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Sample records for additional empirical support

  1. Empirically-supported and non-empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa: retrospective patient ratings

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa include cognitive behaviour therapy and interpersonal therapy. Whilst these treatments have been shown to be effective in multiple randomised controlled trials, little research has investigated how they are perceived by patients who receive them. This study investigated whether empirically-supported psychological therapies (ESTs) are associated with superior self-rated treatment outcomes in clients with Bulimia Nervosa (BN). Results 98 adults who had received psychological therapy for BN in the United Kingdom completed a questionnaire which retrospectively assessed the specific contents of their psychological therapy and self-rated treatment outcomes. Around half the sample, fifty three participants reported receiving an EST. Fifty of these received Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) and three Interpersonal Therapy (IPT). Where therapy met expert criteria for Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Bulimia Nervosa (CBT-BN, an EST) participants reported superior treatment outcomes than those who appeared to receive non-specialist cognitive-behavioural therapy. However, self-rated treatment outcomes were similar overall between those whose therapy met criteria for ESTs and those whose therapy did not. Conclusions The findings offer tentative support for the perceived helpfulness of CBT-BN as evaluated in controlled research trials. Cognitive-behavioural therapies for BN, as they are delivered in the UK, may not necessarily be perceived as more beneficial by clients with BN than psychological therapies which currently have less empirical support. PMID:24999419

  2. A Review of Empirically Supported Marital Enrichment Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jakubowski, Scott F.; Milne, Eric P.; Brunner, Heidi; Miller, Richard B.

    2004-01-01

    Considering the popularity of marriage enrichment programs, it is important for clinicians and marriage educators to know which programs have received empirical support. Using criteria established for determining empirically supported treatments (ESTs), we provide a comprehensive review of the outcome research on 13 specific marital enrichment…

  3. Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions Applied to Anger Management

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Deffenbacher, Jerry L.; Oetting, Eugene R.; DiGiuseppe, Raymond A.

    2002-01-01

    This article applies the Principles of Empirically Supported Interventions (PESI) in counseling psychology to anger management with adults. The review suggests that there is empirical support for cognitive-behavioral interventions generally and for four specific interventions (relaxation, cognitive, behavioral skill enhancement, and combinations…

  4. The Empirical Status of Empirically Supported Psychotherapies: Assumptions, Findings, and Reporting in Controlled Clinical Trials

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Westen, Drew; Novotny, Catherine M.; Thompson-Brenner, Heather

    2004-01-01

    This article provides a critical review of the assumptions and findings of studies used to establish psychotherapies as empirically supported. The attempt to identify empirically supported therapies (ESTs) imposes particular assumptions on the use of randomized controlled trial (RCT) methodology that appear to be valid for some disorders and…

  5. Empirically Supported Treatment Endeavour: A Successful Future or Inevitable Debacle?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Foley, Jessica M.

    2004-01-01

    The Empirically Supported Treatment (EST) endeavour began with and has persisted through prodigious skepticism among practising clinical psychologists. Despite such criticism, however, the advent of managed care guidelines, growing emphasis on biological psychiatry, promotion of scientific interests, and the need for better patient care have…

  6. Empirically Supported Treatment's Impact on Organizational Culture and Climate

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Patterson-Silver Wolf, David A.; Dulmus, Catherine N.; Maguin, Eugene

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: With the continued push to implement empirically supported treatments (ESTs) into community-based organizations, it is important to investigate whether working condition disruptions occur during this process. While there are many studies investigating best practices and how to adopt them, the literature lacks studies investigating the…

  7. Examining the Premises Supporting the Empirically Supported Intervention Approach to Social Work Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E.; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-01-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance.…

  8. Empirically supported psychological treatments: the challenge of evaluating clinical innovations.

    PubMed

    Church, Dawson; Feinstein, David; Palmer-Hoffman, Julie; Stein, Phyllis K; Tranguch, Anthony

    2014-10-01

    Clear and transparent standards are required to establish whether a therapeutic method is "evidence based." Even when research demonstrates a method to be efficacious, it may not become available to patients who could benefit from it, a phenomenon known as the "translational gap." Only 30% of therapies cross the gap, and the lag between empirical validation and clinical implementation averages 17 years. To address these problems, Division 12 of the American Psychological Association published a set of standards for "empirically supported treatments" in the mid-1990s that allows the assessment of clinical modalities. This article reviews these criteria, identifies their strengths, and discusses their impact on the translational gap, using the development of a clinical innovation called Emotional Freedom Techniques (EFT) as a case study. Twelve specific recommendations for updates of the Division 12 criteria are made based on lessons garnered from the adoption of EFT within the clinical community. These recommendations would shorten the cycle from the research setting to clinical practice, increase transparency, incorporate recent scientific advances, and enhance the capacity for succinct comparisons among treatments. PMID:25265265

  9. Solving Additive Problems at Pre-Elementary School Level with the Support of Graphical Representation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Selva, Ana Coelho Vieira; Falcao, Jorge Tarcisio da Rocha; Nunes, Terezinha

    2005-01-01

    This research offers empirical evidence of the importance of supplying diverse symbolic representations in order to support concept development in mathematics. Graphical representation can be a helpful symbolic tool for concept development in the conceptual field of additive structures. Nevertheless, this symbolic tool has specific difficulties…

  10. Is there any empirical support for biodiversity offset policy?

    PubMed

    Curran, Michael; Hellweg, Stefanie; Beck, Jan

    2014-06-01

    Biodiversity offsets are seen as a policy mechanism to balance development and conservation goals. Many offset schemes employ habitat restoration in one area to recreate biodiversity value that is destroyed elsewhere, assuming that recovery is timely and predictable. Recent research has challenged these assumptions on the grounds that restoration implies long time delays and a low certainty of success. To investigate these assertions, and to assess the strength of empirical support for offset policy, we used a meta-analytic approach to analyze data from 108 comparative studies of secondary growth (SG) and old-growth (OG) habitat (a total of 1228 SG sites and 716 OG reference sites). We extracted species checklists and calculated standardized response ratios for species richness, Fisher's alpha, Sorenson similarity, and Morisita-Horn similarity. We modeled diversity change with habitat age using generalized linear models and multi-model averaging, correcting for a number of potential explanatory variables. We tested whether (1) diversity of passively and actively restored habitat converges to OG values over time, (2) active restoration significantly accelerates this process, and (3) current offset policies are appropriate to the predicted uncertainties and time lags associated with restoration. The results indicate that in the best case, species richness converges to OG reference values within a century, species similarity (Sorenson) takes about twice as long, and assemblage composition (Morisita-Horn) up to an order of magnitude longer (hundreds to thousands of years). Active restoration significantly accelerates the process for all indices, but the inherently large time lags, uncertainty, and risk of restoration failure require offset ratios that far exceed what is currently applied in practice. Restoration offset policy therefore leads to a net loss of biodiversity, and represents an inappropriate use of the otherwise valuable tool of ecosystem restoration. PMID

  11. 9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION THE ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    9. DETAIL OF FIXED SUPPORT (A RECENT ADDITION -- THE BRIDGE IS NO LONGER MOVEABLE) AND LOWER CHORD OF THROUGH TRUSS, LOOKING SOUTH - Romeo Road, Sanitary & Ship Canal Bridge, Spanning Sanitary & Ship Canal, Romeoville, Will County, IL

  12. Empirically Supported Interventions and School Psychology: Rationale and Methodological Issues--Part II.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2000-01-01

    This paper, part two of a two-part article, presents conceptual and practice issues on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Discusses the essential practice issues, given the dual goal of advancing research in empirically supported interventions and of producing a knowledge base that has direct meaning…

  13. Empirically Supported Interventions in School Psychology: The Role of Negative Results in Outcome Research.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan; Gutkin, Terry B.

    2000-01-01

    Article discusses the role that negative results or "no-difference" findings play in research and research reviews of empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Argues for publication of these findings in school psychology journals when they occur in the context of development of empirically supported interventions and translations…

  14. Empirically Supported Family and Peer Interventions for Dual Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moore, Barbara C.

    2005-01-01

    Objective: This article selectively reviews evidence-based family and peer interventions for co-occurring mental illness and substance use disorders. Although few researchers have specifically investigated family interventions for dual disorders, considerable empirical evidence exists for the effectiveness of such interventions in treating each of…

  15. Use of Evidence-Based Practice Resources and Empirically Supported Treatments for Posttraumatic Stress Disorder among University Counseling Center Psychologists

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Juel, Morgen Joray

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, an attempt was made to determine the degree to which psychologists at college and university counseling centers (UCCs) utilized empirically supported treatments with their posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) clients. In addition, an attempt was made to determine how frequently UCC psychologists utilized a number of…

  16. Why are empirically supported treatments for bulimia nervosa underutilized and what can we do about it?

    PubMed

    Arnow, B A

    1999-06-01

    Empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa, as well as for other disorders, are rarely utilized. Underutilization is frequently attributed to doubts among psychotherapists about the value of randomized controlled trials and professional resistance to the perceived constraints of manualized therapy. However, controversies about the usefulness of empirically supported therapies have been shaped by lack of access to adequate training and inexperience in delivering these treatments. A proposal for expanding training opportunities is presented along with discussion about how more intensive training for the practicing therapist would affect current controversies regarding the value and relevance of empirically supported therapies for bulimia nervosa and other disorders. PMID:10445866

  17. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Childhood Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    The clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatment approaches is reviewed with the intent to facilitate the training of counseling students. Empirically supported treatments (ESTs) is defined operationally as evidence-based treatments following the listing of empirically validated psychological treatments reported by…

  18. Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Computer Maintenance Operations Center (CMOC), additional computer support equipment - Beale Air Force Base, Perimeter Acquisition Vehicle Entry Phased-Array Warning System, Techinical Equipment Building, End of Spencer Paul Road, north of Warren Shingle Road (14th Street), Marysville, Yuba County, CA

  19. Additional Support Needs Reforms and Social Justice in Scotland

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Stead, Joan; Weedon, Elisabet; Wright, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    New additional support-needs legislation in Scotland sought to recognise the way in which poverty, as well as individual impairment, contribute to the creation of children's difficulties in learning. As well as identifying a wider range of needs, the legislation sought to provide parents, irrespective of social background, with more powerful means…

  20. Collecting Child Support for AFDC Mothers: An Empirical Analysis.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    MacDonald, Maurice

    Previous research demonstrates that most female heads of families get neither adequate nor regular child support payments. This study provides a quantitative assessment of the nature of the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) child support problem, and analyzes the effects of various government policies on success in collecting support…

  1. Examining the premises supporting the empirically supported intervention approach to social work practice.

    PubMed

    McBeath, Bowen; Briggs, Harold E; Aisenberg, Eugene

    2010-10-01

    Federal, state, and local policymakers and funders have increasingly organized human service delivery functions around the selection and implementation of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), under the expectation that service delivery through such intervention frameworks results in improvements in cost-effectiveness and system performance. This article examines the validity of four premises undergirding the ESI approach: ESIs are effective, relevant to common client problems and needs, culturally appropriate, and replicable and sustainable in community-based settings. In reviewing available literature, the authors found insufficient support for the uniform application of an ESI approach to social work practice in the human service sector, particularly as applied within agency contexts serving ethnic minority clients. The authors recommend that greater attention be devoted to the development and dissemination of social work interventions that respond to needs that are broadly understood and shared across diverse cultural groups, have proven clinical efficacy, and can be translated successfully for use across different agency and cultural environments. Such attention to the research and development function of the social work profession is increasingly necessary as policymakers and human service system architects require reduced costs and improved performance for programs serving historically oppressed client populations. PMID:20977058

  2. Supporting student nurses in practice with additional online communication tools.

    PubMed

    Morley, Dawn A

    2014-01-01

    Student nurses' potential isolation and difficulties of learning on placement have been well documented and, despite attempts to make placement learning more effective, evidence indicates the continuing schism between formal learning at university and situated learning on placement. First year student nurses, entering placement for the first time, are particularly vulnerable to the vagaries of practice. During 2012 two first year student nurse seminar groups (52 students) were voluntarily recruited for a mixed method study to determine the usage of additional online communication support mechanisms (Facebook, wiki, an email group and traditional methods of support using individual email or phone) while undertaking their first five week clinical placement. The study explores the possibility of strengthening clinical learning and support by promoting the use of Web 2.0 support groups for student nurses. Results indicate a high level of interactivity in both peer and academic support in the use of Facebook and a high level of interactivity in one wiki group. Students' qualitative comments voice an appreciation of being able to access university and peer support whilst working individually on placement. Recommendations from the study challenge universities to use online communication tools already familiar to students to complement the support mechanisms that exist for practice learning. This is tempered by recognition of the responsibility of academics to ensure their students are aware of safe and effective online communication. PMID:23871299

  3. An empirical evaluation of graphical interfaces to support flight planning

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Philip J.; Mccoy, Elaine; Layton, Chuck; Bihari, Tom

    1995-01-01

    Whether optimization techniques or expert systems technologies are used, the underlying inference processes and the model or knowledge base for a computerized problem-solving system are likely to be incomplete for any given complex, real-world task. To deal with the resultant brittleness, it has been suggested that 'cooperative' rather than 'automated' problem-solving systems be designed. Such cooperative systems are proposed to explicitly enhance the collaboration of people and the computer system when working in partnership to solve problems. This study evaluates the impact of alternative design concepts on the performance of airline pilots interacting with such a cooperative system designed to support enroute flight planning. Thirty pilots were studied using three different versions of the system. The results clearly demonstrate that different system design concepts can strongly influence the cognitive processes of users. Indeed, one of the designs studied caused four times as many pilots to accept a poor flight amendment. Based on think-aloud protocols, cognitive models are proposed to account for how features of the computer system interacted with specific types of scenarios to influence exploration and decision-making by the pilots. The results are then used to develop recommendations for guiding the design of cooperative systems.

  4. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Psychophysiological Disorders and Chronic Pain.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    In training counseling students, it is increasingly important to acquaint them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. This review of empirically supported treatments (EST's) concerning psychophysiological disorders and chronic pain is intended to facilitate the educational process. EST's, or…

  5. A Survey of Graduate Training in Empirically Supported and Manualized Treatments: A Preliminary Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Karekla, Maria; Lundgren, Jennifer D.; Forsyth, John P.

    2004-01-01

    The promotion and dissemination of empirically supported (ESTs) and manualized therapies are important, albeit controversial, developments within clinical science and practice. To date, studies evaluating training opportunities and attitudes about such treatments at the graduate, predoctoral internship, and postdoctoral levels have focused on the…

  6. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Substance Abuse Problems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Chambliss, Catherine

    When training counseling students, it is important to familiarize them with the clinical research literature exploring the efficacy of particular treatments. The bulk of the document is comprised of a review of empirically supported treatments (ESTs). ESTs or evidence-based treatments are grounded in studies recommended by the American…

  7. The Science and Theory of Empirically Supported Treatments: A Response to Hughes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheridan, Susan M.

    2000-01-01

    Refocuses Hughes arguments, in target article, away from empirically supported treatments (ESTs) and back to science-practice links to services. Discusses the importance of theory in school psychology practice and research. Argues that theory alone is insufficient when considering services for children and families. Suggests the EST movement helps…

  8. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy in Social Work Training Programs: Does the Definition of Evidence Matter?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bledsoe, Sarah E.; Weissman, Myrna M.; Mullen, Edward J.; Ponniah, Kathryn; Gameroff, Marc J.; Verdeli, Helen; Mufson, Laura; Fitterling, Heidi; Wickramaratne, Priya

    2007-01-01

    Objectives: A national survey finds that 62% of social work programs do not require didactic and clinical supervision in any empirically supported psychotherapy (EST). The authors report the results of analysis of national survey data using two alternative classifications of EST to determine if the results are because of the definition of EST used…

  9. An Exploration of Students' Perceptions of Empirically Supported Treatments: The Significance of Gender and Ethnicity

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Simons, Lori; Giorgio, Tina; Houston, Hank; Jacobucci, Ray

    2007-01-01

    A secondary analysis of a quasi-experimental study was conducted to evaluate differences in students 'perceptions of empirically supported treatments (ESTS) randomized to experimental (n= 10) and attention-control (n= 10) manual-based therapy interventions. The results indicated that attitudinal changes took place for both groups. The results…

  10. Empirically Supported Interventions and School Psychology: Rationale and Methodological Issues--Part I.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoiber, Karen Callan; Kratochwill, Thomas R.

    2000-01-01

    Presents historical, contextual, and methodological perspectives on the use of empirically supported interventions in school and community settings. Historical advances are reviewed within the context of scientist-practitioner model, psychosocial outcome research, meta-analysis, and the development of criteria and practice guidelines for…

  11. Diversifying Theory and Science: Expanding the Boundaries of Empirically Supported Interventions in School Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2000-01-01

    Developmental psychopathology and principles advance in Hughes' target article can be useful to promote development, evaluation, and application of empirically supported interventions (ESIs), but embracing a pathological framework is extremely limited given the diversity in theoretical approaches relevant to school-based ESIs. Argues that in order…

  12. Empirically Supported Interventions: Announcing a New Standing Section of "School Psychology Quarterly."

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kratochwill, Thomas R.; Stoiber, Karen Callan

    2000-01-01

    Introduces a new section of "School Psychology Quarterly" that will publish information pertaining to empirically supported interventions in school psychology. Articles will focus on prevention and intervention; programs; practice parameters or best practices guidelines; methodological approaches and technologies; and analyses of criteria used for…

  13. The Empirically Supported Status of Acceptance and Commitment Therapy: An Update

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Smout, Matthew F.; Hayes, Louise; Atkins, Paul W. B.; Klausen, Jessica; Duguid, James E.

    2012-01-01

    Acceptance and commitment therapy (ACT) is a transdiagnostic cognitive behavioural therapy that predominantly teaches clients acceptance and mindfulness skills, as well as values clarification and enactment skills. Australian treatment guideline providers have been cautious in recognising ACT as empirically supported. This article reviews evidence…

  14. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2014-01-01

    Objective: This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Method: A literature…

  15. Multisystemic Therapy: An Empirically Supported, Home-Based Family Therapy Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sheidow, Ashli J.; Woodford, Mark S.

    2003-01-01

    Multisystemic Therapy (MST) is a well-validated, evidenced-based treatment for serious clinical problems presented by adolescents and their families. This article is an introduction to the MST approach and outlines key clinical features, describes the theoretical underpinnings, and discusses the empirical support for MST's effectiveness with a…

  16. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Pica in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hagopian, Louis P.; Rooker, Griffin W.; Rolider, Natalie U.

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of the current study was to critically examine the existing literature on the treatment of pica displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for empirically supported treatments as described by Divisions 12 and 16 of APA, and adapted for studies employing single-case designs were used to review this body of…

  17. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Interpersonal Psychotherapy for Adolescent Depression

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Mufson, Laura H.; Schniering, Carolyn A.

    2012-01-01

    In order to treat adolescent depression, a number of empirically supported treatments (ESTs) have been developed from both the cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) and interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT-A) frameworks. Research has shown that in order for these treatments to be implemented in routine clinical practice (RCP), effective therapist…

  18. Familiarizing Students with the Empirically Supported Treatment Approaches for Eating Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wilkins, Victoria; Urban, Greg; Zanotti, Mary; Chambliss, Catherine

    In recent years, bulimia nervosa has plagued young women and become a major issue in mental health care. Strategies for training counseling students so as to acquaint them with clinical research on treatments for bulimia are presented in this report. It reviews empirically supported treatments (ESTs) concerning eating disorders in order to…

  19. Identifying Empirically Supported Treatments for Phobic Avoidance in Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jennett, Heather K.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2008-01-01

    This paper reviews the literature regarding the treatment of phobic avoidance in individuals with intellectual disabilities. Criteria for classifying interventions as empirically supported, developed by the American Psychological Association (APA) Division 12 Task Force on Promotion and Dissemination of Psychological Procedures, were used. For…

  20. Evaluating the Validity of Systematic Reviews to Identify Empirically Supported Treatments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Slocum, Timothy A.; Detrich, Ronnie; Spencer, Trina D.

    2012-01-01

    The "best available evidence" is one of the three basic inputs into evidence-based practice. This paper sets out a framework for evaluating the quality of systematic reviews that are intended to identify empirically supported interventions as a way of summarizing the best available evidence. The premise of this paper is that the process of…

  1. A new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB): An empirical investigation with a Chinese sample.

    PubMed

    Li, Jie; Chen, Sheying

    2016-01-01

    Bereavement can be an extremely stressful experience while the protective effect of social support is expected to facilitate the adjustment after loss. The ingredients or elements of social support as illustrated by a new model of Social Support in Bereavement (SSB), however, requires empirical evidence. Who might be the most effective providers of social support in bereavement has also been understudied, particularly within specific cultural contexts. The present study uses both qualitative and quantitative analyses to explore these two important issues among bereaved Chinese families and individuals. The results show that three major types of social support described by the SSB model were frequently acknowledged by the participants in this study. Aside from relevant books, family and friends were the primary sources of social support who in turn received support from their workplaces. Helping professionals turned out to be the least significant source of social support in the Chinese cultural context. Differences by gender, age, and bereavement time were also found. The findings render empirical evidence to the conceptual model of Social Support in Bereavement and also offer culturally relevant guidance for providing effective support to the bereaved. PMID:26678537

  2. Attachment-based family therapy for depressed and suicidal adolescents: theory, clinical model and empirical support.

    PubMed

    Ewing, E Stephanie Krauthamer; Diamond, Guy; Levy, Suzanne

    2015-01-01

    Attachment-Based Family Therapy (ABFT) is a manualized family-based intervention designed for working with depressed adolescents, including those at risk for suicide, and their families. It is an empirically informed and supported treatment. ABFT has its theoretical underpinnings in attachment theory and clinical roots in structural family therapy and emotion focused therapies. ABFT relies on a transactional model that aims to transform the quality of adolescent-parent attachment, as a means of providing the adolescent with a more secure relationship that can support them during challenging times generally, and the crises related to suicidal thinking and behavior, specifically. This article reviews: (1) the theoretical foundations of ABFT (attachment theory, models of emotional development); (2) the ABFT clinical model, including training and supervision factors; and (3) empirical support. PMID:25778674

  3. Linking customisation of ERP systems to support effort: an empirical study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, Stefan; Mitteregger, Kurt

    2016-01-01

    The amount of customisation to an enterprise resource planning (ERP) system has always been a major concern in the context of the implementation. This article focuses on the phase of maintenance and presents an empirical study about the relationship between the amount of customising and the resulting support effort. We establish a structural equation modelling model that explains support effort using customisation effort, organisational characteristics and scope of implementation. The findings using data from an ERP provider show that there is a statistically significant effect: with an increasing amount of customisation, the quantity of telephone calls to support increases, as well as the duration of each call.

  4. Developing empirically supported theories of change for housing investment and health.

    PubMed

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that improving housing conditions can lead to improved health may seem a self-evident hypothesis. Yet evidence from intervention studies suggests small or unclear health improvements, indicating that further thought is required to refine this hypothesis. Articulation of a theory can help avoid a black box approach to research and practice and has been advocated as especially valuable for those evaluating complex social interventions like housing. This paper presents a preliminary theory of housing improvement and health based on a systematic review conducted by the authors. Following extraction of health outcomes, data on all socio-economic impacts were extracted by two independent reviewers from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Health and socio-economic outcome data from the better quality studies (n = 23/34) were mapped onto a one page logic models by two independent reviewers and a final model reflecting reviewer agreement was prepared. Where there was supporting evidence of links between outcomes these were indicated in the model. Two models of specific improvements (warmth & energy efficiency; and housing led renewal), and a final overall model were prepared. The models provide a visual map of the best available evidence on the health and socio-economic impacts of housing improvement. The use of a logic model design helps to elucidate the possible pathways between housing improvement and health and as such might be described as an empirically based theory. Changes in housing factors were linked to changes in socio-economic determinants of health. This points to the potential for longer term health impacts which could not be detected within the lifespan of the evaluations. The developed theories are limited by the available data and need to be tested and refined. However, in addition to providing one page summaries for evidence users, the theory may usefully inform future research on housing and health. PMID:25461878

  5. Developing empirically supported theories of change for housing investment and health

    PubMed Central

    Thomson, Hilary; Thomas, Sian

    2015-01-01

    The assumption that improving housing conditions can lead to improved health may seem a self-evident hypothesis. Yet evidence from intervention studies suggests small or unclear health improvements, indicating that further thought is required to refine this hypothesis. Articulation of a theory can help avoid a black box approach to research and practice and has been advocated as especially valuable for those evaluating complex social interventions like housing. This paper presents a preliminary theory of housing improvement and health based on a systematic review conducted by the authors. Following extraction of health outcomes, data on all socio-economic impacts were extracted by two independent reviewers from both qualitative and quantitative studies. Health and socio-economic outcome data from the better quality studies (n = 23/34) were mapped onto a one page logic models by two independent reviewers and a final model reflecting reviewer agreement was prepared. Where there was supporting evidence of links between outcomes these were indicated in the model. Two models of specific improvements (warmth & energy efficiency; and housing led renewal), and a final overall model were prepared. The models provide a visual map of the best available evidence on the health and socio-economic impacts of housing improvement. The use of a logic model design helps to elucidate the possible pathways between housing improvement and health and as such might be described as an empirically based theory. Changes in housing factors were linked to changes in socio-economic determinants of health. This points to the potential for longer term health impacts which could not be detected within the lifespan of the evaluations. The developed theories are limited by the available data and need to be tested and refined. However, in addition to providing one page summaries for evidence users, the theory may usefully inform future research on housing and health. PMID:25461878

  6. Semi-empirical equation of limiting current for cobalt electrodeposition in the presence of magnetic field and additive electrolyte

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sudibyo, Aziz, N.

    2016-02-01

    One of the available methods to solve a roughening in cobalt electrodeposition is magneto electrodeposition (MED) in the presence of additive electrolyte. Semi-empirical equation of limiting current under a magnetic field for cobalt MED in the presence of boric acid as an additive electrolyte was successfully developed. This semi empirical equation shows the effects of the electrode area (A), the concentration of the electro active species (C), the diffusion coefficient of the electro active species (D), the kinematic viscosity of the electrolyte (v), magnetic strength (B) and the number of electrons involved in the redox process (n). The presence of boric acid led to decrease in the limiting current, but the acid was found useful as a buffer to avoid the local pH rise caused by parallel hydrogen evolution reaction (HER).

  7. MEGA ♪ --Empirical Support for Nomenclature on the Anomalies: Sexually Violent and Predatory Youth.

    PubMed

    Miccio-Fonseca, L C; Rasmussen, Lucinda A Lee

    2015-10-01

    Applied are empirical findings supporting the authors' previously presented nomenclature identifying two subsets of sexually abusive youth overlooked by most contemporary risk assessment tools: sexually violent and predatory sexually violent youth. The cross-validation findings on an ecologically framed risk assessment tool, MEGA (♪) (Multiplex Empirically Guided Inventory of Ecological Aggregates for Assessing Sexually Abusive Children and Adolescents [Ages 19 and Under]) (N = 1,056 male and female sexually abusive youth, ages 4-19, including youth with low intellectual functioning), from the United States, Canada, England, and Scotland, were utilized. Findings provided normative data, with cutoff scores according to age and gender. Most contemporary risk assessment tools have three levels (low, moderate, and high), which may in fact be limited in assessing the range of risk level. The MEGA (♪) cross-validation established a new range of risk level, with the fourth level (very high) definitively identifying the most dangerous youth, thus empirically supporting the nomenclature of sexually violent and predatory sexually violent youth. PMID:24793314

  8. Plant canopy transpiration in bioregenerative life support systems - The link between mechanistic and empirical models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sirko, Robert J.; Mccormack, Ann C.; Edeen, Marybeth A.

    1992-01-01

    A model of water transpiration in a plant canopy that combines two approaches is presented. The first approach is to account for underlying physical processes, while the second is to empirically incorporate transpiration data now being generated at the Johnson Center Variable Pressure Growth Chamber. The two approaches, physical modeling and data analysis, make it possible to produce a model that is more robust than either the standard first-principles model or a straightforward empirical model. It is shown that the present transpiration model is able to efficiently capture the dynamic behavior of the plant canopy over the entire range of environmental parameters now envisioned to be important in an operating controlled ecological life support system (CELSS). Examples of the use of this model in assessing plant canopy dynamics and CELSS design options are also presented.

  9. A Public Opinion Survey on Correctional Education: Does Additional Information on Efficacy Lead to Additional Support?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waterland, Keri Lynn

    2009-01-01

    Though much research has been done on the efficacy of correctional education on reducing recidivism rates for prison inmates, there is little research on the effect that information about the efficacy of correctional education has on public opinion. This study examined whether providing additional information regarding the efficacy of correctional…

  10. Additional support for the TDK/MABL computer program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nickerson, G. R.; Dunn, Stuart S.

    1993-01-01

    An advanced version of the Two-Dimensional Kinetics (TDK) computer program was developed under contract and released to the propulsion community in early 1989. Exposure of the code to this community indicated a need for improvements in certain areas. In particular, the TDK code needed to be adapted to the special requirements imposed by the Space Transportation Main Engine (STME) development program. This engine utilizes injection of the gas generator exhaust into the primary nozzle by means of a set of slots. The subsequent mixing of this secondary stream with the primary stream with finite rate chemical reaction can have a major impact on the engine performance and the thermal protection of the nozzle wall. In attempting to calculate this reacting boundary layer problem, the Mass Addition Boundary Layer (MABL) module of TDK was found to be deficient in several respects. For example, when finite rate chemistry was used to determine gas properties, (MABL-K option) the program run times became excessive because extremely small step sizes were required to maintain numerical stability. A robust solution algorithm was required so that the MABL-K option could be viable as a rocket propulsion industry design tool. Solving this problem was a primary goal of the phase 1 work effort.

  11. Self-Determination Theory in Schools of Education: Can an Empirically Supported Framework also Be Critical and Liberating?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Richard M.; Niemiec, Christopher P.

    2009-01-01

    In many graduate schools of education there is strong resistance to formal theories, especially those that are supported through quantitative empirical methods. In this article we describe how self-determination theory (SDT), a formal and empirically focused framework, shares sensibilities with critical theorists concerning the importance of…

  12. Identifying Conditions That Support Causal Inference in Observational Studies in Education: Empirical Evidence from within Study Comparisons

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hallberg, Kelly

    2013-01-01

    This dissertation is a collection of three papers that employ empirical within study comparisons (WSCs) to identify conditions that support causal inference in observational studies. WSC studies empirically estimate the extent to which a given observational study reproduces the result of a randomized clinical trial (RCT) when both share the same…

  13. Additional Support Needs Policy in Scotland: Challenging or Reinforcing Social Inequality?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riddell, Sheila; Weedon, Elisabet

    2016-01-01

    This paper focuses on Scottish policy on additional support needs and its material outcomes. The central question addressed is the extent to which the Scottish additional support needs system undermines or reinforces existing social and economic inequalities. Administrative data highlight the inflation of the additional support needs category,…

  14. A content analysis of advertisements for psychotherapy workshops: implications for disseminating empirically supported treatments.

    PubMed

    Cook, Joan M; Weingardt, Kenneth R; Jaszka, Jacqueline; Wiesner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    This study involved a content analysis of 261 unique advertisements for psychotherapy workshops that appeared in two bimonthly clinical magazines, Psychotherapy Networker and Counselor, during a 2-year period. Two independent judges coded each advertisement and documented the type and prevalence of advertising appeals used. From the seminal diffusion of innovations model, Rogers' (2003) five perceived characteristics of innovations found to influence adoption in diverse fields were not well represented in these workshops appeals, appearing less than 10% each. Few advertisements cited specific empirically supported treatments or presented any evidence of treatment effectiveness beyond expert testimonials. The most frequently noted appeals were to benefit the clinician (e.g., earning education credit or developing skills), characteristics that enhance credibility of the workshop (e.g., reference to storied history or mention of faculty), and features of the advertisements itself (e.g., use of superlatives and exclamation points). Promotional strategies to advertise psychotherapy workshops can be used to inform the dissemination of empirically supported treatments. PMID:18271002

  15. Transferability and additivity of dihedral parameters in polarizable and nonpolarizable empirical force fields.

    PubMed

    Zgarbová, Marie; Rosnik, Andreana M; Luque, F Javier; Curutchet, Carles; Jurečka, Petr

    2015-09-30

    Recent advances in polarizable force fields have revealed that major reparameterization is necessary when the polarization energy is treated explicitly. This study is focused on the torsional parameters, which are crucial for the accurate description of conformational equilibria in biomolecules. In particular, attention is paid to the influence of polarization on the (i) transferability of dihedral terms between molecules, (ii) transferability between different environments, and (iii) additivity of dihedral energies. To this end, three polarizable force fields based on the induced point dipole model designed for use in AMBER are tested, including two recent ff02 reparameterizations. Attention is paid to the contributions due to short range interactions (1-2, 1-3, and 1-4) within the four atoms defining the dihedral angle. The results show that when short range 1-2 and 1-3 polarization interactions are omitted, as for instance in ff02, the 1-4 polarization contribution is rather small and unlikely to improve the description of the torsional energy. Conversely, when screened 1-2 and 1-3 interactions are included, the polarization contribution is sizeable and shows potential to improve the transferability of parameters between different molecules and environments as well as the additivity of dihedral terms. However, to reproduce intramolecular polarization effects accurately, further fine-tuning of the short range damping of polarization is necessary. PMID:26224547

  16. Empirical Approach to Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of Metals Made Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Albright, Thomas V.; Patel, Dhruv N.

    2016-04-01

    High-cycle fatigue measurements were performed on alloys prepared by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing techniques. Selective laser melted (SLM) nickel-based superalloy 625 and electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V specimens were prepared as round fatigue specimens and tested with as-built surfaces at stress ratios of -1, 0.1 and 0.5. Data collected at R = -1 were used to construct Goodman diagrams that correspond closely to measured experimental data collected at R > 0. A second way to interpret the HCF data is based on the influence of surface roughness on fatigue, and approximate the surface feature size as a notch. On this basis, the data were interpreted using the fatigue notch factor k f and average stress models relating k f and stress concentration factor K t. The depth and root radius of surface features associated with fatigue crack initiation were used to estimate a K t of 2.8 for SLM 625. For Ti-6Al-4V, a direct estimate of K t from HCF data was not possible, but approximate values of k f based on HCF data and K t from crack initiation site geometry are found to explain other published EBM Ti-6Al-4V.

