    Shutts, Joe

    2009-09-01

    Having a satisfied work force can lead to an improved collections effort. Hiring the right people and training them ensures employee engagement. Measuring collections effort and offering incentives is key to revenue cycle success.

  14. [Delayed post effort muscle soreness].

    PubMed

    Coudreuse, J M; Dupont, P; Nicol, C

    2004-08-01

    Muscle intolerance to exercise may result from different processes. Diagnosis involves confirming first the source of pain, then potential pathological myalgia. Delayed-onset muscle soreness (DOMS), commonly referred as tiredness, occurs frequently in sport. DOMS usually develops 12-48 h after intensive and/or unusual eccentric muscle action. Symptoms usually involve the quadriceps muscle group but may also affect the hamstring and triceps surae groups. The muscles are sensitive to palpation, contraction and passive stretch. Acidosis, muscle spasm and microlesions in both connective and muscle tissues may explain the symptoms. However, inflammation appears to be the most common explanation. Interestingly, there is strong evidence that the progression of the exercise-induced muscle injury proceeds no further in the absence of inflammation. Even though unpleasant, DOMS should not be considered as an indicator of muscle damage but, rather, a sign of the regenerative process, which is well known to contribute to the increased muscle mass. DOMS can be associated with decreased proprioception and range of motion, as well as maximal force and activation. DOMS disappears 2-10 days before complete functional recovery. This painless period is ripe for additional joint injuries. Similarly, if some treatments are well known to attenuate DOMS, none has been demonstrated to accelerate either structural or functional recovery. In terms of the role of the inflammatory process, these treatments might even delay overall recovery.

  15. Achieving National Unity of Effort in Cyber

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-06-16

    Corporation for Assigned Names and Numbers, which includes functions referred to as the Internet Assigned Numbers Authority ( ICANN ) Supervises the...economy is what enables the rest of U.S. power. In addition, the FCA should partner 50 with existing civilian organizations (e.g. ICANN , ITU, IETF and

  16. Effortful Control, Surgency, and reading skills in middle childhood

    PubMed Central

    Deater-Deckard, Kirby; Mullineaux, Paula Y.; Petrill, Stephen A.; Thompson, Lee A.

    2010-01-01

    We examined the associations between components of temperament and children’s word and pseudo-word reading skills, in a school-age sample using a within-family internal-replication design. We estimated the statistical prediction of word and pseudo-word reading in separate regression equations that included the main effects of, and two-way interaction between, Surgency and Effortful Control. Children with better Effortful Control scores showed better reading skills. Surgency was unrelated to reading skills, but moderated the effect of Effortful Control. The positive association between reading skills and Effortful Control was present only for children who were low in Surgency. Thus, reading achievement in school-age children is optimized by strong Effortful Control, but these processes may be disrupted for those children who are high in Surgency. PMID:20526377

  17. Pupil size variations correlate with physical effort perception.

    PubMed

    Zénon, Alexandre; Sidibé, Mariam; Olivier, Etienne

    2014-01-01

    It has long been established that the pupil diameter increases during mental activities in proportion to the difficulty of the task at hand. However, it is still unclear whether this relationship between the pupil size and effort applies also to physical effort. In order to address this issue, we asked healthy volunteers to perform a power grip task, at varied intensity, while evaluating their effort both implicitly and explicitly, and while concurrently monitoring their pupil size. Each trial started with a contraction of imposed intensity, under the control of a continuous visual feedback. Upon completion of the contraction, participants had to choose whether to replicate, without feedback, the first contraction for a variable monetary reward, or whether to skip this step and go directly to the next trial. The rate of acceptance of effort replication and the amount of force exerted during the replication were used as implicit measures of the perception of the effort exerted during the first contraction. In addition, the participants were asked to rate on an analog scale, their explicit perception of the effort for each intensity condition. We found that pupil diameter increased during physical effort and that the magnitude of this response reflected not only the actual intensity of the contraction but also the subjects' perception of the effort. This finding indicates that the pupil size signals the level of effort invested in a task, irrespective of whether it is physical or mental. It also helps refining the potential brain circuits involved since the results of the current study imply a convergence of mental and physical effort information at some level along this pathway.

  18. Prioritizing earthquake and tsunami alerting efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Allen, R. M.; Allen, S.; Aranha, M. A.; Chung, A. I.; Hellweg, M.; Henson, I. H.; Melgar, D.; Neuhauser, D. S.; Nof, R. N.; Strauss, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    The timeline of hazards associated with earthquakes ranges from seconds for the strong shaking at the epicenter, to minutes for strong shaking at more distant locations in big quakes, to tens of minutes for a local tsunami. Earthquake and tsunami warning systems must therefore include very fast initial alerts, while also taking advantage of available time in bigger and tsunami-generating quakes. At the UC Berkeley Seismological Laboratory we are developing a suite of algorithms to provide the fullest possible information about earthquake shaking and tsunami inundation from seconds to minutes after a quake. The E-larmS algorithm uses the P-wave to rapidly detect an earthquake and issue a warning. It is currently issuing alerts to test users in as little as 3 sec after the origin time. Development of a new waveform detector may lead to even faster alerts. G-larmS uses permanent deformation estimates from GNSS stations to estimate the geometry and extent of rupture underway providing more accurate ground shaking estimates in big (M>~7) earthquakes. It performed well in the M6.0 2014 Napa earthquake. T-larmS is a new algorithm designed to extend alert capabilities to tsunami inundation. Rapid estimates of source characteristics for subduction zones event can not only be used to warn of the shaking hazard, but also the local tsunami inundation hazard. These algorithms are being developed, implemented and tested with a focus on the western US, but are also now being tested in other parts of the world including Israel, Turkey, Korea and Chile. Beta users in the Bay Area are receiving the alerts and beginning to implement automated actions. They also provide feedback on users needs, which has led to the development of the MyEEW smartphone app. This app allows beta users to receive the alerts on their cell phones. All these efforts feed into our ongoing assessment of directions and priorities for future development and implementation efforts.

  19. Environmental gap analysis to prioritize conservation efforts in eastern Africa.

    PubMed

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Barnekow Lillesø, Jens-Peter; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Countries in eastern Africa have set aside significant proportions of their land for protection. But are these areas representative of the diverse range of species and habitats found in the region? And do conservation efforts include areas where the state of biodiversity is likely to deteriorate without further interventions? Various studies have addressed these questions at global and continental scales. However, meaningful conservation decisions are required at finer geographical scales. To operate more effectively at the national level, finer scale baseline data on species and on higher levels of biological organization such as the eco-regions are required, among other factors. Here we adopted a recently developed high-resolution potential natural vegetation (PNV) map for eastern Africa as a baseline to more effectively identify conservation priorities. We examined how well different potential natural vegetations (PNVs) are represented in the protected area (PA) network of eastern Africa and used a multivariate environmental similarity index to evaluate biases in PA versus PNV coverage. We additionally overlaid data of anthropogenic factors that potentially influence the natural vegetation to assess the level of threat to different PNVs. Our results indicate substantial differences in the conservation status of PNVs. In addition, particular PNVs in which biodiversity protection and ecological functions are at risk due to human influences are revealed. The data and approach presented here provide a step forward in developing more transparent and better informed translation from global priorities to regional or national implementation in eastern Africa, and are valid for other geographic regions.

  20. Environmental Gap Analysis to Prioritize Conservation Efforts in Eastern Africa

    PubMed Central

    van Breugel, Paulo; Kindt, Roeland; Lillesø, Jens-Peter Barnekow; van Breugel, Michiel

    2015-01-01

    Countries in eastern Africa have set aside significant proportions of their land for protection. But are these areas representative of the diverse range of species and habitats found in the region? And do conservation efforts include areas where the state of biodiversity is likely to deteriorate without further interventions? Various studies have addressed these questions at global and continental scales. However, meaningful conservation decisions are required at finer geographical scales. To operate more effectively at the national level, finer scale baseline data on species and on higher levels of biological organization such as the eco-regions are required, among other factors. Here we adopted a recently developed high-resolution potential natural vegetation (PNV) map for eastern Africa as a baseline to more effectively identify conservation priorities. We examined how well different potential natural vegetations (PNVs) are represented in the protected area (PA) network of eastern Africa and used a multivariate environmental similarity index to evaluate biases in PA versus PNV coverage. We additionally overlaid data of anthropogenic factors that potentially influence the natural vegetation to assess the level of threat to different PNVs. Our results indicate substantial differences in the conservation status of PNVs. In addition, particular PNVs in which biodiversity protection and ecological functions are at risk due to human influences are revealed. The data and approach presented here provide a step forward in developing more transparent and better informed translation from global priorities to regional or national implementation in eastern Africa, and are valid for other geographic regions. PMID:25855968

  1. The effect of sleep loss on next day effort.

    PubMed

    Engle-Friedman, Mindy; Riela, Suzanne; Golan, Rama; Ventuneac, Ana M; Davis, Christine M; Jefferson, Angela D; Major, Donna

    2003-06-01

    The study had two primary objectives. The first was to determine whether sleep loss results in a preference for tasks demanding minimal effort. The second was to evaluate the quality of performance when participants, under conditions of sleep loss, have control over task demands. In experiment 1, using a repeated-measures design, 50 undergraduate college students were evaluated, following one night of no sleep loss and one night of sleep loss. The Math Effort Task (MET) presented addition problems via computer. Participants were able to select additions at one of five levels of difficulty. Less-demanding problems were selected and more additions were solved correctly when the participants were subject to sleep loss. In experiment 2, 58 undergraduate college students were randomly assigned to a no sleep deprivation or a sleep deprivation condition. Sleep-deprived participants selected less-demanding problems on the MET. Percentage correct on the MET was equivalent for both the non-sleep-deprived and sleep-deprived groups. On a task selection question, the sleep-deprived participants also selected significantly less-demanding non-academic tasks. Increased sleepiness, fatigue, and reaction time were associated with the selection of less difficult tasks. Both groups of participants reported equivalent effort expenditures; sleep-deprived participants did not perceive a reduction in effort. These studies demonstrate that sleep loss results in the choice of low-effort behavior that helps maintain accurate responding.

  2. RBANS embedded measures of suboptimal effort in dementia: effort scale has a lower failure rate than the effort index.

    PubMed

    Burton, Rachel L; Enright, Joe; O'Connell, Megan E; Lanting, Shawnda; Morgan, Debra

    2015-02-01

    The importance of evaluating effort in neuropsychological assessments has been widely acknowledged, but measuring effort in the context of dementia remains challenging due to the impact of dementia severity on effort measure scores. Two embedded measures have been developed for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS; Randolph, C., Tierney, M. C., Mohr, E., & Chase, T. N. (1998). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS): Preliminary clinical validity. Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology, 20 (3), 310-319): the Effort Index (EI; Silverberg, N. D., Wertheimer, J. C., & Fichtenberg, N. L. (2007). An effort index for the repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status (RBANS). Clinical Neuropsychologist, 21 (5), 841-854) and the Effort Scale (ES; Novitski, J., Steele, S., Karantzoulis, S., & Randolph, C. (2012). The repeatable battery for the assessment of neuropsychological status effort scale. Archives of Clinical Neuropsychology, 27 (2), 190-195). We explored failure rates on these effort measures in a non-litigating mixed dementia sample (N = 145). Failure rate on the EI was high (48%) and associated with dementia severity. In contrast, failure on the ES was 14% but differed based on type of dementia. ES failure was low (4%) when dementia was due to Alzheimer disease (AD), but high (31%) for non-AD dementias. These data raise concerns about use of the RBANS embedded effort measures in dementia evaluations.

  3. Perceived distributed effort in team ball sports.

    PubMed

    Beniscelli, Violeta; Tenenbaum, Gershon; Schinke, Robert Joel; Torregrosa, Miquel

    2014-01-01

    In this study, we explored the multifaceted concept of perceived mental and physical effort in team sport contexts where athletes must invest individual and shared efforts to reach a common goal. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with a convenience sample of 15 Catalan professional coaches (3 women and 12 men, 3 each from the following sports: volleyball, basketball, handball, soccer, and water polo) to gain their views of three perceived effort-related dimensions: physical, psychological, and tactical. From a theoretical thematic analysis, it was found that the perception of effort is closely related to how effort is distributed within the team. Moreover, coaches viewed physical effort in relation to the frequency and intensity of the players' involvement in the game. They identified psychological effort in situations where players pay attention to proper cues, and manage emotions under difficult circumstances. Tactical effort addressed the decision-making process of players and how they fulfilled their roles while taking into account the actions of their teammates and opponents. Based on these findings, a model of perceived distributed effort was developed, which delineates the elements that compose each of the aforementioned dimensions. Implications of perceived distributed effort in team coordination and shared mental models are discussed.

  4. Effort-reward imbalance and depression in Japanese medical residents.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yumi; Wada, Koji; Tsutsumi, Akizumi; Ishikawa, Hiroyasu; Aratake, Yutaka; Watanabe, Mayumi; Katoh, Noritada; Aizawa, Yoshiharu; Tanaka, Katsutoshi

    2008-01-01

    The effort-reward imbalance is an important psychosocial factor which is related to poor health among employees. However, there are few studies that have evaluated effort-reward imbalance among medical residents. The present study was done to determine the association between psychosocial factors at work as defined by the effort-reward imbalance model and depression among Japanese medical residents. We distributed a questionnaire to 227 medical residents at 16 teaching hospitals in Japan at the end of August 2005. We asked participants to answer questions which included demographic information, depressive symptoms, effort-reward imbalance, over-commitment and social support. Depression was evaluated using the Japanese version of the Center for Epidemiologic Studies-Depression (CES-D) scale. The effort-reward imbalance and over-commitment were assessed by the Effort-Reward Imbalance (ERI) questionnaire which Siegrist developed. Social support was determined on a visual analog scale. Logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the associations between effort-reward imbalance and depressive symptoms. Depressive symptoms were found in 35 (29.2%) 1st-year residents and 21 (27.6%) 2nd-year residents. The effort-reward ratio >1 (OR, 8.83; 95% CI, 2.87-27.12) and low social support score (OR, 2.77, 95% CI, 1.36-5.64) were associated with depressive symptoms among medical residents. Effort-reward imbalance was independently related to depression among Japanese medical residents. The present study suggests that balancing between effort and reward at work is important for medical residents' mental health.

  5. Mars Exploration Rovers Launch Contingency Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, Brian E.; Frostbutter, David A.; Parthasarathy, Karungulam N.; Heyler, Gene A.; Chang, Yale

    2004-02-01

    On 10 June 2003 at 1:58 p.m. Eastern Daylight Time (EDT) and 7 July 2003 at 11:18 p.m. EDT, two separate spacecraft/rovers were successfully launched to Mars atop a Delta II 7925 and Delta II 7925H, respectively. Each spacecraft/rover carried eight Light Weight Radioisotope Heater Units (LWRHUs) for thermal conditioning of electronics during the cold Martian nights. As a part of the joint National Aeronautics and Space Administration/U. S. Department of Energy safety effort, a contingency plan was prepared to address the unlikely events of an accidental suborbital reentry or out-of-orbit reentry. The objective of the contingency plan was to develop and implement procedures to predict, within the first hour, the probable Earth Impact Footprints (EIFs) for the LWRHUs or other possible spacecraft debris after an accidental reentry. No ablation burn-through of the heat sources' aeroshells was expected, as a result of earlier testing. Any predictions would be used in subsequent notification and recovery efforts. The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, as part of a multi-agency team, was responsible for prediction of the EIFs, and the time of reentry from a potential orbital decay. The tools used to predict the EIFs included a Three-Degree-of-Freedom (3DOF) trajectory simulation code, a Six-Degree-of-Freedom (6DOF) code, a database of aerodynamic coefficients for the LWRHUs and other spacecraft debris, secure links to obtain tracking data, and a high fidelity special perturbation orbit integrator code to predict time of spacecraft reentry from orbital decay. This paper will discuss the contingency plan and process, as well as highlight the improvements made to the analytical tools. Improvements to the 3DOF, aerodynamic database, and orbit integrator and inclusion of the 6DOF have significantly enhanced the prediction capabilities. In the days before launch, the trajectory simulation codes were exercised and predictions of hypothetical EIFs were produced

  6. Harnessing Vehicle Automation for Public Mobility -- An Overview of Ongoing Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, Stanley E.

    2015-11-05

    This presentation takes a look at the efforts to harness automated vehicle technology for public transport. The European CityMobil2 is the leading demonstration project in which automated shuttles were, or are planned to be, demonstrated in several cities and regions. The presentation provides a brief overview of the demonstrations at Oristano, Italy (July 2014), LaRochelle, France (Dec 2014), Lausanne, Switzerland (Apr 2015), Vantaa, Finland (July 2015), and Trikala, Greece (Sept 2015). In addition to technology exposition, the objectives included generating a legal framework for operation in each location and gaging the reaction of the public to unmanned shuttles, both of which were successfully achieved. Several such demonstrations are planned throughout the world, including efforts in North America in conjunction with the GoMentum Station in California. These early demonstration with low-speed automated shuttles provide a glimpse of the possible with a fully automated fleet of driverless vehicle providing a public transit service.

  7. Pump apparatus including deconsolidator

    DOEpatents

    Sonwane, Chandrashekhar; Saunders, Timothy; Fitzsimmons, Mark Andrew

    2014-10-07

    A pump apparatus includes a particulate pump that defines a passage that extends from an inlet to an outlet. A duct is in flow communication with the outlet. The duct includes a deconsolidator configured to fragment particle agglomerates received from the passage.

  8. Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon

    PubMed Central

    Almedawar, Mohamad M.; Nasreddine, Lara; Olabi, Ammar; Hamade, Haya; Awad, Elie; Toufeili, Imad; Arnaout, Samir

    2015-01-01

    Sodium intake reduction efforts in Lebanon are quite recent and have just started to take effect on the national level. Starting out from an academic institution, the Lebanese Action on Sodium and Health (LASH) campaign was established to counter the increasing prevalence of hypertension and associated adverse health effects. The campaign’s strategy was based on four pillars: research, health communication, advocacy, and monitoring. The LASH group set out with determining: baseline sodium intake of the population, main sources of sodium intake, and the knowledge, attitudes, and behaviors (KAB) of the population as a situation analysis that prompts for action. This gave LASH tangible evidence of the magnitude of the problem and the need for the government, the food industry, and the consumers, to be mobilized to take part in devising a solution. Currently, Lebanon is at a stage of technically working to reduce the sodium content in the major sources of sodium, namely local bread and bread-like products. The next steps will include implementation of a plan for monitoring industry compliance, while studying other food targets, including dairy products and processed meat. Meanwhile, the health communication plan is ongoing and the Salt Awareness Week is celebrated every year with media appearances of LASH researchers to raise the issue to the public eye. PMID:26090328

  9. Assessing country-level efforts to link research to action.

    PubMed Central

    Lavis, John N.; Lomas, Jonathan; Hamid, Maimunah; Sewankambo, Nelson K.

    2006-01-01

    We developed a framework for assessing country-level efforts to link research to action. The framework has four elements. The first element assesses the general climate (how those who fund research, universities, researchers and users of research support or place value on efforts to link research to action). The second element addresses the production of research (how priority setting ensures that users' needs are identified and how scoping reviews, systematic reviews and single studies are undertaken to address these needs). The third element addresses the mix of four clusters of activities used to link research to action. These include push efforts (how strategies are used to support action based on the messages arising from research), efforts to facilitate "user pull" (how "one-stop shopping" is provided for optimally packaged high-quality reviews either alone or as part of a national electronic library for health, how these reviews are profiled during "teachable moments" such as intense media coverage, and how rapid-response units meet users' needs for the best research), "user pull" efforts undertaken by those who use research (how users assess their capacity to use research and how structures and processes are changed to support the use of research) and exchange efforts (how meaningful partnerships between researchers and users help them to jointly ask and answer relevant questions). The fourth element addresses approaches to evaluation (how support is provided for rigorous evaluations of efforts to link research to action). PMID:16917649

  10. Site Protection Efforts at the AURA Observatory in Chile

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, R. Chris; Smith, Malcolm G.; Sanhueza, Pedro

    2015-08-01

    The AURA Observatory (AURA-O) was the first of the major international observatories to be established in northern Chile to exploit the optimal astronomical conditions available there. The site was originally established in 1962 to host the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO). It now hosts more than 20 operational telescopes, including some of the leading U.S. and international astronomical facilities in the southern hemisphere, such as the Blanco 4m telescope on Cerro Tololo and the Gemini-South and SOAR telescopes on Cerro Pachón. Construction of the next generation facility, the Large Synoptic Survey Telescope (LSST), has recently begun on Cerro Pachón, while additional smaller telescopes continue to be added to the complement on Cerro Tololo.While the site has become a major platform for international astronomical facilities over the last 50 years, development in the region has led to an ever-increasing threat of light pollution around the site. AURA-O has worked closely with local, regional, and national authorities and institutions (in particular with the Chilean Ministries of Environment and Foreign Relations) in an effort to protect the site so that future generations of telescopes, as well as future generations of Chileans, can benefit from the dark skies in the region. We will summarize our efforts over the past 15 years to highlight the importance of dark sky protection through education and public outreach as well as through more recent promotion of IDA certifications in the region and support for the World Heritage initiatives described by others in this conference.

  11. Optical modulator including grapene

    DOEpatents

    Liu, Ming; Yin, Xiaobo; Zhang, Xiang

    2016-06-07

    The present invention provides for a one or more layer graphene optical modulator. In a first exemplary embodiment the optical modulator includes an optical waveguide, a nanoscale oxide spacer adjacent to a working region of the waveguide, and a monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to the spacer. In a second exemplary embodiment, the optical modulator includes at least one pair of active media, where the pair includes an oxide spacer, a first monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a first side of the spacer, and a second monolayer graphene sheet adjacent to a second side of the spacer, and at least one optical waveguide adjacent to the pair.

  12. Productive and Ineffective Efforts: How Student Effort in High School Mathematics Relates to College Calculus Success

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barnett, M.D.; Sonnert, G.; Sadler, P.M.

    2014-01-01

    Relativizing the popular belief that student effort is the key to success, this article finds that effort in the most advanced mathematics course in US high schools is not consistently associated with college calculus performance. We distinguish two types of student effort: productive and ineffective efforts. Whereas the former carries the…

  13. 7 CFR 1944.671 - Equal opportunity requirements and outreach efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 13 2010-01-01 2009-01-01 true Equal opportunity requirements and outreach efforts... § 1944.671 Equal opportunity requirements and outreach efforts. The policies and regulations contained in... addition, the HPG grantee is required to address an outreach effort in their program. The amount...

  14. The influence of music on mental effort and driving performance.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Ayça Berfu; Steg, Linda; Epstude, Kai

    2012-09-01

    The current research examined the influence of loud music on driving performance, and whether mental effort mediated this effect. Participants (N=69) drove in a driving simulator either with or without listening to music. In order to test whether music would have similar effects on driving performance in different situations, we manipulated the simulated traffic environment such that the driving context consisted of both complex and monotonous driving situations. In addition, we systematically kept track of drivers' mental load by making the participants verbally report their mental effort at certain moments while driving. We found that listening to music increased mental effort while driving, irrespective of the driving situation being complex or monotonous, providing support to the general assumption that music can be a distracting auditory stimulus while driving. However, drivers who listened to music performed as well as the drivers who did not listen to music, indicating that music did not impair their driving performance. Importantly, the increases in mental effort while listening to music pointed out that drivers try to regulate their mental effort as a cognitive compensatory strategy to deal with task demands. Interestingly, we observed significant improvements in driving performance in two of the driving situations. It seems like mental effort might mediate the effect of music on driving performance in situations requiring sustained attention. Other process variables, such as arousal and boredom, should also be incorporated to study designs in order to reveal more on the nature of how music affects driving.

  15. Visual Cues and Listening Effort: Individual Variability

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Picou, Erin M.; Ricketts, Todd A; Hornsby, Benjamin W. Y.

    2011-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effect of visual cues on listening effort as well as whether predictive variables such as working memory capacity (WMC) and lipreading ability affect the magnitude of listening effort. Method: Twenty participants with normal hearing were tested using a paired-associates recall task in 2 conditions (quiet and noise) and…

  16. Patterns of Research Effort in Birds

    PubMed Central

    Ducatez, Simon; Lefebvre, Louis

    2014-01-01

    Between species differences in research effort can lead to biases in our global view of evolution, ecology and conservation. The increase in meta-taxonomic comparative analyses on birds underlines the need to better address how research effort is distributed in this class. Methods have been developed to choose which species should be studied to obtain unbiased comparative data sets, but a precise and global knowledge of research effort is required to be able to properly apply them. We address this issue by providing a data set of research effort (number of papers from 1978 to 2008 in the Zoological Record database) estimates for the 10 064 species of birds. We then test whether research effort is associated with phylogeny, geography and eleven different life history and ecological traits. We show that phylogeny accounts for a large proportion of the variance, while geographic range and all the tested traits are also significant contributors to research effort variance. We identify avian taxa that are under- and overstudied and address the importance of research effort biases in evaluating vulnerability to extinction, with non-threatened species studied twice as much as threatened ones. Our research effort data set covering the entire class Aves provides a tool for researchers to incorporate this potential confounding variable in comparative analyses. PMID:24587149

  17. Listening Effort with Cochlear Implant Simulations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pals, Carina; Sarampalis, Anastasios; Baskent, Deniz

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Fitting a cochlear implant (CI) for optimal speech perception does not necessarily optimize listening effort. This study aimed to show that listening effort may change between CI processing conditions for which speech intelligibility remains constant. Method: Nineteen normal-hearing participants listened to CI simulations with varying…

  18. Including Jews in Multiculturalism.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langman, Peter F.

    1995-01-01

    Discusses reasons for the lack of attention to Jews as an ethnic minority within multiculturalism both by Jews and non-Jews; why Jews and Jewish issues need to be included; and addresses some of the issues involved in the ethical treatment of Jewish clients. (Author)

  19. Making a difference: Ten case studies of DSM/IRP interactive efforts and related advocacy group activities

    SciTech Connect

    English, M.; Schexnayder, S.; Altman, J.; Schweitzer, M.

    1994-03-01

    This report discusses the activities of organizations that seek to promote integrated resource planning and aggressive, cost-effective demand-side management by utilities. The activities of such groups -- here called energy efficiency advocacy groups (EEAGs) -- are examined in ten detailed am studies. Nine of the cases involve some form of interactive effort between investor-owned electric utilities and non-utility to develop policies, plans, or programs cooperatively. Many but not all of the interactive efforts examined are formal collaboratives. In addition, all ten cases include discussion of other EEAG activities, such as coalition-building, research, participation in statewide energy planning, and intervention in regulatory proceedings.

  20. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children.

    PubMed

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions.

  1. Food packaging cues influence taste perception and increase effort provision for a recommended snack product in children

    PubMed Central

    Enax, Laura; Weber, Bernd; Ahlers, Maren; Kaiser, Ulrike; Diethelm, Katharina; Holtkamp, Dominik; Faupel, Ulya; Holzmüller, Hartmut H.; Kersting, Mathilde

    2015-01-01

    Food marketing research shows that child-directed marketing cues have pronounced effects on food preferences and consumption, but are most often placed on products with low nutritional quality. Effects of child-directed marketing strategies for healthy food products remain to be studied in more detail. Previous research suggests that effort provision explains additional variance in food choice. This study investigated the effects of packaging cues on explicit preferences and effort provision for healthy food items in elementary school children. Each of 179 children rated three, objectively identical, recommended yogurt-cereal-fruit snacks presented with different packaging cues. Packaging cues included a plain label, a label focusing on health aspects of the product, and a label that additionally included unknown cartoon characters. The children were asked to state the subjective taste-pleasantness of the respective food items. We also used a novel approach to measure effort provision for food items in children, namely handgrip strength. Results show that packaging cues significantly induce a taste-placebo effect in 88% of the children, i.e., differences in taste ratings for objectively identical products. Taste ratings were highest for the child-directed product that included cartoon characters. Also, applied effort to receive the child-directed product was significantly higher. Our results confirm the positive effect of child-directed marketing strategies also for healthy snack food products. Using handgrip strength as a measure to determine the amount of effort children are willing to provide for a product may explain additional variance in food choice and might prove to be a promising additional research tool for field studies and the assessment of public policy interventions. PMID:26191012

  2. Programming effort analysis of the ELLPACK language

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rice, J. R.

    1978-01-01

    ELLPACK is a problem statement language and system for elliptic partial differential equations which is implemented by a FORTRAN preprocessor. ELLPACK's principal purpose is as a tool for the performance evaluation of software. However, it is used here as an example with which to study the programming effort required for problem solving. It is obvious that problem statement languages can reduce programming effort tremendously; the goal is to quantify this somewhat. This is done by analyzing the lengths and effort (as measured by Halstead's software science technique) of various approaches to solving these problems.

  3. Defense Health Care: Additional Efforts Needed to Ensure Compliance with Personality Disorder Separation Requirements

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    Health Care Page 21 GAO-09-31 DOD Personality Disorder Separations List of Congressional Addressees The Honorable Carl Levin Chairman The...Separations The Honorable Ken Salazar United States Senate The Honorable Bernard Sanders United States Senate Page 23 GAO-09-31 DOD Personality

  4. Report: Additional Efforts Needed to Improve EPA’s Oversight of Assistance Agreements

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Report #2002-P-00018, September 30, 2002. Although EPA developed corrective actions to improve oversight controls for assistance agreements, a number of EPA OIG, Agency, and GAO reviews determined that oversight continued to be a weakness.

  5. VA Disability Benefits: Additional Planning Would Enhance Efforts to Improve the Timeliness of Appeals Decisions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2017-03-01

    and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. The published product may be reproduced and distributed in its entirety without...Results Act, GAO/GGD-96-118 (Washington, D.C.: June 1996). 8Simon Blackburn, Sarah Ryerson, Leigh Weiss, Sarah Wilson, and Carter Wood , Insights into...expedite appeals resolutions, it also contains various protections for veterans that are intended to address stakeholders’ concerns about fairness

  6. Effort-reward imbalance and burnout among nurses.

    PubMed

    Bakker, A B; Killmer, C H; Siegrist, J; Schaufeli, W B

    2000-04-01

    This study among a sample of 204 German nurses tested the hypothesis that an imbalance of high extrinsic efforts spent (i.e. job demands) and low extrinsic rewards obtained (e.g. poor promotion prospects) are associated with the burnout syndrome: the depletion of nurses' emotional resources. The results of a series of analyses of variances confirmed this hypothesis, by showing that those nurses who experienced an effort-reward imbalance (ERI) reported higher levels on two of the three core dimensions of burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and depersonalization) than those who did not experience such an imbalance. Moreover - as additionally hypothesized - significant interaction effects indicated that burnout (i.e. emotional exhaustion and reduced personal accomplishment) was particularly prevalent among those nurses who experienced ERI and put relatively high intrinsic effort into their jobs, as reflected by their strong tendency to be personally in control over job conditions.

  7. A metabolic measure of mental effort.

    PubMed

    Fairclough, Stephen H; Houston, Kim

    2004-04-01

    Previous studies have operationalised mental effort via various indices of psychophysiology, particularly cardiovascular measures. Metabolic measures represent a complementary approach wherein mental effort investment is explicitly linked to the process of energy mobilisation. The purpose of this study was to contrast cardiovascular variables (heart rate, 0.1 Hz component of heart rate variability) with a metabolic measure (blood glucose) of mental effort. Twenty-nine participants were exposed to Stroop stimuli over a 45 min period under two conditions: (a) congruent (i.e. 100% congruent Stroop stimuli); and (b) incongruent (i.e. 100% incongruent Stroop stimuli). Performance, blood glucose, cardiovascular activity and subjective mood were measured. The results indicated that blood glucose levels were sensitive to both Stroop and time-on-task variables, whilst cardiovascular measures were only sensitive to the latter. There was also evidence of an association between blood glucose levels and response accuracy. The implications of these findings for the operationalisation of mental effort are discussed.

  8. Nutritional therapies (including fosteum).

    PubMed

    Nieves, Jeri W

    2009-03-01

    Nutrition is important in promoting bone health and in managing an individual with low bone mass or osteoporosis. In adult women and men, known losses of bone mass and microarchitecture occur, and nutrition can help minimize these losses. In every patient, a healthy diet with adequate protein, fruits, vegetables, calcium, and vitamin D is required to maintain bone health. Recent reports on nutritional remedies for osteoporosis have highlighted the importance of calcium in youth and continued importance in conjunction with vitamin D as the population ages. It is likely that a calcium intake of 1200 mg/d is ideal, and there are some concerns about excessive calcium intakes. However, vitamin D intake needs to be increased in most populations. The ability of soy products, particularly genistein aglycone, to provide skeletal benefit has been recently studied, including some data that support a new medical food marketed as Fosteum (Primus Pharmaceuticals, Scottsdale, AZ).

  9. Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Chris Dionigi, Assistant Director, Domestic Policy National Invasive Species Council Coordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts Report...REPORT TYPE N/A 3. DATES COVERED - 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE CouncilCoordination of Federal Invasive Species Efforts 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b...ADDRESS(ES) National Invasive Species Council (NISC) 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER 9. SPONSORING/MONITORING AGENCY NAME(S) AND ADDRESS

  10. Synchronous Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    Various disturbances that are synchronous with the shaft speed can complicate radial magnetic bearing control. These include position sensor target irregularities (runout) and shaft imbalance. The method presented here allows the controller to ignore all synchronous harmonics of the shaft position input (within the closed-loop bandwidth) and to respond only to asynchronous motions. The result is reduced control effort.

