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Sample records for additional empirical support

  1. Empirically-supported and non-empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa: retrospective patient ratings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa include cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal therapy. Whilst these treatments have been shown to be effective in multiple randomised controlled trials, little research has investigated how they are perceived by patients who receive them. This study investigated whether empirically-supported psychological therapies (ESTs) are associated with superior self-rated treatment outcomes in clients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Results 98 adults who had received psychological therapy for BN in the United Kingdom completed a questionnaire which retrospectively assessed the specific contents of their psychological therapy and self-rated treatment outcomes. Around half the sample, fifty three participants reported receiving an EST. Fifty of these received Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and three Interpersonal Therapy (IPT). Where therapy met expert criteria for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa (CBT-BN, an EST) participants reported superior treatment outcomes than those who appeared to receive non-specialist cognitive-behavioural therapy. However, self-rated treatment outcomes were similar overall between those whose therapy met criteria for ESTs and those whose therapy did not. Conclusions The findings offer tentative support for the perceived helpfulness of CBT-BN as evaluated in controlled research trials. Cognitive-behavioural therapies for BN, as they are delivered in the UK, may not necessarily be perceived as more beneficial by clients with BN than psychological therapies which currently have less empirical support. PMID:24999419

  2. Additive empirical parametrization and microscopic study of deuteron breakup

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Avrigeanu, M.; Avrigeanu, V.

    2017-02-01

    Comparative assessment of the total breakup proton-emission cross sections measured for 56 MeV deuteron interaction with target nuclei from 12C to 209Bi, with an empirical parametrization and recently calculated microscopic neutron-removal cross sections was done at the same time with similar data measured at 15, 25.5, 70, and 80 MeV. Comparable mass dependencies of the elastic-breakup (EB) cross sections provided by the empirical parametrization and the microscopic results have been also found at the deuteron energy of 56 MeV, while the assessment of absolute-values variance up to a factor of two was not possible because of the lack of EB measurements at energies higher than 25.5 MeV. While the similarities represent an additional validation of the microscopic calculations, the cross-section difference should be considered within the objectives of further measurements.

  3. Issues and Controversies that Surround Recent Texts on Empirically Supported and Empirically Based Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Paul, Howard A.

    2004-01-01

    Since the 1993 APA task force of the Society of Clinical Psychology developed guidelines to apply data-based psychology to the identification of effective psychotherapy, there has been an increasing number of texts focussing on Empirically based Psychotherapy and Empirically Supported Treatments. This manuscript examines recent key texts and…

  4. Empirically supported religious and spiritual therapies.

    PubMed

    Hook, Joshua N; Worthington, Everett L; Davis, Don E; Jennings, David J; Gartner, Aubrey L; Hook, Jan P

    2010-01-01

    This article evaluated the efficacy status of religious and spiritual (R/S) therapies for mental health problems, including treatments for depression, anxiety, unforgiveness, eating disorders, schizophrenia, alcoholism, anger, and marital issues. Religions represented included Christianity, Islam, Taoism, and Buddhism. Some studies incorporated a generic spirituality. Several R/S therapies were found to be helpful for clients, supporting the further use and research on these therapies. There was limited evidence that R/S therapies outperformed established secular therapies, thus the decision to use an R/S therapy may be an issue of client preference and therapist comfort.

  5. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the…

  6. Cancer support groups: a critical review of empirical studies.

    PubMed

    Gottlieb, Benjamin H; Wachala, Elizabeth D

    2007-05-01

    Support groups for adults affected by cancer are widely offered by local community and national agencies in North America. This type of psychosocial intervention is defined in terms of its structure and functions, and its theoretical underpinnings and models of practice are described. Forty-four empirical studies of professionally led cancer support groups are summarized and critically reviewed. These studies include 32 outcome evaluations of randomized controlled trials, two process evaluations, and 10 consumer satisfaction studies. The findings reveal high levels of consumer satisfaction, and the outcome evaluations substantiate the morale and other quality of life benefits short of prolonging life. Discussion centers on priorities for future research and practice.

  7. Empirically supported psychological treatments: the challenge of evaluating clinical innovations.

    PubMed

    Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David; Palmer-Hoffman, Julie; Stein, Phyllis K; Tranguch, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Clear and transparent standards are required to establish whether a therapeutic method is "evidence based." Even when research demonstrates a method to be efficacious, it may not become available to patients who could benefit from it, a phenomenon known as the "translational gap." Only 30% of therapies cross the gap, and the lag between empirical validation and clinical implementation averages 17 years. To address these problems, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association published a set of standards for "empirically supported treatments" in the mid-1990s that allows the assessment of clinical modalities. This article reviews these criteria, identifies their strengths, and discusses their impact on the translational gap, using the development of a clinical innovation called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) as a case study. Twelve specific recommendations for updates of the Division 12 criteria are made based on lessons garnered from the adoption of EFT within the clinical community. These recommendations would shorten the cycle from the research setting to clinical practice, increase transparency, incorporate recent scientific advances, and enhance the capacity for succinct comparisons among treatments.

  8. Well-Established and Empirically Supported Behavioral Treatments for Migraine.

    PubMed

    Penzien, Donald B; Irby, Megan B; Smitherman, Todd A; Rains, Jeanetta C; Houle, Timothy T

    2015-07-01

    This paper provides an overview of the well-established and empirically supported behavioral interventions for the treatment of migraine. The considerable evidence base addressing behavioral interventions amassed since 1969 has conclusively established the efficacy of therapies featuring combinations of relaxation, biofeedback, and stress management training, and demonstrated they are capable of yielding benefits on par with pharmacological therapies for migraine. Behavioral interventions also are well suited for delivery across a variety of different contexts (e.g., group vs. individual, standard clinic vs. limited therapist contact, face-to-face vs. technology-assisted). Despite the amply established efficacy and effectiveness of these self-management interventions for the treatment of migraine, the availability and implementation of these approaches remain limited for many headache sufferers. We anticipate the technological advances in delivery platforms will provide better access to behavioral self-management strategies for migraine.

  9. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate.

    PubMed

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A; Dulmus, Catherine N; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-11-01

    OBJECTIVES: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the working conditions in programs that currently use ESTs. METHOD: This study compared the culture and climate scores of a large organization's programs that use ESTs and those programs indicating no EST usage. RESULTS: Of the total 55 different programs (1,273 frontline workers), 27 programs used ESTs. Results indicate that the programs offering an EST had significantly more rigid and resistant cultures, compared to those without any ESTs. In regard to climate, programs offering an EST were significantly less engaged, less functional, and more stressed. CONCLUSION: Outcomes indicate a significant disruption in organizational culture and climate for programs offering ESTs.

  10. Identifying and developing empirically supported child and adolescent treatments.

    PubMed

    Kazdin, A E; Weisz, J R

    1998-02-01

    Child and adolescent therapy outcome research findings attest to the efficacy of a variety of treatments. This article illustrates promising treatments for selected internalizing (anxiety and depression), externalizing (oppositional, and antisocial behavior), and other (obesity and autism) conditions, and for other aims (preparation for medical and dental procedures). Studies in these areas illustrate worthwhile characteristics that can help inform the search for empirically supported treatments. These characteristics include randomized controlled trials, well-described and replicable treatments, tests with clinical samples, tests of clinical significance, broad-based outcome assessment including measures of real-world functioning, and others. Continued research progress will depend on greater attention to magnitude and maintenance of therapeutic change, long-term follow-up, moderators and mediators of change, and development and testing of treatment in conditions relevant to clinical practice.

  11. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  12. Empirically Supported Interventions for Sexual and Gender Minority Youth.

    PubMed

    Austin, Ashley; Craig, Shelley L

    2015-01-01

    When empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are effectively adapted for use with minority populations, they may be more efficacious. As such, there is a need to adapt existing ESTs for use with diverse sexual and gender minority youth (SGMY). The unique bias-based challenges faced by SGMY require the integration of affirmative practices into ESTs to effectively address the specific needs of this underserved group of youth. The primary purpose of the authors in this article is to present a clearly articulated stakeholder driven model for developing an affirmative adapted version of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) for use with diverse SGMY. The authors' approach to adaptation follows the "adapt and evaluate" framework for enhancing cultural congruence of interventions for minority groups. A community based participatory research approach, consistent with a stakeholder driven process, is utilized to develop the intervention from the ground up through the voices of the target community. Researchers conducted 3 focus groups with culturally diverse SGMY to explore salient aspects of youths' cultural and SGM identities in order to inform the intervention and ensure its applicability to a wide range of SGMY. Focus group data is analyzed and integrated into an existing group-based CBT intervention. The following themes emerge as critical to affirmative work with diverse SGMY: (1) the interplay between cultural norms, gender norms, sexual orientation, and gender identity; (2) the complex role of religious community within the lives of SGMY; and (3) consideration of extended family and cultural community as youth navigate their SGM identities.

  13. Is there any empirical support for biodiversity offset policy?

    PubMed

    Curran, Michael; Hellweg, Stefanie; Beck, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity offsets are seen as a policy mechanism to balance development and conservation goals. Many offset schemes employ habitat restoration in one area to recreate biodiversity value that is destroyed elsewhere, assuming that recovery is timely and predictable. Recent research has challenged these assumptions on the grounds that restoration implies long time delays and a low certainty of success. To investigate these assertions, and to assess the strength of empirical support for offset policy, we used a meta-analytic approach to analyze data from 108 comparative studies of secondary growth (SG) and old-growth (OG) habitat (a total of 1228 SG sites and 716 OG reference sites). We extracted species checklists and calculated standardized response ratios for species richness, Fisher's alpha, Sorenson similarity, and Morisita-Horn similarity. We modeled diversity change with habitat age using generalized linear models and multi-model averaging, correcting for a number of potential explanatory variables. We tested whether (1) diversity of passively and actively restored habitat converges to OG values over time, (2) active restoration significantly accelerates this process, and (3) current offset policies are appropriate to the predicted uncertainties and time lags associated with restoration. The results indicate that in the best case, species richness converges to OG reference values within a century, species similarity (Sorenson) takes about twice as long, and assemblage composition (Morisita-Horn) up to an order of magnitude longer (hundreds to thousands of years). Active restoration significantly accelerates the process for all indices, but the inherently large time lags, uncertainty, and risk of restoration failure require offset ratios that far exceed what is currently applied in practice. Restoration offset policy therefore leads to a net loss of biodiversity, and represents an inappropriate use of the otherwise valuable tool of ecosystem restoration.

  14. An empirical study of early childhood support through partnership building.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jianjun; Ortiz, Theresa; Navarro, Diana; Maier, Roland; Wang, Summer; Wang, Lisa; Wang, Libing

    2016-12-01

    The first five years were recognized as a critical period of child growth. Accordingly, California voters approved tobacco tax through Proposition 10 to fund early childhood services since 1998. Due to the state revenue decline, Service Integration has been advocated to enhance program supports in Child Health, Family Functioning, and Child Development. In this study, interview data are analyzed to examine the partnership building among 40 programs. The results indicate a significant impact of the service outreach across remote communities in Kern County, California. In addition, contextual information is provided to facilitate interpretation of the partnership strength from a social network analysis. Enhancement of this investigation is discussed in light of future development.

  15. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  16. Empirically Supported Family and Peer Interventions for Dual Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article selectively reviews evidence-based family and peer interventions for co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. Although few researchers have specifically investigated family interventions for dual disorders, considerable empirical evidence exists for the effectiveness of such interventions in treating each of…

  17. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  18. Navy Additive Manufacturing: Policy Analysis for Future DLA Material Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-12-01

    support programs. 14. SUBJECT TERMS additive manufacturing, 3D printing, technology adoption 15. NUMBER OF PAGES 69 16...LEFT BLANK xii LIST OF ACRONYMS AND ABBREVIATIONS 3D Three Dimensions or Three Dimensional 3DP 3D Printing AM Additive Manufacturing AMDO...this is about to change. Additive manufacturing (AM) systems (commonly known as “ 3D printing”) could bring the organic parts manufacturing capability

  19. Attachment-Based Family Therapy: A Review of the Empirical Support.

    PubMed

    Diamond, Guy; Russon, Jody; Levy, Suzanne

    2016-09-01

    Attachment-based family therapy (ABFT) is an empirically supported treatment designed to capitalize on the innate, biological desire for meaningful and secure relationships. The therapy is grounded in attachment theory and provides an interpersonal, process-oriented, trauma-focused approach to treating adolescent depression, suicidality, and trauma. Although a process-oriented therapy, ABFT offers a clear structure and road map to help therapists quickly address attachment ruptures that lie at the core of family conflict. Several clinical trials and process studies have demonstrated empirical support for the model and its proposed mechanism of change. This article provides an overview of the clinical model and the existing empirical support for ABFT.

  20. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Childhood Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    The clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatment approaches is reviewed with the intent to facilitate the training of counseling students. Empirically supported treatments (ESTs) is defined operationally as evidence-based treatments following the listing of empirically validated psychological treatments reported by…

  1. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  2. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  3. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations.

  4. Empirical Support for the Differential Diagnosis of Career Indecision.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuqua, Dale R.; And Others

    1988-01-01

    Examined career indecision by performing cluster analysis on data from 155 high school students on five variables: state anxiety, trait anxiety, locus of control, identity, and career indecision. Results support hypothesis that different forms of career indecision exist, and confirm earlier concepts about importance of anxiety in differentiating…

  5. Adaptive evolution: evaluating empirical support for theoretical predictions

    PubMed Central

    Olson-Manning, Carrie F.; Wagner, Maggie R.; Mitchell-Olds, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Adaptive evolution is shaped by the interaction of population genetics, natural selection and underlying network and biochemical constraints. Variation created by mutation, the raw material for evolutionary change, is translated into phenotypes by flux through metabolic pathways and by the topography and dynamics of molecular networks. Finally, the retention of genetic variation and the efficacy of selection depend on population genetics and demographic history. Emergent high-throughput experimental methods and sequencing technologies allow us to gather more evidence and to move beyond the theory in different systems and populations. Here we review the extent to which recent evidence supports long-established theoretical principles of adaptation. PMID:23154809

  6. An empirical evaluation of graphical interfaces to support flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Bihari, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Whether optimization techniques or expert systems technologies are used, the underlying inference processes and the model or knowledge base for a computerized problem-solving system are likely to be incomplete for any given complex, real-world task. To deal with the resultant brittleness, it has been suggested that 'cooperative' rather than 'automated' problem-solving systems be designed. Such cooperative systems are proposed to explicitly enhance the collaboration of people and the computer system when working in partnership to solve problems. This study evaluates the impact of alternative design concepts on the performance of airline pilots interacting with such a cooperative system designed to support enroute flight planning. Thirty pilots were studied using three different versions of the system. The results clearly demonstrate that different system design concepts can strongly influence the cognitive processes of users. Indeed, one of the designs studied caused four times as many pilots to accept a poor flight amendment. Based on think-aloud protocols, cognitive models are proposed to account for how features of the computer system interacted with specific types of scenarios to influence exploration and decision-making by the pilots. The results are then used to develop recommendations for guiding the design of cooperative systems.

  7. Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-02-01

    Planning Report to the Chairman, Subcommittee on Contracting Oversight, Committee on Homeland Security and Governmental Affairs, U.S. Senate...TITLE AND SUBTITLE Warfighter Support: DOD Needs Additional Steps to Fully Integrate Operational Contract Support into Contingency Planning 5a...Support into Contingency Planning Why GAO Did This Study DOD has relied extensively on contractors for operations in Iraq and Afghanistan over the

  8. Treating Asian American women with eating disorders: multicultural competency and empirically supported treatment.

    PubMed

    Smart, Rebekah

    2010-01-01

    Disordered eating and body dissatisfaction are occurring among Asian American women, but the vast majority of treatment literature is based on White Western women. Empirically supported treatments are increasingly encouraged for eating disorders, but therapists find little guidance for implementing them in a culturally sensitive manner. This paper reviews eating problems in Asian American women and explores concepts important to cultural competency in therapy. Examples of how cultural adaptations could be made to an empirically supported treatment are illustrated in a case scenario using aspects of C. G. Fairburn's Enhanced Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Eating Disorders (2008).

  9. Evaluating the Validity of Systematic Reviews to Identify Empirically Supported Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Detrich, Ronnie; Spencer, Trina D.

    2012-01-01

    The "best available evidence" is one of the three basic inputs into evidence-based practice. This paper sets out a framework for evaluating the quality of systematic reviews that are intended to identify empirically supported interventions as a way of summarizing the best available evidence. The premise of this paper is that the process of…

  10. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

  11. Using Mental Health Consultation to Decrease Disruptive Behaviors in Preschoolers: Adapting an Empirically-Supported Intervention

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Williford, Amanda P.; Shelton, Terri L.

    2008-01-01

    Background: This study examined the effectiveness of an adaptation of an empirically-supported intervention delivered using mental health consultation to preschoolers who displayed elevated disruptive behaviors. Method: Ninety-six preschoolers, their teachers, and their primary caregivers participated. Children in the intervention group received…

  12. An Exploration of Students' Perceptions of Empirically Supported Treatments: The Significance of Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lori; Giorgio, Tina; Houston, Hank; Jacobucci, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate differences in students 'perceptions of empirically supported treatments (ESTS) randomized to experimental (n= 10) and attention-control (n= 10) manual-based therapy interventions. The results indicated that attitudinal changes took place for both groups. The results…

  13. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Pica in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…

  14. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Method: A literature…

  15. A Survey of Graduate Training in Empirically Supported and Manualized Treatments: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karekla, Maria; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; Forsyth, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The promotion and dissemination of empirically supported (ESTs) and manualized therapies are important, albeit controversial, developments within clinical science and practice. To date, studies evaluating training opportunities and attitudes about such treatments at the graduate, predoctoral internship, and postdoctoral levels have focused on the…

  16. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Urban, Greg; Zanotti, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    In recent years, bulimia nervosa has plagued young women and become a major issue in mental health care. Strategies for training counseling students so as to acquaint them with clinical research on treatments for bulimia are presented in this report. It reviews empirically supported treatments (ESTs) concerning eating disorders in order to…

  17. The Empirically Supported Status of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smout, Matthew F.; Hayes, Louise; Atkins, Paul W. B.; Klausen, Jessica; Duguid, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy that predominantly teaches clients acceptance and mindfulness skills, as well as values clarification and enactment skills. Australian treatment guideline providers have been cautious in recognising ACT as empirically supported. This article reviews evidence…

  18. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  19. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Psychophysiological Disorders and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    In training counseling students, it is increasingly important to acquaint them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. This review of empirically supported treatments (EST's) concerning psychophysiological disorders and chronic pain is intended to facilitate the educational process. EST's, or…

  20. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…

  1. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  2. A new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB): An empirical investigation with a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Sheying

    2016-01-01

    Bereavement can be an extremely stressful experience while the protective effect of social support is expected to facilitate the adjustment after loss. The ingredients or elements of social support as illustrated by a new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB), however, requires empirical evidence. Who might be the most effective providers of social support in bereavement has also been understudied, particularly within specific cultural contexts. The present study uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore these two important issues among bereaved Chinese families and individuals. The results show that three major types of social support described by the SSB model were frequently acknowledged by the participants in this study. Aside from relevant books, family and friends were the primary sources of social support who in turn received support from their workplaces. Helping professionals turned out to be the least significant source of social support in the Chinese cultural context. Differences by gender, age, and bereavement time were also found. The findings render empirical evidence to the conceptual model of Social Support in Bereavement and also offer culturally relevant guidance for providing effective support to the bereaved.

  3. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  4. Sampling of empirically supported psychological treatments from health psychology: smoking, chronic pain, cancer, and bulimia nervosa.

    PubMed

    Compas, B E; Haaga, D A; Keefe, F J; Leitenberg, H; Williams, D A

    1998-02-01

    Interventions in health psychology and behavioral medicine represent an integral area of research for the development of psychological therapies to enhance health behaviors, manage symptoms and sequelae of disease, treat psychological symptoms and disorders, prolong survival in the face of a life-threatening illness, and improve quality of life. A sampling of interventions in health psychology and behavioral medicine is offered that meet the criteria for empirically supported treatments for smoking cessation, chronic pain, cancer, and bulimia nervosa. Evidence for empirically supported treatments is identified, along with promising interventions that do not yet meet the criteria as outlined by D. L. Chambless and S. D. Hollon (1998). Evidence for the effectiveness and clinical significance of these interventions is reviewed, and issues in this area of research are outlined.

  5. Defense Support of Civil Authorities: DOD Mission or Additional Duty

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-12-14

    Illustrations iv Biography v Introduction 1 Background 2 DSCA Execution 7 DSCA Shortfalls...12 Recommendations 16 Conclusion 19 Bibliography 21 Illustrations Page Figure 1 . Map of 10 FEMA Regions...the United Kingdom …” 1 More than 72,000 uniformed military members deployed in support of the Katrina response to save lives, mitigate human

  6. Developing empirically supported theories of change for housing investment and health.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that improving housing conditions can lead to improved health may seem a self-evident hypothesis. Yet evidence from intervention studies suggests small or unclear health improvements, indicating that further thought is required to refine this hypothesis. Articulation of a theory can help avoid a black box approach to research and practice and has been advocated as especially valuable for those evaluating complex social interventions like housing. This paper presents a preliminary theory of housing improvement and health based on a systematic review conducted by the authors. Following extraction of health outcomes, data on all socio-economic impacts were extracted by two independent reviewers from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Health and socio-economic outcome data from the better quality studies (n = 23/34) were mapped onto a one page logic models by two independent reviewers and a final model reflecting reviewer agreement was prepared. Where there was supporting evidence of links between outcomes these were indicated in the model. Two models of specific improvements (warmth & energy efficiency; and housing led renewal), and a final overall model were prepared. The models provide a visual map of the best available evidence on the health and socio-economic impacts of housing improvement. The use of a logic model design helps to elucidate the possible pathways between housing improvement and health and as such might be described as an empirically based theory. Changes in housing factors were linked to changes in socio-economic determinants of health. This points to the potential for longer term health impacts which could not be detected within the lifespan of the evaluations. The developed theories are limited by the available data and need to be tested and refined. However, in addition to providing one page summaries for evidence users, the theory may usefully inform future research on housing and health.

  7. Semi-empirical equation of limiting current for cobalt electrodeposition in the presence of magnetic field and additive electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudibyo, Aziz, N.

    2016-02-01

    One of the available methods to solve a roughening in cobalt electrodeposition is magneto electrodeposition (MED) in the presence of additive electrolyte. Semi-empirical equation of limiting current under a magnetic field for cobalt MED in the presence of boric acid as an additive electrolyte was successfully developed. This semi empirical equation shows the effects of the electrode area (A), the concentration of the electro active species (C), the diffusion coefficient of the electro active species (D), the kinematic viscosity of the electrolyte (v), magnetic strength (B) and the number of electrons involved in the redox process (n). The presence of boric acid led to decrease in the limiting current, but the acid was found useful as a buffer to avoid the local pH rise caused by parallel hydrogen evolution reaction (HER).

  8. Marital Conflict and Support Seeking by Parents in Adolescence: Empirical Support for the Parentification Construct

    PubMed Central

    Peris, Tara S.; Goeke-Morey, Marcie C.; Cummings, E. Mark; Emery, Robert E.

    2010-01-01

    Parentification, a parent–child dynamic wherein children come to provide ongoing emotional support for their parents, has been documented extensively in the clinical literature; however, it rarely has been studied systematically. Using a community sample of 83 couples and their adolescent children (mean age = 15.26 years; 52% male, 48% female), the authors linked adolescent self-report of parentification to specific youth and adult behaviors using multiple methods and examined its associations with youth adjustment problems. The parentification measure demonstrated strong internal consistency and 1-year stability. Parentification was associated with marital conflict, youth perceptions of threat, low warmth in the parent–child relationship, and the tendency for youths to intervene in marital conflict. Links were also found with youth reports of internalizing and externalizing behavior and poorer competency in close friendships. These findings thus support the parentification construct and provide evidence that parentification may contribute to poor youth outcomes by burdening children with developmentally inappropriate responsibilities. PMID:18729677

  9. MEGA ♪ --Empirical Support for Nomenclature on the Anomalies: Sexually Violent and Predatory Youth.

    PubMed

    Miccio-Fonseca, L C; Rasmussen, Lucinda A Lee

    2015-10-01

    Applied are empirical findings supporting the authors' previously presented nomenclature identifying two subsets of sexually abusive youth overlooked by most contemporary risk assessment tools: sexually violent and predatory sexually violent youth. The cross-validation findings on an ecologically framed risk assessment tool, MEGA (♪) (Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents [Ages 19 and Under]) (N = 1,056 male and female sexually abusive youth, ages 4-19, including youth with low intellectual functioning), from the United States, Canada, England, and Scotland, were utilized. Findings provided normative data, with cutoff scores according to age and gender. Most contemporary risk assessment tools have three levels (low, moderate, and high), which may in fact be limited in assessing the range of risk level. The MEGA (♪) cross-validation established a new range of risk level, with the fourth level (very high) definitively identifying the most dangerous youth, thus empirically supporting the nomenclature of sexually violent and predatory sexually violent youth.

  10. Plant canopy transpiration in bioregenerative life support systems - The link between mechanistic and empirical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirko, Robert J.; Mccormack, Ann C.; Edeen, Marybeth A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of water transpiration in a plant canopy that combines two approaches is presented. The first approach is to account for underlying physical processes, while the second is to empirically incorporate transpiration data now being generated at the Johnson Center Variable Pressure Growth Chamber. The two approaches, physical modeling and data analysis, make it possible to produce a model that is more robust than either the standard first-principles model or a straightforward empirical model. It is shown that the present transpiration model is able to efficiently capture the dynamic behavior of the plant canopy over the entire range of environmental parameters now envisioned to be important in an operating controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Examples of the use of this model in assessing plant canopy dynamics and CELSS design options are also presented.

  11. Braking the bandwagon: scrutinizing the science and politics of empirically supported therapies.

    PubMed

    Hagemoser, Steven D

    2009-12-01

    Proponents of empirically supported therapies (ESTs) argue that because manualized ESTs have demonstrated efficacy in treating a range of psychological disorders, they should be the treatments of choice. In this article, the author uses a hypothetical treatment for obesity to highlight numerous flaws in EST logic and argues for common factors as a more clinically relevant but empirically challenging approach. The author then explores how political variables may be contributing to the expansion of EST and the resulting restriction of practitioner autonomy. Last, the author argues that EST is best viewed as 1 component of a more comprehensive evidence-based practice framework. The author concludes with some cautionary statements about the perils of equating the EST paradigm with the scientist-practitioner ideal.

  12. Part-whole bias in intertemporal choice: An empirical study of additive assumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Yang; Wu, Dongmei; Zhuang, Xintian

    2016-12-01

    Additive assumption means the overall value of multiple-dated outcomes is based on a simple aggregation of the values of each individual outcome. This assumption is generally accepted in the field of intertemporal choices. However, recent studies show additive assumption is questionable. In this paper, we experimentally tested the additive property of multiple-dated monetary rewards. Our results show: (1) additive assumption does not hold regardless of gain or loss; (2) the sum of subjective values of individual rewards is consistently larger than the valuation placed on the same rewards as a whole. This finding suggests that part-whole bias exists in the context of valuation of intertemporal monetary rewards.

  13. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false What analytical and... Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.120 What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation? Analytical and empirical tools, including...

  14. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false What analytical and... Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.120 What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation? Analytical and empirical tools, including...

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false What analytical and... Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.120 What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation? Analytical and empirical tools, including...

  16. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 41 Public Contracts and Property Management 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false What analytical and... Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.120 What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency evaluation? Analytical and empirical tools, including...

  17. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  18. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  19. Empirical Approach to Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of Metals Made Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Albright, Thomas V.; Patel, Dhruv N.

    2016-08-01

    High-cycle fatigue measurements were performed on alloys prepared by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing techniques. Selective laser melted (SLM) nickel-based superalloy 625 and electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V specimens were prepared as round fatigue specimens and tested with as-built surfaces at stress ratios of -1, 0.1 and 0.5. Data collected at R = -1 were used to construct Goodman diagrams that correspond closely to measured experimental data collected at R > 0. A second way to interpret the HCF data is based on the influence of surface roughness on fatigue, and approximate the surface feature size as a notch. On this basis, the data were interpreted using the fatigue notch factor k f and average stress models relating k f and stress concentration factor K t. The depth and root radius of surface features associated with fatigue crack initiation were used to estimate a K t of 2.8 for SLM 625. For Ti-6Al-4V, a direct estimate of K t from HCF data was not possible, but approximate values of k f based on HCF data and K t from crack initiation site geometry are found to explain other published EBM Ti-6Al-4V.

  20. A quantum question order model supported by empirical tests of an a priori and precise prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2013-10-01

    Question order effects are commonly observed in self-report measures of judgment and attitude. This article develops a quantum question order model (the QQ model) to account for four types of question order effects observed in literature. First, the postulates of the QQ model are presented. Second, an a priori, parameter-free, and precise prediction, called the QQ equality, is derived from these mathematical principles, and six empirical data sets are used to test the prediction. Third, a new index is derived from the model to measure similarity between questions. Fourth, we show that in contrast to the QQ model, Bayesian and Markov models do not generally satisfy the QQ equality and thus cannot account for the reported empirical data that support this equality. Finally, we describe the conditions under which order effects are predicted to occur, and we review a broader range of findings that are encompassed by these very same quantum principles. We conclude that quantum probability theory, initially invented to explain order effects on measurements in physics, appears to be a powerful natural explanation for order effects of self-report measures in social and behavioral sciences, too.

  1. Factors influencing the utilization of empirically supported treatments for eating disorders.

    PubMed

    Simmons, Angela M; Milnes, Suzanne M; Anderson, Drew A

    2008-01-01

    This study expands upon previous research investigating the use of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) for eating disorders by surveying a large sample of clinicians who specialize in treating eating disorders. Surveys developed for this study were sent to 698 members of a large, professional, eating disorder organization who were listed as treatment providers on the organization's website. Despite clinicians reporting frequently using CBT techniques, most identified something other than CBT or IPT as their primary approach to treatment. In contrast with previous research, the majority had received prior training in the use of manual-based treatments. However, consistent with previous investigations, most denied regular use of such treatments. Although manual-based CBT and IPT are referred to as "treatments of choice," professional clinicians in the field are not consistently using them. Responses suggest several barriers to the utilization of ESTs in practice.

  2. A Novel Empirical Mode Decomposition With Support Vector Regression for Wind Speed Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ye; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam; Srikanth, Narasimalu

    2016-08-01

    Wind energy is a clean and an abundant renewable energy source. Accurate wind speed forecasting is essential for power dispatch planning, unit commitment decision, maintenance scheduling, and regulation. However, wind is intermittent and wind speed is difficult to predict. This brief proposes a novel wind speed forecasting method by integrating empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector regression (SVR) methods. The EMD is used to decompose the wind speed time series into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue. Subsequently, a vector combining one historical data from each IMF and the residue is generated to train the SVR. The proposed EMD-SVR model is evaluated with a wind speed data set. The proposed EMD-SVR model outperforms several recently reported methods with respect to accuracy or computational complexity.

  3. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Methods A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a manual search. Results Eleven studies were identified that tested implementation strategies with a randomized (n = 10) or controlled clinical trial design (n = 1). The wide range of clinical interventions, implementation strategies, and outcomes evaluated precluded meta-analysis. However, the majority of studies (n = 7; 64%) found a statistically significant effect in the hypothesized direction for at least one implementation or clinical outcome. Conclusions There is a clear need for more rigorous research on the effectiveness of implementation strategies, and we provide several suggestions that could improve this research area. PMID:24791131

  4. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  5. Creating a Victim Notification Protocol for Untested Sexual Assault Kits: An Empirically Supported Planning Framework.

    PubMed

    Campbell, Rebecca; Fehler-Cabral, Giannina; Horsford, Sheena

    In cities throughout the United States, hundreds of thousands of sexual assault kits (SAKs) have not been submitted by the police for forensic DNA testing. Given recent media attention and public outcry about this problem, many jurisdictions with large numbers of untested SAKs are deciding to test all previously unsubmitted SAKs, which raises complex issues regarding when and how victims ought to be notified about what has happened to the kits that were collected during their medical forensic examinations. In this project, we collaborated with one community that has had large numbers of untested SAKs-Detroit, Michigan-to develop an empirically supported planning framework for how to create a victim notification protocol. This planning tool presents 12 discussion questions that can guide communities through the process of creating a victim notification protocol tailored to the needs of their local jurisdiction. In this article, we review the evidence (both practice and research based) that can inform discussions about each of these 12 key questions.

  6. Training and Consultation to Promote Implementation of an Empirically Supported Treatment: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Marcus, Steven C.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study evaluated the efficacy of three training modalities and the impact of ongoing consultation after training. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety among youths, an empirically supported treatment, was used as the exemplar. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three one-day workshops to examine the efficacy of training modality: routine training (training as usual), computer training (computerized version of training as usual), and augmented training (training that emphasized active learning). After training, all participants received three months of ongoing consultation that included case consultation, didactics, and problem solving. Methods Participants were 115 community therapists (mean age of 35.9 years; 90% were women). Outcome measures included the Adherence and Skill Checklist, used to rate a performance-based role-play; a knowledge test; and the Training Satisfaction Rating Scale. Results All three training modalities resulted in limited gains in therapist adherence, skill, and knowledge. There was no significant effect of modality on adherence, skill, or knowledge from pretraining to posttraining. Participants were more satisfied with augmented and routine training than with computer training. Most important, number of consultation hours after training significantly predicted higher therapist adherence and skill at the three-month follow-up. Conclusions The findings suggest that training alone did not result in therapist behavior change. The inclusion of ongoing consultation was critical to influencing therapist adherence and skill. Implications for implementation science and mental health services research are discussed. PMID:22549401

  7. Clinical Feedback About Empirically Supported Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been derived principally from randomized controlled trials. As such, evidence about the treatment of OCD has unilaterally flowed from researchers to clinicians. Despite often having decades of experience treating OCD, clinicians' feedback on their clinical observations in using these treatments has not been solicited. The current study contacted clinicians for their clinical observations on empirically supported treatments for OCD to identify commonly used cognitive-behavioral techniques and their limitations in their practices. One hundred eighty-one psychotherapists completed an online survey. The average participant practiced psychotherapy for 15 years, worked in private practice, held a doctorate, and treated an average of 25 clients with OCD in their lifetime. In regard to the most common techniques, behavioral strategies involving exposure to a feared outcome and prevention of a compulsive ritual were the most frequent group of interventions, followed by techniques that attempted to identify and challenge irrational thoughts. However, the majority of participants also reported incorporating mindfulness or acceptance-based methods. Based on therapists' reports, the most common barriers to the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions included limited premorbid functioning, chaotic lifestyles, controlling and critical families, OCD symptom severity, OCD symptom chronicity, and comorbidities. This study provides insight into common practices and limitations in clinical practice to inform future clinically relevant treatment research.