  17. Empirical Approach to Understanding the Fatigue Behavior of Metals Made Using Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Witkin, David B.; Albright, Thomas V.; Patel, Dhruv N.

    2016-08-01

    High-cycle fatigue measurements were performed on alloys prepared by powder-bed fusion additive manufacturing techniques. Selective laser melted (SLM) nickel-based superalloy 625 and electron beam melted (EBM) Ti-6Al-4V specimens were prepared as round fatigue specimens and tested with as-built surfaces at stress ratios of -1, 0.1 and 0.5. Data collected at R = -1 were used to construct Goodman diagrams that correspond closely to measured experimental data collected at R > 0. A second way to interpret the HCF data is based on the influence of surface roughness on fatigue, and approximate the surface feature size as a notch. On this basis, the data were interpreted using the fatigue notch factor k f and average stress models relating k f and stress concentration factor K t. The depth and root radius of surface features associated with fatigue crack initiation were used to estimate a K t of 2.8 for SLM 625. For Ti-6Al-4V, a direct estimate of K t from HCF data was not possible, but approximate values of k f based on HCF data and K t from crack initiation site geometry are found to explain other published EBM Ti-6Al-4V.

  18. A quantum question order model supported by empirical tests of an a priori and precise prediction.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zheng; Busemeyer, Jerome R

    2013-10-01

    Question order effects are commonly observed in self-report measures of judgment and attitude. This article develops a quantum question order model (the QQ model) to account for four types of question order effects observed in literature. First, the postulates of the QQ model are presented. Second, an a priori, parameter-free, and precise prediction, called the QQ equality, is derived from these mathematical principles, and six empirical data sets are used to test the prediction. Third, a new index is derived from the model to measure similarity between questions. Fourth, we show that in contrast to the QQ model, Bayesian and Markov models do not generally satisfy the QQ equality and thus cannot account for the reported empirical data that support this equality. Finally, we describe the conditions under which order effects are predicted to occur, and we review a broader range of findings that are encompassed by these very same quantum principles. We conclude that quantum probability theory, initially invented to explain order effects on measurements in physics, appears to be a powerful natural explanation for order effects of self-report measures in social and behavioral sciences, too. PMID:24027203

  19. A Systematic Review of Strategies for Implementing Empirically Supported Mental Health Interventions

    PubMed Central

    Powell, Byron J.; Proctor, Enola K.; Glass, Joseph E.

    2013-01-01

    Objective This systematic review examines experimental studies that test the effectiveness of strategies intended to integrate empirically supported mental health interventions into routine care settings. Our goal was to characterize the state of the literature and to provide direction for future implementation studies. Methods A literature search was conducted using electronic databases and a manual search. Results Eleven studies were identified that tested implementation strategies with a randomized (n = 10) or controlled clinical trial design (n = 1). The wide range of clinical interventions, implementation strategies, and outcomes evaluated precluded meta-analysis. However, the majority of studies (n = 7; 64%) found a statistically significant effect in the hypothesized direction for at least one implementation or clinical outcome. Conclusions There is a clear need for more rigorous research on the effectiveness of implementation strategies, and we provide several suggestions that could improve this research area. PMID:24791131

  20. A Novel Empirical Mode Decomposition With Support Vector Regression for Wind Speed Forecasting.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ye; Suganthan, Ponnuthurai Nagaratnam; Srikanth, Narasimalu

    2016-08-01

    Wind energy is a clean and an abundant renewable energy source. Accurate wind speed forecasting is essential for power dispatch planning, unit commitment decision, maintenance scheduling, and regulation. However, wind is intermittent and wind speed is difficult to predict. This brief proposes a novel wind speed forecasting method by integrating empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and support vector regression (SVR) methods. The EMD is used to decompose the wind speed time series into several intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) and a residue. Subsequently, a vector combining one historical data from each IMF and the residue is generated to train the SVR. The proposed EMD-SVR model is evaluated with a wind speed data set. The proposed EMD-SVR model outperforms several recently reported methods with respect to accuracy or computational complexity. PMID:25222957

  1. National Trainers’ Perspectives on Challenges to Implementation of an Empirically-Supported Mental Health Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Hanson, Rochelle F.; Gros, Kirstin Stauffacher; Davidson, Tatiana M.; Barr, Simone; Cohen, Judith; Deblinger, Esther; Mannarino, Anthony P.; Ruggiero, Kenneth J.

    2013-01-01

    This study examined perceived challenges to implementation of an empirically supported mental health treatment for youth (Trauma-Focused Cognitive Behavioral Therapy; TF-CBT) and explored the potential use of technology-based resources in treatment delivery. Thematic interviews were conducted with 19 approved national TF-CBT trainers to assess their perspectives about challenges to implementation of TF-CBT and to explore their perceptions about the potential value of innovative, technology-based solutions to enhance provider fidelity and improve quality of care. These data offer some important insights and implications for training in evidence-based treatments, provider fidelity and competence, and patient engagement, particularly for those interventions targeting trauma-related symptoms among youth. PMID:23605292

  2. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  3. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  4. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  5. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Uses of Grant Funds § 574.330 Additional standards for short-term supported housing. Short-term... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2014-04-01 2013-04-01 true Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing...

  6. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  7. Clinical Feedback About Empirically Supported Treatments for Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder.

    PubMed

    Jacobson, Nicholas C; Newman, Michelle G; Goldfried, Marvin R

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence for the treatment of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) has been derived principally from randomized controlled trials. As such, evidence about the treatment of OCD has unilaterally flowed from researchers to clinicians. Despite often having decades of experience treating OCD, clinicians' feedback on their clinical observations in using these treatments has not been solicited. The current study contacted clinicians for their clinical observations on empirically supported treatments for OCD to identify commonly used cognitive-behavioral techniques and their limitations in their practices. One hundred eighty-one psychotherapists completed an online survey. The average participant practiced psychotherapy for 15 years, worked in private practice, held a doctorate, and treated an average of 25 clients with OCD in their lifetime. In regard to the most common techniques, behavioral strategies involving exposure to a feared outcome and prevention of a compulsive ritual were the most frequent group of interventions, followed by techniques that attempted to identify and challenge irrational thoughts. However, the majority of participants also reported incorporating mindfulness or acceptance-based methods. Based on therapists' reports, the most common barriers to the efficacy of cognitive-behavioral interventions included limited premorbid functioning, chaotic lifestyles, controlling and critical families, OCD symptom severity, OCD symptom chronicity, and comorbidities. This study provides insight into common practices and limitations in clinical practice to inform future clinically relevant treatment research. PMID:26763499

  8. Empirical mode decomposition coupled with least square support vector machine for river flow forecasting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ismail, Shuhaida; Shabri, Ani; Abadan, Siti Sarah

    2015-02-01

    This paper aims to investigate the ability of Empirical Mode Decompositio n (EMD) coupled with Least Square Support Vector Machine (LSSVM) model in order to improve the accuracy of river flow forecasting. To assess the effectiveness of this model, Bernam monthly river flow data, has served as the case study. The proposed model was set at three important stages which are decomposition, component identification and forecasting stages respectively. The first stage is known as decomposition stage where EMD were employed for decomposing the dataset into several numbers of Intrinsic Mode Functions (IMF) and a residue. During on second stage, the meaningful signals are identified using a statistical measure and the new dataset are obtained in this stage. The final stage applied LSSVM as a forecasting tool to perform the river flow forecasting. The performance of the EMD coupled with LSSVM model is compared with the single LSSVM models using various statistics measures of Mean Absolute Error (MAE), Root Mean Square Error (RMSE), correlation-coefficient (R) and Correlation of Efficiency (CE). The comparison results reveal the proposed model of EMD coupled with LSSVM model serves as a useful tool and a promising new method for river flow forecasting.

  9. Training and Consultation to Promote Implementation of an Empirically Supported Treatment: A Randomized Trial

    PubMed Central

    Beidas, Rinad S.; Edmunds, Julie M.; Marcus, Steven C.; Kendall, Philip C.

    2012-01-01

    Objective The study evaluated the efficacy of three training modalities and the impact of ongoing consultation after training. Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) for anxiety among youths, an empirically supported treatment, was used as the exemplar. Participants were randomly assigned to one of three one-day workshops to examine the efficacy of training modality: routine training (training as usual), computer training (computerized version of training as usual), and augmented training (training that emphasized active learning). After training, all participants received three months of ongoing consultation that included case consultation, didactics, and problem solving. Methods Participants were 115 community therapists (mean age of 35.9 years; 90% were women). Outcome measures included the Adherence and Skill Checklist, used to rate a performance-based role-play; a knowledge test; and the Training Satisfaction Rating Scale. Results All three training modalities resulted in limited gains in therapist adherence, skill, and knowledge. There was no significant effect of modality on adherence, skill, or knowledge from pretraining to posttraining. Participants were more satisfied with augmented and routine training than with computer training. Most important, number of consultation hours after training significantly predicted higher therapist adherence and skill at the three-month follow-up. Conclusions The findings suggest that training alone did not result in therapist behavior change. The inclusion of ongoing consultation was critical to influencing therapist adherence and skill. Implications for implementation science and mental health services research are discussed. PMID:22549401

  10. A Model of Therapist Competencies for the Empirically Supported Cognitive Behavioral Treatment of Child and Adolescent Anxiety and Depressive Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sburlati, Elizabeth S.; Schniering, Carolyn A.; Lyneham, Heidi J.; Rapee, Ronald M.

    2011-01-01

    While a plethora of cognitive behavioral empirically supported treatments (ESTs) are available for treating child and adolescent anxiety and depressive disorders, research has shown that these are not as effective when implemented in routine practice settings. Research is now indicating that is partly due to ineffective EST training methods,…

  11. Cognitive Behaviour Therapy in Schools: The Role of Educational Psychology in the Dissemination of Empirically Supported Interventions

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pugh, John

    2010-01-01

    Educational psychology has recently experienced something of a revival in the provision of psychological therapy. This revival has aligned with general developments in evidence-based psychology. A product of this has been more frequent delivery of empirically supported therapies in practice settings, for example, anxiety reduction programmes in…

  12. A Family-Centered Positive Behavior Support Approach to the Amelioration of Food Refusal Behavior: An Empirical Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Binnendyk, Lauren; Lucyshyn, Joseph M.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-centered positive behavior support approach to the amelioration of food refusal behavior in a child with autism. The study was conducted with the child and his family in their home. It employed an empirical case study design with one meal routine: snack time. Following…

  13. An Analysis of Functional Communication Training as an Empirically Supported Treatment for Problem Behavior Displayed by Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kurtz, Patricia F.; Boelter, Eric W.; Jarmolowicz, David P.; Chin, Michelle D.; Hagopian, Louis P.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the literature on the use of functional communication training (FCT) as a treatment for problem behavior displayed by individuals with intellectual disabilities (ID). Criteria for empirically supported treatments developed by Divisions 12 and 16 of the American Psychological Association (Kratochwill & Stoiber, 2002; Task Force,…

  14. A review of empirically supported psychological therapies for mood disorders in adults

    PubMed Central

    Hollon, Steven D.; Ponniah, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    Background The mood disorders are prevalent and problematic. We review randomized controlled psychotherapy trials to find those that are empirically supported with respect to acute symptom reduction and the prevention of subsequent relapse and recurrence. Methods We searched the PsycINFO and PubMed databases and the reference sections of chapters and journal articles to identify appropriate articles. Results One hundred twenty-five studies were found evaluating treatment efficacy for the various mood disorders. With respect to the treatment of major depressive disorder (MDD), interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive behavior therapy (CBT), and behavior therapy (BT) are efficacious and specific and brief dynamic therapy (BDT) and emotion-focused therapy (EFT) are possibly efficacious. CBT is efficacious and specific, mindfulness-based cognitive therapy (MBCT) efficacious, and BDT and EFT possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence following treatment termination and IPT and CBT are each possibly efficacious in the prevention of relapse/recurrence if continued or maintained. IPT is possibly efficacious in the treatment of dysthymic disorder. With respect to bipolar disorder, CBT and family-focused therapy (FFT) are efficacious and interpersonal social rhythm therapy (IPSRT) possibly efficacious as adjuncts to medication in the treatment of depression. Psycho-education (PE) is efficacious in the prevention of mania/hypomania (and possibly depression) and FFT is efficacious and IPSRT and CBT possibly efficacious in preventing bipolar episodes. Conclusions The newer psychological interventions are as efficacious as and more enduring than medications in the treatment of MDD and may enhance the efficacy of medications in the treatment of bipolar disorder. PMID:20830696

  15. Influence of modifying additives on the electronic state of supported palladium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pestryakov, A. N.; Lunin, V. V.; Fuentes, S.; Bogdanchikova, N.; Barrera, A.

    2003-01-01

    The influence of modifying additives of Ce, Zr, La and Cs oxides on the electronic state of palladium supported on γ-Al 2O 3 has been studied by IR-spectroscopy of adsorbed CO, diffuse reflectance UV-visible spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD) and H 2 chemisorption. The modified supports have been prepared using impregnation, coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. It is established that Ce and Zr oxide additives increase the effective charge of palladium ions whereas La and Cs oxides lower it. The effect of metal-support interaction is stronger in samples prepared by sol-gel than by coprecipitation

  16. The Effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-01-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of…

  17. Characterization of Effect of Support Structures in Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Järvinen, Jukka-Pekka; Matilainen, Ville; Li, Xiaoyun; Piili, Heidi; Salminen, Antti; Mäkelä, Ismo; Nyrhilä, Olli

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) of stainless steel is a layer wisetechnology for fabricating 3D parts from metal powder via selectively melting powder with laser beam. Support structures play a significant role in LAM process as they help to remove heat away from the process and on the other hand hold the work piece in its place. A successful design of support structures can help to achievea building process fast and inexpensive with high quality. Aimof this study was to characterize the usability of two types of support structures: web and tube supports. Purpose of this studywas also to analyze how suitable they are in two industrial application cases: case for dental application and case for jewelry application. It was concluded that the removability of web supports was much better than tube supports. It was noticed that support structures are an important part of LAM process and they strongly affect the manufacturability and the end quality of the part.

  18. Methodological support for the further abstraction of and philosophical examination of empirical findings in the context of caring science

    PubMed Central

    Lindberg, Elisabeth; Österberg, Sofia A.; Hörberg, Ulrica

    2016-01-01

    Phenomena in caring science are often complex and laden with meanings. Empirical research with the aim of capturing lived experiences is one way of revealing the complexity. Sometimes, however, results from empirical research need to be further discussed. One way is to further abstract the result and/or philosophically examine it. This has previously been performed and presented in scientific journals and doctoral theses, contributing to a greater understanding of phenomena in caring science. Although the intentions in many of these publications are laudable, the lack of methodological descriptions as well as a theoretical and systematic foundation can contribute to an ambiguity concerning how the results have emerged during the analysis. The aim of this paper is to describe the methodological support for the further abstraction of and/or philosophical examination of empirical findings. When trying to systematize the support procedures, we have used a reflective lifeworld research (RLR) approach. Based on the assumptions in RLR, this article will present methodological support for a theoretical examination that can include two stages. In the first stage, data from several (two or more) empirical results on an essential level are synthesized into a general structure. Sometimes the analysis ends with the general structure, but sometimes there is a need to proceed further. The second stage can then be a philosophical examination, in which the general structure is discussed in relation to a philosophical text, theory, or concept. It is important that the theories are brought in as the final stage after the completion of the analysis. Core dimensions of the described methodological support are, in accordance with RLR, openness, bridling, and reflection. The methodological support cannot be understood as fixed stages, but rather as a guiding light in the search for further meanings. PMID:26925926

  19. EMPIRICAL STUDY ON USABILITY OF CROSSING SUPPORT SYSTEM FOR VISUALLY DISABLED AT SIGNALIZED INTERSECTION

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suzuki, Koji; Fujita, Motohiro; Matsuura, Kazuma; Fukuzono, Kazuyuki

    This paper evaluates the adjustment process for crossing support system for visually disabled at signalized intersections with the use of pedestrian traffic signals in concert with visible light communication (VLC) technology through outdoor experiments. As for the experiments, we put a blindfold on sighted people by eye mask in order to analyze the behavior of acquired visually disabled. And we used a full-scale crosswalk which is taking into consideration the crossing slope, the bumps at the edge of a crosswalk between the roadway and the sidewalkand crosswalk line. From the results of the survey, it is found that repetitive use of the VLC system decreased the number of lost their bearings completely and ended up standing immobile and reduced the crossing time for each person. On the other hand, it is shown that the performance of our VLC system is nearly equal to the existing support system from the view point of crossing time and the number of standing immobile and we clarified the effect factor for guidance accuracy by the regression analyses. Then we broke test subjects down into patterns by cluster analysis, and explained the walking characteristics for each group as they used the VLC system. In addition, we conducted the additional surveys for the quasi-blind subjects who had difficulty walking by using VLC system and visually impaired users. As a result, it is revealed that guidance accuracy was improved by providing the information about their receiving movement at several points on crosswalk and the habit of their walks for each user.

  20. The relationship between intelligence and creativity: New support for the threshold hypothesis by means of empirical breakpoint detection.

    PubMed

    Jauk, Emanuel; Benedek, Mathias; Dunst, Beate; Neubauer, Aljoscha C

    2013-07-01

    The relationship between intelligence and creativity has been subject to empirical research for decades. Nevertheless, there is yet no consensus on how these constructs are related. One of the most prominent notions concerning the interplay between intelligence and creativity is the threshold hypothesis, which assumes that above-average intelligence represents a necessary condition for high-level creativity. While earlier research mostly supported the threshold hypothesis, it has come under fire in recent investigations. The threshold hypothesis is commonly investigated by splitting a sample at a given threshold (e.g., at 120 IQ points) and estimating separate correlations for lower and upper IQ ranges. However, there is no compelling reason why the threshold should be fixed at an IQ of 120, and to date, no attempts have been made to detect the threshold empirically. Therefore, this study examined the relationship between intelligence and different indicators of creative potential and of creative achievement by means of segmented regression analysis in a sample of 297 participants. Segmented regression allows for the detection of a threshold in continuous data by means of iterative computational algorithms. We found thresholds only for measures of creative potential but not for creative achievement. For the former the thresholds varied as a function of criteria: When investigating a liberal criterion of ideational originality (i.e., two original ideas), a threshold was detected at around 100 IQ points. In contrast, a threshold of 120 IQ points emerged when the criterion was more demanding (i.e., many original ideas). Moreover, an IQ of around 85 IQ points was found to form the threshold for a purely quantitative measure of creative potential (i.e., ideational fluency). These results confirm the threshold hypothesis for qualitative indicators of creative potential and may explain some of the observed discrepancies in previous research. In addition, we obtained

  1. Empirically Supported Treatments (ESTs) in Perspective: Implications for Counseling Psychology Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waehler, Charles A.; Kalodner, Cynthia R.; Wampold, Bruce E.; Lichtenberg, James W.

    2000-01-01

    Discusses the movement toward employing only evidence-based treatments or empirically validated treatments (EVTs) in psychological services. Examines the adoption of EVTs and how efficacious treatments must respond successfully to practicing psychologists' applications, scientific certainty, and marketplace demand. Reviews both the merits and…

  2. Performance Support Systems in University Teaching-Introduction and Empirical Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stoyanov, Slavi; Bastiaens, Theo J.

    2005-01-01

    This paper examines the concept of performance support systems in university teaching. In four different studies a performance support system with education elements was built to support students while they learn and work on their assignments. Performance support systems originally originated from business and industry but seem to be very valuable…

  3. Teachers' Perceptions of Students' Additional Support Needs: In the Eye of the Beholder?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bruggink, Marjon; Goei, Sui L.; Koot, Hans M.

    2016-01-01

    Nowadays, teachers are regarded as key players in the process of identifying and catering to students' additional support needs within mainstream primary classrooms. However, teachers' professional judgements regarding students with special needs have been found to be contextually influenced (e.g. by school context, student population, level of…

  4. 24 CFR 574.330 - Additional standards for short-term supported housing.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 24 Housing and Urban Development 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Additional standards for short-term supported housing. 574.330 Section 574.330 Housing and Urban Development Regulations Relating to Housing and Urban Development (Continued) OFFICE OF ASSISTANT SECRETARY FOR COMMUNITY PLANNING AND DEVELOPMENT, DEPARTMENT OF HOUSING AND...

  5. Catalytic functionalities of supported sulfides. I. Effect of support and additives on the CoMo catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Muralidhar, G.; Massoth, F.E.; Shabtai, J.

    1984-01-01

    C-S hydrogenolysis (HDS) of thiophene, hydrogenation (HYD) of 1-hexene, and hydrocracking (HCG) of 2,4,4-trimethyl-1-pentene, were used as separate model test reactions to differentiate and assess the catalytic functionalities of sulfided CoMo catalysts, and their dependence on the nature of the support and incorporation of additives. Rate constants and relative catalyst activities for these three reaction types were determined. HDS and HYD activities of CoMo supported on different types of Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ were higher, while the HCG activity was lower compared with CoMo supported on SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/, SiO/sub 2/-MgO, or TiO/sub 2/. For SiO/sub 2/-Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/ supports both HDS and HYD activities decreased with increase in SiO/sub 2/ content from 10 to 75%, while HCG activity showed the opposite trend. Additives to a finished CoMo catalyst at 0.5% level caused variations in HDS and HCG activities, while HYD was essentially unaffected. HDS was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/ and NH/sub 4/Cl, but depressed by NaNO/sub 3/, Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. HCG was promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, NH/sub 4/Cl, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. Additives at 5% level, prior to or after CoMo impregnation, showed a strong depressing effect on HDS and a lesser effect on HYD, while HCG was strongly promoted by NH/sub 4/HF/sub 2/, Ti isopropoxide, and H/sub 3/BO/sub 3/. The changes in catalytic functionalities are rationalized in terms of different interactions between CoMo phase, support, and additives. 3 tables, 1 figure.

  6. Tunnel support design by comparison of empirical and finite element analysis of the Nahakki tunnel in mohmand agency, pakistan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riaz, Asif; Jamil, Syed Muhammad; Asif, Muhammad; Akhtar, Kamran

    2016-03-01

    The paper analyses the geological conditions of study area, rock mass strength parameters with suitable support structure propositions for the under construction Nahakki tunnel in Mohmand Agency. Geology of study area varies from mica schist to graphitic marble/phyllite to schist. The tunnel ground is classified and divided by the empisical classification systems like Rock mass rating (RMR), Q system (Q), and Geological strength index (GSI). Tunnel support measures are selected based on RMR and Q classification systems. Computer based finite element analysis (FEM) has given yet another dimension to design approach. FEM software Phase2 version 7.017 is used to calculate and compare deformations and stress concentrations around the tunnel, analyze interaction of support systems with excavated rock masses and verify and check the validity of empirically determined excavation and support systems.

  7. Empirically Supported Family-Based Treatments for Conduct Disorder and Delinquency in Adolescents

    PubMed Central

    Henggeler, Scott W.; Sheidow, Ashli J.

    2011-01-01

    Several family-based treatments of conduct disorder and delinquency in adolescents have emerged as evidence-based and, in recent years, have been transported to more than 800 community practice settings. These models include multisystemic therapy, functional family therapy, multidimensional treatment foster care, and, to a lesser extent, brief strategic family therapy. In addition to summarizing the theoretical and clinical bases of these treatments, their results in efficacy and effectiveness trials are examined with particular emphasis on any demonstrated capacity to achieve favorable outcomes when implemented by real world practitioners in community practice settings. Special attention is also devoted to research on purported mechanisms of change as well as the long-term sustainability of outcomes achieved by these treatment models. Importantly, we note that the developers of each of the models have developed quality assurance systems to support treatment fidelity and youth and family outcomes; and the developers have formed purveyor organizations to facilitate the large scale transport of their respective treatments to community settings nationally and internationally. PMID:22283380

  8. Mindfulness Meditation Training for Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder in Adulthood: Current Empirical Support, Treatment Overview, and Future Directions

    PubMed Central

    Mitchell, John T.; Zylowska, Lidia; Kollins, Scott H.

    2015-01-01

    Research examining nonpharmacological interventions for adults diagnosed with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) has expanded in recent years and provides patients with more treatment options. Mindfulness-based training is an example of an intervention that is gaining promising preliminary empirical support and is increasingly administered in clinical settings. The aim of this review is to provide a rationale for the application of mindfulness to individuals diagnosed with ADHD, describe the current state of the empirical basis for mindfulness training in ADHD, and summarize a treatment approach specific to adults diagnosed with ADHD: the Mindful Awareness Practices (MAPs) for ADHD Program. Two case study examples are provided to demonstrate relevant clinical issues for practitioners interested in this approach. Directions for future research, including mindfulness meditation as a standalone treatment and as a complementary approach to cognitive-behavioral therapy, are provided. PMID:25908900

  9. Empirical evaluation of decision support systems: Needs, definitions, potential methods, and an example pertaining to waterfowl management

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Sojda, R.S.

    2007-01-01

    Decision support systems are often not empirically evaluated, especially the underlying modelling components. This can be attributed to such systems necessarily being designed to handle complex and poorly structured problems and decision making. Nonetheless, evaluation is critical and should be focused on empirical testing whenever possible. Verification and validation, in combination, comprise such evaluation. Verification is ensuring that the system is internally complete, coherent, and logical from a modelling and programming perspective. Validation is examining whether the system is realistic and useful to the user or decision maker, and should answer the question: “Was the system successful at addressing its intended purpose?” A rich literature exists on verification and validation of expert systems and other artificial intelligence methods; however, no single evaluation methodology has emerged as preeminent. At least five approaches to validation are feasible. First, under some conditions, decision support system performance can be tested against a preselected gold standard. Second, real-time and historic data sets can be used for comparison with simulated output. Third, panels of experts can be judiciously used, but often are not an option in some ecological domains. Fourth, sensitivity analysis of system outputs in relation to inputs can be informative. Fifth, when validation of a complete system is impossible, examining major components can be substituted, recognizing the potential pitfalls. I provide an example of evaluation of a decision support system for trumpeter swan (Cygnus buccinator) management that I developed using interacting intelligent agents, expert systems, and a queuing system. Predicted swan distributions over a 13-year period were assessed against observed numbers. Population survey numbers and banding (ringing) studies may provide long term data useful in empirical evaluation of decision support.

  10. Support Systems for Poor Readers: Empirical Data from Six EU Member States

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ise, Elena; Blomert, Leo; Bertrand, Daisy; Faisca, Luis; Puolakanaho, Anne; Saine, Nina L.; Suranyi, Zsuzsanna; Vaessen, Anniek; Csepe, Valeria; Lyytinen, Heikki; Reis, Alexandra; Ziegler, Johannes C.; Schulte-Korne, Gerd

    2011-01-01

    This study surveyed and compared support systems for poor readers in six member states of the European Union (EU). The goal was to identify features of effective support systems. A large-scale questionnaire survey was conducted among mainstream teachers (n = 4,210) and remedial teachers (n = 2,395). Results indicate that the six support systems…

  11. Effective Source-to-Source Outlining to Support Whole Program Empirical Optimization

    SciTech Connect

    Liao, C; Quinlan, D J; Vuduc, R; Panas, T

    2009-07-17

    Although automated empirical performance optimization and tuning is well-studied for kernels and domain-specific libraries, a current research grand challenge is how to extend these methodologies and tools to significantly larger sequential and parallel applications. In this context, we present the ROSE source-to-source outliner, which addresses the problem of extracting tunable kernels out of whole programs, thereby helping to convert the challenging whole-program tuning problem into a set of more manageable kernel tuning tasks. Our outliner aims to handle large scale C/C++, Fortran and OpenMP applications. A set of program analysis and transformation techniques are utilized to enhance the portability, scalability, and interoperability of source-to-source outlining. More importantly, the generated kernels preserve performance characteristics of tuning targets and can be easily handled by other tools. Preliminary evaluations have shown that the ROSE outliner serves as a key component within an end-to-end empirical optimization system and enables a wide range of sequential and parallel optimization opportunities.

  12. Moving empirically-supported treatment to the workplace: Recruiting addiction program supervisors to help in technology transfer

    PubMed Central

    Amodeo, Maryann; Storti, Susan A.; Larson, Mary Jo

    2013-01-01

    Federal and state funding agencies are encouraging or mandating the use of empirically supported treatments in addiction programs, yet many programs have not moved in this direction (Forman, Bovasso, and Woody, 2001; Roman and Johnson, 2002; Willenbring et al., 2004). To improve the skills of counselors in community addiction programs, the authors developed an innovative Web-based course on Cognitive Behavioral Therapy (CBT), a widely accepted empirically-supported treatment (EST) for addiction. Federal funding supports this Web course and a randomized controlled trial to evaluate its effectiveness. Since supervisors often play a pivotal role in helping clinicians transfer learned skills from training courses to the workplace, the authors recruited supervisor-counselor teams, engaging 54 supervisors and 120 counselors. Lessons learned focus on supervisor recruitment and involvement, supervisors’ perceptions of CBT, their own CBT skills and their roles in the study, and implications for technology transfer for the addiction field as a whole. Recruiting supervisors proved difficult because programs lacked clinical supervisors. Recruiting counselors proved difficult because programs were concerned about loss of third-party reimbursement. Across the addiction field, technology transfer will be severely hampered unless such infrastructure problems can be solved. Areas for further investigation are identified. PMID:20397880

  13. Report on the Implementation of the Education (Additional Support for Learning) (Scotland) Act 2004

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Her Majesty's Inspectorate of Education, 2007

    2007-01-01

    The Additional Support for Learning Act is a key piece of legislation in Scotland's efforts to achieve a more inclusive society and to give all young people the access to the learning opportunities they need in order to meet their potential. The Act also has a key role to play in the day-to-day preventative action that schools can take to be…

  14. The biobehavioral family model: testing social support as an additional exogenous variable.

    PubMed

    Woods, Sarah B; Priest, Jacob B; Roush, Tara

    2014-12-01

    This study tests the inclusion of social support as a distinct exogenous variable in the Biobehavioral Family Model (BBFM). The BBFM is a biopsychosocial approach to health that proposes that biobehavioral reactivity (anxiety and depression) mediates the relationship between family emotional climate and disease activity. Data for this study included married, English-speaking adult participants (n = 1,321; 55% female; M age = 45.2 years) from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication, a nationally representative epidemiological study of the frequency of mental disorders in the United States. Participants reported their demographics, marital functioning, social support from friends and relatives, anxiety and depression (biobehavioral reactivity), number of chronic health conditions, and number of prescription medications. Confirmatory factor analyses supported the items used in the measures of negative marital interactions, social support, and biobehavioral reactivity, as well as the use of negative marital interactions, friends' social support, and relatives' social support as distinct factors in the model. Structural equation modeling indicated a good fit of the data to the hypothesized model (χ(2)  = 846.04, p = .000, SRMR = .039, CFI = .924, TLI = .914, RMSEA = .043). Negative marital interactions predicted biobehavioral reactivity (β = .38, p < .001), as did relatives' social support, inversely (β = -.16, p < .001). Biobehavioral reactivity predicted disease activity (β = .40, p < .001) and was demonstrated to be a significant mediator through tests of indirect effects. Findings are consistent with previous tests of the BBFM with adult samples, and suggest the important addition of family social support as a predicting factor in the model. PMID:24981970

  15. An Empirically Derived Approach to the Latent Structure of the Adult Attachment Interview: Additional Convergent and Discriminant Validity Evidence

    PubMed Central

    Haydon, Katherine C.; Roisman, Glenn I.; Marks, Michael J.; Fraley, R. Chris

    2011-01-01

    Building on studies examining the latent structure of attachment-related individual differences as assessed by the Adult Attachment Interview (AAI) via Principal Components Analysis, the current report further explores the validity of four AAI dimensions reported by Haydon, Roisman, and Burt (in press): dismissing states of mind, preoccupied states of mind, and inferred negative experience with maternal and paternal caregivers. Study 1 reports evidence of distinctive cognitive correlates of dismissing v. preoccupied states of mind with reaction time in an attachment Stroop task and the valence of endorsed self-descriptors, respectively. Study 2 replicates prior meta-analytic findings of generally trivial convergence between state of mind dimensions and self-reported avoidance and anxiety (i.e., Roisman, Holland, et al., 2007). Study 3 contrastively demonstrates moderate empirical overlap between inferred experience—but not state of mind—AAI scales and self-reported avoidance and anxiety when the latter were assessed at the level of specific caregivers. Taken together, these findings add to accumulating evidence that an empirically-driven approach to scaling adults on AAI dimensions (Haydon et al., in press; Roisman et al., 2007) aids in identifying theoretically anticipated and distinctive affective, behavioral, and cognitive correlates of dismissing versus preoccupied states of mind. PMID:21838649

  16. Adapting an empirically supported intervention for a new population and setting: findings and lessons learned from Proyecto Puentes.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Mimi V; Hall, William J; Sisler, Laurel A G

    2014-01-01

    With an increasing emphasis on evidence-based practice, the need for social work researchers and practitioners to adapt empirically supported interventions for new populations and cultures is essential. However, social work suffers from a lack of guidance and detailed examples of intervention adaptations that may not proceed "by the book" and actually falter but recover. Many of these situations result from lack of attention to setting and context even when researchers believe they have full stakeholder buy-in. This article presents process evaluation findings from an intervention adaptation called Proyecto Puentes that allowed for self-correction and successful intervention development. PMID:24405130

  17. Intelligence is as intelligence does: can additional support needs replace disability?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Samuel R C; Riches, Vivienne C; Stancliffe, Roger J

    2011-12-01

    Abstract In many developed cultures there is an assumption that IQ is intelligence. However, emerging theories of multiple intelligences, of emotional intelligence, as well as the application of IQ testing to other cultural groups, and to people with disability, raises many questions as to what IQ actually measures. Despite recent research that shows IQ testing produces a floor effect when applied to people with lower IQ, as well as research that shows the Flynn effect also applies to people with lower IQ, in practice IQ scores below a certain cut-off are still being used to determine and classify a person's intellectual disability. However, a new paradigm is emerging, almost returning to the original intent of Binet, where measurement is made of the supports the person needs. In this paper, we argue that if one extends the notions of this supports paradigm that diagnosis of intellectual or physical disability could potentially be replaced by diagnosis of additional intellectual support needs, or additional physical support needs. PMID:21992715

  18. A Systematic Review of the Empirical Support for Check-in Check-Out

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wolfe, Katie; Pyle, Daniel; Charlton, Cade T.; Sabey, Christian V.; Lund, Emily M.; Ross, Scott W.