  11. Efforts to Define College Readiness in the United States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patelis, Thanos; Camara, Wayne; Wiley, Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Presented at the 11th International Conference on Education (ICE) in 2009. This presentation provides an overview of the College Board and its efforts to develop college readiness indicators. The information provided includes a conceptual overview of the indicators and the research and development components in the development and validation of…

  12. Reduction of voluntary dehydration during effort in hot environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sohar, E.; Adar, R.; Gilat, T.; Tennenbaum, J.; Nir, M.

    1982-01-01

    During an experimental marching trip the daily positive fluid balance was preserved by providing a wide choice of beverages during the hours of the day. It was found that the beverage most suitable for drinking in large quantities during periods of effort was a cold drink with sweetened (citrus) fruit taste. Carbonated drinks, including beer, but milk also, were found unsuitable for this purpose.

  13. 1996 Design effort for IFMIF HEBT

    SciTech Connect

    Blind, B.

    1997-01-01

    The paper details the 1996 design effort for the IFMIF HEBT. Following a brief overview, it lists the primary requirements for the beam at the target, describes the design approach and design tools used, introduces the beamline modules, gives the results achieved with the design at this stage, points out possible improvements and gives the names and computer locations of the TRACE3-D and PARMILA files that sum up the design work. The design does not fully meet specifications in regards to the flatness of the distribution at the target. With further work, including if necessary some backup options, the flatness specifications may be realized. It is not proposed that the specifications, namely flatness to {+-}5% and higher-intensity ridges that are no more than 15% above average, be changed at this time. The design also does not meet the requirement that the modules of all beamlines should operate at the same settings. However, the goal of using identical components and operational procedures has been met and only minor returning is needed to produce very similar beam distributions from all beamlines. Significant further work is required in the following areas: TRACE3-D designs and PARMILA runs must be made for the beams coming from accelerators No. 3 and No. 4. Transport of 30-MeV and 35-MeV beams to the targets and beam dump must be studied. Comprehensive error studies must be made. These must result in tolerance specifications and may require design iterations. Detailed interfacing with target-spot instrumentation is required. This instrumentation must be able to check all aspects of the specifications.

  14. NREL Quickens its Tech Transfer Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Lammers, H.

    2012-02-01

    Innovations and 'aha' movements in renewable energy and energy efficiency, while exciting in the lab, only truly live up to their promise once they find a place in homes or business. Late last year President Obama issued a directive to all federal agencies to increase their efforts to transfer technologies to the private sector in order to achieve greater societal and economic impacts of federal research investments. The president's call to action includes efforts to establish technology transfer goals and to measure progress, to engage in efforts to increase the speed of technology transfer and to enhance local and regional innovation partnerships. But, even before the White House began its initiative to restructure the commercialization process, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory had a major effort underway designed to increase the speed and impact of technology transfer activities and had already made sure its innovations had a streamlined path to the private sector. For the last three years, NREL has been actively setting commercialization goals and tracking progress against those goals. For example, NREL sought to triple the number of innovations over a five-year period that began in 2009. Through best practices associated with inventor engagement, education and collaboration, NREL quadrupled the number of innovations in just three years. Similar progress has been made in patenting, licensing transactions, income generation and rewards to inventors. 'NREL is known nationally for our cutting-edge research and companies know to call us when they are ready to collaborate,' William Farris, vice president for commercialization and technology transfer, said. 'Once a team is ready to dive in, they don't want be mired in paperwork. We've worked to make our process for licensing NREL technology faster; it now takes less than 60 days for us to come to an agreement and start work with a company interested in our research.' While NREL maintains a robust patent

  15. 42 CFR 441.181 - Maintenance of effort: Explanation of terms and requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of effort: Explanation of terms and... Facilities or Programs § 441.181 Maintenance of effort: Explanation of terms and requirements. (a) For... sections in the current quarter, must be included in the maintenance of effort computation if, during...

  16. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... efforts. 270.202 Section 270.202 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign... rescue efforts. NIST will coordinate its investigation with any search and rescue or search and recovery efforts being undertaken at the site of the building failure, including FEMA urban search and rescue...

  17. 29 CFR 35.34 - Effect of agreements on enforcement effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Effect of agreements on enforcement effort. 35.34 Section 35..., and Enforcement Procedures § 35.34 Effect of agreements on enforcement effort. An agreement reached... effort of DOL, such as compliance reviews and investigations of other complaints, including those...

  18. Effort-Reward Imbalance for Learning Is Associated with Fatigue in School Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fukuda, Sanae; Yamano, Emi; Joudoi, Takako; Mizuno, Kei; Tanaka, Masaaki; Kawatani, Junko; Takano, Miyuki; Tomoda, Akemi; Imai-Matsumura, Kyoko; Miike, Teruhisa; Watanabe, Yasuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    We examined relationships among fatigue, sleep quality, and effort-reward imbalance for learning in school children. We developed an effort-reward for learning scale in school students and examined its reliability and validity. Self-administered surveys, including the effort reward for leaning scale and fatigue scale, were completed by 1,023…

  19. Preliminary Efforts to Couple TETRAD with Geophysics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, G.M.; Renner, J.L.

    2002-02-19

    The Geothermal Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is enhancing our reservoir simulation capabilities by writing new subroutines with TETRAD that write necessary files for use with SAIC's geophysics models, including DC Resistivity, SP, and microgravity. This is part of long-term efforts to develop reservoir models that take advantage of various observations that are - or can be - made on both existing fields or during exploration efforts. These new routines will be made available to the TETRAD user community in 2002 through the next release of TETRAD 2002.

  20. Preliminary Efforts to Couple TETRAD with Geophysics Models

    SciTech Connect

    Shook, George Michael; Renner, Joel Lawrence; Bloomfield, Kevin Kit

    2002-01-01

    The Geothermal Program at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory is enhancing our reservoir simulation capabilities by writing new subroutines with TETRAD that write necessary files for use with SAIC's geophysics models, including DC Resistivity, SP, and microgravity. This is part of long-term efforts to develop reservoir models that take advantage of various observations that are - or can be - made on both existing fields or during exploration efforts. These new routines will be made available to the TETRAD user community in 2002 through the next release of TETRAD 2002.

  1. Vocal effort and voice handicap among teachers.

    PubMed

    Sampaio, Márcio Cardoso; dos Reis, Eduardo José Farias Borges; Carvalho, Fernando Martins; Porto, Lauro Antonio; Araújo, Tânia Maria

    2012-11-01

    The relationship between voice handicap and professional vocal effort was investigated among teachers in a cross-sectional study of census nature on 4496 teachers within the public elementary education network in Salvador, Bahia, Brazil. Voice handicap (the outcome of interest) was evaluated using the Voice Handicap Index 10. The main exposure, the lifetime vocal effort index, was obtained as the product of the number of years working as a teacher multiplied by the mean weekly working hours. The prevalence of voice handicap was 28.8% among teachers with high professional vocal effort and 21.3% among those with acceptable vocal effort, thus yielding a crude prevalence ratio (PR) of 1.36 (95% confidence interval [CI]=1.14-1.61). In the final logistic model, the prevalence of voice handicap was statistically associated with the professional vocal effort index (PR=1.47; 95% CI=1.19-1.82), adjusted according to sex, microphone availability in the classroom, excessive noise, pressure from the school management, heartburn, and rhinitis.

  2. Overview of NASA Magnet and Linear Alternator Research Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Schwarze, Gene E.; Nieda, Janis M.

    2005-01-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.

  3. Salt River Project's Participation in Arizona's Bald Eagle Conservation Efforts

    PubMed

    NOBEL

    1996-11-01

    / Bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) conservation in Arizona, USA, is a prime example of a successful, cooperative environmental management effort. The Salt River Project (SRP) is an active participant in the statewide bald eagle management activities. This paper summarizes the major components of the statewide program and highlights SRP's participation in these efforts. The Southwestern Bald Eagle Management Committee (SWBEMC) was formed as a means of coordinating interagency projects. Chaired by the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), the SWBEMC is comprised of 15 state, federal, tribal, and private agencies. Together, these agencies sponsor the Nest Watch Program, a unique and effective program dedicated to the study, conservation, and recovery of bald eagles in the southwest. Other significant components of the bald eagle management program include nest monitoring, nest search activities, winter counts, and demography studies.KEY WORDS: Bald eagle conservation; Participatory; Cooperative effort; SRP

  4. Overview of NASA Magnet and Linear Alternator Research Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geng, Steven M.; Niedra, Janis M.; Schwarze, Gene E.

    2005-02-01

    The Department of Energy, Lockheed Martin, Stirling Technology Company, and NASA Glenn Research Center are developing a high-efficiency, 110 watt Stirling Radioisotope Generator (SRG110) for NASA Space Science missions. NASA Glenn is conducting in-house research on rare earth permanent magnets and on linear alternators to assist in developing a free-piston Stirling convertor for the SRG110 and for developing advanced technology. The permanent magnet research efforts include magnet characterization, short-term magnet aging tests, and long-term magnet aging tests. Linear alternator research efforts have begun just recently at GRC with the characterization of a moving iron type linear alternator using GRC's alternator test rig. This paper reports on the progress and future plans of GRC's magnet and linear alternator research efforts.

  5. Brief Self-Report Scales Assessing Life History Dimensions of Mating and Parenting Effort.

    PubMed

    Kruger, Daniel J

    2017-01-01

    Life history theory (LHT) is a powerful evolutionary framework for understanding physiological, psychological, and behavioral variation both between and within species. Researchers and theorists are increasingly integrating LHT into evolutionary psychology, as it provides a strong foundation for research across many topical areas. Human life history variation has been represented in psychological and behavioral research in several ways, including indicators of conditions in the developmental environment, indicators of conditions in the current environment, and indicators of maturation and life milestones (e.g., menarche, initial sexual activity, first pregnancy), and in self-report survey scale measures. Survey scale measures have included constructs such as time perspective and future discounting, although the most widely used index is a constellation of indicators assessing the K-factor, thought to index general life history speed (from fast to slow). The current project examined the utility of two brief self-report survey measures assessing the life history dimensions of mating effort and parenting effort with a large undergraduate sample in the United States. Consistent with the theory, items reflected two inversely related dimensions. In regressions including the K-factor, the Mating Effort Scale proved to be a powerful predictor of other constructs and indicators related to life history variation. The Parenting Effort Scale had less predictive power overall, although it explained unique variance across several constructs and was the only unique predictor of the number of long-term (serious and committed) relationships. These scales may be valuable additions to self-report survey research projects examining life history variation.

  6. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making

    PubMed Central

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs—such as physical effort or outcome risk—are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive—not physical—effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms. PMID:26586084

  7. The role of cognitive effort in subjective reward devaluation and risky decision-making.

    PubMed

    Apps, Matthew A J; Grima, Laura L; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-11-20

    Motivation is underpinned by cost-benefit valuations where costs-such as physical effort or outcome risk-are subjectively weighed against available rewards. However, in many environments risks pertain not to the variance of outcomes, but to variance in the possible levels of effort required to obtain rewards (effort risks). Moreover, motivation is often guided by the extent to which cognitive-not physical-effort devalues rewards (effort discounting). Yet, very little is known about the mechanisms that underpin the influence of cognitive effort risks or discounting on motivation. We used two cost-benefit decision-making tasks to probe subjective sensitivity to cognitive effort (number of shifts of spatial attention) and to effort risks. Our results show that shifts of spatial attention when monitoring rapidly presented visual stimuli are perceived as effortful and devalue rewards. Additionally, most people are risk-averse, preferring safe, known amounts of effort over risky offers. However, there was no correlation between their effort and risk sensitivity. We show for the first time that people are averse to variance in the possible amount of cognitive effort to be exerted. These results suggest that cognitive effort sensitivity and risk sensitivity are underpinned by distinct psychological and neurobiological mechanisms.

  8. The special effort processing of FGGE data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1983-01-01

    The basic FGGE level IIb data set was enhanced. It focused on removing deficiencies in the objective methods of quality assurance, removing efficiencies in certain types of operationally produced satellite soundings, and removing deficiencies in certain types of operationally produced cloud tracked winds. The Special Effort was a joint NASA-NOAA-University of Wisconsin effort. The University of Wisconsin installed an interactive McIDAS capability on the Amdahl computer at the Goddard Laboratory of Atmospheric Sciences (GLAS) with one interactive video terminal at Goddard and the other at the World Weather Building. With this interactive capability a joint processing effort was undertaken to reprocess certain FGGE data sets. NOAA produced a specially edited data set for the special observing periods (SOPs) of FGGE. NASA produced an enhanced satellite sounding data set for the SOPs while the University of Wisconsin produced an enhanced cloud tracked wind set from the Japanese geostationary satellite images.

  9. Validation Efforts of the Pacific Northwest River Restoration Database

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McFall, J. M.; Katz, S. L.; Morehead, M. D.

    2005-12-01

    The improvement of science in river restoration relies heavily on the evaluation of previously established projects in order to assess the ecosystem response and project outcome (Bernhard et al, 2005). To facilitate this, there needs to be competent project tracking and documentation of outcomes. In the Pacific Northwest, the National Marine Fisheries Service's Northwest Fisheries Science Center has compiled a database containing over 26,000 restoration actions at 36,000 locations in Oregon, Washington, Idaho, and Montana (Katz, et al. in review). Recent efforts have been undertaken to validate this database through selection of random samples for telephone interviews and field site visits. 47 project managers were interviewed via telephone regarding their restoration activities within four project category intents. In addition, six Columbia River sub-basins were selected for site validation sampling of 170 projects. The basins included for site validations are the Lemhi and Pahsimeroi Rivers in Idaho, the Methow and Entiat Rivers in Washington, and the Upper and Lower John Day Rivers in Oregon. Survey results are presented with statistical estimators to validate the database. Regional trends in river restoration were found to exist and differences were found between reporting agencies and on the smaller, local scale. The implementation of restoration activities is examined to see if projects are being instigated as intended and case studies are examined to reveal lessons learned from practitioners. In general, the effectiveness of various river restoration activities in the Pacific Northwest would be better charted through standardization in project tracking and documentation. References Bernhardt, E. S., Palmer, M. A., Allan, J. D., Alexander, G., Barnas, K., Brooks, S., Carr, J., Clayton, S., Dahm, C., Follstad-Shah, J., Galat, D., Gloss, S., Goodwin, P., Hart, D., Hassett, B., Jenkinson, J., Katz, S., Kondolf, G. M., Lake, P. S., Lave, R., Meyer, J. L., O

  10. MACCS2 development and verification efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Young, M.; Chanin, D.

    1997-03-01

    MACCS2 represents a major enhancement of the capabilities of its predecessor MACCS, the MELCOR Accident Consequence Code System. MACCS, released in 1987, was developed to estimate the potential impacts to the surrounding public of severe accidents at nuclear power plants. The principal phenomena considered in MACCS/MACCS2 are atmospheric transport and deposition under time-variant meteorology, short-term and long-term mitigative actions and exposure pathways, deterministic and stochastic health effects, and economic costs. MACCS2 was developed as a general-purpose analytical tool applicable to diverse reactor and nonreactor facilities. The MACCS2 package includes three primary enhancements: (1) a more flexible emergency response model, (2) an expanded library of radionuclides, and (3) a semidynamic food-chain model. In addition, errors that had been identified in MACCS version1.5.11.1 were corrected, including an error that prevented the code from providing intermediate-phase results. MACCS2 version 1.10 beta test was released to the beta-test group in May, 1995. In addition, the University of New Mexico (UNM) has completed an independent verification study of the code package. Since the beta-test release of MACCS2 version 1.10, a number of minor errors have been identified and corrected, and a number of enhancements have been added to the code package. The code enhancements added since the beta-test release of version 1.10 include: (1) an option to allow the user to input the {sigma}{sub y} and {sigma}{sub z} plume expansion parameters in a table-lookup form for incremental downwind distances, (2) an option to define different initial dimensions for up to four segments of a release, (3) an enhancement to the COMIDA2 food-chain model preprocessor to allow the user to supply externally calculated tables of tritium food-chain dose per unit deposition on farmland to support analyses of tritium releases, and (4) the capability to calculate direction-dependent doses.

  11. Maternal immunization efforts of the National Institutes of Health.

    PubMed

    Rubin, Fran A; Koso-Thomas, Marion; Isaacs, Maggie Brewinski; Piper, Jeanna; Read, Jennifer; Nesin, Mirjana

    2015-11-25

    Over the last 35 years, efforts at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) to protect mothers and their infants against infectious diseases have involved a bench-to-bedside approach. Basic and translational research that provided a foundation for clinical trials of vaccines in pregnancy include natural history and vaccine antigen identification studies. Development of laboratory assays and reagents have been funded by NIAID; these are critical for the advancement of vaccine candidates through the preclinical and clinical steps along the maternal immunization research pathway to support vaccine efficacy. Animal models of maternal immunization have been developed to evaluate efficacy of vaccine candidates. Clinical studies required development of maternal immunization protocols to address specific pregnancy related issues, for enrollment and safety assessment of mothers and their infants. NIH has organized and participated in meetings, workshops and other collaborative efforts with partners have advanced maternal immunization efforts. Partners have included many institutes and offices at NIH as well as other Department of Health and Human Services agencies and offices (Food and Drug Administration, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, National Vaccine Program Office), World Health Organization, academic investigators, Biotech and pharmaceutical companies, and nonprofit organizations such as the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation. These research and development partnership are essential for advancing maternal immunization. Continued efforts are needed to promote maternal immunization to protect pregnant women and their infants against vaccine-preventable infectious disease, especially in resource-limited settings where the burden of infections is high.

  12. Statistical Modeling Efforts for Headspace Gas

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, Brian Phillip

    2016-03-17

    The purpose of this document is to describe the statistical modeling effort for gas concentrations in WIPP storage containers. The concentration (in ppm) of CO2 in the headspace volume of standard waste box (SWB) 68685 is shown. A Bayesian approach and an adaptive Metropolis-Hastings algorithm were used.

  13. Instruction Emphasizing Effort Improves Physics Problem Solving

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Li, Daoquan

    2012-01-01

    Effectively using strategies to solve complex problems is an important educational goal and is implicated in successful academic performance. However, people often do not spontaneously use the effective strategies unless they are motivated to do so. The present study was designed to test whether educating students about the importance of effort in…

  14. Mental Effort in Mobility Route Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martinsen, Harald; Tellevik, Jon Magne; Elmerskog, Bengt; Storlilokken, Magnar

    2007-01-01

    This study examined the mental effort required to monitor landmarks and the effect of the type of route on mobility-route training. The results revealed that the features of landmarks and competence in travel were significantly related, indicating that some environmental factors related to height and width are more easily learned when people can…

  15. Revolutionary Educational Reform Efforts in Latin America.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    1975-01-01

    The author briefly examines how educational reform attempts in Cuba since 1959 have taken place and how they have been related to social, economic, and political change efforts in the society at large. The Cuban educational system makes a significant contrast against the failure which characterizes the other Latin American educational systems.…

  16. School Trips: Are They Worth the Effort?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Johnston, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Even the most basic of school trips will require booking places, arranging transport, writing to parents, collecting payments, planning activities, producing worksheets and, of course, endless risk assessments. It always leaves teachers wondering: "is it really worth all this effort?" Robert Johnston believes that every teacher should…

  17. Mapping Fishing Effort through AIS Data

    PubMed Central

    Natale, Fabrizio; Gibin, Maurizio; Alessandrini, Alfredo; Vespe, Michele; Paulrud, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Several research initiatives have been undertaken to map fishing effort at high spatial resolution using the Vessel Monitoring System (VMS). An alternative to the VMS is represented by the Automatic Identification System (AIS), which in the EU became compulsory in May 2014 for all fishing vessels of length above 15 meters. The aim of this paper is to assess the uptake of the AIS in the EU fishing fleet and the feasibility of producing a map of fishing effort with high spatial and temporal resolution at European scale. After analysing a large AIS dataset for the period January-August 2014 and covering most of the EU waters, we show that AIS was adopted by around 75% of EU fishing vessels above 15 meters of length. Using the Swedish fleet as a case study, we developed a method to identify fishing activity based on the analysis of individual vessels’ speed profiles and produce a high resolution map of fishing effort based on AIS data. The method was validated using detailed logbook data and proved to be sufficiently accurate and computationally efficient to identify fishing grounds and effort in the case of trawlers, which represent the largest portion of the EU fishing fleet above 15 meters of length. Issues still to be addressed before extending the exercise to the entire EU fleet are the assessment of coverage levels of the AIS data for all EU waters and the identification of fishing activity in the case of vessels other than trawlers. PMID:26098430

  18. Philanthropies Add Weight to "i3" Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robelen, Erik W.; McNeil, Michele

    2010-01-01

    The author reports on a new effort by 12 major education philanthropies that aims to dovetail with the Education Department's "i3" agenda, raising complex issues. The decision by a dozen major education grantmakers to team up on an initiative designed to dovetail with the federal "Investing in Innovation" grant competition is being seen by…

  19. Report: hospitals need more sophisticated planning efforts.

    PubMed

    Anderson, H J

    1990-09-20

    Sophisticated planning efforts are increasing among hospitals. However, hospital planners and marketers still have far to go before they can match their counterparts in industry. This is according to a report on hospital planning recently released by the Society for Healthcare Planning and Marketing of the American Hospital Association, Chicago.

  20. Economic Woes May Hurt Colleges' Green Efforts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carlson, Scott

    2008-01-01

    Recent events on Wall Street raise a complicated question: Will the financial crisis help or hurt colleges' sustainability efforts? Both are possible. In this article, the author discusses how the Wall Street meltdown may hurt colleges' green initiatives. However, advocates of sustainability see an opportunity to change the conversation. A…

  1. The road to heaven is paved with effort: Perceived effort amplifies moral judgment.

    PubMed

    Bigman, Yochanan E; Tamir, Maya

    2016-12-01

    If good intentions pave the road to hell, what paves the road to heaven? We propose that moral judgments are based, in part, on the degree of effort exerted in performing the immoral or moral act. Because effort can serve as an index of goal importance, greater effort in performing immoral acts would lead to more negative judgments, whereas greater effort in performing moral acts would lead to more positive judgments. In support of these ideas, we found that perceived effort intensified judgments of both immoral (Studies 1-2) and moral (Studies 2-7) agents. The effect of effort on judgment was independent of the outcome (Study 3) and of perceptions of the outcome extremity (Study 6). Furthermore, the effect of effort on judgment was mediated by perceived goal importance (Studies 4-6), even when controlling for perceived intentions (Studies 5-6). Finally, we demonstrate that perceived effort can influence actual behavior, such as the assignment of monetary rewards (Study 7). We discuss the possible implications of effort as a causal motivational factor in moral judgment and social retribution. (PsycINFO Database Record

  2. Screening and early detection efforts in lung cancer.

    PubMed

    Kanodra, Neeti M; Silvestri, Gerard A; Tanner, Nichole T

    2015-05-01

    Lung cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. Since publication of results from the National Lung Screening Trial, several professional organizations, including the US Preventive Services Task Force, have published guidelines recommending low-dose computed tomography for screening in asymptomatic, high-risk individuals. The benefits of screening include detection of cancer at an early stage when a definitive cure is possible, but the risks include overdiagnosis, false-positive results, psychological distress, and radiation exposure. The current review covers the scope of low-dose computed tomography screening, potential risks, costs, and future directions in the efforts for early detection of lung cancer.

  3. ATR NATIONAL SCIENTIFIC USER FACILITY INSTRUMENTATION ENHANCEMENT EFFORTS

    SciTech Connect

    Joy L. Rempe; Mitchell K. Meyer

    2009-04-01

    A key component of the Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) National Scientific User Facility (NSUF) effort is to enhance instrumentation techniques available to users conducting irradiation tests in this unique facility. In particular, development of sensors capable of providing ‘real-time’ measurements of key irradiation parameters is emphasized because of their potential to offer increased fidelity data and reduced post-test examination costs. This paper describes the strategy for identifying new instrumentation needed for ATR irradiations and the program underway to develop and evaluate new sensors to address these needs. Accomplishments from this program are illustrated by describing several new sensors now available to users of the ATR NSUF. In addition, progress is reported on current research efforts to provide users improved in-pile instrumentation.

  4. Repeated-sprint and effort ability in rugby league players.

    PubMed

    Johnston, Rich D; Gabbett, Tim J

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to (a) investigate the influence of tackling on repeated-sprint performance; (b) determine whether repeated-sprint ability (RSA) and repeated-effort ability (REA) are 2 distinct qualities; and (c) assess the test-retest reliability of repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests in rugby league. Twelve rugby league players performed a repeated-sprint (12 × 20-m sprints performed on a 20-second cycle) and a repeated-effort (12 × 20-m sprints with intermittent tackling, performed on a 20-second cycle) test 7 days apart. The test-retest reliability of these tests was also established. Heart rate and rating of perceived exertion were recorded throughout the tests. There was a significantly greater (p ≤ 0.05) and large effect size (ES) differences for total sprint time (ES = 1.19), average heart rate (ES = 1.64), peak heart rate (ES = 1.35), and perceived exertion (ES = 3.39) for the repeated-effort test compared with the repeated-sprint test. A large difference (ES = 1.02, p = 0.06) was detected for percentage decrement between the 2 tests. No significant relationship was found between the repeated-sprint and repeated-effort tests for any of the dependent variables. Both tests proved reliable, with total sprint time being the most reliable method of assessing performance. This study demonstrates that the addition of tackling significantly increases the physiological response to repeated-sprint exercise and reduces repeated-sprint performance in rugby league players. Furthermore, RSA and REA appear to be 2 distinct qualities that can be reliably assessed with total time being the most reliable measure of performance.

  5. Heart rate variability related to effort at work.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, Arja; Mets, Terhi; Martinmäki, Kaisu; Mauno, Saija; Kinnunen, Ulla; Rusko, Heikki

    2011-11-01

    Changes in autonomic nervous system function have been related to work stress induced increases in cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Our purpose was to examine whether various heart rate variability (HRV) measures and new HRV-based relaxation measures are related to self-reported chronic work stress and daily emotions. The relaxation measures are based on neural network modelling of individual baseline heart rate and HRV information. Nineteen healthy hospital workers were studied during two work days during the same work period. Daytime, work time and night time heart rate, as well as physical activity were recorded. An effort-reward imbalance (ERI) questionnaire was used to assess chronic work stress. The emotions of stress, irritation and satisfaction were assessed six times during both days. Seventeen subjects had an ERI ratio over 1, indicating imbalance between effort and reward, that is, chronic work stress. Of the daily emotions, satisfaction was the predominant emotion. The daytime relaxation percentage was higher on Day 2 than on Day 1 (4 ± 6% vs. 2 ± 3%, p < 0.05) and the night time relaxation (43 ± 30%) was significantly higher than daytime or work time relaxation on the both Days. Chronic work stress correlated with the vagal activity index of HRV. However, effort at work had many HRV correlates: the higher the work effort the lower daytime HRV and relaxation time. Emotions at work were also correlated with work time (stress and satisfaction) and night time (irritation) HRV. These results indicate that daily emotions at work and chronic work stress, especially effort, is associated with cardiac autonomic function. Neural network modelling of individual heart rate and HRV information may provide additional information in stress research in field conditions.

  6. Fundamental Drop Dynamics and Mass Transfer Experiments to Support Solvent Extraction Modeling Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Kristi Christensen; Veronica Rutledge; Troy Garn

    2011-09-01

    In support of the Nuclear Energy Advanced Modeling Simulation Safeguards and Separations (NEAMS SafeSep) program, the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) worked in collaboration with Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to further a modeling effort designed to predict mass transfer behavior for selected metal species between individual dispersed drops and a continuous phase in a two phase liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) system. The purpose of the model is to understand the fundamental processes of mass transfer that occur at the drop interface. This fundamental understanding can be extended to support modeling of larger LLE equipment such as mixer settlers, pulse columns, and centrifugal contactors. The work performed at the INL involved gathering the necessary experimental data to support the modeling effort. A custom experimental apparatus was designed and built for performing drop contact experiments to measure mass transfer coefficients as a function of contact time. A high speed digital camera was used in conjunction with the apparatus to measure size, shape, and velocity of the drops. In addition to drop data, the physical properties of the experimental fluids were measured to be used as input data for the model. Physical properties measurements included density, viscosity, surface tension and interfacial tension. Additionally, self diffusion coefficients for the selected metal species in each experimental solution were measured, and the distribution coefficient for the metal partitioning between phases was determined. At the completion of this work, the INL has determined the mass transfer coefficient and a velocity profile for drops rising by buoyancy through a continuous medium under a specific set of experimental conditions. Additionally, a complete set of experimentally determined fluid properties has been obtained. All data will be provided to LANL to support the modeling effort.

  7. Eternal Hope: America’s International Narcotics Efforts,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-02-01

    is these efforts, expanded after . . . .. . . . .. - - - - - - - - -.- - 9 - 1979 to include cocaine and marijuana, with which this paper is...production." 9 However, it has been as difficult to implement these restrictions as it has been to implement restrictions related to human rights policies in...as measured by the concentration of tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the active ingredient. The change in supply sources might have occurred even without

  8. Does software design complexity affect maintenance effort?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Epping, Andreas; Lott, Christopher M.

    1994-01-01

    The design complexity of a software system may be characterized within a refinement level (e.g., data flow among modules), or between refinement levels (e.g., traceability between the specification and the design). We analyzed an existing set of data from NASA's Software Engineering Laboratory to test whether changing software modules with high design complexity requires more personnel effort than changing modules with low design complexity. By analyzing variables singly, we identified strong correlations between software design complexity and change effort for error corrections performed during the maintenance phase. By analyzing variables in combination, we found patterns which identify modules in which error corrections were costly to perform during the acceptance test phase.

  9. Combining "real effort" with induced effort costs: the ball-catching task.

    PubMed

    Gächter, Simon; Huang, Lingbo; Sefton, Martin

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the "ball-catching task", a novel computerized task, which combines a tangible action ("catching balls") with induced material cost of effort. The central feature of the ball-catching task is that it allows researchers to manipulate the cost of effort function as well as the production function, which permits quantitative predictions on effort provision. In an experiment with piece-rate incentives we find that the comparative static and the point predictions on effort provision are remarkably accurate. We also present experimental findings from three classic experiments, namely, team production, gift exchange and tournament, using the task. All of the results are closely in line with the stylized facts from experiments using purely induced values. We conclude that the ball-catching task combines the advantages of real effort tasks with the use of induced values, which is useful for theory-testing purposes as well as for applications.

  10. Counternarcotic Efforts in the Southern Cone: Argentina

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1990-06-15

    in supporting international counter- narcotic actions. The epilogue stresses the need to change some aspects of the U.S. life-style to avoid losing the...Argentina is giving its best effort in supporting international countornarcotic actions. The epilogue in Chapter IV, stresses the need to change sono...International Narcotics Convention of 1961 which calls for the prohibition on coca chewing, but did not change its policy concerning the implemontation

  11. NRC; Smog control efforts off mark

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-01-06

    This paper reports that the National Research Council says the U.S. regulatory programs to control smog may have been misdirected the past 20 years, and more emphasis needs to be placed on limiting nitrogen oxide emissions. An NRC study the ozone control efforts have focused mainly on controlling volatile organic compounds (VOC) emissions. However, in many parts of the country controlling emissions of nitrogen oxides would be more effective, it the, noting VOCs and nitrogen oxides are precursors of ozone.

  12. Materials characterization on efforts for ablative materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tytula, Thomas P.; Schad, Kristin C.; Swann, Myles H.

    1992-01-01

    Experimental efforts to develop a new procedure to measure char depth in carbon phenolic nozzle material are described. Using a Shor Type D Durometer, hardness profiles were mapped across post fired sample blocks and specimens from a fired rocket nozzle. Linear regression was used to estimate the char depth. Results are compared to those obtained from computed tomography in a comparative experiment. There was no significant difference in the depth estimates obtained by the two methods.

  13. Assessing Post Conflict State Building Efforts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-03-01

    economic growth, and democratization). Success does not just depend on inputs but also in how the resources are employed and the susceptibility of the...broader effort to promote political and economic reforms with the objective of transforming a society emerging from conflict into one at peace with...establishing public security and the rule of law, facilitating political transition, rebuilding infrastructure, and jumpstarting economic recovery. These

  14. Joint SatOPS Compatibility Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Danford

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) participation in the interagency cooperation committee, the Joint SatOps Compatibility Committee (JSCC), and the compatible Sat 2 efforts. Part of GSFC's participation in the JSCC is to work with the Goddard Mission Systems Evolution Center (GMSEC) to provides a publish/subscribe framework to enable rapid integration of commercially available satellite control products.

  15. Qualitative Evaluation of Health Information Exchange Efforts

    PubMed Central

    Ash, Joan S.; Guappone, Kenneth P.