  8. Antepartum fetal heart rate feature extraction and classification using empirical mode decomposition and support vector machine

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Cardiotocography (CTG) is the most widely used tool for fetal surveillance. The visual analysis of fetal heart rate (FHR) traces largely depends on the expertise and experience of the clinician involved. Several approaches have been proposed for the effective interpretation of FHR. In this paper, a new approach for FHR feature extraction based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) is proposed, which was used along with support vector machine (SVM) for the classification of FHR recordings as 'normal' or 'at risk'. Methods The FHR were recorded from 15 subjects at a sampling rate of 4 Hz and a dataset consisting of 90 randomly selected records of 20 minutes duration was formed from these. All records were labelled as 'normal' or 'at risk' by two experienced obstetricians. A training set was formed by 60 records, the remaining 30 left as the testing set. The standard deviations of the EMD components are input as features to a support vector machine (SVM) to classify FHR samples. Results For the training set, a five-fold cross validation test resulted in an accuracy of 86% whereas the overall geometric mean of sensitivity and specificity was 94.8%. The Kappa value for the training set was .923. Application of the proposed method to the testing set (30 records) resulted in a geometric mean of 81.5%. The Kappa value for the testing set was .684. Conclusions Based on the overall performance of the system it can be stated that the proposed methodology is a promising new approach for the feature extraction and classification of FHR signals. PMID:21244712

  9. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  10. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  11. The empirical evidence that does not support cultural group selection models for the evolution of human cooperation.

    PubMed

    Lamba, Shakti

    2016-01-01

    I outline key empirical evidence from my research and that of other scholars, testing the role of cultural group selection (CGS) in the evolution of human cooperation, which Richerson et al. failed to mention and which fails to support the CGS hypothesis.

  12. An Analysis of Functional Communication Training as an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Boelter, Eric W.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Chin, Michelle D.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force,…

  13. Health-related Support Groups on the Internet: Linking Empirical Findings to Social Support and Computer-mediated Communication Theory.

    PubMed

    Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B; Wright, Kevin B; Bell, Sally B

    2003-01-01

    This literature review of research on health-related computer-mediated support groups links features of these groups to existing theory from the areas of social support and computer-mediated communication research. The article exams computer-mediated support groups as weak tie networks, focuses on how these support groups facilitate participant similarity and empathic support and identifies changes in supportive communication due to characteristics of the medium.

  14. The Effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…

  15. Methodological support for the further abstraction of and philosophical examination of empirical findings in the context of caring science

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Elisabeth; Österberg, Sofia A.; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena in caring science are often complex and laden with meanings. Empirical research with the aim of capturing lived experiences is one way of revealing the complexity. Sometimes, however, results from empirical research need to be further discussed. One way is to further abstract the result and/or philosophically examine it. This has previously been performed and presented in scientific journals and doctoral theses, contributing to a greater understanding of phenomena in caring science. Although the intentions in many of these publications are laudable, the lack of methodological descriptions as well as a theoretical and systematic foundation can contribute to an ambiguity concerning how the results have emerged during the analysis. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodological support for the further abstraction of and/or philosophical examination of empirical findings. When trying to systematize the support procedures, we have used a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach. Based on the assumptions in RLR, this article will present methodological support for a theoretical examination that can include two stages. In the first stage, data from several (two or more) empirical results on an essential level are synthesized into a general structure. Sometimes the analysis ends with the general structure, but sometimes there is a need to proceed further. The second stage can then be a philosophical examination, in which the general structure is discussed in relation to a philosophical text, theory, or concept. It is important that the theories are brought in as the final stage after the completion of the analysis. Core dimensions of the described methodological support are, in accordance with RLR, openness, bridling, and reflection. The methodological support cannot be understood as fixed stages, but rather as a guiding light in the search for further meanings. PMID:26925926

  16. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON USABILITY OF CROSSING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY DISABLED AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koji; Fujita, Motohiro; Matsuura, Kazuma; Fukuzono, Kazuyuki

    This paper evaluates the adjustment process for crossing support system for visually disabled at signalized intersections with the use of pedestrian traffic signals in concert with visible light communication (VLC) technology through outdoor experiments. As for the experiments, we put a blindfold on sighted people by eye mask in order to analyze the behavior of acquired visually disabled. And we used a full-scale crosswalk which is taking into consideration the crossing slope, the bumps at the edge of a crosswalk between the roadway and the sidewalkand crosswalk line. From the results of the survey, it is found that repetitive use of the VLC system decreased the number of lost their bearings completely and ended up standing immobile and reduced the crossing time for each person. On the other hand, it is shown that the performance of our VLC system is nearly equal to the existing support system from the view point of crossing time and the number of standing immobile and we clarified the effect factor for guidance accuracy by the regression analyses. Then we broke test subjects down into patterns by cluster analysis, and explained the walking characteristics for each group as they used the VLC system. In addition, we conducted the additional surveys for the quasi-blind subjects who had difficulty walking by using VLC system and visually impaired users. As a result, it is revealed that guidance accuracy was improved by providing the information about their receiving movement at several points on crosswalk and the habit of their walks for each user.

  17. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND...

  18. Pedagogical Professional Self-Determination Support for Students under Conditions of Additional Education Program Implementation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Khairutdinova, Rezeda R.; Fedorova, Yuliya A.

    2016-01-01

    Significance of the problem stated in the article is stipulated by the fact that professional self-determination of students at the stage of professional education needs pedagogical support; using resources of additional education program will let the individual make smart choices about future professional sphere. Object of the article is to work…

  19. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  20. The DSM-5 debate over the bereavement exclusion: psychiatric diagnosis and the future of empirically supported treatment.

    PubMed

    Wakefield, Jerome C

    2013-11-01

    Valid diagnostic criteria support generalizations about treatment effectiveness, allowing progress in developing empirically supported treatments. The DSM-5 revision provides an opportunity to consider whether diagnostic changes are increasing validity. In this paper, I first offer broad suggestions for conceptually advancing diagnostic validity while awaiting greater etiological understanding. These include, for example, improving "conceptual validity" (disorder/nondisorder differentiation); extending diagnosis beyond disorders to include mismatches between normal variation and social demands ("psychological justice"); placing disorder etiology in evolutionary context as harmful failure of biologically designed functioning ("harmful dysfunction"); and taking an integrative theoretical approach to human meaning systems. The paper then examines the DSM-5's controversial decision to eliminate the major depression bereavement exclusion (BE), detailing the evidence and attendant debate. Elimination was defended by citing several hypotheses (e.g., excluded cases are similar to other MDD; exclusions risk missing suicidal cases; medication works with excluded cases), all of which were either empirically falsified or based on faulty arguments. Most dramatically, excluded cases were empirically demonstrated to have no more depression on follow-up than those who never had MDD. I conclude that BE elimination undermined rather than increased conceptual validity and usefulness for treatment research. Finally, I draw some general lessons from the DSM-5 BE debacle.

  1. Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2011-01-01

    Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief strategic family therapy. In addition to summarizing the theoretical and clinical bases of these treatments, their results in efficacy and effectiveness trials are examined with particular emphasis on any demonstrated capacity to achieve favorable outcomes when implemented by real world practitioners in community practice settings. Special attention is also devoted to research on purported mechanisms of change as well as the long-term sustainability of outcomes achieved by these treatment models. Importantly, we note that the developers of each of the models have developed quality assurance systems to support treatment fidelity and youth and family outcomes; and the developers have formed purveyor organizations to facilitate the large scale transport of their respective treatments to community settings nationally and internationally. PMID:22283380

  2. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  3. Empirical evaluation of decision support systems: Needs, definitions, potential methods, and an example pertaining to waterfowl management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sojda, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Decision support systems are often not empirically evaluated, especially the underlying modelling components. This can be attributed to such systems necessarily being designed to handle complex and poorly structured problems and decision making. Nonetheless, evaluation is critical and should be focused on empirical testing whenever possible. Verification and validation, in combination, comprise such evaluation. Verification is ensuring that the system is internally complete, coherent, and logical from a modelling and programming perspective. Validation is examining whether the system is realistic and useful to the user or decision maker, and should answer the question: “Was the system successful at addressing its intended purpose?” A rich literature exists on verification and validation of expert systems and other artificial intelligence methods; however, no single evaluation methodology has emerged as preeminent. At least five approaches to validation are feasible. First, under some conditions, decision support system performance can be tested against a preselected gold standard. Second, real-time and historic data sets can be used for comparison with simulated output. Third, panels of experts can be judiciously used, but often are not an option in some ecological domains. Fourth, sensitivity analysis of system outputs in relation to inputs can be informative. Fifth, when validation of a complete system is impossible, examining major components can be substituted, recognizing the potential pitfalls. I provide an example of evaluation of a decision support system for trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) management that I developed using interacting intelligent agents, expert systems, and a queuing system. Predicted swan distributions over a 13-year period were assessed against observed numbers. Population survey numbers and banding (ringing) studies may provide long term data useful in empirical evaluation of decision support.

  4. Support Systems for Poor Readers: Empirical Data from Six EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faisca, Luis; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L.; Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csepe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems…

  5. Social Support for Career Choices and Academic Achievement: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Inglehart, Marita; Brown, Donald R.

    This study investigated the influence of social support on a person's career choice and its impact on later achievement, testing the hypotheses that social support that pressures a person into entering a given field will lead to lower achievement, and that social support that contributes to the person's development of a professional identity will…

  6. Support systems for poor readers: empirical data from six EU member states.

    PubMed

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faísca, Luís; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L; Surányi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csépe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C; Schulte-Körne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems differed substantially, with effective support systems showing high performance on all variables measured. More specifically, effective support systems were characterized by (a) high levels of both teacher and student support and (b) frequent interactions between teachers and remedial teachers as well as between remedial teachers and diagnosticians. The high prevalence of poor reading ability in the current EU member states demonstrates that educational reforms are critically needed. The results of this study provide concrete starting points for improving support systems for poor readers.

  7. Empirical research and logotherapy.

    PubMed

    Schulenberg, Stefan E

    2003-08-01

    The purpose of this paper was to outline suggestions for future logotherapy applications and research. Empirical studies are available on logotherapy constructs, but additional research is sorely needed. The psychometrics of logotherapy measures need to be expanded. Carefully conducted experimental studies may aid in refining long-standing logotherapy concepts and supporting or refuting new ones.

  8. An empirical review of the neural underpinnings of receiving and giving social support: implications for health.

    PubMed

    Eisenberger, Naomi I

    2013-01-01

    Decades of research have demonstrated strong links between social ties and health. Although considerable evidence has shown that social support can attenuate downstream physiological stress responses that are relevant to health, the neurocognitive mechanisms that translate perceptions of social ties into altered physiological responses are still not fully understood. This review integrates research from social and affective neuroscience to illuminate some of the neural mechanisms involved in social support processes, which may further our understanding of the ways in which social support influences health. This review focuses on two types of social support that have been shown to relate to health: receiving and giving social support. As the neural basis of receiving support, this article reviews the hypothesis that receiving support may benefit health through the activation of neural regions that respond to safety and inhibit threat-related neural and physiological responding. This article will then review neuroimaging studies in which participants were primed with or received support during a negative experience as well as studies in which self-reports of perceived support were correlated with neural responses to a negative experience. As the neural basis of giving support, this article reviews the hypothesis that neural regions involved in maternal caregiving behavior may be critical for the health benefits of support-giving through the inhibition of threat-related neural and physiological responding. Neuroimaging studies in which participants provided support to others or engaged in other related forms of prosocial behavior will then be reviewed. Implications of these findings for furthering our understanding of the relationships between social support and health are discussed.

  9. Effective Source-to-Source Outlining to Support Whole Program Empirical Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R; Panas, T

    2009-07-17

    Although automated empirical performance optimization and tuning is well-studied for kernels and domain-specific libraries, a current research grand challenge is how to extend these methodologies and tools to significantly larger sequential and parallel applications. In this context, we present the ROSE source-to-source outliner, which addresses the problem of extracting tunable kernels out of whole programs, thereby helping to convert the challenging whole-program tuning problem into a set of more manageable kernel tuning tasks. Our outliner aims to handle large scale C/C++, Fortran and OpenMP applications. A set of program analysis and transformation techniques are utilized to enhance the portability, scalability, and interoperability of source-to-source outlining. More importantly, the generated kernels preserve performance characteristics of tuning targets and can be easily handled by other tools. Preliminary evaluations have shown that the ROSE outliner serves as a key component within an end-to-end empirical optimization system and enables a wide range of sequential and parallel optimization opportunities.

  10. Analysis of Additional CFT Support at Z=0 for the Silicon Half Trough

    SciTech Connect

    Cease, H.; Lee, A.; /Fermilab

    2000-03-20

    The D-Zero silicon trough is segmented into two half troughs. Loading to the Central Fiber Tracker Barrel 1 is at both ends and near Z = 0. The loading near Z = 0 is thought to be 4 lbs at 4 points. The point locations are at +/-45 degrees for each half trough on each side of Z = O. An additional support at Z = O is required to prevent beam sag and out of round distortions to the CFT Barrel 1. An additional joining washer will be attached between barrels 1 and 2 at Z = 0. Also a support ring will be attached to the inner diameter of barrel 1 to further help in out of round distortions. Details of the washer and loading are modeled using ANSYS.

  11. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model.

  12. A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-in Check-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Katie; Pyle, Daniel; Charlton, Cade T.; Sabey, Christian V.; Lund, Emily M.; Ross, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions play an important role within the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports framework, bridging the gap between schoolwide Tier 1 interventions and individualized Tier 3 supports. Check-in Check-out (CICO) is a promising Tier 2 intervention for addressing mild problem behavior and potentially preventing the need for more…

  13. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs.

  14. Family Carers' Experiences Using Support Services in Europe: Empirical Evidence from the EUROFAMCARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamura, Giovanni; Mnich, Eva; Nolan, Mike; Wojszel, Beata; Krevers, Barbro; Mestheneos, Liz; Dohner, Hanneli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the experiences of family carers of older people in using support services in six European countries: Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and the UK. Design and Methods: Following a common protocol, data were collected from national samples of approximately 1,000 family carers per country and clustered into…

  15. BSW Program Admission Policies: Is There Empirical Support for What We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Carter, Irene M.; Leslie, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Social work admission criteria are used to ensure student academic competence, identify personal characteristics associated with success in social work education and practice, predict success in class and field work, and promote diversity of the student body. However, evidence that supports the effectiveness of these admission policies is…

  16. Finding Out How They Find It Out: An empirical analysis of inquiry learners' need for support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mulder, Yvonne G.; Lazonder, Ard W.; de Jong, Ton

    2010-10-01

    Inquiry learning environments increasingly incorporate modelling facilities for students to articulate their research hypotheses and (acquired) domain knowledge. This study compared performance success and scientific reasoning of university students with high prior knowledge (n = 11), students from senior high-school (n = 10), and junior high-school (n = 10) with intermediate and low prior knowledge, respectively, in order to reveal domain novices' need for support in such environments. Results indicated that the scientific reasoning of both groups of high-school students was comparable to that of the experts. As high-school students achieved significantly lower performance success scores, their expert-like behaviour was rather ineffective; qualitative analyses substantiated this conclusion. Based on these findings, implications for supporting domain novices in inquiry learning environments are advanced.

  17. SpaceTree: Supporting Exploration in Large Node Link Tree, Design Evolution and Empirical Evaluation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-01-01

    of tasks were used. Node searches (e.g. find kangaroo, find planaria ), search of previously visited nodes (return to kangaroo) and typology...partly supported, but the careful observation of users during the experiment was very helpful to understand differences in user behavior . There were...Display of Large Two- Dimensional Spaces. Behavior & Information Technology. 9 (6), 451-466. [4] Bederson, B., Shneiderman, B., Wattenberg, M. (2002

  18. Additive benefits of autonomy support and enhanced expectancies for motor learning.

    PubMed

    Wulf, Gabriele; Chiviacowsky, Suzete; Cardozo, Priscila Lopes

    2014-10-01

    Two factors that have been shown to facilitate motor learning are autonomy support (AS) and enhanced expectancies (EE) for performance. We examined the individual and combined influences of these factors. In a 2 × 2 design, participants learning a novel motor skill (throwing with the non-dominant arm) were or were not provided a choice (AS) about the ball color on each of 6 10-trial blocks during practice, and were or were not given bogus positive social-comparative feedback (EE). This resulted in four groups: AS/EE, AS, EE, and C (control). One day after the practice phase, participants completed 10 retention and 10 transfer trials. The distance to the target--a bull's eye with a 1m radius and 10 concentric circles--was 7.5m during practice and retention, and 8.5m during transfer. Autonomy support and enhanced expectancies had additive advantages for learning, with both main effects being significant for retention and transfer. On both tests, the AS/EE group showed the greatest throwing accuracy. Also, the accuracy scores of the AS and EE groups were higher than those of the C group. Furthermore, self-efficacy measured after practice and before retention and transfer was increased by both AS and EE. Thus, supporting learners' need for autonomy by given them a small choice--even though it was not directly related to task performance--and enhancing their performance expectancies appeared to independently influence learning.

  19. A Comparative Study of GDSS (Group Decision Support System) Use: Empirical Evidence and Model Design

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-09-01

    judgments, pressure involving the status of group members, conformity pressure , domineering personalities, expenditure of additional effort to maintain the... conformity , it can also heighten conflict because users become more blunt with each other [Ref. 33: p. 12]. Group leadership is another factor that can...e•EMENTARY NOTATION COSAT’ COWES IS SUBJECT TERAAS (C*ntWu on revevw of netessav and Eepgnt.fv by Iet* nLEPRU’r ,LO GRou, I sueB.toup ’ Group Decision

  20. Empirically Supported Treatments in Psychotherapy: Towards an Evidence-Based or Evidence-Biased Psychology in Clinical Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs) movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM) perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented. PMID:21833197

  1. Detection and localization of damage using empirical mode decomposition and multilevel support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushyanth, N. D.; Suma, M. N.; Latte, Mrityanjaya V.

    2016-03-01

    Damage in the structure may raise a significant amount of maintenance cost and serious safety problems. Hence detection of the damage at its early stage is of prime importance. The main contribution pursued in this investigation is to propose a generic optimal methodology to improve the accuracy of positioning of the flaw in a structure. This novel approach involves a two-step process. The first step essentially aims at extracting the damage-sensitive features from the received signal, and these extracted features are often termed the damage index or damage indices, serving as an indicator to know whether the damage is present or not. In particular, a multilevel SVM (support vector machine) plays a vital role in the distinction of faulty and healthy structures. Formerly, when a structure is unveiled as a damaged structure, in the subsequent step, the position of the damage is identified using Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in both simulation and experimental tests on a 6061 aluminum plate with dimensions 300 mm × 300 mm × 5 mm which accordingly yield considerable improvement in the accuracy of estimating the position of the flaw.

  2. Adolescent mental health and academic functioning: empirical support for contrasting models of risk and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Lucier-Greer, Mallory; O'Neal, Catherine W; Arnold, A Laura; Mancini, Jay A; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents in military families contend with normative stressors that are universal and exist across social contexts (minority status, family disruptions, and social isolation) as well as stressors reflective of their military life context (e.g., parental deployment, school transitions, and living outside the United States). This study utilizes a social ecological perspective and a stress process lens to examine the relationship between multiple risk factors and relevant indicators of youth well-being, namely depressive symptoms and academic performance, as well as the mediating role of self-efficacy (N = 1,036). Three risk models were tested: an additive effects model (each risk factor uniquely influences outcomes), a full cumulative effects model (the collection of risk factors influences outcomes), a comparative model (a cumulative effects model exploring the differential effects of normative and military-related risks). This design allowed for the simultaneous examination of multiple risk factors and a comparison of alternative perspectives on measuring risk. Each model was predictive of depressive symptoms and academic performance through persistence; however, each model provides unique findings about the relationship between risk factors and youth outcomes. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers on how risk is conceptualized and suggestions for identifying at-risk youth.

  3. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Marquand, Andre F; Joules, Richard; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C R; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realized. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: (1) an un-weighted sum of kernels, (2) multi-kernel learning, (3) prediction averaging, and (4) majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (n = 19), first episode psychosis (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 23). Our results show that (i) whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, (ii) where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, (iii) the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no "magic bullet" for increasing classification accuracy. However, it remains possible that this conclusion is dependent on the use of neuroimaging modalities that had little, or no, complementary information to offer one another, and that the

  4. The Verbal Behavior Approach to Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism: A Call for Additional Empirical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Firth, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been firmly established and disseminated as one of the most effective treatments for early childhood autism. Recently, a number of practitioners have employed a variant of this approach in which the language curriculum is organized and taught according to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal…

  5. Progress Towards Metal Additive Manufacturing Standardization to Support Qualification and Certification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seifi, Mohsen; Gorelik, Michael; Waller, Jess; Hrabe, Nik; Shamsaei, Nima; Daniewicz, Steve; Lewandowski, John J.

    2017-03-01

    As the metal additive manufacturing (AM) industry moves towards industrial production, the need for qualification standards covering all aspects of the technology becomes ever more prevalent. While some standards and specifications for documenting the various aspects of AM processes and materials exist and continue to evolve, many such standards still need to be matured or are under consideration/development within standards development organizations. An important subset of this evolving the standardization domain has to do with critical property measurements for AM materials. While such measurement procedures are well documented, with various legacy standards for conventional metallic material forms such as cast or wrought structural alloys, many fewer standards are currently available to enable systematic evaluation of those properties in AM-processed metallic materials. This is due in part to the current lack of AM-specific standards and specifications for AM materials and processes, which are a logical precursor to the material characterization standards for any material system. This paper summarizes some of the important standardization activities, as well as limitations associated with using currently available standards for metal AM with a focus on measuring mission-critical properties. Technical considerations in support of future standards development, as well as a pathway for qualification/certification of AM parts enabled by the appropriate standardization landscape, are discussed.

  6. Effect of halide and acid additives on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide using supported gold-palladium catalysts.

    PubMed

    Ntainjua N, Edwin; Piccinini, Marco; Pritchard, James C; Edwards, Jennifer K; Carley, Albert F; Moulijn, Jacob A; Hutchings, Graham J

    2009-01-01

    The effect of halide and acid addition on the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide is studied for magnesium oxide- and carbon-supported bimetallic gold-palladium catalysts. The addition of acids decreases the hydrogenation/decomposition of hydrogen peroxide, and the effect is particularly pronounced for the magnesium oxide-supported catalysts whilst for carbon-supported catalysts the pH requires close control to optimize hydrogen peroxide synthesis. The addition of bromide leads to a marked decrease in the hydrogenation/decomposition of hydrogen peroxide with either catalyst. These effects are discussed in terms of the structure of the gold-palladium alloy nanoparticles and the isoelectric point of the support. We conclude that with the highly active carbon-supported gold-palladium catalysts these additives are not required and that therefore this system presents the potential for the direct synthesis of hydrogen peroxide to be operated using green process technology.

  7. Empirically supported treatments in rural community mental health centers: a preliminary report on current utilization and attitudes toward adoption.

    PubMed

    Jameson, John Paul; Chambless, Dianne L; Blank, Michael B

    2009-12-01

    Rural community mental health centers (CMHCs) face numerous problems that might be alleviated by the dissemination of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). The current study lays the groundwork for EST dissemination by examining current treatment practices in rural clinics as well as the attitudes of decision makers toward ESTs and perceived barriers to their adoption. Twenty-five rural and 38 non-rural clinical directors responded to a mailed survey. Rural respondents were as likely as non-rural respondents to report EST use in their clinic for most anxiety disorders, and more likely to report use of an EST for major depressive disorder and obsessive-compulsive disorder. However, ESTs represent a relatively small proportion of the treatments reported for depression and anxiety disorders. Attitudes toward manualized ESTs did not differ between groups. Further, rural and nonrural clinics did not see the barriers to the adoption of ESTs as insurmountable. These preliminary results suggest that rural CMHCs are open to the use of ESTs and should be included in widespread dissemination initiatives.

  8. Single-Trial Classification of Bistable Perception by Integrating Empirical Mode Decomposition, Clustering, and Support Vector Machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zhisong; Maier, Alexander; Logothetis, Nikos K.; Liang, Hualou

    2008-12-01

    We propose an empirical mode decomposition (EMD-) based method to extract features from the multichannel recordings of local field potential (LFP), collected from the middle temporal (MT) visual cortex in a macaque monkey, for decoding its bistable structure-from-motion (SFM) perception. The feature extraction approach consists of three stages. First, we employ EMD to decompose nonstationary single-trial time series into narrowband components called intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) with time scales dependent on the data. Second, we adopt unsupervised K-means clustering to group the IMFs and residues into several clusters across all trials and channels. Third, we use the supervised common spatial patterns (CSP) approach to design spatial filters for the clustered spatiotemporal signals. We exploit the support vector machine (SVM) classifier on the extracted features to decode the reported perception on a single-trial basis. We demonstrate that the CSP feature of the cluster in the gamma frequency band outperforms the features in other frequency bands and leads to the best decoding performance. We also show that the EMD-based feature extraction can be useful for evoked potential estimation. Our proposed feature extraction approach may have potential for many applications involving nonstationary multivariable time series such as brain-computer interfaces (BCI).

  9. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  10. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  11. How Good Are We at Implementing the Additional Support for Learning Act? How Good Can We Be?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    This brief publication provides bullet points of what education authorities are doing well and how they can do better in the following areas: (1) Planning for implementation; (2) Transition arrangements; (3) Meeting additional support needs; (4) Resolving disagreements; (5) Coordinated support plans; and (6) Working with children and young…

  12. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  13. U.S. Support for UN Peacekeeping: Areas for Additional DOD Assistance

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-09-01

    Operation Centers (JOCs) and Joint Military Analysis Cells ( JMACs ) as well as procedures for crisis response for missions have been established. The...coordination and use of IT capacities in the field, particularly in support of JOC/ JMAC .95 It also needs a better public information capacity in the UN HQ and

  14. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  15. 41 CFR 102-80.120 - What analytical and empirical tools should be used to support the life safety equivalency...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ...) FEDERAL MANAGEMENT REGULATION REAL PROPERTY 80-SAFETY AND ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT Accident and Fire Prevention Equivalent Level of Safety Analysis § 102-80.120 What analytical and empirical tools should be... used as part of an analysis, an assessment of the predictive capabilities of the fire models must...

  16. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  17. Empirical Study of the Role of Government Support and Success Factors in Industry-University-Institute Cooperation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhimin, Guan; Zhongpeng, Cao; Jin, Tao

    2016-01-01

    Empirical research methods were used to study the state of industry-university-institute collaboration in China and the factors influencing the results of cooperation between members of technological innovation alliances, from the dual perspectives of enterprises and universities/research institutes On the basis of questionnaire surveys of 100…

  18. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  19. Indirect additive manufacturing as an elegant tool for the production of self-supporting low density gelatin scaffolds.

    PubMed

    Van Hoorick, Jasper; Declercq, Heidi; De Muynck, Amelie; Houben, Annemie; Van Hoorebeke, Luc; Cornelissen, Ria; Van Erps, Jürgen; Thienpont, Hugo; Dubruel, Peter; Van Vlierberghe, Sandra

    2015-10-01

    The present work describes for the first time the production of self-supporting low gelatin density (<10 w/v%) porous scaffolds using methacrylamide-modified gelatin as an extracellular matrix mimicking component. As porous scaffolds starting from low gelatin concentrations cannot be realized with the conventional additive manufacturing techniques in the abscence of additives, we applied an indirect fused deposition modelling approach. To realize this, we have printed a sacrificial polyester scaffold which supported the hydrogel material during UV crosslinking, thereby preventing hydrogel structure collapse. After complete curing, the polyester scaffold was selectively dissolved leaving behind a porous, interconnective low density gelatin scaffold. Scaffold structural analysis indicated the success of the selected indirect additive manufacturing approach. Physico-chemical testing revealed scaffold properties (mechanical, degradation, swelling) to depend on the applied gelatin concentration and methacrylamide content. Preliminary biocompatibility studies revealed the cell-interactive and biocompatible properties of the materials developed.

  20. Additivity of abrupt onset effects supports nonspatial distraction, not the capture of spatial attention.

    PubMed

    Folk, Charles L; Remington, Roger W; Wu, Shu-Chieh

    2009-02-01

    In a recent article, Schreij, Owens, and Theeuwes (2008) reported that abruptly onsetting distractors produce costs in performance even when spatial-cuing effects confirm the presence of a top-down set for color. The authors argued that these results show that abruptly onsetting new objects capture attention independent of a top-down set and, thus, provide conclusive evidence against the theory that attentional capture is contingent on top-down attentional control settings (Folk, Remington, & Johnston, 1992). In the following article, we argue that, contrary to the conclusion drawn by Schreij et al., their own data (1) disconfirm the claim that their abrupt onsets captured spatial attention and (2) are consistent with nonspatial interference accounts of singleton-distractor effects. In support of the nonspatial account, we show that in a paradigm similar to Schreij et al.'s, distractors that do not capture attention can nonetheless influence responses to a target. We conclude that the results of Schreij et al. do not represent a challenge to contingent capture theory.

  1. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Förger, Klaus; Mäkäräinen, Meeri; Takala, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial–human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself. PMID:25914661

  2. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness.

    PubMed

    Kätsyri, Jari; Förger, Klaus; Mäkäräinen, Meeri; Takala, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial-human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself.

  3. Conversion of syngas to light olefins over silicalite-1 supported iron and cobalt catalysts: Effects of manganese addition

    SciTech Connect

    Das, D.; Ravichandran, G.; Chakrabarty, D.K.

    1996-10-01

    As the demand for light (C2-C4) olefins, an important raw materials for a number of chemical industries, is ever increasing considerable attention is now being paid to the design of suitable catalysts with high selectivity for small chain olefins. Although Fischer-Tropsch synthesis yields a wide spectrum of products from methane to waxes it is possible to restrict the chain growth to a few carbon atoms by containing the active metal panicles inside the small pores of a suitable support like zeolite. The nature of the zeolite support also has a strong influence on the product selectivity due to secondary reactions. This paper discusses the results of syngas conversion to light olefins over iron and cobalt catalysts supported on silicalite-1. Effect of the addition of manganese which is known to improve the selectivity to light olefins is also discussed.

  4. An empirical study of self-efficacy and social support in diabetes self-management: implications for home healthcare nurses.

    PubMed

    Hunt, Caralise W; Grant, Joan S; Pritchard, David A

    2012-04-01

    This pilot study was conducted to evaluate relationships among self-efficacy, social support, social problem solving, and diabetes self-management in people living with Type 2 diabetes mellitus. Self-efficacy, social support, and social problem solving were significantly correlated with diabetes self-management. These relationships indicate the importance of including interventions to promote self-efficacy, social support, and social problem solving in diabetes self-management programs.

  5. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  6. Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in modification of graphene supported on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Wang, Yuyu; Xue, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    The damage production induced by MeV highly charged ions (HCI) irradiations in graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate is investigated using molecular dynamics method. We get results in agreement with our recent experiments. We find that the electronic energy loss and potential energy deposition have similar effects on the defects creation in SiO2 substrate-supported graphene and both mechanisms of energy deposition seem to contribute in an additive way. The influences of the energy deposition depth and radius are studied. Only the energy deposited below the surface within 2.5 nm will induce the damage in graphene. Hence, the HCI can be a powerful tool to induce defects in graphene without causing deep damage of the substrate. When charge of incident Xeq+ is above 30, a nanopore is formed and the size of nanopore in graphene can be controlled by changing the incident charge state.

  7. An Automated System for Generating Situation-Specific Decision Support in Clinical Order Entry from Local Empirical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…

  8. Dynamic Interaction: A Measurement Development and Empirical Evaluation of Knowledge Based Systems and Web 2.0 Decision Support Mashups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemer, Brandon Alan

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the organizational and consumer need for knowledge based support in unstructured domains, by developing a measurement scale for dynamic interaction. Addressing this need is approached and evaluated from two different perspectives. The first approach is the development of Knowledge Based…

  9. An Empirical Study into Gender Differences in the Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments of University Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships. The…

  10. A Strategy for Maintaining Public Opinion Support on a Controversial Issue: An Empirical Test of Resistance Theory.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gaudino, James L.; Harris, Allen C.

    To extend the resistance-to-persuasion literature into a context relevant to public relations, a study examined the reactions of 147 Michigan State University students after viewing edited versions of President Ronald Reagan's televised address of February 26, 1986. Reagan's address, concerning his request for public support of an increase in…

  11. The Italian version of the NEO PI-R: Conceptual and empirical support for the use of targeted rotation

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Earlier cross-cultural research on replicability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) suggested that personality trait structure is universal, but a recent study using an Italian translation has challenged this position. The present article reexamines the psychometric properties of the Italian NEO-PI-R and discusses the importance of orthogonal Procrustes rotation when the replicability of complex factor structures is tested. The arguments are supported by data from a slightly modified translation of the NEO-PI-R, which was administered to 575 Italian subjects. These data show a close replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Further, the validity of the Italian NEO-PI-R is supported by external correlates, such as demographic variables (age, sex, education), depression, and affect scales. PMID:19002272

  12. Re-evaluation of Yellowstone grizzly bear population dynamics not supported by empirical data: response to Doak & Cutler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Harris, Richard B.; Higgs, Megan D.; Cherry, Steve; White, Gary C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Doak and Cutler critiqued methods used by the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) to estimate grizzly bear population size and trend in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Here, we focus on the premise, implementation, and interpretation of simulations they used to support their arguments. They argued that population increases documented by IGBST based on females with cubs-of-the-year were an artifact of increased search effort. However, we demonstrate their simulations were neither reflective of the true observation process nor did their results provide statistical support for their conclusion. They further argued that survival and reproductive senescence should be incorporated into population projections, but we demonstrate their choice of extreme mortality risk beyond age 20 and incompatible baseline fecundity led to erroneous conclusions. The conclusions of Doak and Cutler are unsubstantiated when placed within the context of a thorough understanding of the data, study system, and previous research findings and publications.