    2016-01-01

    Tier 2 interventions play an important role within the Positive Behavioral Interventions and Supports framework, bridging the gap between schoolwide Tier 1 interventions and individualized Tier 3 supports. Check-in Check-out (CICO) is a promising Tier 2 intervention for addressing mild problem behavior and potentially preventing the need for more…

  19. Instructional Change in Preschool Classrooms: A Study of Empirically-Based Teacher Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Boat, Mary B.; Carr, Victoria; Barnett, David; Macmann, Gregg; Moomaw, Sally; Pan, Wei; Nichols, Angela

    2009-01-01

    This study examined the effects of staff development and support on Head Start teachers' use of instructional and managerial strategies. Specific research questions were (a) What variables were selected by teachers? and (b) What changes were indicated by the method of support? Observations were conducted for teachers randomly assigned to…

  20. Use of empirically-supported interventions for psychopathology: Can the participatory approach move us beyond the research-to-practice gap?

    PubMed Central

    Becker, Carolyn Black; Stice, Eric; Shaw, Heather; Woda, Susan

    2009-01-01

    Dissemination, or distribution, of empirically-supported interventions (ESIs) for psychopathology remains a significant challenge. This paper reviews the principles of community-partnership research (CPR) and explores why CPR might improve distribution of psychological ESIs. Benefits of CPR include building trust, pooling resources and knowledge, and better serving a community by directly involving its members in the design and implementation of research. In addition, after establishing a community’s trust using CPR, researchers are likely to be better positioned to partner with communities in the further distribution of ESIs via community networks. This paper reviews the case of dissonance-based eating disorder prevention interventions to provide an example of how CPR can facilitate the adoption and distribution of an ESI by a community, in this case, sororities. CPR also presents a number of challenges, however, because it is time consuming and does not always align with funding mechanisms and research designs used in randomized controlled trials. Further, CPR does not necessarily solve the challenge of training providers, though it may help with problem solving. Ultimately, we suggest that the benefits of CPR far outweigh the challenges, and hope that more researchers will adopt these practices so that more individuals can benefit from empirically supported psychological interventions. PMID:19281965

  1. The Relationship between Organizational Support, Employee Development, and Organizational Commitment: An Empirical Study.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tansky, Judith W.; Cohen, Debra J.

    2001-01-01

    A survey of 262 hospital supervisors and managers found that managers who were satisfied with employee career development were more committed to the organization and perceived more organizational support. They were also more likely to provide career development for their own supervisees. (Contains 46 references.) (SK)

  2. BSW Program Admission Policies: Is There Empirical Support for What We Do?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coyle, James P.; Carter, Irene M.; Leslie, Donald R.

    2011-01-01

    Social work admission criteria are used to ensure student academic competence, identify personal characteristics associated with success in social work education and practice, predict success in class and field work, and promote diversity of the student body. However, evidence that supports the effectiveness of these admission policies is…

  3. Family Carers' Experiences Using Support Services in Europe: Empirical Evidence from the EUROFAMCARE Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lamura, Giovanni; Mnich, Eva; Nolan, Mike; Wojszel, Beata; Krevers, Barbro; Mestheneos, Liz; Dohner, Hanneli

    2008-01-01

    Purpose: This article explores the experiences of family carers of older people in using support services in six European countries: Germany, Greece, Italy, Poland, Sweden, and the UK. Design and Methods: Following a common protocol, data were collected from national samples of approximately 1,000 family carers per country and clustered into…

  4. Recycling of fly ash for preparing porous mullite membrane supports with titania addition.

    PubMed

    Dong, Yingchao; Hampshire, Stuart; Zhou, Jian-er; Lin, Bin; Ji, Zhanlin; Zhang, Xiaozhen; Meng, Guangyao

    2010-08-15

    In order to effectively utilize industrial waste fly ash, porous mullite ceramic membrane supports were prepared from fly ash and calcined bauxite with chemically pure titania as sintering additive. The effects of TiO(2) on the sintering behaviors and main properties of porous mullite were studied in detail. Due to the addition of titania, the sintering of the flyash-based mullite was inhibited at low temperatures, but effectively improved at high temperatures, the latter is suitable for preparing porous mullite membrane supports by incomplete sintering. Titania entered into liquid glassy phase with low high-temperature viscosity during sintering, resulting in the improvement of sintering activity, as well as the lowering of secondary mullitization temperature (where 2.0% titania). Between 1300 and 1500 degrees C, with increasing titania content, the samples exhibit increased trends in both linear shrinkage percent and bulk density, but a slightly decreased trend in open porosity, at all sintering temperatures. At 1300-1500 degrees C, the samples sintered at 1450 degrees C for 2h exhibit the lowest shrinkage and bulk density, as well as the highest open porosities in the investigated titania content range of 0-6.0 wt.%. Also, with increasing titania content, the pore size decreases slightly but the three-point flexural strength increases gradually at 1450 degrees C. PMID:20452727

  5. Empirically based recommendations to support parents facing the dilemma of paediatric cadaver organ donation.

    PubMed

    Bellali, T; Papazoglou, I; Papadatou, D

    2007-08-01

    The aim of the study was to describe the challenges donor and non-donor parents encounter before, during, and after the organ donation decision, and to identify parents' needs and expectations from health care professionals. A further aim was to propose evidence-based recommendations for effectively introducing the option of donation, and supporting families through the grieving process. This study was undertaken as part of a larger research project investigating the experiences of Greek parents who consented or declined organ and tissue donation, using a qualitative methodology for data collection and analysis. The experiences of 22 Greek bereaved parents of 14 underage brain dead children were studied through semi-structured interviews. Parents' decision-making process was described as challenging and fraught with difficulties both before and after the donation period. Identified challenges were clustered into: (a) personal challenges, (b) conditions of organ request, and (c) interpersonal challenges. Parents' main concern following donation was the lack of information about transplantation outcomes. Findings led to a list of recommendations for nurses and other health professionals for approaching and supporting parents in making choices about paediatric organ donation that are appropriate to them, and for facilitating their adjustment to the sudden death of their underage child. PMID:17475498

  6. The effectiveness of Additional Literacy Support (ALS) in Years 3 and 4.

    PubMed

    Bunn, Tim

    2008-08-01

    This study compared the progress in reading and spelling of 256 children in 11 classes in 9 English primary schools in Years 3 and 4, and a partially overlapping sample of 126 children who received additional help with literacy during 1 year. Teachers and teaching assistants used either Additional Literacy Support (ALS), a highly structured set of small group teaching materials devised by the English National Literacy Strategy, or a wide variety of other materials including other published intervention programmes, reading scheme-based, computer-based and individually designed interventions, or a combination of ALS and other interventions. The influence of a broad range of contextual factors were investigated, especially whether children's qualities, school factors such as socio-economic status and class size, and delivery differences made significant differences to the outcomes of the different interventions. The study used a naturalistic quasi-experimental design, in which teachers were asked to record details of their children and interventions without altering their professional decisions, which has not been used before in investigating literacy difficulties in context. ALS was marginally more effective than other interventions in the majority of classes, but was clearly superior in value for money terms. Children's qualities did not appear to affect outcomes. Although children receiving additional help made better than average progress, overall catch-up was limited, especially in spelling. PMID:18697191

  7. Subtypes of batterers in treatment: empirical support for a distinction between type I, type II and type III.

    PubMed

    Graña, José Luis; Redondo, Natalia; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J; Cantos, Arthur L

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%), moderate (27.8%) and high (7.1%). This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types. PMID:25329828

  8. Empirically Supported Treatments in Psychotherapy: Towards an Evidence-Based or Evidence-Biased Psychology in Clinical Settings?

    PubMed Central

    Castelnuovo, Gianluca

    2010-01-01

    The field of research and practice in psychotherapy has been deeply influenced by two different approaches: the empirically supported treatments (ESTs) movement, linked with the evidence-based medicine (EBM) perspective and the “Common Factors” approach, typically connected with the “Dodo Bird Verdict”. About the first perspective, since 1998 a list of ESTs has been established in mental health field. Criterions for “well-established” and “probably efficacious” treatments have arisen. The development of these kinds of paradigms was motivated by the emergence of a “managerial” approach and related systems for remuneration also for mental health providers and for insurance companies. In this article ESTs will be presented underlining also some possible criticisms. Finally complementary approaches, that could add different evidence in the psychotherapy research in comparison with traditional EBM approach, are presented. PMID:21833197

  9. Subtypes of Batterers in Treatment: Empirical Support for a Distinction between Type I, Type II and Type III

    PubMed Central

    Graña, José Luis; Redondo, Natalia; Muñoz-Rivas, Marina J.; Cantos, Arthur L.

    2014-01-01

    This study explores the existence of different types of batterers in a sample of 266 men who had been court referred for intimate partner violence. The data collected in the assessment that have been used to perform a hierarchical and a two-step cluster analysis fall into three areas: aggression towards the partner, general aggression and presence of psychopathology and personality traits, more specifically, alcohol use, borderline and antisocial personality traits, psychopathy traits, state anger and trait anger, anger expression and control, anger, hostility, and, finally, impulsivity. The results show a typology consisting of 3 types of batterers on the basis of violence level and psychopathology: low (65%), moderate (27.8%) and high (7.1%). This study provides empirical support for the development of batterer typologies. These typologies will help achieve early detection of different types of batterers, allowing us to tailor interventions on the basis of the needs of each of the types. PMID:25329828

  10. Parent-child interaction therapy: application of an empirically supported treatment to maltreated children in foster care.

    PubMed

    Timmer, Susan G; Urquiza, Anthony J; Herschell, Amy D; McGrath, Jean M; Zebell, Nancy M; Porter, Alissa L; Vargas, Eric C

    2006-01-01

    One of the more serious problems faced by child welfare services involves the management of children with serious behavioral and mental health problems. Aggressive and defiant foster children are more likely to have multiple foster care placements, require extraordinary social services resources, and have poor short- and long-term mental health outcomes. Interventions that work with challenging foster children and enhance foster parents' skills in managing problem behaviors are necessary. This article presents the successful results of a single case study examining the application of Parent-Child Interaction Therapy (PCIT) with an aggressive young boy and his foster-adoptive parent. PCIT is a dyadic intervention that has been identified as an empirically supported treatment for abused children and for children with different types of behavioral disruption. The application of PCIT to assist foster parents is a promising direction for child welfare services. PMID:17305042

  11. Detection and localization of damage using empirical mode decomposition and multilevel support vector machine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dushyanth, N. D.; Suma, M. N.; Latte, Mrityanjaya V.

    2016-03-01

    Damage in the structure may raise a significant amount of maintenance cost and serious safety problems. Hence detection of the damage at its early stage is of prime importance. The main contribution pursued in this investigation is to propose a generic optimal methodology to improve the accuracy of positioning of the flaw in a structure. This novel approach involves a two-step process. The first step essentially aims at extracting the damage-sensitive features from the received signal, and these extracted features are often termed the damage index or damage indices, serving as an indicator to know whether the damage is present or not. In particular, a multilevel SVM (support vector machine) plays a vital role in the distinction of faulty and healthy structures. Formerly, when a structure is unveiled as a damaged structure, in the subsequent step, the position of the damage is identified using Hilbert-Huang transform. The proposed algorithm has been evaluated in both simulation and experimental tests on a 6061 aluminum plate with dimensions 300 mm × 300 mm × 5 mm which accordingly yield considerable improvement in the accuracy of estimating the position of the flaw.

  12. Adolescent mental health and academic functioning: empirical support for contrasting models of risk and vulnerability.

    PubMed

    Lucier-Greer, Mallory; O'Neal, Catherine W; Arnold, A Laura; Mancini, Jay A; Wickrama, Kandauda K A S

    2014-11-01

    Adolescents in military families contend with normative stressors that are universal and exist across social contexts (minority status, family disruptions, and social isolation) as well as stressors reflective of their military life context (e.g., parental deployment, school transitions, and living outside the United States). This study utilizes a social ecological perspective and a stress process lens to examine the relationship between multiple risk factors and relevant indicators of youth well-being, namely depressive symptoms and academic performance, as well as the mediating role of self-efficacy (N = 1,036). Three risk models were tested: an additive effects model (each risk factor uniquely influences outcomes), a full cumulative effects model (the collection of risk factors influences outcomes), a comparative model (a cumulative effects model exploring the differential effects of normative and military-related risks). This design allowed for the simultaneous examination of multiple risk factors and a comparison of alternative perspectives on measuring risk. Each model was predictive of depressive symptoms and academic performance through persistence; however, each model provides unique findings about the relationship between risk factors and youth outcomes. Discussion is provided pertinent to service providers and researchers on how risk is conceptualized and suggestions for identifying at-risk youth. PMID:25373055

  13. An empirical comparison of different approaches for combining multimodal neuroimaging data with support vector machine.

    PubMed

    Pettersson-Yeo, William; Benetti, Stefania; Marquand, Andre F; Joules, Richard; Catani, Marco; Williams, Steve C R; Allen, Paul; McGuire, Philip; Mechelli, Andrea

    2014-01-01

    In the pursuit of clinical utility, neuroimaging researchers of psychiatric and neurological illness are increasingly using analyses, such as support vector machine, that allow inference at the single-subject level. Recent studies employing single-modality data, however, suggest that classification accuracies must be improved for such utility to be realized. One possible solution is to integrate different data types to provide a single combined output classification; either by generating a single decision function based on an integrated kernel matrix, or, by creating an ensemble of multiple single modality classifiers and integrating their predictions. Here, we describe four integrative approaches: (1) an un-weighted sum of kernels, (2) multi-kernel learning, (3) prediction averaging, and (4) majority voting, and compare their ability to enhance classification accuracy relative to the best single-modality classification accuracy. We achieve this by integrating structural, functional, and diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging data, in order to compare ultra-high risk (n = 19), first episode psychosis (n = 19) and healthy control subjects (n = 23). Our results show that (i) whilst integration can enhance classification accuracy by up to 13%, the frequency of such instances may be limited, (ii) where classification can be enhanced, simple methods may yield greater increases relative to more computationally complex alternatives, and, (iii) the potential for classification enhancement is highly influenced by the specific diagnostic comparison under consideration. In conclusion, our findings suggest that for moderately sized clinical neuroimaging datasets, combining different imaging modalities in a data-driven manner is no "magic bullet" for increasing classification accuracy. However, it remains possible that this conclusion is dependent on the use of neuroimaging modalities that had little, or no, complementary information to offer one another, and that the

  14. Individual and developmental differences in semantic priming: empirical and computational support for a single-mechanism account of lexical processing.

    PubMed

    Plaut, D C; Booth, J R

    2000-10-01

    Existing accounts of single-word semantic priming phenomena incorporate multiple mechanisms, such as spreading activation, expectancy-based processes, and postlexical semantic matching. The authors provide empirical and computational support for a single-mechanism distributed network account. Previous studies have found greater semantic priming for low- than for high-frequency target words as well as inhibition following unrelated primes only at long stimulus-onset asynchronies (SOAs). A series of experiments examined the modulation of these effects by individual differences in age or perceptual ability. Third-grade, 6th-grade, and college students performed a lexical-decision task on high- and low-frequency target words preceded by related, unrelated, and nonword primes. Greater priming for low-frequency targets was exhibited only by participants with high perceptual ability. Moreover, unlike the college students, the children showed no inhibition even at the long SOA. The authors provide an account of these results in terms of the properties of distributed network models and support this account with an explicit computational simulation. PMID:11089407

  15. The Verbal Behavior Approach to Early and Intensive Behavioral Intervention for Autism: A Call for Additional Empirical Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Carr, James E.; Firth, Amanda M.

    2005-01-01

    Early and intensive behavioral intervention (EIBI) has been firmly established and disseminated as one of the most effective treatments for early childhood autism. Recently, a number of practitioners have employed a variant of this approach in which the language curriculum is organized and taught according to Skinner's (1957) analysis of verbal…

  16. The role of information in supporting self-care in vascular conditions: a conceptual and empirical review.

    PubMed

    Blickem, Christian; Bower, Peter; Protheroe, Joanne; Kennedy, Anne; Vassilev, Ivaylo; Sanders, Caroline; Kirk, Sue; Chew-Graham, Carolyn; Rogers, Anne

    2011-09-01

    Self-care has the potential to make a significant contribution to vascular conditions, but engagement with self-care support has been limited. Lack of relevant information is highlighted by patients and policy-makers as an important barrier to effective self-care, and information provides a potentially efficient platform for changing behaviour. However, work within the social sciences has generally seen information as a necessary but insufficient driver of health behaviours. Furthermore, some groups (such as the socially disadvantaged) are expected to be less amenable to information interventions. We conducted an integrated conceptual and empirical review on information-based interventions for people with vascular disease (diabetes, heart disease and kidney disease). We reviewed conceptual and empirical work concerning the role and impact of information in self-care support to generate an explanatory framework to determine why information was effective or ineffective in encouraging self-care in patients with vascular conditions. This involved mapping relevant theories and models linking information and self-care. We also explored published systematic reviews of educational interventions in diabetes, coronary heart disease and chronic kidney disease to examine the role of information and evidence concerning its effectiveness and impact in different patient populations. The conceptual review identified variation among information interventions in terms of type, function, and their relationship to behaviour change techniques and psychological mediators of behaviour change. Key moderators of the effect of information included types of disorder, and patient capacity and resources. A wealth of educational interventions exists for diabetes and heart conditions, but the precise components of these interventions that are effective are difficult to identify. There is little evidence concerning optimal ways of tailoring interventions for socially disadvantaged groups other

  17. Multi-fault diagnosis for rolling element bearings based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition and optimized support vector machines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaoyuan; Zhou, Jianzhong

    2013-12-01

    This study presents a novel procedure based on ensemble empirical mode decomposition (EEMD) and optimized support vector machine (SVM) for multi-fault diagnosis of rolling element bearings. The vibration signal is adaptively decomposed into a number of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) by EEMD. Two types of features, the EEMD energy entropy and singular values of the matrix whose rows are IMFs, are extracted. EEMD energy entropy is used to specify whether the bearing has faults or not. If the bearing has faults, singular values are input to multi-class SVM optimized by inter-cluster distance in the feature space (ICDSVM) to specify the fault type. The proposed method was tested on a system with an electric motor which has two rolling bearings with 8 normal working conditions and 48 fault working conditions. Five groups of experiments were done to evaluate the effectiveness of the proposed method. The results show that the proposed method outperforms other methods both mentioned in this paper and published in other literatures.

  18. Novel Overhang Support Designs for Powder-Based Electron Beam Additive Manufacturing (EBAM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nabors, Sammy A.

    2014-01-01

    NASA Marshall Space Flight Center, in collaboration with the University of Alabama, has developed a contact-free support structure used to fabricate overhang-type geometries via EBAM. The support structure is used for 3-D metal-printed components for the aerospace, automotive, biomedical and other industries. Current techniques use support structures to address deformation challenges inherent in 3-D metal printing. However, these structures (overhangs) are bonded to the component and need to be removed in post-processing using a mechanical tool. This new technology improves the overhang support structure design for components by eliminating associated geometric defects and post-processing requirements.

  19. Comparing Child, Parent, and Family Characteristics in Usual Care and Empirically Supported Treatment Research Samples for Children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Baker-Ericzen, Mary J.; Hurlburt, Michael S.; Brookman-Frazee, Lauren; Jenkins, Melissa M.; Hough, Richard L.

    2010-01-01

    This study compared data from 34 research trials of five empirically supported treatments (ESTs) with one large usual care (UC) sample on child, parent, and family characteristics for children with Disruptive Behavior Disorders. Large variations were found within and across ESTs on sample characteristics during the past two decades. Most parent…

  20. The work of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Food Additives (EURL) and its support for the authorisation process of feed additives in the European Union: a review

    PubMed Central

    von Holst, Christoph; Robouch, Piotr; Bellorini, Stefano; de la Huebra, María José González; Ezerskis, Zigmas

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT This paper describes the operation of the European Union Reference Laboratory for Feed Additives (EURL) and its role in the authorisation procedure of feed additives in the European Union. Feed additives are authorised according to Regulation (EC) No. 1831/2003, which introduced a completely revised authorisation procedure and also established the EURL. The regulations authorising feed additives contain conditions of use such as legal limits of the feed additives, which require the availability of a suitable method of analysis for official control purposes under real world conditions. It is the task of the EURL to evaluate the suitability of analytical methods as proposed by the industry for this purpose. Moreover, the paper shows that one of the major challenges is the huge variety of the methodology applied in feed additive analysis, thus requiring expertise in quite different analytical areas. In order to cope with this challenge, the EURL is supported by a network of national reference laboratories (NRLs) and only the merged knowledge of all NRLs allows for a scientifically sound assessment of the analytical methods. PMID:26540604

  1. Supporting English as an Additional Language Students in Science: Integrating Content and Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McCallum, Miranda; Miller, Jenny

    2013-01-01

    In this article, we report on a teacher-researcher collaboration that emerged from a large study on literacy strategies for diverse classrooms. Using the example of one Year 9 class of ten English as an Additional Language (EAL) students, we trialled language-focussed materials on the topic of Ecosystems as an alternative or adjunct to the…

  2. Building Cognitive Support for the Learning of Long Division Skills Using Progressive Schematization: Design and Empirical Validation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hurts, Karel

    2008-01-01

    The design and empirical validation of a computer-based learning environment for acquiring long division skills, called the long division machine (LDM), are described. The construction of the LDM is primarily based on the didactic method of progressive schematisation. It offers the student a game-like environment for solving division problems by…

  3. Evaluation of Empirical Data and Modeling Studies to Support Soil Vapor Intrusion Screening Criteria for Petroleum Hydrocarbon Compounds

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study is an evaluation of empirical data and select modeling studies of the behavior of petroleum hydrocarbon (PHC) vapors in subsurface soils and how they can affect subsurface-to-indoor air vapor intrusion (VI), henceforth referred to as petroleum vapor intrusion or “PVI” ...

  4. Sign-Supported English: Is It Effective at Teaching Vocabulary to Young Children with English as an Additional Language?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marshall, Chloë R.; Hobsbaum, Angela

    2015-01-01

    Background: Children who are learning English as an Additional Language (EAL) may start school with smaller vocabularies than their monolingual peers. Given the links between vocabulary and academic achievement, it is important to evaluate interventions that are designed to support vocabulary learning in this group of children. Aims: To evaluate…

  5. A review of empirical evidence on different uncanny valley hypotheses: support for perceptual mismatch as one road to the valley of eeriness

    PubMed Central

    Kätsyri, Jari; Förger, Klaus; Mäkäräinen, Meeri; Takala, Tapio

    2015-01-01

    The uncanny valley hypothesis, proposed already in the 1970s, suggests that almost but not fully humanlike artificial characters will trigger a profound sense of unease. This hypothesis has become widely acknowledged both in the popular media and scientific research. Surprisingly, empirical evidence for the hypothesis has remained inconsistent. In the present article, we reinterpret the original uncanny valley hypothesis and review empirical evidence for different theoretically motivated uncanny valley hypotheses. The uncanny valley could be understood as the naïve claim that any kind of human-likeness manipulation will lead to experienced negative affinity at close-to-realistic levels. More recent hypotheses have suggested that the uncanny valley would be caused by artificial–human categorization difficulty or by a perceptual mismatch between artificial and human features. Original formulation also suggested that movement would modulate the uncanny valley. The reviewed empirical literature failed to provide consistent support for the naïve uncanny valley hypothesis or the modulatory effects of movement. Results on the categorization difficulty hypothesis were still too scarce to allow drawing firm conclusions. In contrast, good support was found for the perceptual mismatch hypothesis. Taken together, the present review findings suggest that the uncanny valley exists only under specific conditions. More research is still needed to pinpoint the exact conditions under which the uncanny valley phenomenon manifests itself. PMID:25914661

  6. Empirical support for global integrated assessment modeling: Productivity trends and technological change in developing countries' agriculture and electric power sectors

    SciTech Connect

    Sathaye, Jayant A.

    2000-04-01

    Integrated assessment (IA) modeling of climate policy is increasingly global in nature, with models incorporating regional disaggregation. The existing empirical basis for IA modeling, however, largely arises from research on industrialized economies. Given the growing importance of developing countries in determining long-term global energy and carbon emissions trends, filling this gap with improved statistical information on developing countries' energy and carbon-emissions characteristics is an important priority for enhancing IA modeling. Earlier research at LBNL on this topic has focused on assembling and analyzing statistical data on productivity trends and technological change in the energy-intensive manufacturing sectors of five developing countries, India, Brazil, Mexico, Indonesia, and South Korea. The proposed work will extend this analysis to the agriculture and electric power sectors in India, South Korea, and two other developing countries. They will also examine the impact of alternative model specifications on estimates of productivity growth and technological change for each of the three sectors, and estimate the contribution of various capital inputs--imported vs. indigenous, rigid vs. malleable-- in contributing to productivity growth and technological change. The project has already produced a data resource on the manufacturing sector which is being shared with IA modelers. This will be extended to the agriculture and electric power sectors, which would also be made accessible to IA modeling groups seeking to enhance the empirical descriptions of developing country characteristics. The project will entail basic statistical and econometric analysis of productivity and energy trends in these developing country sectors, with parameter estimates also made available to modeling groups. The parameter estimates will be developed using alternative model specifications that could be directly utilized by the existing IAMs for the manufacturing

  7. Addition of gonadotropin releasing hormone agonist for luteal phase support in in-vitro fertilization: an analysis of 2739 cycles

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Erhan; Kılıçdağ, Esra Bulgan; Aytaç, Pınar Çağlar; Çoban, Gonca; Şimşek, Seda Yüksel; Çok, Tayfun; Haydardedeoğlu, Bülent

    2015-01-01

    Objective Luteal phase is defective in in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles, and many regimens were tried for the very best luteal phase support (LPS). Gonadotropin releasing hormone (GnRH) agonist use, which was administered as an adjunct to the luteal phase support in IVF cycles, was suggested to improve pregnancy outcome measures in certain randomized studies. We analyzed the effects of addition of GnRH agonist to standard progesterone luteal support on pregnancy outcome measures, particularly the live birth rates. Material and Methods This is a retrospective cohort study, including 2739 IVF cycles. Long GnRH agonist and antagonist stimulation IVF cycles with cleavage-stage embryo transfer were included. Cycles were divided into two groups: Group A included cycles with single-dose GnRH agonist plus progesterone LPS and Group B included progesterone only LPS. Live birth rates were the primary outcome measures of the analysis. Miscarriage rates and multiple pregnancy rates were the secondary outcome measures. Results Live birth rates were not statistically different in GnRH agonist plus progesterone (Group A) and progesterone only (Group B) groups in both the long agonist and antagonist stimulation arms (40.8%/41.2% and 32.8%/34.4%, p<0.05 respectively). Moreover, pregnancy rates, implantation rates, and miscarriage rates were found to be similar between groups. Multiple pregnancy rates in antagonist cycles were significantly higher in Group A than those in Group B (12.0% and 6.9%, respectively). Conclusion A beneficial effect of a single dose of GnRH agonist administration as a luteal phase supporting agent is yet to be determined because of the wide heterogeneity of data present in literature. Well-designed randomized clinical studies are required to clarify any effect of luteal GnRH agonist addition on pregnancy outcome measures with different doses, timing, and administration routes of GnRH agonists. PMID:26097392

  8. Effects of Silica Nanoparticle Supported Ionic Liquid as Additive on Thermal Reversibility of Human Carbonic Anhydrase II

    PubMed Central

    Fallahbagheri, Azadeh; Saboury, Ali Akbar; Ma'mani, Leila; Taghizadeh, Mohammad; Khodarahmi, Reza; Ranjbar, Samira; Bohlooli, Mousa; Shafiee, Abbas; Foroumadi, Alireza; Sheibani, Nader; Moosavi-Movahedi, Ali Akbar

    2013-01-01

    Silica nanoparticle supported imidazolium ionic liquid [SNImIL] was synthesized and utilized as a biocompatible additive for studying the thermal reversibility of human carbonic anhydrase II (HCA II). For this purpose, we prepared additive by modification of nanoparticles through the grafting of ionic liquids on the surface of nanoparticles (SNImIL). The SNImIL were fully characterized by Fourier Transform Infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermo gravimetric analysis. The characterization of HCA II was investigated by various techniques including UV–Vis and ANS fluorescence spectrophotometry, differential scanning calorimetry, and docking study. SNImIL induced disaggregation, enhanced protein stability and increased thermal reversibility of HCA II by up to 42% at pH 7.75. PMID:22829053

  9. An Empirical Study into Gender Differences in the Relationships among Academic, Social and Psychological Adjustments of University Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Yau, Hon Keung; Cheng, Alison Lai Fong

    2014-01-01

    There are three dimensions through which to measure university support for students' transition to university life: academic adjustment, social adjustment and psychological adjustment. Previous research studies show that there are relationships among those adjustments. However, less is known about gender differences in these relationships.…

  10. The Efficacy of Supportive Learning Environments for Returning Women: An Empirical Evaluation. Research Report No. 10-76.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berman, Marilyn R.; And Others

    Two studies conducted at the University of Maryland during the 1973-74 academic year evaluated the efficacy of programs designed to meet the needs of women and sought to determine whether the provision of a supportive learning environment, rather than individual or group counseling, would influence women's life styles. In the first study 36…

  11. An Automated System for Generating Situation-Specific Decision Support in Clinical Order Entry from Local Empirical Data

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Klann, Jeffrey G.

    2011-01-01

    Clinical Decision Support is one of the only aspects of health information technology that has demonstrated decreased costs and increased quality in healthcare delivery, yet it is extremely expensive and time-consuming to create, maintain, and localize. Consequently, a majority of health care systems do not utilize it, and even when it is…

  12. Dynamic Interaction: A Measurement Development and Empirical Evaluation of Knowledge Based Systems and Web 2.0 Decision Support Mashups

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beemer, Brandon Alan

    2010-01-01

    The research presented in this dissertation focuses on the organizational and consumer need for knowledge based support in unstructured domains, by developing a measurement scale for dynamic interaction. Addressing this need is approached and evaluated from two different perspectives. The first approach is the development of Knowledge Based…

  13. Why It Is Hard to Support Group Work in Distributed Healthcare Organizations: Empirical Knowledge of the Social-Technical Gap

    PubMed Central

    Weng, Chunhua

    2005-01-01

    We used a participatory design process to understand and to support the group work of cancer clinical trial protocol design within a distributed organization, the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). We also designed a collaborative writing system to facilitate its protocol reviewing and revising processes over the Internet. After a series of iterative prototyping and formative evaluations over the past two years, we identified a social-technical gap in our group work support research at SWOG. This gap consists of technical challenges, expanding user needs, conflicting user needs from different roles, insufficient incentive for using groupware technology by certain members, subtle organizational nuances, and the changing organizational structure. This paper describes our longitudinal evaluations results and elaborates on the social-technical gap. We think this gap may generalize to other healthcare group work settings. PMID:16779151

  14. Why it is hard to support group work in distributed healthcare organizations: empirical knowledge of the social-technical gap.

    PubMed

    Weng, Chunhua

    2005-01-01

    We used a participatory design process to understand and to support the group work of cancer clinical trial protocol design within a distributed organization, the Southwest Oncology Group (SWOG). We also designed a collaborative writing system to facilitate its protocol reviewing and revising processes over the Internet. After a series of iterative prototyping and formative evaluations over the past two years, we identified a social-technical gap in our group work support research at SWOG. This gap consists of technical challenges, expanding user needs, conflicting user needs from different roles, insufficient incentive for using groupware technology by certain members, subtle organizational nuances, and the changing organizational structure. This paper describes our longitudinal evaluations results and elaborates on the social-technical gap. We think this gap may generalize to other healthcare group work settings. PMID:16779151

  15. Re-evaluation of Yellowstone grizzly bear population dynamics not supported by empirical data: response to Doak & Cutler

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    van Manen, Frank T.; Ebinger, Michael R.; Haroldson, Mark A.; Harris, Richard B.; Higgs, Megan D.; Cherry, Steve; White, Gary C.; Schwartz, Charles C.

    2014-01-01

    Doak and Cutler critiqued methods used by the Interagency Grizzly Bear Study Team (IGBST) to estimate grizzly bear population size and trend in the Greater Yellowstone Ecosystem. Here, we focus on the premise, implementation, and interpretation of simulations they used to support their arguments. They argued that population increases documented by IGBST based on females with cubs-of-the-year were an artifact of increased search effort. However, we demonstrate their simulations were neither reflective of the true observation process nor did their results provide statistical support for their conclusion. They further argued that survival and reproductive senescence should be incorporated into population projections, but we demonstrate their choice of extreme mortality risk beyond age 20 and incompatible baseline fecundity led to erroneous conclusions. The conclusions of Doak and Cutler are unsubstantiated when placed within the context of a thorough understanding of the data, study system, and previous research findings and publications.

  16. The Italian version of the NEO PI-R: Conceptual and empirical support for the use of targeted rotation

    PubMed Central

    Terracciano, Antonio

    2008-01-01

    Earlier cross-cultural research on replicability of the Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PI-R) suggested that personality trait structure is universal, but a recent study using an Italian translation has challenged this position. The present article reexamines the psychometric properties of the Italian NEO-PI-R and discusses the importance of orthogonal Procrustes rotation when the replicability of complex factor structures is tested. The arguments are supported by data from a slightly modified translation of the NEO-PI-R, which was administered to 575 Italian subjects. These data show a close replication of the American normative factor structure when targeted rotation is used. Further, the validity of the Italian NEO-PI-R is supported by external correlates, such as demographic variables (age, sex, education), depression, and affect scales. PMID:19002272

  17. Study of the effects of potassium addition to supported iron catalysts in the Fischer-Tropsch reaction

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, D.G.; Moskovits, M.