    2007-01-01

    Because most health information exchange (HIE) initiatives are as yet immature, formative evaluation is recommended so that what is learned through evaluation can be immediately applied to assist in HIE development efforts. Qualitative methods can be especially useful for formative evaluation because they can guide ongoing HIE growth while taking context into consideration. This paper describes important HIE-related research questions and outlines appropriate qualitative research techniques for addressing them. PMID:17904914

  16. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  17. Do people with schizophrenia have difficulty anticipating pleasure, engaging in effortful behavior, or both?

    PubMed

    Gard, David E; Sanchez, Amy H; Cooper, Kathryn; Fisher, Melissa; Garrett, Coleman; Vinogradov, Sophia

    2014-11-01

    Motivation deficits are common in schizophrenia, but little is known about underlying mechanisms, or the specific goals that people with schizophrenia set in daily life. Using neurobiological heuristics of pleasure anticipation and effort assessment, we examined the quality of activities and goals of 47 people with and 41 people without schizophrenia, utilizing ecological momentary assessment. Participants were provided cell phones and called 4 times a day for 7 days, and were asked about their current activities and anticipation of upcoming goals. Activities and goals were later coded by independent raters on pleasure and effort. In line with recent laboratory findings on effort computation deficits in schizophrenia, relative to healthy participants, people with schizophrenia reported engaging in less effortful activities and setting less effortful goals, which were related to patient functioning. In addition, patients showed some inaccuracy in estimating how difficult an effortful goal would be, which in turn was associated with lower neurocognition. In contrast to previous research, people with schizophrenia engaged in activities and set goals that were more pleasure-based, and anticipated goals as being more pleasurable than controls. Thus, this study provided evidence for difficulty with effortful behavior and not anticipation of pleasure. These findings may have psychosocial treatment implications, focusing on effort assessment or effort expenditure. For example, to help people with schizophrenia engage in more meaningful goal pursuits, treatment providers may leverage low-effort pleasurable goals by helping patients to break down larger, more complex goals into smaller, lower-effort steps that are associated with specific pleasurable rewards.

  18. NIST Efforts to Quality-Assure Gunpowder Measurements

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    MacCrehan, William A.; Reardon, Michelle R.

    2000-01-01

    In the past few years, the National Institute for Standards and Technology (NIST) has been promoting the idea of quantitatively determining the additives in smokeless gunpowder using micellar capillary electrophoresis as a means of investigating the criminal use of hand guns and pipe bombs. As a part of this effort, we have evaluated both supercritical fluid and ultrasonic solvent extractions for the quantitative recovery of nitroglycerin (NG), diphenylamine (DPA), N-nitrosodiphenylamine (NnDPA), and ethyl centralite (EC) from gunpowder. Recoveries were evaluated by repeat extraction and matrix spiking experiments. The final extraction protocol provides greater than 95 percent recoveries. To help other researches validate their own analytical method for additive determinations, NIST is exploring the development of a standard reference material, Additives in Smokeless Gunpowder. The evaluated method is being applied to two double-base (NG-containing) powders, one stabilized with diphenylamine and the other with ethyl centralite. As part of this reference material development effort, we are conducting an interlaboratory comparison exercise among the forensic and military gunpowder measurement community.

  19. Chair Talk: Resources to Maximize Administrative Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    MacDonald, H.; Chan, M. A.; Bierly, E. W.; Manduca, C. A.; Ormand, C. J.

    2009-12-01

    , dealing with difficult situations, working with alumni). Through the Association for Women Geoscientists, we have offered annual one-hour lunch discussions at AGU and GSA meetings on issues facing women chairs and deans. Focusing on a different topic each year, these discussions include sharing good solutions, problem solving on various case scenarios, and so forth. In addition, the Building Strong Geoscience Departments program has offered workshops on different aspects of building strong geoscience departments, distributed reports, and made a variety of materials that would be useful to geoscience chairs available on their website. These programs and resources should continue and build to provide more continuity within departments and to increase a broader experience base of faculty. One of the greatest resources for chairs is to have personal connections with other chairs (via these programs), who can be called upon for advice, ideas, or general support. The sense of collective community could act in a powerful way to inspire and encourage more innovations and creative solutions to promote stronger departments.

  20. Closeout of JOYO-1 Specimen Fabrication Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    ME Petrichek; JL Bump; RF Luther

    2005-10-31

    Fabrication was well under way for the JOYO biaxial creep and tensile specimens when the NR Space program was canceled. Tubes of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 for biaxial creep specimens had been drawn at True Tube (Paso Robles, CA), while tubes of Mo-47.5 Re were being drawn at Rhenium Alloys (Cleveland, OH). The Mo-47.5 Re tubes are now approximately 95% complete. Their fabrication and the quantities produced will be documented at a later date. End cap material for FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had been swaged at Pittsburgh Materials Technology, Inc. (PMTI) (Large, PA) and machined at Vangura (Clairton, PA). Cutting of tubes, pickling, annealing, and laser engraving were in process at PMTI. Several biaxial creep specimen sets of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, and T-111 had already been sent to Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) for weld development. In addition, tensile specimens of FS-85, ASTAR-811C, T-111, and Mo-47.5 Re had been machined at Kin-Tech (North Huntington, PA). Actual machining of the other specimen types had not been initiated. Flowcharts 1-3 detail the major processing steps each piece of material has experienced. A more detailed description of processing will be provided in a separate document [B-MT(SRME)-51]. Table 1 lists the in-process materials and finished specimens. Also included are current metallurgical condition of these materials and specimens. The available chemical analyses for these alloys at various points in the process are provided in Table 2.

  1. Implementing Successful Geoscience Education and Outreach Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Braile, L. W.

    2004-12-01

    Successful geoscience Education and Outreach (E&O) efforts associated with a research program benefit from effective planning and a commitment by scientists/researchers to become more knowledgeable about and involved in education. Several suggested strategies have evolved based on experience in Earth science E&O with K-16 educators and students during the past 10 years. E&O programs and materials should be developed at appropriate levels ("start from where they're at") and utilize information, skills and topics that are most relevant to students and teachers. Hands-on and inquiry-based activities that teach or reinforce fundamental science understanding and skills, while introducing new topics, results and discoveries, are particularly effective. It is useful to design materials that can provide for a range of time commitment, level of technical skills, and effort, so that introductory to in-depth curriculum units can be implemented. Use of the Internet and working with teachers can be effective methods for dissemination and taking advantage of a "multiplying factor". Obtaining feedback and evaluation of the programs and developed materials, and connecting the materials to national or state education standards are also highly recommended. Most importantly, scientists should become more involved in the science education community. Attending and presenting papers at appropriate science education sessions or workshops, or state or national science teacher meetings (the annual National Science Teachers Association convention is an excellent place to start) can be a significant educational experience for the scientist/researcher. Effective geoscience E&O programs have significant potential for enhancing K-16 education and scientific literacy, and can help attract students to the sciences. Perhaps surprisingly, these efforts have substantial positive impact on the scientist/researcher as well.

  2. Overview of the Langley subsonic research effort on SCR configuration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Coe, P. L., Jr.; Thomas, J. D.; Huffman, J. K.; Weston, R. P.; Schoonover, W. E., Jr.; Gentry, C. L., Jr.

    1980-01-01

    Recent advances achieved in the subsonic aerodynamics of low aspect ratio, highly swept wing designs are summarized. The most significant of these advances was the development of leading edge deflection concepts which effectively reduce leading edge flow separation. The improved flow attachment results in substantial improvements in low speed performance, significant delay of longitudinal pitch up, increased trailing edge flap effectiveness, and increased lateral control capability. Various additional theoretical and/or experimental studies are considered which, in conjunction with the leading edge deflection studies, form the basis for future subsonic research effort.

  3. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N.E.

    2014-06-15

    Isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. This effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  4. Educational Outreach Efforts at the NNDC

    SciTech Connect

    Holden, N. E.

    2014-06-01

    We found that isotopes and nuclides are important in our everyday life. The general public and most students are never exposed to the concepts of stable and radioactive isotopes/nuclides. The National Nuclear Data Center (NNDC) is involved in an international project to develop a Periodic Table of the Isotopes for the educational community to illustrate the importance of isotopes and nuclides in understanding the world around us. Our effort should aid teachers in introducing these concepts to students from the high school to the graduate school level.

  5. Multipartite Entanglement Detection with Minimal Effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knips, Lukas; Schwemmer, Christian; Klein, Nico; Wieśniak, Marcin; Weinfurter, Harald

    2016-11-01

    Certifying entanglement of a multipartite state is generally considered a demanding task. Since an N qubit state is parametrized by 4N-1 real numbers, one might naively expect that the measurement effort of generic entanglement detection also scales exponentially with N . Here, we introduce a general scheme to construct efficient witnesses requiring a constant number of measurements independent of the number of qubits for states like, e.g., Greenberger-Horne-Zeilinger states, cluster states, and Dicke states. For four qubits, we apply this novel method to experimental realizations of the aforementioned states and prove genuine four-partite entanglement with two measurement settings only.

  6. Coercion and polio eradication efforts in Moradabad

    PubMed Central

    Rentmeester, Christy A; Dasgupta, Rajib; Feemster, Kristen A; Packard, Randall M

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the problem of vaccine coercion as reported in Moradabad, India. We offer commentary and critical analysis on ethical complexities at the intersection of global public health and regional political strife and relate them to broader vaccine goals. We draw upon a historical example from malaria vaccine efforts, focusing specifically on ethical and health justice issues expressed through the use of coercion in vaccine administration. We suggest how coercion is indicative of failed leadership in public health and consider community-based collaborations as models for cultivating local investment and trust in vaccination campaigns and for success in global public health initiatives. PMID:24401293

  7. Soldier Data Tag Study Effort. Appendices,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1985-06-10

    84-C-0146 on ,.a. SOLDIER DATA TAG " -:.,r .* STUDY EFFORT I T IT t APPENDICES to U.S. Army Soldier Support Center ATZI /ODS (Mr. Occhialini) Fort...SUPPORT CENTER * P2 DEN HARRISON, IN 46216 11 -:NG QVFZF N UAE AND ADORESS i REPORT DATE ATZI --DDS (MR. OCCHIALINI) JN 13 WAMSEROF PAGES 7-4 .’,kT N...Memorandum ATZI -DDS (14 Sep. 83) Subject: Input Requirements for SDT Cost/Benefits Analysis (CBA) , To Ch, Ofc of Analysis Spt From C, SDT, Date 5 Oct. 83

  8. Further Evidence Concerning the Effects of Perceptions of Effort and Ability on Achievement Evaluation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rest, Stanley; And Others

    1973-01-01

    Three experiments were reported based on the findings that perceived effort expenditure and level of ability, in addition to achievement outcome, are determinants of reward and punishment in achievement-related contexts. (Author/KM)

  9. Evaluation and development of an ED management model: an effort to optimize patient-centered care.

    PubMed

    McDonough, Kelly S; Pemberton, Meg

    2013-09-01

    In 2008, the emergency department at Mary Washington Hospital was in the midst of a crisis marked by increasing volumes, increasing numbers of left without being seen (LWBS) patients, falling patient satisfaction numbers and a staff dissatisfied with ED leadership. The existing ED model of charge nurses, a nurse manager, and an administrative director was not working. The single nurse manager could not effectively manage the over 200 staff members he/she was assigned. Based upon the findings from the employee satisfaction survey the inability of the nurse managers to properly manage such large numbers of employees was at the core of the issue. Through benchmarking with a similar healthcare system, an evidence based leadership model was identified, developed, and implemented. The model included the addition of six patient care managers with 24-hour coverage in the department, led to a reduced number of direct reports per manager, and an increased connection with employees. The goal was to engage employees in the effort to provide patient centered, quality care. Residual benefits of our change effort improved the patient satisfaction scores as evidenced by meeting organizational goals within 12 months; goal was exceeded in the following year. Additionally, the walk out rate was reduced 75% over 18 months. The correlation between satisfied employees, patient satisfaction, and reduced walk-outs cannot be ignored. Engaged employees positively impact service and quality.

  10. Case Studies in Describing Scientific Research Efforts as Linked Data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gandara, A.; Villanueva-Rosales, N.; Gates, A.

    2013-12-01

    The Web is growing with numerous scientific resources, prompting increased efforts in information management to consider integration and exchange of scientific resources. Scientists have many options to share scientific resources on the Web; however, existing options provide limited support to scientists in annotating and relating research resources resulting from a scientific research effort. Moreover, there is no systematic approach to documenting scientific research and sharing it on the Web. This research proposes the Collect-Annotate-Refine-Publish (CARP) Methodology as an approach for guiding documentation of scientific research on the Semantic Web as scientific collections. Scientific collections are structured descriptions about scientific research that make scientific results accessible based on context. In addition, scientific collections enhance the Linked Data data space and can be queried by machines. Three case studies were conducted on research efforts at the Cyber-ShARE Research Center of Excellence in order to assess the effectiveness of the methodology to create scientific collections. The case studies exposed the challenges and benefits of leveraging the Semantic Web and Linked Data data space to facilitate access, integration and processing of Web-accessible scientific resources and research documentation. As such, we present the case study findings and lessons learned in documenting scientific research using CARP.

  11. Adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions.

    PubMed

    Siegrist, J

    1996-01-01

    In addition to the person-environment fit model (J. R. French, R. D. Caplan, & R. V. Harrison, 1982) and the demand-control model (R. A. Karasek & T. Theorell, 1990), a third theoretical concept is proposed to assess adverse health effects of stressful experience at work: the effort-reward imbalance model. The focus of this model is on reciprocity of exchange in occupational life where high-cost/low-gain conditions are considered particularly stressful. Variables measuring low reward in terms of low status control (e.g., lack of promotion prospects, job insecurity) in association with high extrinsic (e.g., work pressure) or intrinsic (personal coping pattern, e.g., high need for control) effort independently predict new cardiovascular events in a prospective study on blue-collar men. Furthermore, these variables partly explain prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors (hypertension, atherogenic lipids) in 2 independent studies. Studying adverse health effects of high-effort/low-reward conditions seems well justified, especially in view of recent developments of the labor market.

  12. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  13. Salt river project's participation in Arizona's bald eagle conservation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nobel, Teah A.

    1996-11-01

    Bald eagle ( Haliaeetus leucocephalus) conservation in Arizona, USA, is a prime example of a successful, cooperative environmental management effort. The Salt River Project (SRP) is an active participant in the statewide bald eagle management activities. This paper summarizes the major components of the statewide program and highlights SRP's participation in these efforts. The Southwestern Bald Eagle Management Committee (SWBEMC) was formed as a means of coordinating interagency projects. Chaired by the Arizona Game and Fish Department (AGFD), the SWBEMC is comprised of 15 state, federal, tribal, and private agencies. Together, these agencies sponsor the Nest Watch Program, a unique and effective program dedicated to the study, conservation, and recovery of bald eagles in the southwest. Other significant components of the bald eagle management program include nest monitoring, nest search activities, winter counts, and demography studies.

  14. Physics Education Research efforts to promote diversity: Challenges and opportunities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brahmia, Suzanne

    2015-04-01

    We begin this talk with a brief description of the gender and ethnic diversity of the physics community. We then discuss several current efforts within Physics Education Research that have the potential to further our understanding of issues surrounding underrepresentation. These efforts include research into (1) the role of community and strategies for developing effective communities; (2) physics identity and self-efficacy; (3) the affordances that students from underrepresented groups bring to physics learning; (4) socioeconomics and its impact on mathematization. One of the challenges to conducting this research is the relatively small proportion of underrepresented minority students in current physics classes, and the small number of women in physics and engineering majors. In collaboration with Stephen Kanim, New Mexico State University.

  15. Respiration and Reproductive Effort in Xanthium canadense

    PubMed Central

    KINUGASA, TOSHIHIKO; HIKOSAKA, KOUKI; HIROSE, TADAKI

    2005-01-01

    • Background and Aims The proportion of resources devoted to reproduction in the plant is called the reproductive effort (RE), which is most commonly expressed as the proportion of reproductive biomass to total plant biomass production (REW). Reproductive yield is the outcome of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures minus subsequent respiratory consumption for construction and maintenance of reproductive structures. Thus, REW can differ from RE in terms of photosynthates allocated to reproductive structures (REP). • Methods Dry mass growth and respiration of vegetative and reproductive organs were measured in Xanthium canadense and the amount of photosynthates and its partitioning to dry mass growth and respiratory consumption were determined. Differences between REW and REP were analysed in terms of growth and maintenance respiration. • Key Results The fraction of allocated photosynthates that was consumed by respiration was smaller in the reproductive organ than in the vegetative organs. Consequently, REP was smaller than REW. The smaller respiratory consumption in the reproductive organ resulted from its shorter period of existence and a seasonal decline in temperature, as well as a slower rate of maintenance respiration, although the fraction of photosynthates consumed by growth respiration was larger than in the vegetative organs. • Conclusions Reproductive effort in terms of photosynthates (REP) was smaller than that in terms of biomass (REW). This difference resulted from respiratory consumption for maintenance, which was far smaller in the reproductive organ than in vegetative organs. PMID:15837721

  16. Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Gerald Hill; Kenneth Nemeth; Gary Garrett; Kimberly Sams

    2009-01-31

    The Southern States Energy Board's (SSEB) 'Regional Effort to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies' program began on June 1, 2003, and was completed on January 31, 2009. The project proved beneficial in providing state decision-makers with information that assisted them in removing barriers or implementing incentives to deploy clean coal technologies. This was accomplished through two specific tasks: (1) domestic energy security and diversity; and (2) the energy-water interface. Milestones accomplished during the project period are: (1) Presentations to Annual Meetings of SSEB Members, Associate Member Meetings, and the Gasification Technologies Council. (2) Energy: Water reports - (A) Regional Efforts to Deploy Clean Coal Technologies: Impacts and Implications for Water Supply and Quality. June 2004. (B) Energy-Water Interface Challenges: Coal Bed Methane and Mine Pool Water Characterization in the Southern States Region. 2004. (C) Freshwater Availability and Constraints on Thermoelectric Power Generation in the Southeast U.S. June 2008. (3) Blackwater Interactive Tabletop Exercise - Decatur, Georgia April 2007. (4) Blackwater Report: Blackwater: Energy and Water Interdependency Issues: Best Practices and Lessons Learned. August 2007. (5) Blackwater Report: BLACKWATER: Energy Water Interdependency Issues REPORT SUMMARY. April 2008.

  17. Sidoarjo mudflow phenomenon and its mitigation efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wibowo, H. T.; Williams, V.

    2009-12-01

    Hot mud first erupted in Siring village, Porong, Sidoarjo May 29th 2006. The mud first appeared approximately 200 meters from Banjarpanji-1 gas-drilling well. The mud volume increased day by day, from 5000 cubic meters per day on June 2006 to 50,000 cubic meters per day during the last of 2006, and then increased to 100,000-120,000 cubic meters per day during 2007. Flow still continues at a high rate. Moreover, as the water content has gone down, the clast content has gone up. Consequently, there is now the threat of large amounts of solid material being erupted throughout the area. Also, there is the issue of subsurface collapse and ground surface subsidence. The Indonesian government has set up a permanent team to support communities affected by the mudflow that has swamped a number of villages near LUSI. Toll roads, railway tracks and factories also have been submerged and over 35,000 people have been displaced to date. The Sidoarjo Mudflow Mitigation Agency [SMMA, BPLS (Indonesia)] replaces a temporary team called National Team PSLS which was installed for seven months and ended their work on 7 April 2007. BPLS was set up by Presidential Regulation No. 14 / 2007, and it will have to cover the costs related to the social impact of the disaster, especially outside the swamped area. BPLS is the central government institution designated to handle the disaster by coordination with both the drilling company and local (provincial and district) governments. It takes a comprehensive, integrated and holistic approach for its mission and challenges. Those are: 1) How to stop the mudflow, 2) How to mitigate the impacts of the mudflow, and 3) How to minimize the social, economic, environmental impacts, and infrastructure impacts. The mudflow mitigation efforts were constrained by dynamic geology conditions, as well as resistance to certain measures by residents of impacted areas. Giant dykes were built to retain the spreading mud, and the mudflow from the main vent was

  18. Overview of Altair's Thermal Control System and the Associated Technology Development Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stephan, Ryan A.

    2009-01-01

    Abstract In early 2004, President Bush announced a bold vision for space exploration. One of the goals included in this vision is a return to the moon by 2020. In response to this vision, NASA established the Constellation Program, which includes several project offices. One of the Constellation projects is Altair, which is the next generation Lunar Lander. The future Altair missions are very different than the Lunar missions accomplished during the Apollo era. As such, there are several project risks and design challenges that have never before been addressed. Due to the unique thermal environment associated with this mission, many of these risks and design challenges are associated with the vehicle's thermal control system. NASA's Exploration Systems Mission Directorate (ESMD) includes the Exploration Technology Development Program (ETDP). ETDP consists of several technology development projects. The project chartered with mitigating the aforementioned risks and design challenges is the Thermal Control System Development for Exploration Project. The current paper will summarize the Altair mission profile, the operational phases, and the thermal design challenges unique to this particular vehicle. The paper will also describe the technology development efforts being performed to mitigate the risks and design challenges. The technology development project is performing a rigorous development effort that includes thermal control system fluids, evaporators, heat exchangers, and Lunar surface radiators. Constellation Program, there are several project offices. One of these projects includes the development of NASA's new lunar lander vehicle. The overall mission architecture for this vehicle, Altair, is very similar to Apollo's architecture. This paper will provide the reader with an overview of the Altair vehicle. In addition, Altair's thermal control system, including the functionality and the hardware, will be discussed. The paper will also describe the technology

  19. Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997. Report of the Committee on Education and the Workforce, House of Representatives, on H.R. 1385 Together with Additional and Dissenting Views [Including Cost Estimate of the Congressional Budget Office], 105th Congress, 1st Session.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Congress of the U.S., Washington, DC. House Committee on Education and the Workforce.

    This document contains the text of the Employment, Training, and Literacy Enhancement Act of 1997, as amended by committee, including the titles that cover the following: general provisions; employment and training programs for disadvantaged youth; federally administered programs; adult education programs; miscellaneous provisions; the State Human…

  20. Separate and overlapping brain areas encode subjective value during delay and effort discounting.

    PubMed

    Massar, Stijn A A; Libedinsky, Camilo; Weiyan, Chee; Huettel, Scott A; Chee, Michael W L

    2015-10-15

    Making decisions about rewards that involve delay or effort requires the integration of value and cost information. The brain areas recruited in this integration have been well characterized for delay discounting. However only a few studies have investigated how effort costs are integrated into value signals to eventually determine choice. In contrast to previous studies that have evaluated fMRI signals related to physical effort, we used a task that focused on cognitive effort. Participants discounted the value of delayed and effortful rewards. The value of cognitively effortful rewards was represented in the anterior portion of the inferior frontal gyrus and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex. Additionally, the value of the chosen option was encoded in the anterior cingulate cortex, caudate, and cerebellum. While most brain regions showed no significant dissociation between effort discounting and delay discounting, the ACC was significantly more activated in effort compared to delay discounting tasks. Finally, overlapping regions within the right orbitofrontal cortex and lateral temporal and parietal cortices encoded the value of the chosen option during both delay and effort discounting tasks. These results indicate that encoding of rewards discounted by cognitive effort and delay involves partially dissociable brain areas, but a common representation of chosen value is present in the orbitofrontal, temporal and parietal cortices.

  1. Including All Families in Education: School District-Level Efforts to Promote Parent Engagement in Ontario, Canada

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hands, Catherine

    2013-01-01

    Parent engagement plays an essential role in student achievement and well-being, but not all families are able to participate in their children's education. This article focuses on strategies for reaching and supporting parents who face challenges to engagement such as poverty and cultural diversity. Five district-level parent engagement projects…

  2. Piezoelectric and electromagnetic respiratory effort energy harvesters.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, Ehsaneh; Padasdao, Bryson; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Boric-Lubecke, Olga

    2013-01-01

    The movements of the torso due to normal breathing could be harvested as an alternative, and renewable power source for an ultra-low power electronic device. The same output signal could also be recorded as a physiological signal containing information about breathing, thus enabling self-powered wearable biosensors/harvesters. In this paper, the selection criteria for such a biosensor, optimization procedure, trade-offs, and challenges as a sensor and harvester are presented. The empirical data obtained from testing different modules on a mechanical torso and a human subject demonstrated that an electromagnetic generator could be used as an unobtrusive self-powered medical sensor by harvesting more power, offering reasonable amount of output voltage for rectification purposes, and detecting respiratory effort.

  3. The NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; OReilly, John E.; Patt, Frederick S.; Wang, Meng-Hua; Yoder, James; Casey-McCabe, Nancy; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Satellite observations of global ocean chlorophyll span over two decades. However, incompatibilities between processing algorithms prevent us from quantifying natural variability. We applied a comprehensive reanalysis to the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) archive, called the NOAA-NASA CZCS Reanalysis (NCR) Effort. NCR consisted of 1) algorithm improvement (AI), where CZCS processing algorithms were improved using modernized atmospheric correction and bio-optical algorithms, and 2) blending, where in situ data were incorporated into the CZCS AI to minimize residual errors. The results indicated major improvement over the previously available CZCS archive. Global spatial and seasonal patterns of NCR chlorophyll indicated remarkable correspondence with modern sensors, suggesting compatibility. The NCR permits quantitative analyses of interannual and interdecadal trends in global ocean chlorophyll.

  4. Directed-energy process technology efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alexander, P.

    1985-01-01

    A summary of directed-energy process technology for solar cells was presented. This technology is defined as directing energy or mass to specific areas on solar cells to produce a desired effect in contrast to exposing a cell to a thermal or mass flow environment. Some of these second generation processing techniques are: ion implantation; microwave-enhanced chemical vapor deposition; rapid thermal processing; and the use of lasers for cutting, assisting in metallization, assisting in deposition, and drive-in of liquid dopants. Advantages of directed energy techniques are: surface heating resulting in the bulk of the cell material being cooler and unchanged; better process control yields; better junction profiles, junction depths, and metal sintering; lower energy consumption during processing and smaller factory space requirements. These advantages should result in higher-efficiency cells at lower costs. The results of the numerous contracted efforts were presented as well as the application potentials of these new technologies.

  5. Two groups challenge US acid rain efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1987-11-01

    In its report, Acid Rain Invades Our National Parks, the National Parks and Conservation Association (NPCA) says acid rain is being detected at all 27 national park monitoring sites. In 1980, 87 national parks expressed concern in a NPCA survey over acid rain. Repolled in 1986, more than half of the respondents reported that no research on acid rain was under way. The NPCA report concludes that the alarm that was sounded in 1980 fell largely on deaf ears, and calls for the structural and scientific reorganization of the National Park Service. The National Audubon Society shares NPCA's dissatisfaction with federal efforts to tackle the problem of acid rain and has taken testing into its own hands. Through its Citizens Acid Rain Monitoring Network, Audubon volunteers have collected readings of acidity at 64 monitoring stations in 31 states since July.

  6. Classification accuracy of multiple visual spatial measures in the detection of suspect effort.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Douglas; Wald, Danielle; Busse, Michelle

    2011-02-01

    A wide variety of cognitive measures, particularly memory measures, have been studied for their ability to detect suspect effort, or biased responding on neuropsychological assessment instruments. However, visual spatial measures have received less attention. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the classification accuracy of several commonly used visual spatial measures, including the Judgment of Line Orientation Test, the Benton Facial Recognition Test, the Hooper Visual Organization Test, and the Rey Complex Figure Test-Copy and Recognition trials. Participants included 491 consecutive referrals who participated in a comprehensive neuropsychological assessment and met study criteria. Participants were divided into two groups identified as either unbiased responding (UR, N = 415) or biased responding (BR, N = 30) based on their performance on two measures of effort. The remaining participants (N = 46) had discrepant performance on the symptom validity measures and were excluded from further analysis. The groups differed significantly on all measures. Additionally, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis indicated all of the measures had acceptable classification accuracy, but a measure combining scores from all of the measures had excellent classification accuracy. Results indicated that various cut-off scores on the measures could be used depending on the context of the evaluation. Suggested cut-off scores for the measures had sensitivity levels of approximately 32-46%, when specificity was at least 87%. When combined, the measures suggested cut-off scores had sensitivity increase to 57% while maintaining the same level of specificity (87%). The results were discussed in the context of research advocating the use of multiple measures of effort.

  7. Fiber optic sensor for the assessment of breathing effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Babchenko, Anatoly; Turinvenko, Sergei; Khanokh, Boris; Nitzan, Meir

    1995-01-01

    Several methods have been developed for the qualitative and quantitative measurement of breathing effort. The most useful kind of breathing pattern monitor includes devices for recording chest and abdomen dimension changes, such as impedance plethysmography and respiratory induction plethysmography. These devices can measure the tidal volume in relative terms, and even measure it in absolute terms after suitable calibration. In this study a novel method for measuring chest circumference based on an optical fiber is presented. The sensor is based on the measurement of light transmitted through a bent optical fiber, which is connected to an elastic band, wrapped around the chest, and whose radius of curvature changes due to the respiratory act. The amount of transmitted light is related to the radius of curvature of the fiber which depends on the chest circumference. The output of the respiratory sensor was checked qualitatively by changing the respiration rate and depth. The changes in breathing effort were clearly demonstrated in the sensor output recording. The respiratory effort was also correlated with the heart rate, measured by photoplethysmography. Statistically significant correlation was found between the lungs' volume and the heart rate, but the correlation coefficient was not high.

  8. Enhanced simulation of an RF ion funnel including gas turbulence.

    PubMed

    Tridas, Eric; Anthony, J Mark; Guldiken, Rasim; Schlaf, Rudy

    2015-01-01

    Electrodynamic ion funnels are used to enhance the transmission of ions in electrospray-based ion injection systems in 0.1 to 30 Torr pressure range. Jet disrupters are commonly employed to prevent droplets and high pressure jets from entering subsequent vacuum regions. This study presents the simulation and testing of an ion funnel containing a jet disrupter using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) and SIMION ion trajectory simulations. Traditional modeling approaches have utilized approximations for the bulk fluid flow fields without including the time-varying nature of the turbulent flow present in the system, thus yielding idealized results. In this study, the fluid flow fields are calculated using CFD. In an effort to include time dependence, a random velocity vector, whose magnitude is proportional to the square root of the turbulence kinetic energy, was calculated at each time step and added to the velocity of the background gas. These simulations predicted that the transmitted ion current is effectively modulated by the variation of the jet disrupter voltage. The addition of the random velocity vector produced results that closely matched the experiments. The simulations yielded the dependence of the transmission on the jet disrupter voltage, and the voltage necessary for maximum ion throughput was accurately predicted. In addition, the magnitude of the predicted transmission closely matched that of the experimental results. This modeling approach could be extended to similar ion transport and filtering systems in which the effects of turbulent fluid flow cannot be ignored.

  9. Product assurance technology efforts: Technical accomplishments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1985-01-01

    Product assurance technology topics addressed include: wafer acceptance procedures, test chips, test structures, test chip methodology, fault models, and the Combined Release and Radiation Effects Satellite test chip.

  10. Assessing and Evaluating Department of Defense Efforts to Inform, Influence, and Persuade: An Annotated Reading List

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-01-01

    including social marketing . This report is a supplement to two companion volumes, Assessing and Evaluating Department of Defense Efforts to Inform...10 Assessment in Advertising, Marketing , and Public Relations...implementation of diverse efforts. Assessment in Advertising, Marketing , and Public Relations Frankly, much of the instructional material on measurement

  11. Overview of NASA MSFC and UAH Space Weather Modeling and Data Efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Parker, Linda Neergaard

    2016-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center, along with its industry and academia neighbors, has a long history of space environment model development and testing. Space weather efforts include research, testing, model development, environment definition, anomaly investigation, and operational support. This presentation will highlight a few of the current space weather activities being performed at Marshall and through collaborative efforts with University of Alabama in Huntsville scientists.

  12. Altering Effort Costs in Parkinson's Disease with Noninvasive Cortical Stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Salimpour, Yousef; Mari, Zoltan K.

    2015-01-01

    noninvasive cortical stimulation. In addition to reducing effort costs associated with the affected arm, the cortical stimulation also improved clinical motor symptoms of the disease. PMID:26338339

  13. Ocean management plan includes array of recommendations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    When U.S. President Bill Clinton and Vice President Al Gore appeared in Monterey, California in June 1998 for a National Oceans Conference, some of the salt water spray from the Pacific Ocean must have clung to them.As a follow-up to the conference, the Clinton Administration on September 2 issued an interagency report to help guide federal efforts in establishing a comprehensive ocean policy.The report, which touches upon a number of global issues including the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, contains nearly 150 recommendations.

  14. Got value? Journal collection analysis is worth the effort.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Kate

    2010-07-01

    This article presents a case study of the efforts of librarians at a pediatric hospital system to cut journal costs while increasing value for patrons. First, the worth of the libraries was proven to system leaders using a cost-benefit analysis. Then, librarians used a survey of library users and analysis of usage patterns to reevaluate the number and format of individual journal subscriptions. The results included cutting substantial costs and unpopular resources, adding more relevant resources, and garnering the respect and support of hospital leaders.