  13. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-03-12

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed.

  14. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C

    2009-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination.

  15. A survey of the infrastructure for children's mental health services: implications for the implementation of empirically supported treatments (ESTs).

    PubMed

    Schoenwald, Sonja K; Chapman, Jason E; Kelleher, Kelly; Hoagwood, Kimberly Eaton; Landsverk, John; Stevens, Jack; Glisson, Charles; Rolls-Reutz, Jennifer

    2008-03-01

    A structured interview survey of directors of a large national sample (n = 200) of mental health service organizations treating children examined the governance, financing, staffing, services, and implementation practices of these organizations; and, director ratings of factors important to implementation of new treatments and services. Descriptive analyses showed private organizations financing services with public (particularly Medicaid) funds are prevalent and that employment of professional staff, clinical supervision and training, productivity requirements, and outcomes monitoring are common. Results of random effects regression models (RRMs) evaluating associations between governance, financing, and organizational characteristics and the use of new treatments and services showed for-profit organizations more likely to implement such treatments, and organizations with more licensed clinical staff and weekly clinical supervision in place less likely to do so. Results of RRMs evaluating relations between director ratings of the importance to new treatment and service implementation of three factors-fit with existing implementation practices, infrastructure support, and organizational mission and support-suggest greater importance to public than private organizations of these factors. Implications for EST implementation and future research are described.

  16. Stellar Diameters and Temperatures. III. Main-sequence A, F, G, and K Stars: Additional High-precision Measurements and Empirical Relations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; von Braun, Kaspar; van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Ridgway, Stephen; Gies, Douglas; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR J I J JHK), Cousins (R C I C), Kron (R K I K), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W 3 W 4) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of ~3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T eff > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only ~2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  17. Insights from neuroenergetics into the interpretation of functional neuroimaging: an alternative empirical model for studying the brain's support of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging measures quantitative changes in neurophysiological parameters coupled to neuronal activity during observable behavior. These results have usually been interpreted by assuming that mental causation of behavior arises from the simultaneous actions of distinct psychological mechanisms or modules. However, reproducible localization of these modules in the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been elusive other than for sensory systems. In this paper, we show that neuroenergetic studies using PET, calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrical recordings do not support the standard approach, which identifies the location of mental modules from changes in brain activity. Of importance in reaching this conclusion is that changes in neuronal activities underlying the fMRI signal are many times smaller than the high ubiquitous, baseline neuronal activity, or energy in resting, awake humans. Furthermore, the incremental signal depends on the baseline activity contradicting theoretical assumptions about linearity and insertion of mental modules. To avoid these problems, while making use of these valuable results, we propose that neuroimaging should be used to identify observable brain activities that are necessary for a person's observable behavior rather than being used to seek hypothesized mental processes. PMID:25160670

  18. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body resonant RF exposure (100 MHz) in human volunteers.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2003-10-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of volunteer human subjects exposed to the resonant frequency for a seated human adult at 100 MHz. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A half wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject location. The dosimetry plan required measurement of transmitter harmonics, stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. On each exposure test day, a measurement was taken at 225 cm on the beam centerline with a NBS E field probe to assure consistently precise exposures. A NBS 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above, and 60 cm behind the subject and was read at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry for work on physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 100 MHz.

  19. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body radio frequency (RF) exposure in seated human volunteers at 220 MHz.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2005-09-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of seated volunteer human subjects exposed to 220 MHz fields. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A vertical half-wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject's location. The vertically polarized E field was incident on the dorsal side of the phantoms and human volunteers. The dosimetry plan required measurement of stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO) 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above and 60 cm behind the subject (toward the transmitting antenna) and was read prior to each subject's exposure and at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. Transmitter stability was determined by measuring plate voltage, plate current, screen voltage and grid voltage for the driver and final amplifiers before and at 5 min intervals throughout the RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry to precisely control exposure levels for studies of the physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 220 MHz.

  20. STELLAR DIAMETERS AND TEMPERATURES. III. MAIN-SEQUENCE A, F, G, AND K STARS: ADDITIONAL HIGH-PRECISION MEASUREMENTS AND EMPIRICAL RELATIONS

    SciTech Connect

    Boyajian, Tabetha S.; Jones, Jeremy; White, Russel; McAlister, Harold A.; Gies, Douglas; Von Braun, Kaspar; Van Belle, Gerard; Farrington, Chris; Schaefer, Gail; Ten Brummelaar, Theo A.; Sturmann, Laszlo; Sturmann, Judit; Turner, Nils H.; Goldfinger, P. J.; Vargas, Norm; Ridgway, Stephen

    2013-07-01

    Based on CHARA Array measurements, we present the angular diameters of 23 nearby, main-sequence stars, ranging from spectral types A7 to K0, 5 of which are exoplanet host stars. We derive linear radii, effective temperatures, and absolute luminosities of the stars using Hipparcos parallaxes and measured bolometric fluxes. The new data are combined with previously published values to create an Angular Diameter Anthology of measured angular diameters to main-sequence stars (luminosity classes V and IV). This compilation consists of 125 stars with diameter uncertainties of less than 5%, ranging in spectral types from A to M. The large quantity of empirical data is used to derive color-temperature relations to an assortment of color indices in the Johnson (BVR{sub J} I{sub J} JHK), Cousins (R{sub C} I{sub C}), Kron (R{sub K} I{sub K}), Sloan (griz), and WISE (W{sub 3} W{sub 4}) photometric systems. These relations have an average standard deviation of {approx}3% and are valid for stars with spectral types A0-M4. To derive even more accurate relations for Sun-like stars, we also determined these temperature relations omitting early-type stars (T{sub eff} > 6750 K) that may have biased luminosity estimates because of rapid rotation; for this subset the dispersion is only {approx}2.5%. We find effective temperatures in agreement within a couple of percent for the interferometrically characterized sample of main-sequence stars compared to those derived via the infrared flux method and spectroscopic analysis.

  1. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media.

  2. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  3. Scripts, Tricks and Capability Theory: Using an Empirical Window into the Logic of Achievement to Illustrate How a Critical Addition to Capability Theory Might Work to Guide Action

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Corrado, Gail

    2016-01-01

    Capability theory improves our understanding of well being because it takes account of the "conversion" problem: income/wealth/commodities. (IWCs) need to be made effectively available to really increase well being. However, just as IWCs need to be converted into functionings in order to be effective in bringing additional possibilities…

  4. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Saad, Mohamad; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B; Nalls, Michael A; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R; Williams, Nigel M

    2013-03-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1-2% in people >60 and 3-4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10(-16)) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the 'regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity' and also 'cytokine-mediated signalling' as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated.

  5. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  6. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  7. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  8. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  9. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  10. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  11. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  12. Dihydrogen addition in a dinuclear rare-earth metal hydride complex supported by a metalated TREN ligand.

    PubMed

    Venugopal, Ajay; Fegler, Waldemar; Spaniol, Thomas P; Maron, Laurent; Okuda, Jun

    2011-11-09

    The dinuclear lutetium dihydride dication supported by metalated tripodal ligands undergoes facile hydrogenolysis with H(2) to form a trihydride dication. Molecular orbital analysis shows that the LUMO is a bonding Lu···Lu orbital that is poised to activate dihydrogen.

  13. Role of Additives in Composite PEI/Oxide CO₂ Adsorbents: Enhancement in the Amine Efficiency of Supported PEI by PEG in CO₂ Capture from Simulated Ambient Air.

    PubMed

    Sakwa-Novak, Miles A; Tan, Shuai; Jones, Christopher W

    2015-11-11

    Supported amines are promising candidate adsorbents for the removal of CO2 from flue gases and directly from ambient air. The incorporation of additives into polymeric amines such as poly(ethylenimine) (PEI) supported on mesoporous oxides is an effective strategy to improve the performance of the materials. Here, several practical aspects of this strategy are addressed with regards to direct air capture. The influence of three additives (CTAB, PEG200, PEG1000) was systematically explored under dry simulated air capture conditions (400 ppm of CO2, 30 °C). With SBA-15 as a model support for poly(ethylenimine) (PEI), the nature of the additive induced heterogeneities in the deposition of organic on the interior and exterior of the particles, an important consideration for future scale up to practical systems. The PEG200 additive increased the observed thermodynamic performance (∼60% increase in amine efficiency) of the adsorbents regardless of the PEI content, while the other molecules had less positive effects. A threshold PEG200/PEI value was identified at which the diffusional limitations of CO2 within the materials were nearly eliminated. The threshold PEG/PEI ratio may have physical origin in the interactions between PEI and PEG, as the optimal ratio corresponded to nearly equimolar OH/reactive (1°, 2°) amine ratios. The strategy is shown to be robust to the characteristics of the host support, as PEG200 improved the amine efficiency of PEI when supported on two varieties of mesoporous γ-alumina with PEI.

  14. New supported beta-amino alcohols as efficient catalysts for the enantioselective addition of diethylzinc to benzaldehyde under flow conditions.

    PubMed

    Burguete, M Isabel; García-Verdugo, Eduardo; Vicent, María J; Luis, Santiago V; Pennemann, Helmut; Graf von, Keyserling Nikolai; Martens, Jürgen

    2002-10-31

    [formula: see text] Polymeric monoliths 10 containing an amino alcohol moiety derived from an industrial waste material represent one of the best ligands for the enantioselective catalytic addition of ZnEt2 to benzaldehyde (99% ee), being recoverable and usable under flow conditions.

  15. Unmanned Aircraft Systems: Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to Support Warfighter Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-11-01

    Services, House of Representatives UNMANNED AIRCRAFT SYSTEMS Additional Actions Needed to Improve Management and Integration of DOD Efforts to...Armed Services, House of Representatives The Department of Defense’s (DOD) use of unmanned aircraft systems (UAS) continues to increase. In 2000...unmanned aircraft systems This is a work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. It may be reproduced

  16. Mitochondrial genome sequence and gene order of Sipunculus nudus give additional support for an inclusion of Sipuncula into Annelida

    PubMed Central

    Mwinyi, Adina; Meyer, Achim; Bleidorn, Christoph; Lieb, Bernhard; Bartolomaeus, Thomas; Podsiadlowski, Lars

    2009-01-01

    Background Mitochondrial genomes are a valuable source of data for analysing phylogenetic relationships. Besides sequence information, mitochondrial gene order may add phylogenetically useful information, too. Sipuncula are unsegmented marine worms, traditionally placed in their own phylum. Recent molecular and morphological findings suggest a close affinity to the segmented Annelida. Results The first complete mitochondrial genome of a member of Sipuncula, Sipunculus nudus, is presented. All 37 genes characteristic for metazoan mtDNA were detected and are encoded on the same strand. The mitochondrial gene order (protein-coding and ribosomal RNA genes) resembles that of annelids, but shows several derivations so far found only in Sipuncula. Sequence based phylogenetic analysis of mitochondrial protein-coding genes results in significant bootstrap support for Annelida sensu lato, combining Annelida together with Sipuncula, Echiura, Pogonophora and Myzostomida. Conclusion The mitochondrial sequence data support a close relationship of Annelida and Sipuncula. Also the most parsimonious explanation of changes in gene order favours a derivation from the annelid gene order. These results complement findings from recent phylogenetic analyses of nuclear encoded genes as well as a report of a segmental neural patterning in Sipuncula. PMID:19149868

  17. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  18. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  19. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-07-05

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda.

  20. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes.

  1. Systematic Dissection of Coding Exons at Single Nucleotide Resolution Supports an Additional Role in Cell-Specific Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee J.; Findlay, Gregory M.; Martin, Beth; Zhao, Jingjing; Bell, Robert J. A.; Smith, Robin P.; Ku, Angel A.; Shendure, Jay; Ahituv, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6) at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types. PMID:25340400

  2. Does social support in addition to ART make a difference? Comparison of households with TASO and MOH PLWHA in Central Uganda.

    PubMed

    Abimanyi-Ochom, Julie; Lorgelly, Paula; Hollingsworth, Bruce; Inder, Brett

    2013-01-01

    Social support in addition to antiretroviral therapy (ART) has been indicated to be beneficial to person living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) and their families, but very few ART service providers go beyond ART. This study investigates whether receipt of social support in addition to ART for PLWHA makes the households that they reside in better off than households that have PLWHA but are without social support. The analysis uses data comprising of 450 households, which is a sub-sample from the 2010/2011 Centre for Health Economics Ugandan HIV Survey, a cross-sectional survey of 596 households that was undertaken in Uganda. Data were collected from households of clients that obtained ART from two major ART service providers in Central Uganda; The AIDS Support Organisation (TASO) and Ministry of Health (MOH), Uganda. Probit models and ordinary least squares regressions are employed to compare outcomes for individuals from households with a TASO or MOH client. Outcomes for individuals in households with a TASO PLWHA are hypothesised to be superior to those from households with an MOH PLWHA given that the benefits from social support accrue not only to the PLWHA but also to the household and communities they belong to. The results confirm that individuals from a household with a TASO PLWHA are better off in terms of physical health outcomes including better productivity as non-wage labour hours and having more cash in hand and having savings. The findings highlight the importance of additional support to HIV/AIDS clients and have implications for supplementation of ART service provision with other services to maximise the benefits from ART in resource constrained countries like Uganda.

  3. A review of the work of the EU Reference Laboratory supporting the authorisation process of feed additives in the EU. [corrected].

    PubMed

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; González de la Huebra, María José; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods.

  4. Bifunctional heterogeneous catalysis of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines with controlled acid-base interactions for efficient 1,4-addition reactions.

    PubMed

    Motokura, Ken; Tanaka, Satoka; Tada, Mizuki; Iwasawa, Yasuhiro

    2009-10-19

    We report the first tunable bifunctional surface of silica-alumina-supported tertiary amines (SA-NEt(2)) active for catalytic 1,4-addition reactions of nitroalkanes and thiols to electron-deficient alkenes. The 1,4-addition reaction of nitroalkanes to electron-deficient alkenes is one of the most useful carbon-carbon bond-forming reactions and applicable toward a wide range of organic syntheses. The reaction between nitroethane and methyl vinyl ketone scarcely proceeded with either SA or homogeneous amines, and a mixture of SA and amines showed very low catalytic activity. In addition, undesirable side reactions occurred in the case of a strong base like sodium ethoxide employed as a catalytic reagent. Only the present SA-supported amine (SA-NEt(2)) catalyst enabled selective formation of a double-alkylated product without promotions of side reactions such as an intramolecular cyclization reaction. The heterogeneous SA-NEt(2) catalyst was easily recovered from the reaction mixture by simple filtration and reusable with retention of its catalytic activity and selectivity. Furthermore, the SA-NEt(2) catalyst system was applicable to the addition reaction of other nitroalkanes and thiols to various electron-deficient alkenes. The solid-state magic-angle spinning (MAS) NMR spectroscopic analyses, including variable-contact-time (13)C cross-polarization (CP)/MAS NMR spectroscopy, revealed that acid-base interactions between surface acid sites and immobilized amines can be controlled by pretreatment of SA at different temperatures. The catalytic activities for these addition reactions were strongly affected by the surface acid-base interactions.

  5. Gender and Children as the Moderators of the Relationship between Social Support and Quality of Life: An Empirical Study of People Living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana.

    PubMed

    Abrefa-Gyan, Tina; Cornelius, Llewellyn; Okundaye, Joshua

    2015-01-01

    Although gender differences persist in the receipt of social support and the report of quality of life among people living with HIV/AIDS in Sub-Saharan Africa, the knowledge base on this topic is scant. For those living with HIV/AIDS, women tend to participate more than men in support group activities, but their gender predisposes them to lower quality of life. Therefore, this study seeks to determine what demographic factors moderate the relationship between social support and quality of life among those living with HIV/AIDS in Ghana. A convenience sample of 300 HIV/AIDS support group members who have experience participating in research studies and was obtained for use via cross-sectional design survey in September and October 2013. The Medical Outcome Studies (MOS) HIV Health Survey, the MOS Social Support Survey, and demographic questionnaire instruments were used to assess quality of life, social support, and demographic information respectively. Gender (male) F(3, 296) = 66.04, t = 2.26, p = .024) and having children (have children) (F(5, 294) = 40.34, t = 2.50, p = .013) moderated the relationship between social support and quality of life. Implications of the findings for practice, policy, and research in Ghana and the rest of the developing world were discussed.

  6. Application of an Empirical Correction to Solar Backscattered Ultraviolet (SBUV) Ozone Profiles in the Troposphere and Lower Stratosphere: A Validation Study in Support of the Development of Daily Global Tropospheric Ozone Residual (TOR) Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balok, A. E.; Fishman, J.

    2001-05-01

    A comparison of solar backscattered ultraviolet (SBUV) ozone profiles with ozonesonde measurements in the troposphere and lower stratosphere reveal the SBUV algorithm accurately captures the amount of integrated column ozone from 1013 hPa to 63 hPa but incorrectly distributes the amount of ozone in the lowest three layers (1013 hPa - 253 hPa, 253 hPa - 126 hPa, and 126 hPa - 63 hPa). A new global empirical correction technique using a 3-dimensional tropospheric ozone climatology derived from ozonesonde, aircraft, and surface observations is described to redistribute the ozone in the lowest three SBUV layers. The resultant derived stratospheric ozone column can then be used with concurrent total column ozone measurements from the Total Ozone Mapping Spectrometer (TOMS) to derive nearly global (50* N - 50* S) daily tropospheric ozone residual (TOR) maps. The empirically corrected SBUV Layers 1, 2, and 3 are then compared with coincident ozonesonde profiles from Hohenpeissenberg and Natal and show a considerable improvement in the bias between the SBUV Layers and ozonesonde measurements. Additional comparisons of empirically corrected SBUV Layers 1, 2, and 3 with profiles from 6 ozonesonde stations show the bias is reduced on average by 48% 34% and 41%for Layers 1, 2, and 3 respectively.

  7. Deriving Criteria-supporting Benchmark Values from Empirical Response Relationships: Comparison of Statistical Techniques and Effect of Log-transforming the Nutrient Variable

    EPA Science Inventory

    In analyses supporting the development of numeric nutrient criteria, multiple statistical techniques can be used to extract critical values from stressor response relationships. However there is little guidance for choosing among techniques, and the extent to which log-transfor...

  8. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Roger; Goddard, Yvonne; Kim, Eun Sook; Miller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Principals' instructional leadership may support the degree to which teachers work together to improve instruction, and together leadership and teacher collaboration may contribute to school effectiveness by strengthening collective efficacy beliefs. We found a significant direct effect of leadership on teacher collaboration. Further, leadership…

  9. Empirical Support for the Integration of Dispositions in Action and Multiple Literacies into AASL's Standards for the 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Reynolds, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    AASL's Standards for the 21st Century Learner are based on a number of common beliefs, including the importance of reading and technology skills, and the acknowledgement that the concept of information literacy has indeed become more complex since the last century. The data provided in this article support the importance of considering the…

  10. Lateral diffusion of peripheral membrane proteins on supported lipid bilayers is controlled by the additive frictional drags of (1) bound lipids and (2) protein domains penetrating into the bilayer hydrocarbon core.

    PubMed

    Ziemba, Brian P; Falke, Joseph J

    2013-01-01

    Peripheral membrane proteins bound to lipids on bilayer surfaces play central roles in a wide array of cellular processes, including many signaling pathways. These proteins diffuse in the plane of the bilayer and often undergo complex reactions involving the binding of regulatory and substrate lipids and proteins they encounter during their 2D diffusion. Some peripheral proteins, for example pleckstrin homology (PH) domains, dock to the bilayer in a relatively shallow position with little penetration into the bilayer. Other peripheral proteins exhibit more complex bilayer contacts, for example classical protein kinase C isoforms (PKCs) bind as many as six lipids in stepwise fashion, resulting in the penetration of three PKC domains (C1A, C1B, C2) into the bilayer headgroup and hydrocarbon regions. A molecular understanding of the molecular features that control the diffusion speeds of proteins bound to supported bilayers would enable key molecular information to be extracted from experimental diffusion constants, revealing protein-lipid and protein-bilayer interactions difficult to study by other methods. The present study investigates a range of 11 different peripheral protein constructs comprised by 1-3 distinct domains (PH, C1A, C1B, C2, anti-lipid antibody). By combining these constructs with various combinations of target lipids, the study measures 2D diffusion constants on supported bilayers for 17 different protein-lipid complexes. The resulting experimental diffusion constants, together with the known membrane interaction parameters of each complex, are used to analyze the molecular features correlated with diffusional slowing and bilayer friction. The findings show that both (1) individual bound lipids and (2) individual protein domains that penetrate into the hydrocarbon core make additive contributions to the friction against the bilayer, thereby defining the 2D diffusion constant. An empirical formula is developed that accurately estimates the diffusion

  11. Force limited random vibration testing: the computation of the semi-empirical constant $C(2) $ C 2 for a real test article and unknown supporting structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijker, J. J.; Ellenbroek, M. H. M.; Boer, A. de

    2015-09-01

    To prevent over-testing of the test-item during random vibration testing Scharton proposed and discussed the force limited random vibration testing (FLVT) in a number of publications. Besides the random vibration specification, the total mass and the turn-over frequency of the test article (load), C^2 is a very important parameter for FLVT. A number of computational methods to estimate C^2 are described in the literature, i.e. the simple and the complex two degree of freedom system, STDFS and CTDFS, respectively. The motivation of this work is to evaluate the method for the computation of a realistic value of C^2 to perform a representative random vibration test based on force limitation, when the description of the supporting structure (source) is more or less unknown. Marchand discussed the formal description of obtaining C^2, using the maximum PSD of the acceleration and maximum PSD of the force, both at the interface between test article and supporting structure. Stevens presented the coupled systems modal approach (CSMA), where simplified asparagus patch models (parallel-oscillator representation) of load and source are connected. The asparagus patch model consists of modal effective masses and spring stiffnesses associated with the natural frequencies. When the random acceleration vibration specification is given the CSMA method is suitable to compute the value of the parameter C^2. When no mathematical model of the source can be made available, estimations of the value C^2 can be find in literature. In this paper a probabilistic mathematical representation of the unknown source is proposed, such that the asparagus patch model of the source can be approximated. The chosen probabilistic design parameters have a uniform distribution. The computation of the value C^2 can be done in conjunction with the CSMA method, knowing the apparent mass of the load and the random acceleration specification at the interface between load and source, respectively. Data of two

  12. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  13. Retrogressive Failures in Sand Deposits of the Mississippi River. Report 2. Empirical Evidence in Support of the Hypothesized Failure Mechanism and Development of the Levee Safety Flow Slide Monitoring System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-06-01

    30 Empirical Evidence of a Runout Angle ............................... 30 NOD Levee Safety Flow Slide Monitoring System ...................... 51...14 illustrates the retrogression mechanism. Two most important questions relative to the runout angle concept are: a. Is there empirical evidence...ranging variable for flow slides below Baton Rouge? Empirical Evidence of a Runout Angle 19. For several years the author was involved in the

  14. Empirical in operando analysis of the charge carrier dynamics in hematite photoanodes by PEIS, IMPS and IMVS† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c6cp04683e Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Ellis, David Shai; Dotan, Hen

    2016-01-01

    In this Perspective, we introduce intensity modulated photocurrent/voltage spectroscopy (IMPS and IMVS) as powerful tools for the analysis of charge carrier dynamics in photoelectrochemical (PEC) cells for solar water splitting, taking hematite (α-Fe2O3) photoanodes as a case study. We complete the picture by including photoelectrochemical impedance spectroscopy (PEIS) and linking the trio of PEIS, IMPS and IMVS, introduced here as photoelectrochemical immittance triplets (PIT), both mathematically and phenomenologically, demonstrating what conclusions can be extracted from these measurements. A novel way of analyzing the results by an empirical approach with minimal presumptions is introduced, using the distribution of relaxation times (DRT) function. The DRT approach is compared to conventional analysis approaches that are based on physical models and therefore come with model presumptions. This work uses a thin film hematite photoanode as a model system, but the approach can be applied to other PEC systems as well. PMID:27524381

  15. Chinese Fantasy Novel: Empirical Study on New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Bok Check; Soon, Goh Ying

    2014-01-01

    Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. This study seeks to render empirical support on the usefulness of the use of new words in Chinese fantasy novel to enhance vocabulary learning among the non-native learners of Chinese. In general, the students agreed that they like to learn…

  16. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  17. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy Interventions for Internalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Donald P.; Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2006-01-01

    The present article provides an overview of the best-developed interventions for child and adolescent internalizing disorders characterized by anxiety and depression. The review emphasizes interventions that fall into established efficacy categories, but also addresses briefly several other promising treatment procedures. Research on the treatment…

  18. An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

  19. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines…

  20. The Importance of a Theory-Informed Understanding of Additive Bilingual Education: Supporting Bilingualism and Biliteracy in a Melbourne Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Government commitments to supporting instruction in languages other than English have largely been honoured, bilingual education as a form of learning has not been widespread. Acknowledging the benefits of learning a language other than English, the most recent Australian national languages policy statement nonetheless makes no mention of…

  1. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate.

  2. In Arabidopsis thaliana distinct alleles encoding mitochondrial RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 support the generation of additional 5' termini of ccmB transcripts.

    PubMed

    Stoll, Katrin; Jonietz, Christian; Schleicher, Sarah; des Francs-Small, Catherine Colas; Small, Ian; Binder, Stefan

    2017-04-01

    In plant mitochondria, the 5' ends of many transcripts are generated post-transcriptionally. We show that the pentatricopeptide repeat (PPR) protein RNA PROCESSING FACTOR 4 (RPF4) supports the generation of extra 5' ends of ccmB transcripts in Landsberg erecta (Ler) and a number of other Arabidopsis thaliana ecotypes. RPF4 was identified in Ler applying a forward genetic approach supported by complementation studies of ecotype Columbia (Col), which generates the Ler-type extra ccmB 5' termini only after the introduction of the RPF4 allele from Ler. Studies with chimeric RPF4 proteins composed of various parts of the RPF4 proteins from Ler and Col identified differences in the N-terminal and central PPR motifs that explain ecotype-specific variations in ccmB processing. These results fit well with binding site predictions in ccmB transcripts based on the known determinants of nucleotide base recognition by PPR motifs.

  3. The addition of decision support into computerized physician order entry reduces red blood cell transfusion resource utilization in the intensive care unit.

    PubMed

    Fernández Pérez, Evans R; Winters, Jeffrey L; Gajic, Ognjen

    2007-07-01

    Computerized physician order entry (CPOE) has the potential for cost containment in critically ill patients through practice standardization and elimination of unnecessary interventions. Previous study demonstrated the beneficial short-term effect of adding a decision support for red blood cell (RBC) transfusion into the hospital CPOE. We evaluated the effect of such intervention on RBC resource utilization during the two-year study period. From the institutional APACHE III database we identified 2,200 patients with anemia, but no active bleeding on admission: 1,100 during a year before and 1,100 during a year after the intervention. The mean number of RBC transfusions per patient decreased from 1.5 +/- 1.9 units to 1.3 +/- 1.8 units after the intervention (P = 0.045). RBC transfusion cost decreased from $616,442 to $556,226 after the intervention. Hospital length of stay and adjusted hospital mortality did not differ before and after protocol implementation. In conclusion, the implementation of an evidenced-based decision support system through a CPOE can decrease RBC transfusion resource utilization in critically ill patients.

  4. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  5. Additional case of Marden-Walker syndrome: support for the autosomal-recessive inheritance adn refinement of phenotype in a surviving patient.

    PubMed

    Orrico, A; Galli, L; Zappella, M; Orsi, A; Hayek, G

    2001-02-01

    In this report, we present a 14-year-old girl, born to consanguineous parents, who presented with severe mental retardation, hypotonia, short stature, and congenital joint contractures. The craniofacial features were scaphocephaly, thin/long and immobile face, marked hypoplasia of the midface, temporal narrowness, blepharophimosis, palpebral ptosis, and strabismus. The combination of such a distinctive craniofacial appearance and psychomotor retardation allows us to recognize a new case of the Marden-Walker syndrome. Our patient represents one of the rare cases in which consanguineous mating supports the autosomal-recessive pattern of inheritance of this condition. Furthermore, through refining the phenotype of a surviving patient, this report may contribute to a better recognition of this disorder in older affected children.

  6. Effect of active component addition and support modification on catalytic activity of Ag/Al2O3 for the selective catalytic reduction of NOx by hydrocarbon - A review.

    PubMed

    More, Pavan M

    2017-03-01

    The effect of active component addition and support modification of Ag/Al2O3 has been reviewed to examine their contribution to HC-SCR of NOx. This review has depicted the possible mechanisms of reduction of NO by hydrocarbon using metal/metal oxide doped Ag/Al2O3. The addition of second metal results in the maximum formation of well dispersed Agn(δ+) clusters. Specifically, addition of Au improves the low-temperature activity of the catalyst. However, the role of second metal also depends on the pretreatment to the catalyst and nature of the reductants. The support modification of Ag/Al2O3 by the addition of different metal oxides has also been reviewed. Modification by MgO showed improvement in activity besides sulfur tolerance. In situ DRIFT study demonstrates that the modification by MgO leads to the inhibition of sulfate formation of Ag and Al2O3. Enhancement in activity after second metal addition and support modification attributed to the synergistic effect and improved surface properties of Ag/Al2O3 catalyst.

  7. Mental retardation and Ullrich-Turner syndrome in cases with 45,X/46,X, +mar: Additional support for the loss of the X-inactivation center hypothesis

    SciTech Connect

    Cole, H.; Huang, B.; Brown, J.; Howard-Peebles, P.N.; Black, S.H.; Jackson-Cook, C.; Salbert, B.A.; Febles, O.R.; Stevens, C.A.

    1994-08-15

    Four cases having mosaicism for a small marker or ring [45,X/46,X,+mar or 45,X/46,X,+r] chromosome were ascertained following cytogenetic studies requested because of minor anomalies (cases 1, 3, and 4) and/or short stature (cases 2 and 4). While all 4 cases had traits typical of Ullrich-Turner syndrome (UTS), cases 1, 3, and 4 had manifestations not usually present in UTS, including unusual facial appearance, mental retardation/developmental delay (MR/DD) (cases 3 and 4), and syndactylies (case 1). Using fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH), each of the markers in these 4 cases was identified as having been derived from an X chromosome. Replication studies demonstrated a probable early replication pattern for the mar/r(X) in cases 1, 3, and 4, while the marker in case 2 was apparently late replicating. To date, 41 individuals having mosaicism for a small mar/r(X) chromosome have been described. Interestingly, most of the 14 individuals having a presumedly active mar/r(X) demonstrated clinical findings atypical of UTS, including abnormal facial changes (11) and MR/DD (13). MR was noted most frequently in those cases having at least 50% mosaicism for the marker or ring. In contrast, atypical UTS facial appearance or MR/DD was not noted in 14 of the 16 cases with UTS who carried a probable late replicating marker or ring. In conclusion, although the phenotype of 45,S/46,X, mar/r(X) individuals appears to be influenced by the genetic content and degree of mosaicism for the mar/r(X), the most significant factor associated with MR/DD appears to be the activity status of the mar/r(X) chromosome. Thus, our 4 cases provide further support for the hypothesis that a lack of inactivation of a small mar/r(X) chromosome may be a factor leading to the MR and other phenotypic abnormalities seen in this subset of individuals having atypical UTS. 46 refs., 6 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  9. Non-Empirical Confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawid, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In fundamental physics today, some theories are taken to be probably viable despite a lack of strong (or any) empirical confirmation. This situation suggests, I argue, an extension of the concept of theory confirmation that allows for confirmation by observations that are not predicted by the theory in question. "Non-empirical confirmation", as I call the latter form of confirmation, plays a more conspicuous role today than in earlier periods of physics. It has always constituted a significant albeit implicit element of the assessment of physical theory, however, that has not been adequately accounted for in canonical reconstructions of the scientific method. The talk discusses the core argumentative structure of non-empirical confirmation, analyses the concept’s reliance on the empirical testability of the theories in question and addresses some worries that have been raised in its regard.

  10. Defining Empirically Based Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Deborah H.

    1984-01-01

    Provides a definition of empirically based practice, both conceptually and operationally. Describes a study of how research and practice were integrated in the graduate social work program at the School of Social Service Administration, University of Chicago. (JAC)

  11. Lévy/Anomalous Diffusion as a Mean-Field Theory for 3D Cloud Effects in SW-RT: Empirical Support, New Analytical Formulation, and Impact on Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pfeilsticker, K.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A.; Suszcynsky, D. M.; Buldryrev, S.; Barker, H.

    2001-12-01

    systems with strongly nonlinear dynamics; these applications range from random advection in turbulent fluids to the erratic behavior of financial time-series and, most recently, self-regulating ecological systems. We will briefly survey the state-of-the-art observations that offer compelling empirical support for the Lévy/anomalous diffusion model in atmospheric radiation: (1) high-resolution spectroscopy of differential absorption in the O2 A-band from ground; (2) temporal transient records of lightning strokes transmitted through clouds to a sensitive detector in space; and (3) the Gamma-distributions of optical depths derived from Landsat cloud scenes at 30-m resolution. We will then introduce a rigorous analytical formulation of anomalous transport through finite media based on fractional derivatives and Sonin calculus. A remarkable result from this new theoretical development is an extremal property of the α = 1+ case (divergent mean-free-path), as is observed in the cloudy atmosphere. Finally, we will discuss the implications of anomalous transport theory for bulk 3D effects on the current enhanced absorption problem as well as its role as the basis of a next-generation GCM RT parameterization.

  12. Lévy/Anomalous Diffusion as a Mean-Field Theory for 3D Cloud Effects in Shortwave Radiative Transfer: Empirical Support, New Analytical Formulation, and Impact on Atmospheric Absorption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buldyrev, S.; Davis, A.; Marshak, A.; Stanley, H. E.