    1988-10-20

    The Fischer-Tropsch activity of supported iron catalysts prepared via electrochemical techniques has been evaluated as a function of potassium addition. Catalyst pretreatment in 0.09, 0.18, and 0.27 M K/sub 2/CO/sub 3/ solutions generated potassium levels of 1.7, 2.8, and 3.9 wt %, respectively. Pretreatment in 0.18 M KOH provided a catalyst with 2.3 wt% potassium and facilitated comparison of the effects of the basicity of the pretreatment solution upon catalyst activity. A maximum in catalyst activity and CO conversion was noted upon increasing K content, followed by a sharp decline in activity at potassium levels in excess of the maximum. The hydrogenation ability of the catalyst decreased, and a shift to higher molecular weight products was observed, with increasing potassium content. The type of pretreatment solution had little effect on the catalyst activity or the product selectivity.

  18. Comparative Case Study of Diffusion of Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing in Two Clinical Settings: Empirically Supported Treatment Status Is Not Enough

    PubMed Central

    Cook, Joan M.; Biyanova, Tatyana; Coyne, James C.

    2013-01-01

    An in-depth comparative case study was conducted of two attempts at diffusion of an empirically supported, but controversial, psychotherapy: eye movement desensitization and reprocessing (EMDR). One Department of Veterans Affairs (VA) treatment setting in which there was substantial uptake was compared with a second VA setting in which it was not adopted. Qualitative interviews were conducted with 10 mental health clinicians at the first site, and 19 at the second. Critical selling points for EMDR were a highly regarded champion, the observability of effects with patients, and personally experiencing its effects during a role training session. Compatibility with existing psychotherapist practices and values further allowed the therapy to become embedded in the organizational culture. At the second site, a sense that EMDR was not theoretically coherent or compelling overwhelmed other considerations, including its empirical status. Comparative studies contrasting settings in which innovative therapies are implemented versus those in which they were rejected may aid in refining theories of and strategies for dissemination. PMID:25360060

  19. 5-hydroxytryptamine1A (5-HT1A) receptor agonists: A decade of empirical evidence supports their use as an efficacious therapeutic strategy for brain trauma.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Jeffrey P; Leary, Jacob B; Sembhi, Aerin; Edwards, Clarice M; Bondi, Corina O; Kline, Anthony E

    2016-06-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a significant and enduring health care issue with limited treatment options. While several pre-clinical therapeutic approaches have led to enhanced motor and/or cognitive performance, the benefits of these treatments have not translated to the clinic. One plausible explanation is that the therapies may not have been rigorously evaluated, thus rendering the bench-to-bedside leap premature and subsequently unsuccessful. An approach that has undergone considerable empirical research after TBI is pharmacological targeting of 5-HT1A receptors with agonists such as repinotan HCl, 8-hydroxy-2-(di-n-propylamino) tetralin (8-OH-DPAT), and buspirone. The goal of this review is to integrate and interpret the findings from a series of studies that evaluated the efficacy of 5-HT1A receptor agonists on functional, histological, and molecular outcome after acquired brain injury. The overwhelming consensus of this exhaustive review is that a decade of empirical evidence supports their use as an efficacious therapeutic strategy for brain trauma. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI:Brain injury and recovery. PMID:26612522

  20. Legalising medical use of cannabis in South Africa: Is the empirical evidence sufficient to support policy shifts in this direction?

    PubMed

    Parry, Charles D H; Myers, Bronwyn J

    2014-06-01

    Inkatha Freedom Party MP Mario Oriani-Ambrosini's impassioned plea to legalise the medical use of cannabis must be understood in the context of his own condition as well as legislative changes in at least ten countries. This article argues that any decisions to shift policy must be based on a consideration of the evidence on the risks and benefits associated with the medical use of cannabis for the individual and broader society. It concludes that there are important gaps in the evidence base, particularly in human trials supporting the efficacy of cannabis use for treating and preventing medical conditions and alleviating negative symptoms associated with these conditions. South African researchers should be enabled actively to support development of the necessary evidence base actively by conducting preclinical and clinical research in this area. Human trials to establish the efficacy of the use of cannabis/cannabinoids in addressing AIDS wasting syndrome and other negative sequelae of HIV and AIDS are especially needed. PMID:25214244

  1. Balancing Fidelity and Adaptation in the Dissemination of Empirically-Supported Treatments: The Promise of Transdiagnostic Interventions

    PubMed Central

    McHugh, R. Kathryn; Murray, Heather W.; Barlow, David H.

    2009-01-01

    Assessing treatment fidelity is a core methodological consideration in the study of treatment outcome; it influences both the degree to which changes can be attributed to the intervention and the ability to replicate and disseminate the intervention. Efforts to increase access to evidence-based psychological treatments are receiving unprecedented support; but pressures exist to adapt treatments to service settings, running the risk of compromising fidelity. However, little evidence is available to inform the necessary conditions for the transportation of interventions to service provision settings, and the degree to which fidelity is even evaluated or emphasized in dissemination and implementation programs varies dramatically. Moreover, adaptation is associated with several benefits for dissemination efforts and may address relevant barriers to adoption. A particularly promising strategy for maximizing the benefits of both fidelity and adaptation is the use of transdiagnostic interventions. Such treatments allow for greater flexibility of the pacing and content of treatment, while still providing structure to facilitate testing and replication. Preliminary evidence supports the efficacy of this strategy, which may be particularly conducive to dissemination into service provision settings. At this time, further research is needed to evaluate the relationships among fidelity, adaptation, and outcome, and to determine the potential for transdiagnostic treatments to facilitate dissemination. PMID:19643395

  2. Influences of synthesis methods and modifier addition on the properties of Ni-based catalysts supported on reticulated ceramic foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikolić, Vesna; Kamberović, Željko; Anđić, Zoran; Korać, Marija; Sokić, Miroslav; Maksimović, Vesna

    2014-08-01

    A method of synthesizing Ni-based catalysts supported on α-Al2O3-based foams was developed. The foams were impregnated with aqueous solutions of metal chlorides under an air atmosphere using an aerosol route. Separate procedures involved calcination to form oxides and drying to obtain chlorides on the foam surface. The synthesized samples were subsequently reduced with hydrogen. With respect to the Ni/Al2O3 catalysts, the chloride reduction route enabled the formation of a Ni coating without agglomerates or cracks. Further research included catalyst modification by the addition of Pd, Cu, and Fe. The influences of the additives on the degree of reduction and on the low-temperature reduction effectiveness (533 and 633 K) were examined and compared for the catalysts obtained from oxides and chlorides. Greater degrees of reduction were achieved with chlorides, whereas Pd was the most effective modifier among those investigated. The reduction process was nearly complete at 533 K in the sample that contained 0.1wt% Pd. A lower reduction temperature was utilized, and the calcination step was avoided, which may enhance the economical and technological aspects of the developed catalyst production method.

  3. Sex-Specific Arrival Times on the Breeding Grounds: Hybridizing Migratory Skuas Provide Empirical Support for the Role of Sex Ratios.

    PubMed

    Lisovski, Simeon; Fröhlich, Anne; von Tersch, Matthew; Klaassen, Marcel; Peter, Hans-Ulrich; Ritz, Markus S

    2016-04-01

    In migratory animals, protandry (earlier arrival of males on the breeding grounds) prevails over protogyny (females preceding males). In theory, sex differences in timing of arrival should be driven by the operational sex ratio, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations. However, empirical support for this hypothesis is, to date, lacking. To test this hypothesis, we analyzed arrival data from three populations of the long-distance migratory south polar skua (Catharacta maccormicki). These populations differed in their operational sex ratio caused by the unidirectional hybridization of male south polar skuas with female brown skuas (Catharacta antarctica lonnbergi). We found that arrival times were protandrous in allopatry, shifting toward protogyny in female-biased populations when breeding in sympatry. This unique observation is consistent with theoretical predictions that sex-specific arrival times should be influenced by sex ratio and that protogyny should be observed in populations with female-biased operational sex ratio. PMID:27028080

  4. Insights from neuroenergetics into the interpretation of functional neuroimaging: an alternative empirical model for studying the brain's support of behavior

    PubMed Central

    Shulman, Robert G; Hyder, Fahmeed; Rothman, Douglas L

    2014-01-01

    Functional neuroimaging measures quantitative changes in neurophysiological parameters coupled to neuronal activity during observable behavior. These results have usually been interpreted by assuming that mental causation of behavior arises from the simultaneous actions of distinct psychological mechanisms or modules. However, reproducible localization of these modules in the brain using functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and positron emission tomography (PET) imaging has been elusive other than for sensory systems. In this paper, we show that neuroenergetic studies using PET, calibrated functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), 13C magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and electrical recordings do not support the standard approach, which identifies the location of mental modules from changes in brain activity. Of importance in reaching this conclusion is that changes in neuronal activities underlying the fMRI signal are many times smaller than the high ubiquitous, baseline neuronal activity, or energy in resting, awake humans. Furthermore, the incremental signal depends on the baseline activity contradicting theoretical assumptions about linearity and insertion of mental modules. To avoid these problems, while making use of these valuable results, we propose that neuroimaging should be used to identify observable brain activities that are necessary for a person's observable behavior rather than being used to seek hypothesized mental processes. PMID:25160670

  5. Components of yeast (Sacchromyces cervisiae) extract as defined media additives that support the growth and productivity of CHO cells.

    PubMed

    Spearman, Maureen; Chan, Sarah; Jung, Vince; Kowbel, Vanessa; Mendoza, Meg; Miranda, Vivian; Butler, Michael

    2016-09-10

    Yeast and plant hydrolysates are used as media supplements to support the growth and productivity of CHO cultures for biopharmaceutical production. Through fractionation of a yeast lysate and metabolic analysis of a fraction that had bioactivity equivalent to commercial yeast extract (YE), bioactive components were identified that promoted growth and productivity of two recombinant CHO cell lines (CHO-Luc and CHO-hFcEG2) equivalent to or greater than YE-supplemented media. Autolysis of the yeast lysate was not necessary for full activity, suggesting that the active components are present in untreated yeast cells. A bioactive fraction (3KF) of the yeast lysate was isolated from the permeate using a 3kDa molecular weight cut-off (MWCO) filter. Supplementation of this 3KF fraction into the base media supported growth of CHO-Luc cells over eight passages equivalent to YE-supplemented media. The 3KF fraction was fractionated further by a cation exchange spin column using a stepwise pH elution. Metabolomic analysis of a bioactive fraction isolated at high pH identified several arginine and lysine-containing peptides as well as two polyamines, spermine and spermidine, with 3.5× and 4.5× higher levels compared to a fraction showing no bioactivity. The addition of a mixture of polyamines and their precursors (putrescine, spermine, spermidine, ornithine and citrulline) as well as increasing the concentration of some of the components of the original base medium resulted in a chemically-defined (CD) formulation that produced an equivalent viable cell density (VCD) and productivity of the CHO-Luc cells as the YE-supplemented medium. The VCD of the CHO-hFcEG2 culture in the CD medium was 1.9× greater and with equivalent productivity to the YE-supplemented media. PMID:27165505

  6. Empirical and theoretical dosimetry in support of whole body radio frequency (RF) exposure in seated human volunteers at 220 MHz.

    PubMed

    Allen, Stewart J; Adair, Eleanor R; Mylacraine, Kevin S; Hurt, William; Ziriax, John

    2005-09-01

    This study reports the dosimetry performed to support an experiment that measured physiological responses of seated volunteer human subjects exposed to 220 MHz fields. Exposures were performed in an anechoic chamber which was designed to provide uniform fields for frequencies of 100 MHz or greater. A vertical half-wave dipole with a 90 degrees reflector was used to optimize the field at the subject's location. The vertically polarized E field was incident on the dorsal side of the phantoms and human volunteers. The dosimetry plan required measurement of stationary probe drift, field strengths as a function of distance, electric and magnetic field maps at 200, 225, and 250 cm from the dipole antenna, and specific absorption rate (SAR) measurements using a human phantom, as well as theoretical predictions of SAR with the finite difference time domain (FDTD) method. A NBS (National Bureau of Standards, now NIST, National Institute of Standards and Technology, Boulder, CO) 10 cm loop antenna was positioned 150 cm to the right, 100 cm above and 60 cm behind the subject (toward the transmitting antenna) and was read prior to each subject's exposure and at 5 min intervals during all RF exposures. Transmitter stability was determined by measuring plate voltage, plate current, screen voltage and grid voltage for the driver and final amplifiers before and at 5 min intervals throughout the RF exposures. These dosimetry measurements assured accurate and consistent exposures. FDTD calculations were used to determine SAR distribution in a seated human subject. This study reports the necessary dosimetry to precisely control exposure levels for studies of the physiological consequences of human volunteer exposures to 220 MHz. PMID:15931686

  7. Support vector machine to predict diesel engine performance and emission parameters fueled with nano-particles additive to diesel fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghanbari, M.; Najafi, G.; Ghobadian, B.; Mamat, R.; Noor, M. M.; Moosavian, A.

    2015-12-01

    This paper studies the use of adaptive Support Vector Machine (SVM) to predict the performance parameters and exhaust emissions of a diesel engine operating on nanodiesel blended fuels. In order to predict the engine parameters, the whole experimental data were randomly divided into training and testing data. For SVM modelling, different values for radial basis function (RBF) kernel width and penalty parameters (C) were considered and the optimum values were then found. The results demonstrate that SVM is capable of predicting the diesel engine performance and emissions. In the experimental step, Carbon nano tubes (CNT) (40, 80 and 120 ppm) and nano silver particles (40, 80 and 120 ppm) with nanostructure were prepared and added as additive to the diesel fuel. Six cylinders, four-stroke diesel engine was fuelled with these new blended fuels and operated at different engine speeds. Experimental test results indicated the fact that adding nano particles to diesel fuel, increased diesel engine power and torque output. For nano-diesel it was found that the brake specific fuel consumption (bsfc) was decreased compared to the net diesel fuel. The results proved that with increase of nano particles concentrations (from 40 ppm to 120 ppm) in diesel fuel, CO2 emission increased. CO emission in diesel fuel with nano-particles was lower significantly compared to pure diesel fuel. UHC emission with silver nano-diesel blended fuel decreased while with fuels that contains CNT nano particles increased. The trend of NOx emission was inverse compared to the UHC emission. With adding nano particles to the blended fuels, NOx increased compared to the net diesel fuel. The tests revealed that silver & CNT nano particles can be used as additive in diesel fuel to improve complete combustion of the fuel and reduce the exhaust emissions significantly.

  8. Reduction of sludge generation by the addition of support material in a cyclic activated sludge system for municipal wastewater treatment.

    PubMed

    Araujo, Moacir Messias de; Lermontov, André; Araujo, Philippe Lopes da Silva; Zaiat, Marcelo

    2013-09-01

    An innovative biomass carrier (Biobob®) was tested for municipal wastewater treatment in an activated sludge system to evaluate the pollutant removal performance and the sludge generation for different carrier volumes. The experiment was carried out in a pilot-scale cyclic activated sludge system (CASS®) built with three cylindrical tanks in a series: an anoxic selector (2.1 m(3)), an aerobic selector (2.5 m(3)) and the main aerobic reactor (25.1 m(3)). The results showed that by adding the Biobob® carrier decreased the MLVSS concentration, which consequently reduced the waste sludge production of the system. Having 7% and 18% (v/v) support material in the aerobic reactor, the observed biomass yield decreased 18% and 36%, respectively, relative to the reactor operated with suspended biomass. The addition of media did not affect the system's performance for COD and TSS removal. However, TKN and TN removal were improved by 24% and 14%, respectively, using 18% (v/v) carrier. PMID:23831747

  9. A pathway-based analysis provides additional support for an immune-related genetic susceptibility to Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Holmans, Peter; Moskvina, Valentina; Jones, Lesley; Sharma, Manu; Vedernikov, Alexey; Buchel, Finja; Sadd, Mohamad; Bras, Jose M.; Bettella, Francesco; Nicolaou, Nayia; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Mittag, Florian; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Schulte, Claudia; Durr, Alexandra; Guerreiro, Rita; Hernandez, Dena; Brice, Alexis; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Majamaa, Kari; Gasser, Thomas; Heutink, Peter; Wood, Nicholas W.; Martinez, Maria; Singleton, Andrew B.; Nalls, Michael A.; Hardy, John; Morris, Huw R.; Williams, Nigel M.; Arepalli, Sampath; Barker, Roger; Barrett, Jeffrey; Ben-Shlomo, Yoav; Berendse, Henk W.; Berg, Daniela; Bhatia, Kailash; de Bie, Rob M.A.; Biffi, Alessandro; Bloem, Bas; Brice, Alexis; Bochdanovits, Zoltan; Bonin, Michael; Bras, Jose M.; Brockmann, Kathrin; Brooks, Janet; Burn, David J.; Charlesworth, Gavin; Chen, Honglei; Chinnery, Patrick F.; Chong, Sean; Clarke, Carl E.; Cookson, Mark R.; Cooper, Jonathan M.; Corvol, Jen-Christophe; Counsell, Carl; Damier, Philippe; Dartigues, Jean Francois; Deloukas, Panagiotis; Deuschl, Günther; Dexter, David T.; van Dijk, Karin D.; Dillman, Allissa; Durif, Frank; Durr, Alexandra; Edkins, Sarah; Evans, Jonathan R.; Foltynie, Thomas; Gao, Jianjun; Gardner, Michelle; Gasser, Thomas; Gibbs, J. Raphael; Goate, Alison; Gray, Emma; Guerreiro, Rita; Gústafsson, Ómar; Hardy, John; Harris, Clare; Hernandez, Dena G.; Heutink, Peter; van Hilten, Jacobus J.; Hofman, Albert; Hollenbeck, Albert; Holmans, Peter; Holton, Janice; Hu, Michele; Huber, Heiko; Hudson, Gavin; Hunt, Sarah E.; Huttenlocher, Johanna; Illig, Thomas; Langford, Cordelia; Lees, Andrew; Lesage, Suzanne; Lichtner, Peter; Limousin, Patricia; Lopez, Grisel; Lorenz, Delia; Martinez, Maria; McNeill, Alisdair; Moorby, Catriona; Moore, Matthew; Morris, Huw; Morrison, Karen E.; Moskvina, Valentina; Mudanohwo, Ese; Nalls, Michael A.; Pearson, Justin; Perlmutter, Joel S.; Pétursson, Hjörvar; Plagnol, Vincent; Pollak, Pierre; Post, Bart; Potter, Simon; Ravina, Bernard; Revesz, Tamas; Riess, Olaf; Rivadeneira, Fernando; Rizzu, Patrizia; Ryten, Mina; Saad, Mohamad; Sawcer, Stephen; Schapira, Anthony; Scheffer, Hans; Sharma, Manu; Shaw, Karen; Sheerin, Una-Marie; Shoulson, Ira; Schulte, Claudia; Sidransky, Ellen; Simón-Sánchez, Javier; Singleton, Andrew B.; Smith, Colin; Stefánsson, Hreinn; Stefánsson, Kári; Steinberg, Stacy; Stockton, Joanna D.; Sveinbjornsdottir, Sigurlaug; Talbot, Kevin; Tanner, Carlie M.; Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Avazeh; Tison, François; Trabzuni, Daniah; Traynor, Bryan J.; Uitterlinden, André G.; Velseboer, Daan; Vidailhet, Marie; Walker, Robert; van de Warrenburg, Bart; Wickremaratchi, Mirdhu; Williams, Nigel; Williams-Gray, Caroline H.; Winder-Rhodes, Sophie; Wood, Nicholas

    2013-01-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disease affecting 1–2% in people >60 and 3–4% in people >80. Genome-wide association (GWA) studies have now implicated significant evidence for association in at least 18 genomic regions. We have studied a large PD-meta analysis and identified a significant excess of SNPs (P < 1 × 10−16) that are associated with PD but fall short of the genome-wide significance threshold. This result was independent of variants at the 18 previously implicated regions and implies the presence of additional polygenic risk alleles. To understand how these loci increase risk of PD, we applied a pathway-based analysis, testing for biological functions that were significantly enriched for genes containing variants associated with PD. Analysing two independent GWA studies, we identified that both had a significant excess in the number of functional categories enriched for PD-associated genes (minimum P = 0.014 and P = 0.006, respectively). Moreover, 58 categories were significantly enriched for associated genes in both GWA studies (P < 0.001), implicating genes involved in the ‘regulation of leucocyte/lymphocyte activity’ and also ‘cytokine-mediated signalling’ as conferring an increased susceptibility to PD. These results were unaltered by the exclusion of all 178 genes that were present at the 18 genomic regions previously reported to be strongly associated with PD (including the HLA locus). Our findings, therefore, provide independent support to the strong association signal at the HLA locus and imply that the immune-related genetic susceptibility to PD is likely to be more widespread in the genome than previously appreciated. PMID:23223016

  10. [An empirical investigation of the demand-control-social support model: effects on burnout and on somatic complaints among nursing staff].

    PubMed

    Pisanti, R

    2007-01-01

    The present study investigated the relationship between job characteristics and well-being dimensions (burnout and somatic complaints) in a group of 271 nurses. The study, based on Karasek and Theorell's theoretic model of demand-control-social support, aimed to test the following hypotheses: (a) that there is a linear association between each job dimension (demand, control, social support) and indexes of stress (emotional exhaustion, depersonalization, personal accomplishment and somatization); (b) whether there is an additive or interactive ("buffer") action among the model variables in predicting stress. Concerning the hypothesis of linearity, regression analysis revealed two non-linear associations: between job control and emotional exhaustion, and between social support and the level of somatic symptoms. Concerning the second hypothesis, controlling for age and gender, results of hierarchical regression indicated that job control and social support combine in different additive patterns with job demands to explain outcomes of well-being. Findings confirmed the significant role of socio-demographic variables (age and gender) in predicting occupational strain. PMID:17650740

  11. Beyond Mentoring: A Review of Literature Detailing the Need for Additional and Alternative Forms of Support for Novice Music Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bell-Robertson, Catherine G.

    2015-01-01

    Support for music teachers new to the profession is important and necessary. Some school districts use traditional mentor-mentee pairings as their primary support for novice music teachers; however, many factors in the professional lives of music teachers, such as traveling among multiple schools or a lack of subject-specific colleagues often…

  12. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  13. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  14. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  15. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  16. 49 CFR 40.303 - What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional treatment, aftercare, or support...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false What happens if the SAP believes the employee... the Return-to-Duty Process § 40.303 What happens if the SAP believes the employee needs additional...? (a) As a SAP, if you believe that ongoing services (in addition to follow-up tests) are needed...

  17. Effect of PEG additive on anode microstructure and cell performance of anode-supported MT-SOFCs fabricated by phase inversion method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, Cong; Liu, Tong; Maturavongsadit, Panita; Luckanagul, Jittima Amie; Chen, Fanglin

    2015-04-01

    Anode-supported micro-tubular solid oxide fuel cells (MT-SOFCs) have been fabricated by phase inversion method. For the anode support preparation, N-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP), polyethersulfone (PESf) and poly ethylene glycol (PEG) were applied as solvent, polymer binder and additive, respectively. The effect of molecular weight and amount of PEG additive on the thermodynamics of the casting solutions was characterized by measuring the coagulation value. Viscosity of the casting slurries was also measured and the influence of PEG additive on viscosity was studied and discussed. The presence of PEG in the casting slurry can significantly influence the final anode support microstructure. Based on the microstructure result and the measured gas permeation value, two anode supports were selected for cell fabrication. For cell with the anode support fabricated using slurry with PEG additive, a maximum cell power density of 704 mW cm-2 is obtained at 750 °C with humidified hydrogen as fuel and ambient air as oxidant; cell fabricated without any PEG additive shows the peak cell power density of 331 mW cm-2. The relationship between anode microstructure and cell performance was discussed.

  18. Hurler-Scheie phenotype with parental consanguinity. Report of an additional case supporting the concept of genetic heterogeneity.

    PubMed

    Kaibara, N; Katsuki, I; Hotokebuchi, T; Takagishi, K; Kure, T

    1983-05-01

    The Hurler-Scheie phenotype in a 27-year-old woman of first-cousin parentage is possibly the first reported in the orthopedic literature. The patient exhibited short stature, coarse facies, corneal clouding, multiple stiff joints, normal intelligence, and a long history of bilateral carpal tunnel syndrome, which has not been relieved after operation. The irreversible nerve damage was apparently produced by the marked thickening of the transverse carpal ligament. Surgical findings in this case and data from published reports emphasize the need for early surgical treatment of the associated carpal tunnel syndrome in patients with the Hurler-Scheie phenotype. Parental consanguinity present in this patient is further evidence supporting the concept of a third mutant allele different from both the Hurler gene and the Scheie gene. PMID:6404579

  19. Linking process, structure, property, and performance for metal-based additive manufacturing: computational approaches with experimental support

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Jacob; Xiong, Wei; Yan, Wentao; Lin, Stephen; Cheng, Puikei; Kafka, Orion L.; Wagner, Gregory J.; Cao, Jian; Liu, Wing Kam

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) methods for rapid prototyping of 3D materials (3D printing) have become increasingly popular with a particular recent emphasis on those methods used for metallic materials. These processes typically involve an accumulation of cyclic phase changes. The widespread interest in these methods is largely stimulated by their unique ability to create components of considerable complexity. However, modeling such processes is exceedingly difficult due to the highly localized and drastic material evolution that often occurs over the course of the manufacture time of each component. Final product characterization and validation are currently driven primarily by experimental means as a result of the lack of robust modeling procedures. In the present work, the authors discuss primary detrimental hurdles that have plagued effective modeling of AM methods for metallic materials while also providing logical speculation into preferable research directions for overcoming these hurdles. The primary focus of this work encompasses the specific areas of high-performance computing, multiscale modeling, materials characterization, process modeling, experimentation, and validation for final product performance of additively manufactured metallic components.

  20. Piloting the Post-Entry Language Assessment: Outcomes from a New System for Supporting Research Candidates with English as an Additional Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tynan, Liz; Johns, Kellie

    2015-01-01

    The Post-Entry Language Assessment (PELA) was introduced by the James Cook University Graduate Research School in February 2013 as a pilot programme to test a new mechanism for initiating post-enrolment support for research degree candidates who have English as an additional language. Language ability does not necessarily, on its own, predict…

  1. Gene expression suggests conserved aspects of Hox gene regulation in arthropods and provides additional support for monophyletic Myriapoda.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ralf; Budd, Graham E

    2010-01-01

    Antisense transcripts of Ultrabithorax (aUbx) in the millipede Glomeris and the centipede Lithobius are expressed in patterns complementary to that of the Ubx sense transcripts. A similar complementary expression pattern has been described for non-coding RNAs (ncRNAs) of the bithoraxoid (bxd) locus in Drosophila, in which the transcription of bxd ncRNAs represses Ubx via transcriptional interference. We discuss our findings in the context of possibly conserved mechanisms of Ubx regulation in myriapods and the fly.Bicistronic transcription of Ubx and Antennapedia (Antp) has been reported previously for a myriapod and a number of crustaceans. In this paper, we show that Ubx/Antp bicistronic transcripts also occur in Glomeris and an onychophoran, suggesting further conserved mechanisms of Hox gene regulation in arthropods.Myriapod monophyly is supported by the expression of aUbx in all investigated myriapods, whereas in other arthropod classes, including the Onychophora, aUbx is not expressed. Of the two splice variants of Ubx/Antp only one could be isolated from myriapods, representing a possible further synapomorphy of the Myriapoda. PMID:20849647

  2. Fish composition and species richness in eastern South American coastal lagoons: additional support for the freshwater ecoregions of the world.

    PubMed

    Petry, A C; Guimarães, T F R; Vasconcellos, F M; Hartz, S M; Becker, F G; Rosa, R S; Goyenola, G; Caramaschi, E P; Díaz de Astarloa, J M; Sarmento-Soares, L M; Vieira, J P; Garcia, A M; Teixeira de Mello, F; de Melo, F A G; Meerhoff, M; Attayde, J L; Menezes, R F; Mazzeo, N; Di Dario, F

    2016-07-01

    The relationships between fish composition, connectivity and morphometry of 103 lagoons in nine freshwater ecoregions (FEOW) between 2·83° S and 37·64° S were evaluated in order to detect possible congruence between the gradient of species richness and similarities of assemblage composition. Most lagoons included in the study were <2 km(2) , with a maximum of 3975 km(2) in surface area. Combined surface area of all lagoons included in the study was 5411 km(2) . Number of species varied locally from one to 76. A multiple regression revealed that latitude, attributes of morphometry and connectivity, and sampling effort explained a large amount of variability in species richness. Lagoon area was a good predictor of species richness except in low latitude ecoregions, where lagoons are typically small-sized and not affected by marine immigrants, and where non-native fish species accounted for a significant portion of species richness. Relationships between species and area in small-sized lagoons (<2 km(2) ) is highly similar to the expected number in each ecoregion, with systems located between 18·27° S and 30·15° S attaining higher levels of species richness. Similarities in species composition within the primary, secondary and peripheral or marine divisions revealed strong continental biogeographic patterns only for species less tolerant or intolerant to salinity. Further support for the FEOW scheme in the eastern border of South America is therefore provided, and now includes ecotonal systems inhabited simultaneously by freshwater and marine species of fishes. PMID:27401481

  3. Systematic Dissection of Coding Exons at Single Nucleotide Resolution Supports an Additional Role in Cell-Specific Transcriptional Regulation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Mee J.; Findlay, Gregory M.; Martin, Beth; Zhao, Jingjing; Bell, Robert J. A.; Smith, Robin P.; Ku, Angel A.; Shendure, Jay; Ahituv, Nadav

    2014-01-01

    In addition to their protein coding function, exons can also serve as transcriptional enhancers. Mutations in these exonic-enhancers (eExons) could alter both protein function and transcription. However, the functional consequence of eExon mutations is not well known. Here, using massively parallel reporter assays, we dissect the enhancer activity of three liver eExons (SORL1 exon 17, TRAF3IP2 exon 2, PPARG exon 6) at single nucleotide resolution in the mouse liver. We find that both synonymous and non-synonymous mutations have similar effects on enhancer activity and many of the deleterious mutation clusters overlap known liver-associated transcription factor binding sites. Carrying a similar massively parallel reporter assay in HeLa cells with these three eExons found differences in their mutation profiles compared to the liver, suggesting that enhancers could have distinct operating profiles in different tissues. Our results demonstrate that eExon mutations could lead to multiple phenotypes by disrupting both the protein sequence and enhancer activity and that enhancers can have distinct mutation profiles in different cell types. PMID:25340400

  4. Deriving Criteria-supporting Benchmark Values from Empirical Response Relationships: Comparison of Statistical Techniques and Effect of Log-transforming the Nutrient Variable

    EPA Science Inventory

    In analyses supporting the development of numeric nutrient criteria, multiple statistical techniques can be used to extract critical values from stressor response relationships. However there is little guidance for choosing among techniques, and the extent to which log-transfor...

  5. A Theoretical and Empirical Analysis of the Roles of Instructional Leadership, Teacher Collaboration, and Collective Efficacy Beliefs in Support of Student Learning

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goddard, Roger; Goddard, Yvonne; Kim, Eun Sook; Miller, Robert

    2015-01-01

    Principals' instructional leadership may support the degree to which teachers work together to improve instruction, and together leadership and teacher collaboration may contribute to school effectiveness by strengthening collective efficacy beliefs. We found a significant direct effect of leadership on teacher collaboration. Further, leadership…

  6. Empirical Support for the Integration of Dispositions in Action and Multiple Literacies into AASL's Standards for the 21st Century Learner

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Arnone, Marilyn P.; Reynolds, Rebecca

    2009-01-01

    AASL's Standards for the 21st Century Learner are based on a number of common beliefs, including the importance of reading and technology skills, and the acknowledgement that the concept of information literacy has indeed become more complex since the last century. The data provided in this article support the importance of considering the…

  7. The effect of diet supplementation and addition of zinc in vitro on the growth-supporting property of amniotic fluid in African women.

    PubMed

    Appelbaum, P C; Ross, S M; Dhupelia, I; Naeye, R L

    1979-09-01

    The effect of diet supplementation throughout pregnancy on third-trimester amniotic fluid growth-supporting activity (GSP) was studied in 100 African women; 32 were given zinc supplementation, 22 each animal and vegetable supplements, respectively, and 24 served as control subjects. No difference in GSP was noted in any of the four groups, the majority of fluids (65%) being noninhibitory. Zinc levels in fluids from African women were much lower than those described for other population groups at corresponding periods of gestation. Although zinc levels in liquor rose following dietary zinc supplementation, these remained lower than values described in white patients. In vitro addition of zinc (up to 153 mu moles per liter final concentration) to 17 noninhibitory African liquors resulted in these fluids becoming inhibitory. PMID:474664

  8. Optimization of the β-Elimination/Michael Addition Chemistry on Reversed-Phase Supports for Mass Spectrometry Analysis of O-Linked Protein Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Nika, Heinz; Nieves, Edward; Hawke, David H.; Angeletti, Ruth Hogue

    2013-01-01

    We previously adapted the β-elimination/Michael addition chemistry to solid-phase derivatization on reversed-phase supports, and demonstrated the utility of this reaction format to prepare phosphoseryl peptides in unfractionated protein digests for mass spectrometric identification and facile phosphorylation-site determination. Here, we have expanded the use of this technique to β-N-acetylglucosamine peptides, modified at serine/threonine, phosphothreonyl peptides, and phosphoseryl/phosphothreonyl peptides, followed in sequence by proline. The consecutive β-elimination with Michael addition was adapted to optimize the solid-phase reaction conditions for throughput and completeness of derivatization. The analyte remained intact during derivatization and was recovered efficiently from the silica-based, reversed-phase support with minimal sample loss. The general use of the solid-phase approach for enzymatic dephosphorylation was demonstrated with phosphoseryl and phosphothreonyl peptides and was used as an orthogonal method to confirm the identity of phosphopeptides in proteolytic mixtures. The solid-phase approach proved highly suitable to prepare substrates from low-level amounts of protein digests for phosphorylation-site determination by chemical-targeted proteolysis. The solid-phase protocol provides for a simple, robust, and efficient tool to prepare samples for phosphopeptide identification in MALDI mass maps of unfractionated protein digests, using standard equipment available in most biological laboratories. The use of a solid-phase analytical platform is expected to be readily expanded to prepare digest from O-glycosylated- and O-sulfonated proteins for mass spectrometry-based structural characterization. PMID:23997661

  9. Lateral Diffusion of Proteins on Supported Lipid Bilayers: Additive Friction of Synaptotagmin 7 C2A–C2B Tandem Domains

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The synaptotagmin (Syt) family of proteins contains tandem C2 domains, C2A and C2B, which bind membranes in the presence of Ca2+ to trigger vesicle fusion during exocytosis. Despite recent progress, the role and extent of interdomain interactions between C2A and C2B in membrane binding remain unclear. To test whether the two domains interact on a planar lipid bilayer (i.e., experience thermodynamic interdomain contacts), diffusion of fluorescent-tagged C2A, C2B, and C2AB domains from human Syt7 was measured using total internal reflection fluorescence microscopy with single-particle tracking. The C2AB tandem exhibits a lateral diffusion constant approximately half the value of the isolated single domains and does not change when additional residues are engineered into the C2A–C2B linker. This is the expected result if C2A and C2B are separated when membrane-bound; theory predicts that C2AB diffusion would be faster if the two domains were close enough together to have interdomain contact. Stopped-flow measurements of membrane dissociation kinetics further support an absence of interdomain interactions, as dissociation kinetics of the C2AB tandem remain unchanged when rigid or flexible linker extensions are included. Together, the results suggest that the two C2 domains of Syt7 bind independently to planar membranes, in contrast to reported interdomain cooperativity in Syt1. PMID:25437758

  10. Empirical analysis of BMD metrics in genetic toxicology part I: in vitro analyses to provide robust potency rankings and support MOA determinations.