  15. The Efficacy of Air Pollution Control Efforts: Evidence from AURA

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dickerson, Russell R.; Canty, Tim; Duncan, Bryan N.; Hao, He; Krotkov, Nickolay A.; Salawitch, Ross J.; Stehr, Jeffrey W.; Vinnikov, Konstatin

    2014-01-01

    Observations of NO2, SO2, and H2CO from OMI on AURA provide an excellent record of pollutant concentrations for the past decade. Abatement strategies to control criteria pollutants including ozone and fine particulate matter (PM2.5) have met with varying degrees of success. Sulfur controls had a profound impact on local SO2 concentrations and a measurable impact on PM2.5. Although substantial effort has gone into VOC control, ozone in the eastern US has responded dramatically to NOx emissions controls.

  16. Status of Educational Efforts in National Security Workforce

    SciTech Connect

    2008-03-31

    This report documents the status of educational efforts for the preparation of a national security workforce as part of the National Security Preparedness Project, being performed by the Arrowhead Center of New Mexico State University under a DOE/NNSA grant. The need to adequately train and educate a national security workforce is at a critical juncture. Even though there are an increasing number of college graduates in the appropriate fields, many of these graduates choose to work in the private sector because of more desirable salary and benefit packages. This report includes an assessment of the current educational situation for the national security workforce.

  17. Graphene based field effect transistors: Efforts made towards flexible electronics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sharma, Bhupendra K.; Ahn, Jong-Hyun

    2013-11-01

    The integration of flexibility in existing electronics has been realized as a key point for practical application of unusual format electronics that can extend the application limit of biomedical equipments and of course daily routine kind of electronic devices. Graphene showed the great potentiality for flexible format owing to its excellent electronic, mechanical and optical properties. Field effect transistor (FET) is a basic unit for digital and analog electronics thus enormous efforts have been attempted to fabricate the flexible FETs in order to get the high performance. This article reviews the recent development of graphene based FETs including the fabrication and active layers material compatibility in flexible format.

  18. V and V Efforts of Auroral Precipitation Models: Preliminary Results

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zheng, Yihua; Kuznetsova, Masha; Rastaetter, Lutz; Hesse, Michael

    2011-01-01

    Auroral precipitation models have been valuable both in terms of space weather applications and space science research. Yet very limited testing has been performed regarding model performance. A variety of auroral models are available, including empirical models that are parameterized by geomagnetic indices or upstream solar wind conditions, now casting models that are based on satellite observations, or those derived from physics-based, coupled global models. In this presentation, we will show our preliminary results regarding V&V efforts of some of the models.

  19. Collaborative Efforts Driving Progress in Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia

    PubMed Central

    Zwaan, C. Michel; Kolb, Edward A.; Reinhardt, Dirk; Abrahamsson, Jonas; Adachi, Souichi; Aplenc, Richard; De Bont, Eveline S.J.M.; De Moerloose, Barbara; Dworzak, Michael; Gibson, Brenda E.S.; Hasle, Henrik; Leverger, Guy; Locatelli, Franco; Ragu, Christine; Ribeiro, Raul C.; Rizzari, Carmelo; Rubnitz, Jeffrey E.; Smith, Owen P.; Sung, Lillian; Tomizawa, Daisuke; van den Heuvel-Eibrink, Marry M.; Creutzig, Ursula; Kaspers, Gertjan J.L.

    2015-01-01

    Diagnosis, treatment, response monitoring, and outcome of pediatric acute myeloid leukemia (AML) have made enormous progress during the past decades. Because AML is a rare type of childhood cancer, with an incidence of approximately seven occurrences per 1 million children annually, national and international collaborative efforts have evolved. This overview describes these efforts and includes a summary of the history and contributions of each of the main collaborative pediatric AML groups worldwide. The focus is on translational and clinical research, which includes past, current, and future clinical trials. Separate sections concern acute promyelocytic leukemia, myeloid leukemia of Down syndrome, and relapsed AML. A plethora of novel antileukemic agents that have emerged, including new classes of drugs, are summarized as well. Finally, an important aspect of the treatment of pediatric AML—supportive care—and late effects are discussed. The future is bright, with a wide range of emerging innovative therapies and with more and more international collaboration that ultimately aim to cure all children with AML, with fewer adverse effects and without late effects. PMID:26304895

  20. A laboratory effort to quantitatively address clay abundance on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roush, T. L.; Bishop, J. L.; Brown, A. J.; Hunkins, L.; Blake, D. F.; Bristow, T. F.

    2011-12-01

    Data obtained at visible and near-infrared wavelengths by OMEGA on MarsExpress and CRISM on MRO provide definitive evidence for the presence of phyllosilicates and other hydrated phases on Mars. A diverse range of both Fe/Mg-OH and Al-OH-bearing phyllosilicates were identified including the smectites, nontronite, saponite, and montmorillonite. In order to constrain the abundances of these phyllosilicates spectral analyses of mixtures are needed. We report on our effort to enable the quantitative evaluation of the abundance of hydrated-hydroxylated silicates when they are contained in mixtures. We include two component mixtures of hydrated/hydroxylated silicates with each other and with two analogs for other martian materials; pyroxene (enstatite) and palagonitic soil (an alteration product of basaltic glass). For the hydrated-hydroxylated silicates we include saponite and montmorillonite (Mg- and Al- rich smectites). We prepared three size separates of each end-member for study: 20-45, 63-90, and 125-150 μm. As an initial phase of our effort we used scanning electron microscopy imaging and x-ray diffraction to characterize the grain size distribution, and structural nature, respectively, of the pure end-member materials. Visible and near-infrared reflectance spectra of the 63-90 μm grain size of the end-member samples are shown in Figure 1. We discuss the results of our initial measurements of these samples.

  1. Team building and perceived effort in an exercise setting: gender effects.

    PubMed

    Bruner, Mark W; Spink, Kevin S

    2011-03-01

    This study examined the moderating role of gender on the team building (TB)/perceived effort relationship in an exercise setting. Youths (n=100) who participated in either a TB or control group exercise setting completed a measure of perceived effort prior to and following a TB intervention. A 2 (group)×2 (gender) ANCOVA controlling for baseline perceived effort revealed a significant interaction, F (1, 95)=4.50, p<.05. The interaction revealed that females in the TB condition reported significantly more perceived effort at the post-assessment than did those in the control condition whereas the perceived effort reported by males did not differ between conditions. These results provide preliminary evidence that gender may need to be considered in future TB investigations that include perceived effort as a dependent measure.

  2. Obtaining information by dynamic (effortful) touching

    PubMed Central

    Turvey, M. T.; Carello, Claudia

    2011-01-01

    Dynamic touching is effortful touching. It entails deformation of muscles and fascia and activation of the embedded mechanoreceptors, as when an object is supported and moved by the body. It is realized as exploratory activities that can vary widely in spatial and temporal extents (a momentary heft, an extended walk). Research has revealed the potential of dynamic touching for obtaining non-visual information about the body (e.g. limb orientation), attachments to the body (e.g. an object's height and width) and the relation of the body both to attachments (e.g. hand's location on a grasped object) and surrounding surfaces (e.g. places and their distances). Invariants over the exploratory activity (e.g. moments of a wielded object's mass distribution) seem to ground this ‘information about’. The conception of a haptic medium as a nested tensegrity structure has been proposed to express the obtained information realized by myofascia deformation, by its invariants and transformations. The tensegrity proposal rationalizes the relative indifference of dynamic touch to the site of mechanical contact (hand, foot, torso or probe) and the overtness of exploratory activity. It also provides a framework for dynamic touching's fractal nature, and the finding that its degree of fractality may matter to its accomplishments. PMID:21969694

  3. Regionally Applied Research Efforts (RARE) Report titled " ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The traditional methodology for health risk assessment used by the U. S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) is based on the use of exposure assumptions (e.g. exposure duration, food ingestion rate, body weight, etc.) that represent the entire American population, either as a central tendency exposure (e.g. average, median) or as a reasonable maximum exposure (e.g. 95% upper confidence limit). Unfortunately, EPA lacked exposure information for assessing health risks for New England regional tribes sustaining a tribal subsistence way of life. As a riverine tribe, the Penobscot culture and traditions are inextricably tied to the Penobscot River watershed. It is through hunting, fishing, trapping, gathering and making baskets, pottery, moccasins, birch-bark canoes and other traditional practices that the Penobscot culture and people are sustained. The Penobscot River receives a variety of pollutant discharges leaving the Penobscot Indian Nation (PIN) questioning the ecological health and water quality of the river and how this may affect the practices that sustain their way of life. The objectives of this Regional Applied Research Effort (RARE) study were to: (1) Develop culturally sensitive methodologies for assessing the potential level of exposure to contaminants that Penobscot Indian Nation tribal members may have from maintaining tribal sustenance practices; (2) Conduct field surveys and laboratory analysis on targeted flora and fauna for chemical expo

  4. STEM Education Efforts in the Ares Projects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doreswamy, Rajiv; Armstrong, Robert C.

    2010-01-01

    According to the National Science Foundation, of the more than 4 million first university degrees awarded in science and engineering in 2006, students in China earned about 21%, those in the European Union earned about 19%, and those in the United States earned about 11%. Statistics like these are of great interest to NASA's Ares Projects, which are responsible for building the rockets for the U.S. Constellation Program to send humans beyond low-Earth orbit. Science, technology, engineering, and mathematics students are essential for the long-term sustainability of any space program. Since the Projects creation, the Ares Outreach Team has used a variety of STEM-related media, methods, and materials to engage students, educators, and the general public in Constellation's mission. Like Project Apollo, the nation s exploration destinations and the vehicles used to get there can inspire students to learn more about STEM. Ares has been particularly active in public outreach to schools in Northern Alabama; on the Internet via outreach and grade-specific educational materials; and in more informal social media settings such as YouTube and Facebook. These combined efforts remain integral to America s space program, regardless of its future direction.

  5. Bringing You the Moon: Lunar Education Efforts of the Center for Lunar Science and Education

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shaner, A. J.; Shupla, C.; Shipp, S.; Allen, J.; Kring, D. A.; Halligan, E.; LaConte, K.

    2012-01-01

    The Center for Lunar Science and Exploration (CLSE), a collaboration between the Lunar and Planetary Institute and NASA's Johnson Space Center, is one of seven member teams of the NASA Lunar Science Institute. In addition to research and exploration activities, the CLSE team is deeply invested in education and public outreach. Overarching goals of CLSE education are to strengthen the future science workforce, attract and retain students in STEM disciplines, and develop advocates for lunar exploration. The team's efforts have resulted in a variety of programs and products, including the creation of a variety of Lunar Traveling Exhibits and the High School Lunar Research Project, featured at http://www.lpi.usra.edu/nlsi/education/.

  6. 24 CFR 103.325 - Termination of conciliation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Termination of conciliation efforts... conciliation efforts. (a) HUD may terminate its efforts to conciliate the complaint if the respondent fails or refuses to confer with HUD; the aggrieved person or the respondent fail to make a good faith effort...

  7. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  8. Science for the Nonscientist: A Creative Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosen, Sidney; Revak, Robert S.

    1972-01-01

    Describes teaching of a physical science course to sophomore and junior nonscience majors through the use of learner's own creative abilities in concept formation. Includes information about corresponding changes in lecturing, experimentation, examination, grading, and definition of science. (CC)

  9. General presentation including new structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Soons, A.

    2002-12-01

    Electrical, electronic and electro-mechanical components play an essential role in the functional performance, quality, life cycle and costs of space systems. Their standardisation, product specification, development, evaluation, qualification and procurement must be based on a coherent and efficient approach, paying due attention to present and prospective European space policies and must be commensurate with user needs, market developments and technology trends. The European Space Components Coordination (ESCC) is established with the objective of harmonising the efforts concerning the various aspects of EEE space components by ESA. European national and international public space organisations, the component manufacturers and the user industries. The goal of the ESCC is to improve the availability of strategic EEE space components with the required performance and at affordable costs for institutional and commercial space programmes. It is the objective of ESCC to achieve this goal by harmonising the resources and development efforts for space components in the ESA Member States and by providing a single and unified system for the standardisation, product specification, evaluation, qualification and procurement of European EEE space components and for the certification of components and component manufacturers.

  10. Comparison of cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone in patients with chronic ischemic heart disease

    SciTech Connect

    Hung, J.; McKillip, J.; Savin, W.; Magder, S.; Kraus, R.; Houston, N.; Goris, M.; Haskell, W.; DeBusk, R.

    1982-06-01

    The cardiovascular responses to combined static-dynamic effort, postprandial dynamic effort and dynamic effort alone were evaluated by upright bicycle ergometry during equilibrium-gated blood pool scintigraphy in 24 men, mean age 59 +/- 8 years, with chronic ischemic heart disease. Combined static-dynamic effort and the postprandial state elicited a peak cardiovascular response similar to that of dynamic effort alone. Heart rate, intraarterial systolic and diastolic pressures, rate-pressure product and ejection fraction were similar for the three test conditions at the onset of ischemia and at peak effort. The prevalence and extent of exercise-induced ischemic left ventricular dysfunction, ST-segment depression, angina pectoris and ventricular ectopic activity were also similar during the three test conditions. Direct and indirect measurements of systolic and diastolic blood pressure were highly correlated. The onset of ischemic ST-segment depression and angina pectoris correlated as strongly with heart rate alone as with the rate-pressure product during all three test conditions. The cardiovascular response to combined static-dynamic effort and to postprandial dynamic effort becomes more similar to that of dynamic effort alone as dynamic effort reaches a symptom limit. If significant ischemic and arrhythmic abnormalities are absent during symptom-limited dynamic exercise testing, they are unlikely to appear during combined static-dynamic or postprandial dynamic effort.

  11. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  12. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  13. Database development in toxicogenomics: issues and efforts.

    PubMed Central

    Mattes, William B; Pettit, Syril D; Sansone, Susanna-Assunta; Bushel, Pierre R; Waters, Michael D

    2004-01-01

    The marriage of toxicology and genomics has created not only opportunities but also novel informatics challenges. As with the larger field of gene expression analysis, toxicogenomics faces the problems of probe annotation and data comparison across different array platforms. Toxicogenomics studies are generally built on standard toxicology studies generating biological end point data, and as such, one goal of toxicogenomics is to detect relationships between changes in gene expression and in those biological parameters. These challenges are best addressed through data collection into a well-designed toxicogenomics database. A successful publicly accessible toxicogenomics database will serve as a repository for data sharing and as a resource for analysis, data mining, and discussion. It will offer a vehicle for harmonizing nomenclature and analytical approaches and serve as a reference for regulatory organizations to evaluate toxicogenomics data submitted as part of registrations. Such a database would capture the experimental context of in vivo studies with great fidelity such that the dynamics of the dose response could be probed statistically with confidence. This review presents the collaborative efforts between the European Molecular Biology Laboratory-European Bioinformatics Institute ArrayExpress, the International Life Sciences Institute Health and Environmental Science Institute, and the National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences National Center for Toxigenomics Chemical Effects in Biological Systems knowledge base. The goal of this collaboration is to establish public infrastructure on an international scale and examine other developments aimed at establishing toxicogenomics databases. In this review we discuss several issues common to such databases: the requirement for identifying minimal descriptors to represent the experiment, the demand for standardizing data storage and exchange formats, the challenge of creating standardized nomenclature

  14. VLTI-UT vibrations effort and performances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Poupar, Sébastien; Haguenauer, Pierre; Alonso, Jaime; Schuhler, Nicolas; Henriquez, Juan-Pablo; Berger, Jean-Philippe; Bourget, Pierre; Brillant, Stephane; Castillo, Roberto; Gitton, Philippe; Gonte, Frederic; Di Lieto, Nicola; Lizon, Jean-Louis; Merand, Antoine; Woillez, Julien

    2014-07-01

    The ESO Very Large Telescope Interferometer (VLTI) using the Unit Telescope (UT) was strongly affected by vibrations since the first observations. Investigation by ESO on that subject had started in 2007, with a considerable effort since mid 2008. An important number of investigations on various sub-systems (On telescope: Guiding, Passive supports, Train Coude, insulation of electronics cabinets; On Instruments: dedicated campaign on each instruments with a special attention on the ones equipped with Close Cycle Cooler) were realized. Vibrations were not only recorded and analyzed using the usual accelerometers but also using on use sub-systems as InfRared Image Sensor (IRIS) and Multiple Applications Curvature Adaptive Optics (MACAO) and using a specific tool developed for vibrations measurements Mirror vibrAtion Metrology systeM for the Unit Telescope (MAMMUT). Those tools and systems have been used in order to improve the knowledge on telescope by finding sources. The sources whenever it was possible were damped. As known for years, instruments are still the principal sources of vibrations, for the majority of the UT. A special test in which 2 UTs instruments were completely shut down was realized to determine the minimum Optical Path Length (OPL) achievable. Vibrations is now a part of the instruments interface document and during the installation of any new instrument (KMOS) or system (AOF) a test campaign is realized. As a result some modifications (damping of CCC) can be asked in case of non-compliance. To ensure good operational conditions, levels of vibrations are regularly recorded to control any environmental change.

  15. Holographic data storage: rebirthing a commercialization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Ken; Ayres, Mark; Sissom, Brad; Askham, Fred

    2014-02-01

    The realization of a commercial holographic data storage device has remained elusive for many decades. The most recent efforts were by InPhase Technologies between 2001 and 2009 resulting in 52 functioning prototypes capable of 300GB/disk and 20MB/s transfer rates. Despite being the world's first fully functional holographic drives, the primary competitor to holographic archive storage at that time, LTO, had already achieved 800GB and 120MB/in 2008; and by 2010, LTO had achieved 1.5TB and 140MB/s. This left InPhase at a competitive disadvantage to LTO archive solutions despite other strengths such as robustness, random access, and longer-term archive lifetime. Looking into the future, holographic data storage must be highly competitive with tape in three critical areas: cost/TB, capacity/footprint, and transfer rate. If this can be achieved, holographic data storage would become a superior solution given the low latencies and overall robustness to propel it into being the archive storage front-runner. New technology advancements by Akonia Holographics have enabled the potential for ultra-high capacity holographic storage devices that are capable of world record bit densities of over 2Tbit/in2, 200-300MB/s transfer rates, and a media cost less than $10/TB in the next 5 years. A demonstration platform based on these new advances has been designed and is currently being built by Akonia to progressively demonstrate bit densities of 2Tb/in2, 4Tb/in2, and 8Tb/in2 over the next year.

  16. 49 CFR 350.301 - What level of effort must a State maintain to qualify for MCSAP funding?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What level of effort must a State maintain to... What level of effort must a State maintain to qualify for MCSAP funding? (a) The State must maintain... a State's level of effort must not include the following three things: (1) Federal funds...

  17. Neural Mechanisms Underlying Motivation of Mental Versus Physical Effort

    PubMed Central

    Daunizeau, Jean; Pessiglione, Mathias

    2012-01-01

    Mental and physical efforts, such as paying attention and lifting weights, have been shown to involve different brain systems. These cognitive and motor systems, respectively, include cortical networks (prefronto-parietal and precentral regions) as well as subregions of the dorsal basal ganglia (caudate and putamen). Both systems appeared sensitive to incentive motivation: their activity increases when we work for higher rewards. Another brain system, including the ventral prefrontal cortex and the ventral basal ganglia, has been implicated in encoding expected rewards. How this motivational system drives the cognitive and motor systems remains poorly understood. More specifically, it is unclear whether cognitive and motor systems can be driven by a common motivational center or if they are driven by distinct, dedicated motivational modules. To address this issue, we used functional MRI to scan healthy participants while performing a task in which incentive motivation, cognitive, and motor demands were varied independently. We reasoned that a common motivational node should (1) represent the reward expected from effort exertion, (2) correlate with the performance attained, and (3) switch effective connectivity between cognitive and motor regions depending on task demand. The ventral striatum fulfilled all three criteria and therefore qualified as a common motivational node capable of driving both cognitive and motor regions of the dorsal striatum. Thus, we suggest that the interaction between a common motivational system and the different task-specific systems underpinning behavioral performance might occur within the basal ganglia. PMID:22363208

  18. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps

    PubMed Central

    Si, Xingfeng; Kays, Roland

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha) study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period. PMID:24868493

  19. How long is enough to detect terrestrial animals? Estimating the minimum trapping effort on camera traps.

    PubMed

    Si, Xingfeng; Kays, Roland; Ding, Ping

    2014-01-01

    Camera traps is an important wildlife inventory tool for estimating species diversity at a site. Knowing what minimum trapping effort is needed to detect target species is also important to designing efficient studies, considering both the number of camera locations, and survey length. Here, we take advantage of a two-year camera trapping dataset from a small (24-ha) study plot in Gutianshan National Nature Reserve, eastern China to estimate the minimum trapping effort actually needed to sample the wildlife community. We also evaluated the relative value of adding new camera sites or running cameras for a longer period at one site. The full dataset includes 1727 independent photographs captured during 13,824 camera days, documenting 10 resident terrestrial species of birds and mammals. Our rarefaction analysis shows that a minimum of 931 camera days would be needed to detect the resident species sufficiently in the plot, and c. 8700 camera days to detect all 10 resident species. In terms of detecting a diversity of species, the optimal sampling period for one camera site was c. 40, or long enough to record about 20 independent photographs. Our analysis of evaluating the increasing number of additional camera sites shows that rotating cameras to new sites would be more efficient for measuring species richness than leaving cameras at fewer sites for a longer period.

  20. Would You Recommend Your Institution's Effort-Reporting Process to Others? Determining Best Practices in Effort-Reporting Compliance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Whitaker, Ashley E.

    2015-01-01

    Effort-reporting compliance at higher education institutions was examined to discern best practices from those that would recommend their effort-reporting process. Data were derived from a survey of effort administrators--the research administrators responsible for the effort-reporting compliance program at their respective higher education…

  1. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  2. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  3. Motor effort alters changes of mind in sensorimotor decision making.

    PubMed

    Burk, Diana; Ingram, James N; Franklin, David W; Shadlen, Michael N; Wolpert, Daniel M

    2014-01-01

    After committing to an action, a decision-maker can change their mind to revise the action. Such changes of mind can even occur when the stream of information that led to the action is curtailed at movement onset. This is explained by the time delays in sensory processing and motor planning which lead to a component at the end of the sensory stream that can only be processed after initiation. Such post-initiation processing can explain the pattern of changes of mind by asserting an accumulation of additional evidence to a criterion level, termed change-of-mind bound. Here we test the hypothesis that physical effort associated with the movement required to change one's mind affects the level of the change-of-mind bound and the time for post-initiation deliberation. We varied the effort required to change from one choice target to another in a reaching movement by varying the geometry of the choice targets or by applying a force field between the targets. We show that there is a reduction in the frequency of change of mind when the separation of the choice targets would require a larger excursion of the hand from the initial to the opposite choice. The reduction is best explained by an increase in the evidence required for changes of mind and a reduced time period of integration after the initial decision. Thus the criteria to revise an initial choice is sensitive to energetic costs.

  4. [Limitation of the therapeutic effort in pediatric intensive care].

    PubMed

    Morales, V Gonzalo

    2015-01-01

    Pediatric intensive care is a relatively new medical specialty, which has experienced significant technological advances in recent years. These developments have led to a prolongation of the dying process, with additional suffering for patients and their families, creating complex situations, and often causing a painful life extension. The term, limitation of the therapeutic effort refers to the adequacy and/or proportionality of the treatment, trying to avoid obstinacy and futility. The English literature does not talk about limitation of treatments, but instead the terms, withholding or withdrawal of life-sustaining treatment, are used. The removal or the non-installation of certain life support measures and the absence of CPR are the types of limitation most used. Also, there is evidence of insufficient medical training in bioethics, which is essential, as most doctors in the PICU discuss and make decisions regarding the end of life without the opinion of bioethicists. This article attempts to review the current status of knowledge concerning the limitation of therapeutic efforts to support pediatric clinical work.

  5. Hiding effort to gain a competitive advantage: Evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Li; Heyman, Gail D

    2016-06-06

    Previous studies with Western populations have shown that adolescents' tendency to downplay their academic effort is affected by two kinds of motives: ability-related motives (e.g., to appear competent) and social approval motives (e.g., to be popular). In this research, we test for the presence of additional competition-related motives in China, a culture placing strong emphasis on academic competition. Study 1 (N = 150) showed that, in response to a scenario in which a hard-working high-school junior hid effort from classmates, the most highly endorsed explanation was "to influence others to work less hard to maintain a competitive advantage." Study 2 (N = 174) revealed that competition-related explanations were endorsed relatively more often when the speaker and audience had similar academic rankings. This tendency was most evident when both speaker and audience were top performers, and when this was the case, participants' desire to demonstrate superiority over others was a positive predictor of endorsement of competition-related motives. Study 3 (N = 137) verified that competition-related motives were more strongly endorsed among Chinese participants than U.S.

  6. 7 CFR 3430.36 - Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort. NIFA may implement appropriate business processes.... Business processes may include the review of the Current and Pending Support Form; documented CRIS...

  7. 7 CFR 3430.36 - Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort. NIFA may implement appropriate business processes.... Business processes may include the review of the Current and Pending Support Form; documented CRIS...

  8. 7 CFR 3430.36 - Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Procedures to minimize or eliminate duplication of effort. NIFA may implement appropriate business processes.... Business processes may include the review of the Current and Pending Support Form; documented CRIS...

  9. Systematic Identification of Stakeholders for Engagement with Systems Modeling Efforts in the Snohomish Basin, Washington, USA

    EPA Science Inventory

    Even as stakeholder engagement in systems dynamic modeling efforts is increasingly promoted, the mechanisms for identifying which stakeholders should be included are rarely documented. Accordingly, for an Environmental Protection Agency’s Triple Value Simulation (3VS) mode...

  10. 15 CFR 270.202 - Coordination with search and rescue efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... efforts being undertaken at the site of the building failure, including FEMA urban search and rescue teams... SAFETY TEAMS NATIONAL CONSTRUCTION SAFETY TEAMS Investigations § 270.202 Coordination with search...

  11. Effect of concurrent training, flexible nonlinear periodization, and maximal-effort cycling on strength and power.

    PubMed

    McNamara, John M; Stearne, David J

    2013-06-01

    Although there is considerable research on concurrent training, none has integrated flexible nonlinear periodization and maximal-effort cycling in the same design. The purpose of this investigation was to test outcome measures of strength and power using a pretest-posttest randomized groups design. A strength and endurance (SE) group was compared with a strength, endurance, and maximal-effort cycling (SEC) group. Both groups used a flexible nonlinear periodization design. Thirteen male and 7 female students (mean ± SD: age, 22.5 ± 4.1 years; height, 173.5 ± 12.4 cm; weight, 79.4 ± 20.2 kg; strength training experience, 2.4 ± 2.2 years) participated in this study. Groups were not matched for age, height, weight, strength training experience, or sex, but were randomly assigned to an SE (n = 10) or SEC (n = 10) group. All training was completed within 45 minutes, twice per week (Monday and Wednesday), over 12 consecutive weeks. Both groups were assigned 6.75 total hours of aerobic conditioning, and 13.5 hours of free weight and machine exercises totaling 3,188 repetitions ranging from 5 to 20 repetition maximums. The SEC group performed 2 cycling intervals per workout ranging from 10 to 45 seconds. Pretest and posttest measures included chest press and standing broad jump. Analysis of variance showed that there were no significant differences between the SE and SEC groups on measures of chest press or standing broad jump performance (p, not significant). Paired sample t-tests (p = 0.05) showed significant improvement in strength and power in all groups (pretest to posttest), except for SE jump performance (p, not significant). In conclusion, adding maximal-effort cycling does not provide additional strength or power benefits to a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program. However, an exercise professional can take confidence that a concurrent flexible nonlinear training program can increase strength and power in healthy individuals.

  12. Dynamic Analyses Including Joints Of Truss Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belvin, W. Keith

    1991-01-01

    Method for mathematically modeling joints to assess influences of joints on dynamic response of truss structures developed in study. Only structures with low-frequency oscillations considered; only Coulomb friction and viscous damping included in analysis. Focus of effort to obtain finite-element mathematical models of joints exhibiting load-vs.-deflection behavior similar to measured load-vs.-deflection behavior of real joints. Experiments performed to determine stiffness and damping nonlinearities typical of joint hardware. Algorithm for computing coefficients of analytical joint models based on test data developed to enable study of linear and nonlinear effects of joints on global structural response. Besides intended application to large space structures, applications in nonaerospace community include ground-based antennas and earthquake-resistant steel-framed buildings.

  13. Leveraging Outreach Efforts for Big-Impact Results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fisher, D.; Leon, N.

    2000-10-01

    The U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) strongly emphasizes the importance of public and educational outreach as an intrinsic part of every space mission. Not only is it necessary to gain and retain public support for space science missions, but also it is an explicit mandate that NASA make every effort to offer genuine and accessible value to the general public in exchange for its support. The product of value is, first of all, information. Of course part of this outreach effort includes industrial technology transfer and free access to raw data for study by science investigators. But an equally important part includes reaching out to a number of different audiences, including those younger members of our society who will soon be choosing their careers, paying taxes, voting, and helping to decide the direction that space exploration and other scientific research will -- or will not -- take in the coming decades. NASA seeks to implement this commitment through each of its space missions Thus, each NASA mission needs include a small budget for public and educational outreach. But how can these missions best use this resource? This paper describes in some detail the approach taken by a small educational outreach team for NASA's New Millennium Program (NMP). The outreach team's approach is twofold: develop a highly desirable suite of products designed to appeal to, as well as inform, a variety of different audiences; then negotiate relationships with existing channels for dissemination of these products. This latter task is normally the most expensive part of outreach. The paper will describe in some detail both the products and the "marketing" approach for those products.

  14. Automatic and Effortful Processes in Memory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hasher, Lynn; Zacks, Rose T.

    1979-01-01

    Research on memory performance in children, the elderly, and individuals under stress is integrated with research on memory performance in college students. Assumptions include: (1) variation in attentional capacity within and between individuals, and (2) encoding operations vary in attentional requirements. Most of the data support the framework.…

  15. It takes some effort. How minimal physical effort reduces consumption volume.

    PubMed

    Brunner, Thomas A

    2013-12-01

    Plenty of studies have demonstrated that effort influences food choice. However, few have been conducted to analyze the effect of effort on consumption volume. Moreover, the few studies that have measured consumption volume all have strong limitations. The goal of the present paper is to disentangle confounding variables in earlier research and to rule out various alternative explanations. In a tasting setting focusing on snacking behavior, either unwrapping a food product or grabbing it with sugar tongs was enough to significantly reduce consumption, regardless of whether an unhealthy or healthy food item was used. Hardly any cognitive resources seem to be necessary for the effect to occur, as cognitive load did not affect the findings. In light of obesity being a pressing concern, these findings might be valuable for individuals as well as for the food industry.

  16. Community-Engaged Strategies to Promote Relevance of Research Capacity-Building Efforts Targeting Community Organizations

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Jennifer; Miller, Stephania T.; Joosten, Yvonne; Elzey, Jared D.; Israel, Tiffany; King, Christine; Luther, Patrick; Vaughn, Yolanda; Wilkins, Consuelo H.

    2015-01-01

    Objective The study goal is to highlight strategies for promoting relevance of research capacity-building efforts targeting community organizations (CO)s. Methods Two community partners, representing two COs, were invited to participate in CO research development trainings, Community Research Forums (Forum)s. Their contributions were documented via Forum document review. Forum participants, representatives from other COs, completed post-Forum surveys to identify additional training needs and rate Forum impact relative to their training expectations. A content-based analysis and descriptive statistics were used to summarize needs assessment- and impact-related survey responses, respectively. Results Community partners were involved in eight Forum-related activities including marketing (planning), facilitation (implementation), and manuscript co-authorship (dissemination). Eighty-one individuals, representing 55 COs, attended the Forums. Needs assessment responses revealed a desire for additional assistance with existing Forum topics (e.g., defining research priorities) and a need for new ones (e.g., promoting organizational buy-in for research). Ninety-one percent of participants agreed that the Forum demonstrated the value of research to COs and how to create a research agenda. Conclusions Including community partners in all Forum phases ensured that CO perspectives were integrated throughout. Post-forum needs and impact assessment results will help in tailoring, where needed, future training topics and strategies, respectively. PMID:25951171

  17. High Performance EVA Glove Collaboration: Glove Injury Data Mining Effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reid, C. R.; Benosn, E.; England, S.; Norcross, J. R.; McFarland, S. M.; Rajulu, S.