    2001-12-01

    -of-the-art observations that offer compelling empirical support for the Lévy/anomalous diffusion model in atmospheric radiation: (1) high-resolution spectroscopy of differential absorption in the O2 A-band from ground; (2) temporal transient records of lightning strokes transmitted through clouds to a sensitive detector in space; and (3) the Gamma-distributions of optical depths derived from Landsat cloud scenes at 30-m resolution. We will then introduce a rigorous analytical formulation of Lévy/anomalous transport through finite media based on fractional derivatives and Sonin calculus. A remarkable result from this new theoretical development is an extremal property of the α = 1+ case (divergent mean-free-path), as is observed in the cloudy atmosphere. Finally, we will discuss the implications of anomalous transport theory for bulk 3D effects on the current enhanced absorption problem as well as its role as the basis of a next-generation GCM radiation parameterization.

  13. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  14. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  15. Empirically Exploring Higher Education Cultures of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew B.; Skidmore, Susan T.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Holzweiss, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    Although touted as beneficial to student learning, cultures of assessment have not been examined adequately using validated instruments. Using data collected from a stratified, random sample (N = 370) of U.S. institutional research and assessment directors, the models tested in this study provide empirical support for the value of using the…

  16. Empirical Modeling Of Single-Event Upset

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, John A.; Smith, Lawrence S.; Soli, George A.; Thieberger, Peter; Smith, Stephen L.; Atwood, Gregory E.

    1988-01-01

    Experimental study presents examples of empirical modeling of single-event upset in negatively-doped-source/drain metal-oxide-semiconductor static random-access memory cells. Data supports adoption of simplified worst-case model in which cross sectionof SEU by ion above threshold energy equals area of memory cell.

  17. Parent-Adolescent Conflict: An Empirical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Compares psychoanalytic, systems, and social learning theories to determine the empirical support for each theoretical orientation in treating problematic conflict between parents and adolescents. Discusses parent-adolescent conflict, including developmental stage theory, parenting styles, peer pressures, communication skills, marital conflict,…

  18. Against the Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    It is argued that the “generic” evolutionary pathway of advanced technological civilizations are more likely to be optimization-driven than expansion-driven, in contrast to the prevailing opinions and attitudes in both future studies on one side and astrobiology/SETI studies on the other. Two toy-models of postbiological evolution of advanced technological civilizations are considered and several arguments supporting the optimization-driven, spatially compact model are briefly discussed. In addition, it is pointed out that there is a subtle contradiction in most of the tech-optimist and transhumanist accounts of future human/alien civilizations' motivations in its postbiological stages. This may have important ramifications for both practical SETI projects and the future (of humanity) studies.

  19. Influence of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} additives on interaction between NIMoO{sub 4} and support in Al-Ni-Mo catalysts of hydrogenation

    SciTech Connect

    Sydelkovskaya, V.G.; Surin, S.A.; Nefedov, B.K.

    1995-12-31

    Al-Ni-Mo catalysts produced by mixing of NiMoO{sub 4} and alumina hydrooxide (psevdobemit) were investigated by UV reflectance spectroscopy and combination scattering spectroscopy. The catalysts without H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} additives are characterized by destruction of NiMoO{sub 4} and interaction between Ni, Mo had the support with formation of surface Al-Ni-Mo structures. The study of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} additives effect on the formation of oxide Ni-Mo phases in the Al-Ni-Mo catalysts has shown, that the introduction of H{sub 3}PO{sub 4} allows to stabilize NiMoO{sub 4} and to prevent its decomposition.

  20. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  1. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  2. An Empirical Kaiser Criterion.

    PubMed

    Braeken, Johan; van Assen, Marcel A L M

    2016-03-31

    In exploratory factor analysis (EFA), most popular methods for dimensionality assessment such as the screeplot, the Kaiser criterion, or-the current gold standard-parallel analysis, are based on eigenvalues of the correlation matrix. To further understanding and development of factor retention methods, results on population and sample eigenvalue distributions are introduced based on random matrix theory and Monte Carlo simulations. These results are used to develop a new factor retention method, the Empirical Kaiser Criterion. The performance of the Empirical Kaiser Criterion and parallel analysis is examined in typical research settings, with multiple scales that are desired to be relatively short, but still reliable. Theoretical and simulation results illustrate that the new Empirical Kaiser Criterion performs as well as parallel analysis in typical research settings with uncorrelated scales, but much better when scales are both correlated and short. We conclude that the Empirical Kaiser Criterion is a powerful and promising factor retention method, because it is based on distribution theory of eigenvalues, shows good performance, is easily visualized and computed, and is useful for power analysis and sample size planning for EFA. (PsycINFO Database Record

  3. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D

    2011-03-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance.

  4. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  5. Reframing Serial Murder Within Empirical Research.

    PubMed

    Gurian, Elizabeth A

    2017-04-01

    Empirical research on serial murder is limited due to the lack of consensus on a definition, the continued use of primarily descriptive statistics, and linkage to popular culture depictions. These limitations also inhibit our understanding of these offenders and affect credibility in the field of research. Therefore, this comprehensive overview of a sample of 508 cases (738 total offenders, including partnered groups of two or more offenders) provides analyses of solo male, solo female, and partnered serial killers to elucidate statistical differences and similarities in offending and adjudication patterns among the three groups. This analysis of serial homicide offenders not only supports previous research on offending patterns present in the serial homicide literature but also reveals that empirically based analyses can enhance our understanding beyond traditional case studies and descriptive statistics. Further research based on these empirical analyses can aid in the development of more accurate classifications and definitions of serial murderers.

  6. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  7. A 1.1Mb deletion in distal 13q deletion syndrome region with congenital heart defect and postaxial polydactyly: additional support for a CHD locus at distal 13q34 region.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yi-Feng; Ai, Qi; Huang, Can; Chen, Jin-Lan; Wang, Jian; Xie, Li; Zhang, Wei-Zhi; Yang, Jin-Fu; Tan, Zhi-Ping

    2013-10-01

    13q deletion syndrome is a rare genetic disorder, especially for group 3 deletion (13q33-q34 deletion). Previously we described a patient with congenital heart defect and mental retardation and proposed that a distal 6Mb region might contain the causative gene of congenital heart defect. Here we present a new patient with congenital heart defects (CHD), hand and foot anomalies and mild mental retardation. We identified a 1.1Mb deletion at chromosome 13q34 with high resolution SNP-array BeadChips (HumanOmni1-Quad, Illumina, USA). This chromosome region contains ten annotated genes, including GRK1, TFDP1, RASA3 and GAS6. To our knowledge, this represents the smallest 13q34 deletion identified to date. Our study provides additional support that distal 13q34 deletion region might contain key gene(s) responsible for cardiac development.

  8. Randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of a clinical decision support system for brain tumour diagnosis based on SV ¹H MRS: evaluation as an additional information procedure for novice radiologists.

    PubMed

    Sáez, Carlos; Martí-Bonmatí, Luis; Alberich-Bayarri, Angel; Robles, Montserrat; García-Gómez, Juan M

    2014-02-01

    The results of a randomized pilot study and qualitative evaluation of the clinical decision support system Curiam BT are reported. We evaluated the system's feasibility and potential value as a radiological information procedure complementary to magnetic resonance (MR) imaging to assist novice radiologists in diagnosing brain tumours using MR spectroscopy (1.5 and 3.0T). Fifty-five cases were analysed at three hospitals according to four non-exclusive diagnostic questions. Our results show that Curiam BT improved the diagnostic accuracy in all the four questions. Additionally, we discuss the findings of the users' feedback about the system, and the further work to optimize it for real environments and to conduct a large clinical trial.

  9. What 'empirical turn in bioethics'?

    PubMed

    Hurst, Samia

    2010-10-01

    Uncertainty as to how we should articulate empirical data and normative reasoning seems to underlie most difficulties regarding the 'empirical turn' in bioethics. This article examines three different ways in which we could understand 'empirical turn'. Using real facts in normative reasoning is trivial and would not represent a 'turn'. Becoming an empirical discipline through a shift to the social and neurosciences would be a turn away from normative thinking, which we should not take. Conducting empirical research to inform normative reasoning is the usual meaning given to the term 'empirical turn'. In this sense, however, the turn is incomplete. Bioethics has imported methodological tools from empirical disciplines, but too often it has not imported the standards to which researchers in these disciplines are held. Integrating empirical and normative approaches also represents true added difficulties. Addressing these issues from the standpoint of debates on the fact-value distinction can cloud very real methodological concerns by displacing the debate to a level of abstraction where they need not be apparent. Ideally, empirical research in bioethics should meet standards for empirical and normative validity similar to those used in the source disciplines for these methods, and articulate these aspects clearly and appropriately. More modestly, criteria to ensure that none of these standards are completely left aside would improve the quality of empirical bioethics research and partly clear the air of critiques addressing its theoretical justification, when its rigour in the particularly difficult context of interdisciplinarity is what should be at stake.

  10. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  11. An empirical examination of the factor structure of compassion

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Jenny; Cavanagh, Kate; Baer, Ruth

    2017-01-01

    Compassion has long been regarded as a core part of our humanity by contemplative traditions, and in recent years, it has received growing research interest. Following a recent review of existing conceptualisations, compassion has been defined as consisting of the following five elements: 1) recognising suffering, 2) understanding the universality of suffering in human experience, 3) feeling moved by the person suffering and emotionally connecting with their distress, 4) tolerating uncomfortable feelings aroused (e.g., fear, distress) so that we remain open to and accepting of the person suffering, and 5) acting or being motivated to act to alleviate suffering. As a prerequisite to developing a high quality compassion measure and furthering research in this field, the current study empirically investigated the factor structure of the five-element definition using a combination of existing and newly generated self-report items. This study consisted of three stages: a systematic consultation with experts to review items from existing self-report measures of compassion and generate additional items (Stage 1), exploratory factor analysis of items gathered from Stage 1 to identify the underlying structure of compassion (Stage 2), and confirmatory factor analysis to validate the identified factor structure (Stage 3). Findings showed preliminary empirical support for a five-factor structure of compassion consistent with the five-element definition. However, findings indicated that the ‘tolerating’ factor may be problematic and not a core aspect of compassion. This possibility requires further empirical testing. Limitations with items from included measures lead us to recommend against using these items collectively to assess compassion. Instead, we call for the development of a new self-report measure of compassion, using the five-element definition to guide item generation. We recommend including newly generated ‘tolerating’ items in the initial item pool, to

  12. Psychoanalysis and empirical research.

    PubMed

    Giannoni, Massimo

    2003-11-01

    At the beginning of the nineteenth century, the idea of reason began to lose its universal and absolute value, undermining the view of science as a form of objective knowledge that reveals a fundamental reality. These changes have also had an impact on psychoanalysis, leading to a proliferation of theories and the end of a positivistic approach, epitomized by a 'neutral' analyst who knows the contents of the patient's mind. Hermeneutic philosophy provides a tool with which to explore both theoretical multiplicity and the contribution of the analyst's subjectivity to the analytic process. Furthermore, a hermeneutic approach does not have to be hostile to empirical science, but can be integrated with it in a 'scientific-hermeneutic model' in which historical and biological principles are given equal value.

  13. The processing of rotor startup signals based on empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gai, Guanghong

    2006-01-01

    In this paper, we applied empirical mode decomposition method to analyse rotor startup signals, which are non-stationary and contain a lot of additional information other than that from its stationary running signals. The methodology developed in this paper decomposes the original startup signals into intrinsic oscillation modes or intrinsic modes function (IMFs). Then, we obtained rotating frequency components for Bode diagrams plot by corresponding IMFs, according to the characteristics of rotor system. The method can obtain precise critical speed without complex hardware support. The low-frequency components were extracted from these IMFs in vertical and horizontal directions. Utilising these components, we constructed a drift locus of rotor revolution centre, which provides some significant information to fault diagnosis of rotating machinery. Also, we proved that empirical mode decomposition method is more precise than Fourier filter for the extraction of low-frequency component.

  14. An empirical study of the DSM-IV Defensive Functioning Scale in personality disordered patients.

    PubMed

    Blais, M A; Conboy, C A; Wilcox, N; Norman, D K

    1996-01-01

    The inclusion of the Defensive Functioning Scale (DFS) in the DSM-IV provides clinicians with the opportunity to incorporate psychodynamic information into their descriptive diagnoses. The DFS contains 27 specific defenses covering six levels of defensive functioning ranging from psychotic to normal. This study undertook an initial empirical evaluation of the DFS. A sample of 100 clinicians completed a questionnaire containing both the personality disorder (PD) symptoms and the DFS defenses of PD patients known to them, DFS ratings were not related to clinician orientation. Patient gender was related to only one defense level, with women being assigned significantly more action level defenses than men. Multiple regression analyses revealed unique and meaningful patterns of association between the defense levels and PD symptoms. Additionally, the DFS ratings provided unique information regarding level of impairment and treatment success. These results provide initial empirical support for the clinical application and relevance of the proposed DFS system.

  15. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  16. Empirical evaluation of interest-level criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, Sigal; Mansour, Yishay

    1999-02-01

    Efficient association rule mining algorithms already exist, however, as the size of databases increases, the number of patterns mined by the algorithms increases to such an extent that their manual evaluation becomes impractical. Automatic evaluation methods are, therefore, required in order to sift through the initial list of rules, which the datamining algorithm outputs. These evaluation methods, or criteria, rank the association rules mined from the dataset. We empirically examined several such statistical criteria: new criteria, as well as previously known ones. The empirical evaluation was conducted using several databases, including a large real-life dataset, acquired from an order-by-phone grocery store, a dataset composed from www proxy logs, and several datasets from the UCI repository. We were interested in discovering whether the ranking performed by the various criteria is similar or easily distinguishable. Our evaluation detected, when significant differences exist, three patterns of behavior in the eight criteria we examined. There is an obvious dilemma in determining how many association rules to choose (in accordance with support and confidence parameters). The tradeoff is between having stringent parameters and, therefore, few rules, or lenient parameters and, thus, a multitude of rules. In many cases, our empirical evaluation revealed that most of the rules found by the comparably strict parameters ranked highly according to the interestingness criteria, when using lax parameters (producing significantly more association rules). Finally, we discuss the association rules that ranked highest, explain why these results are sound, and how they direct future research.

  17. Empirical agreement in model validation.

    PubMed

    Jebeile, Julie; Barberousse, Anouk

    2016-04-01

    Empirical agreement is often used as an important criterion when assessing the validity of scientific models. However, it is by no means a sufficient criterion as a model can be so adjusted as to fit available data even though it is based on hypotheses whose plausibility is known to be questionable. Our aim in this paper is to investigate into the uses of empirical agreement within the process of model validation.

  18. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online.

  19. Relationships Between Emotional Stability, Psychosocial Mentoring Support and Career Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the mediating role of psychosocial mentoring support on emotional stability personality disposition and career resilience relationship. In addition, this research also focuses on estimating the interrelationship between emotional stability, psychosocial mentoring support and career resilience. The results show substantive direct relations between emotional stability and psychosocial mentoring as well as between emotional stability and career resilience. Psychosocial mentoring is also seen as a significant predictor of career resilience. Further, it mediates partially the relationship between emotional stability personality and career resilience. Future and practical implications of research have also been provided. PMID:27247639

  20. Football and exchange rates: empirical support for behavioral economics.

    PubMed

    Eker, Gulin; Berument, Hakan; Dogan, Burak

    2007-10-01

    Recently, economic theory has been expanded to incorporate emotions, which have been assumed to play an important role in financial decisions. The present study illustrates this by showing a connection between the sports performance of popular national football teams (Besiktas, Fenerbahce, and Galatasaray) and performance of the Turkish economy. Specifically, a significant positive association was found between the success of three major professional Turkish football teams and the exchange rate of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar. The effect of the football success of several Turkish football teams on the exchange rate of the Turkish lira was examined using the simultaneous multiple regression model with predictor measures of wins, losses, and ties for different combinations of teams to predict the depreciation rate of the Turkish lira between the years 1987 and 2003. Wins by Turkish football teams against foreign (non-Turkish) rivals increased with exchange rate depreciation of the Turkish lira against the U.S. dollar.

  1. Haldane's Rule: Genetic Bases and Their Empirical Support.

    PubMed

    Delph, Lynda F; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2016-09-01

    There are few patterns in evolution that are as rigidly held as Haldane's rule (HR), which states, "When in the first generation between hybrids between 2 species, 1 sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is always the heterogametic sex." Yet despite considerable attention for almost a century, questions persist as to how many independent examples exist and what is (are) the underlying genetic cause(s). Here, we review recent evidence extending HR to plants, where previously it has only been documented in animals. We also discuss recent comparative analyses that show much more variation in sex-chromosome composition than previously recognized, thus increasing the number of potential independent origins of HR dramatically. Finally, we review the standing of genetic theories proposed to explain HR in light of the new examples and new molecular understanding.

  2. Technology Applications for Children with ADHD: Assessing the Empirical Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Chunzhen; Reid, Robert; Steckelberg, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews technology research (n=20) with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five categories: computer-assisted instruction, computer-based cognitive training, biofeedback training, assessment, and behavior modification. Analysis of available research suggests there is little well controlled experimental…

  3. Empirical Neutral Thermosphere Models; Then and Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas; Emmert, John; McDonald, Sarah; Picone, J. Michael

    The empirical Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) upper atmospheric model pro-vides a readily available framework for summarizing the results of five solar cycles of density, composition, and temperature information from multi-agency satellite missions, rocket flights, and ground-based observations. The MSIS versions described in Hedin et al. (1987), Hedin et al. (1991), and Picone et al., (2002) have been cited over 2500 times in the peer reviewed scientific literature. The cross-listed subject areas include Astronomy (50%), Atmospheric Sci-ences (40%), Geophysics (25%), Multidisciplinary (23%), Aerospace (16%), Remote Sensing (4%), Instrumentation (3%), and Telecommunications (2%). The MSIS model even has its own Wikipedia entry; it is also included in commercial applications such as the Satellite Tool Kit and the MATLAB Aerospace Toolbox. In addition, the recently updated Horizontal Wind Model (HWM07) of Drob et al. (2008) provides a statistical representation of the horizontal wind fields from the ground to the exosphere (> 500 km), representing over 35-years of satellite, rocket, and ground-based wind measurements via a compact Fortran 90 subroutine. Together, these models approximately describe the compositional, thermal, and dynamical state of the neutral upper atmosphere. These low overhead, high-availability computer subroutines are a function of geographic location, altitude, day of the year, solar local time, and geomagnetic activity. In contrast to General Circulation Models, they provide a set of precompiled spectral patterns bypassing the need to compute them directly from first principles. They include representations of the zonal mean state, stationary planetary waves, migrating tides, and the seasonal modulation thereof; as well as the influences of geomagnetic activity and solar flux. End-users interact with a statistical summary of the underlying knowledgebase via a single subroutine interface which encapsulates much of the system

  4. A Tool for Sharing Empirical Models of Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, J.; Kopp, R. E.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists, policy advisors, and the public struggle to synthesize the quickly evolving empirical work on climate change impacts. The Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used to estimate the impacts of climate change and the effects of adaptation and mitigation policies can also benefit greatly from recent empirical results (Kopp, Hsiang & Oppenheimer, Impacts World 2013 discussion paper). This paper details a new online tool for exploring, analyzing, combining, and communicating a wide range of impact results, and supporting their integration into IAMs. The tool uses a new database of statistical results, which researchers can expand both in depth (by providing additional results that describing existing relationships) and breadth (by adding new relationships). Scientists can use the tool to quickly perform meta-analyses of related results, using Bayesian techniques to produce pooled and partially-pooled posterior distributions. Policy advisors can apply the statistical results to particular contexts, and combine different kinds of results in a cost-benefit framework. For example, models of the impact of temperature changes on agricultural yields can be first aggregated to build a best-estimate of the effect under given assumptions, then compared across countries using different temperature scenarios, and finally combined to estimate a social cost of carbon. The general public can better understand the many estimates of climate impacts and their range of uncertainty by exploring these results dynamically, with maps, bar charts, and dose-response-style plots. Front page of the climate impacts tool website. Sample "collections" of models, within which all results are estimates of the same fundamental relationship, are shown on the right. Simple pooled result for Gelman's "8 schools" example. Pooled results are calculated analytically, while partial-pooling (Bayesian hierarchical estimation) uses posterior simulations.

  5. Biased estimates of diminishing-returns epistasis? Empirical evidence revisited.

    PubMed

    Berger, David; Postma, Erik

    2014-12-01

    Empirical evidence for diminishing fitness returns of beneficial mutations supports Fisher's geometric model. We show that a similar pattern emerges through the phenomenon of regression to the mean and that few studies correct for it. Although biases are often small, regression to the mean has overemphasized diminishing returns and will hamper cross-study comparisons unless corrected for.

  6. The Socratic Method: Empirical Assessment of a Psychology Capstone Course

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, Lawrence R.; Stephenson, Paul L.; Bellamy, Katy

    2016-01-01

    Although students make some epistemological progress during college, most graduate without developing meaning-making strategies that reflect an understanding that knowledge is socially constructed. Using a pre-test-post-test design and a within-subjects 2 × 2 mixed-design ANOVA, this study reports on empirical findings which support the Socratic…

  7. Seeking Empirical Validity in an Assurance of Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Sherry L.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Lirely, Roger; Doty, H. Harold

    2014-01-01

    Business schools have established measurement tools to support their assurance of learning (AoL) systems and to assess student achievement of learning objectives. However, business schools have not required their tools to be empirically validated, thus ensuring that they measure what they are intended to measure. The authors propose confirmatory…

  8. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  9. Empirical Foundation of Central Concepts for Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Spannagel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The design of computer science curricula should rely on central concepts of the discipline rather than on technical short-term developments. Several authors have proposed lists of basic concepts or fundamental ideas in the past. However, these catalogs were based on subjective decisions without any empirical support. This article describes the…

  10. Differentiating Computer Experience and Attitudes toward Computers: An Empirical Investigation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smith, B.; Caputi, P.; Rawstorne, P.

    2000-01-01

    Describes a study that defined and provided initial empirical support for differentiating the concepts of computer attitude, subjective computer experience, and objective computer experience. Discusses results of a principal component factor analysis and presents a conceptual analysis of the relation between subjective computer experience and…

  11. Regression with Empirical Variable Selection: Description of a New Method and Application to Ecological Datasets

    PubMed Central

    Goodenough, Anne E.; Hart, Adam G.; Stafford, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent papers on problems associated with full-model and stepwise regression, their use is still common throughout ecological and environmental disciplines. Alternative approaches, including generating multiple models and comparing them post-hoc using techniques such as Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), are becoming more popular. However, these are problematic when there are numerous independent variables and interpretation is often difficult when competing models contain many different variables and combinations of variables. Here, we detail a new approach, REVS (Regression with Empirical Variable Selection), which uses all-subsets regression to quantify empirical support for every independent variable. A series of models is created; the first containing the variable with most empirical support, the second containing the first variable and the next most-supported, and so on. The comparatively small number of resultant models (n = the number of predictor variables) means that post-hoc comparison is comparatively quick and easy. When tested on a real dataset – habitat and offspring quality in the great tit (Parus major) – the optimal REVS model explained more variance (higher R2), was more parsimonious (lower AIC), and had greater significance (lower P values), than full, stepwise or all-subsets models; it also had higher predictive accuracy based on split-sample validation. Testing REVS on ten further datasets suggested that this is typical, with R2 values being higher than full or stepwise models (mean improvement = 31% and 7%, respectively). Results are ecologically intuitive as even when there are several competing models, they share a set of “core” variables and differ only in presence/absence of one or two additional variables. We conclude that REVS is useful for analysing complex datasets, including those in ecology and environmental disciplines. PMID:22479605

  12. Regression with empirical variable selection: description of a new method and application to ecological datasets.

    PubMed

    Goodenough, Anne E; Hart, Adam G; Stafford, Richard

    2012-01-01

    Despite recent papers on problems associated with full-model and stepwise regression, their use is still common throughout ecological and environmental disciplines. Alternative approaches, including generating multiple models and comparing them post-hoc using techniques such as Akaike's Information Criterion (AIC), are becoming more popular. However, these are problematic when there are numerous independent variables and interpretation is often difficult when competing models contain many different variables and combinations of variables. Here, we detail a new approach, REVS (Regression with Empirical Variable Selection), which uses all-subsets regression to quantify empirical support for every independent variable. A series of models is created; the first containing the variable with most empirical support, the second containing the first variable and the next most-supported, and so on. The comparatively small number of resultant models (n = the number of predictor variables) means that post-hoc comparison is comparatively quick and easy. When tested on a real dataset--habitat and offspring quality in the great tit (Parus major)--the optimal REVS model explained more variance (higher R(2)), was more parsimonious (lower AIC), and had greater significance (lower P values), than full, stepwise or all-subsets models; it also had higher predictive accuracy based on split-sample validation. Testing REVS on ten further datasets suggested that this is typical, with R(2) values being higher than full or stepwise models (mean improvement = 31% and 7%, respectively). Results are ecologically intuitive as even when there are several competing models, they share a set of "core" variables and differ only in presence/absence of one or two additional variables. We conclude that REVS is useful for analysing complex datasets, including those in ecology and environmental disciplines.

  13. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  14. Personal characteristics and resilience to economic hardship and its consequences: conceptual issues and empirical illustrations.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Katherine J; McAdams, Kimberly K; Neppl, Tricia K

    2009-12-01

    This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal characteristics in this context. Finally, initial empirical support for some of the key predictions from the proposed model are provided using longitudinal data collected from a sample of Midwestern families. Specifically, adolescent academic achievement, self-reports of Conscientiousness, and self-reports of low Neuroticism during adolescence predicted relevant outcomes in adulthood such as less economic pressure, more satisfying romantic relationships, and less harsh parenting behaviors. These preliminary findings support the hypothesized model and extend research concerning the life course outcomes associated with personal characteristics.

  15. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  16. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  17. Empirical Research on Performance Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marker, Anthony; Huglin, Linda; Johnsen, Liz

    2006-01-01

    In 2002, James Klein published a study based on a content analysis of research articles in "PIQ" from 1997 through 2000. That study was aimed at determining how much empirical research was being reported in HPT and what the focus of that research was. Klein found that only about one third of the articles published in "PIQ" represented empirical…

  18. Empirically Unbinding the Double Bind.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Olson, David H.

    The theoretical concept of the double bind and the possibilities for researching it are discussed. The author has observed that theory and research, which should be reciprocal and mutually beneficial, have been working, as concerns the double bind, at odds with one another. Two approaches to empirically investigating the concept are considered via…

  19. An empirical hypothesis of deformation rate ratio criterion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, S.

    1996-04-01

    Based on the experiences obtained from more than 10 years' monitoring of tunnel excavation in soft ground, and in order to solve the problem that the currently-used surrounding rock stability criteria have nothing to do with the rockbolts-shotcrete support operation, thus they are hard to be applied by in-situ engineers, the author puts forward a new empirical hypothesis of criterion for surrounding rock stability assessment. Then five case histories are described as references. Furthermore, the open complex giant system methodology is introduced to explain the theory and practice of empirical hypothesis.

  20. Empirical ethics as dialogical practice.

    PubMed

    Widdershoven, Guy; Abma, Tineke; Molewijk, Bert

    2009-05-01

    In this article, we present a dialogical approach to empirical ethics, based upon hermeneutic ethics and responsive evaluation. Hermeneutic ethics regards experience as the concrete source of moral wisdom. In order to gain a good understanding of moral issues, concrete detailed experiences and perspectives need to be exchanged. Within hermeneutic ethics dialogue is seen as a vehicle for moral learning and developing normative conclusions. Dialogue stands for a specific view on moral epistemology and methodological criteria for moral inquiry. Responsive evaluation involves a structured way of setting up dialogical learning processes, by eliciting stories of participants, exchanging experiences in (homogeneous and heterogeneous) groups and drawing normative conclusions for practice. By combining these traditions we develop both a theoretical and a practical approach to empirical ethics, in which ethical issues are addressed and shaped together with stakeholders in practice. Stakeholders' experiences are not only used as a source for reflection by the ethicist; stakeholders are involved in the process of reflection and analysis, which takes place in a dialogue between participants in practice, facilitated by the ethicist. This dialogical approach to empirical ethics may give rise to questions such as: What contribution does the ethicist make? What role does ethical theory play? What is the relationship between empirical research and ethical theory in the dialogical process? In this article, these questions will be addressed by reflecting upon a project in empirical ethics that was set up in a dialogical way. The aim of this project was to develop and implement normative guidelines with and within practice, in order to improve the practice concerning coercion and compulsion in psychiatry.

  1. Clinical impacts of additive use of olmesartan in hypertensive patients with chronic heart failure: the supplemental benefit of an angiotensin receptor blocker in hypertensive patients with stable heart failure using olmesartan (SUPPORT) trial.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Yasuhiko; Shiba, Nobuyuki; Takahashi, Jun; Miyata, Satoshi; Nochioka, Kotaro; Miura, Masanobu; Takada, Tsuyoshi; Saga, Chiharu; Shinozaki, Tsuyoshi; Sugi, Masafumi; Nakagawa, Makoto; Sekiguchi, Nobuyo; Komaru, Tatsuya; Kato, Atsushi; Fukuchi, Mitsumasa; Nozaki, Eiji; Hiramoto, Tetsuya; Inoue, Kanichi; Goto, Toshikazu; Ohe, Masatoshi; Tamaki, Kenji; Ibayashi, Setsuro; Ishide, Nobumasa; Maruyama, Yukio; Tsuji, Ichiro; Shimokawa, Hiroaki

    2015-04-14

    We examined whether an additive treatment with an angiotensin receptor blocker, olmesartan, reduces the mortality and morbidity in hypertensive patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) treated with angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors, β-blockers, or both. In this prospective, randomized, open-label, blinded endpoint study, a total of 1147 hypertensive patients with symptomatic CHF (mean age 66 years, 75% male) were randomized to the addition of olmesartan (n = 578) to baseline therapy vs. control (n = 569). The primary endpoint was a composite of all-cause death, non-fatal acute myocardial infarction, non-fatal stroke, and hospitalization for worsening heart failure. During a median follow-up of 4.4 years, the primary endpoint occurred in 192 patients (33.2%) in the olmesartan group and in 166 patients (29.2%) in the control group [hazard ratio (HR) 1.18; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.96-1.46, P = 0.112], while renal dysfunction developed more frequently in the olmesartan group (16.8 vs. 10.7%, HR 1.64; 95% CI 1.19-2.26, P = 0.003). Subgroup analysis revealed that addition of olmesartan to combination of ACE inhibitors and β-blockers was associated with increased incidence of the primary endpoint (38.1 vs. 28.2%, HR 1.47; 95% CI 1.11-1.95, P = 0.006), all-cause death (19.4 vs. 13.5%, HR 1.50; 95% CI 1.01-2.23, P = 0.046), and renal dysfunction (21.1 vs. 12.5%, HR 1.85; 95% CI 1.24-2.76, P = 0.003). Additive use of olmesartan did not improve clinical outcomes but worsened renal function in hypertensive CHF patients treated with evidence-based medications. Particularly, the triple combination therapy with olmesartan, ACE inhibitors and β-blockers was associated with increased adverse cardiac events. This study is registered at clinicaltrials.gov-NCT00417222.

  2. An Empirical Test of Ecodevelopmental Theory in Predicting HIV Risk Behaviors Among Hispanic Youth

    PubMed Central

    Prado, Guillermo; Huang, Shi; Maldonado-Molina, Mildred; Bandiera, Frank; Schwartz, Seth J.; de la Vega, Pura; Brown, C. Hendricks; Pantin, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Ecodevelopmental theory is a theoretical framework used to explain the interplay among risk and protective processes associated with HIV risk behaviors among adolescents. Although ecodevelopmentally based interventions have been found to be efficacious in preventing HIV risk behaviors among Hispanic youth, this theory has not yet been directly empirically tested through a basic research study in this population. The purpose of this cross-sectional study was to empirically evaluate an ecodevelopmentally based model using structural equation modeling, with substance use and early sex initiation as the two outcomes of the ecodevelopmental chain of relationships. The sample consisted of 586 Hispanic youth (M age = 13.6; SD = 0.75) and their primary caregivers living in Miami, Florida. Adolescent, parent, and teacher reports were used. The results provided strong support for the theoretical model. More specifically, the parent–adolescent acculturation gap is indirectly related both to early sex initiation and to adolescent substance use through family functioning, academic functioning, perceived peer sexual behavior, and perceived peer substance use. Additionally, parent’s U.S. orientation is associated with adolescent substance use and adolescent sex initiation through social support for parents, parental stressors, family functioning, academic functioning, and perceived peer sexual behavior and substance use. These findings suggest that HIV risk behaviors may best be understood as associated with multiple and interrelated ecological determinants. PMID:20130302

  3. An empirical explanation of aperture effects.

    PubMed

    Sung, Kyongje; Wojtach, William T; Purves, Dale

    2009-01-06

    The perceived direction of a moving line changes, often markedly, when viewed through an aperture. Although several explanations of this remarkable effect have been proposed, these accounts typically focus on the percepts elicited by a particular type of aperture and offer no biological rationale. Here, we test the hypothesis that to contend with the inherently ambiguous nature of motion stimuli the perceived direction of objects moving behind apertures of different shapes is determined by a wholly empirical strategy of visual processing. An analysis of moving line stimuli generated by objects projected through apertures shows that the directions of motion subjects report in psychophysical testing is accounted for by the frequency of occurrence of the 2D directions of stimuli generated by simulated 3D sources. The completeness of these predictions supports the conclusion that the direction of perceived motion is fully determined by accumulated behavioral experience with sources whose physical motions cannot be conveyed by image sequences as such.

  4. Bayesian computation via empirical likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Mengersen, Kerrie L.; Pudlo, Pierre; Robert, Christian P.

    2013-01-01

    Approximate Bayesian computation has become an essential tool for the analysis of complex stochastic models when the likelihood function is numerically unavailable. However, the well-established statistical method of empirical likelihood provides another route to such settings that bypasses simulations from the model and the choices of the approximate Bayesian computation parameters (summary statistics, distance, tolerance), while being convergent in the number of observations. Furthermore, bypassing model simulations may lead to significant time savings in complex models, for instance those found in population genetics. The Bayesian computation with empirical likelihood algorithm we develop in this paper also provides an evaluation of its own performance through an associated effective sample size. The method is illustrated using several examples, including estimation of standard distributions, time series, and population genetics models. PMID:23297233

  5. Towards a separable ``empirical reality''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Espagnat, Bernard

    1990-10-01

    “To be” or “to be found”? Some contributions relative to this modern variant of Hamlet's question are presented here. They aim at better apprehending the differences between the points of view of the physicists who consider that present-day quantum measurement theories do reach their objective and those who deny they do. It is pointed out that these two groups have different interpretations of the verbs “to be” and “to have” and of the criterion for truth. These differences are made explicit. A notion of “empirical reality” is constructed within the representation of which the physicists of the first named group can consistently uphold their claim. A detailed way of sharpening this definition so as to make empirical reality free of nonlocal actions at a distance is also described.