    PubMed

    Wills, John W; Johnson, George E; Doak, Shareen H; Soeteman-Hernández, Lya G; Slob, Wout; White, Paul A

    2016-05-01

    Genetic toxicity testing has traditionally been used for hazard identification, with dichotomous classification of test results serving to identify genotoxic agents. However, the utility of genotoxicity data can be augmented by employing dose-response analysis and point of departure determination. Via interpolation from a fitted dose-response model, the benchmark dose (BMD) approach estimates the dose that elicits a specified (small) effect size. BMD metrics and their confidence intervals can be used for compound potency ranking within an endpoint, as well as potency comparisons across other factors such as cell line or exposure duration. A recently developed computational method, the BMD covariate approach, permits combined analysis of multiple dose-response data sets that are differentiated by covariates such as compound, cell type or exposure regime. The approach provides increased BMD precision for effective potency rankings across compounds and other covariates that pertain to a hypothesised mode of action (MOA). To illustrate these applications, the covariate approach was applied to the analysis of published in vitro micronucleus frequency dose-response data for ionising radiations, a set of aneugens, two mutagenic azo compounds and a topoisomerase II inhibitor. The ionising radiation results show that the precision of BMD estimates can be improved by employing the covariate method. The aneugen analysis provided potency groupings based on the BMD confidence intervals, and analyses of azo compound data from cells lines with differing metabolic capacity confirmed the influence of endogenous metabolism on genotoxic potency. This work, which is the first of a two-part series, shows that BMD-derived potency rankings can be employed to support MOA evaluations as well as facilitate read across to expedite chemical evaluations and regulatory decision-making. The follow-up (Part II) employs the combined covariate approach to analyse in vivo genetic toxicity dose

  11. Interplay between synchronization of multivesicular release and recruitment of additional release sites support short-term facilitation at hippocampal mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cells synapses.

    PubMed

    Chamberland, Simon; Evstratova, Alesya; Tóth, Katalin

    2014-08-13

    Synaptic short-term plasticity is a key regulator of neuronal communication and is controlled via various mechanisms. A well established property of mossy fiber to CA3 pyramidal cell synapses is the extensive short-term facilitation during high-frequency bursts. We investigated the mechanisms governing facilitation using a combination of whole-cell electrophysiological recordings, electrical minimal stimulation, and random-access two-photon microscopy in acute mouse hippocampal slices. Two distinct presynaptic mechanisms were involved in short-term facilitation, with their relative contribution dependent on extracellular calcium concentration. The synchronization of multivesicular release was observed during trains of facilitating EPSCs recorded in 1.2 mM external Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)]e). Indeed, covariance analysis revealed a gradual augmentation in quantal size during trains of EPSCs, and application of the low-affinity glutamate receptor antagonist γ-D-glutamylglycine showed an increase in cleft glutamate concentration during paired-pulse stimulation. Whereas synchronization of multivesicular release contributed to the facilitation in 1.2 mM [Ca(2+)]e, variance-mean analysis showed that recruitment of more release sites (N) was likely to account for the larger facilitation observed in 2.5 mM [Ca(2+)]e. Furthermore, this increase in N could be promoted by calcium microdomains of heterogeneous amplitudes observed in single mossy fiber boutons. Our findings suggest that the combination of multivesicular release and the recruitment of additional release sites act together to increase glutamate release during burst activity. This is supported by the compartmentalized spatial profile of calcium elevations in boutons and helps to expand the dynamic range of mossy fibers information transfer. PMID:25122902

  12. Why Psychology Cannot be an Empirical Science.

    PubMed

    Smedslund, Jan

    2016-06-01

    The current empirical paradigm for psychological research is criticized because it ignores the irreversibility of psychological processes, the infinite number of influential factors, the pseudo-empirical nature of many hypotheses, and the methodological implications of social interactivity. An additional point is that the differences and correlations usually found are much too small to be useful in psychological practice and in daily life. Together, these criticisms imply that an objective, accumulative, empirical and theoretical science of psychology is an impossible project. PMID:26712604

  13. Chinese Fantasy Novel: Empirical Study on New Word Teaching for Non-Native Learners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meng, Bok Check; Soon, Goh Ying

    2014-01-01

    Giving additional learning materials such as Chinese fantasy novel to non-native learners can be strenuous. This study seeks to render empirical support on the usefulness of the use of new words in Chinese fantasy novel to enhance vocabulary learning among the non-native learners of Chinese. In general, the students agreed that they like to learn…

  14. An Empirically Supported Eating Disorder Prevention Program.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phelps, LeAdelle; Sapia, Jennifer; Nathanson, David; Nelson, Linda

    2000-01-01

    An eating disorder prevention program was completed with middle school, high school, and college females. Some successful outcomes included: (1) facilitating an acknowledgement of pressures to attain a model skeletal look; (2) changing attitudes about standards of beauty; and (3) altering the participants' current and future intentional use of…

  15. Outdoor Adventure and Health: Supporting Empirical Data.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bunting, Camille J.

    Outdoor adventure education programs may offer opportunities for improving overall wellness beyond the realm of physical fitness. A hypothetical framework is presented as follows: (1) outdoor adventure experiences provide individuals with opportunities to be truly challenged; (2) success in challenging situations builds self-efficacy and…

  16. Empirically Supported Psychotherapy Interventions for Internalizing Disorders

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Oswald, Donald P.; Mazefsky, Carla A.

    2006-01-01

    The present article provides an overview of the best-developed interventions for child and adolescent internalizing disorders characterized by anxiety and depression. The review emphasizes interventions that fall into established efficacy categories, but also addresses briefly several other promising treatment procedures. Research on the treatment…

  17. Law of Empires.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Martz, Carlton

    2001-01-01

    This issue of "Bill of Rights in Action" explores issues raised by empires and imperial law. The first article, "Clash of Empires: The Fight for North America," looks at the clash of empires and the fight for North America during the 18th century. The second article, "When Roman Law Ruled the Western World," examines Roman Law, which helped hold…

  18. The Importance of a Theory-Informed Understanding of Additive Bilingual Education: Supporting Bilingualism and Biliteracy in a Melbourne Primary School

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Molyneux, Paul

    2006-01-01

    While Government commitments to supporting instruction in languages other than English have largely been honoured, bilingual education as a form of learning has not been widespread. Acknowledging the benefits of learning a language other than English, the most recent Australian national languages policy statement nonetheless makes no mention of…

  19. Establishment of a reference collection of additives and an analytical handbook of reference data to support enforcement of EU regulations on food contact plastics.

    PubMed

    van Lierop, B; Castle, L; Feigenbaum, A; Ehlert, K; Boenke, A

    1998-10-01

    A collection has been made of additives that are required as analytical standards for enforcement of European Union legislation on food contact plastics. The 100 additives have been characterized by mass spectrometry, infra-red spectroscopy and proton nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy to provide reference spectra. Gas chromatographic retention times have been recorded to facilitate identification by retention index. This information has been further supplemented by physico-chemical data. Finally, chromatographic methods have been used to indicate the presence of any impurities in the commercial chemicals. Samples of the reference substances are available on request and the collection of spectra and other information will be made available in printed format and on-line through the Internet. This paper gives an overview of the work done to establish the reference collection and the spectral atlas, which together will assist enforcement laboratories in the characterization of plastics and the selection of analytical methods for additives that may migrate. PMID:10211194

  20. Effects of Additional Intra-aortic Balloon Counter-Pulsation Therapy to Cardiogenic Shock Patients Supported by Extra-corporeal Membranous Oxygenation

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Lian-Yu; Liao, Che-Wei; Wang, Chih-Hsien; Chi, Nai-Hsin; Yu, Hsi-Yu; Chou, Nai-Kuan; Hwang, Juey-Jen; Lin, Jiunn-Lee; Chiang, Fu-Tien; Chen, Yih-Sharng

    2016-01-01

    Extra-corporeal membranous oxygenation (ECMO) has been applied in patients with cardiopulmonary failure. One critical drawback of peripheral ECMO is an increase in left ventricular (LV) afterload which could be counterbalanced by the combination of intra-aortic balloon counter-pulsation (IABP) therapy. We hypothesized that an add-on therapy with IABP could improve outcomes in patients receiving ECMO support. We included patients (>18 years old) from 2002 to 2013 requiring ECMO support due to cardiogenic shock in a medical center. A total of 529 patients (227 ECMO alone and 302 combined IABP plus ECMO) were included. The mortality rates at 2 weeks (48.5 vs. 47.7%) after ECMO implantation were not different between the two groups (ECMO vs. combined group). After adjustment for propensity score and potential confounders, the odds ratios of outcomes within 14 days (combined group vs. ECMO) for poor LV systolic function, high preload, multi-organ failure and mortality were not different. The results remained similar for subgroup analysis. Compared with ECMO alone, combined IABP and ECMO treatment did not improve outcomes in patients with circulatory failure. PMID:27032984

  1. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    Food additives are substances that become part of a food product when they are added during the processing or making of that food. "Direct" food additives are often added during processing to: Add nutrients ...

  2. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  3. Promotion of oxygen reduction reaction durability of carbon-supported PtAu catalysts by surface segregation and TiO₂ addition.

    PubMed

    Liu, Chen-Wei; Chen, Hong-Shuo; Lai, Chien-Ming; Lin, Jiunn-Nan; Tsai, Li-Duan; Wang, Kuan-Wen

    2014-02-12

    Highly effective carbon supported-Pt75Au25 catalysts for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) are prepared though titanium dioxide modification and post heat treatment. After accelerated durability test (ADT) of 1700 cycles, the ORR activity of PtAu/C catalysts modified by TiO2 and air heat treatment is 3 times higher than that of the commercial Pt/C. The enhancement of ORR activity is attributed to surface and structural alteration by air-induced Pt surface segregation and lower unfilled d states. On the contrary, for TiO2 modified and H2 treated PtAu/C catalysts, the deterioration of the ORR activity may be due to the loss of electrochemical surface area after ADT and the increase of d-band vacancy. PMID:24447040

  4. Assessing what is needed to resolve a molecular phylogeny: simulations and empirical data from emydid turtles

    PubMed Central

    Spinks, Phillip Q; Thomson, Robert C; Lovely, Geoff A; Shaffer, H Bradley

    2009-01-01

    Background Phylogenies often contain both well-supported and poorly supported nodes. Determining how much additional data might be required to eventually recover most or all nodes with high support is an important pragmatic goal, and simulations have been used to examine this question. Most simulations have been based on few empirical loci, and suggest that well supported phylogenies can be determined with a very modest amount of data. Here we report the results of an empirical phylogenetic analysis of all 10 genera and 25 of 48 species of the new world pond turtles (family Emydidae) based on one mitochondrial (1070 base pairs) and seven nuclear loci (5961 base pairs), and a more biologically realistic simulation analysis incorporating variation among gene trees, aimed at determining how much more data might be necessary to recover weakly-supported nodes with strong support. Results Our mitochondrial-based phylogeny was well resolved, and congruent with some previous mitochondrial results. For example, all genera, and all species except Pseudemys concinna, P. peninsularis, and Terrapene carolina were monophyletic with strong support from at least one analytical method. The Emydinae was recovered as monophyletic, but the Deirochelyinae was not. Based on nuclear data, all genera were monophyletic with strong support except Trachemys, and all species except Graptemys pseudogeographica, P. concinna, T. carolina, and T. coahuila were monophyletic, generally with strong support. However, the branches subtending most genera were relatively short, and intergeneric relationships within subfamilies were mostly unsupported. Our simulations showed that relatively high bootstrap support values (i.e. ≥ 70) for all nodes were reached in all datasets, but an increase in data did not necessarily equate to an increase in support values. However, simulations based on a single empirical locus reached higher overall levels of support with less data than did the simulations that were

  5. Food additives.

    PubMed

    Berglund, F

    1978-01-01

    The use of additives to food fulfils many purposes, as shown by the index issued by the Codex Committee on Food Additives: Acids, bases and salts; Preservatives, Antioxidants and antioxidant synergists; Anticaking agents; Colours; Emulfifiers; Thickening agents; Flour-treatment agents; Extraction solvents; Carrier solvents; Flavours (synthetic); Flavour enhancers; Non-nutritive sweeteners; Processing aids; Enzyme preparations. Many additives occur naturally in foods, but this does not exclude toxicity at higher levels. Some food additives are nutrients, or even essential nutritents, e.g. NaCl. Examples are known of food additives causing toxicity in man even when used according to regulations, e.g. cobalt in beer. In other instances, poisoning has been due to carry-over, e.g. by nitrate in cheese whey - when used for artificial feed for infants. Poisonings also occur as the result of the permitted substance being added at too high levels, by accident or carelessness, e.g. nitrite in fish. Finally, there are examples of hypersensitivity to food additives, e.g. to tartrazine and other food colours. The toxicological evaluation, based on animal feeding studies, may be complicated by impurities, e.g. orthotoluene-sulfonamide in saccharin; by transformation or disappearance of the additive in food processing in storage, e.g. bisulfite in raisins; by reaction products with food constituents, e.g. formation of ethylurethane from diethyl pyrocarbonate; by metabolic transformation products, e.g. formation in the gut of cyclohexylamine from cyclamate. Metabolic end products may differ in experimental animals and in man: guanylic acid and inosinic acid are metabolized to allantoin in the rat but to uric acid in man. The magnitude of the safety margin in man of the Acceptable Daily Intake (ADI) is not identical to the "safety factor" used when calculating the ADI. The symptoms of Chinese Restaurant Syndrome, although not hazardous, furthermore illustrate that the whole ADI

  6. Non-Empirical Confirmation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dawid, Richard

    2016-06-01

    In fundamental physics today, some theories are taken to be probably viable despite a lack of strong (or any) empirical confirmation. This situation suggests, I argue, an extension of the concept of theory confirmation that allows for confirmation by observations that are not predicted by the theory in question. "Non-empirical confirmation", as I call the latter form of confirmation, plays a more conspicuous role today than in earlier periods of physics. It has always constituted a significant albeit implicit element of the assessment of physical theory, however, that has not been adequately accounted for in canonical reconstructions of the scientific method. The talk discusses the core argumentative structure of non-empirical confirmation, analyses the concept’s reliance on the empirical testability of the theories in question and addresses some worries that have been raised in its regard.

  7. [Empiric treatment of pyelonephritis].

    PubMed

    Iarovoĭ, S K; Shimanovskiĭ, N L; Kareva, E N

    2011-01-01

    The article analyses the most typical clinical situations in empirical treatment of pyelonephritis including situations with comorbid severe diseases: decompensated diabetes mellitus, chronic renal failure, HIV-infection. Choice of antibacterial medicines for empiric treatment of pyelonephritis is based on the results of the latest studies of antibioticoresistance of pyelonephritis pathogens as well as on specific features of pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of antibacterial drugs. PMID:21815461

  8. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  9. Phosphazene additives

    SciTech Connect

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  10. 78 FR 6316 - Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire); Notice of Filing

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-01-30

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire); Notice of Filing Take notice that on November 29, 2012 Empire Pipeline Company (Empire) submitted a request for a waiver of the...

  11. Empirical intrinsic geometry for nonlinear modeling and time series filtering

    PubMed Central

    Talmon, Ronen; Coifman, Ronald R.

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, we present a method for time series analysis based on empirical intrinsic geometry (EIG). EIG enables one to reveal the low-dimensional parametric manifold as well as to infer the underlying dynamics of high-dimensional time series. By incorporating concepts of information geometry, this method extends existing geometric analysis tools to support stochastic settings and parametrizes the geometry of empirical distributions. However, the statistical models are not required as priors; hence, EIG may be applied to a wide range of real signals without existing definitive models. We show that the inferred model is noise-resilient and invariant under different observation and instrumental modalities. In addition, we show that it can be extended efficiently to newly acquired measurements in a sequential manner. These two advantages enable us to revisit the Bayesian approach and incorporate empirical dynamics and intrinsic geometry into a nonlinear filtering framework. We show applications to nonlinear and non-Gaussian tracking problems as well as to acoustic signal localization. PMID:23847205

  12. Empirical intrinsic geometry for nonlinear modeling and time series filtering.

    PubMed

    Talmon, Ronen; Coifman, Ronald R

    2013-07-30

    In this paper, we present a method for time series analysis based on empirical intrinsic geometry (EIG). EIG enables one to reveal the low-dimensional parametric manifold as well as to infer the underlying dynamics of high-dimensional time series. By incorporating concepts of information geometry, this method extends existing geometric analysis tools to support stochastic settings and parametrizes the geometry of empirical distributions. However, the statistical models are not required as priors; hence, EIG may be applied to a wide range of real signals without existing definitive models. We show that the inferred model is noise-resilient and invariant under different observation and instrumental modalities. In addition, we show that it can be extended efficiently to newly acquired measurements in a sequential manner. These two advantages enable us to revisit the Bayesian approach and incorporate empirical dynamics and intrinsic geometry into a nonlinear filtering framework. We show applications to nonlinear and non-Gaussian tracking problems as well as to acoustic signal localization. PMID:23847205

  13. Empirical Evidence of Self-Organization?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    van den Besselaar, Peter

    2003-01-01

    Examines the claim in a recent paper that biotechnology develops in a self-organizational mode, which is empirically supported by a multivariate analysis of documents from core biotechnology journals showing a relationship between title words and region of origin. This paper argues that this claim is an artifact of the method used. (Author/MES)

  14. Parent-Adolescent Conflict: An Empirical Review.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hall, James A.

    1987-01-01

    Compares psychoanalytic, systems, and social learning theories to determine the empirical support for each theoretical orientation in treating problematic conflict between parents and adolescents. Discusses parent-adolescent conflict, including developmental stage theory, parenting styles, peer pressures, communication skills, marital conflict,…

  15. Empirically Exploring Higher Education Cultures of Assessment

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fuller, Matthew B.; Skidmore, Susan T.; Bustamante, Rebecca M.; Holzweiss, Peggy C.

    2016-01-01

    Although touted as beneficial to student learning, cultures of assessment have not been examined adequately using validated instruments. Using data collected from a stratified, random sample (N = 370) of U.S. institutional research and assessment directors, the models tested in this study provide empirical support for the value of using the…

  16. Against the Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cirkovic, M. M.

    It is argued that the “generic” evolutionary pathway of advanced technological civilizations are more likely to be optimization-driven than expansion-driven, in contrast to the prevailing opinions and attitudes in both future studies on one side and astrobiology/SETI studies on the other. Two toy-models of postbiological evolution of advanced technological civilizations are considered and several arguments supporting the optimization-driven, spatially compact model are briefly discussed. In addition, it is pointed out that there is a subtle contradiction in most of the tech-optimist and transhumanist accounts of future human/alien civilizations' motivations in its postbiological stages. This may have important ramifications for both practical SETI projects and the future (of humanity) studies.

  17. NGSI student activities in open source information analysis in support of the training program of the U.S. DOE laboratories for the entry into force of the additional protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Sandoval, M Analisa; Uribe, Eva C; Sandoval, Marisa N; Boyer, Brian D; Stevens, Rebecca S

    2009-01-01

    In 2008 a joint team from Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) consisting of specialists in training of IAEA inspectors in the use of complementary access activities formulated a training program to prepare the U.S. Doe laboratories for the entry into force of the Additional Protocol. As a major part of the support of the activity, LANL summer interns provided open source information analysis to the LANL-BNL mock inspection team. They were a part of the Next Generation Safeguards Initiative's (NGSI) summer intern program aimed at producing the next generation of safeguards specialists. This paper describes how they used open source information to 'backstop' the LANL-BNL team's effort to construct meaningful Additional Protocol Complementary Access training scenarios for each of the three DOE laboratories, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Idaho National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory.

  18. Empires of the Mind

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jackson, Shirley Ann

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the author discusses the challenge of educating students for service and leadership in this flat and integrated world, yet asymmetrical and unstable. She says that the future is now and educators have the opportunity and responsibility to create the environments that foster the empires of the mind, and to ensure that the future…

  19. Empirical Research without Certainty

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Floden, Robert E.

    2009-01-01

    In this essay, Robert Floden reviews three recent volumes in the Philosophy, Theory, and Educational Research series that address the philosophical implications of three "isms"-- postpositivism, pragmatism, and poststructuralism--for empirical educational research. These volumes, written by D.C. Phillips, Gert J.J. Biesta, and Michael A. Peters,…

  20. Empirical quantum mechanics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimura, Hirokazu

    1996-06-01

    Machida and Namiki developed a many-Hilbert-spaces formalism for dealing with the interaction between a quantum object and a measuring apparatus. Their mathematically rugged formalism was polished first by Araki from an operator-algebraic standpoint and then by Ozawa for Boolean quantum mechanics, which approaches a quantum system with a compatible family of continuous superselection rules from a notable and perspicacious viewpoint. On the other hand, Foulis and Randall set up a formal theory for the empirical foundation of all sciences, at the hub of which lies the notion of a manual of operations. They deem an operation as the set of possible outcomes and put down a manual of operations at a family of partially overlapping operations. Their notion of a manual of operations was incorporated into a category-theoretic standpoint into that of a manual of Boolean locales by Nishimura, who looked upon an operation as the complete Boolean algebra of observable events. Considering a family of Hilbert spaces not over a single Boolean locale but over a manual of Boolean locales as a whole, Ozawa's Boolean quantum mechanics is elevated into empirical quantum mechanics, which is, roughly speaking, the study of quantum systems with incompatible families of continuous superselection rules. To this end, we are obliged to develop empirical Hilbert space theory. In particular, empirical versions of the square root lemma for bounded positive operators, the spectral theorem for (possibly unbounded) self-adjoint operators, and Stone's theorem for one-parameter unitary groups are established.

  1. Auditory Imagery: Empirical Findings

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hubbard, Timothy L.

    2010-01-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d)…

  2. Differentially Private Empirical Risk Minimization

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhuri, Kamalika; Monteleoni, Claire; Sarwate, Anand D.

    2011-01-01

    Privacy-preserving machine learning algorithms are crucial for the increasingly common setting in which personal data, such as medical or financial records, are analyzed. We provide general techniques to produce privacy-preserving approximations of classifiers learned via (regularized) empirical risk minimization (ERM). These algorithms are private under the ε-differential privacy definition due to Dwork et al. (2006). First we apply the output perturbation ideas of Dwork et al. (2006), to ERM classification. Then we propose a new method, objective perturbation, for privacy-preserving machine learning algorithm design. This method entails perturbing the objective function before optimizing over classifiers. If the loss and regularizer satisfy certain convexity and differentiability criteria, we prove theoretical results showing that our algorithms preserve privacy, and provide generalization bounds for linear and nonlinear kernels. We further present a privacy-preserving technique for tuning the parameters in general machine learning algorithms, thereby providing end-to-end privacy guarantees for the training process. We apply these results to produce privacy-preserving analogues of regularized logistic regression and support vector machines. We obtain encouraging results from evaluating their performance on real demographic and benchmark data sets. Our results show that both theoretically and empirically, objective perturbation is superior to the previous state-of-the-art, output perturbation, in managing the inherent tradeoff between privacy and learning performance. PMID:21892342

  3. Mo-Fe catalysts supported on activated carbon for synthesis of liquid fuels by the Fischer-Tropsch process: effect of Mo addition on reducibility, activity, and hydrocarbon selectivity

    SciTech Connect

    Wenping Ma; Edwin L. Kugler; James Wright; Dady B. Dadyburjor

    2006-12-15

    The effects of Mo loading (0-12 wt %) on the properties of activated-carbon- (AC-) supported Fe-Cu-K catalysts and their performance for Fischer-Tropsch synthesis are studied. Physicochemical properties studied include particle size, reducibility, and dispersion, and catalytic properties include activity, selectivity, and stability. Catalysts were characterized by N{sub 2} adsorption, energy-dispersive spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), H{sub 2} temperature-programmed reduction (TPR), and CO chemisorption. Catalyst performance was studied at 310-320{sup o}C, 2.2 MPa, 3 Nl/g-cat/h, and H{sub 2}/CO = 0.9. Reaction results in a fixed-bed reactor show that addition of 6% Mo into the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalyst improves catalyst stability without sacrificing activity, but activity is suppressed dramatically on a 12% Mo-loaded catalyst. Detectable hydrocarbons of C{sub 1} to C{sub 34} are produced on the Fe-Cu-K/AC catalysts with or without Mo. However, the addition of Mo results in the production of more CH{sub 4} and less C{sub 5+} hydrocarbons. The Mo promoter greatly enhances secondary reactions of olefins, leading to a large amount of internal olefins (i.e., other than 1-olefins) in the product. TPR shows that a strong interaction between Fe and Mo oxides is present, and the extent of reduction of Fe is suppressed after addition of Mo to the Fe-Cu-K catalyst. CO-chemisorption and XRD studies show increased iron dispersion and decreased particle size of the iron carbide and iron oxide after the addition of Mo. Segregation of iron active sites, thereby preventing them from agglomerating, and a larger number of active sites on the 6% Mo catalyst are possible reasons for the improved stability and higher activity of Mo-promoted catalysts. 54 refs., 5 figs., 6 tabs.

  4. Empirical mass formula with proton-neutron interaction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tachibana, Takahiro; Uno, Masahiro; Yamada, So; Yamada, Masami

    1987-12-01

    An atomic mass formula consisting of a gross part, and averge even-odd part and an empirical shell part is studied. The gross part is, apart from a small atomic term, taken to be the sum of nucleon rest masses. Coulomb energies and a polynomial in A1/3 and ‖N-Z‖/A. The shell part includes, in addition to proton and neutron support of nuclear magicities and the cooperative deformation effect. After the first construction of such a formula, refinements have been made in two respects. One is a separate treatment of Z=N odd-odd nuclei suggested by a quartet model, and the other is an improvement of the proton neutron interaction term. By these refinements the root-mean-square deviation of calculated masses from the 1986 Audi-Wapstra masses has been reduced from 538 keV to 460 keV.

  5. Empirical mass formula with proton-neutron interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, T.; Uno, M.; Yamada, S.; Yamada, M.

    1987-12-10

    An atomic mass formula consisting of a gross part, and averge even-odd part and an empirical shell part is studied. The gross part is, apart from a small atomic term, taken to be the sum of nucleon rest masses. Coulomb energies and a polynomial in A/sup 1/3/ and chemically bondN-Zchemically bond/A. The shell part includes, in addition to proton and neutron support of nuclear magicities and the cooperative deformation effect. After the first construction of such a formula, refinements have been made in two respects. One is a separate treatment of Z = N odd-odd nuclei suggested by a quartet model, and the other is an improvement of the proton neutron interaction term. By these refinements the root-mean-square deviation of calculated masses from the 1986 Audi-Wapstra masses has been reduced from 538 keV to 460 keV.

  6. Empirical microeconomics action functionals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baaquie, Belal E.; Du, Xin; Tanputraman, Winson

    2015-06-01

    A statistical generalization of microeconomics has been made in Baaquie (2013), where the market price of every traded commodity, at each instant of time, is considered to be an independent random variable. The dynamics of commodity market prices is modeled by an action functional-and the focus of this paper is to empirically determine the action functionals for different commodities. The correlation functions of the model are defined using a Feynman path integral. The model is calibrated using the unequal time correlation of the market commodity prices as well as their cubic and quartic moments using a perturbation expansion. The consistency of the perturbation expansion is verified by a numerical evaluation of the path integral. Nine commodities drawn from the energy, metal and grain sectors are studied and their market behavior is described by the model to an accuracy of over 90% using only six parameters. The paper empirically establishes the existence of the action functional for commodity prices that was postulated to exist in Baaquie (2013).

  7. 78 FR 73504 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-12-06

    ... Type/Location: Custodial Service, Directorate of Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment... Contracting Procurement Logistics Support Detachment, Fort Belvoir, VA. * Additional Information:...

  8. A review of empirical studies of verbal behavior

    PubMed Central

    Oah, She-zeen; Dickinson, Alyce M.

    1989-01-01

    This paper reviews empirical research which has been directly influenced by Skinner's Verbal Behavior. Despite the importance of this subject matter, the book has generated relatively little empirical research. Most studies have focused on Skinner's mand and tact relations while research focused on the other elementary verbal operants has been limited. However, the results of empirical research that exist support Skinner's analysis of the distinction between elementary verbal operants and his distinction between the speaker's and listener's repertoires. Further, research suggests that language training programs may not be successful if they do not provide explicit training of each elementary verbal operant and independent training of speaker's and listener's repertoires. PMID:22477586

  9. Auditory imagery: empirical findings.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, Timothy L

    2010-03-01

    The empirical literature on auditory imagery is reviewed. Data on (a) imagery for auditory features (pitch, timbre, loudness), (b) imagery for complex nonverbal auditory stimuli (musical contour, melody, harmony, tempo, notational audiation, environmental sounds), (c) imagery for verbal stimuli (speech, text, in dreams, interior monologue), (d) auditory imagery's relationship to perception and memory (detection, encoding, recall, mnemonic properties, phonological loop), and (e) individual differences in auditory imagery (in vividness, musical ability and experience, synesthesia, musical hallucinosis, schizophrenia, amusia) are considered. It is concluded that auditory imagery (a) preserves many structural and temporal properties of auditory stimuli, (b) can facilitate auditory discrimination but interfere with auditory detection, (c) involves many of the same brain areas as auditory perception, (d) is often but not necessarily influenced by subvocalization, (e) involves semantically interpreted information and expectancies, (f) involves depictive components and descriptive components, (g) can function as a mnemonic but is distinct from rehearsal, and (h) is related to musical ability and experience (although the mechanisms of that relationship are not clear). PMID:20192565

  10. An Empirical Benchmark for Decadal Forecasts of Global Surface Temperature Anomalies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Newman, M.

    2012-12-01

    The suitability of an empirical multivariate AR1 model as a benchmark for the skill of decadal surface temperature forecasts is demonstrated. Constructed from the observed simultaneous and one-year lag correlation statistics of 12-month running mean sea surface temperature (SST) and land surface (2m) temperature global anomalies for the years 1900-2008, the empirical model hindcasts have skill for leads 2-5 and 6-9 years comparable to and sometimes even better than the CMIP5 model hindcasts initialized annually over the period 1960-2000, and are much more skillful than damped persistence (e.g., a local univariate AR1 process). The pronounced similarity in geographical variations of skill between the empirical model and CMIP5 hindcasts suggests similarity in their sources of skill as well, supporting additional evaluation of the empirical model's skill and predictability over the entire record. It is shown that for forecast leads greater than about a year, the empirical model skill is almost entirely due to patterns corresponding to the secular trend and to two global patterns that each have about ten year decorrelation time scales. In the Atlantic, all three patterns contribute to forecast skill of the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation (AMO) index. In the Pacific, only one pattern contributes to the relatively modest long-lead forecast skill of the Pacific Decadal Oscillation (PDO) index, consistent with earlier findings that determined an independent decadal signal in the PDO as a residual after both interannual and decadal ENSO influences were first removed. This pattern is particularly poorly forecast by the CMIP5 models relative to the empirical model, suggesting that substantial room for improvement remains in Pacific decadal SST forecasts and their North American response. Overall, these results support the view that multivariate red noise rather than univariate red noise is the most appropriate baseline comparison for coupled model decadal forecasts

  11. Empire strikes back. [Empire Coal Co. coal desulfurization plant

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, A.

    1984-11-01

    Empire Coal Co. in eastern Ohio mines high-sulphur coal which in the past was supplied direct to a local power station. In 1982, restrictions on power plant emissions meant that Empire would have to install a preparation plant if it were to continue to supply the coal. The 500,000 ton/year jig-froth flotation plant which was built is described.

  12. Empirically Driven Software Engineering Research

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombach, Dieter

    Software engineering is a design discipline. As such, its engineering methods are based on cognitive instead of physical laws, and their effectiveness depends highly on context. Empirical methods can be used to observe the effects of software engineering methods in vivo and in vitro, to identify improvement potentials, and to validate new research results. This paper summarizes both the current body of knowledge and further challenges wrt. empirical methods in software engineering as well as empirically derived evidence regarding software typical engineering methods. Finally, future challenges wrt. education, research, and technology transfer will be outlined.

  13. Empirical evaluation of interest-level criteria

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahar, Sigal; Mansour, Yishay

    1999-02-01

    Efficient association rule mining algorithms already exist, however, as the size of databases increases, the number of patterns mined by the algorithms increases to such an extent that their manual evaluation becomes impractical. Automatic evaluation methods are, therefore, required in order to sift through the initial list of rules, which the datamining algorithm outputs. These evaluation methods, or criteria, rank the association rules mined from the dataset. We empirically examined several such statistical criteria: new criteria, as well as previously known ones. The empirical evaluation was conducted using several databases, including a large real-life dataset, acquired from an order-by-phone grocery store, a dataset composed from www proxy logs, and several datasets from the UCI repository. We were interested in discovering whether the ranking performed by the various criteria is similar or easily distinguishable. Our evaluation detected, when significant differences exist, three patterns of behavior in the eight criteria we examined. There is an obvious dilemma in determining how many association rules to choose (in accordance with support and confidence parameters). The tradeoff is between having stringent parameters and, therefore, few rules, or lenient parameters and, thus, a multitude of rules. In many cases, our empirical evaluation revealed that most of the rules found by the comparably strict parameters ranked highly according to the interestingness criteria, when using lax parameters (producing significantly more association rules). Finally, we discuss the association rules that ranked highest, explain why these results are sound, and how they direct future research.