    2014-01-01

    Human hands play a significant role during extravehicular activity (EVA) missions and Neutral Buoyancy Lab (NBL) training events, as they are needed for translating and performing tasks in the weightless environment. It is because of this high frequency usage that hand- and arm-related injuries and discomfort are known to occur during training in the NBL and while conducting EVAs. Hand-related injuries and discomforts have been occurring to crewmembers since the days of Apollo. While there have been numerous engineering changes to the glove design, hand-related issues still persist. The primary objectives of this study are therefore to: 1) document all known EVA glove-related injuries and the circumstances of these incidents, 2) determine likely risk factors, and 3) recommend ergonomic mitigations or design strategies that can be implemented in the current and future glove designs. METHODS: The investigator team conducted an initial set of literature reviews, data mining of Lifetime Surveillance of Astronaut Health (LSAH) databases, and data distribution analyses to understand the ergonomic issues related to glove-related injuries and discomforts. The investigation focused on the injuries and discomforts of U.S. crewmembers who had worn pressurized suits and experienced glove-related incidents during the 1980 to 2010 time frame, either during training or on-orbit EVA. In addition to data mining of the LSAH database, the other objective of the study was to find complimentary sources of information such as training experience, EVA experience, suit-related sizing data, and hand-arm anthropometric data to be tied to the injury data from LSAH. RESULTS: Past studies indicated that the hand was the most frequently injured part of the body during both EVA and NBL training. This study effort thus focused primarily on crew training data in the NBL between 2002 and 2010. Of the 87 recorded training incidents, 19 occurred to women and 68 to men. While crew ages ranged from

  18. Gating of attentional effort through the central thalamus

    PubMed Central

    Shah, S. A.; Hudson, A. E.; Nauvel, T.; Kalik, S. F.; Purpura, K. P.

    2013-01-01

    The central thalamus plays an important role in the regulation of arousal and allocation of attentional resources in the performance of even simple tasks. To assess the contribution of central thalamic neurons to short-term adjustments of attentional effort, we analyzed 166 microelectrode recordings obtained from two rhesus monkeys performing a visuomotor simple reaction time task with a variable foreperiod. Multiunit responses showed maintained firing rate elevations during the variable delay period of the task in ∼24% of recording sites. Simultaneously recorded local field potentials demonstrated significant decreases in power at ∼10–20 Hz and increases in power at 30–100 Hz during the delay period when compared against precue baselines. Comparison of the spectral power of local field potentials during the delay period of correct and incorrect trials showed that, during incorrect trials, similar, but reduced, shifts of spectral power occurred within the same frequency bands. Sustained performance of even simple tasks requires regulation of arousal and attention that combine in the concept of “attentional effort”. Our findings suggest that central thalamic neurons regulate task performance through brief changes in firing rates and spectral power changes during task-relevant short-term shifts of attentional effort. Increases in attentional effort may be reflected in changes within the central thalamic local populations, where correct task performance associates with more robust maintenance of firing rates during the delay period. Such ongoing fluctuations of central thalamic activity likely reflect a mix of influences, including variations in moment-to-moment levels of motivation, arousal, and availability of cognitive resources. PMID:23221415

  19. Overview of Materials Qualification Needs for Metal Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Salem, Ayman; Beuth, Jack; Harrysson, Ola; Lewandowski, John J.

    2016-03-01

    This overview highlights some of the key aspects regarding materials qualification needs across the additive manufacturing (AM) spectrum. AM technology has experienced considerable publicity and growth in the past few years with many successful insertions for non-mission-critical applications. However, to meet the full potential that AM has to offer, especially for flight-critical components (e.g., rotating parts, fracture-critical parts, etc.), qualification and certification efforts are necessary. While development of qualification standards will address some of these needs, this overview outlines some of the other key areas that will need to be considered in the qualification path, including various process-, microstructure-, and fracture-modeling activities in addition to integrating these with lifing activities targeting specific components. Ongoing work in the Advanced Manufacturing and Mechanical Reliability Center at Case Western Reserve University is focusing on fracture and fatigue testing to rapidly assess critical mechanical properties of some titanium alloys before and after post-processing, in addition to conducting nondestructive testing/evaluation using micro-computerized tomography at General Electric. Process mapping studies are being conducted at Carnegie Mellon University while large area microstructure characterization and informatics (EBSD and BSE) analyses are being conducted at Materials Resources LLC to enable future integration of these efforts via an Integrated Computational Materials Engineering approach to AM. Possible future pathways for materials qualification are provided.

  20. Efforts to Simulate Solar Wind Turbulence

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Goldstein, Melvyn L.

    2007-01-01

    A three-dimensional integration of the MHD equations in spherical coordinates has been developed that attempts to simulate a variety of solar wind conditions. These include the interaction of Alfven wave packets and the development of a turbulent cascade, the role of the heliospheric current sheet, the role of quasi-two-dimensional fluctuations in determining how magnetic field lines meander throughout the heliosphere, and the role of interstellar pickup ions in perturbing the solar wind in the outer heliosphere.

  1. Assessing effort: differentiating performance and symptom validity.

    PubMed

    Van Dyke, Sarah A; Millis, Scott R; Axelrod, Bradley N; Hanks, Robin A

    2013-01-01

    The current study aimed to clarify the relationship among the constructs involved in neuropsychological assessment, including cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. Participants consisted of 120 consecutively evaluated individuals from a veteran's hospital with mixed referral sources. Measures included the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-Fourth Edition Full Scale IQ (WAIS-IV FSIQ), California Verbal Learning Test-Second Edition (CVLT-II), Trail Making Test Part B (TMT-B), Test of Memory Malingering (TOMM), Medical Symptom Validity Test (MSVT), WAIS-IV Reliable Digit Span (RDS), Post-traumatic Check List-Military Version (PCL-M), MMPI-2 F scale, MMPI-2 Symptom Validity Scale (FBS), MMPI-2 Response Bias Scale (RBS), and the Postconcussive Symptom Questionnaire (PCSQ). Six different models were tested using confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) to determine the factor model describing the relationships between cognitive performance, symptom self-report, performance validity, and symptom validity. The strongest and most parsimonious model was a three-factor model in which cognitive performance, performance validity, and self-reported symptoms (including both standard and symptom validity measures) were separate factors. The findings suggest failure in one validity domain does not necessarily invalidate the other domain. Thus, performance validity and symptom validity should be evaluated separately.

  2. Physical, emotional, and cognitive effort discounting in gain and loss situations.

    PubMed

    Nishiyama, Ryoji

    2016-04-01

    Evidence suggests that factors associated with obtaining a reward, such as the probability of receiving it, or temporal delays, could influence the reward's subjective value. Several studies have suggested that increasing the effort required decreases the subjective value of a reward. Nevertheless, the nature of effort that results in discounting, discounting in a loss situation, and individual consistency in effort aversion across different types of effort have all remained unclear. Therefore, the present study examined whether physical, emotional, and cognitive efforts induce discounting of subjective reward value under two hypothetical situations. In the gain situation, participants made a choice about engaging in effortful work to obtain a reward, whereas in the loss situation they paid a reward to another person to do the work. The results demonstrated that increasing physical, emotional, and cognitive effort caused discounting of the subjective reward value in both situations. Additionally, the results suggested a relatively high degree of individual consistency in effort aversion in each situation, and a moderate degree of consistency across the two situations.

  3. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis: A Controlled Double-Blind Experiment. (Includes NIE Staff Critique).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Conners, C. Keith; And Others

    Fifteen hyperkinetic children (6-12 years old) were involved in a pilot study to test B. Feingold's hypothesis that hyperkinesis may be caused by artificial flavors and colors in food. Prior to treatment, parents and teachers completed bi-weekly questionnaires regarding each Ss' behavior both on medication (pretreatment period) and when medication…

  4. Additions to the knowledge of the land snails of Sabah (Malaysia, Borneo), including 48 new species

    PubMed Central

    Vermeulen, Jaap J.; Liew, Thor-Seng; Schilthuizen, Menno

    2015-01-01

    Abstract We present reviews of the Sabah (Malaysia, on the island of Borneo) species of the following problematical genera of land snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda): Acmella and Anaglyphula (Caenogastropoda: Assimineidae); Ditropopsis (Caenogastropoda: Cyclophoridae); Microcystina (Pulmonata: Ariophantidae); Philalanka and Thysanota (Pulmonata: Endodontidae); Kaliella, Rahula, (Pulmonata: Euconulidae); Trochomorpha and Geotrochus (Pulmonata: Trochomorphidae). Next to this, we describe new species in previously revised genera, such as Diplommatina (Diplommatinidae); Georissa (Hydrocenidae); as well as some new species of genera not revised previously, such as Japonia (Cyclophoridae); Durgella and Dyakia (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus, and Trachia (Camaenidae); Paralaoma (Punctidae); Curvella (Subulinidae). All descriptions are based on the morphology of the shells. We distinguish the following 48 new species: Acmella cyrtoglyphe, Acmella umbilicata, Acmella ovoidea, Acmella nana, Acmella subcancellata, Acmella striata, and Anaglyphula sauroderma (Assimineidae); Ditropopsis davisoni, Ditropopsis trachychilus, Ditropopsis constricta, Ditropopsis tyloacron, Ditropopsis cincta, and Japonia anceps (Cyclophoridae); Diplommatina bidentata and Diplommatina tylocheilos (Diplommatinidae); Georissa leucococca and Georissa nephrostoma (Hydrocenidae); Durgella densestriata, Dyakia chlorosoma, Microcystina microrhynchus, Microcystina callifera, Microcystina striatula, Microcystina planiuscula, and Microcystina physotrochus (Ariophantidae); Amphidromus psephos and Trachia serpentinitica (Camaenidae); Philalanka tambunanensis, Philalanka obscura, Philalanka anomphala, Philalanka rugulosa, and Philalanka malimgunung (Endodontidae); Kaliella eurytrochus, Kaliella sublaxa, Kaliella phacomorpha, Kaliella punctata, Kaliella microsoma, Rahula delopleura, (Euconulidae); Paralaoma angusta (Punctidae); Curvella hadrotes (Subulinidae); Trochomorpha trachus, Trochomorpha haptoderma, Trochomorpha thelecoryphe, Geotrochus oedobasis, Geotrochus spilokeiria, Geotrochus scolops, Geotrochus kitteli, Geotrochus subscalaris, and Geotrochus meristorhachis (Trochomorphidae). PMID:26692803

  5. Collaborative Assessment: Working with Students Who Are Blind or Visually Impaired, Including Those with Additional Disabilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goodman, Stephen A., Ed.; Wittenstein, Stuart H., Ed.

    This book offers a comprehensive text on the assessment of students with blindness or visual impairment with a focus on approaches used at the California School for the Blind. An introductory chapter is by Frances K. Liefert and Marsha A. Silver. Eleven chapters have the following titles and authors: (1) "Introduction to Visual Impairment"…

  6. Cogeneration handbook for the textile industry. [Includes glossary

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-02-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) contracted with Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) to provide the textile plant manager or company energy coordinator with a framework for making a preliminary assessment of the feasibility and viability of cogeneration at a particular plant. The handbook is intended to provide an understanding of the potential of several standardized cogeneration systems, as well as their limitations. However, because the deicision to cogenerate is very site specific, the handbook cannot provide all of the answers. It does attempt, however, to bring to light the major issues that should be addressed in the decision-making process. The decision of whether to cogenerate involves several considerations, including technical, economic, environmental, legal, and regulatory issues. Each of these issues is addressed separately in this handbook. In addition, a chapter is included on preparing a three-phase work statement, which is needed to guide the design of a cogeneration system. Experience has shown that a well-defined work statement can be the key to a rapid and cost-effective design effort. Discussion is presented under the headings: Data Base Development; Matching Cogeneration System Designs; Economic Analysis; Financial Strategies; Environmental Issues; Legal and Contractual Issues; and Three-Phase Work Statements. 18 references, 36 figures, 30 tables.

  7. Electromagnetic respiratory effort harvester: human testing and metabolic cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Shahhaidar, E; Padasdao, B; Romine, R; Stickley, C; Lubecke, O Boric

    2015-03-01

    Remote health monitoring is increasingly recognized as a valuable tool in chronic disease management. Continuous respiratory monitoring could be a powerful tool in managing chronic diseases, however it is infrequently performed because of obtrusiveness and inconvenience of the existing methods. The movements of the chest wall and abdominal area during normal breathing can be monitored and harvested to enable self-powered wearable biosensors for continuous remote monitoring. This paper presents human testing results of a light-weight (30 g), wearable respiratory effort energy harvesting sensor. The harvester output voltage, power, and its metabolic burden, are measured on twenty subjects in two resting and exercise conditions each lasting 5 min. The system includes two off-the-shelf miniature electromagnetic generators harvesting and sensing thoracic and abdominal movements. Modules can be placed in series to increase the output voltage for rectification purposes. Electromagnetic respiratory effort harvester/sensor system can produce up to 1.4 V, 6.44 mW, and harvests 30.4 mJ during a 5-min exercise stage. A statistical paired t-test analysis of the calculated EE confirmed there is no significant change ( P > 0.05 ) in the metabolic rate of subjects wearing the electromagnetic harvester and biosensor.

  8. Tailoring hospital marketing efforts to physicians' needs.

    PubMed

    Mackay, J M; Lamb, C W

    1988-12-01

    Marketing has become widely recognized as an important component of hospital management (Kotler and Clarke 1987; Ludke, Curry, and Saywell 1983). Physicians are becoming recognized as an important target market that warrants more marketing attention than it has received in the past (Super 1987; Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). Some experts predict that hospitals will begin focusing more marketing attention on physicians and less on consumers (Super 1986). Much of this attention is likely to take the form of practice management assistance, such as computer-based information system support or consulting services. The survey results reported here are illustrative only of how one hospital addressed the problem of physician need assessment. Other potential target markets include physicians who admit patients only to competitor hospitals and physicians who admit to multiple hospitals. The market might be segmented by individual versus group practice, area of specialization, or possibly even physician practice life cycle stage (Wotruba, Haas, and Hartman 1982). The questions included on the survey and the survey format are likely to be situation-specific. The key is the process, not the procedure. It is important for hospital marketers to recognize that practice management assistance needs will vary among markets (Jensen 1987). Therefore, hospitals must carefully identify their target physician market(s) and survey them about their specific needs before developing and implementing new physician marketing programs. Only then can they be reasonably confident that their marketing programs match their customers' needs.

  9. Who steps up efforts against trachoma.

    PubMed

    Kmietowicz, Z

    1996-12-07

    The World Health Organization (WHO) has developed a strategy, SAFE, to eradicate trachoma globally: it includes surgery for trichiasis, antibiotics, facial cleanliness, and environmental improvement. Goals of the alliance of governments, international organizations, and nongovernmental organizations assembled by WHO include: 1) to identify countries where trachoma is epidemic; 2) to map the disease; 3) to initiate community-based hygiene programs; and 4) to make surgery widely available. 15% of the world's blindness is due to trachoma; about 6 million people have been irreversibly blinded, and an estimated 146 million require treatment to avoid blindness. David Mabey, professor of communicable diseases at the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, describes trachoma, which is spreading in Africa, as "the forgotten disease of the poorest people in the world." The disease, which is caused by Chlamydia trachomatis, is associated with overcrowding, poor hygiene, and limited access to water and sanitation. Contact with the eye discharge of an infected person, or with flies that seek eyes, transmits the disease. Treatment with tetracycline requires daily doses of eye ointment for 6 weeks. Azithromycin, which is expensive, can be given in 1 dose, and is currently being tested. Since people are reinfected quickly, whole communities are being treated in studies in Gambia and Tanzania. A vaccine is being developed.

  10. Midwestern efforts to address climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Daniel Stenberg

    2008-12-15

    Six Midwestern governors and a Canadian premier signed the Midwestern Greenhouse Gas Reduction Accord in November 2007. The governors agreed to begin the process of developing a market-based cap-and-trade program that would reduce GHG emissions (e.g., carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, hydro-fluorocarbons, perfluorocarbons, and sulfur hexafluoride) to meet reduction targets. Member jurisdictions include Illinois, Iowa, Kansas, Manitoba, Michigan, Minnesota, and Wisconsin. Observer jurisdictions - those who are participating in the program design, but will decide later whether to be full members-include Indiana, Ohio, Ontario, and South Dakota. To date, the advisory group has proposed target ranges for GHG emissions reductions of 15-25% below 2005 levels by 2020 and 60-80% by 2050. The following sectors are currently being considered for the cap-and-trade program: electricity generation and imports (power plants); industrial combustion sources (factories and other industrial facilities); and industrial process sources (to the extent credible measurement and monitoring protocols exist or can be developed prior to inclusion).

  11. Thyroid iodide efflux: a team effort?

    PubMed

    Fong, Peying

    2011-12-15

    The thyroid hormones thyroxine (T(4)) and triiodothyronine (T(3)) play key roles in regulating development, growth and metabolism in pre- and postnatal life. Iodide (I(-)) is an essential component of the thyroid hormones and is accumulated avidly by the thyroid gland. The rarity of elemental iodine and I(-) in the environment challenges the thyroid to orchestrate a remarkable series of transport processes that ultimately ensure sufficient levels for hormone synthesis. In addition to actively extracting circulating I(-), thyroid follicular epithelial cells must also translocate I(-) into a central intrafollicular compartment, where thyroglobulin is iodinated to form the protein precursor to T(4) and T(3). In the last decade, several bodies of evidence render questionable the notion that I(-) exits thyrocytes solely via the Cl(-)/I(-) exchanger Pendrin (SLC26A4), therefore necessitating reconsideration of several other candidate I(-) conduits: the Cl(-)/H(+) antiporter, CLC-5, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR) and the sodium monocarboxylic acid transporter (SMCT1).

  12. Additional Characterization of Min-K TE-1400 Thermal Insulation

    SciTech Connect

    Hemrick, James Gordon; King, James

    2011-01-01

    Min-K 1400TE (Thermal Ceramics, Augusta, Georgia) insulation material was further characterized at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) for use in structural applications under gradient temperature conditions in an inert environment. Original characterization of Min-K was undertaken from April 1997 to July 2008 to determine its high temperature compressive strength and stress relaxation behavior up to 900 C in helium along with the formulation of a general model for the mechanical behavior exhibited by Min-K under these conditions. The additional testing described in this report was undertaken from April 2009 to June 2010 in an effort to further evaluate the mechanical behavior of Min-K when subjected to a variety of conditions including alternative test temperatures and time scales than previously measured. The behavior of Min-K under changing environments (temperature and strain), lateral loads, and additional isothermal temperatures was therefore explored.

  13. Reasonable Efforts? Implementation of the Reunification Bypass Provision of ASFA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berrick, Jill Duerr; Choi, Young; D'Andrade, Amy; Frame, Laura

    2008-01-01

    The Adoption and Safe Families Act (ASFA) of 1997 includes provisions to deny reunification services under specified conditions and gives states latitude to develop any number of additional "aggravated circumstances" in which parents need not be offered services. California legislators have developed a relatively large number of…

  14. Coordination of Effort among Student Services Programs. A Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cordero, William J.

    Since 1969, the California community colleges have established a number of programs to provide additional assistance to a diverse community college student population, including the Board Financial Assistance Program, Cooperative Agencies Resources for Education, Disabled Students Programs and Services, Extended Opportunity Programs and Services,…

  15. Efforts toward an autonomous wheelchair - biomed 2011.

    PubMed

    Barrett, Steven; Streeter, Robert

    2011-01-01

    An autonomous wheelchair is in development to provide mobility to those with significant physical challenges. The overall goal of the project is to develop a wheelchair that is fully autonomous with the ability to navigate about an environment and negotiate obstacles. As a starting point for the project, we have reversed engineered the joystick control system of an off-the-shelf commercially available wheelchair. The joystick control has been replaced with a microcontroller based system. The microcontroller has the capability to interface with a number of subsystems currently under development including wheel odometers, obstacle avoidance sensors, and ultrasonic-based wall sensors. This paper will discuss the microcontroller based system and provide a detailed system description. Results of this study may be adapted to commercial or military robot control.

  16. US effort on HTS power transformers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mehta, S.

    2011-11-01

    Waukesha Electric Systems has been working in HTS power transformers development program under the auspices of US Government Department of Energy since 1994. This presentation will describe various milestones for this program and program history along with the lessons learned along the way. Our motivations for working on this development program based on man benefits offered by HTS power transformers to power delivery systems will be discussed. Based on various issues encountered during execution of many HTS projects, DOE has set up an independent program review process that is lead by team of experts. This team reviews are integral part of all DOE HTS projects. Success of all projects would be greatly enhanced by identifying critical issues early in the program. Requiring appropriate actions to mitigate the issues before processing further will lead to proactive interrogation and incorporation of expert's ideas in the project plans. Working of this review process will be also described in this presentation. Waukesha Electric Systems team including: Superpower-Inc, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, University of Houston Center for Superconductivity and Southern California Edison company was awarded a cost share grant by US Government in 2010 for development of a fault current limiting HTS power transformer. This multi year's program will require design, manufacture, installation, and monitoring of a 28 MVA tree phase transformer installed at Irvine CA. Smart Grid demonstration site. Transformer specifications along with requirements for fault current limiting and site requirement will be discussed. Design and development of various sub systems in support of this program including: HTS conductor performance specification, Dielectric system design approach, Dewar development for containing phase assemblies, cryo-cooling system design approach, etc. will be described. Finally; overall program schedule, critical milestone events, test plans and progress to date will be

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 6 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed...

  20. Measuring Developmental Levels of Understanding of Ability and Effort.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Miller, Arden T.; Nicholls, John G.

    Discussed are research methods used to measure developmental changes in children's reasoning about ability. While adults generally differentiate ability, effort, luck, and task difficulty as causes for success and failure, children progressively think that effort or outcome is ability (level 1), that effort is the cause of performance outcomes…

  1. 7 CFR 622.31 - Basic planning efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE WATER RESOURCES WATERSHED PROJECTS Planning § 622.31 Basic planning efforts. Upon... 7 Agriculture 6 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Basic planning efforts. 622.31 Section 622.31... the need for planning effort. Once planning is authorized by the Chief of NRCS, a watershed...

  2. Assessing Organizational Efforts to Mobilize Research Knowledge in Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Qi, Jie; Levin, Benjamin

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a framework for evaluating efforts by organizations to share research as exemplified on their websites, then reports the result of an evaluation of these efforts in 100 organizations. The result shows that the overall research sharing efforts of these organizations are modest and not well aligned to evidence on effective…

  3. 45 CFR 152.39 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 45 Public Welfare 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of effort. 152.39 Section 152.39... of effort. (a) General. A State that enters into a contract with HHS under this part must demonstrate... the contract is entered. (b) Failure to maintain efforts. In situations where a State enters into...

  4. 48 CFR 2052.216-70 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 2052.216... Level of effort. As prescribed at 2016.307-70(a) the contracting officer shall insert the following..., time and materials, or labor hours basis. Level of Effort (JAN 1993) The NRC's estimate of the...

  5. 20 CFR 327.15 - Reasonable efforts to obtain work.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Reasonable efforts to obtain work. 327.15... INSURANCE ACT AVAILABLE FOR WORK § 327.15 Reasonable efforts to obtain work. (a) Requirement. A claimant may... efforts to obtain work which he professes to be willing to accept and perform, unless he has...

  6. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Efforts to obtain assistance. 245... AUTHORITIES TENANT PARTICIPATION IN MULTIFAMILY HOUSING PROJECTS Efforts To Obtain Assistance § 245.205 Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements of this subpart shall...

  7. 42 CFR 441.180 - Maintenance of effort: General rule.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of effort: General rule. 441.180... § 441.180 Maintenance of effort: General rule. FFP is available only if the State maintains fiscal effort as prescribed under this subpart....

  8. 48 CFR 1511.011-73 - Level of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Level of effort. 1511.011... ACQUISITION PLANNING DESCRIBING AGENCY NEEDS 1511.011-73 Level of effort. The Contracting Officer shall insert the clause at 1552.211-73, Level of Effort, in term form contracts....

  9. 48 CFR 1331.205-70 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort....205-70 Duplication of effort. The Department will not pay any costs for work that is duplicative of..., Duplication of Effort, in all cost-reimbursement, time and materials, and labor hour solicitations...

  10. 15 CFR 930.114 - Secretarial mediation efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Secretarial mediation efforts. 930.114... Secretarial mediation efforts. (a) Following the close of the hearing, the hearing officer shall transmit the... set for the mediation conference. (b) Secretarial mediation efforts shall last only so long as...

  11. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  12. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 2—External Validity and Correlates

    PubMed Central

    Reddy, L. Felice; Barch, Deanna M.; Buchanan, Robert W.; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Gold, James M.; Marder, Steven R.; Wynn, Jonathan K.; Young, Jared W.; Green, Michael F.

    2015-01-01

    Effort-based decision making has strong conceptual links to the motivational disturbances that define a key subdomain of negative symptoms. However, the extent to which effort-based decision-making performance relates to negative symptoms, and other clinical and functionally important variables has yet to be systematically investigated. In 94 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, we examined the external validity of 5 effort-based paradigms, including the Effort Expenditure for Rewards, Balloon Effort, Grip Strength Effort, Deck Choice Effort, and Perceptual Effort tasks. These tasks covered 3 types of effort: physical, cognitive, and perceptual. Correlations between effort related performance and 6 classes of variables were examined, including: (1) negative symptoms, (2) clinically rated motivation and community role functioning, (3) self-reported motivational traits, (4) neurocognition, (5) other psychiatric symptoms and clinical/demographic characteristics, and (6) subjective valuation of monetary rewards. Effort paradigms showed small to medium relationships to clinical ratings of negative symptoms, motivation, and functioning, with the pattern more consistent for some measures than others. They also showed small to medium relations with neurocognitive functioning, but were generally unrelated to other psychiatric symptoms, self-reported traits, antipsychotic medications, side effects, and subjective valuation of money. There were relatively strong interrelationships among the effort measures. In conjunction with findings from a companion psychometric article, all the paradigms warrant further consideration and development, and 2 show the strongest potential for clinical trial use at this juncture. PMID:26209546

  13. Effort-Based Decision-Making Paradigms for Clinical Trials in Schizophrenia: Part 2—External Validity and Correlates.

    PubMed

    Horan, William P; Reddy, L Felice; Barch, Deanna M; Buchanan, Robert W; Dunayevich, Eduardo; Gold, James M; Marder, Steven R; Wynn, Jonathan K; Young, Jared W; Green, Michael F

    2015-09-01

    Effort-based decision making has strong conceptual links to the motivational disturbances that define a key subdomain of negative symptoms. However, the extent to which effort-based decision-making performance relates to negative symptoms, and other clinical and functionally important variables has yet to be systematically investigated. In 94 clinically stable outpatients with schizophrenia, we examined the external validity of 5 effort-based paradigms, including the Effort Expenditure for Rewards, Balloon Effort, Grip Strength Effort, Deck Choice Effort, and Perceptual Effort tasks. These tasks covered 3 types of effort: physical, cognitive, and perceptual. Correlations between effort related performance and 6 classes of variables were examined, including: (1) negative symptoms, (2) clinically rated motivation and community role functioning, (3) self-reported motivational traits, (4) neurocognition, (5) other psychiatric symptoms and clinical/demographic characteristics, and (6) subjective valuation of monetary rewards. Effort paradigms showed small to medium relationships to clinical ratings of negative symptoms, motivation, and functioning, with the pattern more consistent for some measures than others. They also showed small to medium relations with neurocognitive functioning, but were generally unrelated to other psychiatric symptoms, self-reported traits, antipsychotic medications, side effects, and subjective valuation of money. There were relatively strong interrelationships among the effort measures. In conjunction with findings from a companion psychometric article, all the paradigms warrant further consideration and development, and 2 show the strongest potential for clinical trial use at this juncture.

  14. In-Vessel Retention - Recent Efforts and Future Needs

    SciTech Connect

    J. L. Rempe

    2004-10-01

    In-vessel retention (IVR) of core melt is a key severe accident management strategy adopted by some operating nuclear power plants and proposed for some advanced light water reactors (ALWRs). If there were inadequate cooling during a reactor accident, a significant amount of core material could become molten and relocate to the lower head of the reactor vessel, as happened in the Three Mile Island Unit 2 (TMI-2) accident. If it is possible to ensure that the vessel head remains intact so that relocated core materials are retained within the vessel, the enhanced safety associated with these plants can reduce concerns about containment failure and associated risk. However, it is not clear that the external reactor vessel cooling (ERVC) proposed for existing and some advanced reactors would provide sufficient heat removal for higher-power reactors (up to 1400 MWe) without additional enhancements. This paper summarizes recent efforts to enhance IVR and identifies additional needs to demonstrate that there is sufficient margin for successful IVR in high power reactors.

  15. Current status of the MPEG-4 standardization effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anastassiou, Dimitris

    1994-09-01

    The Moving Pictures Experts Group (MPEG) of the International Standardization Organization has initiated a standardization effort, known as MPEG-4, addressing generic audiovisual coding at very low bit-rates (up to 64 kbits/s) with applications in videotelephony, mobile audiovisual communications, video database retrieval, computer games, video over Internet, remote sensing, etc. This paper gives a survey of the status of MPEG-4, including its planned schedule, and initial ideas about requirements and applications. A significant part of this paper is summarizing an incomplete draft version of a `requirements document' which presents specifications of desirable features on the video, audio, and system level of the forthcoming standard. Very low bit-rate coding algorithms are not described, because no endorsement of any particular algorithm, or class of algorithms, has yet been made by MPEG-4, and several seminars held concurrently with MPEG-4 meetings have not so far provided evidence that such high performance coding schemes are achievable.

  16. Turbulent dissipation challenge: a community-driven effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parashar, Tulasi N.; Salem, Chadi; Wicks, Robert T.; Karimabadi, H.; Gary, S. Peter; Matthaeus, William H.

    2015-10-01

    > Many naturally occurring and man-made plasmas are collisionless and turbulent. It is not yet well understood how the energy in fields and fluid motions is transferred into the thermal degrees of freedom of constituent particles in such systems. The debate at present primarily concerns proton heating. Multiple possible heating mechanisms have been proposed over the past few decades, including cyclotron damping, Landau damping, heating at intermittent structures and stochastic heating. Recently, a community-driven effort was proposed (Parashar & Salem, 2013, arXiv:1303.0204) to bring the community together and understand the relative contributions of these processes under given conditions. In this paper, we propose the first step of this challenge: a set of problems and diagnostics for benchmarking and comparing different types of 2.5D simulations. These comparisons will provide insights into the strengths and limitations of different types of numerical simulations and will help guide subsequent stages of the challenge.

  17. Medical capacity building efforts in northern Iraq 2009-2010.

    PubMed

    Michaud, Edward C; Maxwell, Gail Lynne

    2012-06-01

    The authors provide some back ground and general concepts for medical stability operations or medical civil military operations. Some novel programs were developed in northern Iraq, which have applicability to the greater military medical community. Train the trainer emergency medical technician and first aid course curriculums were developed and translated into Arabic and Kurdish and implemented by U.S. medics throughout northern Iraq. The Division also contracted with implementing partners to train first aid and midwife training in Iraqi and U.S. Government priority locations. The implementing partners included 6 nongovernmental organizations and international organizations. These programs were closely synchronized with the Department of State and the United States Agency for International Development to ensure unity of effort and sustainability.

  18. Results and current status of the NPARC alliance validation effort

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Towne, Charles E.; Jones, Ralph R.

    1996-01-01

    The NPARC Alliance is a partnership between the NASA Lewis Research Center (LeRC) and the USAF Arnold Engineering Development Center (AEDC) dedicated to the establishment of a national CFD capability, centered on the NPARC Navier-Stokes computer program. The three main tasks of the Alliance are user support, code development, and validation. The present paper is a status report on the validation effort. It describes the validation approach being taken by the Alliance. Representative results are presented for laminar and turbulent flat plate boundary layers, a supersonic axisymmetric jet, and a glancing shock/turbulent boundary layer interaction. Cases scheduled to be run in the future are also listed. The archive of validation cases is described, including information on how to access it via the Internet.

  19. US Department of Energy's Efforts in Intelligent Processing Equipment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peavy, Richard D.; Mcfarland, Janet C.

    1992-01-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) uses intelligent processing equipment (IPE) technologies to conduct research and development and manufacturing for energy and nuclear weapons programs. This paper highlights several significant IPE efforts underway in DOE. IPE technologies are essential to the accomplishment of DOE's missions, because of the need for small lot production, precision, and accuracy in manufacturing, hazardous waste management, and protection of the environment and the safety and health of the workforce and public. Applications of IPE technologies include environmental remediation and waste handling, advanced manufacturing, and automation of tasks carried out in hazardous areas. DOE laboratories have several key programs that integrate robotics, sensor, and control technologies. These programs embody a considerable technical capability that also may be used to enhance U.S. industrial competitiveness. DOE encourages closer cooperation with U.S. industrial partners based on mutual benefits. This paper briefly describes technology transfer mechanisms available for industrial involvement.