  6. Semi-empirical models of actinide alloying

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gibson, John K.; Haire, Richard G.; Ogawa, Toru

    1999-07-01

    Alloys of Np have been studied less than those of the neighboring elements, U and Pu; the higher actinides have received even less attention. Recent interest in 237Np, 241Am and other actinide isotopes as significant, long-lived and highly radiotoxic nuclear waste components, and particularly the roles of metallic materials in new handling/separations and remediation technologies, demands that this paucity of information concerning alloy behaviors be addressed. An additional interest in these materials arises from the possibility of revealing fundamental properties and bonding interactions, which would further characterize the unique electronic structures (e.g., 5f electrons) of the actinide elements. The small empirical knowledge basis presently available for understanding and modeling the alloying behavior of Np is summarized here, with emphasis on our recent results for the Np-Am, Np-Zr and Np-Fe phase diagrams. In view of the limited experimental data base for neptunium and the transplutonium metals, the value of semi-empirical intermetallic bonding models for predicting actinide alloy thermodynamics is evaluated.

  7. Image-Based Empirical Modeling of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    A new suite of empirical models of plasmaspheric plasma based on remote, global images from the IMAGE EUV instrument is proposed for development. The purpose of these empirical models is to establish the statistical properties of the plasmasphere as a function of conditions. This suite of models will mark the first time the plasmaspheric plume is included in an empirical model. Development of these empirical plasmaspheric models will support synoptic studies (such as for wave propagation and growth, energetic particle loss through collisions and dust transport as influenced by charging) and serves as a benchmark against which physical models can be tested. The ability to know that a specific global density distribution occurs in response to specific magnetospheric and solar wind factors is a huge advantage over all previous in-situ based empirical models. The consequence of creating these new plasmaspheric models will be to provide much higher fidelity and much richer quantitative descriptions of the statistical properties of plasmaspheric plasma in the inner magnetosphere, whether that plasma is in the main body of the plasmasphere, nearby during recovery or in the plasmaspheric plume. Model products to be presented include statistical probabilities for being in the plasmasphere, near thermal He+ density boundaries and the complexity of its spatial structure.

  8. The empirical war on drugs.

    PubMed

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In a special issue of the journal Addictions (1995) academics, researchers and health care professionals debated the status of the empirical in socially orientated drugs research. A number of researchers noted that our knowledge and understanding of drugs and drug users has changed significantly since the 1990s. Post AIDS this shift is identified as a consequence of the development of qualitative research methods. The qualitative turn in drugs research has involved a shift away form traditional epidemiological approaches and the pursuit of more socially focused methods. Whilst qualitative research has yielded important empirical data on risk behavior the pursuit of these methods has not been without controversy. In addressing the debate on methods in the drugs field this article investigates the effects of social science methods for research on injecting drug use. In so doing I examine what counts and what gets left out of research on injecting beaviour. Drawing on Actor Network Theory (ANT) I suggest Bruno Latour's methodological approach offers critical insights for addressing the empirical objects of injecting drug use.

  9. An independent, empirical route to nonconceptual content.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Monima

    2009-06-01

    The overall goal of this paper is to offer an independent, empirical route to characterize the content on nonconceptual content. I pursue a recent move by Pylyshyn, a leading cognitive scientist and philosopher of mental representation, who focuses on empirical considerations in favor of nonconceptual representations. Pylyshyn proposes a minimalist view of nonconceptual representations. I offer empirical reasons that force us to go beyond minimalist account and reinstate empirically defensible richer nonconceptual representations into a theory of content.

  10. Acoustic force mapping in a hybrid acoustic-optical micromanipulation device supporting high resolution optical imaging† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional information about 1D model calculations for a piezoelectric transducer. See DOI: 10.1039/c6lc00182c Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    McDougall, Craig; MacDonald, Michael Peter; Ritsch-Marte, Monika

    2016-01-01

    Many applications in the life-sciences demand non-contact manipulation tools for forceful but nevertheless delicate handling of various types of sample. Moreover, the system should support high-resolution optical imaging. Here we present a hybrid acoustic/optical manipulation system which utilizes a transparent transducer, making it compatible with high-NA imaging in a microfluidic environment. The powerful acoustic trapping within a layered resonator, which is suitable for highly parallel particle handling, is complemented by the flexibility and selectivity of holographic optical tweezers, with the specimens being under high quality optical monitoring at all times. The dual acoustic/optical nature of the system lends itself to optically measure the exact acoustic force map, by means of direct force measurements on an optically trapped particle. For applications with (ultra-)high demand on the precision of the force measurements, the position of the objective used for the high-NA imaging may have significant influence on the acoustic force map in the probe chamber. We have characterized this influence experimentally and the findings were confirmed by model simulations. We show that it is possible to design the chamber and to choose the operating point in such a way as to avoid perturbations due to the objective lens. Moreover, we found that measuring the electrical impedance of the transducer provides an easy indicator for the acoustic resonances. PMID:27025398

  11. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  12. Empirical ugri-UBVRc transformations for galaxies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cook, David O.; Dale, Daniel A.; Johnson, Benjamin D.; Van Zee, Liese; Lee, Janice C.; Kennicutt, Robert C.; Calzetti, Daniela; Staudaher, Shawn M.; Engelbracht, Charles W.

    2014-11-01

    We present empirical colour transformations between Sloan Digital Sky Survey ugri and Johnson-Cousins UBVRc photometry for nearby galaxies (D < 11 Mpc). We use the Local Volume Legacy (LVL) galaxy sample where there are 90 galaxies with overlapping observational coverage for these two filter sets. The LVL galaxy sample consists of normal, non-starbursting galaxies. We also examine how well the LVL galaxy colours are described by previous transformations derived from standard calibration stars and model-based galaxy templates. We find significant galaxy colour scatter around most of the previous transformation relationships. In addition, the previous transformations show systematic offsets between transformed and observed galaxy colours which are visible in observed colour-colour trends. The LVL-based galaxy transformations show no systematic colour offsets and reproduce the observed colour-colour galaxy trends.

  13. Comparison of modelled and empirical atmospheric propagation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. R.; Biegel, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric integrity of TM thermal infrared channel data was evaluated and monitored to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Modelled atmospheric transmittance and path radiance were compared with empirical values derived from aircraft underflight data. Aircraft thermal infrared imagery and calibration data were available on two dates as were corresponding atmospheric radiosonde data. The radiosonde data were used as input to the LOWTRAN 5A code which was modified to output atmospheric path radiance in addition to transmittance. The aircraft data were calibrated and used to generate analogous measurements. These data indicate that there is a tendancy for the LOWTRAN model to underestimate atmospheric path radiance and transmittance as compared to empirical data. A plot of transmittance versus altitude for both LOWTRAN and empirical data is presented.

  14. Selected Sports Bras: Overall Comfort and Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lawson, LaJean; Lorentzen, Deana

    This study evaluated currently marketed sports bras on subjective measures of comfort and support both within an entire group of women and within cup sizes, correlated the subjective measures of comfort and support with previously reported biomechanical findings of support on the same bras, and further developed empirically based guidelines for…

  15. Empirical magnetospheric and ionospheric models: legacy and outlook

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vassiliadis, D.

    2011-12-01

    Complex geospace plasmas have, by definition, a large number of dynamical regimes where the development of empirical models from experimental data is crucial. In the magnetosphere and ionosphere, the ongoing collection of in situ measurements has led to empirical models of various types. This paper reviews a small number of recent models and presents new approaches in constructing empirical models. Starting with the outer magnetosphere and high-latitude ionosphere, the magnetic field has been modeled in terms of static and time-dependent approximations, including time-dependent interplanetary driver variables. For the surface field in particular, a number of special approximations are possible leading to separation into different activity types and current systems. In the inner magnetosphere, models of the relativistic-electron flux have been constructed, together with ULF-wave-power models. Once more, interplanetary variables, such as the plasma velocity, have been included as necessary drivers of the flux and wave-power activity especially at the geosynchronous region. In the above cases, the models provide temporal scales and spatial extent of the geospace disturbance. It is shown that the magnetospheric and ionospheric plasmas respond in one or more characteristic modes whose spatiotemporal and energy characteristics are defined. We compare these empirical modeling approaches with numerical simulations and discuss their relative advantages. As ongoing and new missions yield additional observations from different locations and energy ranges, empirical models will be used for an increasing number of applications.

  16. The conceptual and empirical relationship between gambling, investing, and speculation

    PubMed Central

    Arthur, Jennifer N.; Williams, Robert J.; Delfabbro, Paul H.

    2016-01-01

    Background and aims To review the conceptual and empirical relationship between gambling, investing, and speculation. Methods An analysis of the attributes differentiating these constructs as well as identification of all articles speaking to their empirical relationship. Results Gambling differs from investment on many different attributes and should be seen as conceptually distinct. On the other hand, speculation is conceptually intermediate between gambling and investment, with a few of its attributes being investment-like, some of its attributes being gambling-like, and several of its attributes being neither clearly gambling or investment-like. Empirically, gamblers, investors, and speculators have similar cognitive, motivational, and personality attributes, with this relationship being particularly strong for gambling and speculation. Population levels of gambling activity also tend to be correlated with population level of financial speculation. At an individual level, speculation has a particularly strong empirical relationship to gambling, as speculators appear to be heavily involved in traditional forms of gambling and problematic speculation is strongly correlated with problematic gambling. Discussion and conclusions Investment is distinct from gambling, but speculation and gambling have conceptual overlap and a strong empirical relationship. It is recommended that financial speculation be routinely included when assessing gambling involvement, and there needs to be greater recognition and study of financial speculation as both a contributor to problem gambling as well as an additional form of behavioral addiction in its own right. PMID:27929350

  17. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  18. Empirical data from Oort's cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desemme, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the size and origin of the Oort cloud of comets is compared with theories on the origin of the Oort cloud. Data on the binding energy of the very long period comets indicate that the Oort cloud is five times smaller than previously thought and that the mean velocity perturbation introduced by stellar passages is smaller than Oort believed. The bimodal brightness distribution of 'new' comets indicates that their formation mechanism is straightforward accretion without later fragmentation. Data on retrograde versus prograde orbits and their relevance to the rotation of the Oort cloud are examined. Models of the solar nebula are discussed in the light of the foregoing evidence.

  19. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  20. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  1. Understanding individual adoption of mobile booking service: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Based on information systems acceptance literature, this study develops an integrated model to predict and explain behavioral intention to use mobile booking (m-booking). Data collected from 201 users in Taiwan are tested against the research model, using the structural equation modeling approach. The proposed model is mostly supported by the empirical data. The findings of this study provide several crucial implications for m-booking service practitioners and researchers.

  2. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  3. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  4. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  5. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  6. Factors affecting RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry: empirical evidence from China.

    PubMed

    Shi, Ping; Yan, Bo

    2016-01-01

    We conducted an exploratory investigation of factors influencing the adoption of radio frequency identification (RFID) methods in the agricultural product distribution industry. Through a literature review and field research, and based on the technology-organization-environment (TOE) theoretical framework, this paper analyzes factors influencing RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry in reference to three contexts: technological, organizational, and environmental contexts. An empirical analysis of the TOE framework was conducted by applying structural equation modeling based on actual data from a questionnaire survey on the agricultural product distribution industry in China. The results show that employee resistance and uncertainty are not supported by the model. Technological compatibility, perceived effectiveness, organizational size, upper management support, trust between enterprises, technical knowledge, competitive pressure and support from the Chinese government, which are supported by the model, have significantly positive effects on RFID adoption. Meanwhile, organizational size has the strongest positive effect, while competitive pressure levels have the smallest effect. Technological complexities and costs have significantly negative effects on RFID adoption, with cost being the most significantly negative influencing factor. These research findings will afford enterprises in the agricultural products supply chain with a stronger understanding of the factors that influence RFID adoption in the agricultural product distribution industry. In addition, these findings will help enterprises remain aware of how these factors affect RFID adoption and will thus help enterprises make more accurate and rational decisions by promoting RFID application in the agricultural product distribution industry.

  7. Empirical research on evolutionary behavior of covert network with preference measurement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Bo; Sun, Duoyong; Bai, Guanghan

    2017-04-01

    A key ingredient of studying the topological evolution of covert network is the individual behaviors which generate the evolutionary dynamics of covert organizational network. In this paper, we proposed an improved preference measurement method and used it to analyze three evolutionary behaviors of a real covert network, namely node addition, node deletion and link formation. Simulation experiment demonstrated that the improved method is robust on the small organizational network. The empirical study showed the specific pattern of evolutionary behaviors by offering direct quantitative support from preferential measurement. The measured property is then extended from degree to multiple node properties. The results indicate that the preferences of different behaviors follow different distributions with linear or nonlinear tendency across the process according to the type of node property. We conclude that the general scale-free network model is not suitable to model the evolutionary process of covert network.

  8. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China.

  9. Uncertainty of empirical correlation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; Saunders, P.; Seitz, S.

    2016-08-01

    The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has published a set of empirical reference equations of state, forming the basis of the 2010 Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10), from which all thermodynamic properties of seawater, ice, and humid air can be derived in a thermodynamically consistent manner. For each of the equations of state, the parameters have been found by simultaneously fitting equations for a range of different derived quantities using large sets of measurements of these quantities. In some cases, uncertainties in these fitted equations have been assigned based on the uncertainties of the measurement results. However, because uncertainties in the parameter values have not been determined, it is not possible to estimate the uncertainty in many of the useful quantities that can be calculated using the parameters. In this paper we demonstrate how the method of generalised least squares (GLS), in which the covariance of the input data is propagated into the values calculated by the fitted equation, and in particular into the covariance matrix of the fitted parameters, can be applied to one of the TEOS-10 equations of state, namely IAPWS-95 for fluid pure water. Using the calculated parameter covariance matrix, we provide some preliminary estimates of the uncertainties in derived quantities, namely the second and third virial coefficients for water. We recommend further investigation of the GLS method for use as a standard method for calculating and propagating the uncertainties of values computed from empirical equations.

  10. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... schools attended. (3) History of marital and family status, including a statement as to whether any... military service, in chronological order. (6) Licenses held, at the present time or at any time in the...

  11. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed studies of radionuclide cleanup in various modern types of municipal water treatment facilities such as advanced filtration or reverse-osmosis processes may be performed without development of any new or costly experimental facilities.

  12. Empirical Relationships from Regional Infrasound Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.

    2011-12-01

    Two yearlong infrasound observations were collected at two arrays located within the so called "Zone of Silence" or "Shadow Zone" from well controlled explosive sources to investigate the long term atmospheric effects on signal propagation. The first array (FNIAR) is located north of Fallon NV, at 154 km from the munitions disposal facility outside of Hawthorne NV, while the second array (DNIAR) is located near Mercury NV, approximately 293 km south east of the detonation site. Based on celerity values, approximately 80% of the observed arrivals at FNIAR are considered stratospheric (celerities below 300 m/s), while 20% of them propagated as tropospheric waveguides with celerities of 330-345 m/s. Although there is considerable scatter in the celerity values, two seasonal effects were observed for both years; 1) a gradual decrease in celerity from summer to winter (July/January period) and 2) an increase in celerity values that starts in April. In the winter months celerity values can be extremely variable, and we have observed signals with celerities as low as 240 m/s. In contrast, at DNIAR we observe much stronger seasonal variations. In winter months we have observed tropospheric, stratospheric and thermospheric arrivals while in the summer mostly tropospheric and slower thermospheric arrivals dominate. This interpretation is consistent with the current seasonal variation of the stratospheric winds and was confirmed by ray tracing with G2S models. In addition we also discuss how the observed infrasound arrivals can be used to improve ground truth estimation methods (location, origin times and yield). For instance an empirical wind parameter derived from G2S models suggests that the differences in celerity values observed for both arrays can be explained by changes in the wind conditions. Currently we have started working on improving location algorithms that take into account empirical celerity models derived from celerity/wind plots.

  13. Empirical study of recent Chinese stock market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, J.; Li, W.; Cai, X.; Wang, Qiuping A.

    2009-05-01

    We investigate the statistical properties of the empirical data taken from the Chinese stock market during the time period from January, 2006 to July, 2007. By using the methods of detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) and calculating correlation coefficients, we acquire the evidence of strong correlations among different stock types, stock index, stock volume turnover, A share (B share) seat number, and GDP per capita. In addition, we study the behavior of “volatility”, which is now defined as the difference between the new account numbers for two consecutive days. It is shown that the empirical power-law of the number of aftershock events exceeding the selected threshold is analogous to the Omori law originally observed in geophysics. Furthermore, we find that the cumulative distributions of stock return, trade volume and trade number are all exponential-like, which does not belong to the universality class of such distributions found by Xavier Gabaix et al. [Xavier Gabaix, Parameswaran Gopikrishnan, Vasiliki Plerou, H. Eugene Stanley, Nature, 423 (2003)] for major western markets. Through the comparison, we draw a conclusion that regardless of developed stock markets or emerging ones, “cubic law of returns” is valid only in the long-term absolute return, and in the short-term one, the distributions are exponential-like. Specifically, the distributions of both trade volume and trade number display distinct decaying behaviors in two separate regimes. Lastly, the scaling behavior of the relation is analyzed between dispersion and the mean monthly trade value for each administrative area in China.

  14. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  15. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  16. Expert opinion vs. empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Herman, Rod A; Raybould, Alan

    2014-01-01

    Expert opinion is often sought by government regulatory agencies when there is insufficient empirical evidence to judge the safety implications of a course of action. However, it can be reckless to continue following expert opinion when a preponderance of evidence is amassed that conflicts with this opinion. Factual evidence should always trump opinion in prioritizing the information that is used to guide regulatory policy. Evidence-based medicine has seen a dramatic upturn in recent years spurred by examples where evidence indicated that certain treatments recommended by expert opinions increased death rates. We suggest that scientific evidence should also take priority over expert opinion in the regulation of genetically modified crops (GM). Examples of regulatory data requirements that are not justified based on the mass of evidence are described, and it is suggested that expertise in risk assessment should guide evidence-based regulation of GM crops. PMID:24637724

  17. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  18. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  19. Victim countries of transnational terrorism: an empirical characteristics analysis.

    PubMed

    Elbakidze, Levan; Jin, Yanhong

    2012-12-01

    This study empirically investigates the association between country-level socioeconomic characteristics and risk of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. We find that a country's annual financial contribution to the U.N. general operating budget has a positive association with the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events. In addition, per capita GDP, political freedom, and openness to trade are nonlinearly related to the frequency of being victimized in transnational terrorism events.

  20. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  1. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  2. Empirically Modeling Carbon Fluxes over the Northern Great Plains Grasslands

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, L.; Wylie, B. K.; Ji, L.; Gilmanov, T.; Tieszen, L. L.

    2007-12-01

    Grasslands cover nearly one-fifth of the global terrestrial surface and store most of their carbon below ground. The grassland ecosystem in the Great Plains occupies over 1.5 million km2 of land area and is the primary resource for livestock production in North America. However, the contributions of grasslands to local and regional carbon budgets remain uncertain due to the lack of carbon flux data for the expansive grassland ecosystems under various managements, land uses, and climate variability. A quantitative understanding of carbon fluxes across these systems is essential for developing regional, national, and global carbon budgets and providing guidance to policy makers and managers when substantial conversion to biofuels are implemented. Additionally, these estimates will provide insights into how the grassland ecosystem will respond to future climate and what systems are sustainable and offer net carbon sinks. This knowledge base and decisions support tools are needed for developing land management strategies for the region under a variety of environmental conditions and land use options. In the past, we used a remote sensing-based piecewise regression (PWR) model to estimate the grassland carbon fluxes in the northern Great Plains using the 1-km SPOT VEGETATION normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) data. We estimated the carbon fluxes through integrated spatial databases and remotely sensed extrapolations of flux tower data to regional scales. The PWR model was applied to derive an empirical relationship between environmental variables and tower-based measurements. The PWR equations were then applied through time and space to estimate carbon fluxes across the study area at 1-km resolution. We now improve this modeling approach by 1) using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data with higher temporal, spatial, and spectral resolutions (8-day, 500-m, and 7-band) as input; 2) incorporating the actual vegetation evapotranspiration

  3. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  4. Empirical mode decomposition analysis for visual stylometry.

    PubMed

    Hughes, James M; Mao, Dong; Rockmore, Daniel N; Wang, Yang; Wu, Qiang

    2012-11-01

    In this paper, we show how the tools of empirical mode decomposition (EMD) analysis can be applied to the problem of “visual stylometry,” generally defined as the development of quantitative tools for the measurement and comparisons of individual style in the visual arts. In particular, we introduce a new form of EMD analysis for images and show that it is possible to use its output as the basis for the construction of effective support vector machine (SVM)-based stylometric classifiers. We present the methodology and then test it on collections of two sets of digital captures of drawings: a set of authentic and well-known imitations of works attributed to the great Flemish artist Pieter Bruegel the Elder (1525-1569) and a set of works attributed to Dutch master Rembrandt van Rijn (1606-1669) and his pupils. Our positive results indicate that EMD-based methods may hold promise generally as a technique for visual stylometry.

  5. Empirical and Analytic Studies Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Planich, G.; Bunzo, M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of free flight for safe, flexible, predictable, and efficient operations. To support the development of those aiding systems human performance in automated aiding has been examined in empirical and computationally analytic studies. This paper presents a set of those studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that the combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We will describe three research programs in support of Free Flight Operations from the perspective of human performance requirements. We have examined procedures and communications in the use of voice and data-link operation at the transition between unconstrained (enroute) and constrained (terminal) airspace operations. We have examined the timing and form of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) advisories in descent. We have investigated the shape and dimensions of an 'alert zone' for air-based separation in unconstrained operations. Finally, we have examined the interaction of a ground-based conflict detection/resolution aiding system, as it interacts with a cockpit-based conflict alerting mechanism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  7. Portuguese emigration 1958-1985: some empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Pereira, P T

    1994-01-01

    "Supplying work in the home country or abroad must be seen as the result of the same decisional process. If that is true, the same set of variables should be used to explain the participation in the labor market and the emigration rates. Based upon empirical results [for Portuguese emigrants], we discuss some of the traditional conclusions of the economic literature. Our empirical results, for example, show that: (1) there is...strong support for considering home wages and the wages in the country of destination asymmetrically, (2) imperfections in the capital markets seem to play an important role when workers must pay for their moving expenses and (3) there is a differential in coefficients between the period before 1974 and after that date, as 1974 is the year most of the Central European countries changed their immigration policies."

  8. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  9. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  10. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  11. The Career-Related Parent Support Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Alliman-Brissett, Annette; Lapan, Richard T.; Udipi, Sharanya; Ergun, Damla

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe the construction of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale and examine the validity of the scale scores within a sample of at-risk middle school adolescents. Four empirically distinct parent support factors were confirmed along A. Bandura's sources of self-efficacy information. Gender and ethnic differences in perceived…

  12. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  13. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed

    Deanin, R D

    1975-06-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products.

  14. The Problem of Empirical Redundancy of Constructs in Organizational Research: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.; Harter, James K.; Lauver, Kristy J.

    2010-01-01

    Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational…

  15. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  16. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition.

  17. Counselor Training: Empirical Findings and Current Approaches

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Buser, Trevor J.

    2008-01-01

    The literature on counselor training has included attention to cognitive and interpersonal skill development and has reported on empirical findings regarding the relationship of training with client outcomes. This article reviews the literature on each of these topics and discusses empirical and theoretical underpinnings of recently developed…

  18. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  19. Empirical Approaches to the Birthday Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio; Cauto, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will describe two activities in which students conduct experiments with random numbers so they can see that having at least one repeated birthday in a group of 40 is not unusual. The first empirical approach was conducted by author Cauto in a secondary school methods course. The second empirical approach was used by author Flores with…

  20. A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mo; Henkens, Kene; van Solinge, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review both theoretical and empirical advancements in retirement adjustment research. After reviewing and integrating current theories about retirement adjustment, we propose a resource-based dynamic perspective to apply to the understanding of retirement adjustment. We then review empirical findings that are associated with…

  1. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  2. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  3. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  4. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  5. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  6. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  7. More Than Additional Space...

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    CEFP Journal, 1973

    1973-01-01

    A much needed addition to the Jamestown Elementary School turned out to be more than an expansion of walls for more space. A new educational program, a limited budget, and a short time line were tackled on a team approach basis and were successfully resolved. (Author)

  8. POET: Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Q; Seymour, K; You, H; Vuduc, R; Quinlan, D

    2007-01-29

    The excessive complexity of both machine architectures and applications have made it difficult for compilers to statically model and predict application behavior. This observation motivates the recent interest in performance tuning using empirical techniques. We present a new embedded scripting language, POET (Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning), for parameterizing complex code transformations so that they can be empirically tuned. The POET language aims to significantly improve the generality, flexibility, and efficiency of existing empirical tuning systems. We have used the language to parameterize and to empirically tune three loop optimizations-interchange, blocking, and unrolling-for two linear algebra kernels. We show experimentally that the time required to tune these optimizations using POET, which does not require any program analysis, is significantly shorter than that when using a full compiler-based source-code optimizer which performs sophisticated program analysis and optimizations.

  9. An empirical model of H2O, CO2 and CO coma distributions and production rates for comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko based on ROSINA/DFMS measurements and AMPS-DSMC simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Kenneth C.; Altwegg, Kathrin; Bieler, Andre; Berthelier, Jean-Jacques; Calmonte, Ursina; Combi, Michael R.; De Keyser, Johan; Fiethe, Björn; Fougere, Nicolas; Fuselier, Stephen; Gombosi, T. I.; Hässig, Myrtha; Huang, Zhenguang; Le Roy, Léna; Rubin, Martin; Tenishev, Valeriy; Toth, Gabor; Tzou, Chia-Yu; ROSINA Team

    2016-10-01

    We have previously used results from the AMPS DSMC (Adaptive Mesh Particle Simulator Direct Simulation Monte Carlo) model to create an empirical model of the near comet water (H2O) coma of comet 67P/Churyumov-Gerasimenko. In this work we create additional empirical models for the coma distributions of CO2 and CO. The AMPS simulations are based on ROSINA DFMS (Rosetta Orbiter Spectrometer for Ion and Neutral Analysis, Double Focusing Mass Spectrometer) data taken over the entire timespan of the Rosetta mission. The empirical model is created using AMPS DSMC results which are extracted from simulations at a range of radial distances, rotation phases and heliocentric distances. The simulation results are then averaged over a comet rotation and fitted to an empirical model distribution. Model coefficients are then fitted to piecewise-linear functions of heliocentric distance. The final product is an empirical model of the coma distribution which is a function of heliocentric distance, radial distance, and sun-fixed longitude and latitude angles. The model clearly mimics the behavior of water shifting production from North to South across the inbound equinox while the CO2 production is always in the South.The empirical model can be used to de-trend the spacecraft motion from the ROSINA COPS and DFMS data. The ROSINA instrument measures the neutral coma density at a single point and the measured value is influenced by the location of the spacecraft relative to the comet and the comet-sun line. Using the empirical coma model we can correct for the position of the spacecraft and compute a total production rate based on single point measurements. In this presentation we will present the coma production rates as a function of heliocentric distance for the entire Rosetta mission.This work was supported by contracts JPL#1266313 and JPL#1266314 from the US Rosetta Project and NASA grant NNX14AG84G from the Planetary Atmospheres Program.

  10. Partisan Politics or Public-Health Need? An empirical analysis of state choice during initial implementation of the Affordable Care Act.

    PubMed

    Mayer, Martin; Kenter, Robert; Morris, John C

    2015-01-01

    States' policy decisions regarding the Affordable Care Act (ACA) of 2010 have often been explained as predominantly, if not solely, partisan. Might rival explanations also apply? Using a cross-sectional 50-state regression model, we studied standard political variables coupled with public-health indicators. This work differs from existing research by employing a dependent variable of five additive measures of ACA support, examining the impact of both political and socioeconomic indicators on state policy decisions. Expanding on recent empirical studies with our more nuanced additive index of support measures, we found that same-party control of a state's executive and legislative branches was indeed by far the single best predictor of policy decisions. Public-health indicators, overwhelmed by partisan effect, did not sufficiently explain state policy choice. This result does not allay the concerns that health policy has become synonymous with health politics and that health politics now has little to do with health itself.

  11. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  12. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  13. Same but different: Comparative modes of information processing are implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support.

    PubMed

    Lee, Rebecca Rachael; Chatzisarantis, Nikos L D

    2017-01-11

    An implicit assumption behind tenets of self-determination theory is that perceptions of autonomy support are a function of absolute modes of information processing. In this study, we examined whether comparative modes of information processing were implicated in the construction of perceptions of autonomy support. In an experimental study, we demonstrated that participants employed comparative modes of information processing in evaluating receipt of small, but not large, amounts of autonomy support. In addition, we found that social comparison processes influenced a number of outcomes that are empirically related to perceived autonomy support such as sense of autonomy, positive affect, perceived usefulness, and effort. Findings shed new light upon the processes underpinning construction of perceptions related to autonomy support and yield new insights into how to increase the predictive validity of models that use autonomy support as a determinant of motivation and psychological well-being.

  14. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in ...

  15. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  16. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  17. Transition mixing study empirical model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

  18. Platelet additive solution - electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Azuma, Hiroshi; Hirayama, Junichi; Akino, Mitsuaki; Ikeda, Hisami

    2011-06-01

    Recent attention to solutions that replace most or all plasma in platelet concentrates, while maintaining satisfactory platelet function, is motivated by the potential of plasma reduction or depletion to mitigate various transfusion-related adverse events. This report considers the electrolytic composition of previously described platelet additive solutions, in order to draw general conclusions about what is required for platelet function and longevity. The optimal concentrations of Na(+) and Cl(-) are 69-115 mM. The presence of both K(+) and Mg(2+) in platelet suspension at nearly physiological concentrations (3-5mM and 1.5-3mM, respectively) is indispensable for good preservation capacity because both electrolytes are required to prevent platelet activation. In contrast to K(+) and Mg(2+), Ca(2+) may not be important because no free Ca(2+) is available in M-sol, which showed excellent platelet preservation capacity at less than 5% plasma concentration. The importance of bicarbonate (approximately 40 mM) can be recognized when the platelets are suspended in additive solution under less than 5% residual plasma concentration.

  19. Source selection for analogical reasoning an empirical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Luger, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of an analogical reasoner depends upon its ability to select a relevant analogical source. In many problem domains, however, too little is known about target problems to support effective source selection. This paper describes the design and evaluation of SCAVENGER, an analogical reasoner that applies two techniques to this problem: (1) An assumption-based approach to matching that allows properties of candidate sources to match unknown target properties in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (2) The use of empirical learning to improve memory organization based on problem solving experience.

  20. Fission cross section calculations of actinides with EMPIRE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sin, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman,M.; Capote,R.

    2010-04-30

    The cross sections of the neutron induced reactions on {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am, {sup 242,246}Cm carried out in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV with EMPIRE code are presented, emphasizing the fission channel. Beside a consistent, accurate set of evaluations, the paper contains arguments supporting the choice of the reaction models and input parameters. A special attention is paid to the fission parameters and their uncertainties.

  1. Additive composition, for gasoline

    SciTech Connect

    Vataru, M.

    1989-01-10

    An admixture is described that comprises Diesel fuel and an additive composition added thereto which is between about 0.05 to about 2.0 percent by weight of the fuel, the composition comprising: (a) between about 0.05 and 25% relative weight parts of an organic peroxide, and (b) between about 0.1 and 25% relative weight parts of detergent selected from the component group that consists of: (i) fatty amines; (ii) ethoxylated and propoxylated derivatives of fatty amines; (iii) fatty diamines; (iv) fatty imidazlines; (v) polymeric amines and derivatives thereof; (vi) combination of one or more of the (i) through (v) components with carboxylic acid or acids having from three to forth carbon atoms, (c) from about 99.0 to about 50% by weight of a hydrocarbon solvent.

  2. Teardrop bladder: additional considerations

    SciTech Connect

    Wechsler, R.J.; Brennan, R.E.

    1982-07-01

    Nine cases of teardrop bladder (TDB) seen at excretory urography are presented. In some of these patients, the iliopsoas muscles were at the upper limit of normal in size, and additional evaluation of the perivesical structures with computed tomography (CT) was necessary. CT demonstrated only hypertrophied muscles with or without perivesical fat. The psoas muscles and pelvic width were measured in 8 patients and compared with the measurements of a control group of males without TDB. Patients with TDB had large iliopsoas muscles and narrow pelves compared with the control group. The psoas muscle width/pelvic width ratio was significantly greater (p < 0.0005) in patients with TDB than in the control group, with values of 1.04 + 0.05 and 0.82 + 0.09, respectively. It is concluded that TDB is not an uncommon normal variant in black males. Both iliopsoas muscle hypertrophy and a narrow pelvis are factors that predispose a patient to TDB.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  5. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  6. EMPIRE ULTIMATE EXPANSION: RESONANCES AND COVARIANCES.

    SciTech Connect

    HERMAN,M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; PIGNI, M.T.; KAWANO, T.; CAPOTE, R.; ZERKIN, V.; TRKOV, A.; SIN, M.; CARSON, B.V.; WIENKE, H. CHO, Y.-S.

    2007-04-22

    The EMPIRE code system is being extended to cover the resolved and unresolved resonance region employing proven methodology used for the production of new evaluations in the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances. Another directions of Empire expansion are uncertainties and correlations among them. These include covariances for cross sections as well as for model parameters. In this presentation we concentrate on the KALMAN method that has been applied in EMPIRE to the fast neutron range as well as to the resonance region. We also summarize role of the EMPIRE code in the ENDF/B-VII.0 development. Finally, large scale calculations and their impact on nuclear model parameters are discussed along with the exciting perspectives offered by the parallel supercomputing.