  14. Academic dishonesty in nursing schools: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    McCabe, Donald L

    2009-11-01

    Academic dishonesty, whether in the form of plagiarism or cheating on tests, has received renewed attention in the past few decades as pervasive use of the Internet and a presumed deterioration of ethics in the current generation of students has led some, perhaps many, to conclude that academic dishonesty is reaching epidemic proportions. What is lacking in many cases, including in the nursing profession, is empirical support of these trends. This article attempts to provide some of that empirical data and supports the conclusion that cheating is a significant issue in all disciplines today, including nursing. Some preliminary policy implications are also considered. PMID:19650608

  15. EMPIRICAL MODEL OF VEHICLE EMISSIONS

    EPA Science Inventory

    An empirical model that characterizes the relationship between equilibrium vehicle emission distributions and malfunction, repair, and replacement rates by splitting vehicles into two emission categories has been developed. ross emitters and clean vehicles are defined by the magn...

  16. Functional Generalized Additive Models.

    PubMed

    McLean, Mathew W; Hooker, Giles; Staicu, Ana-Maria; Scheipl, Fabian; Ruppert, David

    2014-01-01

    We introduce the functional generalized additive model (FGAM), a novel regression model for association studies between a scalar response and a functional predictor. We model the link-transformed mean response as the integral with respect to t of F{X(t), t} where F(·,·) is an unknown regression function and X(t) is a functional covariate. Rather than having an additive model in a finite number of principal components as in Müller and Yao (2008), our model incorporates the functional predictor directly and thus our model can be viewed as the natural functional extension of generalized additive models. We estimate F(·,·) using tensor-product B-splines with roughness penalties. A pointwise quantile transformation of the functional predictor is also considered to ensure each tensor-product B-spline has observed data on its support. The methods are evaluated using simulated data and their predictive performance is compared with other competing scalar-on-function regression alternatives. We illustrate the usefulness of our approach through an application to brain tractography, where X(t) is a signal from diffusion tensor imaging at position, t, along a tract in the brain. In one example, the response is disease-status (case or control) and in a second example, it is the score on a cognitive test. R code for performing the simulations and fitting the FGAM can be found in supplemental materials available online. PMID:24729671

  17. Further Evidence Supporting the Validity of Both a Multidimensional Profile and an Overall Evaluation of Teaching Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Burdsal, Charles A.; Harrison, Paul D.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to provide additional empirical evidence supporting the use of both a multidimensional profile and an overall evaluation of teaching effectiveness as valid indicators of student perceptions of effective classroom instruction. A factor analytic teaching evaluation instrument was used that also included open-ended…

  18. Technology Applications for Children with ADHD: Assessing the Empirical Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Chunzhen; Reid, Robert; Steckelberg, Allen

    2002-01-01

    This article reviews technology research (n=20) with students with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) in five categories: computer-assisted instruction, computer-based cognitive training, biofeedback training, assessment, and behavior modification. Analysis of available research suggests there is little well controlled experimental…

  19. Haldane's Rule: Genetic Bases and Their Empirical Support.

    PubMed

    Delph, Lynda F; Demuth, Jeffery P

    2016-09-01

    There are few patterns in evolution that are as rigidly held as Haldane's rule (HR), which states, "When in the first generation between hybrids between 2 species, 1 sex is absent, rare, or sterile, that sex is always the heterogametic sex." Yet despite considerable attention for almost a century, questions persist as to how many independent examples exist and what is (are) the underlying genetic cause(s). Here, we review recent evidence extending HR to plants, where previously it has only been documented in animals. We also discuss recent comparative analyses that show much more variation in sex-chromosome composition than previously recognized, thus increasing the number of potential independent origins of HR dramatically. Finally, we review the standing of genetic theories proposed to explain HR in light of the new examples and new molecular understanding. PMID:27233288

  20. Relationships Between Emotional Stability, Psychosocial Mentoring Support and Career Resilience

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Ridhi; Rangnekar, Santosh

    2015-01-01

    This study empirically investigates the mediating role of psychosocial mentoring support on emotional stability personality disposition and career resilience relationship. In addition, this research also focuses on estimating the interrelationship between emotional stability, psychosocial mentoring support and career resilience. The results show substantive direct relations between emotional stability and psychosocial mentoring as well as between emotional stability and career resilience. Psychosocial mentoring is also seen as a significant predictor of career resilience. Further, it mediates partially the relationship between emotional stability personality and career resilience. Future and practical implications of research have also been provided. PMID:27247639

  1. Performance Boosting Additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Mainstream Engineering Corporation was awarded Phase I and Phase II contracts from Goddard Space Flight Center's Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) program in early 1990. With support from the SBIR program, Mainstream Engineering Corporation has developed a unique low cost additive, QwikBoost (TM), that increases the performance of air conditioners, heat pumps, refrigerators, and freezers. Because of the energy and environmental benefits of QwikBoost, Mainstream received the Tibbetts Award at a White House Ceremony on October 16, 1997. QwikBoost was introduced at the 1998 International Air Conditioning, Heating, and Refrigeration Exposition. QwikBoost is packaged in a handy 3-ounce can (pressurized with R-134a) and will be available for automotive air conditioning systems in summer 1998.

  2. A Win-Win Solution: The Empirical Evidence on How Vouchers Affect Public Schools. School Choice Issues in Depth

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Forster, Greg

    2009-01-01

    This report collects the results of all available empirical studies on how vouchers affect academic achievement in public schools. Contrary to the widespread claim that vouchers hurt public schools, it finds that the empirical evidence consistently supports the conclusion that vouchers improve public schools. No empirical study has ever found that…

  3. Empirical Neutral Thermosphere Models; Then and Now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, Douglas; Emmert, John; McDonald, Sarah; Picone, J. Michael

    The empirical Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) upper atmospheric model pro-vides a readily available framework for summarizing the results of five solar cycles of density, composition, and temperature information from multi-agency satellite missions, rocket flights, and ground-based observations. The MSIS versions described in Hedin et al. (1987), Hedin et al. (1991), and Picone et al., (2002) have been cited over 2500 times in the peer reviewed scientific literature. The cross-listed subject areas include Astronomy (50%), Atmospheric Sci-ences (40%), Geophysics (25%), Multidisciplinary (23%), Aerospace (16%), Remote Sensing (4%), Instrumentation (3%), and Telecommunications (2%). The MSIS model even has its own Wikipedia entry; it is also included in commercial applications such as the Satellite Tool Kit and the MATLAB Aerospace Toolbox. In addition, the recently updated Horizontal Wind Model (HWM07) of Drob et al. (2008) provides a statistical representation of the horizontal wind fields from the ground to the exosphere (> 500 km), representing over 35-years of satellite, rocket, and ground-based wind measurements via a compact Fortran 90 subroutine. Together, these models approximately describe the compositional, thermal, and dynamical state of the neutral upper atmosphere. These low overhead, high-availability computer subroutines are a function of geographic location, altitude, day of the year, solar local time, and geomagnetic activity. In contrast to General Circulation Models, they provide a set of precompiled spectral patterns bypassing the need to compute them directly from first principles. They include representations of the zonal mean state, stationary planetary waves, migrating tides, and the seasonal modulation thereof; as well as the influences of geomagnetic activity and solar flux. End-users interact with a statistical summary of the underlying knowledgebase via a single subroutine interface which encapsulates much of the system

  4. Graphene-oxide-supported ultrathin Au nanowires: efficient electrocatalysts for borohydride oxidation† †Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available. See DOI: 10.1039/c5cc06705g Click here for additional data file.

    PubMed Central

    Leelavathi, Annamalai; Ahmad, Rafia; Singh, Abhishek K.; Madras, Giridhar

    2015-01-01

    We report stable ultrathin Au nanowires supported on reduced graphene oxide with outstanding electrocatalytic activity for borohydride oxidation. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurements showed abnormal inductive behavior, indicative of surface reactivation. DFT calculations indicate that the origin of the high activity stems from the position of the Au d-band center. PMID:26439584

  5. A Tool for Sharing Empirical Models of Climate Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rising, J.; Kopp, R. E.; Hsiang, S. M.

    2013-12-01

    Scientists, policy advisors, and the public struggle to synthesize the quickly evolving empirical work on climate change impacts. The Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used to estimate the impacts of climate change and the effects of adaptation and mitigation policies can also benefit greatly from recent empirical results (Kopp, Hsiang & Oppenheimer, Impacts World 2013 discussion paper). This paper details a new online tool for exploring, analyzing, combining, and communicating a wide range of impact results, and supporting their integration into IAMs. The tool uses a new database of statistical results, which researchers can expand both in depth (by providing additional results that describing existing relationships) and breadth (by adding new relationships). Scientists can use the tool to quickly perform meta-analyses of related results, using Bayesian techniques to produce pooled and partially-pooled posterior distributions. Policy advisors can apply the statistical results to particular contexts, and combine different kinds of results in a cost-benefit framework. For example, models of the impact of temperature changes on agricultural yields can be first aggregated to build a best-estimate of the effect under given assumptions, then compared across countries using different temperature scenarios, and finally combined to estimate a social cost of carbon. The general public can better understand the many estimates of climate impacts and their range of uncertainty by exploring these results dynamically, with maps, bar charts, and dose-response-style plots. Front page of the climate impacts tool website. Sample "collections" of models, within which all results are estimates of the same fundamental relationship, are shown on the right. Simple pooled result for Gelman's "8 schools" example. Pooled results are calculated analytically, while partial-pooling (Bayesian hierarchical estimation) uses posterior simulations.

  6. Empirical Foundation of Central Concepts for Computer Science Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zendler, Andreas; Spannagel, Christian

    2008-01-01

    The design of computer science curricula should rely on central concepts of the discipline rather than on technical short-term developments. Several authors have proposed lists of basic concepts or fundamental ideas in the past. However, these catalogs were based on subjective decisions without any empirical support. This article describes the…

  7. Seeking Empirical Validity in an Assurance of Learning System

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Avery, Sherry L.; McWhorter, Rochell R.; Lirely, Roger; Doty, H. Harold

    2014-01-01

    Business schools have established measurement tools to support their assurance of learning (AoL) systems and to assess student achievement of learning objectives. However, business schools have not required their tools to be empirically validated, thus ensuring that they measure what they are intended to measure. The authors propose confirmatory…

  8. Parenting Gifted and Talented Children: Conceptual and Empirical Foundations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morawska, Alina; Sanders, Matthew R.

    2009-01-01

    There is a paucity of research focusing on the needs of gifted children and their families, in particular, there is a lack of empirically supported parenting strategies to help parents in parenting their gifted child. This article provides an overview of the literature on difficulties experienced by parents of gifted and talented children,…

  9. An Empirical Study about China: Gender Equity in Science Education.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Jianjun; Staver, John R.

    A data base representing a random sample of more than 10,000 grade 9 students in an SISS (Second IEA Science Study) Extended Study (SES), a key project supported by the China State Commission of Education in the late 1980s, was employed in this study to investigate gender equity in student science achievement in China. This empirical data analysis…

  10. Empire: An Analytical Category for Educational Research

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Coloma, Roland Sintos

    2013-01-01

    In this article Roland Sintos Coloma argues for the relevance of empire as an analytical category in educational research. He points out the silence in mainstream studies of education on the subject of empire, the various interpretive approaches to deploying empire as an analytic, and the importance of indigeneity in research on empire and…

  11. Personal characteristics and resilience to economic hardship and its consequences: conceptual issues and empirical illustrations.

    PubMed

    Donnellan, M Brent; Conger, Katherine J; McAdams, Kimberly K; Neppl, Tricia K

    2009-12-01

    This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal characteristics in this context. Finally, initial empirical support for some of the key predictions from the proposed model are provided using longitudinal data collected from a sample of Midwestern families. Specifically, adolescent academic achievement, self-reports of Conscientiousness, and self-reports of low Neuroticism during adolescence predicted relevant outcomes in adulthood such as less economic pressure, more satisfying romantic relationships, and less harsh parenting behaviors. These preliminary findings support the hypothesized model and extend research concerning the life course outcomes associated with personal characteristics. PMID:19796065

  12. Personal Characteristics and Resilience to Economic Hardship and Its Consequences: Conceptual Issues and Empirical Illustrations

    PubMed Central

    Donnellan, M. Brent; Conger, Katherine J.; McAdams, Kimberly K.; Neppl, Tricia K.

    2009-01-01

    This article describes a theoretical model that links personal characteristics with resilience to economic hardship and its psychological and interpersonal consequences. This transactional model integrates social influence and social selection perspectives concerning the relation between socioeconomic circumstances and the development of individuals and families. In addition, this article discusses methodological and conceptual issues related to investigating the effects of personal characteristics in this context. Finally, initial empirical support for some of the key predictions from the proposed model are provided using longitudinal data collected from a sample of Midwestern families. Specifically, adolescent academic achievement, self-reports of Conscientiousness and self-reports of low Neuroticism during adolescence predicted relevant outcomes in adulthood such as less economic pressure, more satisfying romantic relationships, and less harsh parenting behaviors. These preliminary findings support the hypothesized model and extend research concerning the life course outcomes associated with personal characteristics. PMID:19796065

  13. Empirically derived injury prevention rules.

    PubMed Central

    Peterson, L; Schick, B

    1993-01-01

    This study describes a set of empirically derived safety rules that if followed, would have prevented the occurrence of minor injuries. Epidemiologists have criticized behavioral interventions as increasing "safe" behavior but failing to demonstrate a decrease in injury. The present study documents retrospectively the link between safe behavior and injury. It demonstrates that these empirically derived rules are very similar to rules for the prevention of serious injury. The study also shows that these rules are not widely accepted and implemented by parents. Suggestions for future research in this area are advanced. PMID:8307829

  14. About Empire State College Mentors.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, A. Paul, Jr.; Adamson, Judith

    This document reports demographic information about mentors, the faculty of Empire State College (ESC), a new, nontraditional college without a campus of the State University of New York. Results show ESC mentors statistically like any faculty, though perhaps more oriented to private education than most state college faculties and more varied in…

  15. Empirical equation estimates geothermal gradients

    SciTech Connect

    Kutasov, I.M. )

    1995-01-02

    An empirical equation can estimate geothermal (natural) temperature profiles in new exploration areas. These gradients are useful for cement slurry and mud design and for improving electrical and temperature log interpretation. Downhole circulating temperature logs and surface outlet temperatures are used for predicting the geothermal gradients.

  16. Empirical Neutral Thermosphere Models; Then and Now (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drob, D. P.; Emmert, J. T.; McDonald, S. E.

    2010-12-01

    The empirical Mass Spectrometer Incoherent Scatter (MSIS) upper atmospheric model provides a readily available framework for summarizing the results of five solar cycles of density, composition, and temperature information from multi-agency satellite missions, rocket flights, and ground-based observations. The MSIS versions described in Hedin et al. (1987), Hedin et al. (1991), and Picone et al., (2002) have been cited over 2500 times in the peer reviewed scientific literature. In addition, the recently updated Horizontal Wind Model (HWM07) of Drob et al. (2008) provides a statistical representation of the horizontal wind fields from the ground to the exosphere (> 500 km), representing over 35-years of satellite, rocket, and ground-based wind measurements. Despite the success of these models they are not perfect, typically resulting from the lack of observational data at hand, as well as theoretical understanding. The differences between the model output and observational data can either be systematic (bias) or irregular (observational variance). In the latter case this is simply the natural geophysical variability that the models are not designed to represent. Published research clearly demonstrates that certain aspects of the MSIS (and HWM07) should be updated. Knowledge of these discrepancies, along with supporting observational data sets can be used to update and improve the fidelity of the models.

  17. Empirical low-dimensional manifolds in composition space

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Yue; Pope, Stephen B.; Chen, Jacqueline H.

    2012-11-01

    To reduce the computational cost of turbulent combustion simulations with a detailed chemical mechanism, it is useful to find a low-dimensional manifold in composition space that can approximate the full system dynamics. Most previous low-dimensional manifolds in turbulent combustion are based on the governing conservation equations or thermochemistry and their application involves certain assumptions. On the other hand, empirical low-dimensional manifolds (ELDMs) are constructed based on samples of the compositions observed in experiments or in direct numerical simulation (DNS). Plane and curved ELDMs can be obtained using principal component analysis (PCA) and multivariate adaptive spline regression (MARS), respectively. Both PCA and MARS are applied to the DNS datasets of a non-premixed CO/H2 temporally evolving jet flame (Hawkes et al., 2007) and an ethylene lifted jet flame (Yoo et al., 2011). We observe that it requires very high dimensions to represent the species mass fractions accurately by a plane ELDM, while better accuracy can be achieved by curved ELDMs with lower dimensions. In addition, the effect of differential diffusion on ELDMs is examined in large-eddy simulations with PDF modeling. This work is supported in part by the Combustion Energy Frontier Research Center funded by the DOE.

  18. Towards a separable ``empirical reality''?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Espagnat, Bernard

    1990-10-01

    “To be” or “to be found”? Some contributions relative to this modern variant of Hamlet's question are presented here. They aim at better apprehending the differences between the points of view of the physicists who consider that present-day quantum measurement theories do reach their objective and those who deny they do. It is pointed out that these two groups have different interpretations of the verbs “to be” and “to have” and of the criterion for truth. These differences are made explicit. A notion of “empirical reality” is constructed within the representation of which the physicists of the first named group can consistently uphold their claim. A detailed way of sharpening this definition so as to make empirical reality free of nonlocal actions at a distance is also described.

  19. Assessing empirical research in bioethics.

    PubMed

    Brody, B A

    1993-09-01

    Empirical research can aid ethical reflection in bioethics by identifying issues, by seeing how they are currently resolved, and by assessing the consequences of these current resolutions. This potential can be misused when the ethical issues in question are fundamentally non-consequentialist or when they are consequentialist but the empirical research fails to address the important consequences. An example of the former problem is some recent studies about bad consequences resulting from commercialized living kidney donor programs. These consequences could be avoided, but the crucial non-consequentialist ethical issues about exploitation and commercialization would still remain. Examples of the latter problem are provided by recent studies of the allocation of ICU beds and of physician deception, where important consequences were not adequately studied. PMID:8259528

  20. An empirical model for microemulsion phase behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, S.D.

    1988-08-01

    An empirical model for microemulsion phase behavior has been developed that is based on proper choice of pseudocomponents. Previous attempts to represent phase behavior of surfactant/oil/brine system with three pseudocomponents have been unsuccessful. One of the problems has been salt fractionation between the microemulsion and excess water phases. It was found that through the use of a sulfonate/water pseudocomponenet, this effect could be handled, and the system then exhibited true ternary behavior. When this pseudocomponent was used, a single set of V/sub o//V/sub s/ and V/sub w//V/sub s/-vs.-salinity curves was found to be valid for a wide range of overall compositions. These solubilization-parameter curves were fit with empirical equations, and it is these that comprise the model. The basis for a sulfonate/water pseudocomponent is discussed using electrical double-layer theory. In addition, solubilization-parameter curves generated from spherical microemulsion models are compared with the experimental curves.

  1. Empirical Model for Predicting Rockfall Trajectory Direction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Asteriou, Pavlos; Tsiambaos, George

    2016-03-01

    A methodology for the experimental investigation of rockfall in three-dimensional space is presented in this paper, aiming to assist on-going research of the complexity of a block's response to impact during a rockfall. An extended laboratory investigation was conducted, consisting of 590 tests with cubical and spherical blocks made of an artificial material. The effects of shape, slope angle and the deviation of the post-impact trajectory are examined as a function of the pre-impact trajectory direction. Additionally, an empirical model is proposed that estimates the deviation of the post-impact trajectory as a function of the pre-impact trajectory with respect to the slope surface and the slope angle. This empirical model is validated by 192 small-scale field tests, which are also presented in this paper. Some important aspects of the three-dimensional nature of rockfall phenomena are highlighted that have been hitherto neglected. The 3D space data provided in this study are suitable for the calibration and verification of rockfall analysis software that has become increasingly popular in design practice.

  2. The effect of potassium addition on the surface chemical structure and activity of supported iron. I. FTIR study of CO and NO adsorption on Fe-K/ZrO{sub 2}

    SciTech Connect

    Guglielminotti, E.; Boccuzzi, F.; Pinna, F.

    1997-04-01

    The surface activity of a Fe-K/ZrO{sub 2} sample prepared from iron citrate and potassium carbonate has been investigated by the FTIR spectroscopy of adsorbed CO and NO and compared with the behavior of a Fe/ZrO{sub 2} Sample. The addition of potassium produces a strong decrease of the BET area and of the amounts of the adsorbed molecules. At the same time the spectrum of the sample reduced with H{sub 2} at 573-773 K shows, under anhydrous conditions, the presence of small patches of reduced Fe{sup 0}, not easily formed on Fe/ZrO{sub 2} under the same thermal and reducing conditions. The formation of new phases containing iron and potassium in close combination, such as mixed iron-potassium oxalates and potassium ferrites that fully cover the zirconia surface, was inferred from FTIR data. CO adsorption favors the partial surface reduction of these phases producing small Fe-carbonyl clusters in tight contact with potassium and Fe,K-carboxylate surface species. The adsorption of NO, producing nitrosyl species on the reduced iron particles and nitrite groups on the potassium phase is in good agreement with the results of adsorbed CO. These results are confirmed by quantitative determinations of adsorbed gases and by TPR experiments. 37 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.

  3. An empirical coverage test for the g-sample problem

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orlowski, L.A.; Grundy, W.D.; Mielke, P.W., Jr.

    1991-01-01

    A nonparametric g-sample empirical coverage test has recently been developed for univariate continuous data. It is based upon the empirical coverages which are spacings of multiple random samples. The test is capable of detecting any distributional differences which may exist among the parent populations, without additional assumptions beyond randomness and continuity. The test can be effective with the limited and/or unequal sample sizes most often encountered in geologic studies. A computer program for implementing this procedure, G-SECT 1, is available. ?? 1991 International Association for Mathematical Geology.

  4. The empirical war on drugs.

    PubMed

    Vitellone, Nicole

    2013-05-01

    In a special issue of the journal Addictions (1995) academics, researchers and health care professionals debated the status of the empirical in socially orientated drugs research. A number of researchers noted that our knowledge and understanding of drugs and drug users has changed significantly since the 1990s. Post AIDS this shift is identified as a consequence of the development of qualitative research methods. The qualitative turn in drugs research has involved a shift away form traditional epidemiological approaches and the pursuit of more socially focused methods. Whilst qualitative research has yielded important empirical data on risk behavior the pursuit of these methods has not been without controversy. In addressing the debate on methods in the drugs field this article investigates the effects of social science methods for research on injecting drug use. In so doing I examine what counts and what gets left out of research on injecting beaviour. Drawing on Actor Network Theory (ANT) I suggest Bruno Latour's methodological approach offers critical insights for addressing the empirical objects of injecting drug use. PMID:23528994

  5. Two concepts of empirical ethics.

    PubMed

    Parker, Malcolm

    2009-05-01

    The turn to empirical ethics answers two calls. The first is for a richer account of morality than that afforded by bioethical principlism, which is cast as excessively abstract and thin on the facts. The second is for the facts in question to be those of human experience and not some other, unworldly realm. Empirical ethics therefore promises a richer naturalistic ethics, but in fulfilling the second call it often fails to heed the metaethical requirements related to the first. Empirical ethics risks losing the normative edge which necessarily characterizes the ethical, by failing to account for the nature and the logic of moral norms. I sketch a naturalistic theory, teleological expressivism (TE), which negotiates the naturalistic fallacy by providing a more satisfactory means of taking into account facts and research data with ethical implications. The examples of informed consent and the euthanasia debate are used to illustrate the superiority of this approach, and the problems consequent on including the facts in the wrong kind of way. PMID:19338521

  6. Image-Based Empirical Modeling of the Plasmasphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Adrian, Mark L.; Gallagher, D. L.

    2008-01-01

    A new suite of empirical models of plasmaspheric plasma based on remote, global images from the IMAGE EUV instrument is proposed for development. The purpose of these empirical models is to establish the statistical properties of the plasmasphere as a function of conditions. This suite of models will mark the first time the plasmaspheric plume is included in an empirical model. Development of these empirical plasmaspheric models will support synoptic studies (such as for wave propagation and growth, energetic particle loss through collisions and dust transport as influenced by charging) and serves as a benchmark against which physical models can be tested. The ability to know that a specific global density distribution occurs in response to specific magnetospheric and solar wind factors is a huge advantage over all previous in-situ based empirical models. The consequence of creating these new plasmaspheric models will be to provide much higher fidelity and much richer quantitative descriptions of the statistical properties of plasmaspheric plasma in the inner magnetosphere, whether that plasma is in the main body of the plasmasphere, nearby during recovery or in the plasmaspheric plume. Model products to be presented include statistical probabilities for being in the plasmasphere, near thermal He+ density boundaries and the complexity of its spatial structure.

  7. Tube support

    DOEpatents

    Mullinax, Jerry L.

    1988-01-01

    A tube support for supporting horizontal tubes from an inclined vertical support tube passing between the horizontal tubes. A support button is welded to the vertical support tube. Two clamping bars or plates, the lower edges of one bearing on the support button, are removably bolted to the inclined vertical tube. The clamping bars provide upper and lower surface support for the horizontal tubes.

  8. Empirical data about women's attitudes towards a hypothetical pediatric biobank.

    PubMed

    Neidich, Alon B; Joseph, Josh W; Ober, Carole; Ross, Lainie Friedman

    2008-02-01

    Researchers at the University of Chicago sought institutional review board (IRB) approval to establish both an obstetrical biobank (Chicago Lying-in Pregnancy Program [CLIPP]) and a pediatric biobank (KidsGene). Before KidsGene was approved, the IRB requested additional ethical review. The research ethics consultation service noted that no empirical data existed about parental attitudes towards this type of project. Postpartum women 18 years or older who delivered at the University of Chicago Hospitals and had live infants on the General Care Nursery service were approached about participating in a survey about the CLIPP biobank and about a hypothetical pediatric biobank. Two hundred thirty-nine women were consented and completed most or all of the survey. Eighty-two percent self-classified as Black and seven percent were Caucasians. Caucasians were the most willing to enroll their children hypothetically into a pediatric biobank with non-Black minorities being the most uncertain about what they would do. Almost half of the women thought that the research had the main goal of advancing science although a similar number expressed the belief that the research had the main goal of helping their individual child. Women supported use of the samples for a wide array of pediatric conditions. Comprehension of research practices, trust in medical researchers, and a belief that the research findings would be used fairly correlated with enrollment. Our survey found that most women support biobank development for research purposes. Most respondents expressed optimism that the results will yield significant benefits and that the benefits will be distributed fairly. PMID:18205141

  9. Comparison of modelled and empirical atmospheric propagation data

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schott, J. R.; Biegel, J. D.

    1983-01-01

    The radiometric integrity of TM thermal infrared channel data was evaluated and monitored to develop improved radiometric preprocessing calibration techniques for removal of atmospheric effects. Modelled atmospheric transmittance and path radiance were compared with empirical values derived from aircraft underflight data. Aircraft thermal infrared imagery and calibration data were available on two dates as were corresponding atmospheric radiosonde data. The radiosonde data were used as input to the LOWTRAN 5A code which was modified to output atmospheric path radiance in addition to transmittance. The aircraft data were calibrated and used to generate analogous measurements. These data indicate that there is a tendancy for the LOWTRAN model to underestimate atmospheric path radiance and transmittance as compared to empirical data. A plot of transmittance versus altitude for both LOWTRAN and empirical data is presented.

  10. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects. PMID:24772784

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  12. Empirical data from Oort's cloud

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Desemme, A. H.

    1985-01-01

    Empirical evidence on the size and origin of the Oort cloud of comets is compared with theories on the origin of the Oort cloud. Data on the binding energy of the very long period comets indicate that the Oort cloud is five times smaller than previously thought and that the mean velocity perturbation introduced by stellar passages is smaller than Oort believed. The bimodal brightness distribution of 'new' comets indicates that their formation mechanism is straightforward accretion without later fragmentation. Data on retrograde versus prograde orbits and their relevance to the rotation of the Oort cloud are examined. Models of the solar nebula are discussed in the light of the foregoing evidence.

  13. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  14. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  15. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  16. 46 CFR 355.5 - Additional material.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 8 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional material. 355.5 Section 355.5 Shipping... STATES CITIZENSHIP § 355.5 Additional material. If additional material is determined to be essential to clarify or support the evidence of U.S. citizenship, such material shall be furnished by...

  17. Understanding individual adoption of mobile booking service: an empirical investigation.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yi-Shun; Liao, Yi-Wen

    2008-10-01

    Based on information systems acceptance literature, this study develops an integrated model to predict and explain behavioral intention to use mobile booking (m-booking). Data collected from 201 users in Taiwan are tested against the research model, using the structural equation modeling approach. The proposed model is mostly supported by the empirical data. The findings of this study provide several crucial implications for m-booking service practitioners and researchers. PMID:18785821

  18. The relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure: an empirical study in China.

    PubMed

    Meng, X H; Zeng, S X; Shi, Jonathan J; Qi, G Y; Zhang, Z B

    2014-12-01

    Based on a content analysis of 533 Chinese listed companies, this study examines how corporate environmental performance affects not only the level of detail of a company's environmental disclosures, but also what information is disclosed. The results show that (1) both poor and good performers have more disclosure than the median (i.e., "mixed") performers, which provides empirical evidence to support a nonlinear relationship between corporate environmental performance and environmental disclosure; (2) poor performers disclose more soft information on environmental performance than good performers, and good performers disclose more solid information; and (3) although poor performers increase disclosure after being exposed as environmental violators, they avoid disclosing negative environmental information, such as the violation and the associated penalties. This study provides additional evidence for a nonlinear relationship between environmental performance and disclosure in emerging markets, and suggests environmental disclosure may not be a valid signal to differentiate good performers from poor performers in contemporary China. PMID:25113230

  19. Extracting planetary waves from geomagnetic time series using Empirical Mode Decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frühauff, Dennis; Glassmeier, Karl-Heinz; Lockwood, Michael; Heyner, Daniel

    2015-07-01

    Empirical Mode Decomposition is presented as an alternative to traditional analysis methods to decompose geomagnetic time series into spectral components. Important comments on the algorithm and its variations will be given. Using this technique, planetary wave modes of 5-, 10-, and 16-day mean periods can be extracted from magnetic field components of three different stations in Germany. In a second step, the amplitude modulation functions of these wave modes can be shown to contain significant contribution from solar cycle variation through correlation with smoothed sunspot numbers. Additionally, the data indicate connections with geomagnetic jerk occurrences, supported by a second set of data providing reconstructed near-Earth magnetic field for 150 years. Usually attributed to internal dynamo processes within the Earth's outer core, the question of who is impacting whom will be briefly discussed here.

  20. Science and the French Empire.

    PubMed

    Osborne, Michael A

    2005-03-01

    Scholarly interest in French colonial science, interpreted to include colonial medical and scientific institutions as well as personages and other "actors" in France serving colonial agendas, has been robust for some two decades. This essay characterizes the complex and interlinked historical relationships between French metropolitan and colonial science as one of asymmetric coevolution. In analyzing scholarship on diverse topics from physics and military technology to colonial botany, medicine, geography, and racial theory, it interrogates the concepts of French nation and French empire and questions the historiographical and explanatory utility of the core-periphery model. Special scrutiny falls on a trope common to historigraphical studies of the postrevolutionary era, that of a firm French nationalism enabling largely rational colonial agendas and the promotion of these agendas by highly centralized Parisian bureaucracies. The essay calls for a reading of French history inclusive of regional colonialist activities and argues for the prevalence of municipal and regional maritime, technological, scientific, and military interests in constructing the modern French empire. PMID:16114803

  1. Uncertainty of empirical correlation equations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feistel, R.; Lovell-Smith, J. W.; Saunders, P.; Seitz, S.

    2016-08-01

    The International Association for the Properties of Water and Steam (IAPWS) has published a set of empirical reference equations of state, forming the basis of the 2010 Thermodynamic Equation of Seawater (TEOS-10), from which all thermodynamic properties of seawater, ice, and humid air can be derived in a thermodynamically consistent manner. For each of the equations of state, the parameters have been found by simultaneously fitting equations for a range of different derived quantities using large sets of measurements of these quantities. In some cases, uncertainties in these fitted equations have been assigned based on the uncertainties of the measurement results. However, because uncertainties in the parameter values have not been determined, it is not possible to estimate the uncertainty in many of the useful quantities that can be calculated using the parameters. In this paper we demonstrate how the method of generalised least squares (GLS), in which the covariance of the input data is propagated into the values calculated by the fitted equation, and in particular into the covariance matrix of the fitted parameters, can be applied to one of the TEOS-10 equations of state, namely IAPWS-95 for fluid pure water. Using the calculated parameter covariance matrix, we provide some preliminary estimates of the uncertainties in derived quantities, namely the second and third virial coefficients for water. We recommend further investigation of the GLS method for use as a standard method for calculating and propagating the uncertainties of values computed from empirical equations.

  2. Additive usage levels.

    PubMed

    Langlais, R

    1996-01-01

    With the adoption of the European Parliament and Council Directives on sweeteners, colours and miscellaneous additives the Commission is now embarking on the project of coordinating the activities of the European Union Member States in the collection of the data that are to make up the report on food additive intake requested by the European Parliament. This presentation looks at the inventory of available sources on additive use levels and concludes that for the time being national legislation is still the best source of information considering that the directives have yet to be transposed into national legislation. Furthermore, this presentation covers the correlation of the food categories as found in the additives directives with those used by national consumption surveys and finds that in a number of instances this correlation still leaves a lot to be desired. The intake of additives via food ingestion and the intake of substances which are chemically identical to additives but which occur naturally in fruits and vegetables is found in a number of cases to be higher than the intake of additives added during the manufacture of foodstuffs. While the difficulties are recognized in contributing to the compilation of food additive intake data, industry as a whole, i.e. the food manufacturing and food additive manufacturing industries, are confident that in a concerted effort, use data on food additives by industry can be made available. Lastly, the paper points out that with the transportation of the additives directives into national legislation and the time by which the food industry will be able to make use of the new food legislative environment several years will still go by; food additives use data by the food industry will thus have to be reviewed at the beginning of the next century. PMID:8792135

  3. An additional middle cuneiform?

    PubMed Central

    Brookes-Fazakerley, S.D.; Jackson, G.E.; Platt, S.R.