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Efforts to Consolidate Chalcogels with Adsorbed Iodine

    SciTech Connect

    Riley, Brian J.; Pierce, David A.; Chun, Jaehun

    2013-08-28

    This document discusses ongoing work with non-oxide aerogels, called chalcogels, that are under development at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory as sorbents for gaseous iodine. Work was conducted in fiscal year 2012 to demonstrate the feasibility of converting Sn2S3 chalcogel without iodine into a glass. This current document summarizes the work conducted in fiscal year 2013 to assess the consolidation potential of non-oxide aerogels with adsorbed iodine. The Sn2S3 and Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels were selected for study. The first step in the process for these experiments was to load them with iodine (I2). The I2 uptake was ~68 mass% for Sn2S3 and ~50 mass% for Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogels. X-ray diffraction (XRD) of both sets of sorbents showed that metal-iodide complexes were formed during adsorption, i.e., SnI4 for Sn2S3 and SbI3 for Sb13.5Sn5S20. Additionally, metal-sulfide-iodide complexes were formed, i.e., SnSI for Sn2S3 and SbSI for Sb13.5Sn5S20. No XRD evidence for unreacted iodine was found in any of these samples. Once the chalcogels had reached maximum adsorption, the consolidation potential was assessed. Here, the sorbents were heated for consolidation in vacuum-sealed quartz vessels. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 chalcogel was heated both (1) in a glassy carbon crucible within a fused quartz tube and (2) in a single-containment fused quartz tube. The Sn2S3 chalcogel was only heated in a single-containment fused quartz tube. In both cases with the single-containment fused quartz experiments, the material consolidated nicely. However, in both cases, there were small fractions of metal iodides not incorporated into the final product as well as fused quartz particles within the melt due to the sample attacking the quartz wall during the heat treatment. The Sb13.5Sn5S20 did not appear to attack the glassy carbon crucible so, for future experiments, it would be ideal to apply a coating, such as pyrolytic graphite, to the inner walls of the fused quartz vessel to prevent

  3. A collaborative report on the synthesis of subsurface data from the Deepwater Horizon response effort

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Parsons, A. R.; Cross, S. L.; Joint Analysis Group (Jag)Surface; Sub-Surface Oceanography, Oil; Dispersant Data

    2010-12-01

    The combined response to the Deepwater Horizon oil spill has generated a substantial collection of multi-disciplinary oceanographic data that have undergone initial quality assurance/quality control (QA/QC) and are publicly available. Physical and biogeochemical measurements used to track the extent and fate of deep subsurface hydrocarbons, have been reviewed and assembled by the Joint Analysis Group (JAG - full membership at http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/jag/membership.html). The assembled dataset is hosted on a JAG website (http://ecowatch.ncddc.noaa.gov/jag)) and is archived at the NOAA National Oceanographic Data Center (http://www.nodc.noaa.gov/General/DeepwaterHorizon/support.html ). The JAG is a collaborative team of scientists from federal, academic and industrial organizations tasked with providing rapid response analysis of data. Initial analysis and reports on the subsurface expression of the Deepwater spill focused on the data collected between 1,000 to 1,500 m depth. The data assembled by the JAG includes more than 1100 hydrographic casts, 3500 chemical analyses of hydrocarbon concentrations, dissolved oxygen, fluorescence, and 2500 laser in situ scattering and transmissometery (LISST) suspended particle size distribution and concentration measurements. The JAG reports on preliminary data analyses are also publicly available through the JAG website. This presentation highlights some initial analyses and results from the subsurface hydrocarbon signature. In addition details on the data collection effort, QA/QC procedure, and available formats will be provided to support continued public access for research purposes. The JAG wishes to acknowledge and thank the scientists and crews of the research vessels for their efforts to collect the data that are included in this presentation.

  4. Tsunami Preparedness: Building On Past Efforts to Reach More People… California and Beyond!

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, K.; Siegel, J.; Pridmore, C. L.; Benthien, M. L.; Wilson, R. I.; Long, K.; Ross, S.

    2014-12-01

    The California Tsunami Program has continued to build upon past preparedness efforts, carried out year-round, while leveraging government support at all levels during National Tsunami Preparedness Week, the last week of March. A primary goal is for everyone who lives at or visits the coast to understand basic safety measures when responding to official tsunami alerts or natural warnings. In 2014, more so than ever before, many local, coastal jurisdictions conducted grass-roots activities in their areas. When requested, state and federal programs stepped in to contribute subject matter expertise, lessons learned, and support. And, this year, the new website, www.TsunamiZone.org, was developed. With a goal of establishing a baseline for future years, this website builds on the successes of the Great Shakeout Earthquake Drills (www.ShakeOut.org) by allowing people to locate and register for tsunami preparedness events in their area. Additionally, it provides a central location for basic tsunami preparedness information, and links to find out more. The idea is not only to empower people with the best available, vetted, scientifically-based public safety information, but also to provide ways in which individuals can take physical action to educate themselves and others. Several broad categories of preparedness actions include: official acknowledgement of National Tsunami Preparedness Week, local "tsunami walk" drills, simulated tsunami-based exercises, testing of sirens and notification systems, outreach materials (brochures, videos, maps), workshops, presentations, media events, and websites. Next steps include building on the foundation established in 2014 by leveraging ShakeOut audiences, providing people with more information about how they can participate in 2015, and carrying the effort forward to other states and territories.

  5. Consolidating newborn screening efforts in the Asia Pacific region : Networking and shared education.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Carmencita David; Therrell, Bradford L

    2012-01-01

    Many of the countries in the Asia Pacific Region, particularly those with depressed and developing economies, are just initiating newborn screening programs for selected metabolic and other congenital disorders. The cultural, geographic, language, and economic differences that exist throughout the region add to the challenges of developing sustainable newborn screening systems. There are currently more developing programs than developed programs within the region. Newborn screening activities in the Asia Pacific Region are particularly important since births there account for approximately half of the world's births. To date, there have been two workshops to facilitate formation of the Asia Pacific Newborn Screening Collaboratives. The 1st Workshop on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region occurred in Cebu, Philippines, on March 30-April 1, 2008, as a satellite meeting to the 7th Asia Pacific Conference on Human Genetics. The second workshop was held on June 4-5, 2010, in Manila, Philippines. Workshop participants included key policy-makers, service providers, researchers, and consumer advocates from 11 countries with 50% or less newborn screening coverage. Expert lectures included experiences in the United States and the Netherlands, international quality assurance activities and ongoing and potential research activities. Additional meeting support was provided by the U.S. National Institutes of Health, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, the U.S. National Newborn Screening and Genetics Resource Center, the International Society for Neonatal Screening, and the March of Dimes. As part of both meeting activities, participants shared individual experiences in program implementation with formal updates of screening information for each country. This report reviews the activities and country reports from two Workshops on Consolidating Newborn Screening Efforts in the Asia Pacific Region with emphasis on the second workshop. It

  6. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-01

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  7. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    J Ashcroft; C Eshelman

    2006-02-08

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  8. Summary of NR Program Prometheus Efforts

    SciTech Connect

    Ashcroft, John; Eshelman, Curtis

    2007-01-30

    The Naval Reactors Program led work on the development of a reactor plant system for the Prometheus space reactor program. The work centered on a 200 kWe electric reactor plant with a 15-20 year mission applicable to nuclear electric propulsion (NEP). After a review of all reactor and energy conversion alternatives, a direct gas Brayton reactor plant was selected for further development. The work performed subsequent to this selection included preliminary nuclear reactor and reactor plant design, development of instrumentation and control techniques, modeling reactor plant operational features, development and testing of core and plant material options, and development of an overall project plan. Prior to restructuring of the program, substantial progress had been made on defining reference plant operating conditions, defining reactor mechanical, thermal and nuclear performance, understanding the capabilities and uncertainties provided by material alternatives, and planning non-nuclear and nuclear system testing. The mission requirements for the envisioned NEP missions cannot be accommodated with existing reactor technologies. Therefore concurrent design, development and testing would be needed to deliver a functional reactor system. Fuel and material performance beyond the current state of the art is needed. There is very little national infrastructure available for fast reactor nuclear testing and associated materials development and testing. Surface mission requirements may be different enough to warrant different reactor design approaches and development of a generic multi-purpose reactor requires substantial sacrifice in performance capability for each mission.

  9. A Fully Non-metallic Gas Turbine Engine Enabled by Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grady, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    The Non-Metallic Gas Turbine Engine project, funded by NASA Aeronautics Research Institute (NARI), represents the first comprehensive evaluation of emerging materials and manufacturing technologies that will enable fully nonmetallic gas turbine engines. This will be achieved by assessing the feasibility of using additive manufacturing technologies for fabricating polymer matrix composite (PMC) and ceramic matrix composite (CMC) gas turbine engine components. The benefits of the proposed effort include: 50 weight reduction compared to metallic parts, reduced manufacturing costs due to less machining and no tooling requirements, reduced part count due to net shape single component fabrication, and rapid design change and production iterations. Two high payoff metallic components have been identified for replacement with PMCs and will be fabricated using fused deposition modeling (FDM) with high temperature capable polymer filaments. The first component is an acoustic panel treatment with a honeycomb structure with an integrated back sheet and perforated front sheet. The second component is a compressor inlet guide vane. The CMC effort, which is starting at a lower technology readiness level, will use a binder jet process to fabricate silicon carbide test coupons and demonstration articles. The polymer and ceramic additive manufacturing efforts will advance from monolithic materials toward silicon carbide and carbon fiber reinforced composites for improved properties. Microstructural analysis and mechanical testing will be conducted on the PMC and CMC materials. System studies will assess the benefits of fully nonmetallic gas turbine engine in terms of fuel burn, emissions, reduction of part count, and cost. The proposed effort will be focused on a small 7000 lbf gas turbine engine. However, the concepts are equally applicable to large gas turbine engines. The proposed effort includes a multidisciplinary, multiorganization NASA - industry team that includes experts in

  10. Are verbal intelligence subtests and reading measures immune to non-credible effort?

    PubMed

    Sawyer, R John; Young, J Christopher; Roper, Brad L; Rach, Amanda

    2014-01-01

    The validity of neuropsychological testing is reliant on examinees putting forth adequate effort, yet it has been asserted that verbal subtests from the Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scales (WAIS) are insensitive to suboptimal effort in comparison to other commonly used neuropsychological measures. The current study examined performance differences on the entire WAIS-IV and WRAT-4 Reading, as well as the CVLT-II and several WMS-IV subtests, in 207 Veterans classified into Credible Effort (n = 146) and Non-credible Effort (n = 61) groups. Analyses revealed that the Non-credible Effort group performed significantly lower on all examined measures including verbal tests, with moderate to large effect sizes observed for most tests. Current findings thus indicate that WAIS-IV verbal subtests and reading ability measures, such as on the WRAT-4, are not insensitive to effects of non-credible effort. Consequently it is recommended that these tests not generally be used to estimate baseline intellectual functioning when found in the presence of non-credible effort. While there was broad performance suppression across all measures examined, results also showed a distinct continuum of test susceptibility with some measures being more or less sensitive to inadequate effort. Recommendations for future performance validity test development are presented.

  11. Effort cost computation in schizophrenia: a commentary on the recent literature.

    PubMed

    Gold, James M; Waltz, James A; Frank, Michael J

    2015-12-01

    The cognitive and affective factors implicated in the motivational impairments seen in many people with schizophrenia remain poorly understood. Many research groups have done studies in the past 2 years examining the role of effort-cost computations driven by the hypothesis that overestimation of the cost of effort involved in volitional behavior might underlie the reduction in goal-directed behavior seen in some people with schizophrenia. The goal of this review is to assess the available evidence and the interpretative ambiguities that remain to be addressed by further studies. There is a clear preponderance of evidence suggesting that people with schizophrenia demonstrate altered effort allocation by failing to make high-effort response choices to maximize reward. The evidence relating altered effort allocation to the severity of negative symptoms is mixed. It remains for future work to determine the precise mechanisms implicated in altered effort allocation with two prominent possibilities: that patients 1) overestimate the cost of effort or 2) underestimate the value of potential awards. Other mechanisms that need to be investigated include the potential contributions of other impairments associated with the illness that increase the cost of effort. Furthermore, it is possible that accurate value representations fail to invigorate behavior. Although questions remain, evidence available to date suggests that the study of cost/benefit decision making may shed new light on the motivational impairments seen in many people with schizophrenia.

  12. Developing a framework for assessing muscle effort and postures during computer work in the field: the effect of computer activities on neck/shoulder muscle effort and postures.

    PubMed

    Bruno Garza, J L; Eijckelhof, B H W; Johnson, P W; Raina, S M; Rynell, P; Huysmans, M A; van Dieën, J H; van der Beek, A J; Blatter, B M; Dennerlein, J T

    2012-01-01

    The present study, a part of the PROOF (PRedicting Occupational biomechanics in OFfice workers) study, aimed to determine whether trapezius muscle effort was different across computer activities in a field study of computer workers, and also investigated whether head and shoulder postures were different across computer activities. One hundred twenty participants were measured continuously for two hours each while performing their own computer work. Keyboard activities were associated with the highest intensity of left and right trapezius muscle efforts, and mouse activities were associated with the smallest variability in left and right trapezius muscle efforts. Corresponding trends in head and shoulder postures included that the greatest head flexion and left and right shoulder internal rotation was observed during keyboard activities, and that the smallest variability in head flexion, head lateral tilt, and right shoulder internal rotation was observed during mouse activities. Identifying which muscle efforts and postures are different across computer activities is the first essential step for developing prediction rules for muscle efforts and postures, which can be used to link muscle efforts and postures to musculoskeletal symptoms in epidemiological studies.

  13. Modulation of ventral striatal activity by cognitive effort.

    PubMed

    Dobryakova, Ekaterina; Jessup, Ryan K; Tricomi, Elizabeth

    2017-02-15

    Effort discounting theory suggests that the value of a reward should be lower if it was effortful to obtain, whereas contrast theory suggests that the contrast between the costly effort and the reward makes the reward seem more valuable. To test these alternative hypotheses, we used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) as participants engaged in feedback-based learning that required low or high cognitive effort to obtain positive feedback, while the objective amount of information provided by feedback remained constant. In the low effort condition, a single image was presented with four response options. In the high effort condition, two images were presented, each with two response options, and correct feedback was presented only when participants responded correctly to both of the images. Accuracy was significantly lower for the high effort condition, and all participants reported that the high effort condition was more difficult. A region of the ventral striatum selected for sensitivity to feedback value also showed increased activation to feedback presentation associated with the high effort condition relative to the low effort condition, when controlling for activation from corresponding control conditions where feedback was random. These results suggest that increased cognitive effort produces corresponding increases in positive feedback-related ventral striatum activity, in line with the predictions made by contrast theory. The accomplishment of obtaining a hard-earned intrinsic reward, such as positive feedback, may be particularly likely to promote reward-related brain activity.

  14. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  15. Cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort predict shifting efficiency: Implications for attentional control theory.

    PubMed

    Edwards, Elizabeth J; Edwards, Mark S; Lyvers, Michael

    2015-06-01

    Attentional control theory (ACT) predicts that trait anxiety and situational stress interact to impair performance on tasks that involve attentional shifting. The theory suggests that anxious individuals recruit additional effort to prevent shortfalls in performance effectiveness (accuracy), with deficits becoming evident in processing efficiency (the relationship between accuracy and time taken to perform the task). These assumptions, however, have not been systematically tested. The relationship between cognitive trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort in a shifting task (Wisconsin Card Sorting Task) was investigated in 90 participants. Cognitive trait anxiety was operationalized using questionnaire scores, situational stress was manipulated through ego threat instructions, and mental effort was measured using a visual analogue scale. Dependent variables were performance effectiveness (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors) and processing efficiency (an inverse proportion of perseverative errors divided by response time on perseverative error trials). The predictors were not associated with performance effectiveness; however, we observed a significant 3-way interaction on processing efficiency. At higher mental effort (+1 SD), higher cognitive trait anxiety was associated with poorer efficiency independently of situational stress, whereas at lower effort (-1 SD), this relationship was highly significant and most pronounced for those in the high-stress condition. These results are important because they provide the first systematic test of the relationship between trait anxiety, situational stress, and mental effort on shifting performance. The data are also consistent with the notion that effort moderates the relationship between anxiety and shifting efficiency, but not effectiveness.

  16. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  17. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  18. Additive Manufacturing of Aerospace Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Misra, Ajay K.; Grady, Joseph E.; Carter, Robert

    2015-01-01

    The presentation will provide an overview of ongoing activities on additive manufacturing of aerospace propulsion components, which included rocket propulsion and gas turbine engines. Future opportunities on additive manufacturing of hybrid electric propulsion components will be discussed.

  19. Supercomputer and cluster performance modeling and analysis efforts:2004-2006.

    SciTech Connect

    Sturtevant, Judith E.; Ganti, Anand; Meyer, Harold Edward; Stevenson, Joel O.; Benner, Robert E., Jr.; Goudy, Susan Phelps; Doerfler, Douglas W.; Domino, Stefan Paul; Taylor, Mark A.; Malins, Robert Joseph; Scott, Ryan T.; Barnette, Daniel Wayne; Rajan, Mahesh; Ang, James Alfred; Black, Amalia Rebecca; Laub, Thomas William; Vaughan, Courtenay Thomas; Franke, Brian Claude

    2007-02-01

    This report describes efforts by the Performance Modeling and Analysis Team to investigate performance characteristics of Sandia's engineering and scientific applications on the ASC capability and advanced architecture supercomputers, and Sandia's capacity Linux clusters. Efforts to model various aspects of these computers are also discussed. The goals of these efforts are to quantify and compare Sandia's supercomputer and cluster performance characteristics; to reveal strengths and weaknesses in such systems; and to predict performance characteristics of, and provide guidelines for, future acquisitions and follow-on systems. Described herein are the results obtained from running benchmarks and applications to extract performance characteristics and comparisons, as well as modeling efforts, obtained during the time period 2004-2006. The format of the report, with hypertext links to numerous additional documents, purposefully minimizes the document size needed to disseminate the extensive results from our research.

  20. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  1. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  2. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  3. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  5. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  6. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  7. [Trends in the utilization of food additives].

    PubMed

    Szűcs, Viktória; Bánáti, Diána

    2013-11-17

    The frequent media reports on food additives weakened consumers' trust in food producers and food control authorities as well. Furthermore, consumers' uncertainty is also raised by the fact that they obtain their information from inadequate, mistrustful sources and, therefore, consumers might avoid the consumption of certain foodstuffs. While food producers may react by replacing artificial components by natural ones, they try to emphasize the favourable characteristics of their products. The authors describe the main trends and efforts related to food additives. On the basis of the overview it can be concluded that - besides taking into consideration consumers' needs - product development and research directions are promising. Food producers' efforts may help to restore consumer confidence and trust and they may help them to have informed choice.

  8. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  9. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  10. Evaluating cognitive effort in a randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Turner, Travis H; Renfroe, Jenna B; Morella, Kristen; Marriott, Bernadette P

    2016-09-01

    Many randomized controlled trials (RCTs) of neuropsychiatric conditions involve cognitive outcome measures; however, validity of cognitive data relies on adequate effort during testing, and such screening is seldom performed. Given well-established rates of 10 to 30% poor effort in clinical settings, this is not a trivial concern. This preliminary study evaluated effort during cognitive testing in an RCT of omega-3 supplementation to reduce suicidality in a high-risk psychiatric population. An interim analysis of sustained attentions measures from the Connors Performance Test (CPT-2) at baseline for the first 60 participants was conducted. Previously validated cut points to detect insufficient effort on the CPT-2 were applied. At baseline, 12% (7) were identified as giving poor effort. Follow-up analyses indicated less psychiatric distress and suicidality among those who gave poor effort. Results suggest comparable likelihood of a poor effort on cognitive testing in clinical and RCT participation. Reduced psychiatric distress in the poor effort group raises concern regarding interpretation of other measures. The importance of screening cognitive data for effort in RCTs is highlighted. Future studies will examine effort at follow-up visits, and explore relationships to attrition, adherence, and response to treatment. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  11. Analyzing and Predicting Effort Associated with Finding and Fixing Software Faults

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hamill, Maggie; Goseva-Popstojanova, Katerina

    2016-01-01

    Context: Software developers spend a significant amount of time fixing faults. However, not many papers have addressed the actual effort needed to fix software faults. Objective: The objective of this paper is twofold: (1) analysis of the effort needed to fix software faults and how it was affected by several factors and (2) prediction of the level of fix implementation effort based on the information provided in software change requests. Method: The work is based on data related to 1200 failures, extracted from the change tracking system of a large NASA mission. The analysis includes descriptive and inferential statistics. Predictions are made using three supervised machine learning algorithms and three sampling techniques aimed at addressing the imbalanced data problem. Results: Our results show that (1) 83% of the total fix implementation effort was associated with only 20% of failures. (2) Both safety critical failures and post-release failures required three times more effort to fix compared to non-critical and pre-release counterparts, respectively. (3) Failures with fixes spread across multiple components or across multiple types of software artifacts required more effort. The spread across artifacts was more costly than spread across components. (4) Surprisingly, some types of faults associated with later life-cycle activities did not require significant effort. (5) The level of fix implementation effort was predicted with 73% overall accuracy using the original, imbalanced data. Using oversampling techniques improved the overall accuracy up to 77%. More importantly, oversampling significantly improved the prediction of the high level effort, from 31% to around 85%. Conclusions: This paper shows the importance of tying software failures to changes made to fix all associated faults, in one or more software components and/or in one or more software artifacts, and the benefit of studying how the spread of faults and other factors affect the fix implementation

  12. SAGE II aerosol validation: selected altitude measurements, including particle micromeasurements.

    PubMed

    Oberbeck, V R; Livingston, J M; Russell, P B; Pueschel, R F; Rosen, J N; Osborn, M T; Kritz, M A; Snetsinger, K G; Ferry, G V

    1989-06-20

    Correlative aerosol measurements taken at a limited number of altitudes during coordinated field experiments are used to test the validity of particulate extinction coefficients derived from limb path solar radiance measurements taken by the Stratospheric Aerosol and Gas Experiment (SAGE) II Sun photometer. In particular, results are presented from correlative measurement missions that were conducted during January 1985, August 1985, and July 1986. Correlative sensors included impactors, laser spectrometers, and filter samplers aboard an U-2-airplane, an upward pointing lidar aboard a P-3 airplane, and balloon-borne optical particle counters (dustsondes). The main body of this paper focuses on the July 29, 1986, validation experiment, which minimized the many difficulties (e.g., spatial and temporal inhomogeneities, imperfect coincidences) that can complicate the validation process. On this day, correlative aerosol measurements taken at an altitude of 20.5 km agreed with each other within their respective uncertainties, and particulate extinction values calculated at SAGE II wavelengths from these measurements validated corresponding SAGE II values. Additional validation efforts on days when measurement and logistical conditions were much less favorable for validation are discussed in an appendix.

  13. EMC Recent Additions

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This page has information about recent changes to promulgated and proposed test methods, perfomance specifications, and quality assurance procedures. It also includes updates and changes to all other approved and proposed test methods.

  14. Relationship effort, satisfaction, and stability: differences across union type.

    PubMed

    Shafer, Kevin; Jensen, Todd M; Larson, Jeffry H

    2014-04-01

    Relationship satisfaction and stability are two commonly studied outcomes in marriage and family research. Majority of studies address socio demographic variability and differences across union type in these outcomes. We extend this literature by addressing how the amount of effort one puts into their relationship is associated with stability and satisfaction. Specifically, we focus on how effort impacts these measures of quality in four union types: premarital cohabitation, first marriage, post-divorce cohabitation, and second marriage following divorce. Furthermore, we make union type comparisons in the strength of effort's association with satisfaction and stability. Using data from 8,006 respondents in the Relationship Evaluation Survey, our results show that effort was strongly and positively associated with satisfaction and stability in all four unions. Although effort is more strongly associated with satisfaction in first marriage than cohabiting relationships, no union type differences in the role of effort on stability were observed. Clinical and research implications of these findings are discussed.

  15. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  16. Global efforts in conquering lung cancer in China.

    PubMed

    Yan, Li; Xu, Li

    2015-07-28

    Lung cancer, the most prevalent and deadly malignancy in the world, poses a particularly critical healthcare challenge to China due to the rapidly increasing new cases and the unique cancer genetics in Chinese patient population. Substantial progress has been made in molecular diagnosis and personalized treatment of the disease. The field is now moving towards multiple new directions to include (1) new generation of targeted agents such as epidermal growth factor receptor and anaplastic lymphoma kinase inhibitors to overcome resistance to their early generation counterparts; and (2) deeper understanding of tumor genetics of each individual patient and consequently the application of biomarkers to guide personalized treatment as well as novel drug development including combination therapy. The increasing capacity in innovative cancer drug research and development is supported by extensive collaboration within China and globally, and across academia and industry, to build up expertise and infrastructure in early-phase clinical testing of novel drugs. With these combined efforts, new and better medicines will be available for lung cancer patients in China in the near future.

  17. Engaging local businesses in HIV prevention efforts: the consumer perspective.

    PubMed

    Phillips-Guzman, Christina M; Martinez-Donate, Ana P; Hovell, Melbourne F; Blumberg, Elaine J; Sipan, Carol L; Rovniak, Liza S; Kelley, Norma J

    2011-07-01

    Participation of different community sectors, including the private business sector, is necessary to fight the HIV/AIDS epidemic. Local businesses may be reluctant to participate in HIV prevention because of fear of negative customer reactions and loss of revenue. This study examines the extent to which residents of two communities in San Diego, California, would support HIV prevention initiatives in local businesses. A population-based household survey (N = 200) is conducted in two communities with higher versus lower risk for HIV. The survey includes questions regarding the acceptability of HIV prevention activities, such as condom and brochure distribution in businesses, and history of exposure to HIV prevention activities in local businesses. Most residents agree that (a) business involvement in prevention activities would reduce HIV (92%), (b) free or low-cost condoms available in businesses could prevent the spread of HIV (90.9%) and increase condom accessibility (87%), and (c) they would prefer to shop at businesses that supported HIV prevention versus those that did not (87.4%). These findings suggest that HIV prevention in local businesses would be supported by residents and would be unlikely to adversely affect business profits. This information could be used to design interventions to engage local businesses in HIV-prevention efforts.

  18. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  19. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  20. Mothers' teaching strategies and children's effortful control: a longitudinal study.

    PubMed

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Vidmar, Masa; Spinrad, Tracy L; Eggum, Natalie D; Edwards, Alison; Gaertner, Bridget; Kupfer, Anne

    2010-09-01

    Findings on the relation of maternal verbal teaching strategies to children's effortful control (EC; i.e., self-regulation) are limited in quantity and somewhat inconsistent. In this study, children's EC was assessed at 18, 30, and 42 months (ns = 255, 229, and 209, respectively) with adults' reports and a behavioral measure. Mothers' verbal teaching strategies were assessed while the mother and child worked on a task together. Children's general vocabulary also was measured. In a structural panel model taking into account prior levels of constructs and correlations within time, as well as the relations of EC and teaching strategies to children's vocabulary, socioeconomic status, age, and sex of the child, 18-month EC positively predicted mothers' 30-month cognitive assistance and questioning strategies and negatively predicted 30-month maternal directive strategies. In addition, high 30-month EC predicted greater 42-month maternal cognitive assistance and fewer directive strategies. Thus, mothers' teaching strategies were predicted by individual differences in self-regulatory skills, supporting potential evocative child effects on mothers' teaching strategies.

  1. DC Control Effort Minimized for Magnetic-Bearing-Supported Shaft

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brown, Gerald V.

    2001-01-01

    A magnetic-bearing-supported shaft may have a number of concentricity and alignment problems. One of these involves the relationship of the position sensors, the centerline of the backup bearings, and the magnetic center of the magnetic bearings. For magnetic bearings with permanent magnet biasing, the average control current for a given control axis that is not bearing the shaft weight will be minimized if the shaft is centered, on average over a revolution, at the magnetic center of the bearings. That position may not yield zero sensor output or center the shaft in the backup bearing clearance. The desired shaft position that gives zero average current can be achieved if a simple additional term is added to the control law. Suppose that the instantaneous control currents from each bearing are available from measurements and can be input into the control computer. If each control current is integrated with a very small rate of accumulation and the result is added to the control output, the shaft will gradually move to a position where the control current averages to zero over many revolutions. This will occur regardless of any offsets of the position sensor inputs. At that position, the average control effort is minimized in comparison to other possible locations of the shaft. Nonlinearities of the magnetic bearing are minimized at that location as well.

  2. Additively Manufactured Combustion Devices Components for LOX/Methane Applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greene, Sandra Elam; Protz, Christopher; Garcia, Chance; Goodman, Dwight; Baker, Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) has designed, fabricated, and hot-fire tested a variety of successful injectors, chambers, and igniters for potential liquid oxygen (LOX) and methane (CH4) systems since 2005. The most recent efforts have focused on components with additive manufacturing (AM) to include unique design features, minimize joints, and reduce final machining efforts. Inconel and copper alloys have been used with AM processes to produce a swirl coaxial injector and multiple methane cooled thrust chambers. The initial chambers included unique thermocouple ports for measuring local coolant channel temperatures along the length of the chamber. Results from hot-fire testing were used to anchor thermal models and generate a regeneratively cooled thruster for a 4,000 lbf LOX/CH4 engine. The completed thruster will be hot-fire tested in the summer of 2016 at MSFC. The thruster design can also be easily scaled and used on a 25,000 lbf engine. To further support the larger engine design, an AM gas generator injector has been designed. Hot-fire testing on this injector is planned for the summer of 2016 at MSFC.

  3. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, SK

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts. PMID:26601038

  4. Sustainability Characterization for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Mani, Mahesh; Lyons, Kevin W; Gupta, S K

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has the potential to create geometrically complex parts that require a high degree of customization, using less material and producing less waste. Recent studies have shown that AM can be an economically viable option for use by the industry, yet there are some inherent challenges associated with AM for wider acceptance. The lack of standards in AM impedes its use for parts production since industries primarily depend on established standards in processes and material selection to ensure the consistency and quality. Inability to compare AM performance against traditional manufacturing methods can be a barrier for implementing AM processes. AM process sustainability has become a driver due to growing environmental concerns for manufacturing. This has reinforced the importance to understand and characterize AM processes for sustainability. Process characterization for sustainability will help close the gaps for comparing AM performance to traditional manufacturing methods. Based on a literature review, this paper first examines the potential environmental impacts of AM. A methodology for sustainability characterization of AM is then proposed to serve as a resource for the community to benchmark AM processes for sustainability. Next, research perspectives are discussed along with relevant standardization efforts.

  5. Treatment of Pica Using a Pica Exchange Procedure with Increasing Response Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carter, Stacy L.

    2009-01-01

    The effects of a pica exchange procedure were evaluated on the pica of a female with severe mental retardation. A BAB design revealed that the pica exchange procedure was effective at reducing the occurrence of pica. In addition, the pica exchange procedure was effective throughout six increasingly more difficult response effort conditions.…

  6. Unconscious Reward Cues Increase Invested Effort, but Do Not Change Speed-Accuracy Tradeoffs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bijleveld, Erik; Custers, Ruud; Aarts, Henk

    2010-01-01

    While both conscious and unconscious reward cues enhance effort to work on a task, previous research also suggests that conscious rewards may additionally affect speed-accuracy tradeoffs. Based on this idea, two experiments explored whether reward cues that are presented above (supraliminal) or below (subliminal) the threshold of conscious…

  7. Stochastic evolutionary dynamics in minimum-effort coordination games

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Kun; Cong, Rui; Wang, Long

    2016-08-01

    The minimum-effort coordination game draws recently more attention for the fact that human behavior in this social dilemma is often inconsistent with the predictions of classical game theory. Here, we combine evolutionary game theory and coalescence theory to investigate this game in finite populations. Both analytic results and individual-based simulations show that effort costs play a key role in the evolution of contribution levels, which is in good agreement with those observed experimentally. Besides well-mixed populations, set structured populations have also been taken into consideration. Therein we find that large number of sets and moderate migration rate greatly promote effort levels, especially for high effort costs.

  8. The relationship of IQ to effort test performance.

    PubMed

    Dean, Andy C; Victor, Tara L; Boone, Kyle B; Arnold, Ginger

    2008-07-01

    The relationship between IQ and nine effort indicators was examined in a sample of 189 neuropsychology clinic outpatients who were not in litigation or attempting to obtain disability. Participants with the lowest IQ (50-59) failed approximately 60% of the effort tests, while patients with an IQ of 60 to 69 failed 44% of effort indicators, and individuals with borderline IQ (70 to 79) exhibited a 17% failure rate. All patients with IQ < 70 failed at least one effort test. Cutoffs for the Warrington Recognition Memory Test (Words) and Finger Tapping maintained the highest specificities in low IQ samples.

  9. Characterization of reward and effort mechanisms in apathy.

    PubMed

    Bonnelle, Valerie; Veromann, Kai-Riin; Burnett Heyes, Stephanie; Lo Sterzo, Elena; Manohar, Sanjay; Husain, Masud

    2015-01-01

    Apathy is a common but poorly understood condition with a wide societal impact observed in several brain disorders as well as, to some extent, in the normal population. Hence the need for better characterization of the underlying mechanisms. The processes by which individuals decide to attribute physical effort to obtain rewards might be particularly relevant to relate to apathy traits. Here, we designed two paradigms to assess individual differences in physical effort production and effort-based decision-making and their relation to apathy in healthy people. Apathy scores were measured using a modified version of the Lille Apathy Rating Scale, suitable for use in a non-clinical population. In the first study, apathy scores were correlated with the degree to which stake (reward on offer) and difficulty level impacts on physical effort production. Individuals with relatively high apathy traits showed an increased modulation of effort while more motivated individuals generally exerted greater force across different levels of stake. To clarify the underlying mechanisms for this behavior, we designed a second task that allows independent titration of stake and effort levels for which subjects are willing to engage in an effortful response to obtain a reward. Our results suggest that apathy traits in the normal population are related to the way reward subjectively affects the estimation of effort costs, and more particularly manifest as decreased willingness to exert effort when rewards are small, or below threshold. The tasks we introduce here may provide useful tools to further investigate apathy in clinical populations.