  7. Fairness heuristic theory: valid but not empirical.

    PubMed

    Arnadóttir, Steinvör Pöll

    2002-09-01

    Fairness heuristic theory is concerned with how people react to outcomes of their dealings with authorities, and makes some predictions concerning the relationship between perceived fairness of procedures, perceived fairness of outcomes and acceptance of outcomes. Although considerable effort has been put into establishing empirical evidence for the theory, it is argued that such efforts have no bearing upon the truth of the theory. Central propositions of fairness heuristic theory that have recently been tested empirically are examined and found to be nonempirical and noncontingent. The propositions, it is argued, are necessary truths of commonsense psychology that are not falsifiable by empirical outcomes. Hence, empirical research designed to test them, it is argued, is fruitless and misguided.

  8. Linguistics, Empirical Research, and Evaluating Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlette, Forrest

    1984-01-01

    Argues that empiricism has a role as a complement to humanistic methodologies in composition research. Humanistic methodologies yield the stuff of hypotheses; empirically proven hypotheses provide further ground for humanistic interpretation. (MS)

  9. Censored Median Regression and Profile Empirical Likelihood

    PubMed Central

    Subramanian, Sundarraman

    2007-01-01

    We implement profile empirical likelihood based inference for censored median regression models. Inference for any specified sub-vector is carried out by profiling out the nuisance parameters from the “plug-in” empirical likelihood ratio function proposed by Qin and Tsao. To obtain the critical value of the profile empirical likelihood ratio statistic, we first investigate its asymptotic distribution. The limiting distribution is a sum of weighted chi square distributions. Unlike for the full empirical likelihood, however, the derived asymptotic distribution has intractable covariance structure. Therefore, we employ the bootstrap to obtain the critical value, and compare the resulting confidence intervals with the ones obtained through Basawa and Koul’s minimum dispersion statistic. Furthermore, we obtain confidence intervals for the age and treatment effects in a lung cancer data set. PMID:19112527

  10. Feasibility of an empirically based program for parents of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dababnah, Sarah; Parish, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility of implementing an existing empirically based program, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Parents raising preschool-aged children (aged 3-6 years) with autism spectrum disorder (N = 17) participated in a 15-week pilot trial of the intervention. Quantitative assessments of the program revealed fidelity was generally maintained, with the exception of program-specific videos. Qualitative data from individual post-intervention interviews reported parents benefited most from child emotion regulation strategies, play-based child behavior skills, parent stress management, social support, and visual resources. More work is needed to further refine the program to address parent self-care, partner relationships, and the diverse behavioral and communication challenges of children across the autism spectrum. Furthermore, parent access and retention could potentially be increased by providing in-home childcare vouchers and a range of times and locations in which to offer the program. The findings suggest The Incredible Years is a feasible intervention for parents seeking additional support for child- and family-related challenges and offers guidance to those communities currently using The Incredible Years or other related parenting programs with families of children with autism spectrum disorder.

  11. The necrophagous fly anthrax transmission pathway: empirical and genetic evidence from wildlife epizootics.

    PubMed

    Blackburn, Jason K; Van Ert, Matthew; Mullins, Jocelyn C; Hadfield, Ted L; Hugh-Jones, Martin E

    2014-08-01

    Early studies confirmed Bacillus anthracis in emesis and feces of flies under laboratory conditions, but there is little empirical field evidence supporting the roles of flies in anthrax transmission. We collected samples during outbreaks of anthrax affecting livestock and native and exotic wildlife on two ranches in West Texas (2009-2010). Sampling included animal carcasses, maggots, adult flies feeding on or within several meters of carcasses, and leaves from surrounding vegetation. Microbiology and PCR were used to detect B. anthracis in the samples. Viable B. anthracis and/or PCR-positive results were obtained from all represented sample types. Genetic analysis of B. anthracis samples using multilocus variable number tandem repeat analysis (MLVA) confirmed that each ranch represented a distinct genetic lineage. Within each ranch, we detected the same genotype of B. anthracis from carcasses, maggots, and adult flies. The results of this study provide evidence supporting a transmission cycle in which blowflies contaminate vegetation near carcasses that may then infect additional browsing animals during anthrax outbreaks in the shrubland environment of West Texas.

  12. Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Solomon, Michelle; Viran, Tazim

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada defines peer support as "a supportive relationship between people who have a lived experience in common … in relation to a mental health challenge or illness … related to their own mental health or that of a loved one" (Sunderland et al. 2013: 11). In Ontario, a key resource for peer support is the Ontario Peer Development Initiative (OPDI), which is an umbrella organization of mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and peer support organizations across the province of Ontario. Member organizations are run by and for people with lived experience of a mental health or addiction issue and provide a wide range of services and activities within their communities. The central tenet of member organizations is the common understanding that people can and do recover with the proper supports in place and that peer support is integral to successful recovery. Nationally, Peer Support Accreditation and Certification Canada has recently been established. The relatively new national organization focuses on training and accrediting peer support workers. This paper focuses on a range of diverse peer support groups and CSIs that operate in London and surrounding areas.

  13. Additive lattice kirigami.

    PubMed

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D

    2016-09-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes.

  14. Ceramics with Different Additives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Juanjuan; Feng, Lajun; Lei, Ali; Zhao, Kang; Yan, Aijun

    2014-09-01

    Li2CO3, MgCO3, BaCO3, and Bi2O3 dopants were introduced into CaCu3Ti4O12 (CCTO) ceramics in order to improve the dielectric properties. The CCTO ceramics were prepared by conventional solid-state reaction method. The phase structure, microstructure, and dielectric behavior were carefully investigated. The pure structure without any impurity phases can be confirmed by the x-ray diffraction patterns. Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) analysis illuminated that the grains of Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics were greater than that of pure CCTO. It was important for the properties of the CCTO ceramics to study the additives in complex impedance spectroscopy. It was found that the Ca0.90Li0.20Cu3Ti4O12 ceramics had the higher permittivity (>45000), the lower dielectric loss (<0.025) than those of CCTO at 1 kHz at room temperature and good temperature stability from -30 to 75 °C.

  15. Additive lattice kirigami

    PubMed Central

    Castle, Toen; Sussman, Daniel M.; Tanis, Michael; Kamien, Randall D.

    2016-01-01

    Kirigami uses bending, folding, cutting, and pasting to create complex three-dimensional (3D) structures from a flat sheet. In the case of lattice kirigami, this cutting and rejoining introduces defects into an underlying 2D lattice in the form of points of nonzero Gaussian curvature. A set of simple rules was previously used to generate a wide variety of stepped structures; we now pare back these rules to their minimum. This allows us to describe a set of techniques that unify a wide variety of cut-and-paste actions under the rubric of lattice kirigami, including adding new material and rejoining material across arbitrary cuts in the sheet. We also explore the use of more complex lattices and the different structures that consequently arise. Regardless of the choice of lattice, creating complex structures may require multiple overlapping kirigami cuts, where subsequent cuts are not performed on a locally flat lattice. Our additive kirigami method describes such cuts, providing a simple methodology and a set of techniques to build a huge variety of complex 3D shapes. PMID:27679822

  16. Supporting Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Burkhauser, Mary A.; Kelley, Joan G.

    2013-01-01

    Material resources, personalized support, time to collaborate, and strong principal leadership are necessary for making curricular and instructional shifts. The authors of this article share the lessons they learned about supporting implementation of the Common Core State Standards. They draw on interviews with teachers, as well as field notes…

  17. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the…

  18. An empirical model for probabilistic decadal prediction: A global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckling, Emma; Hawkins, Ed; Eden, Jonathan; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Empirical models, designed to predict land-based surface variables over seasons to decades ahead, provide useful benchmarks for comparison against the performance of dynamical forecast systems; they may also be employable as predictive tools for use by climate services in their own right. A new global empirical decadal prediction system is presented, based on a multiple linear regression approach designed to produce probabilistic output for comparison against dynamical models. Its performance is evaluated for surface air temperature over a set of historical hindcast experiments under a series of different prediction `modes'. The modes include a real-time setting, a scenario in which future volcanic forcings are prescribed during the hindcasts, and an approach which exploits knowledge of the forced trend. A two-tier prediction system, which uses knowledge of future sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, is also tested, but within a perfect knowledge framework. Each mode is designed to identify sources of predictability and uncertainty, as well as investigate different approaches to the design of decadal prediction systems for operational use. It is found that the empirical model shows skill above that of persistence hindcasts for annual means at lead times of up to ten years ahead in all of the prediction modes investigated. Small improvements in skill are found at all lead times when including future volcanic forcings in the hindcasts. It is also suggested that hindcasts which exploit full knowledge of the forced trend due to increasing greenhouse gases throughout the hindcast period can provide more robust estimates of model bias for the calibration of the empirical model in an operational setting. The two-tier system shows potential for improved real-time prediction, given the assumption that skilful predictions of large-scale modes of variability are available. The empirical model framework has been designed with enough flexibility to

  19. 78 FR 62010 - Empire Pipeline, Inc.; National Fuel Gas Supply Corporation; Notice of Intent To Prepare an...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-10-11

    ... pipeline running from the existing Tuscarora Gas Compressor Station near Tuscarora, New York to the... additional 1,400 to 2,400 horsepower of compression. The purpose of the Project is to enable Empire to...

  20. Thermal support for scale support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal design work completed for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Space Shuttle System (TPS) of the space shuttle vehicle was documented. This work was divided into three phases, the first two of which reported in previous documents. About 22 separate tasks were completed in phase III, such as: hot gas facility (HGF) support, guarded tank support, shuttle external tank (ET) thermal design handbook support, etc.

  1. An empirical Bayes approach to analyzing recurring animal surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recurring estimates of the size of animal populations are often required by biologists or wildlife managers. Because of cost or other constraints, estimates frequently lack the accuracy desired but cannot readily be improved by additional sampling. This report proposes a statistical method employing empirical Bayes (EB) estimators as alternatives to those customarily used to estimate population size, and evaluates them by a subsampling experiment on waterfowl surveys. EB estimates, especially a simple limited-translation version, were more accurate and provided shorter confidence intervals with greater coverage probabilities than customary estimates.

  2. Transformational leadership: application of magnet's new empiric outcomes.

    PubMed

    Meredith, Erin K; Cohen, Elaine; Raia, Lucille V

    2010-03-01

    The many benefits to hospitals throughout the world that achieved Magnet designation is well documented. This status of recognition demands the support of leadership during the Magnet journey. In 2008, the American Nurses Credentialing Center (ANCC) announced a new model for the Magnet Recognition Program that translates the original 14 Forces of Magnetism into Five Model Components. Specifically, this new model includes sources of evidence and empiric outcomes that by definition accentuates transformational nursing leadership. The day-to-day impact of this change places an even greater emphasis on demonstrated outcomes and innovation that may potentially transform nursing practice, quality and safety of care, and the population served. This article provides tangible examples and outcomes for reaching nursing excellence through leadership support and engagement.

  3. An empirical evaluation of multidimensional clinical outcome in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Klapow, J C; Slater, M A; Patterson, T L; Doctor, J N; Atkinson, J H; Garfin, S R

    1993-10-01

    Individuals with persisting pain often present a constellation of symptoms that includes pain, health-related impairment and dysphoric mood. It is now widely accepted that comprehensive assessment must address each of these dimensions. Despite recognition of the value of multidimensional assessment, no empirical efforts have validated the construct of a multidimensional clinical outcome presentation based on the dimensions of pain, impairment and dysphoric mood. We employed cluster analytic procedures on standard measures of pain, impairment and depression in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients (n = 96) attending a general orthopedic clinic in order to empirically characterize multidimensional clinical outcomes. Results indicated that 3 groups could be identified reliably: (1) 'Chronic Pain Syndrome' (n = 25; high levels of pain, impairment and depression), (2) 'Positive Adaptation to Pain' (n = 24; high levels of pain with low levels of impairment and depression) and (3) 'Good Pain Control' (n = 47; low levels of pain, impairment and depression). The reliability of this cluster solution was supported by several tests of internal consistency. Discriminability of the clusters was examined across both the outcome measures themselves and several additional independent variables. The cluster solution was then cross-validated in an independent sample of pain clinic CLBP patients (n = 180) to test its generalizability. Finally the stability of the cluster dimensions over time was tested by re-assessing 36 CLBP patients 6 months after they initially were characterized into 1 of the 3 outcome groups on the same measures. MANOVA results indicated that the outcome groups were differentiated statistically across assessments. The multiple outcome measures did not change significantly across time, nor did the outcome groups change differentially across time on these measures. We conclude that the outcome dimensions of pain, impairment and depression are relatively stable

  4. Parameterizing loop fusion for automated empirical tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Y; Yi, Q; Kennedy, K; Quinlan, D; Vuduc, R

    2005-12-15

    Traditional compilers are limited in their ability to optimize applications for different architectures because statically modeling the effect of specific optimizations on different hardware implementations is difficult. Recent research has been addressing this issue through the use of empirical tuning, which uses trial executions to determine the optimization parameters that are most effective on a particular hardware platform. In this paper, we investigate empirical tuning of loop fusion, an important transformation for optimizing a significant class of real-world applications. In spite of its usefulness, fusion has attracted little attention from previous empirical tuning research, partially because it is much harder to configure than transformations like loop blocking and unrolling. This paper presents novel compiler techniques that extend conventional fusion algorithms to parameterize their output when optimizing a computation, thus allowing the compiler to formulate the entire configuration space for loop fusion using a sequence of integer parameters. The compiler can then employ an external empirical search engine to find the optimal operating point within the space of legal fusion configurations and generate the final optimized code using a simple code transformation system. We have implemented our approach within our compiler infrastructure and conducted preliminary experiments using a simple empirical search strategy. Our results convey new insights on the interaction of loop fusion with limited hardware resources, such as available registers, while confirming conventional wisdom about the effectiveness of loop fusion in improving application performance.

  5. Integrated empirical ethics: loss of normativity?

    PubMed

    van der Scheer, Lieke; Widdershoven, Guy

    2004-01-01

    An important discussion in contemporary ethics concerns the relevance of empirical research for ethics. Specifically, two crucial questions pertain, respectively, to the possibility of inferring normative statements from descriptive statements, and to the danger of a loss of normativity if normative statements should be based on empirical research. Here we take part in the debate and defend integrated empirical ethical research: research in which normative guidelines are established on the basis of empirical research and in which the guidelines are empirically evaluated by focusing on observable consequences. We argue that in our concrete example normative statements are not derived from descriptive statements, but are developed within a process of reflection and dialogue that goes on within a specific praxis. Moreover, we show that the distinction in experience between the desirable and the undesirable precludes relativism. The normative guidelines so developed are both critical and normative: they help in choosing the right action and in evaluating that action. Finally, following Aristotle, we plead for a return to the view that morality and ethics are inherently related to one another, and for an acknowledgment of the fact that moral judgments have their origin in experience which is always related to historical and cultural circumstances.

  6. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-01-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…

  7. Task-Based Language Teaching: An Empirical Study of Task Transfer

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Benson, Susan D.

    2016-01-01

    Since the 1980s, task-based language teaching (TBLT) has enjoyed considerable interest from researchers of second language acquisition (SLA), resulting in a growing body of empirical evidence to support how and to what extent this approach can promote language learning. Although transferability and generalizability are critical assumptions for…

  8. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  9. The Status of the Counseling Relationship: An Empirical Review, Theoretical Implications, and Research Directions.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sexton, Thomas L.; Whiston, Susan C.

    1994-01-01

    Reviews studies of counseling relationship, using Gelso and Carter's multidimensional model to summarize empirical support for "real,""unreal," and "working alliance" elements of relationship. Discussion of implications of potential model shift in thinking of counseling relationship outlines how adoption of social…

  10. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  11. The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Meditation as an Intervention for PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Ariel J.; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Bomyea, Jessica; Bormann, Jill E.; Hickman, Steven D.; Good, Raquel C.; Essex, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the existence of good empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consumers and providers continue to ask for more options for managing this common and often chronic condition. Meditation-based approaches are being widely implemented, but there is minimal research rigorously assessing their effectiveness.…

  12. Understanding Transactional Distance in Web-Based Learning Environments: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Huang, Xiaoxia; Chandra, Aruna; DePaolo, Concetta A.; Simmons, Lakisha L.

    2016-01-01

    Transactional distance is an important pedagogical theory in distance education that calls for more empirical support. The purpose of this study was to verify the theory by operationalizing and examining the relationship of (1) dialogue, structure and learner autonomy to transactional distance, and (2) environmental factors and learner demographic…

  13. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  14. Symbiotic empirical ethics: a practical methodology.

    PubMed

    Frith, Lucy

    2012-05-01

    Like any discipline, bioethics is a developing field of academic inquiry; and recent trends in scholarship have been towards more engagement with empirical research. This 'empirical turn' has provoked extensive debate over how such 'descriptive' research carried out in the social sciences contributes to the distinctively normative aspect of bioethics. This paper will address this issue by developing a practical research methodology for the inclusion of data from social science studies into ethical deliberation. This methodology will be based on a naturalistic conception of ethical theory that sees practice as informing theory just as theory informs practice - the two are symbiotically related. From this engagement with practice, the ways that such theories need to be extended and developed can be determined. This is a practical methodology for integrating theory and practice that can be used in empirical studies, one that uses ethical theory both to explore the data and to draw normative conclusions.

  15. ECG signal denoising via empirical wavelet transform.

    PubMed

    Singh, Omkar; Sunkaria, Ramesh Kumar

    2016-12-29

    This paper presents new methods for baseline wander correction and powerline interference reduction in electrocardiogram (ECG) signals using empirical wavelet transform (EWT). During data acquisition of ECG signal, various noise sources such as powerline interference, baseline wander and muscle artifacts contaminate the information bearing ECG signal. For better analysis and interpretation, the ECG signal must be free of noise. In the present work, a new approach is used to filter baseline wander and power line interference from the ECG signal. The technique utilized is the empirical wavelet transform, which is a new method used to compute the building modes of a given signal. Its performance as a filter is compared to the standard linear filters and empirical mode decomposition.The results show that EWT delivers a better performance.

  16. Bio-empirical mode decomposition: visible and infrared fusion using biologically inspired empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissinto, Paterne; Ladeji-Osias, Jumoke

    2013-07-01

    Bio-EMD, a biologically inspired fusion of visible and infrared (IR) images based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and color opponent processing, is introduced. First, registered visible and IR captures of the same scene are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) through EMD. The fused image is then generated by an intuitive opponent processing the source IMFs. The resulting image is evaluated based on the amount of information transferred from the two input images, the clarity of details, the vividness of depictions, and range of meaningful differences in lightness and chromaticity. We show that this opponent processing-based technique outperformed other algorithms based on pixel intensity and multiscale techniques. Additionally, Bio-EMD transferred twice the information to the fused image compared to other methods, providing a higher level of sharpness, more natural-looking colors, and similar contrast levels. These results were obtained prior to optimization of color opponent processing filters. The Bio-EMD algorithm has potential applicability in multisensor fusion covering visible bands, forensics, medical imaging, remote sensing, natural resources management, etc.

  17. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  18. Empire: New Mexico's First Television Program

    SciTech Connect

    Meade, Roger Allen

    2016-11-14

    In recent years, New Mexico has hosted television and motion picture film crews working on both famous and not-so-famous productions. Perhaps the most famous of these productions was the television hit Breaking Bad. Perhaps the least famous production, which almost certainly no one remembers, is the 1962-1963 television series Empire. Empire was an hour long western that chronicled the lives of 1960s ranchers in New Mexico. The series starred Richard Egan, Ryan O’Neal, Denver Pyle, and Charles Bronson. Guest stars included Robert Vaughn (The Man from Uncle), Inger Stevens (The Farmer’s Daughter), Robert Culp (I Spy), and Telly Savalas (Kojak).

  19. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources.

  20. The DSM revision process: needing to keep an eye on the empirical ball.

    PubMed

    First, M B

    2017-01-01

    From DSM-III onward, successive DSM editions have strived to ground the diagnostic definitions in empirical evidence. DSM-IV established a three-stage process of empirical review, consisting of comprehensive and systematic literature reviews, secondary analyses of datasets, and field trials to provide reliability and validity data for the most substantial or controversial proposals. DSM-IV Work Group members were required to review the empirical literature to document explicitly the evidence supporting the text and criteria published in DSM-IV. As noted by Kendler and Solomon (2016), in contrast to the emphasis on systematic reviews in medicine which is a manifestation of the evidence-based medicine movement, such systematic evidence-based reviews have not been consistently integrated into the development of DSM-5, raising questions about empirical rigor underlying the DSM-5 revision. It is likely that this regression in terms of anchoring the revision process in a comprehensive review of empirical data stemmed from the emphasis during the DSM-5 revision process on trying to move DSM-5 from its categorical descriptive approach towards a more etiological dimensional approach. Although such a shift ultimately did not occur, the effort spent on trying to achieve a paradigm shift likely came at the expense of the hard work of conducting systematic empirical reviews. For the DSM to continue to remain credible in the current era of evidence-based medicine, it is essential that the developers of future editions of the DSM avoid taking their eye off the empirical ball and insure that the manual remains grounded in solid empirical evidence.

  1. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  2. Assessing soil ecosystem services using empirical indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Struyf, Eric; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Studying the soil from the ecosystem services (ES) approach is a way to embrace the complexity and multiple functions of the soil systems and its interactions with the environment and with humans. The ES approach is ideal for developing a sustainable and integrated land management and to concern people about the value of conserving soil. However, this approach is generally used up to know only for soil provisioning services as well as the potential for carbon storage, but not for other services such as soil erosion or water buffering. In addition, those studies carried out are focussed in coarse spatial scale, without identifying the spatial or temporal variability. One of the reasons of this bias arises from the difficulties of obtaining a broad and reliable dataset of indicators from empirical sources. This constrain is sorted out with the action of SOGLO project (the Soil System Under Global Change), an interuniversity attraction pole project (2012-2017) involving different universities from Belgium. The project brings the opportunity to obtain a unique soil dataset for an improved and integrated analysis of the feedbacks between the soil system and fluxes of sediment, carbon (C), nutrients and water in response to anthropogenic forcings at different spatial and temporal scales in experimental sites in both Brazil and in Belgium. Within this broad project, the objective of the present work is to elucidate how different land uses in Belgium (forest, grassland, cropland with conventional tillage and with reduced tillage both with crop rotation) affect the delivery and trade-off of soil ecosystem services. We did this by measuring and comparing a range of indicators of soil ecosystem services in different lands uses during a range of 5 years. Specifically we investigated quantity of SOC in the soil and DOC in the soil solution and at the discharge point (SOC storage service/water buffering services); Si, N, P in the soil, dissolved in the soil solution and at the

  3. Process of making supported catalyst

    DOEpatents

    Schwarz, James A.; Subramanian, Somasundaram

    1992-01-01

    Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

  4. Synchronized time stamp support

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalkowski, J.

    1994-02-16

    New software has been added to IOC core to maintain time stamps. The new software has the ability to maintain time stamps over all IOCs on a network. The purpose of this paper is to explain how EPICS will synchronize the time stamps. In addition, this paper will explain how to configure and use the new EPICS time stamp support software.

  5. Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A., Ed.; Files-Hall, Tara M., Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children" is a compilation of innovative, well-designed play interventions, presented for the first time in one text. Play therapy is the oldest and most popular form of child therapy in clinical practice and is widely considered by practitioners to be uniquely responsive to children's developmental needs.…

  6. Empirical models of terrestrial trapped radiation.

    PubMed

    Panasyuk, M I

    1996-01-01

    A survey of empirical models of particles (electrons, protons and heavier ions) of the Earth's radiation belts developed to date is presented. Results of intercomparison of the different models as well as comparison with experimental data are reported. Aspects of further development of radiation condition modelling in near-Earth space, including dynamic model developing are discussed.

  7. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  8. The Linguistic Imperialism of Neoliberal Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the transition from the linguistic imperialism of the colonial and postcolonial ages to the increasingly dominant role of English as a neoimperial language. It analyzes "global" English as a key dimension of the U.S. empire. U.S. expansionism is a fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the United States that can be…

  9. Protean and Boundaryless Careers: An Empirical Exploration

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Briscoe, Jon P.; Hall, Douglas T.; Frautschy DeMuth, Rachel L.

    2006-01-01

    While the constructs of protean and boundaryless careers have informed career theory for years, rigorous empirical examinations of these career models have lagged behind. This study seeks to redress this situation by constructing and developing four new scales to measure protean and boundaryless career attitudes. The scales related to protean…

  10. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  11. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  12. Women's Studies at Empire State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lester, Virginia L.

    Because of the unique program of Empire State College, the problem of providing compensatory courses about women and developing a strategy for eventually having them incorporated into the curriculum of a discipline has been avoided. The focus at this college has been taken from the teacher and placed on the student, giving the student the primary…

  13. An Empirical Analysis of Curriculum Design.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Langenbach, Michael; And Others

    An examination of 1002 curriculum documents (selected from the 1969 exhibit at the National Conference of the Association for Supervision and Curriculum Development) was made to provide the beginning of a pool of empirical data that can serve as a base for descriptive generalizations about curriculum design and engineering. Ten design…

  14. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  15. An Empirical Examination of Lotka's Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pao, Miranda Lee

    1986-01-01

    Findings of empirical examination of author productivity data to determine conformity to Lotka's law indicate that: most data didn't fit inverse square function; two constants in Lotka's formulation (slope n, constant c) must be derived from observed distribution; inverse square law was special case of inverse exponential relationship. (37…

  16. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct…

  17. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  18. University Student Satisfaction: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemes, Michael D.; Gan, Christopher E. C.; Kao, Tzu-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain an empirical understanding of students' overall satisfaction with their academic university experiences. A hierarchal model is used as a framework for this analysis. Fifteen hypotheses are formulated and tested, in order to identify the dimensions of service quality as perceived by university students, to…

  19. Empirical Evidence for a Typology of Lies.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hample, Dale

    A study was conducted to test the empirical merit of R. M. Chisholm's and T. D. Feehan's proposed typology of deception: (1) commission versus omission (lies of commission are those where the liar contributes causally to the receiver's believing the lie, perhaps by telling the falsehood; lies of omission would occur if the liar could have…

  20. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Richard; Dias, Monica Costa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the most popular policy evaluation methods in empirical microeconomics: social experiments, natural experiments, matching, instrumental variables, discontinuity design, and control functions. It discusses identification of traditionally used average parameters and more complex distributional parameters. The adequacy,…

  1. Empirical Laws, Theory Construction and Bibliometrics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    O'Connor, Daniel O.; Voos, Henry

    1981-01-01

    Examines the properties of bibliometric distributions (application of mathematics and statistical methods to books and other written communications) in a nontechnical manner, covering similarities of the Lotka, Bradford, and Zipf distributions, the relationship between empirical laws and theories, and bibliometric concepts and theory construction.…

  2. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  3. Developing Empirically Based Models of Practice.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blythe, Betty J.; Briar, Scott

    1985-01-01

    Over the last decade emphasis has shifted from theoretically based models of practice to empirically based models whose elements are derived from clinical research. These models are defined and a developing model of practice through the use of single-case methodology is examined. Potential impediments to this new role are identified. (Author/BL)

  4. Empirical Analysis of Drill Ratio Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burns, M.K.

    2004-01-01

    Providing students an appropriate level of challenge, called the instructional level, is an important component of effective instruction. Research regarding the optimal ratio of known to unknown items for drill tasks has been inconsistent. The author of the current article conducted an empirical metaanalysis of research on drill ratios by using…

  5. [Assumption of projective reduplication in psychosomatic patients. I. Results of an empirical study].

    PubMed

    Ullrich, G

    1988-01-01

    The starting position of this study was the striking discrepancy between clinical hypothesis on "projective reduplication" and their empirical validation. Empirical data for the statistical analysis derived from a heterogeneous group of psychosomatically ill persons (N = 33) and a group of normal controls (N = 30). Using the similarity of the image of one's self and the one of others as an experimental analogy of the "projective reduplication", we could not ascertain any verifying hint for this syndrome. The results of the present study do not support the assumption of a clinical phenomenon according to the hypotheses tested. But it still remains uncertain whether these hypotheses are appropriate transformations of clinical experience.

  6. Supporting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

  7. Mirror Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method of making a mirror support comprising a composite, the composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes, wherein at least two of the plurality of carbon nanotubes are bonded to each other through a bridging moiety bound to each of the two carbon nanotubes, and a laminate comprising the composite.

  8. [Social support and psychological stability in HIV/AIDS patients].

    PubMed

    Laszig, P; Clement, U; Gramatikov, L

    1998-06-01

    An explorative meta-analytic study analysed all published empirical studies on social support of HIV/AIDS patients (n = 57 studies with 347 data sets). Empirical and conceptual questions are addressed. The focus of the empirical questions is to identify meta-analytically confirmed correlates of social support. The conceptual question aims at differentiating the large-scale construct "social support". Results indicate that social support 1. is independent of objective physical parameters, 2. is positively correlated with approach coping and negatively with avoidance coping, 3. shows a substantial negative correlation with indicators of psychological distress, 4. is positively correlated with condom use. The conceptual analysis shows that 5. there is no consensus on how to operationalise the construct of "social support".

  9. A likelihood approach to calculating risk support intervals

    SciTech Connect

    Leal, S.M.; Ott, J. )

    1994-05-01

    Genetic risks are usually computed under the assumption that genetic parameters, such as the recombination fraction, are known without error. Uncertainty in the estimates of these parameters must translate into uncertainty regarding the risk. To allow for uncertainties in parameter values, one may employ Bayesian techniques or, in a maximum-likelihood framework, construct a support interval (SI) for the risk. Here the authors have implemented the latter approach. The SI for the risk is based on the SIs of parameters involved in the pedigree likelihood. As an empirical example, the SI for the risk was calculated for probands who are members of chronic spinal muscular atrophy kindreds. In order to evaluate the accuracy of a risk in genetic counseling situations, the authors advocate that, in addition to a point estimate, an SI for the risk should be calculated. 16 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab.

  10. 47 CFR 54.1304 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... additive unless the carrier's realized total growth in Telecommunications Plant in Service (TPIS) was more... (CONTINUED) UNIVERSAL SERVICE High Cost Loop Support for Rate-of-Return Carriers § 54.1304 Calculation of..., a rate-of-return incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support...

  11. Kindness in Australia: an empirical critique of moral decline sociology.

    PubMed

    Habibis, Daphne; Hookway, Nicholas; Vreugdenhil, Anthea

    2016-09-01

    A new sociological agenda is emerging that interrogates how morality can be established in the absence of the moral certainties of the past but there is a shortage of empirical work on this topic. This article establishes a theoretical framework for the empirical analysis of everyday morality drawing on the work of theorists including Ahmed, Bauman and Taylor. It uses the Australian Survey of Social Attitudes to assess the state and shape of contemporary moralities by asking how kind are Australians, how is its expression socially distributed, and what are the motivations for kindness. The findings demonstrate that Australians exhibit a strong attachment and commitment to kindness as a moral value that is primarily motivated by interiorized sources of moral authority. We argue these findings support the work of theorists such as Ahmed and Taylor who argue authenticity and embodied emotion are legitimate sources of morality in today's secular societies. The research also provides new evidence that generational changes are shaping understandings and practices of kindness in unexpected ways.

  12. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  13. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  14. Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Mazouffre, S.; Lazurenko, A.; Albarede, L.; Bonhomme, G.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2005-12-15

    Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations recorded by means of probes located at the channel exit are analyzed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. This self-adaptive technique permits to decompose a nonstationary signal into a set of intrinsic modes, and acts as a very efficient filter allowing to separate contributions of different underlying physical mechanisms. Applying the Hilbert transform to the whole set of modes allows to identify peculiar events and to assign them a range of instantaneous frequency and power. In addition to 25 kHz breathing-type oscillations which are unambiguously identified, the EMD approach confirms the existence of oscillations with instantaneous frequencies in the range of 100-500 kHz typical for ion transit-time oscillations. Modeling of high-frequency modes ({nu}{approx}10 MHz) resulting from EMD of measured wave forms supports the idea that high-frequency plasma oscillations originate from electron-density perturbations propagating azimuthally with the electron drift velocity.

  15. Haptic stylus and empirical studies on braille, button, and texture display.

    PubMed

    Kyung, Ki-Uk; Lee, Jun-Young; Park, Junseok

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a haptic stylus interface with a built-in compact tactile display module and an impact module as well as empirical studies on Braille, button, and texture display. We describe preliminary evaluations verifying the tactile display's performance indicating that it can satisfactorily represent Braille numbers for both the normal and the blind. In order to prove haptic feedback capability of the stylus, an experiment providing impact feedback mimicking the click of a button has been conducted. Since the developed device is small enough to be attached to a force feedback device, its applicability to combined force and tactile feedback display in a pen-held haptic device is also investigated. The handle of pen-held haptic interface was replaced by the pen-like interface to add tactile feedback capability to the device. Since the system provides combination of force, tactile and impact feedback, three haptic representation methods for texture display have been compared on surface with 3 texture groups which differ in direction, groove width, and shape. In addition, we evaluate its capacity to support touch screen operations by providing tactile sensations when a user rubs against an image displayed on a monitor.

  16. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  17. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs.

  18. The Use of Empirical Data Sources in HRA

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert; David Gertman; Julie Marble; Harold Blackman; Jim Byers

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a review of available information related to human performance to support Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) performed for nuclear power plants (NPPs). A number of data sources are identified as potentially useful. These include NPP licensee event reports (LERs), augmented inspection team (AIT) reports, operator requalification data, results from the literature in experimental psychology, and the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRSs). The paper discusses how utilizing such information improves our capability to model and quantify human performance. In particular the paper discusses how information related to performance shaping factors (PSFs) can be extracted from empirical data to determine their size effect, their relative effects, as well as their interactions. The paper concludes that appropriate use of existing sources can help addressing some of the important issues we are currently facing in HRA.

  19. Empirical linelist of 13CH4 at 1.67 micron with lower state energies using intensities at 296 and 81 K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lyulin, O. M.; Kassi, S.; Campargue, A.; Sung, K.; Brown, L. R.