    2015-01-01

    Additional cuneiform bones of the foot have been described in reference to the medial bipartite cuneiform or as small accessory ossicles. An additional middle cuneiform has not been previously documented. We present the case of a patient with an additional ossicle that has the appearance and location of an additional middle cuneiform. Recognizing such an anatomical anomaly is essential for ruling out second metatarsal base or middle cuneiform fractures and for the preoperative planning of arthrodesis or open reduction and internal fixation procedures in this anatomical location. PMID:26224890

  4. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ..., setting forth the following concerning the personal history of the applicant: (1) Place and date of birth... schools attended. (3) History of marital and family status, including a statement as to whether any... office or offices held, with a description of the duties thereof. (5) History of employment,...

  5. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ..., setting forth the following concerning the personal history of the applicant: (1) Place and date of birth... schools attended. (3) History of marital and family status, including a statement as to whether any... office or offices held, with a description of the duties thereof. (5) History of employment,...

  6. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ..., setting forth the following concerning the personal history of the applicant: (1) Place and date of birth... schools attended. (3) History of marital and family status, including a statement as to whether any... office or offices held, with a description of the duties thereof. (5) History of employment,...

  7. Additional Research Needs to Support the GENII Biosphere Models

    SciTech Connect

    Napier, Bruce A.; Snyder, Sandra F.; Arimescu, Carmen

    2013-11-30

    In the course of evaluating the current parameter needs for the GENII Version 2 code (Snyder et al. 2013), areas of possible improvement for both the data and the underlying models have been identified. As the data review was implemented, PNNL staff identified areas where the models can be improved both to accommodate the locally significant pathways identified and also to incorporate newer models. The areas are general data needs for the existing models and improved formulations for the pathway models. It is recommended that priorities be set by NRC staff to guide selection of the most useful improvements in a cost-effective manner. Suggestions are made based on relatively easy and inexpensive changes, and longer-term more costly studies. In the short term, there are several improved model formulations that could be applied to the GENII suite of codes to make them more generally useful. • Implementation of the separation of the translocation and weathering processes • Implementation of an improved model for carbon-14 from non-atmospheric sources • Implementation of radon exposure pathways models • Development of a KML processor for the output report generator module data that are calculated on a grid that could be superimposed upon digital maps for easier presentation and display • Implementation of marine mammal models (manatees, seals, walrus, whales, etc.). Data needs in the longer term require extensive (and potentially expensive) research. Before picking any one radionuclide or food type, NRC staff should perform an in-house review of current and anticipated environmental analyses to select “dominant” radionuclides of interest to allow setting of cost-effective priorities for radionuclide- and pathway-specific research. These include • soil-to-plant uptake studies for oranges and other citrus fruits, and • Development of models for evaluation of radionuclide concentration in highly-processed foods such as oils and sugars. Finally, renewed studies of radionuclide cleanup in various modern types of municipal water treatment facilities such as advanced filtration or reverse-osmosis processes may be performed without development of any new or costly experimental facilities.

  8. 28 CFR 4.4 - Supporting affidavit; additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... relatives by blood or marriage are currently serving in any capacity with any employee benefit plan, or labor organization, group or association of employers dealing with labor organizations or industrial labor relations group, or currently advising or representing any employer with respect to...

  9. Carbamate deposit control additives

    SciTech Connect

    Honnen, L.R.; Lewis, R.A.

    1980-11-25

    Deposit control additives for internal combustion engines are provided which maintain cleanliness of intake systems without contributing to combustion chamber deposits. The additives are poly(oxyalkylene) carbamates comprising a hydrocarbyloxyterminated poly(Oxyalkylene) chain of 2-5 carbon oxyalkylene units bonded through an oxycarbonyl group to a nitrogen atom of ethylenediamine.

  10. Empirical Relationships from Regional Infrasound Signals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Negraru, P. T.; Golden, P.

    2011-12-01

    Two yearlong infrasound observations were collected at two arrays located within the so called "Zone of Silence" or "Shadow Zone" from well controlled explosive sources to investigate the long term atmospheric effects on signal propagation. The first array (FNIAR) is located north of Fallon NV, at 154 km from the munitions disposal facility outside of Hawthorne NV, while the second array (DNIAR) is located near Mercury NV, approximately 293 km south east of the detonation site. Based on celerity values, approximately 80% of the observed arrivals at FNIAR are considered stratospheric (celerities below 300 m/s), while 20% of them propagated as tropospheric waveguides with celerities of 330-345 m/s. Although there is considerable scatter in the celerity values, two seasonal effects were observed for both years; 1) a gradual decrease in celerity from summer to winter (July/January period) and 2) an increase in celerity values that starts in April. In the winter months celerity values can be extremely variable, and we have observed signals with celerities as low as 240 m/s. In contrast, at DNIAR we observe much stronger seasonal variations. In winter months we have observed tropospheric, stratospheric and thermospheric arrivals while in the summer mostly tropospheric and slower thermospheric arrivals dominate. This interpretation is consistent with the current seasonal variation of the stratospheric winds and was confirmed by ray tracing with G2S models. In addition we also discuss how the observed infrasound arrivals can be used to improve ground truth estimation methods (location, origin times and yield). For instance an empirical wind parameter derived from G2S models suggests that the differences in celerity values observed for both arrays can be explained by changes in the wind conditions. Currently we have started working on improving location algorithms that take into account empirical celerity models derived from celerity/wind plots.

  11. Prediction of shear wave velocity using empirical correlations and artificial intelligence methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maleki, Shahoo; Moradzadeh, Ali; Riabi, Reza Ghavami; Gholami, Raoof; Sadeghzadeh, Farhad

    2014-06-01

    Good understanding of mechanical properties of rock formations is essential during the development and production phases of a hydrocarbon reservoir. Conventionally, these properties are estimated from the petrophysical logs with compression and shear sonic data being the main input to the correlations. This is while in many cases the shear sonic data are not acquired during well logging, which may be for cost saving purposes. In this case, shear wave velocity is estimated using available empirical correlations or artificial intelligent methods proposed during the last few decades. In this paper, petrophysical logs corresponding to a well drilled in southern part of Iran were used to estimate the shear wave velocity using empirical correlations as well as two robust artificial intelligence methods knows as Support Vector Regression (SVR) and Back-Propagation Neural Network (BPNN). Although the results obtained by SVR seem to be reliable, the estimated values are not very precise and considering the importance of shear sonic data as the input into different models, this study suggests acquiring shear sonic data during well logging. It is important to note that the benefits of having reliable shear sonic data for estimation of rock formation mechanical properties will compensate the possible additional costs for acquiring a shear log.

  12. Empirical therapy in Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Aureus infections: An Up-To-Date approach.

    PubMed

    VanEperen, Alison S; Segreti, John

    2016-06-01

    Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) continues to be an important pathogen worldwide, with high prevalence of infection in both community and hospital settings. Timely and appropriate choice of empirical therapy in the setting of MRSA infection is imperative due to the high rate of associated morbidity and mortality with MRSA infections. Initial choices should be made based on the site and severity of the infection, most notably moderate skin and soft tissue infections which may be treated with oral antibiotics (trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole, clindamycin, doxycycline/minocycline, linezolid) in the outpatient setting, versus choice of parenteral therapy in the inpatient setting of more invasive or severe disease. Though the current recommendations continue to strongly rely on vancomycin as a standard empiric choice in the setting of severe/invasive infections, alternative therapies exist with studies supporting their non-inferiority. This includes the use of linezolid in pneumonia and severe skin and skin structure infections (SSSI) and daptomycin for MRSA bacteremia, endocarditis, SSSIs and bone/joint infections. Additionally, concerns continue to arise in regards to vancomycin, such as increasing isolate MICs, and relatively high rates of clinical failures with vancomycin. Thus, the growing interest in vanomycin alternatives, such as ceftaroline, ceftobribole, dalbavancin, oritavancin, and tedizolid, and their potential role in treating MRSA infections. PMID:27066882

  13. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  14. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  15. An empirical target discharging model relevant to hot-electron preheat in direct-drive implosions on OMEGA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sinenian, N.; J-E Manuel, M.; Frenje, J. A.; Séguin, F. H.; Li, C. K.; Petrasso, R. D.

    2013-04-01

    Charging of inertial confinement fusion (ICF) targets generates a potential well that traps energetic electrons within the target. Trapped electrons can preheat the fuel, raise the adiabat, degrade compression and perhaps have an effect on achieving the high areal densities (ρR) required for ignition and gain. The decay time of this potential is thus an important parameter for any calculations of preheat. A nonlinear model of electrical discharging of ICF capsules has been developed and is presented here. The empirical model, which captures the essential dynamics of the target voltage decay, incorporates previous charged-particle spectroscopic and radiographic measurements of the fields surrounding the target. On the basis of this model, it is shown that the decay time is weakly dependent on the initial voltage of the target. In addition, it is shown that currents through the target support fiber aid target discharging. Implications of these findings for inertial fusion energy targets without support fibers are discussed.

  16. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  17. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  18. Additional Types of Neuropathy

    MedlinePlus

    ... A A Listen En Español Additional Types of Neuropathy Charcot's Joint Charcot's Joint, also called neuropathic arthropathy, ... can stop bone destruction and aid healing. Cranial Neuropathy Cranial neuropathy affects the 12 pairs of nerves ...

  19. Toxicology of chemical mixtures: a challenging quest along empirical sciences.

    PubMed

    Groten, John P; Heijne, Wilbert H M; Stierum, Rob H; Freidig, Andreas P; Feron, Victor J

    2004-12-01

    This paper describes the "quest" of our institute trying to assess the toxicology of chemical mixtures. In this overview, we will discuss some critical developments in hazard identification and risk assessment of chemical mixtures during these past 15 years. We will stand still at empirical and mechanistic modeling. "Empirical" means that only information on doses or concentrations and effects is available in addition to an often empirically selected quantitative dose-response relationship. Empirical models have played a dominant role in the last decade to identify health and safety characteristics of chemical mixtures. Many of these models are based on the work of pioneers in mixture toxicology who defined three basic types of action for combinations of chemicals: simple similar action, simple dissimilar action and interaction. Nowadays, empirical models are mainly based on response-surface analysis and make use of advanced statistical designs. However, possible interactions between components in a mixture can also be given in terms of mechanistic models. In terms of "mechanistic" (or biological) understanding, interactions between compounds may occur in the kinetic phase (processes of uptake, distribution, metabolism and excretion) or in the dynamic phase (effects of chemicals on the receptor, cellular target or organ). A biological phenomenon such as competitive agonism as described for mixtures of drugs (biotransformation enzymes) or sensory irritants (nerve receptors) can accurately predict the effect of any of these mixtures. Thus, far mechanistic and empirical analyses of interactions are usually unrelated. It is one of the future challenges for mixtures research to combine information from both approaches. Also, our current biology-based models have their limitations, since they cannot integrate every relevant biological mechanism. In this respect, mechanistic modeling of mixtures may benefit from the developments coming from the arena of molecular biology

  20. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  1. Empirical treatment of acute cystitis in women.

    PubMed

    Nicolle, Lindsay E

    2003-07-01

    Empirical antimicrobial treatment for acute cystitis in women requires continuing reassessment as the antimicrobial susceptibility of community isolates of Escherichia coli evolves. Current recommendations for 3 days trimethoprim or trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole are compromised by increasing resistance of community E. coli to these agents. Fluoroquinolones are an alternate 3-day therapy, but increasing resistance is being reported from some countries, and widespread community use may promote resistance, limiting effectiveness of these agents for more serious infections. Alternate regimens supported by recent clinical trials suggest pivmecillinam given twice daily for 7 days is as effective as 3 days of quinolone therapy, while microbiological cure is 80% with 3 days therapy twice daily, and 90% with 3 days therapy thrice daily. Nitrofurantoin given for 7 days has a cure rate of 80-85%. Fosfomycin trometamol as a single dose has cure rates of 75-85%. All these agents are effective, but a compromise in efficacy or duration of therapy compared with current 3-day regimens may have to be considered. PMID:12842322

  2. Evolution of viral virulence: empirical studies

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kurath, Gael; Wargo, Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    The concept of virulence as a pathogen trait that can evolve in response to selection has led to a large body of virulence evolution theory developed in the 1980-1990s. Various aspects of this theory predict increased or decreased virulence in response to a complex array of selection pressures including mode of transmission, changes in host, mixed infection, vector-borne transmission, environmental changes, host vaccination, host resistance, and co-evolution of virus and host. A fundamental concept is prediction of trade-offs between the costs and benefits associated with higher virulence, leading to selection of optimal virulence levels. Through a combination of observational and experimental studies, including experimental evolution of viruses during serial passage, many of these predictions have now been explored in systems ranging from bacteriophage to viruses of plants, invertebrates, and vertebrate hosts. This chapter summarizes empirical studies of viral virulence evolution in numerous diverse systems, including the classic models myxomavirus in rabbits, Marek's disease virus in chickens, and HIV in humans. Collectively these studies support some aspects of virulence evolution theory, suggest modifications for other aspects, and show that predictions may apply in some virus:host interactions but not in others. Finally, we consider how virulence evolution theory applies to disease management in the field.

  3. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  4. Additives in plastics.

    PubMed Central

    Deanin, R D

    1975-01-01

    The polymers used in plastics are generally harmless. However, they are rarely used in pure form. In almost all commercial plastics, they are "compounded" with monomeric ingredients to improve their processing and end-use performance. In order of total volume used, these monomeric additives may be classified as follows: reinforcing fibers, fillers, and coupling agents; plasticizers; colorants; stabilizers (halogen stabilizers, antioxidants, ultraviolet absorbers, and biological preservatives); processing aids (lubricants, others, and flow controls); flame retardants, peroxides; and antistats. Some information is already available, and much more is needed, on potential toxicity and safe handling of these additives during processing and manufacture of plastics products. PMID:1175566

  5. Empirical and Analytic Studies Human/Automation Dynamics in Airspace Management for Free Flight

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Corker, Kevin M.; Planich, G.; Bunzo, M.; Labacqz, J. Victor (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    NASA and the FAA have initiated programs of research and development to provide flight crew, airline operations and air traffic managers with automation aids to increase capacity in en route and terminal area to support the goals of free flight for safe, flexible, predictable, and efficient operations. To support the development of those aiding systems human performance in automated aiding has been examined in empirical and computationally analytic studies. This paper presents a set of those studies in full mission simulation and the development of a predictive computational model of human performance. We have found that the combination of methodologies provide a powerful design-aiding process. We will describe three research programs in support of Free Flight Operations from the perspective of human performance requirements. We have examined procedures and communications in the use of voice and data-link operation at the transition between unconstrained (enroute) and constrained (terminal) airspace operations. We have examined the timing and form of Center TRACON Automation System (CTAS) advisories in descent. We have investigated the shape and dimensions of an 'alert zone' for air-based separation in unconstrained operations. Finally, we have examined the interaction of a ground-based conflict detection/resolution aiding system, as it interacts with a cockpit-based conflict alerting mechanism. Additional information is contained in the original extended abstract.

  6. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  7. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” A rural incumbent local exchange carrier shall receive safety net additive support if it satisfies the conditions set forth...

  8. Flourishing and Posttraumatic Growth. An Empirical Take on Ancient Wisdoms.

    PubMed

    Middleton, Hugh

    2016-06-01

    Considerations of well-being or flourishing include Maslow's and Rogers' concepts of self-actualisation and actualising tendency. Recent empirical findings suggest that only a modest proportion of the population might be considered to be flourishing. Separate findings focused upon the nature and determinants of post-traumatic growth identify it as comparable to flourishing, and facilitated by supported accommodation to the trauma. This can be understood as reflecting self-actualisation. Empirical findings such as these provide ontological stability to a set of phenomena that share much with ancient teachings extolling redemption through suffering. This framework challenges conventional healthcare policies and practices, but in ways that offer insights into how patient-centred approaches to chronic illness and disability might be better conceived and enabled. It also throws into doubt the rectitude of an economic model built around services and products designed to provide easy access to sources of immediate gratification. PMID:27015998

  9. The Career-Related Parent Support Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, Sherri L.; Alliman-Brissett, Annette; Lapan, Richard T.; Udipi, Sharanya; Ergun, Damla

    2003-01-01

    The authors describe the construction of the Career-Related Parent Support Scale and examine the validity of the scale scores within a sample of at-risk middle school adolescents. Four empirically distinct parent support factors were confirmed along A. Bandura's sources of self-efficacy information. Gender and ethnic differences in perceived…

  10. [An encyclopedia for the empire].

    PubMed

    Stöltzner, Michael

    2008-03-01

    In the preface to the universal encyclopedia Die Kultur der Gegenwart (The Culture of the Present), the editor-in-chief Paul Hinneberg places his project--not openly but nevertheless unequivocally--in the tradition of the French Encyclopédie that Diderot and d'Alembert had organized from 1751 until 1765. The attempt to accomplish anew such a large-scale project and, in this way, to win the German Empire the kind of intellectual leadership which the Encyclopédie, in historical retrospect, had achieved for the epoch of Enlightenment, required to convince the leading scholars, scientists, and technicians of the nation to participate in the endeavor and to assemble their contributions under a common systematic agenda through which this universal encyclopedia would distinguish itself from all dictionaries and disciplinary encyclopedias. While the Encyclopédie followed to a large extent an empiricist philosophy, Hinneberg trusted in the integrative function of the concept of culture and the ability of his contributors to elucidate the history of their respective disciplines and to connect them with neighboring fields of culture. The present contributions argues that although, from a philosophical point of view, the historicist tack taken by Hinneberg makes the concept of culture quite blurry, it nevertheless provides enough cohesive structure such that the work, even though unfinished as a consequence of war and inflation, represents a faithful picture of its epoch that Hinneberg understands as an epoch of transition. PMID:19044040

  11. Biobased lubricant additives

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Fully biobased lubricants are those formulated using all biobased ingredients, i.e. biobased base oils and biobased additives. Such formulations provide the maximum environmental, safety, and economic benefits expected from a biobased product. Currently, there are a number of biobased base oils that...

  12. Multifunctional fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Baillargeon, D.J.; Cardis, A.B.; Heck, D.B.

    1991-03-26

    This paper discusses a composition comprising a major amount of a liquid hydrocarbyl fuel and a minor low-temperature flow properties improving amount of an additive product of the reaction of a suitable diol and product of a benzophenone tetracarboxylic dianhydride and a long-chain hydrocarbyl aminoalcohol.

  13. The Problem of Empirical Redundancy of Constructs in Organizational Research: An Empirical Investigation

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Le, Huy; Schmidt, Frank L.; Harter, James K.; Lauver, Kristy J.

    2010-01-01

    Construct empirical redundancy may be a major problem in organizational research today. In this paper, we explain and empirically illustrate a method for investigating this potential problem. We applied the method to examine the empirical redundancy of job satisfaction (JS) and organizational commitment (OC), two well-established organizational…

  14. The Empirical Interests of Developmental Psychology.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGraw, Kenneth O.

    1991-01-01

    Presents a classification system for developmental psychology that was constructed by means of a survey of articles published in the journals "Child Development" and "Developmental Psychology" in 1969 and 1987. The survey found that eight empirical questions encompassed the full range of empirical interests expressed by developmental…

  15. Empirical Moral Philosophy and Teacher Education

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schjetne, Espen; Afdal, Hilde Wågsås; Anker, Trine; Johannesen, Nina; Afdal, Geir

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we explore the possible contributions of empirical moral philosophy to professional ethics in teacher education. We argue that it is both possible and desirable to connect knowledge of how teachers empirically do and understand professional ethics with normative theories of teachers' professional ethics. Our argument is made in…

  16. Empirical Approaches to the Birthday Problem

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flores, Alfinio; Cauto, Kevin M.

    2012-01-01

    This article will describe two activities in which students conduct experiments with random numbers so they can see that having at least one repeated birthday in a group of 40 is not unusual. The first empirical approach was conducted by author Cauto in a secondary school methods course. The second empirical approach was used by author Flores with…

  17. A Review of Theoretical and Empirical Advancements

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wang, Mo; Henkens, Kene; van Solinge, Hanna

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we review both theoretical and empirical advancements in retirement adjustment research. After reviewing and integrating current theories about retirement adjustment, we propose a resource-based dynamic perspective to apply to the understanding of retirement adjustment. We then review empirical findings that are associated with…

  18. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  19. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  20. 42 CFR 52c.8 - Additional conditions.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 42 Public Health 1 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional conditions. 52c.8 Section 52c.8 Public Health PUBLIC HEALTH SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GRANTS MINORITY BIOMEDICAL RESEARCH SUPPORT PROGRAM § 52c.8 Additional conditions. The Secretary may with respect to any grant award...

  1. French and English Together: An "Additive" Experience

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiltshire, Jessica; Harbon, Lesley

    2010-01-01

    This paper examines the nature of the "additive" experience of a bilingual French-English curriculum at Killarney Heights Public School in New South Wales. Predictably, the well-supported "additive" nature of the languages program model elicited positive reactions regarding educational success. The paper also explores issues for administration,…

  2. 76 FR 5142 - Procurement List; Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-01-28

    ... Procurement List. Service Type/Location: Base Operations Support Service Directorate of Public Works (DPW... PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED Procurement List; Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the Procurement...

  3. POET: Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning

    SciTech Connect

    Yi, Q; Seymour, K; You, H; Vuduc, R; Quinlan, D

    2007-01-29

    The excessive complexity of both machine architectures and applications have made it difficult for compilers to statically model and predict application behavior. This observation motivates the recent interest in performance tuning using empirical techniques. We present a new embedded scripting language, POET (Parameterized Optimization for Empirical Tuning), for parameterizing complex code transformations so that they can be empirically tuned. The POET language aims to significantly improve the generality, flexibility, and efficiency of existing empirical tuning systems. We have used the language to parameterize and to empirically tune three loop optimizations-interchange, blocking, and unrolling-for two linear algebra kernels. We show experimentally that the time required to tune these optimizations using POET, which does not require any program analysis, is significantly shorter than that when using a full compiler-based source-code optimizer which performs sophisticated program analysis and optimizations.

  4. The empirical equilibrium structure of diacetylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorwirth, Sven; Harding, Michael E.; Muders, Dirk; Gauss, Jürgen

    2008-09-01

    High-level quantum-chemical calculations are reported at the MP2 and CCSD(T) levels of theory for the equilibrium structure and the harmonic and anharmonic force fields of diacetylene, H sbnd C tbnd C sbnd C tbnd C sbnd H. The calculations were performed employing Dunning's hierarchy of correlation-consistent basis sets cc-pV XZ, cc-pCV XZ, and cc-pwCV XZ, as well as the ANO2 basis set of Almlöf and Taylor. An empirical equilibrium structure based on experimental rotational constants for 13 isotopic species of diacetylene and computed zero-point vibrational corrections is determined (reemp:r=1.0615 Å,r=1.2085 Å,r=1.3727 Å) and in good agreement with the best theoretical structure (CCSD(T)/cc-pCV5Z: r=1.0617 Å, r=1.2083 Å, r=1.3737 Å). In addition, the computed fundamental vibrational frequencies are compared with the available experimental data and found in satisfactory agreement.

  5. Boron addition to alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Coad, B. C.

    1985-08-20

    A process for addition of boron to an alloy which involves forming a melt of the alloy and a reactive metal, selected from the group consisting of aluminum, titanium, zirconium and mixtures thereof to the melt, maintaining the resulting reactive mixture in the molten state and reacting the boric oxide with the reactive metal to convert at least a portion of the boric oxide to boron which dissolves in the resulting melt, and to convert at least portion of the reactive metal to the reactive metal oxide, which oxide remains with the resulting melt, and pouring the resulting melt into a gas stream to form a first atomized powder which is subsequently remelted with further addition of boric oxide, re-atomized, and thus reprocessed to convert essentially all the reactive metal to metal oxide to produce a powdered alloy containing specified amounts of boron.

  6. Tackifier for addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Butler, J. M.; St.clair, T. L.

    1980-01-01

    A modification to the addition polyimide, LaRC-160, was prepared to improve tack and drape and increase prepeg out-time. The essentially solventless, high viscosity laminating resin is synthesized from low cost liquid monomers. The modified version takes advantage of a reactive, liquid plasticizer which is used in place of solvent and helps solve a major problem of maintaining good prepeg tack and drape, or the ability of the prepeg to adhere to adjacent plies and conform to a desired shape during the lay up process. This alternate solventless approach allows both longer life of the polymer prepeg and the processing of low void laminates. This approach appears to be applicable to all addition polyimide systems.

  7. Vinyl capped addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vannucci, Raymond D. (Inventor); Malarik, Diane C. (Inventor); Delvigs, Peter (Inventor)

    1991-01-01

    Polyimide resins (PMR) are generally useful where high strength and temperature capabilities are required (at temperatures up to about 700 F). Polyimide resins are particularly useful in applications such as jet engine compressor components, for example, blades, vanes, air seals, air splitters, and engine casing parts. Aromatic vinyl capped addition polyimides are obtained by reacting a diamine, an ester of tetracarboxylic acid, and an aromatic vinyl compound. Low void materials with improved oxidative stability when exposed to 700 F air may be fabricated as fiber reinforced high molecular weight capped polyimide composites. The aromatic vinyl capped polyimides are provided with a more aromatic nature and are more thermally stable than highly aliphatic, norbornenyl-type end-capped polyimides employed in PMR resins. The substitution of aromatic vinyl end-caps for norbornenyl end-caps in addition polyimides results in polymers with improved oxidative stability.

  8. [Biologically active food additives].

    PubMed

    Velichko, M A; Shevchenko, V P

    1998-07-01

    More than half out of 40 projects for the medical science development by the year of 2000 have been connected with the bio-active edible additives that are called "the food of XXI century", non-pharmacological means for many diseases. Most of these additives--nutricevtics and parapharmacevtics--are intended for the enrichment of food rations for the sick or healthy people. The ecologicaly safest and most effective are combined domestic adaptogens with immuno-modulating and antioxidating action that give anabolic and stimulating effect,--"leveton", "phytoton" and "adapton". The MKTs-229 tablets are residue discharge means. For atherosclerosis and general adiposis they recommend "tsar tablets" and "aiconol (ikhtien)"--on the base of cod-liver oil or "splat" made out of seaweed (algae). All these preparations have been clinically tested and received hygiene certificates from the Institute of Dietology of the Russian Academy of Medical Science. PMID:9752776

  9. Electrophilic addition of astatine

    SciTech Connect

    Norseev, Yu.V.; Vasaros, L.; Nhan, D.D.; Huan, N.K.

    1988-03-01

    It has been shown for the first time that astatine is capable of undergoing addition reactions to unsaturated hydrocarbons. A new compound of astatine, viz., ethylene astatohydrin, has been obtained, and its retention numbers of squalane, Apiezon, and tricresyl phosphate have been found. The influence of various factors on the formation of ethylene astatohydrin has been studied. It has been concluded on the basis of the results obtained that the univalent cations of astatine in an acidic medium is protonated hypoastatous acid.

  10. Hydrocarbon fuel additive

    SciTech Connect

    Ambrogio, S.

    1989-02-28

    This patent describes the method of fuel storage or combustion, wherein the fuel supply contains small amounts of water, the step of adding to the fuel supply an additive comprising a blend of a hydrophilic agent chosen from the group of ethylene glycol, n-butyl alcohol, and cellosolve in the range of 22-37% by weight; ethoxylated nonylphenol in the range of 26-35% by weight; nonylphenol polyethylene glycol ether in the range of 32-43% by weight.

  11. Quantitative genetic versions of Hamilton's rule with empirical applications

    PubMed Central

    McGlothlin, Joel W.; Wolf, Jason B.; Brodie, Edmund D.; Moore, Allen J.

    2014-01-01

    Hamilton's theory of inclusive fitness revolutionized our understanding of the evolution of social interactions. Surprisingly, an incorporation of Hamilton's perspective into the quantitative genetic theory of phenotypic evolution has been slow, despite the popularity of quantitative genetics in evolutionary studies. Here, we discuss several versions of Hamilton's rule for social evolution from a quantitative genetic perspective, emphasizing its utility in empirical applications. Although evolutionary quantitative genetics offers methods to measure each of the critical parameters of Hamilton's rule, empirical work has lagged behind theory. In particular, we lack studies of selection on altruistic traits in the wild. Fitness costs and benefits of altruism can be estimated using a simple extension of phenotypic selection analysis that incorporates the traits of social interactants. We also discuss the importance of considering the genetic influence of the social environment, or indirect genetic effects (IGEs), in the context of Hamilton's rule. Research in social evolution has generated an extensive body of empirical work focusing—with good reason—almost solely on relatedness. We argue that quantifying the roles of social and non-social components of selection and IGEs, in addition to relatedness, is now timely and should provide unique additional insights into social evolution. PMID:24686930

  12. General covariance, artificial gauge freedom and empirical equivalence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitts, James Brian

    often reformulate a theory to install additional fields and new gauge symmetries preserving empirical content. Post-positivist philosophers might judge the result a distinct and inferior theory, but physicists consider it a perhaps superior formulation of the same theory. Evidently a step back from naive realism towards mathematical-empirical equivalence is appropriate for physical ontology and theory individuation. Artificial gauge freedom licenses a generalized Kretschmann objection, but the clock field case suggests a resolution.

  13. Nutritional Support

    MedlinePlus

    Nutritional support is therapy for people who cannot get enough nourishment by eating or drinking. You may need ... absorb nutrients through your digestive system You receive nutritional support through a needle or catheter placed in your ...

  14. Mission Operations Planning with Preferences: An Empirical Study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bresina, John L.; Khatib, Lina; McGann, Conor

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an empirical study of some nonexhaustive approaches to optimizing preferences within the context of constraint-based, mixed-initiative planning for mission operations. This work is motivated by the experience of deploying and operating the MAPGEN (Mixed-initiative Activity Plan GENerator) system for the Mars Exploration Rover Mission. Responsiveness to the user is one of the important requirements for MAPGEN, hence, the additional computation time needed to optimize preferences must be kept within reasonabble bounds. This was the primary motivation for studying non-exhaustive optimization approaches. The specific goals of rhe empirical study are to assess the impact on solution quality of two greedy heuristics used in MAPGEN and to assess the improvement gained by applying a linear programming optimization technique to the final solution.

  15. Siloxane containing addition polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maudgal, S.; St. Clair, T. L.

    1984-01-01

    Addition polyimide oligomers have been synthesized from bis(gamma-aminopropyl) tetramethyldisiloxane and 3, 3', 4, 4'-benzophenonetetracarboxylic dianhydride using a variety of latent crosslinking groups as endcappers. The prepolymers were isolated and characterized for solubility (in amide, chlorinated and ether solvents), melt flow and cure properties. The most promising systems, maleimide and acetylene terminated prepolymers, were selected for detailed study. Graphite cloth reinforced composites were prepared and properties compared with those of graphite/Kerimid 601, a commercially available bismaleimide. Mixtures of the maleimide terminated system with Kerimid 601, in varying proportions, were also studied.

  16. Oil additive process

    SciTech Connect

    Bishop, H.

    1988-10-18

    This patent describes a method of making an additive comprising: (a) adding 2 parts by volume of 3% sodium hypochlorite to 45 parts by volume of diesel oil fuel to form a sulphur free fuel, (b) removing all water and foreign matter formed by the sodium hypochlorite, (c) blending 30 parts by volume of 24% lead naphthanate with 15 parts by volume of the sulphur free fuel, 15 parts by volume of light-weight material oil to form a blended mixture, and (d) heating the blended mixture slowly and uniformly to 152F.

  17. Recovery Support for Adolescents with Substance use Disorders: The Impact of Recovery Support Telephone Calls Provided by Pre-Professional Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Garner, Bryan R; Godley, Mark D; Passetti, Lora L; Funk, Rodney R; White, William L

    2014-01-01

    The present quasi-experiment examined the direct and indirect effects of recovery support telephone calls following adolescent substance use disorder treatment. Six-month outcome data from 202 adolescents who had received recovery support calls from primarily pre-professional (i.e., college-level social service students) volunteers was compared to 6-month outcome data from a matched comparison sample of adolescents (n = 404). Results suggested adolescents in the recovery support sample had significantly greater reductions in their recovery environment risk relative to the comparison sample (β = -.17). Path analysis also suggested that the reduction in recovery environment risk produced by recovery support calls had indirect impacts (via recovery environment risk) on reductions in social risk (β = .22), substance use (β = .23), and substance-related problems (β = .16). Finally, moderation analyses suggested the effects of recovery support calls did not differ by gender, but were significantly greater for adolescents with lower levels of treatment readiness. In addition to providing rare empirical support for the effectiveness of recovery support services, an important contribution of this study is that it provides evidence that recovery support services do not necessarily have to be “peer-based,” at least in terms of the recovery support service provider having the experiential credentials of being “in recovery.” If replicated, this latter finding may have particularly important implications for helping increase the recovery support workforce. PMID:25574502

  18. Social Support and Employee Well-Being: The Conditioning Effect of Perceived Patterns of Supportive Exchange

    PubMed Central

    Nahum-Shani, Inbal; Bamberger, Peter A.; Bacharach, Samuel B.

    2014-01-01

    Seeking to explain divergent empirical findings regarding the direct effect of social support on well-being, the authors posit that the pattern of supportive exchange (i.e., reciprocal, under-, or over-reciprocating) determines the impact of receiving support on well-being. Findings generated on the basis of longitudinal data collected from a sample of older blue-collar workers support the authors’ predictions, indicating that receiving emotional support is associated with enhanced well-being when the pattern of supportive exchange is perceived by an individual as being reciprocal (support received equals support given), with this association being weaker when the exchange of support is perceived as being under-reciprocating (support given exceeds support received). Moreover, receiving support was found to adversely affect well-being when the pattern of exchange was perceived as being over-reciprocating (support received exceeds support given). Theoretical and practical implications of these findings are discussed. PMID:21362616

  19. Global positioning system (GPS) supported block adjustment with self-calibration parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blankenberg, Leif E.