  10. Feedforward consequences of isometric contractions: effort and ventilation.

    PubMed

    Luu, Billy L; Smith, Janette L; Martin, Peter G; McBain, Rachel A; Taylor, Janet L; Butler, Jane E

    2016-08-01

    The onset of voluntary muscle contractions causes rapid increases in ventilation and is accompanied by a sensation of effort. Both the ventilatory response and perception of effort are proportional to contraction intensity, but these behaviors have been generalized from contractions of a single muscle group. Our aim was to determine how these relationships are affected by simultaneous contractions of multiple muscle groups. We examined the ventilatory response and perceived effort of contraction during separate and simultaneous isometric contractions of the contralateral elbow flexors and of an ipsilateral elbow flexor and knee extensor. Subjects made 10-sec contractions at 25, 50, and 100% of maximum during normocapnia and hypercapnia. For simultaneous contractions, both muscle groups were activated at the same intensities. Ventilation was measured continuously and subjects rated the effort required to produce each contraction. As expected, ventilation and perceived effort increased proportionally with contraction intensity during individual contractions. However, during simultaneous contractions, neither ventilation nor effort reflected the combined muscle output. Rather, the ventilatory response was similar to when contractions were performed separately, and effort ratings showed a small but significant increase for simultaneous contractions. Hypercapnia at rest doubled baseline ventilation, but did not affect the difference in perceived effort between separate and simultaneous contractions. The ventilatory response and the sense of effort at the onset of muscle activity are not related to the total output of the motor pathways, or the working muscles, but arise from cortical regions upstream from the motor cortex.

  11. Theory of atomic additivity in molecular hyperpolizabilities

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baird, James K.

    1987-01-01

    Hyperpolarizability is a function of frequency. This is called dispersion. Because of the Kramers-Kronig relations, researchers expect that a material that is dispersing light is also absorbing it. Where there is both dispersion and absorption, the molecular polarizabilities are complex functions of the frequency. This led researchers to consider atomic additivity in both the real and imaginary parts of the ordinary and hyperpolarizabilities. This effort is desirable not only from a theoretical point of view, but also because of the existence of a large body of complex refractive index data, which may be used to test the additivity principle with the complex valued ordinary dipole polarizability.

  12. The International Project. 1992 Update. Including "Microfilming Projects Abroad."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rutimann, Hans

    This publication describes national and international book preservation programs, including: (l) the European Register of Microform Masters (EROMM), a cooperative effort in which the Commission on Preservation and Access is a partner; (2) national preservation programs in Germany, France, Ireland, Britain, Netherlands, Sweden, China, and Central…

  13. Including Students with Disabilities in National Academic Assessments in Korea

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, JongKeun; Lee, Daesik; Jung, Eunju

    2012-01-01

    In Korea, the effort to include students with disabilities in the educational accountability system has just begun. This paper reviews how Korean students with disabilities have been tested using the National Assessment of Educational Achievement (NAEA) and what issues have emerged as a result of the testing. Analysis of the 2009 and 2010 NAEA…

  14. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  15. Effect of Social Influence on Effort-Allocation for Monetary Rewards

    PubMed Central

    Gilman, Jodi M.; Treadway, Michael T.; Curran, Max T.; Calderon, Vanessa; Evins, A. Eden

    2015-01-01

    Though decades of research have shown that people are highly influenced by peers, few studies have directly assessed how the value of social conformity is weighed against other types of costs and benefits. Using an effort-based decision-making paradigm with a novel social influence manipulation, we measured how social influence affected individuals’ decisions to allocate effort for monetary rewards during trials with either high or low probability of receiving a reward. We found that information about the effort-allocation of peers modulated participant choices, specifically during conditions of low probability of obtaining a reward. This suggests that peer influence affects effort-based choices to obtain rewards especially under conditions of risk. This study provides evidence that people value social conformity in addition to other costs and benefits when allocating effort, and suggests that neuroeconomic studies that assess trade-offs between effort and reward should consider social environment as a factor that can influence decision-making. PMID:25961725

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2012-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, with a view to concluding as to safety concerns and to preparing specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for five food additives (magnesium dihydrogen diphosphate; mineral oil (medium and low viscosity) classes II and III; 3-phytase from Aspergillus niger expressed in Aspergillus niger; serine protease (chymotrypsin) from Nocardiopsis prasina expressed in Bacillus licheniformis; and serine protease (trypsin) from Fusarium oxysporum expressed in Fusarium venenatum) and 16 groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and aromatic amines and amides; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; aliphatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, carboxylic acids and related esters, sulfides, disulfides and ethers containing furan substitution; aliphatic linear alpha,beta-unsaturated aldehydes, acids and related alcohols, acetals and esters; amino acids and related substances; epoxides; furfuryl alcohol and related substances; linear and branched-chain aliphatic, unsaturated, unconjugated alcohols, aldehydes, acids and related esters; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; phenol and phenol derivatives; pyrazine derivatives; pyridine, pyrrole and quinoline derivatives; saturated aliphatic acyclic branched-chain primary alcohols, aldehydes and acids; simple aliphatic and aromatic sulfides and thiols; sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds; and sulfur-substituted furan derivatives). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: ethyl cellulose, mineral oil (medium viscosity), modified starches and titanium

  17. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  18. usSEABED: Database Efforts in Marine Surficial Sediments of the US EEZ

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reid, J. A.; Jenkins, C. J.; Field, M. E.; Gardner, J. V.; Zimmermann, M.; Box, C. E.; Kneeshaw, T. A.

    2001-12-01

    The USGS, in partnership with the University of Sydney, Australia and National Marine Fisheries Service, Seattle is constructing a unique marine surficial sediment database, usSEABED, for the United States EEZ. usSEABED maximizes the knowledge of the seafloor by combining sedimentological and biological information, verbal sample and photographic descriptions (through fuzzy set theory), chemical, and acoustic data, along with other seabed geologic characteristics, into a single standardized format. In this way, usSEABED is more than a compilation of known quantitative surficial sediment data but rather provides an integrated view of the seabed. Decades of marine sediment research by federal, state, local, academic, and private institutions has provided temporal and spatial snapshots of the ocean floor, either as focused, tightly gridded sampling efforts, or in the earliest days, more widely scattered efforts. As is, these datasets had disparate purposes with dissimilar sampling parameters, statistics, and data types. usSEABED filters these datasets, providing uniform parameters for quantitative sediment textural data, parsed verbal data (using fuzzy set theory), modeled data, and both geologic and biologic compositional parameters. Access to our efforts is through our website, available in the fall of 2001, which includes an explanation of the processing involved, sample maps, an interactive GIS site, and a data-download site. usSEABED is held in a comma-delimited, field-defined, tree-d structure that can be brought into most COTS relational databases or GIS. Focussed originally on the U.S. Pacific margin, recent work is widening the coverage to areas in Hawaii, Alaska, the Gulf of Mexico, the Great Lakes, and the U.S. Atlantic margin. usSEABED is an ongoing project, with expanding data inclusions and new data-filtering modules available, such as sediment true-color displays and marine mineral locations. We invite the additions of new sedimentological, biological

  19. 34 CFR 300.203 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true Maintenance of effort. 300.203 Section 300.203 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION AND... DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.203 Maintenance of effort. (a) General. Except...

  20. Estimating Software Effort Hours for Major Defense Acquisition Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wallshein, Corinne C.

    2010-01-01

    Software Cost Estimation (SCE) uses labor hours or effort required to conceptualize, develop, integrate, test, field, or maintain program components. Department of Defense (DoD) SCE can use initial software data parameters to project effort hours for large, software-intensive programs for contractors reporting the top levels of process maturity,…

  1. Institutional Effects of Strategic Efforts at Community Enrichment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mawhinney, Hanne B.

    1994-01-01

    Prepares the way for an institutional analysis of strategic interventions for collaboration, drawing on recent research by Crowson, Boyd, and other organizational theorists. Using a framework of institutional propositions, analyzes strategic efforts to promote collaborative efforts to enhance students' life chances in a Canadian high school, as…

  2. Control of robotic assistance using poststroke residual voluntary effort.

    PubMed

    Makowski, Nathaniel S; Knutson, Jayme S; Chae, John; Crago, Patrick E

    2015-03-01

    Poststroke hemiparesis limits the ability to reach, in part due to involuntary muscle co-activation (synergies). Robotic approaches are being developed for both therapeutic benefit and continuous assistance during activities of daily living. Robotic assistance may enable participants to exert less effort, thereby reducing expression of the abnormal co-activation patterns, which could allow participants to reach further. This study evaluated how well participants could perform a reaching task with robotic assistance that was either provided independent of effort in the vertical direction or in the sagittal plane in proportion to voluntary effort estimated from electromyograms (EMG) on the affected side. Participants who could not reach targets without assistance were enabled to reach further with assistance. Constant anti-gravity force assistance that was independent of voluntary effort did not reduce the quality of reach and enabled participants to exert less effort while maintaining different target locations. Force assistance that was proportional to voluntary effort on the affected side enabled participants to exert less effort and could be controlled to successfully reach targets, but participants had increased difficulty maintaining a stable position. These results suggest that residual effort on the affected side can produce an effective command signal for poststroke assistive devices.

  3. Inefficient Effort Allocation and Negative Symptoms in Individuals with Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    McCarthy, Julie M.; Treadway, Michael T.; Bennett, Melanie E.; Blanchard, Jack J.

    2016-01-01

    Negative symptoms like avolition and anhedonia are thought to involve difficulties with reward processing and motivation. The current study aimed to replicate and extend prior findings that individuals with schizophrenia display reduced willingness to expend effort for rewards and that such reduced effort is associated with negative symptoms, poor functioning, and cognitive impairment. The present study compared the effortful decision making of individuals with schizophrenia (n = 48) and healthy controls (n = 27) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Individuals with schizophrenia chose a smaller proportion of hard tasks than healthy controls across all probability and reward levels with the exception of trials with a 12% probability and low or medium reward magnitude wherein both groups chose similarly few hard tasks. Contrary to expectations, in individuals with schizophrenia, greater negative symptoms were associated with making more effortful choices. Effortful decision making was unrelated to positive symptoms, depression, cognition, and functioning in individuals with schizophrenia. Our results are consistent with prior findings that revealed a pattern of inefficient decision making in individuals with schizophrenia relative to healthy controls. However the results did not support the hypothesized association of negative symptoms and reduced effort in schizophrenia and highlight prior inconsistencies in this literature. Future research is needed to understand what factors may be related to diminished effortful decision making in schizophrenia and the clinical significance of such performance deficits. PMID:26763628

  4. Student Organizations and Institutional Diversity Efforts: A Typology

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kuk, Linda; Banning, James

    2010-01-01

    American higher education has become focused on increasing access and success for traditionally underrepresented populations. Despite the myriad of institutional efforts, attention has not been given to the role of student organizations in supporting these efforts. This article looks at the role campus student organizations can play within campus…

  5. Current Reform Efforts in Mathematics Education. ERIC/CSMEE Digest.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edwards, Thomas G.

    The current reform effort in mathematics education has its roots in the decade of the 1980's and the national reports that focused attention on an impending crisis in education, particularly in mathematics and science. Within this context, dozens of individual reform efforts have been initiated in recent years. Many have focused on the development…

  6. Heuristics Made Easy: An Effort-Reduction Framework

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shah, Anuj K.; Oppenheimer, Daniel M.

    2008-01-01

    In this article, the authors propose a new framework for understanding and studying heuristics. The authors posit that heuristics primarily serve the purpose of reducing the effort associated with a task. As such, the authors propose that heuristics can be classified according to a small set of effort-reduction principles. The authors use this…

  7. Motivation and effort in individuals with social anhedonia.

    PubMed

    McCarthy, Julie M; Treadway, Michael T; Blanchard, Jack J

    2015-06-01

    It has been proposed that anhedonia may, in part, reflect difficulties in reward processing and effortful decision making. The current study aimed to replicate previous findings of effortful decision making deficits associated with elevated anhedonia and expand upon these findings by investigating whether these decision making deficits are specific to elevated social anhedonia or are also associated with elevated positive schizotypy characteristics. The current study compared controls (n=40) to individuals elevated on social anhedonia (n=30), and individuals elevated on perceptual aberration/magical ideation (n=30) on the Effort Expenditure for Rewards Task (EEfRT). Across groups, participants chose a higher proportion of hard tasks with increasing probability of reward and reward magnitude, demonstrating sensitivity to probability and reward values. Contrary to our expectations, when the probability of reward was most uncertain (50% probability), at low and medium reward values, the social anhedonia group demonstrated more effortful decision making than either individuals high in positive schizotypy or controls. The positive schizotypy group only differed from controls (making less effortful choices than controls) when reward probability was lowest (12%) and the magnitude of reward was the smallest. Our results suggest that social anhedonia is related to intact motivation and effort for monetary rewards, but that individuals with this characteristic display a unique and perhaps inefficient pattern of effort allocation when the probability of reward is most uncertain. Future research is needed to better understand effortful decision making and the processing of reward across a range of individual difference characteristics.

  8. A Measure of Local Effort, 1981-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stewart, Gerald

    Three lengthy tables and four charts present information on the 1981-82 planned tax effort of each of Pennsylvania's 501 school districts and 67 counties. The tax effort, or "equalized mills," equals each district's budgeted taxes divided by its projected 1981 market value. The report gives a brief illustration of how the tax effort…

  9. Are Effortful and Reactive Control Unique Constructs in Young Children?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Eisenberg, Nancy; Edwards, Alison; Spinrad, Tracy L.; Sallquist, Julie; Eggum, Natalie D.; Reiser, Mark

    2013-01-01

    The primary goal of this study was to examine whether effortful control (EC; effortful regulation), reactive undercontrol (IMP; e.g., impulsivity, speed of approach), and reactive overcontrol (NOV; inhibition to novelty) were 3 distinct constructs at 30 months (Time 1; n = 216), 42 months (Time 2; n = 192), and 54 months (Time 3; n = 168) of age.…

  10. Group Diffusion of Cognitive Effort as a Determinant of Attribution.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Quintanar, Leo R.; Pryor, John B.

    The tendency for individuals to reduce their own efforts when others are available to respond has been called "social loafing." Social loafing has been found also to characterize collective endeavors on tasks considered cognitively efffortful. To test the hypothesis that reduced cognitive effort related to the presence of a coacting group would…

  11. Effects of Effortful Swallow on Cardiac Autonomic Regulation.

    PubMed

    Gomes, Lívia M S; Silva, Roberta G; Melo, Monique; Silva, Nayra N; Vanderlei, Franciele M; Garner, David M; de Abreu, Luiz Carlos; Valenti, Vitor E

    2016-04-01

    Swallowing-induced changes in heart rate have been recently reported. However, it is not apparent the responses of heart rate variability (HRV) elicited by effortful swallow maneuver. We investigated the acute effects of effortful swallowing maneuver on HRV. This study was performed on 34 healthy women between 18 and 35 years old. We assessed heart rate variability in the time (SDNN, RMSSD, and pNN50) and frequency (HF, LF, and LF/HF ratio) domains and, visual analysis through the Poincaré plot. The subjects remained at rest for 5 min during spontaneous swallowing and then performed effortful swallowing for 5 min. HRV was analyzed during spontaneous and effortful swallowing. We found no significant differences for SDNN, pNN50, RMSSD, HF in absolute units (ms(2)). There is a trend for increase of LF in absolute (p = 0.05) and normalized (p = 0.08) units during effortful swallowing. HF in normalized units reduced (p = 0.02) during effortful swallowing and LF/HF ratio (p = 0.03) increased during effortful swallowing. In conclusion effortful swallow maneuver in healthy women increased sympathetic cardiac modulation, indicating a cardiac overload.

  12. 24 CFR 245.205 - Efforts to obtain assistance.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... Efforts to obtain assistance. (a) Mortgagors subject to the requirements of this subpart shall not interfere with the efforts of tenants to obtain rent subsidies or other public assistance. (b) A mortgagor subject to the requirements of this subpart who is a party to a rent supplement contract under section...

  13. 48 CFR 1352.231-71 - Duplication of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Duplication of effort. 1352.231-71 Section 1352.231-71 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CLAUSES... Duplication of effort. As prescribed in 48 CFR 1331.205-70, insert the following clause: Duplication of...

  14. Does Effort Still Count?: More on What Makes the Grade

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinn, Tracy E.; Magnotti, John F.; Marchuk, Kimberly; Schultz, Bridget S.; Luther, Andrew; Varfolomeeva, Veronika

    2011-01-01

    Previous research has examined differences between students and faculty regarding the weight of effort in assigning grades. Here, students and faculty responded to questions regarding the relative weight of performance and effort on final grades and what letter grades faculty should assign across different types of courses. The authors asked these…

  15. 42 CFR 441.182 - Maintenance of effort: Computation.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Maintenance of effort: Computation. 441.182 Section 441.182 Public Health CENTERS FOR MEDICARE & MEDICAID SERVICES, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN... § 441.182 Maintenance of effort: Computation. (a) For expenditures for inpatient psychiatric...

  16. 29 CFR 102.173 - Relation to other collection efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Relation to other collection efforts. 102.173 Section 102.173 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor NATIONAL LABOR RELATIONS BOARD RULES AND REGULATIONS, SERIES 8... efforts. (a) Tax refund offset is intended to be an administrative collection remedy to be...

  17. 34 CFR 300.204 - Exception to maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Exception to maintenance of effort. 300.204 Section 300.204 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL... effort. Notwithstanding the restriction in § 300.203(a), an LEA may reduce the level of expenditures...

  18. 40 CFR 35.405 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.405 Section 35.405 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 205(g), a State agency must expend annually...

  19. 12 CFR 918.7 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 12 Banks and Banking 7 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maintenance of effort. 918.7 Section 918.7 Banks and Banking FEDERAL HOUSING FINANCE BOARD GOVERNANCE AND MANAGEMENT OF THE FEDERAL HOME LOAN BANKS BANK DIRECTOR COMPENSATION AND EXPENSES § 918.7 Maintenance of effort. Notwithstanding the limits...

  20. 40 CFR 35.266 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.266 Section 35.266 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE....266 Maintenance of effort. To receive section 319 funds in any fiscal year, a State must agree...

  1. 24 CFR 115.305 - Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. 115.305 Section 115.305 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban... Housing Assistance Program § 115.305 Special enforcement effort (SEE) funds. (a) SEE funds are funds...

  2. 40 CFR 35.636 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 35.636 Section 35.636 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY GRANTS AND OTHER FEDERAL ASSISTANCE... (sections 319(h) and 518(f)) § 35.636 Maintenance of effort. To receive funds under section 319 in...

  3. Mental Effort in Binary Categorization Aided by Binary Cues

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Botzer, Assaf; Meyer, Joachim; Parmet, Yisrael

    2013-01-01

    Binary cueing systems assist in many tasks, often alerting people about potential hazards (such as alarms and alerts). We investigate whether cues, besides possibly improving decision accuracy, also affect the effort users invest in tasks and whether the required effort in tasks affects the responses to cues. We developed a novel experimental tool…

  4. 34 CFR 300.203 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Maintenance of effort. 300.203 Section 300.203 Education Regulations of the Offices of the Department of Education (Continued) OFFICE OF SPECIAL EDUCATION... CHILDREN WITH DISABILITIES Local Educational Agency Eligibility § 300.203 Maintenance of effort....

  5. Student Perception of Academic Grading: Personality, Academic Orientation, and Effort

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tippin, Gregory K.; Lafreniere, Kathryn D.; Page, Stewart

    2012-01-01

    Factors influencing student perceptions of academic grading were examined, with an emphasis on furthering understanding of the relevance of effort to students' conceptualization of grading. Students demonstrated a conceptualization of grading where effort should be weighted comparably to actual performance in importance to the composition of a…

  6. 14 CFR 1204.1510 - Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 5 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. 1204.1510 Section 1204.1510 Aeronautics and Space NATIONAL AERONAUTICS AND SPACE ADMINISTRATION... Programs and Activities § 1204.1510 Efforts to accommodate intergovernmental concerns. (a) If a...

  7. 29 CFR 20.106 - Relation to other collection efforts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Relation to other collection efforts. 20.106 Section 20.106 Labor Office of the Secretary of Labor FEDERAL CLAIMS COLLECTION Federal Income Tax Refund Offset § 20.106 Relation to other collection efforts. (a) Tax refund offset is intended to be an...

  8. Advances in Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-07-14

    casting molds for traditional casting processes on the battlefield, and 3) the use of recycled polymeric materials as feedstock for 3-D printers ...nondestructive characterization technique allows for 3D imaging that readily captures defects and voids on the conditions that the attenuation, which is...of 3D -printed structures. Analysis examples will include quantification of tolerance differences between the designed and manufactured parts, void

  9. Neural encoding of competitive effort in the anterior cingulate cortex.

    PubMed

    Hillman, Kristin L; Bilkey, David K

    2012-09-01

    In social environments, animals often compete to obtain limited resources. Strategically electing to work against another animal represents a cost-benefit decision. Is the resource worth an investment of competitive effort? The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) has been implicated in cost-benefit decision-making, but its role in competitive effort has not been examined. We recorded ACC neurons in freely moving rats as they performed a competitive foraging choice task. When at least one of the two choice options demanded competitive effort, the majority of ACC neurons exhibited heightened and differential firing between the goal trajectories. Inter- and intrasession manipulations revealed that differential firing was not attributable to effort or reward in isolation; instead ACC encoding patterns appeared to indicate net utility assessments of available choice options. Our findings suggest that the ACC is important for encoding competitive effort, a cost-benefit domain that has received little neural-level investigation despite its predominance in nature.

  10. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  11. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  12. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  13. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  14. Activities of information retrieval in Daicel Corporation : The roles and efforts of information retrieval team

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamazaki, Towako

    In order to stabilize and improve quality of information retrieval service, the information retrieval team of Daicel Corporation has given some efforts on standard operating procedures, interview sheet for information retrieval, structured format for search report, and search expressions for some technological fields of Daicel. These activities and efforts will also lead to skill sharing and skill tradition between searchers. In addition, skill improvements are needed not only for a searcher individually, but also for the information retrieval team totally when playing searcher's new roles.

  15. Ionic liquids, electrolyte solutions including the ionic liquids, and energy storage devices including the ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Gering, Kevin L.; Harrup, Mason K.; Rollins, Harry W.

    2015-12-08

    An ionic liquid including a phosphazene compound that has a plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units and at least one pendant group bonded to each phosphorus atom of the plurality of phosphorus-nitrogen units. One pendant group of the at least one pendant group comprises a positively charged pendant group. Additional embodiments of ionic liquids are disclosed, as are electrolyte solutions and energy storage devices including the embodiments of the ionic liquid.

  16. European Technological Effort in Preparation of ITER Construction

    SciTech Connect

    Andreani, Roberto

    2005-04-15

    Europe has started since the '80s with the preparatory work done on NET, the Next European Torus, the successor of JET, to prepare for the construction of the next generation experiment on the road to the fusion reactor. In 2000 the European Fusion Development Agreement (EFDA) has been signed by sixteen countries, including Switzerland, not a member of the Union. Now the signatory countries have increased to twenty-five. A vigorous programme of design and R and D in support of ITER construction has been conducted by EFDA through the coordinated effort of the national institutes and laboratories supported financially, in the framework of the VI European Framework Research Programme (2002-2006), by contracts of association with EURATOM. In the last three years, with the expenditure of 160 M[Euro], the accent has been particularly put on the preparation of the industrial manufacturing activities of components and systems for ITER. Prototypes and manufacturing methods have been developed in all the main critical areas of machine construction with the objective of providing sound and effective solutions: vacuum vessel, toroidal field coils, poloidal field coils, remote handling equipment, plasma facing components and divertor components, electrical power supplies, generators and power supplies for the Heating and Current Drive Systems and other minor subsystems.Europe feels to be ready to host the ITER site and to provide adequate support and guidance for the success of construction to our partners in the ITER collaboration, wherever needed.

  17. Preliminary Benchmarking Efforts and MCNP Simulation Results for Homeland Security

    SciTech Connect

    Robert Hayes

    2008-04-18

    It is shown in this work that basic measurements made from well defined source detector configurations can be readily converted in to benchmark quality results by which Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) input stacks can be validated. Specifically, a recent measurement made in support of national security at the Nevada Test Site (NTS) is described with sufficient detail to be submitted to the American Nuclear Society’s (ANS) Joint Benchmark Committee (JBC) for consideration as a radiation measurement benchmark. From this very basic measurement, MCNP input stacks are generated and validated both in predicted signal amplitude and spectral shape. Not modeled at this time are those perturbations from the more recent pulse height light (PHL) tally feature, although what spectral deviations are seen can be largely attributed to not including this small correction. The value of this work is as a proof-of-concept demonstration that with well documented historical testing can be converted into formal radiation measurement benchmarks. This effort would support virtual testing of algorithms and new detector configurations.

  18. Factors influencing the publishing efforts of graduate students in nursing.

    PubMed

    Whitley, G G; Oddi, L F; Terrell, D

    1998-04-01

    The purposes of this study were to identify factors influencing publication efforts of graduate students in nursing and determine the extent to which graduate students' scholarly activities contribute to the creation and dissemination of knowledge in nursing, as evidenced by publication in a professional journal. Authors of articles in Nursing Research were surveyed to assess their status as graduate students during the conceptualization, development, and publication of nursing research studies. The sample consisted of 633 authors of manuscripts published in Nursing Research from 1987 to 1991. The study design was descriptive. A survey questionnaire elicited data on graduate student status and factors that influenced the initiation and completion of the project. The data were analyzed using descriptive statistical techniques. The results of the study suggest that graduate students in nursing make important contributions to the advancement and dissemination of nursing knowledge. Factors that influence graduate students to engage in the process include academic requirements (e.g., thesis, dissertation, coursework), faculty involvement and support, and the ability to self-select the research topic.

  19. Cortical functional connectivity under different auditory attentional efforts.

    PubMed

    Hong, Xiangfei; Tong, Shanbao

    2012-01-01

    Auditory attentional effort (AAE) could be tuned to different levels in a top-down manner, while its neural correlates are still poorly understood. In this paper, we investigate the cortical connectivity under different levels of AAE. Multichannel EEG signals were recorded from nine subjects (male/female=6=3) in an auditory discrimination task under low or high AAE. Behavioral results showed that subjects paid more attention under high AAE and detected the probe stimuli better than low AAE. Partial directed coherence (PDC) was used to study the cortical functional connectivity within the first 300 ms post-stimulus period which includes the N100 and P200 components in the event-related potential (ERP). Majority of the cortical connections were strengthened with the increase of AAE. The right hemispheric dominance of connectivity in maintaining auditory attention was found under low AAE, which disappeared when the AAE was increased, indicating that the right hemispheric dominance previously reported might be due to a relatively lower AAE. Besides, most cortical connections under high AAE were found to be from the parietal cortex to the prefrontal cortex, which suggested the initiative role of parietal cortex in maintaining a high AAE.

  20. Additive-driven assembly of block copolymers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Ying; Daga, Vikram; Anderson, Eric; Watkins, James

    2011-03-01

    One challenge to the formation of well ordered hybrid materials is the incorporation of nanoscale additives including metal, semiconductor and dielectric nanoparticles at high loadings while maintaining strong segregation. Here we describe the molecular and functional design of small molecule and nanoparticle additives that enhance phase segregation in their block copolymer host and enable high additive loadings. Our approach includes the use of hydrogen bond interactions between the functional groups on the additive or particle that serve as hydrogen bond donors and one segment of the block copolymer containing hydrogen bond acceptors. Further, the additives show strong selectively towards the targeted domains, leading to enhancements in contrast between properties of the phases. In addition to structural changes, we explore how large changes in the thermal and mechanical properties occur upon incorporation of the additives. Generalization of this additive-induced ordering strategy to various block copolymers will be discussed.

  1. Clinical Teaching of Prosthodontics in Undergraduate Courses in a German Dental School: Patients, Visits, Efforts, and Incentives.

    PubMed

    Huettig, Fabian; Behrend, Florian

    2016-01-01

    It is unknown what disadvantages are faced by patients deciding for a prosthodontic treatment by inexperienced students. Commonly, the related extra effort and time are compensated by cost reduction of treatment fees. Thereby, the dental schools subsidize treatments to teach clinical prosthodontics. The aim of this study was to clarify the benefits to patients as well as the efforts of the dental school. Data collected from three courses in a dental school in Germany were patient gender, age, occupation, zip code, number of visits, scope of treatment including costs, financial discount, and remaining copayment. Travel costs were calculated based on zip code. Balance of travel costs and treatment discount was defined as financial benefit. The results showed that 185 patients (95 male) aged 32 to 82 years (median=58) were treated with fixed restorations (FR, n=110), telescopic dentures (TD, n=87), complete dentures (CD, n=17), or other (RD, n=3). The mean number of visits was 11 for FR, 12 for TD, and 9 for CD. Single distance to the clinic ranged from 0.6 to 65 miles (median=12). Total costs of prosthodontics were reduced by 19% on average. The mean financial benefit was 429 USD (median=298, min=-482, max=4025). The financial benefits were found to differ widely, including additional expenditures of patients. Participation, travel burden, and copayment did not depend on age, gender, or occupation. The financial benefit was relativized because students needed at least twice the sessions of a dentist. As a result, the financial efforts of dental schools are significant and compromise a cost-covering education.

  2. Disclosure of hydraulic fracturing fluid chemical additives: analysis of regulations.

    PubMed

    Maule, Alexis L; Makey, Colleen M; Benson, Eugene B; Burrows, Isaac J; Scammell, Madeleine K

    2013-01-01

    Hydraulic fracturing is used to extract natural gas from shale formations. The process involves injecting into the ground fracturing fluids that contain thousands of gallons of chemical additives. Companies are not mandated by federal regulations to disclose the identities or quantities of chemicals used during hydraulic fracturing operations on private or public lands. States have begun to regulate hydraulic fracturing fluids by mandating chemical disclosure. These laws have shortcomings including nondisclosure of proprietary or "trade secret" mixtures, insufficient penalties for reporting inaccurate or incomplete information, and timelines that allow for after-the-fact reporting. These limitations leave lawmakers, regulators, public safety officers, and the public uninformed and ill-prepared to anticipate and respond to possible environmental and human health hazards associated with hydraulic fracturing fluids. We explore hydraulic fracturing exemptions from federal regulations, as well as current and future efforts to mandate chemical disclosure at the federal and state level.

  3. Decontamination formulation with sorbent additive

    DOEpatents

    Tucker; Mark D. , Comstock; Robert H.

    2007-10-16

    A decontamination formulation and method of making that neutralizes the adverse health effects of both chemical and biological compounds, especially chemical warfare (CW) and biological warfare (BW) agents, and toxic industrial chemicals. The formulation provides solubilizing compounds that serve to effectively render the chemical and biological compounds, particularly CW and BW compounds, susceptible to attack, and at least one reactive compound that serves to attack (and detoxify or kill) the compound. The formulation includes at least one solubilizing agent, a reactive compound, a bleaching activator, a sorbent additive, and water. The highly adsorbent, water-soluble sorbent additive (e.g., sorbitol or mannitol) is used to "dry out" one or more liquid ingredients, such as the liquid bleaching activator (e.g., propylene glycol diacetate or glycerol diacetate) and convert the activator into a dry, free-flowing powder that has an extended shelf life, and is more convenient to handle and mix in the field.

  4. Goal striving strategies and effort mobilization: When implementation intentions reduce effort-related cardiac activity during task performance.

    PubMed

    Freydefont, Laure; Gollwitzer, Peter M; Oettingen, Gabriele

    2016-09-01

    Two experiments investigate the influence of goal and implementation intentions on effort mobilization during task performance. Although numerous studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of setting goals and making plans on performance, the effects of goals and plans on effort-related cardiac activity and especially the cardiac preejection period (PEP) during goal striving have not yet been addressed. According to the Motivational Intensity Theory, participants should increase effort mobilization proportionally to task difficulty as long as success is possible and justified. Forming goals and making plans should allow for reduced effort mobilization when participants perform an easy task. However, when the task is difficult, goals and plans should differ in their effect on effort mobilization. Participants who set goals should disengage, whereas participants who made if-then plans should stay in the field showing high effort mobilization during task performance. As expected, using an easy task in Experiment 1, we observed a lower cardiac PEP in both the implementation intention and the goal intention condition than in the control condition. In Experiment 2, we varied task difficulty and demonstrated that while participants with a mere goal intention disengaged from difficult tasks, participants with an implementation intention increased effort mobilization proportionally with task difficulty. These findings demonstrate the influence of goal striving strategies (i.e., mere goals vs. if-then plans) on effort mobilization during task performance.