    2010-04-01

    The high resolution absorption spectra of 13CH4 were recorded at 81 K by differential absorption spectroscopy using a cryogenic cell and a series of Distributed Feed Back (DFB) diode lasers and at room temperature by Fourier transform spectroscopy. The investigated spectral region corresponds to the 13CH4 tetradecad containing 2nu3 near 5988 cm-1. Empirical linelists were constructed for 1629 transitions at 81 K (5852-6124 cm-1) and for 3488 features at room temperature (5850 - 6150 cm-1); the smallest observed intensity was 3×10-26 cm/molecule at 81 K. The lower state energy values were derived for 1208 13CH4 transitions using line intensities at 81 K and 296 K. Over 400 additional features were seen only at 81 K. The quality of the resulting empirical low energy values is demonstrated by the excellent agreement with the already-assigned transitions and the clear propensity of the empirical low J values to be close to integers. The two line lists at 81 K and at 296 K provided as Supplementary Material will enable future theoretical analyses of the upper 13CH4 tetradecad. Acknowledgements O.M. L. (IAO, Tomsk) is grateful to the French Embassy in Moscow for a two months visiting support at Grenoble University. This work is part of the ANR project "CH4@Titan" (ref: BLAN08-2_321467). The supports by RFBR (Grant RFBR 09-05-92508-ИК_а), CRDF (grant RUG1-2954-TO-09) and by the Groupement de Recherche International SAMIA between CNRS (France), RFBR (Russia) and CAS (China) is acknowledged. Part of the research described in this paper was performed at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, under contract with the National Aeronautics and Space Administration.

  20. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  1. Understanding vision in wholly empirical terms.

    PubMed

    Purves, Dale; Wojtach, William T; Lotto, R Beau

    2011-09-13

    This article considers visual perception, the nature of the information on which perceptions seem to be based, and the implications of a wholly empirical concept of perception and sensory processing for vision science. Evidence from studies of lightness, brightness, color, form, and motion all indicate that, because the visual system cannot access the physical world by means of retinal light patterns as such, what we see cannot and does not represent the actual properties of objects or images. The phenomenology of visual perceptions can be explained, however, in terms of empirical associations that link images whose meanings are inherently undetermined to their behavioral significance. Vision in these terms requires fundamentally different concepts of what we see, why, and how the visual system operates.

  2. Empiric Antibiotic Therapy of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization.

  3. Empirical algorithms for ocean optics parameters.

    PubMed

    Smart, Jeffrey H

    2007-06-11

    As part of the Worldwide Ocean Optics Database (WOOD) Project, The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory has developed and evaluated a variety of empirical models that can predict ocean optical properties, such as profiles of the beam attenuation coefficient computed from profiles of the diffuse attenuation coefficient. In this paper, we briefly summarize published empirical optical algorithms and assess their accuracy for estimating derived profiles. We also provide new algorithms and discuss their applicability for deriving optical profiles based on data collected from a variety of locations, including the Yellow Sea, the Sea of Japan, and the North Atlantic Ocean. We show that the scattering coefficient (b) can be computed from the beam attenuation coefficient (c) to about 10% accuracy. The availability of such relatively accurate predictions is important in the many situations where the set of data is incomplete.

  4. Psychopathy as a clinical and empirical construct.

    PubMed

    Hare, Robert D; Neumann, Craig S

    2008-01-01

    In this review, we focus on two major influences on current conceptualizations of psychopathy: one clinical, with its origins largely in the early case studies of Cleckley, and the other empirical, the result of widespread use of the Hare Psychopathy Checklist-Revised (PCL-R) for assessment purposes. Some investigators assert that the PCL-R, ostensibly based on Cleckley's work, has "drifted" from the construct described in his Clinical Profile. We evaluate this profile, note its basis in an unrepresentative sample of patients, and suggest that its literal and uncritical acceptance by the research community has become problematical. We also argue that the idea of construct "drift" is irrelevant to current conceptualizations of psychopathy, which are better informed by the extensive empirical research on the integration of structural, genetic, developmental, personality, and neurobiological research findings than by rigid adherence to early clinical formulations. We offer some suggestions for future research on psychopathy.

  5. Supporting tools of solar-terrestrial science

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1989-09-01

    Solar-terrestrial science is pursued by individuals and teams of workers situated in academia, research institutes, industry, and government laboratories. Progress in the field is made in various ways, but publication of results in scientific journals is the principal means of assuring that the knowledge gained from research is available to the public, now and in the future. In general, much of the research in the field is made via careful evaluation of data viewed in the context of fundamental physical principles as set forth in theoretical and analytical models, and computer simulations of physical processes. In addition, there is accumulation of knowledge expressed in the development of empirical or phenomenological models. Experience gained over the past three decades of solar-terrestrial research indicated that advances in the field require a diversity of resources and that the health of the entire discipline depends upon a balance among these. To maintain the health of the discipline, NASA and other federal funding agencies concerned with solar-terrestrial research must work together to insure that the following resources are available in reasonable measure to support solar-terrestrial research endeavors: ground-based facilities; balloons and rockets; spaceborne experiments; information networks; computational resources; models of solar terrestrial processes; data bases and archives; and research students.

  6. Supporting tools of solar-terrestrial science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Solar-terrestrial science is pursued by individuals and teams of workers situated in academia, research institutes, industry, and government laboratories. Progress in the field is made in various ways, but publication of results in scientific journals is the principal means of assuring that the knowledge gained from research is available to the public, now and in the future. In general, much of the research in the field is made via careful evaluation of data viewed in the context of fundamental physical principles as set forth in theoretical and analytical models, and computer simulations of physical processes. In addition, there is accumulation of knowledge expressed in the development of empirical or phenomenological models. Experience gained over the past three decades of solar-terrestrial research indicated that advances in the field require a diversity of resources and that the health of the entire discipline depends upon a balance among these. To maintain the health of the discipline, NASA and other federal funding agencies concerned with solar-terrestrial research must work together to insure that the following resources are available in reasonable measure to support solar-terrestrial research endeavors: ground-based facilities; balloons and rockets; spaceborne experiments; information networks; computational resources; models of solar terrestrial processes; data bases and archives; and research students.

  7. The Structure of Psychopathology: Toward an Expanded Quantitative Empirical Model

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Hobbs, Megan J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Slade, Tim

    2013-01-01

    There has been substantial recent interest in the development of a quantitative, empirically based model of psychopathology. However, the majority of pertinent research has focused on analyses of diagnoses, as described in current official nosologies. This is a significant limitation because existing diagnostic categories are often heterogeneous. In the current research, we aimed to redress this limitation of the existing literature, and to directly compare the fit of categorical, continuous, and hybrid (i.e., combined categorical and continuous) models of syndromes derived from indicators more fine-grained than diagnoses. We analyzed data from a large representative epidemiologic sample (the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing; N = 8,841). Continuous models provided the best fit for each syndrome we observed (Distress, Obsessive Compulsivity, Fear, Alcohol Problems, Drug Problems, and Psychotic Experiences). In addition, the best fitting higher-order model of these syndromes grouped them into three broad spectra: Internalizing, Externalizing, and Psychotic Experiences. We discuss these results in terms of future efforts to refine emerging empirically based, dimensional-spectrum model of psychopathology, and to use the model to frame psychopathology research more broadly. PMID:23067258

  8. First Results From The Empire Nearby Galaxy Dense Gas Survey

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bigiel, Frank

    2016-09-01

    I will present first results from our EMPIRE survey, a large program ( 500 hr) at the IRAM 30m telescope to map high critical density gas and shock tracers (e.g., HCN, HCO+, HNC, N2H+, etc.) as well as the optically thin 1-0 lines of 13CO and C18O for the first time systematically across 9 prominent, nearby Disk Galaxies."How is star formation regulated across disk galaxies" is the central question framing our science. Specifically, and building on a large suite of available ancillary data from the radio to the UV, we study, among other things, dense gas fractions and star formation efficiencies and how they vary with environment within and among nearby disk galaxies. Of particular interest is how our measurements compare to studies in the Milky Way, predicting a fairly constant star formation efficiency of the dense gas. Already in our first case study focusing on the prominent nearby spiral galaxy M51, we find signifycant variations of this quantity across the disk.In my talk, I will present results from a first series of studies about to me submitted addressing these questions with our EMPIRE and complementary, high-resolution ALMA data. In addition, I will present details of the survey and report on ongoing projects and future directions. I will place our work in context with other work, including studies of dense gas tracers in other galaxies and in particular the Milky Way.

  9. Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulations to Optimize Institutional Empiric Antipseudomonal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Sarah J.; Burgess, Donna R.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Craig A.; Burgess, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to a limited arsenal of antibiotics. Monte Carlo simulation provides antimicrobial stewardship teams with an additional tool to guide empiric therapy. We modeled empiric therapies with antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic regimens to determine which were most likely to achieve probability of target attainment (PTA) of ≥90%. Microbiological data for P. aeruginosa was reviewed for 2012. Antibiotics modeled for intermittent and prolonged infusion were aztreonam, cefepime, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from institution-specific isolates, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters from previously published studies, a 10,000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each regimen to determine PTA. MICs from 272 isolates were included in this analysis. No intermittent infusion regimens achieved PTA ≥90%. Prolonged infusions of cefepime 2000 mg Q8 h, meropenem 1000 mg Q8 h, and meropenem 2000 mg Q8 h demonstrated PTA of 93%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Prolonged infusions of piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 g Q6 h and aztreonam 2 g Q8 h failed to achieved PTA ≥90% but demonstrated PTA of 81% and 73%, respectively. Standard doses of β-lactam antibiotics as intermittent infusion did not achieve 90% PTA against P. aeruginosa isolated at our institution; however, some prolonged infusions were able to achieve these targets. PMID:27025644

  10. Empirical reconstruction of storm-time steady magnetospheric convection events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Kissinger, J.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; McPherron, R. L.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the storm-scale morphology of the magnetospheric magnetic field as well as underlying distributions of electric currents, equatorial plasma pressure and entropy for four Steady Magnetospheric Convection (SMC) events that occurred during the May 2000 and October 2011 magnetic storms. The analysis is made using the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D, in which the structure of equatorial currents is not predefined and it is dictated by data. The model also combines the strengths of statistical and event-oriented approaches in mining data for the reconstruction of the magnetic field. The formation of a near-Earth minimum of the equatorial magnetic field in the midnight sector is inferred from data without ad hoc assumptions of a special current system postulated in earlier empirical reconstructions. In addition, a new SMC class is discovered where the minimum equatorial field is substantially larger and located closer to Earth. The magnetic field tailward of the minimum is also much larger, and the corresponding region of accumulated magnetic flux may occupy a very short tail region. The equatorial current and plasma pressure are found to be strongly enhanced far beyond geosynchronous orbit and in a broad local time interval covering the whole nightside region. This picture is consistent with independent recent statistical studies of the SMC pressure distributions, global MHD and kinetic RCM-E simulations. Distributions of the flux tube volume and entropy inferred from data reveal different mechanisms of the magnetotail convection crisis resolution for two classes of SMC events.

  11. How Safe Are Color Additives?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Home For Consumers Consumer Updates How Safe are Color Additives? Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing ... Consumer Updates RSS Feed Download PDF (380 K) Color additives give the red tint to your fruit ...

  12. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  13. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  14. Functional capacity evaluation: an empirical approach.

    PubMed

    Jette, A M

    1980-02-01

    This paper presents an empirical approach to selecting activities of daily living (ADL) to assess the functional capacity of noninstitutionalized individuals with polyarticular disability. The results of structural analyses illustrate the feasibility of substantially reducing the task of assessing functional capacity with a subset of ADL items without sacrificing the comprehensiveness of the assessment. The analyses reveal 5 common functional categories: physical mobility, transfers, home chores, kitchen chores, and personal care, which account for over 50% of the variance in the data.

  15. Beyond Testing: Empirical Models of Insurance Markets

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Levin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the empirical analysis of insurance markets. This new research proposes ways to estimate individual demand for insurance and the relationship between prices and insurer costs in the presence of adverse and advantageous selection. We discuss how these models permit the measurement of welfare distortions arising from asymmetric information and the welfare consequences of potential government policy responses. We also discuss some challenges in modeling imperfect competition between insurers and outline a series of open research questions. PMID:21572939

  16. Empirical progress and nomic truth approximation revisited.

    PubMed

    Kuipers, Theo A F

    2014-06-01

    In my From Instrumentalism to Constructive Realism (2000) I have shown how an instrumentalist account of empirical progress can be related to nomic truth approximation. However, it was assumed that a strong notion of nomic theories was needed for that analysis. In this paper it is shown, in terms of truth and falsity content, that the analysis already applies when, in line with scientific common sense, nomic theories are merely assumed to exclude certain conceptual possibilities as nomic possibilities.

  17. Interfacing Network Simulations and Empirical Data

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-05-01

    rely on various empirical datasets and provide analytical results on the nature and structure of the social networks observed in them. 15. SUBJECT...become an important analytic tool for analyzing terrorist networks, friendly command and control structures , arms trade, biological warfare, and the...1979; Wasserman, 1994). SNA thus relies heavily on graph theory to make predictions about network structure . Nodes are defined in terms of a

  18. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  19. Atmospheric correction with the Bayesian empirical line.

    PubMed

    Thompson, David R; Roberts, Dar A; Gao, Bo Cai; Green, Robert O; Guild, Liane; Hayashi, Kendra; Kudela, Raphael; Palacios, Sherry

    2016-02-08

    Atmospheric correction of visible/infrared spectra traditionally involves either (1) physics-based methods using Radiative Transfer Models (RTMs), or (2) empirical methods using in situ measurements. Here a more general probabilistic formulation unifies the approaches and enables combined solutions. The technique is simple to implement and provides stable results from one or more reference spectra. This makes empirical corrections practical for large or remote environments where it is difficult to acquire coincident field data. First, we use a physics-based solution to define a prior distribution over reflectances and their correction coefficients. We then incorporate reference measurements via Bayesian inference, leading to a Maximum A Posteriori estimate which is generally more accurate than pure physics-based methods yet more stable than pure empirical methods. Gaussian assumptions enable a closed form solution based on Tikhonov regularization. We demonstrate performance in atmospheric simulations and historical data from the "Classic" Airborne Visible Infrared Imaging Spectrometer (AVIRIS-C) acquired during the HyspIRI mission preparatory campaign.

  20. An Empirical Bayes Method for Multivariate Meta-analysis with an Application in Clinical Trials

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yong; Luo, Sheng; Chu, Haitao; Su, Xiao; Nie, Lei

    2013-01-01

    We propose an empirical Bayes method for evaluating overall and study-specific treatment effects in multivariate meta-analysis with binary outcome. Instead of modeling transformed proportions or risks via commonly used multivariate general or generalized linear models, we directly model the risks without any transformation. The exact posterior distribution of the study-specific relative risk is derived. The hyperparameters in the posterior distribution can be inferred through an empirical Bayes procedure. As our method does not rely on the choice of transformation, it provides a flexible alternative to the existing methods and in addition, the correlation parameter can be intuitively interpreted as the correlation coefficient between risks. PMID:25089070

  1. Detergent Additive for Lubricating Oils,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    The Russian patent pertains to a method of producing additives for lubricating oils . A method is known for producing an antiwear additive for... lubricating oils by processing phenols with phosphorus oxychloride, phosphoric acid esters are obtained. In order to give the additive detergent properties

  2. "The anti-developmental, the anti-narrative, the anti-historical": Mondrian as a paradigmatic artist for empirical aesthetics.

    PubMed

    McManus, Chris

    2013-04-01

    In addition to general criticisms of scientific studies on empirical aesthetics, Bullot & Reber (B&R) particularly criticise two "representative studies" that manipulated paintings by Mondrian, those studies seemingly, "fail[ing] to consider the predictions suggested by a contextualist approach to the appreciation of imbalance" (sect. 4.2, para.2). Those criticisms are unjustified, both within the approaches of empirical aesthetics and the historical context and aims of Mondrian's work.

  3. 30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, Ostheimer and Co.) from Everts, Ensign & Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Erie County, 1876 - Empire Stores, 501-505 State Street, Erie, Erie County, PA

  4. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  5. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  6. Additive manufacturing of optical components

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinrich, Andreas; Rank, Manuel; Maillard, Philippe; Suckow, Anne; Bauckhage, Yannick; Rößler, Patrick; Lang, Johannes; Shariff, Fatin; Pekrul, Sven

    2016-08-01

    The development of additive manufacturing methods has enlarged rapidly in recent years. Thereby, the work mainly focuses on the realization of mechanical components, but the additive manufacturing technology offers a high potential in the field of optics as well. Owing to new design possibilities, completely new solutions are possible. This article briefly reviews and compares the most important additive manufacturing methods for polymer optics. Additionally, it points out the characteristics of additive manufactured polymer optics. Thereby, surface quality is of crucial importance. In order to improve it, appropriate post-processing steps are necessary (e.g. robot polishing or coating), which will be discussed. An essential part of this paper deals with various additive manufactured optical components and their use, especially in optical systems for shape metrology (e.g. borehole sensor, tilt sensor, freeform surface sensor, fisheye lens). The examples should demonstrate the potentials and limitations of optical components produced by additive manufacturing.

  7. A review of the nurtured heart approach to parenting: evaluation of its theoretical and empirical foundations.

    PubMed

    Hektner, Joel M; Brennan, Alison L; Brotherson, Sean E

    2013-09-01

    The Nurtured Heart Approach to parenting (NHA; Glasser & Easley, 2008) is summarized and evaluated in terms of its alignment with current theoretical perspectives and empirical evidence in family studies and developmental science. Originally conceived and promoted as a behavior management approach for parents of difficult children (i.e., with behavior disorders), NHA is increasingly offered as a valuable strategy for parents of any children, despite a lack of published empirical support. Parents using NHA are trained to minimize attention to undesired behaviors, provide positive attention and praise for compliance with rules, help children be successful by scaffolding and shaping desired behavior, and establish a set of clear rules and consequences. Many elements of the approach have strong support in the theoretical and empirical literature; however, some of the assumptions are more questionable, such as that negative child behavior can always be attributed to unintentional positive reinforcement by parents responding with negative attention. On balance, NHA appears to promote effective and validated parenting practices, but its effectiveness now needs to be tested empirically.

  8. A Framework to Support Mobile Learning in Multilingual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantjies, Mmaki E.; Joy, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multilingual mobile learning framework that can be used to support the pedagogical development of mobile learning systems which can support learning in under-resourced multilingual schools. The framework has been developed following two empirical mobile learning studies. Both studies were conducted in multilingual South…

  9. What Motivates Public Support for Legally Mandated Mental Health Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Angell, Beth

    2005-01-01

    The use of legal coercion to compel individuals to participate in mental health treatment is expanding despite a lack of empirical support for many of its forms. Policies supporting mandated treatment are made by legislators and judges, often based on perceptions of public concern. Using data from the MacArthur Mental Health Module contained in…

  10. The Essential Supports for School Improvement. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebring, Penny Bender; Allensworth, Elaine; Bryk, Anthony S.; Easton, John Q.; Luppescu, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    This report sets forth a framework of essential supports and contextual resources for school improvement, examines empirical evidence on its key elements and how they link to improvements in student learning, and investigates how a school's essential supports interact with community context to affect student learning. The purpose of this research…

  11. Comparison of empirical, semi-empirical and physically based models of soil hydraulic functions derived for bi-modal soils

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kutílek, M.; Jendele, L.; Krejča, M.

    2009-02-01

    The accelerated flow in soil pores is responsible for a rapid transport of pollutants from the soil surface to deeper layers up to groundwater. The term preferential flow is used for this type of transport. Our study was aimed at the preferential flow realized in the structural porous domain in bi-modal soils. We compared equations describing the soil water retention function h( θ) and unsaturated hydraulic conductivity K( h), eventually K( θ) modified for bi-modal soils, where θ is the soil water content and h is the pressure head. The analytical description of a curve passing experimental data sets of the soil hydraulic function is typical for the empirical equation characterized by fitting parameters only. If the measured data are described by the equation derived by the physical model without using fitting parameters, we speak about a physically based model. There exist several transitional subtypes between empirical and physically based models. They are denoted as semi-empirical, or semi-physical. We tested 3 models of soil water retention function and 3 models of unsaturated conductivity using experimental data sets of sand, silt, silt loam and loam. All used soils are typical by their bi-modality of the soil porous system. The model efficiency was estimated by RMSE (Root mean square error) and by RSE (Relative square error). The semi-empirical equation of the soil water retention function had the lowest values of RMSE and RSE and was qualified as "optimal" for the formal description of the shape of the water retention function. With this equation, the fit of the modelled data to experiments was the closest one. The fitting parameters smoothed the difference between the model and the physical reality of the soil porous media. The physical equation based upon the model of the pore size distribution did not allow exact fitting of the modelled data to the experimental data due to the rigidity and simplicity of the physical model when compared to the real soil

  12. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  13. Empirical ethics and its alleged meta-ethical fallacies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob; Gordijn, Bert

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the concept of empirical ethics as well as three meta-ethical fallacies that empirical ethics is said to face: the is-ought problem, the naturalistic fallacy and violation of the fact-value distinction. Moreover, it answers the question of whether empirical ethics (necessarily) commits these three basic meta-ethical fallacies.

  14. Sensitivity Analysis of Empirical Results on Civil War Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegre, Havard; Sambanis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    In the literature on civil war onset, several empirical results are not robust or replicable across studies. Studies use different definitions of civil war and analyze different time periods, so readers cannot easily determine if differences in empirical results are due to those factors or if most empirical results are just not robust. The authors…

  15. 75 FR 21287 - Empire Pipeline Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Empire Pipeline Inc.; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. Take notice that on February 2, 2010, Empire Pipeline, Inc. (EPI), 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221... this petition should be directed to David W. Reitz, Attorney for Empire Pipeline, Inc., 6363...

  16. Two Empirical Models for Land-falling Hurricane Gust Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Franics J.

    2008-01-01

    Gaussian and lognormal models for gust factors as a function of height and mean windspeed in land-falling hurricanes are presented. The models were empirically derived using data from 2004 hurricanes Frances and Jeanne and independently verified using data from 2005 hurricane Wilma. The data were collected from three wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station with instrumentation at multiple levels from 12 to 500 feet above ground level. An additional 200-foot tower was available for the verification. Mean wind speeds from 15 to 60 knots were included in the data. The models provide formulas for the mean and standard deviation of the gust factor given the mean windspeed and height above ground. These statistics may then be used to assess the probability of exceeding a specified peak wind threshold of operational significance given a specified mean wind speed.

  17. Energy performance assessment with empirical methods: application of energy signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belussi, L.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.; Salamone, F.

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency and reduction of building consumption are deeply felt issues both at Italian and international level. The recent regulatory framework sets stringent limits on energy performance of buildings. Awaiting the adoption of these principles, several methods have been developed to solve the problem of energy consumption of buildings, among which the simplified energy audit is intended to identify any anomalies in the building system, to provide helpful tips for energy refurbishments and to raise end users' awareness. The Energy Signature is an operational tool of these methodologies, an evaluation method in which energy consumption is correlated with climatic variables, representing the actual energy behaviour of the building. In addition to that purpose, the Energy Signature can be used as an empirical tool to determine the real performances of the technical elements. The latter aspect is illustrated in this article.

  18. Empirical flow parameters : a tool for hydraulic model validity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Burley, Thomas E.; Cleveland, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this project were (1) To determine and present from existing data in Texas, relations between observed stream flow, topographic slope, mean section velocity, and other hydraulic factors, to produce charts such as Figure 1 and to produce empirical distributions of the various flow parameters to provide a methodology to "check if model results are way off!"; (2) To produce a statistical regional tool to estimate mean velocity or other selected parameters for storm flows or other conditional discharges at ungauged locations (most bridge crossings) in Texas to provide a secondary way to compare such values to a conventional hydraulic modeling approach. (3.) To present ancillary values such as Froude number, stream power, Rosgen channel classification, sinuosity, and other selected characteristics (readily determinable from existing data) to provide additional information to engineers concerned with the hydraulic-soil-foundation component of transportation infrastructure.

  19. Video watermarking with empirical PCA-based decoding.

    PubMed

    Khalilian, Hanieh; Bajic, Ivan V

    2013-12-01

    A new method for video watermarking is presented in this paper. In the proposed method, data are embedded in the LL subband of wavelet coefficients, and decoding is performed based on the comparison among the elements of the first principal component resulting from empirical principal component analysis (PCA). The locations for data embedding are selected such that they offer the most robust PCA-based decoding. Data are inserted in the LL subband in an adaptive manner based on the energy of high frequency subbands and visual saliency. Extensive testing was performed under various types of attacks, such as spatial attacks (uniform and Gaussian noise and median filtering), compression attacks (MPEG-2, H. 263, and H. 264), and temporal attacks (frame repetition, frame averaging, frame swapping, and frame rate conversion). The results show that the proposed method offers improved performance compared with several methods from the literature, especially under additive noise and compression attacks.

  20. The implications of conceptual critiques and empirical research on unconscious processes for psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Morris N

    2013-12-01

    The paper examines the implications of conceptual critiques and empirical research on psychoanalytic formulations of unconscious processes. Different conceptions of unconscious processes and states are discussed: as markers for brain states, as unformulated and not-spelled-out fleeting experiences, and as implicit knowledge. The author notes and discusses the interpersonal and interactional aspects of unconscious processes in classical theory as well as in contemporary formulations. Representative examples of empirical research on unconscious processes are presented and their implications for psychoanalytic conceptions are examined. The author then discusses the conception of unconscious processes that emerges in view of conceptual critiques, empirical research findings, and clinical phenomena. Finally, the emphasis of both early and late Freudian theory on integration of various aspects of the personality rather than (or at least in addition to) on conscious versus unconscious is noted, and various ways of understanding what it means to make the unconscious conscious are discussed.

  1. Industry Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

  2. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  3. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  4. Mark IVA microprocessor support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burford, A. L.

    1982-01-01

    The requirements and plans for the maintenance support of microprocessor-based controllers in the Deep Space Network Mark IVA System are discussed. Additional new interfaces and 16-bit processors have introduced problems not present in the Mark III System. The need for continuous training of maintenance personnel to maintain a level of expertise consistent with the sophistication of the required tools is also emphasized.

  5. Joint Fire Support

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-06-30

    Summary of Changes iv JP 3-09 target making system, low angle, low angle fire, low angle loft bombing , offset lasing, pulse code, pulse repetition...gunfire liaison section, and artillery section to plan and execute fires in support of the scheme of maneuver. Additionally, a mortar section may be...will filter targets and process missions based on a configurable mission value and precedence. The system analyzes cannon, mortar , rocket, ATACMS

  6. 'Pre-emptive culturing' will improve the chance of 'getting it right' when empirical therapy of urinary tract infections fails.

    PubMed

    Sundqvist, Martin; Kahlmeter, Gunnar

    2009-08-01

    Antibiotic resistance is increasing and beginning to affect the outcome of empirical antimicrobial therapy of urinary tract infections. Associated resistance, i.e. the fact that a bacterium resistant to one antibiotic is often much more likely to be resistant to other antibiotics, drastically decreases our chances of getting a second empirical attempt right. To increase the use of narrow-spectrum antibiotics, which are considered to be less selective for resistance, we need to develop new strategies from the laboratory to support our clinical colleagues. We suggest that 'pre-emptive culturing' of urine (i.e. a culture obtained before empirical treatment is instituted) will prevent clinicians from making a second improper empirical choice or having to resort to expensive broad-spectrum antimicrobials, which may drive resistance further. This strategy will be especially important in settings with high levels of resistance.

  7. Landfill modelling in LCA - a contribution based on empirical data.

    PubMed

    Obersteiner, Gudrun; Binner, Erwin; Mostbauer, Peter; Salhofer, Stefan

    2007-01-01

    Landfills at various stages of development, depending on their age and location, can be found throughout Europe. The type of facilities goes from uncontrolled dumpsites to highly engineered facilities with leachate and gas management. In addition, some landfills are designed to receive untreated waste, while others can receive incineration residues (MSWI) or residues after mechanical biological treatment (MBT). Dimension, type and duration of the emissions from landfills depend on the quality of the disposed waste, the technical design, and the location of the landfill. Environmental impacts are produced by the leachate (heavy metals, organic loading), emissions into the air (CH(4), hydrocarbons, halogenated hydrocarbons) and from the energy or fuel requirements for the operation of the landfill (SO(2) and NO(x) from the production of electricity from fossil fuels). To include landfilling in an life-cycle assessment (LCA) approach entails several methodological questions (multi-input process, site-specific influence, time dependency). Additionally, no experiences are available with regard to mid-term behaviour (decades) for the relatively new types of landfill (MBT landfill, landfill for residues from MSWI). The present paper focuses on two main issues concerning modelling of landfills in LCA: Firstly, it is an acknowledged fact that emissions from landfills may prevail for a very long time, often thousands of years or longer. The choice of time frame in the LCA of landfilling may therefore clearly affect the results. Secondly, the reliability of results obtained through a life-cycle assessment depends on the availability and quality of Life Cycle Inventory (LCI) data. Therefore the choice of the general approach, using multi-input inventory tool versus empirical results, may also influence the results. In this paper the different approaches concerning time horizon and LCI will be introduced and discussed. In the application of empirical results, the presence of

  8. Enantioselective Michael addition of water.

    PubMed

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-02-09

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry.

  9. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  10. Indexing Learning Objects: Vocabularies and Empirical Investigation of Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…

  11. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  12. Lay attitudes toward deception in medicine: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jonathan; Kahane, Guy; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods: A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon “Mechanical Turk” website. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding a series of vignettes depicting different sorts of deception in medical care, as well as a question regarding their general attitudes toward truth-telling. Results: Of the 200 respondents, the majority found the use of placebos in different contexts to be acceptable following partial disclosure but found it to be unacceptable if it involved outright lying. Also, 55.5% of respondents supported the use of sham surgery in clinical research, although 55% claimed that it would be unacceptable to deceive patients in this research, even if this would improve the quality of the data from the study. Respondents supported fully informing patients about distressing medical information in different contexts, especially when the patient is suffering from a chronic condition. In addition, 42.5% of respondents believed that it is worse to deceive someone by providing the person with false information than it is to do so by giving the person true information that is likely to lead them to form a false belief, without telling them other important information that shows it to be false. However, 41.5% believed that the two methods of deception were morally equivalent. Conclusions: Respondents believed that some forms of deception were acceptable in some circumstances. While the majority of our respondents opposed outright lying in medical contexts, they were prepared to support partial disclosure and the use of

  13. An empirical Bayes approach for the Poisson life distribution.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Canavos, G. C.

    1973-01-01

    A smooth empirical Bayes estimator is derived for the intensity parameter (hazard rate) in the Poisson distribution as used in life testing. The reliability function is also estimated either by using the empirical Bayes estimate of the parameter, or by obtaining the expectation of the reliability function. The behavior of the empirical Bayes procedure is studied through Monte Carlo simulation in which estimates of mean-squared errors of the empirical Bayes estimators are compared with those of conventional estimators such as minimum variance unbiased or maximum likelihood. Results indicate a significant reduction in mean-squared error of the empirical Bayes estimators over the conventional variety.

  14. Relative importance and utility of positive worker states: a review and empirical examination.

    PubMed

    Steele, John P; Rupayana, Disha D; Mills, Maura J; Smith, Michael R; Wefald, Andrew; Downey, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to identity the unique contribution, relative importance, and utility of positive worker states. Using Luthans et al.'s (2007) five positive organizational behavior criteria, a variety of positive worker states were reviewed and then empirically tested to establish if they met these criteria. Data were collected from 724 restaurant employees. Positive worker states included: job involvement, perceived organizational support, engagement, and vigor. Criteria were self-reported performance, customer service, turnover intention, satisfaction, and quality of life. Our review indicated consistency between predictor adequacy of meeting the criteria and their empirical relationship with key outcomes. This research found the positive worker states to be independent constructs that had differential effects depending on the focused outcome. Regression and relative weights analyses showed involvement was a weak predictor of outcomes, while perceived organizational support was the most consistent predictor. Vigor was most useful when predicting job performance. Quality of life was poorly explained.

  15. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J; McGee, Gail G; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-08-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI)" are implemented in natural settings, involve shared control between child and therapist, utilize natural contingencies, and use a variety of behavioral strategies to teach developmentally appropriate and prerequisite skills. We describe the development of NDBIs, their theoretical bases, empirical support, requisite characteristics, common features, and suggest future research needs. We wish to bring parsimony to a field that includes interventions with different names but common features thus improving understanding and choice-making among families, service providers and referring agencies.

  16. Empirical studies on changes in oil governance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kemal, Mohammad

    Regulation of the oil and gas sector is consequential to the economies of oil-producing countries. In the literature, there are two types of regulation: indirect regulation through taxes and tariffs or direct regulation through the creation of a National Oil Company (NOC). In the 1970s, many oil-producing countries nationalized their oil and gas sectors by creating and giving ownership rights of oil and gas resources to NOCs. In light of the success of Norway in regulating its oil and gas resources, over the past two decades several countries have changed their oil governance by changing the rights given to NOC from ownership right to mere access rights like other oil companies. However, empirical literature on these changes in oil governance is quite thin. Thus, this dissertation will explore three research questions to investigate empirically these changes in oil governance. First, I investigate empirically the impact of the changes in oil governance on aggregate domestic income. By employing a difference-in-difference method, I will show that a country which changed its oil governance increases its GDP per-capita by 10%. However, the impact is different for different types of political institution. Second, by observing the changes in oil governance in Indonesia , I explore the impact of the changes on learning-by-doing and learning spillover effect in offshore exploration drilling. By employing an econometric model which includes interaction terms between various experience variables and changes in an oil governance dummy, I will show that the change in oil governance in Indonesia enhances learning-by-doing by the rigs and learning spillover in a basin. Lastly, the impact of the changes in oil governance on expropriation risk and extraction path will be explored. By employing a difference-in-difference method, this essay will show that the changes in oil governance reduce expropriation and the impact of it is different for different sizes of resource stock.