  5. Global unbalance in seaweed production, research effort and biotechnology markets.

    PubMed

    Mazarrasa, Inés; Olsen, Ylva S; Mayol, Eva; Marbà, Núria; Duarte, Carlos M

    2014-01-01

    Exploitation of the world's oceans is rapidly growing as evidenced by a booming patent market of marine products including seaweed, a resource that is easily accessible without sophisticated bioprospecting technology and that has a high level of domestication globally. The investment in research effort on seaweed aquaculture has recently been identified to be the main force for the development of a biotechnology market of seaweed-derived products and is a more important driver than the capacity of seaweed production. Here, we examined seaweed patent registrations between 1980 and 2009 to assess the growth rate of seaweed biotechnology, its geographic distribution and the types of applications patented. We compare this growth with scientific investment in seaweed aquaculture and with the market of seaweed production. We found that both the seaweed patenting market and the rate of scientific publications are rapidly growing (11% and 16.8% per year respectively) since 1990. The patent market is highly geographically skewed (95% of all registrations belonging to ten countries and the top two holding 65% of the total) compared to the distribution of scientific output among countries (60% of all scientific publications belonging to ten countries and the top two countries holding a 21%), but more homogeneously distributed than the production market (with a 99.8% belonging to the top ten countries, and a 71% to the top two). Food industry was the dominant application for both the patent registrations (37.7%) and the scientific publications (21%) followed in both cases by agriculture and aquaculture applications. This result is consistent with the seaweed taxa most represented. Kelp, which was the target taxa for 47% of the patent registrations, is a traditional ingredient in Asian food and Gracilaria and Ulva, which were the focus of 15% and 13% of the scientific publications respectively, that are also used in more sophisticated applications such as cosmetics, chemical

  6. The Cossack Ranger II Seismograph, Research And Outreach Efforts.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Husebye, E. S.; Fedorenko, Y. V.; Pilgaev, S. V.; Matveeva, T. S.

    2006-12-01

    Earthquake monitoring is a highly desirable endaveour among seismologists but far from easy in practise. The reason for this is 3-fold; costly instrumentation, colleagues who dislike competition in network operations and running costs in terms of data transfer, storage and analysis. However, developments in recent years have off- set technical obstacles of the above kinds thus allowing for personal or small institution seismometry albeit the human factor remains. Anyway, a conventional SP-seismometer costs at least 2000 dollars while a complete 3-component seismograph may well cost 10000 dollars. However, a geophone-based 3-component seismograph may cost less than 2000 dollars but still have a performance matching that of a conventional station. The largest worry is normally not the one-time instrument expenses but operational and maintenance costs over say a 5-years time span. A solution here is socalled Seis Schooloperations implying that stations are deployed close to schools having good 'rocky' sites and permanent Internet access. Such sites are not necessarily optimum regarding ambient noise but on the other hand offer free data transfer to Hub and dedicated teachers taking care of the station operation. We have deployed small seismograph networks based on the above design and operational principles both in Norway and Karelia (NW Russia) as part of national outreach efforts. Noteworthy; recordings from these networks have proved useful in advanced wavefield analysis. A number of countries are economically poor but rich in earthquake activities. In other words, can hardly afford adequate monitoring of local seismicity. An interesting undertaking here is the SENSES project in Bulgaria supported by the "NATO Science for Peace and Security Programme' including 25 seismograph stations deployed nation-wide at sites close to local high schools. The close cooperation with these schools will ensure modest operational costs but also strengthen local outreach efforts in

  7. Developing health system surge capacity: community efforts in jeopardy.

    PubMed

    Felland, Laurie E; Katz, Aaron; Liebhaber, Allison; Cohen, Genna R

    2008-06-01

    Since Sept. 11, 2001, communities have responded to the federal call to enhance health care surge capacity--the space, supplies, staffing and management structure to care for many injured or ill people during a terrorist attack, natural disaster or infectious disease pandemic. Communities with varied experience handling emergencies are building broad surge capacity, including transportation, communication, hospital care and handling mass fatalities, according to a new study by the Center for Studying Health System Change (HSC). Communities rely on federal funding to help coordinate and plan across agencies and providers, conduct training and drills, recruit volunteers, and purchase equipment and stockpile supplies. The current federal focus on pandemic influenza has helped prepare for all types of emergencies, although at times communities struggle with fragmented and restrictive funding requirements. Despite progress, communities face an inherent tension in developing surge capacity. The need for surge capacity has increased at the same time that daily health care capacity has become strained, largely because of workforce shortages, reimbursement pressures and growing numbers of uninsured people. Payers do not subsidize hospitals to keep beds empty for an emergency, nor is it practical for trained staff to sit idle until a disaster hits. To compensate, communities are trying to develop surge capacity in a manner that supports day-to-day activities and stretches existing resources in an emergency. Many of these efforts--including integrating outpatient providers, expanding staff roles and adapting standards of care during a large-scale emergency--require greater coordination, guidance and policy support. As time passes since 9/11 and Hurricane Katrina, federal funding for surge capacity has waned, and communities are concerned about losing surge capacity they have built.

  8. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  9. Fire-Retardant Polymeric Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Williams, Martha K.; Smith, Trent M.

    2011-01-01

    Polyhydroxyamide (PHA) and polymethoxyamide (PMeOA) are fire-retardant (FR) thermoplastic polymers and have been found to be useful as an additive for imparting fire retardant properties to other compatible, thermoplastic polymers (including some elastomers). Examples of compatible flammable polymers include nylons, polyesters, and acrylics. Unlike most prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not appreciably degrade the mechanical properties of the matrix polymer; indeed, in some cases, mechanical properties are enhanced. Also, unlike some prior additives, PHA and PMeOA do not decompose into large amounts of corrosive or toxic compounds during combustion and can be processed at elevated temperatures. PMeOA derivative formulations were synthesized and used as an FR additive in the fabrication of polyamide (PA) and polystyrene (PS) composites with notable reduction (>30 percent for PS) in peak heat release rates compared to the neat polymer as measured by a Cone Calorimeter (ASTM E1354). Synergistic effects were noted with nanosilica composites. These nanosilica composites had more than 50-percent reduction in peak heat release rates. In a typical application, a flammable thermoplastic, thermoplastic blend, or elastomer that one seeks to render flame-retardant is first dry-mixed with PHA or PMeOA or derivative thereof. The proportion of PHA or PMeOA or derivative in the mixture is typically chosen to lie between 1 and 20 weight percent. The dry blend can then be melt-extruded. The extruded polymer blend can further be extruded and/or molded into fibers, pipes, or any other of a variety of objects that may be required to be fire-retardant. The physical and chemical mechanisms which impart flame retardancy of the additive include inhibiting free-radical oxidation in the vapor phase, preventing vaporization of fuel (the polymer), and cooling through the formation of chemical bonds in either the vapor or the condensed phase. Under thermal stress, the cyclic hydroxyl/ methoxy

  10. Electrophysiological correlates of listening effort: neurodynamical modeling and measurement.

    PubMed

    Strauss, Daniel J; Corona-Strauss, Farah I; Trenado, Carlos; Bernarding, Corinna; Reith, Wolfgang; Latzel, Matthias; Froehlich, Matthias

    2010-06-01

    An increased listing effort represents a major problem in humans with hearing impairment. Neurodiagnostic methods for an objective listening effort estimation might support hearing instrument fitting procedures. However the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort is far from being understood and its neural correlates have not been identified yet. In this paper we analyze the cognitive neurodynamics of listening effort by using methods of forward neurophysical modeling and time-scale electroencephalographic neurodiagnostics. In particular, we present a forward neurophysical model for auditory late responses (ALRs) as large-scale listening effort correlates. Here endogenously driven top-down projections related to listening effort are mapped to corticothalamic feedback pathways which were analyzed for the selective attention neurodynamics before. We show that this model represents well the time-scale phase stability analysis of experimental electroencephalographic data from auditory discrimination paradigms. It is concluded that the proposed neurophysical and neuropsychological framework is appropriate for the analysis of listening effort and might help to develop objective electroencephalographic methods for its estimation in future.

  11. Oxygen uptake in maximal effort constant rate and interval running.

    PubMed

    Pratt, Daniel; O'Brien, Brendan J; Clark, Bradley

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated differences in average VO2 of maximal effort interval running to maximal effort constant rate running at lactate threshold matched for time. The average VO2 and distance covered of 10 recreational male runners (VO2max: 4158 ± 390 mL · min(-1)) were compared between a maximal effort constant-rate run at lactate threshold (CRLT), a maximal effort interval run (INT) consisting of 2 min at VO2max speed with 2 minutes at 50% of VO2 repeated 5 times, and a run at the average speed sustained during the interval run (CR submax). Data are presented as mean and 95% confidence intervals. The average VO2 for INT, 3451 (3269-3633) mL · min(-1), 83% VO2max, was not significantly different to CRLT, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 84% VO2max, but both were significantly higher than CR sub-max, 3464 (3285-3643) mL · min(-1), 76% VO2max. The distance covered was significantly greater in CLRT, 4431 (4202-3731) metres, compared to INT and CR sub-max, 4070 (3831-4309) metres. The novel finding was that a 20-minute maximal effort constant rate run uses similar amounts of oxygen as a 20-minute maximal effort interval run despite the greater distance covered in the maximal effort constant-rate run.

  12. The moderating effects of school climate on bullying prevention efforts.

    PubMed

    Low, Sabina; Van Ryzin, Mark

    2014-09-01

    Bullying prevention efforts have yielded mixed effects over the last 20 years. Program effectiveness is driven by a number of factors (e.g., program elements and implementation), but there remains a dearth of understanding regarding the role of school climate on the impact of bullying prevention programs. This gap is surprising, given research suggesting that bullying problems and climate are strongly related. The current study examines the moderating role of school climate on the impacts of a stand-alone bullying prevention curriculum. In addition, the current study examined 2 different dimensions of school climate across both student and staff perceptions. Data for this study were derived from a Steps to Respect (STR) randomized efficacy trial that was conducted in 33 elementary schools over a 1-year period. Schools were randomly assigned to intervention or wait-listed control condition. Outcome measures (pre-to-post) were obtained from (a) all school staff, (b) a randomly selected subset of 3rd-5th grade teachers in each school, and (c) all students in classrooms of selected teachers. Multilevel analyses revealed that psychosocial climate was strongly related to reductions in bullying-related attitudes and behaviors. Intervention status yielded only 1 significant main effect, although, STR schools with positive psychosocial climate at baseline had less victimization at posttest. Policies/administrative commitment to bullying were related to reduced perpetration among all schools. Findings suggest positive psychosocial climate (from both staff and student perspective) plays a foundational role in bullying prevention, and can optimize effects of stand-alone programs.

  13. Improving Collaboration by Standardization Efforts in Systems Biology

    PubMed Central

    Dräger, Andreas; Palsson, Bernhard Ø.

    2014-01-01

    Collaborative genome-scale reconstruction endeavors of metabolic networks would not be possible without a common, standardized formal representation of these systems. The ability to precisely define biological building blocks together with their dynamic behavior has even been considered a prerequisite for upcoming synthetic biology approaches. Driven by the requirements of such ambitious research goals, standardization itself has become an active field of research on nearly all levels of granularity in biology. In addition to the originally envisaged exchange of computational models and tool interoperability, new standards have been suggested for an unambiguous graphical display of biological phenomena, to annotate, archive, as well as to rank models, and to describe execution and the outcomes of simulation experiments. The spectrum now even covers the interaction of entire neurons in the brain, three-dimensional motions, and the description of pharmacometric studies. Thereby, the mathematical description of systems and approaches for their (repeated) simulation are clearly separated from each other and also from their graphical representation. Minimum information definitions constitute guidelines and common operation protocols in order to ensure reproducibility of findings and a unified knowledge representation. Central database infrastructures have been established that provide the scientific community with persistent links from model annotations to online resources. A rich variety of open-source software tools thrives for all data formats, often supporting a multitude of programing languages. Regular meetings and workshops of developers and users lead to continuous improvement and ongoing development of these standardization efforts. This article gives a brief overview about the current state of the growing number of operation protocols, mark-up languages, graphical descriptions, and fundamental software support with relevance to systems biology. PMID:25538939

  14. Should Relational Aggression Be Included in DSM-V?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keenan, Kate; Coyne, Claire; Lahey, Benjamin B.

    2008-01-01

    The study examines whether relational aggression should be included in DSM-V disruptive behavior disorders. The results conclude that some additional information is gathered from assessing relational aggression but not enough to be included in DSM-V.

  15. Synthetic efforts toward the spiroketal core of spirangien A.

    PubMed

    Guérinot, Amandine; Lepesqueux, Guillaume; Sablé, Serge; Reymond, Sébastien; Cossy, Janine

    2010-08-06

    Synthetic studies toward the spiroketal core of spirangien A are described. Two synthetic approaches were developed. Both of them use a diastereoselective aldol addition of a lithium enolate derived from a methyl ketone on an aldehyde. In the first approach, the introduction of the (E)-trisubstituted terminal olefin was achieved by using an iron-catalyzed cross-coupling between an alkyl iodide and a vinyl Grignard reagent and a randomly protected spiroketal was obtained. In the second approach, a highly functionalized spiroketal carbamate, which includes 13 stereogenic centers, was successfully isolated.

  16. Clinical trial registries: more international, converging efforts are needed.

    PubMed

    Pansieri, Claudia; Pandolfini, Chiara; Bonati, Maurizio

    2017-02-27

    Clinical trial registries are being increasingly acknowledged worldwide. We searched for possibly trustworthy online registries that are not already included in the International Clinical Trials Registry Platform to evaluate whether other useful trial data sources exist and whether they could potentially be consulted, since the strategy search within this platform has recently been questioned. Fifty-nine registries were initially identified, and 11 of them fit the criteria applied and were analyzed for quality and usability. Four additional, potentially reliable registries were identified that researchers could exploit in order to obtain a more global view of the issue being investigated.

  17. Brain correlates of the intrinsic subjective cost of effort in sedentary volunteers.

    PubMed

    Bernacer, J; Martinez-Valbuena, I; Martinez, M; Pujol, N; Luis, E; Ramirez-Castillo, D; Pastor, M A

    2016-01-01

    One key aspect of motivation is the ability of agents to overcome excessive weighting of intrinsic subjective costs. This contribution aims to analyze the subjective cost of effort and assess its neural correlates in sedentary volunteers. We recruited a sample of 57 subjects who underwent a decision-making task using a prospective, moderate, and sustained physical effort as devaluating factor. Effort discounting followed a hyperbolic function, and individual discounting constants correlated with an indicator of sedentary lifestyle (global physical activity questionnaire; R=-0.302, P=0.033). A subsample of 24 sedentary volunteers received a functional magnetic resonance imaging scan while performing a similar effort-discounting task. BOLD signal of a cluster located in the dorsomedial prefrontal cortex correlated with the subjective value of the pair of options under consideration (Z>2.3, P<0.05; cluster corrected for multiple comparisons for the whole brain). Furthermore, effort-related discounting of reward correlated with the signal of a cluster in the ventrolateral prefrontal cortex (Z>2.3, P<0.05; small volume cluster corrected for a region of interest including the ventral prefrontal cortex and striatum). This study offers empirical data about the intrinsic subjective cost of effort and its neural correlates in sedentary individuals.

  18. Efforts to reduce sodium intake in Canada: why, what, and when?

    PubMed

    Van Vliet, Bruce N; Campbell, Norman R C

    2011-01-01

    This review addresses the rationale for lowering dietary sodium intake in Canada and recent progress in this direction. Data from trials involving moderate and sustained (≥ 4 weeks) reductions in sodium intake demonstrated significant dose-dependent effects on blood pressure (BP) with larger effects in hypertensive individuals. Average sodium intake in Canada (approximately 3500 mg per day) is well above currently recommended intake targets (≤ 1500 mg per day). Approximately one-eighth of sodium intake is a natural component of food, with the remainder added by food industries (approximately 3/4) or at home (approximately 1/8). Modelling results suggest that lowering Canadian sodium intake to near recommended levels would reduce hypertension prevalence by approximately 30%, prevent approximately 15,500 cardiovascular events per year, and yield savings of approximately CAD$2 billion per year. These estimates do not include the potential additional benefits of long-term sodium restriction on BP, nor BP-independent effects. Actions to facilitate lower sodium intakes in Canada included dietary intake recommendations, mandatory nutritional labelling, a national intake survey, and recommendations of a Government-appointed Sodium Working Group (SWG) that aims to reduce Canadian intakes below 2300 mg per day by 2016. SWG strategies included voluntary reductions in sodium added by food industries, increased education, and research. However, the SWG has recently been disbanded, its responsibilities passed to a Federal-Provincial-Territorial Committee and to a new Food Regulatory Advisory Committee, and the significance for implementing recommendations is unclear. Health care practitioners are encouraged to promote lower dietary sodium intake in their patients and to advocate continued Government efforts to reduce the sodium content of the Canadian food supply.

  19. ESA NEOCC effort to eliminate high Palermo Scale virtual impactors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Micheli, M.; Koschny, D.; Hainaut, O.; Bernardi, F.

    2014-07-01

    At the moment of this writing about 4 % of the known near-Earth objects are known to have at least one future close approach scenario with a non-negligible collision probability within the next century, as routinely computed by the NEODyS and Sentry systems. The most straightforward way to improve the knowledge of the future dynamics of an NEO in order to exclude (or possibly confirm) some of these possible future impact is to obtain additional astrometric observations of the object as soon as it becomes observable again. In particular, since a large fraction (>98 %) of the known objects currently recognized as possible future impactors have been observed during a single opposition, this usually corresponds to obtaining a new set of observations during a second opposition, a so called ''recovery''. However, in some cases the future observability windows for the target after the discovery apparition may be very limited, either because the object is intrinsically small (and therefore requires a very close and consequently rare approach to become observable) or because its orbital dynamic prevents the observability from the ground for a long timespan (as in the case of quasi-resonant objects with a long synodic period). When this happens, the only short-term way to clarify an impact scenario is to look toward the past, and investigate the possibility that unrecognized detections of the object are already present in the databases of old astronomical images, which are often archived by professional telescopes and made available to the community a few months to years after they are exposed. We will here present an effort lead by the newly formed ESA NEO Coordination Centre (NEOCC) in Frascati to pursue both these avenues with the intent of improving the orbital knowledge of the highest-rated possible impactors, as defined by the Palermo Technical Impact Hazard Scale (PS in the following). As an example of our ongoing observational activities, we will first present our

  20. [Therapeutic strategy for recurrent gastric cancer and efforts aimed at finding a cure].

    PubMed

    Asayama, Masako; Yamada-Murano, Toko; Hara, Hiroki; Ooki, Akira; Yoshii, Takako; Yamaguchi, Kensei

    2013-08-01

    Recurrent gastric cancer, in general, is an incurable systemic disease for which the standard of care is systemic chemotherapy. Combination treatment with fluoropyrimidine plus platinum and the addition of trastuzumab for patients with human epidermal growth factor receptor 2(HER2)-positive tumors are widely accepted standard regimens. Fluoropyrimidines include 5-fluorouracil(5-FU), S-1, and capecitabine. There has been an accumulation of data showing the non-inferiority of oxaliplatin to cisplatin. Moreover, the importance of salvage chemotherapy has also been proven in prospective studies. However, retrospective analyses still indicate that the 5-year survival rates associated with metastatic gastric cancer are only a few percent with chemotherapy. To improve survival, newer triplet regimens, such as a combination of docetaxel, cisplatin, and S-1(DCS)and modified folinic acid, 5-FU, oxaliplatin, and irinotecan(modified FOLFOXIRI), are now under clinical investigation. Despite the limitations of retrospective data, surgical resection for gastric cancer liver metastases appears to be beneficial in carefully selected patients. Currently, the implication of surgical resection for metastatic gastric cancer is being evaluated in clinical trials. These efforts will result in further clinical advances with tailored treatment strategies.

  1. Barriers to, Efforts in, and Optimization of Integrated One Health Surveillance: A Review and Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Uchtmann, Nathaniel; Herrmann, John Arthur; Hahn, Edwin C; Beasley, Val Richard

    2015-06-01

    Insufficient data from existing surveillance systems underlie societal tolerance of acute and slow-onset health disasters that threaten, harm, and kill vast numbers of humans, animals, and plants. Here we describe barriers to integrated "One Health" surveillance, including those related to a lack of medical services, professional divisions, incompatible vocabularies, isolated data sets, and territorial borders. We draw from publications of experts who justify broader and more integrated surveillance, education, and stewardship focused on preventing and mitigating disease emergence and re-emergence. In addition, we highlight efforts from Illinois, the United States and the broader world, pointing to examples of relevant education; ways to acquire, compile, and analyze diagnostic and syndromic data; mapping of diseases of humans and animals; and rapid communication of findings and recommendations. For the future, we propose using needed outcomes for health and sustainability to set priorities for One Health programs of education, surveillance, and stewardship. Professionals and paraprofessionals should gather, interpret, and widely communicate the implications of data, not only on infectious diseases, but also on toxic agents, malnutrition, ecological damage, the grave impacts of warfare, societal drivers underlying these problems, and the effectiveness of specific countermeasures.

  2. The MICRO-BOSS scheduling system: Current status and future efforts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sadeh, Norman M.

    1992-01-01

    In this paper, a micro-opportunistic approach to factory scheduling was described that closely monitors the evolution of bottlenecks during the construction of the schedule and continuously redirects search towards the bottleneck that appears to be most critical. This approach differs from earlier opportunistic approaches, as it does not require scheduling large resource subproblems or large job subproblems before revising the current scheduling strategy. This micro-opportunistic approach was implemented in the context of the MICRO-BOSS factory scheduling system. A study comparing MICRO-BOSS against a macro-opportunistic scheduler suggests that the additional flexibility of the micro-opportunistic approach to scheduling generally yields important reductions in both tardiness and inventory. Current research efforts include: adaptation of MICRO-BOSS to deal with sequence-dependent setups and development of micro-opportunistic reactive scheduling techniques that will enable the system to patch the schedule in the presence of contingencies such as machine breakdowns, raw materials arriving late, job cancellations, etc.

  3. Literacy Education and Social Change Efforts in Pre-Communist China: The Mass Education Movement 1922-1949.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paulston, Rolland G.

    Socioeconomic development in China between the two world wars included an extensive mass education effort by reform-minded young Chinese. Focusing on adult literacy and rural reconstruction, Chinese educators employed various strategies to stimulate and assist self-help efforts in Chinese villages. Paramount among these educational techniques were…

  4. Dopamine does double duty in motivating cognitive effort

    PubMed Central

    Westbrook, Andrew; Braver, Todd S.

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive control is subjectively costly, suggesting that engagement is modulated in relationship to incentive state. Dopamine appears to play key roles. In particular, dopamine may mediate cognitive effort by two broad classes of functions: 1) modulating the functional parameters of working memory circuits subserving effortful cognition, and 2) mediating value-learning and decision-making about effortful cognitive action. Here we tie together these two lines of research, proposing how dopamine serves “double duty”, translating incentive information into cognitive motivation. PMID:26889810

  5. Ground System Harmonization Efforts at NASA's Goddard Space Flight Center

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Dan

    2011-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the efforts made at Goddard Space Flight Center in harmonizing the ground systems to assist in collaboration in space ventures. The key elements of this effort are: (1) Moving to a Common Framework (2) Use of Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS) Standards (3) Collaboration Across NASA Centers (4) Collaboration Across Industry and other Space Organizations. These efforts are working to bring into harmony the GSFC systems with CCSDS standards to allow for common software, use of Commercial Off the Shelf Software and low risk development and operations and also to work toward harmonization with other NASA centers

  6. Current efforts and future prospects in the development of live mycobacteria as vaccines.

    PubMed

    Ng, Tony W; Saavedra-Ávila, Noemí A; Kennedy, Steven C; Carreño, Leandro J; Porcelli, Steven A

    2015-01-01

    The development of more effective vaccines against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb) remains a major goal in the effort to reduce the enormous global burden of disease caused by this pathogen. Whole-cell vaccines based on live mycobacteria with attenuated virulence represent an appealing approach, providing broad antigen exposure and intrinsic adjuvant properties to prime durable immune responses. However, designing vaccine strains with an optimal balance between attenuation and immunogenicity has proven to be extremely challenging. Recent basic and clinical research efforts have broadened our understanding of Mtb pathogenesis and created numerous new vaccine candidates that have been designed to overcome different aspects of immune evasion by Mtb. In this review, we provide an overview of the current efforts to create improved vaccines against tuberculosis based on modifications of live attenuated mycobacteria. In addition, we discuss the use of such vaccine strains as vectors for stimulating protective immunity against other infectious diseases and cancers.

  7. Heritage Language Fluency, Ethnic Identity, and School Effort of Immigrant Chinese and Mexican Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K.

    2008-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures which assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second generation Mexican adolescents. PMID:19209978

  8. Heritage language fluency, ethnic identity, and school effort of immigrant Chinese and Mexico adolescents.

    PubMed

    Kim, Su Yeong; Chao, Ruth K

    2009-01-01

    The assumption that heritage language fluency is an essential component of ethnic identity, and that both factors are important predictors of school effort, was tested across two ethnic groups spanning multiple generations of immigrants. The sample consisted of 207 immigrant Chinese (first- and second-generation) and 354 Mexican (first-, second-, and third-generation) adolescents. The findings demonstrate that heritage language fluency is an important component of ethnic identity for second-generation Mexican adolescents, but not for second-generation Chinese adolescents. Thus, for this latter group, it may not be appropriate to use identity measures that assess heritage language fluency as a part of the general dimension of ethnic identity. The findings also show that higher reading and writing skills in Spanish are significant predictors of school effort for all three generations of Mexican adolescents; in addition, higher ethnic identity exploration is related to the school effort of second-generation Mexican adolescents.

  9. Respiratory effort correction strategies to improve the reproducibility of lung expansion measurements

    SciTech Connect

    Du, Kaifang; Reinhardt, Joseph M.; Christensen, Gary E.; Ding, Kai; Bayouth, John E.

    2013-12-15

    Purpose: Four-dimensional computed tomography (4DCT) can be used to make measurements of pulmonary function longitudinally. The sensitivity of such measurements to identify change depends on measurement uncertainty. Previously, intrasubject reproducibility of Jacobian-based measures of lung tissue expansion was studied in two repeat prior-RT 4DCT human acquisitions. Difference in respiratory effort such as breathing amplitude and frequency may affect longitudinal function assessment. In this study, the authors present normalization schemes that correct ventilation images for variations in respiratory effort and assess the reproducibility improvement after effort correction.Methods: Repeat 4DCT image data acquired within a short time interval from 24 patients prior to radiation therapy (RT) were used for this analysis. Using a tissue volume preserving deformable image registration algorithm, Jacobian ventilation maps in two scanning sessions were computed and compared on the same coordinate for reproducibility analysis. In addition to computing the ventilation maps from end expiration to end inspiration, the authors investigated the effort normalization strategies using other intermediated inspiration phases upon the principles of equivalent tidal volume (ETV) and equivalent lung volume (ELV). Scatter plots and mean square error of the repeat ventilation maps and the Jacobian ratio map were generated for four conditions: no effort correction, global normalization, ETV, and ELV. In addition, gamma pass rate was calculated from a modified gamma index evaluation between two ventilation maps, using acceptance criterions of 2 mm distance-to-agreement and 5% ventilation difference.Results: The pattern of regional pulmonary ventilation changes as lung volume changes. All effort correction strategies improved reproducibility when changes in respiratory effort were greater than 150 cc (p < 0.005 with regard to the gamma pass rate). Improvement of reproducibility was

  10. Evaluation of advanced polymers for additive manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Rios, Orlando; Morrison, Crystal

    2015-09-01

    The goal of this Manufacturing Demonstration Facility (MDF) technical collaboration project between Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) and PPG Industries, Inc. was to evaluate the feasibility of using conventional coatings chemistry and technology to build up material layer-by-layer. The PPG-ORNL study successfully demonstrated that polymeric coatings formulations may overcome many limitations of common thermoplastics used in additive manufacturing (AM), allow lightweight nozzle design for material deposition and increase build rate. The materials effort focused on layer-by-layer deposition of coatings with each layer fusing together. The combination of materials and deposition results in an additively manufactured build that has sufficient mechanical properties to bear the load of additional layers, yet is capable of bonding across the z-layers to improve build direction strength. The formulation properties were tuned to enable a novel, high-throughput deposition method that is highly scalable, compatible with high loading of reinforcing fillers, and is inherently low-cost.

  11. Activational and effort-related aspects of motivation: neural mechanisms and implications for psychopathology.

    PubMed

    Salamone, John D; Yohn, Samantha E; López-Cruz, Laura; San Miguel, Noemí; Correa, Mercè

    2016-05-01

    Motivation has been defined as the process that allows organisms to regulate their internal and external environment, and control the probability, proximity and availability of stimuli. As such, motivation is a complex process that is critical for survival, which involves multiple behavioural functions mediated by a number of interacting neural circuits. Classical theories of motivation suggest that there are both directional and activational aspects of motivation, and activational aspects (i.e. speed and vigour of both the instigation and persistence of behaviour) are critical for enabling organisms to overcome work-related obstacles or constraints that separate them from significant stimuli. The present review discusses the role of brain dopamine and related circuits in behavioural activation, exertion of effort in instrumental behaviour, and effort-related decision-making, based upon both animal and human studies. Impairments in behavioural activation and effort-related aspects of motivation are associated with psychiatric symptoms such as anergia, fatigue, lassitude and psychomotor retardation, which cross multiple pathologies, including depression, schizophrenia, and Parkinson's disease. Therefore, this review also attempts to provide an interdisciplinary approach that integrates findings from basic behavioural neuroscience, behavioural economics, clinical neuropsychology, psychiatry, and neurology, to provide a coherent framework for future research and theory in this critical field. Although dopamine systems are a critical part of the brain circuitry regulating behavioural activation, exertion of effort, and effort-related decision-making, mesolimbic dopamine is only one part of a distributed circuitry that includes multiple neurotransmitters and brain areas. Overall, there is a striking similarity between the brain areas involved in behavioural activation and effort-related processes in rodents and in humans. Animal models of effort-related decision

  12. Status Report of the DPHEP Study Group: Towards a Global Effort for Sustainable Data Preservation in High Energy Physics

    SciTech Connect

    Akopov, Zaven; Amerio, Silvia; Asner, David; Avetisyan, Eduard; Barring, Olof; Beacham, James; Bernardi, Gregorio; Bethke, Siegfried; Boehnlein, Amber; Brooks, Travis; Browder, Thomas; Brun, Rene; Cartaro, Concetta; Cattaneo, Marco; Chen, Gang; Corney, David; Cranmer, Kyle; Culbertson, Ray; Dallmeier-Tiessen, Sunje; Denisov, Dmitri

    2013-03-27

    Data from high-energy physics (HEP) experiments are collected with significant financial and human effort and are mostly unique. An inter-experimental study group on HEP data preservation and long-term analysis was convened as a panel of the International Committee for Future Accelerators (ICFA). The group was formed by large collider-based experiments and investigated the technical and organisational aspects of HEP data preservation. An intermediate report was released in November 2009 addressing the general issues of data preservation in HEP. This paper includes and extends the intermediate report. It provides an analysis of the research case for data preservation and a detailed description of the various projects at experiment, laboratory and international levels. In addition, the paper provides a concrete proposal for an international organisation in charge of the data management and policies in high-energy physics.

  13. Experiences with Two Reliability Data Collection Efforts (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Sheng, S.; Lantz, E.

    2013-08-01

    This presentation, given by NREL at the Wind Reliability Experts Meeting in Albuquerque, New Mexico, outlines the causes of wind plant operational expenditures and gearbox failures and describes NREL's efforts to create a gearbox failure database.

  14. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  15. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  16. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  17. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  18. 40 CFR 35.165 - Maintenance of effort.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... STATE AND LOCAL ASSISTANCE Environmental Program Grants Water Pollution Control (section 106) § 35.165 Maintenance of effort. To receive a Water Pollution Control grant, a State or interstate agency must...

  19. Strength of Intentional Effort Enhances the Sense of Agency

    PubMed Central

    Minohara, Rin; Wen, Wen; Hamasaki, Shunsuke; Maeda, Takaki; Kato, Motoichiro; Yamakawa, Hiroshi; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asama, Hajime

    2016-01-01

    Sense of agency (SoA) refers to the feeling of controlling one’s own actions, and the experience of controlling external events with one’s actions. The present study examined the effect of strength of intentional effort on SoA. We manipulated the strength of intentional effort using three types of buttons that differed in the amount of force required to depress them. We used a self-attribution task as an explicit measure of SoA. The results indicate that strength of intentional effort enhanced self-attribution when action-effect congruency was unreliable. We concluded that intentional effort importantly affects the integration of multiple cues affecting explicit judgments of agency when the causal relationship action and effect was unreliable. PMID:27536267

  20. Cognitive dissonance in children: justification of effort or contrast?

    PubMed

    Alessandri, Jérôme; Darcheville, Jean-Claude; Zentall, Thomas R

    2008-06-01

    Justification of effort is a form of cognitive dissonance in which the subjective value of an outcome is directly related to the effort that went into obtaining it. However, it is likely that in social contexts (such as the requirements for joining a group) an inference can be made (perhaps incorrectly) that an outcome that requires greater effort to obtain in fact has greater value. Here we present evidence that a cognitive dissonance effect can be found in children under conditions that offer better control for the social value of the outcome. This effect is quite similar to contrast effects that recently have been studied in animals. We suggest that contrast between the effort required to obtain the outcome and the outcome itself provides a more parsimonious account of this phenomenon and perhaps other related cognitive dissonance phenomena as well. Research will be needed to identify cognitive dissonance processes that are different from contrast effects of this kind.