  17. Case definitions integrating empiric and consensus perspectives

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; McManimen, Stephanie; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Furst, Jacob; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle

    2016-01-01

    Background There has been considerable controversy regarding how to name and define the illnesses known as myalgic encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS). The IOM report has proposed a new clinical criteria and name for this illness, but aspects of these recommendations have been scrutinized by patients and scientists. Purpose It is possible that both empiric and consensus approaches could be used to help settle some of these diagnostic challenges. Using patient samples collected in the United States, Great Britain, and Norway (N=556), the current study attempted to categorize patients using more general as well as more restricted case definitions. Results Overall, the outcomes suggest that there might be four groupings of patients, with the broadest category involving those with chronic fatigue (N=62), defined by 6 or more months of fatigue which can be cannot be explained by medical or psychiatric conditions. A second category involves those patients that have chronic fatigue that can be explained by a medical or psychiatric condition (N=47). A third category involves more specific criteria that have been posited both by the IOM report, a Canadian Clinical Case criteria, a ME-ICC criteria and a more empiric approach. These efforts have specified domains of substantial reductions of activity, post-exertional malaise, neurocognitive impairment, and sleep dysfunction (N=346). Patients with these characteristics were more functionally impaired than those meeting just chronic fatigue criteria, p < .05. Finally, those meeting even more restrictive ME criteria proposed by Ramsay, identified a smaller and even more impaired group, p < .05. Discussion The advantages of using such empirical and consensus approaches to develop reliable classification and diagnostic efforts are discussed. PMID:27088059

  18. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  19. Imperial Secrets. Remapping the Mind of Empire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-10-01

    infi nitum until a whole day passed, spent with my playing a 167 Carl Jung, Memories , Dreams, Reflections, New York: Vintage Books, 1965, p. 4. 168...empire was thus found in the physical things and places of collective memory . Continuing this trend of down-scoping—from archive, to text, to history...more?). Battles in the present are fought in and over the past. Delhi’s Gothic-style memorial to the 1857 “Indian Mutiny” (on which are still inscribed

  20. [Hospital costs: results of empirical studies].

    PubMed

    Delande, G; Negre, M

    1992-01-01

    The DRG hospital payment system will be introduced in France in 1993-94 under the name of GHM ("groupes homogènes de malades"). However the method for evaluating costs is mainly based on past trends and, as a matter of fact, they exclude innovative care behavior from the doctors. Three new methods are therefore experimented: (i) standardized operation protocols; (ii) observation of consumed products and time of health personnel; (iii) observation of the costs resulting from the tariffs of the Social Security administration. The empirical studies were carried out in Montpellier and Nantes, two middle size cities of France.

  1. Apology in the criminal justice setting: evidence for including apology as an additional component in the legal system.

    PubMed

    Petrucci, Carrie J

    2002-01-01

    The criminal justice system has reached unprecedented scope in the United States, with over 6.4 million people under some type of supervision. Remedies that have the potential to reduce this number are continually being sought. This article analyzes an innovative strategy currently being reconsidered in criminal justice: the apology. Despite a legal system that only sporadically acknowledges it, evidence for the use of apology is supported by social science research, current criminal justice theories, case law, and empirical studies. Social psychological, sociological and socio-legal studies pinpoint the elements and function of apology, what makes apologies effective, and concerns about apology if it were implemented in the criminal justice system. Theoretical evidence is examined (including restorative justice, therapeutic jurisprudence, crime, shame, and reintegration) to explore the process of apology in the criminal justice context. Attribution theory and social conduct theory are used to explain the apology process specifically for victims and offenders. A brief examination of case law reveals that though apology has no formal place in criminal law, it has surfaced recently under the federal sentencing guidelines. Finally, empirical evidence in criminal justice settings reveals that offenders want to apologize and victims desire an apology. Moreover, by directly addressing the harmful act, apology may be the link to reduced recidivism for offenders, as well as empowerment for victims. This evidence combined suggests that apology is worthy of further study as a potentially valuable addition to the criminal justice process.

  2. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  3. Additive Effects on Asymmetric Catalysis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Liang; Sun, Wangsheng; Yang, Dongxu; Li, Guofeng; Wang, Rui

    2016-03-23

    This review highlights a number of additives that can be used to make asymmetric reactions perfect. Without changing other reaction conditions, simply adding additives can lead to improved asymmetric catalysis, such as reduced reaction time, improved yield, or/and increased selectivity.

  4. Development and Implementation of an Empirical Ionosphere Variability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joesph I.; Almond, Deborah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft designers and operations support personnel involved in space environment analysis for low Earth orbit missions require ionospheric specification and forecast models that provide not only average ionospheric plasma parameters for a given set of geophysical conditions but the statistical variations about the mean as well. This presentation describes the development of a prototype empirical model intended for use with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to provide ionospheric Ne and Te variability. We first describe the database of on-orbit observations from a variety of spacecraft and ground based radars over a wide range of latitudes and altitudes used to obtain estimates of the environment variability. Next, comparison of the observations with the IRI model provide estimates of the deviations from the average model as well as the range of possible values that may correspond to a given IRI output. Options for implementation of the statistical variations in software that can be run with the IRI model are described. Finally, we provide example applications including thrust estimates for tethered satellites and specification of sunrise Ne, Te conditions required to support spacecraft charging issues for satellites with high voltage solar arrays.

  5. Equations of state for fluids: empirical temperature dependence of the second virial coefficients.

    PubMed

    Tian, Jianxiang; Gui, Yuanxing

    2007-09-20

    In this paper, an empirical dependence of the second virial coefficients is derived from equations of state. The second virial coefficient B2 is found to be a linear function of 1/T1+beta, where T is the temperature and beta is a constant and has different value for different substances. Excellent experimental supports to this relationship are reported for nonpolar fluids, polar fluids, heavy globular molecule fluids, and quantum fluid He-4.

  6. Evaluating the Validity of the U.S. Military’s Global Empire

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-26

    Military ’ s Global Empire Sb. GRANT NUMBER Sc. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6.AUTHOR Sd. PROJECT NUMBER Lieutenant Colonel Scott P. Noon , u.s...With this status came an unchecked and impressive global force posture. While the United States dramatically cut the number of personnel in Western...operations in Iraq and Afghanistan, the military remains globally committed in support of a variety of missions and operations. In the currant fiscal

  7. Construction of embedding for empirical prognostic models of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, A. M.; Mukhin, D.; Gavrilov, A.; Loskutov, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Empirical approach to modeling and forecasting complex dynamical systems becomes more and more popular in climate science because of two reasons: (i) not confidence reproducing and forecasting some of key climate modes by existing global climate models, and (ii) increasing number and duration of climatic time series which can be considered as a source of information about dynamical laws underlying observational variability. Such an approach is aimed to construction of prognostic models by way of direct analysis of data without involving any detailed physical equations. We developed a method for empirical modeling basing on reconstruction of prognostic evolution operator in a form of random dynamical system [1] - stochastic mapping the current state of the system to the next one. The most crucial point in application of the method to the analysis of real climatic data is the construction of proper embedding: the optimal set of variables - "principal modes" - determining the phase space the model works in. This task is non-trivial due to huge dimension of time series of typical space-distributed climatic fields. We outline two main features these modes should have to capture the main dynamical properties of the system: (i) capturing teleconnections in the atmosphere-ocean system by taking into account time-lagged couplings in data and (ii) reflecting the nonlinear interactions between the time series at different grid points. In this report we present the methodology of empirical forecasting which includes the construction of an embedding on the basis of the above principals: multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) together with nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) are used for phase space construction from data. The proposed methodology is applied to the analysis of sea surface temperature and atmospheric pressure fields. Capabilities to predict various indices of climate (such as SOI, PDO, NAO, NTA, etc.) is demonstrated. This research was supported

  8. Rationale for hedging initiatives: Empirical evidence from the energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanarajata, Srirajata

    Theory offers different rationales for hedging including (i) financial distress and bankruptcy cost, (ii) capacity to capture attractive investment opportunities, (iii) information asymmetry, (iv) economy of scale, (v) substitution for hedging, (vi) managerial risk aversion, and (vii) convexity of tax schedule. The purpose of this dissertation is to empirically test the explanatory power of the first five theoretical rationales on hedging done by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) companies. The level of hedging is measured by the percentage of production effectively hedged, calculated based on the concept of delta and delta-gamma hedging. I employ Tobit regression, principal components, and panel data analysis on dependent and raw independent variables. Tobit regression is applied due to the fact that the dependent variable used in the analysis is non-negative. Principal component analysis helps to reduce the dimension of explanatory variables while panel data analysis combines/pools the data that is a combination of time-series and cross-sectional. Based on the empirical results, leverage level is consistently found to be a significant factor on hedging activities, either due to an attempt to avoid financial distress by the firm, or an attempt to control agency cost by debtholders, or both. The effect of capital expenditures and discretionary cash flows are both indeterminable due possibly to a potential mismatch in timing of realized cash flow items and hedging decision. Firm size is found to be positively related to hedging supporting economy of scale hypothesis, which is introduced in past literature, as well as the argument that large firm usually are more sophisticated and should be more willing and more comfortable to use hedge instruments than smaller firms.

  9. Enactivism and neonatal imitation: conceptual and empirical considerations and clarifications

    PubMed Central

    Lodder, Paul; Rotteveel, Mark; van Elk, Michiel

    2014-01-01

    Recently within social cognition it has been argued that understanding others is primarily characterized by dynamic and second person interactive processes, rather than by taking a third person observational stance. Within this enactivist view of intersubjective understanding, researchers differ in their claims regarding the innateness of such processes. Here we proposed to distinguish nativist enactivists—who argue that studies on neonatal imitation support the view that infants already have a non-mentalistic embodied form of intersubjective understanding present at birth—from empiricist enactivists, who claim that those intersubjective processes are learned through social interaction. In this article, we critically examine the empirical studies on neonate imitation and conclude that the available evidence is at least mixed for most types of specific gesture imitations. In the end, only the tongue protrusion imitation appears to be consistent across different studies. If neonates imitate only one single gesture, then a more parsimonious explanation for the tongue protrusion effect could be put forward. Consequently, the nativist enactivist claim that understanding others depends on second person interactive processes already present at birth seems no longer plausible. Although other strands of evidence provide converging evidence for the importance of intersubjective processes in adult social cognition, the available evidence on neonatal imitation calls for a more careful view on the innateness of such processes and suggests that this way of interacting needs to be learned over time. Therefore the available empirical evidence on neonate imitation is in our view compatible with the empiricist enactivist position, but not with the nativist enactivist position. PMID:25228895

  10. Empirical Quantification of the Runaway Greenhouse Limit on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldblatt, C.; Dewey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been many modeling studies of the runaway greenhouse effect and the conditions required to produce one on an Earth-like planet, however these models have not been verified with empirical evidence. It has been suggested that the Earth's tropics may be near a state of localized runaway greenhouse, meaning the surface temperature and atmospheric composition in those areas could cause runaway greenhouse, were it not for the tempering effects of meridional heat transport and circulation (Pierrehumbert, 1995). Using the assumption that some areas of the Earth's tropics may be under these conditions, this study uses measurements of the atmospheric properties, surface properties, and radiation budgets of these areas to quantify a radiation limit for runaway greenhouse on Earth, by analyzing the dependence of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere on surface temperature and total column water vapour. An upper limit on OLR for clear-sky conditions was found between 289.8 W/m2 and 292.2 W/m2, which occurred at surface temperatures near 300K. For surface temperatures above this threshold, total column water vapour increased, but OLR initially decreased and then remained relatively constant, between 273.6 W/m2 and 279.7 W/m2. These limits are in good agreement with recent modeling results (Goldblatt et al., 2013), supporting the idea that some of the Earth's tropics may be in localized runaway greenhouse, and that radiation limits for runaway greenhouse on Earth can be empirically derived. This research was done as part of Maura Dewey's undergraduate honours thesis at the University of Victoria. Refs: Robert T. Pierrehumbert. Thermostats, radiator fins, and the local runaway greenhouse. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 52(10):1784-1806, 1995. Colin Goldblatt, Tyler D. Robinson, Kevin J. Zahnle, and David Crisp. Low simulated radiation limit for runaway greenhouse climates. Nature Geoscience, 6:661-667, 2013.

  11. Identifying the Oil Price-Macroeconomy Relationship: An Empirical Mode Decomposition Analysis of U.S. Data

    SciTech Connect

    Oladosu, Gbadebo A

    2009-01-01

    This work applies the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method to data on real quarterly oil price (West Texas Intermediate - WTI) and U.S. gross domestic product (GDP). This relatively new method is adaptive and capable of handling non-linear and non-stationary data. Correlation analysis of the decomposition results was performed and examined for insights into the oil-macroeconomy relationship. Several components of this relationship were identified. However, the principal one is that the medium-run cyclical component of the oil price exerts a negative and exogenous influence on the main cyclical component of the GDP. This can be interpreted as the supply-driven or supply-shock component of the oil price-GDP relationship. In addition, weak correlations suggesting a lagging demand-driven, an expectations-driven, and a long-run supply-driven component of the relationship were also identified. Comparisons of these findings with significant oil supply disruption and recession dates were supportive. The study identified a number of lessons applicable to recent oil market events, including the eventuality of persistent economic and price declines following a long oil price run-up. In addition, it was found that oil-market related exogenous events are associated with short- to medium-run price implications regardless of whether they lead to actual supply disruptions.

  12. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic.

  13. Development of covariance capabilities in EMPIRE code

    SciTech Connect

    Herman,M.; Pigni, M.T.; Oblozinsky, P.; Mughabghab, S.F.; Mattoon, C.M.; Capote, R.; Cho, Young-Sik; Trkov, A.

    2008-06-24

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE has been extended to provide evaluation capabilities for neutron cross section covariances in the thermal, resolved resonance, unresolved resonance and fast neutron regions. The Atlas of Neutron Resonances by Mughabghab is used as a primary source of information on uncertainties at low energies. Care is taken to ensure consistency among the resonance parameter uncertainties and those for thermal cross sections. The resulting resonance parameter covariances are formatted in the ENDF-6 File 32. In the fast neutron range our methodology is based on model calculations with the code EMPIRE combined with experimental data through several available approaches. The model-based covariances can be obtained using deterministic (Kalman) or stochastic (Monte Carlo) propagation of model parameter uncertainties. We show that these two procedures yield comparable results. The Kalman filter and/or the generalized least square fitting procedures are employed to incorporate experimental information. We compare the two approaches analyzing results for the major reaction channels on {sup 89}Y. We also discuss a long-standing issue of unreasonably low uncertainties and link it to the rigidity of the model.

  14. The Matthew effect in empirical data

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    The Matthew effect describes the phenomenon that in societies, the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. It is closely related to the concept of preferential attachment in network science, where the more connected nodes are destined to acquire many more links in the future than the auxiliary nodes. Cumulative advantage and success-breads-success also both describe the fact that advantage tends to beget further advantage. The concept is behind the many power laws and scaling behaviour in empirical data, and it is at the heart of self-organization across social and natural sciences. Here, we review the methodology for measuring preferential attachment in empirical data, as well as the observations of the Matthew effect in patterns of scientific collaboration, socio-technical and biological networks, the propagation of citations, the emergence of scientific progress and impact, career longevity, the evolution of common English words and phrases, as well as in education and brain development. We also discuss whether the Matthew effect is due to chance or optimization, for example related to homophily in social systems or efficacy in technological systems, and we outline possible directions for future research. PMID:24990288

  15. Impact of round-the-clock CSF Gram stain on empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system infections.

    PubMed

    Tissot, F; Prod'hom, G; Manuel, O; Greub, G

    2015-09-01

    The impact of round-the-clock cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram stain on overnight empirical therapy for suspected central nervous system (CNS) infections was investigated. All consecutive overnight CSF Gram stains between 2006 and 2011 were included. The impact of a positive or a negative test on empirical therapy was evaluated and compared to other clinical and biological indications based on institutional guidelines. Bacterial CNS infection was documented in 51/241 suspected cases. Overnight CSF Gram stain was positive in 24/51. Upon validation, there were two false-positive and one false-negative results. The sensitivity and specificity were 41 and 99 %, respectively. All patients but one had other indications for empirical therapy than Gram stain alone. Upon obtaining the Gram result, empirical therapy was modified in 7/24, including the addition of an appropriate agent (1), addition of unnecessary agents (3) and simplification of unnecessary combination therapy (3/11). Among 74 cases with a negative CSF Gram stain and without formal indication for empirical therapy, antibiotics were withheld in only 29. Round-the-clock CSF Gram stain had a low impact on overnight empirical therapy for suspected CNS infections and was associated with several misinterpretation errors. Clinicians showed little confidence in CSF direct examination for simplifying or withholding therapy before definite microbiological results.

  16. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  17. Renewable Fuel Standard Program (RFS1): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on May 1, 2007 and is effective on September 1, 2007. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  18. 6. INTERIOR OF UNFINISHED BASEMENT UNDER BEDROOM ADDITION SHOWING CONCRETE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    6. INTERIOR OF UNFINISHED BASEMENT UNDER BEDROOM ADDITION SHOWING CONCRETE FORM IMPRESSIONS ON THE WALLS, AND EXPOSED FLOOR SUPPORT BEAMS. VIEW TO NORTH. - Rush Creek Hydroelectric System, Worker Cottage, Rush Creek, June Lake, Mono County, CA

  19. Renewable Fuel Standard (RFS2): Final Rule Additional Resources

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The final rule of fuels and fuel additives: renewable fuel standard program is published on March 26, 2010 and is effective on July 1, 2010. You will find the links to this final rule and technical amendments supporting this rule.

  20. Supporting universal prevention programs: a two-phased coaching model.

    PubMed

    Becker, Kimberly D; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S

    2013-06-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students' emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter et al. in Early Child Res Q 26:96-109, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter and Van Norman in Early Child Educ 38:279-288, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al. in School Psychol Rev 34:87-106, 2005; Stormont et al. 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker et al. 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports, whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs.

  1. Supporting Universal Prevention Programs: A Two-Phased Coaching Model

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Kimberly D.; Darney, Dana; Domitrovich, Celene; Keperling, Jennifer Pitchford; Ialongo, Nicholas S.

    2013-01-01

    Schools are adopting evidence-based programs designed to enhance students’ emotional and behavioral competencies at increasing rates (Hemmeter, Snyder, & Artman, 2011). At the same time, teachers express the need for increased support surrounding implementation of these evidence-based programs (Carter & Van Norman, 2010). Ongoing professional development in the form of coaching may enhance teacher skills and implementation (Noell et al., 2005; Stormont, Reinke, Newcomer, Darney, & Lewis, 2012). There exists a need for a coaching model that can be applied to a variety of teacher skill levels and one that guides coach decision-making about how best to support teachers. This article provides a detailed account of a two-phased coaching model with empirical support developed and tested with coaches and teachers in urban schools (Becker, Bradshaw, Domitrovich, & Ialongo, 2013). In the initial universal coaching phase, all teachers receive the same coaching elements regardless of their skill level. Then, in the tailored coaching phase, coaching varies according to the strengths and needs of each teacher. Specifically, more intensive coaching strategies are used only with teachers who need additional coaching supports whereas other teachers receive just enough support to consolidate and maintain their strong implementation. Examples of how coaches used the two-phased coaching model when working with teachers who were implementing two universal prevention programs (i.e., the PATHS® curriculum and PAX Good Behavior Game [PAX GBG]) provide illustrations of the application of this model. The potential reach of this coaching model extends to other school-based programs as well as other settings in which coaches partner with interventionists to implement evidence-based programs. PMID:23660973

  2. Supporting Military Families - A Comparative Study in Social Support Arrangements for Military Families (Theoretical Dimensions and Empirical Comparison between Countries)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-01

    One of the most promising questions is derived from the work of Durkheim . Durkheim’s work departs from the question “how is society possible”? In...society could be built is relevant to family research. Many scientists view the family as the corner-stone of society. A relative of Durkheim ...money. The communitarian tradition builds on the concepts of Durkheim , Mauss and Lévi-Strauss. This tradition states for instance that even in economics

  3. Adverse reactions to drug additives.

    PubMed

    Simon, R A

    1984-10-01

    There is a long list of additives used by the pharmaceutical industry. Most of the agents used have not been implicated in hypersensitivity reactions. Among those that have, only reactions to parabens and sulfites have been well established. Parabens have been shown to be responsible for rare immunoglobulin E-mediated reactions that occur after the use of local anesthetics. Sulfites, which are present in many drugs, including agents commonly used to treat asthma, have been shown to provoke severe asthmatic attacks in sensitive individuals. Recent studies indicate that additives do not play a significant role in "hyperactivity." The role of additives in urticaria is not well established and therefore the incidence of adverse reactions in this patient population is simply not known. In double-blind, placebo-controlled studies, reactions to tartrazine or additives other than sulfites, if they occur at all, are indeed quite rare for the asthmatic population, even for the aspirin-sensitive subpopulation.

  4. Radiation Therapy: Additional Treatment Options

    MedlinePlus

    ... SNIPEND SNIPSTART Find A Radiation Oncologist SNIPEND Additional Treatment Options SNIPSTART A A SNIPEND Chemotherapy Medicines prescribed ... such as antibodies, to fight cancer. Novel Targeted Therapies Cancer doctors now know much more about how ...

  5. Calculators and Computers: Graphical Addition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spero, Samuel W.

    1978-01-01

    A computer program is presented that generates problem sets involving sketching graphs of trigonometric functions using graphical addition. The students use calculators to sketch the graphs and a computer solution is used to check it. (MP)

  6. An empirical analysis of the corporate call decision

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Murray Dean

    1998-12-01

    In this thesis we provide insights into the behavior of financial managers of utility companies by studying their decisions to redeem callable preferred shares. In particular, we investigate whether or not an option pricing based model of the call decision, with managers who maximize shareholder value, does a better job of explaining callable preferred share prices and call decisions than do other models of the decision. In order to perform these tests, we extend an empirical technique introduced by Rust (1987) to include the use of information from preferred share prices in addition to the call decisions. The model we develop to value the option embedded in a callable preferred share differs from standard models in two ways. First, as suggested in Kraus (1983), we explicitly account for transaction costs associated with a redemption. Second, we account for state variables that are observed by the decision makers but not by the preferred shareholders. We interpret these unobservable state variables as the benefits and costs associated with a change in capital structure that can accompany a call decision. When we add this variable, our empirical model changes from one which predicts exactly when a share should be called to one which predicts the probability of a call as the function of the observable state. These two modifications of the standard model result in predictions of calls, and therefore of callable preferred share prices, that are consistent with several previously unexplained features of the data; we show that the predictive power of the model is improved in a statistical sense by adding these features to the model. The pricing and call probability functions from our model do a good job of describing call decisions and preferred share prices for several utilities. Using data from shares of the Pacific Gas and Electric Co. (PGE) we obtain reasonable estimates for the transaction costs associated with a call. Using a formal empirical test, we are able to

  7. Food additives and preschool children.

    PubMed

    Martyn, Danika M; McNulty, Breige A; Nugent, Anne P; Gibney, Michael J

    2013-02-01

    Food additives have been used throughout history to perform specific functions in foods. A comprehensive framework of legislation is in place within Europe to control the use of additives in the food supply and ensure they pose no risk to human health. Further to this, exposure assessments are regularly carried out to monitor population intakes and verify that intakes are not above acceptable levels (acceptable daily intakes). Young children may have a higher dietary exposure to chemicals than adults due to a combination of rapid growth rates and distinct food intake patterns. For this reason, exposure assessments are particularly important in this age group. The paper will review the use of additives and exposure assessment methods and examine factors that affect dietary exposure by young children. One of the most widely investigated unfavourable health effects associated with food additive intake in preschool-aged children are suggested adverse behavioural effects. Research that has examined this relationship has reported a variety of responses, with many noting an increase in hyperactivity as reported by parents but not when assessed using objective examiners. This review has examined the experimental approaches used in such studies and suggests that efforts are needed to standardise objective methods of measuring behaviour in preschool children. Further to this, a more holistic approach to examining food additive intakes by preschool children is advisable, where overall exposure is considered rather than focusing solely on behavioural effects and possibly examining intakes of food additives other than food colours.

  8. Empirical Analysis and Automated Classification of Security Bug Reports

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tyo, Jacob P.

    2016-01-01

    With the ever expanding amount of sensitive data being placed into computer systems, the need for effective cybersecurity is of utmost importance. However, there is a shortage of detailed empirical studies of security vulnerabilities from which cybersecurity metrics and best practices could be determined. This thesis has two main research goals: (1) to explore the distribution and characteristics of security vulnerabilities based on the information provided in bug tracking systems and (2) to develop data analytics approaches for automatic classification of bug reports as security or non-security related. This work is based on using three NASA datasets as case studies. The empirical analysis showed that the majority of software vulnerabilities belong only to a small number of types. Addressing these types of vulnerabilities will consequently lead to cost efficient improvement of software security. Since this analysis requires labeling of each bug report in the bug tracking system, we explored using machine learning to automate the classification of each bug report as a security or non-security related (two-class classification), as well as each security related bug report as specific security type (multiclass classification). In addition to using supervised machine learning algorithms, a novel unsupervised machine learning approach is proposed. An ac- curacy of 92%, recall of 96%, precision of 92%, probability of false alarm of 4%, F-Score of 81% and G-Score of 90% were the best results achieved during two-class classification. Furthermore, an accuracy of 80%, recall of 80%, precision of 94%, and F-score of 85% were the best results achieved during multiclass classification.

  9. A Semi-Empirical Multi-Scale Dynamic Monte Carlo Model of Organic Photovoltaic Performance in RIR-MAPLE Bulk Heterojunction Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stiff-Roberts, Adrienne; Atewologun, Ayomide

    A semi-empirical method for investigating the performance of OPVs in resonant infrared, matrix-assisted pulsed laser evaporation (RIR-MAPLE) films is explored. Emulsion-based RIR-MAPLE offers a unique experimental backdrop for investigating trends through simulation and gaining a better understanding of how different thin film characteristics impact OPV device performance. A novel multi-scale formulation of the Dynamic Monte Carlo (DMC) model is developed based on observable morphology features. Specifically, using confocal microscopy, we observe the presence of micro-scale regimes of pure materials and nano-scale regions of the composite blend. This enables us to assign weighted percentages to DMC implementations on two different scales: the microscale and nanoscale regions. In addition to this, we use input simulation parameters acquired by characterization of as-deposited films. The semi-empirical multi-scale model presented serves as a unique simulation opportunity for exploring different properties of RIR-MAPLE deposited OPVs, their effects on OPV performance and potential design routes for improving device efficiencies. This work was supported, in part, by the Office of Naval Research under Grant N00014-10-1-0481 and the NSF Triangle MRSEC on Soft Matter.

  10. An Attitudinal Explanation of Biases in the Criminal Justice System: An Empirical Testing of Defensive Attribution Theory

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Herzog, Sergio

    2008-01-01

    Theoretical perspectives, supported by empirical evidence, have consistently argued that the judicial treatment of offenders by criminal justice agents is sometimes biased by extralegal factors, such as offenders' sociodemographic characteristics. According to defensive attribution theory, individuals tend to protect themselves against unfortunate…

  11. Review of "Promising Start: An Empirical Analysis of How EdChoice Vouchers Affect Ohio Public Schools"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lubienski, Christopher

    2008-01-01

    A Friedman Foundation report attempts to find empirical support for the contention that competition from private schools, through voucher programs, improves the effectiveness of public schools. In the first year of Ohio's new EdChoice voucher program, the report claims to have found substantial academic gains at public schools exposed to the…

  12. An Empirical Test of the Impact of Primitive Intuitive Models of Operations on Solving Word Problems with a Multiplicative Structure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    De Corte, Erik; Verschaffel, Lieven

    1996-01-01

    Results of a study involving 107 sixth graders, 107 secondary school students, and 99 college education majors support the basic hypothesis of the intuitive model of solving multiplicative problems proposed by E. Fischbein and others (1985) but show that the theory does not account for all the empirical data. (SLD)

  13. 78 FR 40727 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-07-08

    ... Maintenance Service, USCG, Air Station-Savannah, 1297 N Lightning Rd, Savannah, GA NPA: Goodwill Industries of the Coastal Empire, Inc., Savannah, GA Contracting Activity: U.S. Coast Guard, Base Miami, Miami,...

  14. Empirical Modeling of Plant Gas Fluxes in Controlled Environments

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cornett, Jessie David

    1994-01-01

    As humans extend their reach beyond the earth, bioregenerative life support systems must replace the resupply and physical/chemical systems now used. The Controlled Ecological Life Support System (CELSS) will utilize plants to recycle the carbon dioxide (CO2) and excrement produced by humans and return oxygen (O2), purified water and food. CELSS design requires knowledge of gas flux levels for net photosynthesis (PS(sub n)), dark respiration (R(sub d)) and evapotranspiration (ET). Full season gas flux data regarding these processes for wheat (Triticum aestivum), soybean (Glycine max) and rice (Oryza sativa) from published sources were used to develop empirical models. Univariate models relating crop age (days after planting) and gas flux were fit by simple regression. Models are either high order (5th to 8th) or more complex polynomials whose curves describe crop development characteristics. The models provide good estimates of gas flux maxima, but are of limited utility. To broaden the applicability, data were transformed to dimensionless or correlation formats and, again, fit by regression. Polynomials, similar to those in the initial effort, were selected as the most appropriate models. These models indicate that, within a cultivar, gas flux patterns appear remarkably similar prior to maximum flux, but exhibit considerable variation beyond this point. This suggests that more broadly applicable models of plant gas flux are feasible, but univariate models defining gas flux as a function of crop age are too simplistic. Multivariate models using CO2 and crop age were fit for PS(sub n), and R(sub d) by multiple regression. In each case, the selected model is a subset of a full third order model with all possible interactions. These models are improvements over the univariate models because they incorporate more than the single factor, crop age, as the primary variable governing gas flux. They are still limited, however, by their reliance on the other environmental

  15. Consumer trust in food safety--a multidisciplinary approach and empirical evidence from Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang

    2008-12-01

    Food scandals that happened in recent years have increased consumers' risk perceptions of foods and decreased their trust in food safety. A better understanding of the consumer trust in food safety can improve the effectiveness of public policy and allow the development of the best practice in risk communication. This study proposes a research framework from a psychometric approach to investigate the relationships between the consumer's trust in food safety and the antecedents of risk perceptions of foods based on a reflexive modernization perspective and a cultural theory perspective in the hope of benefiting the future empirical study. The empirical results from a structural equation modeling analysis of Taiwan as a case in point reveal that this research framework based on a multidisciplinary perspective can be a valuable tool for a growing understanding of consumer trust in food safety. The antecedents in the psychometric research framework comprised reflexive modernization factors and cultural theory factors have all been supported in this study except the consumer's perception of pessimism toward food. Moreover, the empirical results of repeated measures analysis of variance give more detailed information to grasp empirical implications and to provide some suggestions to the actors and institutions involved in the food supply chain in Taiwan.

  16. Evaluation of certain food additives.

    PubMed

    2015-01-01

    This report represents the conclusions of a Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee convened to evaluate the safety of various food additives, including flavouring agents, and to prepare specifications for identity and purity. The first part of the report contains a general discussion of the principles governing the toxicological evaluation of and assessment of dietary exposure to food additives, including flavouring agents. A summary follows of the Committee's evaluations of technical, toxicological and dietary exposure data for eight food additives (Benzoe tonkinensis; carrageenan; citric and fatty acid esters of glycerol; gardenia yellow; lutein esters from Tagetes erecta; octenyl succinic acid-modified gum arabic; octenyl succinic acid-modified starch; paprika extract; and pectin) and eight groups of flavouring agents (aliphatic and alicyclic hydrocarbons; aliphatic and aromatic ethers; ionones and structurally related substances; miscellaneous nitrogen-containing substances; monocyclic and bicyclic secondary alcohols, ketones and related esters; phenol and phenol derivatives; phenyl-substituted aliphatic alcohols and related aldehydes and esters; and sulfur-containing heterocyclic compounds). Specifications for the following food additives were revised: citric acid; gellan gum; polyoxyethylene (20) sorbitan monostearate; potassium aluminium silicate; and Quillaia extract (Type 2). Annexed to the report are tables summarizing the Committee's recommendations for dietary exposures to and toxicological evaluations of all of the food additives and flavouring agents considered at this meeting.

  17. [INVITED] Lasers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pinkerton, Andrew J.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing is a topic of considerable ongoing interest, with forecasts predicting it to have major impact on industry in the future. This paper focusses on the current status and potential future development of the technology, with particular reference to the role of lasers within it. It begins by making clear the types and roles of lasers in the different categories of additive manufacturing. This is followed by concise reviews of the economic benefits and disadvantages of the technology, current state of the market and use of additive manufacturing in different industries. Details of these fields are referenced rather than expanded in detail. The paper continues, focusing on current indicators to the future of additive manufacturing. Barriers to its development, trends and opportunities in major industrial sectors, and wider opportunities for its development are covered. Evidence indicates that additive manufacturing may not become the dominant manufacturing technology in all industries, but represents an excellent opportunity for lasers to increase their influence in manufacturing as a whole.

  18. An empirical study of software design practices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Card, David N.; Church, Victor E.; Agresti, William W.

    1986-01-01

    Software engineers have developed a large body of software design theory and folklore, much of which was never validated. The results of an empirical study of software design practices in one specific environment are presented. The practices examined affect module size, module strength, data coupling, descendant span, unreferenced variables, and software reuse. Measures characteristic of these practices were extracted from 887 FORTRAN modules developed for five flight dynamics software projects monitored by the Software Engineering Laboratory (SEL). The relationship of these measures to cost and fault rate was analyzed using a contingency table procedure. The results show that some recommended design practices, despite their intuitive appeal, are ineffective in this environment, whereas others are very effective.

  19. Semi-Empirical Modeling of SLD Physics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wright, William B.; Potapczuk, Mark G.

    2004-01-01

    The effects of supercooled large droplets (SLD) in icing have been an area of much interest in recent years. As part of this effort, the assumptions used for ice accretion software have been reviewed. A literature search was performed to determine advances from other areas of research that could be readily incorporated. Experimental data in the SLD regime was also analyzed. A semi-empirical computational model is presented which incorporates first order physical effects of large droplet phenomena into icing software. This model has been added to the LEWICE software. Comparisons are then made to SLD experimental data that has been collected to date. Results will be presented for the comparison of water collection efficiency, ice shape and ice mass.

  20. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    PubMed Central

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate three evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct appraisal processes attuned to undeserved suffering, distinct signaling behavior related to caregiving patterns of touch, posture, and vocalization, and a phenomenological experience and physiological response that orients the individual to social approach. This response profile of compassion differs from those of distress, sadness, and love, suggesting that compassion is indeed a distinct emotion. We conclude by considering how compassion shapes moral judgment and action, how it varies across different cultures, and how it may engage specific patterns of neural activation, as well as emerging directions of research. PMID:20438142