    1994-08-01

    Systematic errors in the image coordinates is often a problem when working with high accuracy bundle block adjustment. These errors can be modeled by introducing self calibration parameters in the adjustment. In a traditional block adjustment, a dense network of ground control points are required to ensure a reliable estimate of these parameters. In the case of GPS-supported block adjustment, there is usually very little ground control available, but as shown in this paper, it is still possible to estimate the self calibration parameters. This is because of the stabilizing effect the GPS-determined perspective center coordinates have on the block. In this paper, both simulated data and real block data are used to evaluate the accuracy properties of GPS-supported blocks with additional self calibration parameters. Two different sets of additional parameters are evaluated. In the GPS-supported test blocks, the introduction of self calibration parameters improves the empirical tie point accuracy by 30 - 40%.

  20. Transition mixing study empirical model report

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Srinivasan, R.; White, C.

    1988-01-01

    The empirical model developed in the NASA Dilution Jet Mixing Program has been extended to include the curvature effects of transition liners. This extension is based on the results of a 3-D numerical model generated under this contract. The empirical model results agree well with the numerical model results for all tests cases evaluated. The empirical model shows faster mixing rates compared to the numerical model. Both models show drift of jets toward the inner wall of a turning duct. The structure of the jets from the inner wall does not exhibit the familiar kidney-shaped structures observed for the outer wall jets or for jets injected in rectangular ducts.

  1. Sewage sludge additive

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalvinskas, J. J.; Mueller, W. A.; Ingham, J. D. (Inventor)

    1980-01-01

    The additive is for a raw sewage treatment process of the type where settling tanks are used for the purpose of permitting the suspended matter in the raw sewage to be settled as well as to permit adsorption of the dissolved contaminants in the water of the sewage. The sludge, which settles down to the bottom of the settling tank is extracted, pyrolyzed and activated to form activated carbon and ash which is mixed with the sewage prior to its introduction into the settling tank. The sludge does not provide all of the activated carbon and ash required for adequate treatment of the raw sewage. It is necessary to add carbon to the process and instead of expensive commercial carbon, coal is used to provide the carbon supplement.

  2. Perspectives on Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bourell, David L.

    2016-07-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) has skyrocketed in visibility commercially and in the public sector. This article describes the development of this field from early layered manufacturing approaches of photosculpture, topography, and material deposition. Certain precursors to modern AM processes are also briefly described. The growth of the field over the last 30 years is presented. Included is the standard delineation of AM technologies into seven broad categories. The economics of AM part generation is considered, and the impacts of the economics on application sectors are described. On the basis of current trends, the future outlook will include a convergence of AM fabricators, mass-produced AM fabricators, enabling of topology optimization designs, and specialization in the AM legal arena. Long-term developments with huge impact are organ printing and volume-based printing.

  3. New addition curing polyimides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frimer, Aryeh A.; Cavano, Paul

    1991-01-01

    In an attempt to improve the thermal-oxidative stability (TOS) of PMR-type polymers, the use of 1,4-phenylenebis (phenylmaleic anhydride) PPMA, was evaluated. Two series of nadic end-capped addition curing polyimides were prepared by imidizing PPMA with either 4,4'-methylene dianiline or p-phenylenediamine. The first resulted in improved solubility and increased resin flow while the latter yielded a compression molded neat resin sample with a T(sub g) of 408 C, close to 70 C higher than PME-15. The performance of these materials in long term weight loss studies was below that of PMR-15, independent of post-cure conditions. These results can be rationalized in terms of the thermal lability of the pendant phenyl groups and the incomplete imidization of the sterically congested PPMA. The preparation of model compounds as well as future research directions are discussed.

  4. Juries and Medical Malpractice Claims: Empirical Facts versus Myths

    PubMed Central

    2008-01-01

    Juries in medical malpractice trials are viewed as incompetent, antidoctor, irresponsible in awarding damages to patients, and casting a threatening shadow over the settlement process. Several decades of systematic empirical research yields little support for these claims. This article summarizes those findings. Doctors win about three cases of four that go to trial. Juries are skeptical about inflated claims. Jury verdicts on negligence are roughly similar to assessments made by medical experts and judges. Damage awards tend to correlate positively with the severity of injury. There are defensible reasons for large damage awards. Moreover, the largest awards are typically settled for much less than the verdicts. PMID:19002541

  5. Fission cross section calculations of actinides with EMPIRE code

    SciTech Connect

    Sin, M.; Oblozinsky, P.; Herman,M.; Capote,R.

    2010-04-30

    The cross sections of the neutron induced reactions on {sup 233,234,236}U, {sup 237}Np, {sup 238,242}Pu, {sup 241,243}Am, {sup 242,246}Cm carried out in the energy range 1 keV-20 MeV with EMPIRE code are presented, emphasizing the fission channel. Beside a consistent, accurate set of evaluations, the paper contains arguments supporting the choice of the reaction models and input parameters. A special attention is paid to the fission parameters and their uncertainties.

  6. Juries and medical malpractice claims: empirical facts versus myths.

    PubMed

    Vidmar, Neil

    2009-02-01

    Juries in medical malpractice trials are viewed as incompetent, antidoctor, irresponsible in awarding damages to patients, and casting a threatening shadow over the settlement process. Several decades of systematic empirical research yields little support for these claims. This article summarizes those findings. Doctors win about three cases of four that go to trial. Juries are skeptical about inflated claims. Jury verdicts on negligence are roughly similar to assessments made by medical experts and judges. Damage awards tend to correlate positively with the severity of injury. There are defensible reasons for large damage awards. Moreover, the largest awards are typically settled for much less than the verdicts. PMID:19002541

  7. Source selection for analogical reasoning an empirical approach

    SciTech Connect

    Stubblefield, W.A.; Luger, G.F.

    1996-12-31

    The effectiveness of an analogical reasoner depends upon its ability to select a relevant analogical source. In many problem domains, however, too little is known about target problems to support effective source selection. This paper describes the design and evaluation of SCAVENGER, an analogical reasoner that applies two techniques to this problem: (1) An assumption-based approach to matching that allows properties of candidate sources to match unknown target properties in the absence of evidence to the contrary. (2) The use of empirical learning to improve memory organization based on problem solving experience.

  8. Linguistics, Empirical Research, and Evaluating Composition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Houlette, Forrest

    1984-01-01

    Argues that empiricism has a role as a complement to humanistic methodologies in composition research. Humanistic methodologies yield the stuff of hypotheses; empirically proven hypotheses provide further ground for humanistic interpretation. (MS)

  9. Empire expands on its 15% pitch

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, D.

    1981-10-01

    Empire Energy operates two mines, Eagle No. 5 and Eagle No. 9, in northwest Colorado, near Craig. Under new ownership, will seek to raise output from its pitching seams through greater use of continuous miners and diesel equipment.

  10. Recent Developments in Empirical Industrial Organization.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Porter, Robert H.

    1994-01-01

    Presents an bibliographic essay of recent empirical research in industrial organization. Examines topics such as the econometrics of markets with imperfect competition, technology and industry structure, industry evolution, and industry studies of regulation. (CFR)

  11. EMPIRE ULTIMATE EXPANSION: RESONANCES AND COVARIANCES.

    SciTech Connect

    HERMAN,M.; MUGHABGHAB, S.F.; OBLOZINSKY, P.; ROCHMAN, D.; PIGNI, M.T.; KAWANO, T.; CAPOTE, R.; ZERKIN, V.; TRKOV, A.; SIN, M.; CARSON, B.V.; WIENKE, H. CHO, Y.-S.

    2007-04-22

    The EMPIRE code system is being extended to cover the resolved and unresolved resonance region employing proven methodology used for the production of new evaluations in the recent Atlas of Neutron Resonances. Another directions of Empire expansion are uncertainties and correlations among them. These include covariances for cross sections as well as for model parameters. In this presentation we concentrate on the KALMAN method that has been applied in EMPIRE to the fast neutron range as well as to the resonance region. We also summarize role of the EMPIRE code in the ENDF/B-VII.0 development. Finally, large scale calculations and their impact on nuclear model parameters are discussed along with the exciting perspectives offered by the parallel supercomputing.

  12. Introducing Empirical Exercises into Principles of Economics.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McGrath, Eileen L.; Tiemann, Thomas K.

    1985-01-01

    A rationale for requiring undergraduate students to become familiar with the empirical side of economics is presented, and seven exercises that can be used in an introductory course are provided. (Author/RM)

  13. EMPIRE: A code for nuclear astrophysics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Palumbo, A.

    2016-01-01

    The nuclear reaction code EMPIRE is presented as a useful tool for nuclear astrophysics. EMPIRE combines a variety of the reaction models with a comprehensive library of input parameters providing a diversity of options for the user. With exclusion of the direct- semidirect capture all reaction mechanisms relevant to the nuclear astrophysics energy range of interest are implemented in the code. Comparison to experimental data show consistent agreement for all relevant channels.

  14. Peer Support.

    PubMed

    Forchuk, Cheryl; Solomon, Michelle; Viran, Tazim

    2016-01-01

    The Mental Health Commission of Canada defines peer support as "a supportive relationship between people who have a lived experience in common … in relation to a mental health challenge or illness … related to their own mental health or that of a loved one" (Sunderland et al. 2013: 11). In Ontario, a key resource for peer support is the Ontario Peer Development Initiative (OPDI), which is an umbrella organization of mental health Consumer/Survivor Initiatives (CSIs) and peer support organizations across the province of Ontario. Member organizations are run by and for people with lived experience of a mental health or addiction issue and provide a wide range of services and activities within their communities. The central tenet of member organizations is the common understanding that people can and do recover with the proper supports in place and that peer support is integral to successful recovery. Nationally, Peer Support Accreditation and Certification Canada has recently been established. The relatively new national organization focuses on training and accrediting peer support workers. This paper focuses on a range of diverse peer support groups and CSIs that operate in London and surrounding areas. PMID:26854546

  15. Empirical studies of regulatory restructuring and incentives

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knittel, Christopher Roland

    This dissertation examines the actions of firms when faced with regulatory restructuring. Chapter I examines the equilibrium pricing behavior of local exchange telephone companies under a variety of market structures. In particular, the pricing behavior of three services are analyzed: residential local service, business local service, and intraLATA toll service. Beginning in 1984, a variety of market structure changes have taken place in the local telecommunications industry. I analyze differences in the method of price-setting regulation and the restrictions on entry. Specifically, the relative pricing behavior under rate of return and price cap regulation is analyzed, as well as the impact of entry in the local exchange and intraLATA toll service markets. In doing so, I estimate an empirical model that accounts for the stickiness of rates in regulated industries that is based on firm and regulator decision processes in the presence of adjustment costs. I find that, faced with competitive pressures that reduce rates in one service, incumbent firm rates increase in other services, thereby reducing the benefits from competition. In addition, the findings suggest that price cap regulation leads to higher rates relative to rate-of-return regulation. Chapter 2 analyzes the pricing and investment behavior of electricity firms. Electricity and natural gas markets have traditionally been serviced by one of two market structures. In some markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by a dual-product regulated monopolist, while in other markets, electricity and natural gas are sold by separate single-product regulated monopolies. This paper analyzes the relative pricing and investment decisions of electricity firms operating in the two market structures. The unique relationship between these two products imply that the relative incentives of single and dual-product firms are likely to differ. Namely electricity and natural gas are substitutes in consumption while natural

  16. Feasibility of an empirically based program for parents of preschoolers with autism spectrum disorder.

    PubMed

    Dababnah, Sarah; Parish, Susan L

    2016-01-01

    This article reports on the feasibility of implementing an existing empirically based program, The Incredible Years, tailored to parents of young children with autism spectrum disorder. Parents raising preschool-aged children (aged 3-6 years) with autism spectrum disorder (N = 17) participated in a 15-week pilot trial of the intervention. Quantitative assessments of the program revealed fidelity was generally maintained, with the exception of program-specific videos. Qualitative data from individual post-intervention interviews reported parents benefited most from child emotion regulation strategies, play-based child behavior skills, parent stress management, social support, and visual resources. More work is needed to further refine the program to address parent self-care, partner relationships, and the diverse behavioral and communication challenges of children across the autism spectrum. Furthermore, parent access and retention could potentially be increased by providing in-home childcare vouchers and a range of times and locations in which to offer the program. The findings suggest The Incredible Years is a feasible intervention for parents seeking additional support for child- and family-related challenges and offers guidance to those communities currently using The Incredible Years or other related parenting programs with families of children with autism spectrum disorder. PMID:25717131

  17. An Empirical Viscosity Model for Coal Slags

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Cooley, Scott K.; Sundaram, S. K.; Rodriguez, Carmen P.; Edmondson, Autumn B.; Arrigoni, Benjamin M.

    2008-10-25

    Slags of low viscosity readily penetrate the refractory lining in slagging gasifiers, causing rapid and severe corrosion called spalling. In addition, a low-viscosity slag that flows down the gasifier wall forms a relatively thin layer of slag on the refractory surface, allowing the corrosive gases in the gasifier to participate in the chemical reactions between the refractory and the slag. In contrast, a slag viscosity of <25 Pa•s at 1400°C is necessary to minimize the possibility of plugging the slag tap. There is a need to predict and optimize slag viscosity so slagging gasifiers can operate continuously at temperatures ranging from 1300 to 1650°C. The approach adopted in this work was to statistically design and prepare simulated slags, measure the viscosity as a function of temperature, and develop a model to predict slag viscosity based on slag composition and temperature. Statistical design software was used to select compositions from a candidate set of all possible vertices that will optimally represent the composition space for 10 main components. A total of 21 slag compositions were generated, including 5 actual coal slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation was applied to measured viscosity versus temperature data of tested slags, and the Arrhenius coefficients (A and B in ln(vis) = A + B/T) were expressed as linear functions of the slag composition. The viscosity model was validated using 1) data splitting approach, and 2) viscosity/temperature data of selected slag compositions from the literature that were formulated and melted at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. The capability of the model to predict the viscosity of coal slags was compared with the model developed by Browning et al. because this model can predict the viscosity of slags from coal ash better than the most commonly used empirical models found in the literature.

  18. Empire's recent history, as seen from the Special Advisory Review Panel on Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Barba, J J

    1997-01-01

    Empire is a smaller and more financially stable company that no longer has an externally imposed social mission. The board and management of Empire have decided to convert to a for-profit company, to compete in the marketplace. In light of this decision, they also decided to turn over the company's charitable value to a new foundation. Because Empire's board has chosen not to maintain a social mission, the Panel strongly supports its proposal to turn over the full value of the charitable asset. This will allow the asset to be used for purposes that are in keeping with Empire's original social mission. Exactly how this asset should be valued, what form it should take, when it should be turned over, who should control the assets, and what activities it should support are just a few of the many important issues that must be resolved during the next few months. Empire will not and should not remain stagnant during the next few months. Given the rapidly evolving health-care market, Empire's board and management must continue to pursue a market strategy that strengthens the company. However, given the factors discussed earlier--hospital deregulation, the increasingly competitive managed-care market, and other pressures in the health-care environment--it is clear that the road ahead for Empire will not be a smooth one and that the company's financial resurgence is no guarantee of continued stability. Much hard work remains. I am confident that Empire's board and its management will continue to do its part, that the Panel will continue to do likewise. PMID:9439862

  19. Empirical temporal networks of face-to-face human interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barrat, A.; Cattuto, C.; Colizza, V.; Gesualdo, F.; Isella, L.; Pandolfi, E.; Pinton, J.-F.; Ravà, L.; Rizzo, C.; Romano, M.; Stehlé, J.; Tozzi, A. E.; Van den Broeck, W.

    2013-09-01

    The ever increasing adoption of mobile technologies and ubiquitous services allows to sense human behavior at unprecedented level of details and scale. Wearable sensors, in particular, open up a new window on human mobility and proximity in a variety of indoor environments. Here we review stylized facts on the structural and dynamical properties of empirical networks of human face-to-face proximity, measured in three different real-world contexts: an academic conference, a hospital ward, and a museum exhibition. First, we discuss the structure of the aggregated contact networks, that project out the detailed ordering of contact events while preserving temporal heterogeneities in their weights. We show that the structural properties of aggregated networks highlight important differences and unexpected similarities across contexts, and discuss the additional complexity that arises from attributes that are typically associated with nodes in real-world interaction networks, such as role classes in hospitals. We then consider the empirical data at the finest level of detail, i.e., we consider time-dependent networks of face-to-face proximity between individuals. To gain insights on the effects that causal constraints have on spreading processes, we simulate the dynamics of a simple susceptible-infected model over the empirical time-resolved contact data. We show that the spreading pathways for the epidemic process are strongly affected by the temporal structure of the network data, and that the mere knowledge of static aggregated networks leads to erroneous conclusions about the transmission paths on the corresponding dynamical networks.

  20. Empirical modeling of the quiet time nightside magnetosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lui, A. T. Y.; Spence, H. E.; Stern, D. P.

    1993-01-01

    Empirical modeling of plasma pressure and magnetic field for the quiet time nightside magnetosphere is investigated. Two models are constructed for this study. One model, referred to here as T89R, is basically the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko (1989) but is modified by the addition of an inner eastward ring current at a radial distance of approximately 3 RE as suggested by observation. The other is a combination of the T89R model and the long version of the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko (1987) such that the former dominates the magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere while the latter prevails in the distant tail. The distribution of plasma pressure which is required to balance the magnetic force for each of these two field models is computed along the tail axis in the midnight meridian. The occurrence of pressure anisotropy in the inner magnetospheric region is also taken into account by determining an empirical fit to the observed plasma pressure anisotropy. This represents the first effort to obtain the plasma pressure distribution in force equilibrium with magnetic stresses from an empirical field model with the inclusion of pressure anisotropy. The inclusion of pressure anisotropy alters the plasma pressure by as much as a factor of approximately 3 in the inner magnetosphere. The deduced plasma pressure profile along the tail axis is found to be in good agreement with the observed quiet time plasma pressure for geocentric distances between approximately 2 and approximately 35 RE.

  1. Empirical modeling of the quiet time nightside magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y. ); Spence, H.E. ); Stern, D.P. )

    1994-01-01

    Empirical modeling of plasma pressure and magnetic field for the quiet time nightside magnetosphere is investigated. Two models are constructed for this study. One model, referred to here as T89R, is basically the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko but is modified by the addition of an inner eastward ring current at a radial distance of [approximately]3 R[sub E] as suggested by observation. The other is a combination of the T89R model and the long version of the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko such that the former dominates the magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere, whereas the latter prevails in the distant tail. The distribution of plasma pressure, which is required to balance the magnetic force for each of these two field models, is computed along the tail axis in the midnight meridian. The occurrence of pressure anisotropy in the inner magnetospheric region is also taken into account by determining an empirical fit to the observed plasma pressure anisotropy. This effort is the first attempt to obtain the plasma pressure distribution in force equilibrium with magnetic stresses from an empirical field model with the inclusion of pressure anisotropy. The inclusion of pressure anisotropy alters the plasma pressure by as much as a factor of [approximately]3 in the inner magnetosphere. The deduced plasma pressure profile along the tail axis is found to be in good agreement with the observed quiet time plasma pressure for geocentric distances between [approximately]2 and [approximately]35 R[sub E]. 40 refs., 5 figs.

  2. Empirical modeling of the quiet time nightside magnetosphere

    SciTech Connect

    Lui, A.T.Y.; Spence, H.E.; Stern, D.P.

    1993-12-31

    Empirical modeling of plasma pressure and magnetic field for the quiet time nightside magnetosphere is investigated. Two models are constructed for this study. One model, referred to here as T89R, is basically the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko but is modified by the addition of an inner eastward ring current at a radial distance of approximately 3 RE as suggested by observation. The other is a combination of the T89R model and the long version of the magnetic field model of Tsyganenko such that the former dominates the magnetic field in the inner magnetosphere while the latter prevails in the distant tail. The distribution of plasma pressure which is required to balance the magnetic force for each of these two field models is computed along the tail axis in the midnight meridian. The occurrence of pressure anisotropy in the inner magnetospheric region is also taken into account by determining an empirical fit to the observed plasma pressure anisotropy. This represents the first effort to obtain the plasma pressure distribution in force equilibrium with magnetic stresses from an empirical field model with the inclusion of pressure anisotropy. The inclusion of pressure anisotropy alters the plasma pressure by as much as a factor of approximately 3 in the inner magnetosphere. The deduced plasma pressure profile along the tail axis is found to be in good agreement with the observed quiet time plasma pressure for geocentric distances between approximately 2 and approximately 35 RE.

  3. Family Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wieck, Colleen, Ed.; McBride, Marijo, Ed.

    1990-01-01

    This "Feature Issue" of the quarterly journal "Impact" presents 19 brief articles on family support systems in the United States for persons with developmental disabilities and their families. Emphasis is on provisions of Public Law 99-457. Articles include: "Family Support in the United States: Setting a Course for the 1990s" (James Knoll);…

  4. Supporting Teachers

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lesaux, Nonie K.; Burkhauser, Mary A.; Kelley, Joan G.

    2013-01-01

    Material resources, personalized support, time to collaborate, and strong principal leadership are necessary for making curricular and instructional shifts. The authors of this article share the lessons they learned about supporting implementation of the Common Core State Standards. They draw on interviews with teachers, as well as field notes…

  5. Thermal support for scale support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dean, W. G.

    1976-01-01

    The thermal design work completed for the Thermal Protection System (TPS) of the Space Shuttle System (TPS) of the space shuttle vehicle was documented. This work was divided into three phases, the first two of which reported in previous documents. About 22 separate tasks were completed in phase III, such as: hot gas facility (HGF) support, guarded tank support, shuttle external tank (ET) thermal design handbook support, etc.

  6. An empirical model for probabilistic decadal prediction: A global analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suckling, Emma; Hawkins, Ed; Eden, Jonathan; van Oldenborgh, Geert Jan

    2016-04-01

    Empirical models, designed to predict land-based surface variables over seasons to decades ahead, provide useful benchmarks for comparison against the performance of dynamical forecast systems; they may also be employable as predictive tools for use by climate services in their own right. A new global empirical decadal prediction system is presented, based on a multiple linear regression approach designed to produce probabilistic output for comparison against dynamical models. Its performance is evaluated for surface air temperature over a set of historical hindcast experiments under a series of different prediction `modes'. The modes include a real-time setting, a scenario in which future volcanic forcings are prescribed during the hindcasts, and an approach which exploits knowledge of the forced trend. A two-tier prediction system, which uses knowledge of future sea surface temperatures in the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans, is also tested, but within a perfect knowledge framework. Each mode is designed to identify sources of predictability and uncertainty, as well as investigate different approaches to the design of decadal prediction systems for operational use. It is found that the empirical model shows skill above that of persistence hindcasts for annual means at lead times of up to ten years ahead in all of the prediction modes investigated. Small improvements in skill are found at all lead times when including future volcanic forcings in the hindcasts. It is also suggested that hindcasts which exploit full knowledge of the forced trend due to increasing greenhouse gases throughout the hindcast period can provide more robust estimates of model bias for the calibration of the empirical model in an operational setting. The two-tier system shows potential for improved real-time prediction, given the assumption that skilful predictions of large-scale modes of variability are available. The empirical model framework has been designed with enough flexibility to

  7. An empirical Bayes approach to analyzing recurring animal surveys

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Johnson, D.H.

    1989-01-01

    Recurring estimates of the size of animal populations are often required by biologists or wildlife managers. Because of cost or other constraints, estimates frequently lack the accuracy desired but cannot readily be improved by additional sampling. This report proposes a statistical method employing empirical Bayes (EB) estimators as alternatives to those customarily used to estimate population size, and evaluates them by a subsampling experiment on waterfowl surveys. EB estimates, especially a simple limited-translation version, were more accurate and provided shorter confidence intervals with greater coverage probabilities than customary estimates.

  8. A four-step approach to evaluate mixtures for consistency with dose addition.

    PubMed

    Hertzberg, Richard C; Pan, Yi; Li, Ruosha; Haber, Lynne T; Lyles, Robert H; Herr, David W; Moser, Virginia C; Simmons, Jane Ellen

    2013-11-16

    Mixture risk assessment is often hampered by the lack of dose-response information on the mixture being assessed, forcing reliance on component formulas such as dose addition. We present a four-step approach for evaluating chemical mixture data for consistency with dose addition for use in supporting a component based mixture risk assessment. Following the concepts in the U.S. EPA mixture risk guidance (U.S. EPA, 2000a,b), toxicological interaction for a defined mixture (all components known) is departure from a clearly articulated definition of component additivity. For the common approach of dose additivity, the EPA guidance identifies three desirable characteristics, foremost of which is that the component chemicals are toxicologically similar. The other two characteristics are empirical: the mixture components have toxic potencies that are fixed proportions of each other (throughout the dose range of interest), and the mixture dose term in the dose additive prediction formula, which we call the combined prediction model (CPM), can be represented by a linear combination of the component doses. A consequent property of the proportional toxic potencies is that the component chemicals must share a common dose-response model, where only the dose coefficients depend on the chemical components. A further consequence is that the mixture data must be described by the same mathematical function ("mixture model") as the components, but with a distinct coefficient for the total mixture dose. The mixture response is predicted from the component dose-response curves by using the dose additive CPM and the prediction is then compared with the observed mixture results. The four steps are to evaluate: (1) toxic proportionality by determining how well the CPM matches the single chemical models regarding mean and variance; (2) fit of the mixture model to the mixture data; (3) agreement between the mixture data and the CPM prediction; and (4) consistency between the CPM and the

  9. Pipe support

    DOEpatents

    Pollono, Louis P.

    1979-01-01

    A pipe support for high temperature, thin-walled piping runs such as those used in nuclear systems. A section of the pipe to be supported is encircled by a tubular inner member comprised of two walls with an annular space therebetween. Compacted load-bearing thermal insulation is encapsulated within the annular space, and the inner member is clamped to the pipe by a constant clamping force split-ring clamp. The clamp may be connected to pipe hangers which provide desired support for the pipe.

  10. An empirical evaluation of multidimensional clinical outcome in chronic low back pain patients.

    PubMed

    Klapow, J C; Slater, M A; Patterson, T L; Doctor, J N; Atkinson, J H; Garfin, S R

    1993-10-01

    Individuals with persisting pain often present a constellation of symptoms that includes pain, health-related impairment and dysphoric mood. It is now widely accepted that comprehensive assessment must address each of these dimensions. Despite recognition of the value of multidimensional assessment, no empirical efforts have validated the construct of a multidimensional clinical outcome presentation based on the dimensions of pain, impairment and dysphoric mood. We employed cluster analytic procedures on standard measures of pain, impairment and depression in chronic low back pain (CLBP) patients (n = 96) attending a general orthopedic clinic in order to empirically characterize multidimensional clinical outcomes. Results indicated that 3 groups could be identified reliably: (1) 'Chronic Pain Syndrome' (n = 25; high levels of pain, impairment and depression), (2) 'Positive Adaptation to Pain' (n = 24; high levels of pain with low levels of impairment and depression) and (3) 'Good Pain Control' (n = 47; low levels of pain, impairment and depression). The reliability of this cluster solution was supported by several tests of internal consistency. Discriminability of the clusters was examined across both the outcome measures themselves and several additional independent variables. The cluster solution was then cross-validated in an independent sample of pain clinic CLBP patients (n = 180) to test its generalizability. Finally the stability of the cluster dimensions over time was tested by re-assessing 36 CLBP patients 6 months after they initially were characterized into 1 of the 3 outcome groups on the same measures. MANOVA results indicated that the outcome groups were differentiated statistically across assessments. The multiple outcome measures did not change significantly across time, nor did the outcome groups change differentially across time on these measures. We conclude that the outcome dimensions of pain, impairment and depression are relatively stable

  11. Special Issue: Decision Support and Knowledge-Based Systems.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stohr, Edward A.; And Others

    1987-01-01

    Six papers dealing with decision support and knowledge based systems are presented. Five of the papers are concerned in some way with the use of artificial intelligence techniques in individual or group decision support. The sixth paper presents empirical results from the use of a group decision support system. (CLB)

  12. Empirical psychology, common sense, and Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility.

    PubMed

    Frierson, Patrick

    2008-12-01

    This paper explains the empirical markers by which Kant thinks that one can identify moral responsibility. After explaining the problem of discerning such markers within a Kantian framework I briefly explain Kant's empirical psychology. I then argue that Kant's empirical markers for moral responsibility--linked to higher faculties of cognition--are not sufficient conditions for moral responsibility, primarily because they are empirical characteristics subject to natural laws. Next. I argue that these markers are not necessary conditions of moral responsibility. Given Kant's transcendental idealism, even an entity that lacks these markers could be free and morally responsible, although as a matter of fact Kant thinks that none are. Given that they are neither necessary nor sufficient conditions, I discuss the status of Kant's claim that higher faculties are empirical markers of moral responsibility. Drawing on connections between Kant's ethical theory and 'common rational cognition' (4:393), I suggest that Kant's theory of empirical markers can be traced to ordinary common sense beliefs about responsibility. This suggestion helps explain both why empirical markers are important and what the limits of empirical psychology are within Kant's account of moral responsibility. PMID:19391365

  13. Vessel structural support system

    SciTech Connect

    Jenko, J.X.; Ott, H.L.; Wilson, R.M.; Wepfer, R.M.

    1992-10-06

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon is disclosed. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of flat'' attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator. 19 figs.

  14. Vessel structural support system

    DOEpatents

    Jenko, James X.; Ott, Howard L.; Wilson, Robert M.; Wepfer, Robert M.

    1992-01-01

    Vessel structural support system for laterally and vertically supporting a vessel, such as a nuclear steam generator having an exterior bottom surface and a side surface thereon. The system includes a bracket connected to the bottom surface. A support column is pivotally connected to the bracket for vertically supporting the steam generator. The system also includes a base pad assembly connected pivotally to the support column for supporting the support column and the steam generator. The base pad assembly, which is capable of being brought to a level position by turning leveling nuts, is anchored to a floor. The system further includes a male key member attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a female stop member attached to an adjacent wall. The male key member and the female stop member coact to laterally support the steam generator. Moreover, the system includes a snubber assembly connected to the side surface of the steam generator and also attached to the adjacent wall for dampening lateral movement of the steam generator. In addition, the system includes a restraining member of "flat" attached to the side surface of the steam generator and a bumper attached to the adjacent wall. The flat and the bumper coact to further laterally support the steam generator.

  15. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Brown, Stephen B R E; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus-response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable. PMID:24523690

  16. Effects of arousal on cognitive control: empirical tests of the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Brown, Stephen B. R. E.; van Steenbergen, Henk; Kedar, Tomer; Nieuwenhuis, Sander

    2014-01-01

    An increasing number of empirical phenomena that were previously interpreted as a result of cognitive control, turn out to reflect (in part) simple associative-learning effects. A prime example is the proportion congruency effect, the finding that interference effects (such as the Stroop effect) decrease as the proportion of incongruent stimuli increases. While this was previously regarded as strong evidence for a global conflict monitoring-cognitive control loop, recent evidence has shown that the proportion congruency effect is largely item-specific and hence must be due to associative learning. The goal of our research was to test a recent hypothesis about the mechanism underlying such associative-learning effects, the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which proposes that the effect of conflict on associative learning is mediated by phasic arousal responses. In Experiment 1, we examined in detail the relationship between the item-specific proportion congruency effect and an autonomic measure of phasic arousal: task-evoked pupillary responses. In Experiment 2, we used a task-irrelevant phasic arousal manipulation and examined the effect on item-specific learning of incongruent stimulus–response associations. The results provide little evidence for the conflict-modulated Hebbian-learning hypothesis, which requires additional empirical support to remain tenable. PMID:24523690

  17. 27 CFR 18.27 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS PRODUCTION OF VOLATILE FRUIT-FLAVOR CONCENTRATE Qualification Application...: (1) Additional information in support of an application for registration; (2) Marks on major... apparatus; and (4) Installation of security devices. (b) Any proprietor refusing or neglecting to...

  18. Informed Additive Literacy Instruction for ELLs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bauer, Eurydice Bouchereau

    2009-01-01

    There are numerous reasons why schools struggle to provide English-language learners (ELLs) with additive literacy instruction. One reason for this is the lack of available trained bilingual teachers, mainstream teachers who have not received adequate training on how to teach ELLs, and the current political climate that appears to support an…

  19. A pilot study of the efficacy and safety of empiric daptomycin therapy in oncology patients with fever and severe neutropenia

    PubMed Central

    Kullar, Ravina; Maziarz, Richard T.

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: Patients with extended periods of time spent with low or absent absolute neutrophil counts (ANCs) are at risk for bacterial infections. Febrile neutropenia is a complication in this patient population, requiring administration of antibiotics. The use of daptomycin in treating patients with febrile neutropenia is not well described. Our objective was to describe the clinical course of febrile neutropenic patients that received daptomycin therapy. Methods: This was an open-labeled, pilot study of 30 patients with documented febrile neutropenia treated with empiric daptomycin. Eligible patients received daptomycin 6 mg/kg/day, in addition to concomitant broad-spectrum antimicrobials. The Kaplan–Meier method was used to estimate the median days to reach an afebrile state and negative bacterial cultures. Results: A total of 30 febrile neutropenic patients were enrolled and received daptomycin as part of an empiric antimicrobial regimen. All patients had severe neutropenia with ANC <100 cells/mm3. Two patients were removed from study due to the development of pneumonia. Clinically, 87% patients improved on daptomycin in combination with Gram-negative coverage, with 73% of patients succeeding therapy. A total of 18 of 19 (95%) subjects with positive blood cultures had microbiological eradication, with the median time to reach an afebrile state of 4.3 days (range 1–13). Four patients were discontinued from daptomycin due to a suspected related adverse event or to clinical failure. Conclusions: This pilot study supports future evaluation of the use of empiric daptomycin therapy in combination with Gram-negative coverage compared with vancomycin in patients with neutropenic fever in a large, randomized controlled trial. PMID:25165552

  20. Universal Design for Instruction in Postsecondary Education: A Systematic Review of Empirically Based Articles

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Roberts, Kelly D.; Park, Hye Jin; Brown, Steven; Cook, Bryan

    2011-01-01

    Universal Design for Instruction (UDI) in postsecondary education is a relatively new concept/framework that has generated significant support. The purpose of this literature review was to examine existing empirical research, including qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods, on the use of UDI (and related terms) in postsecondary education.…

  1. Factors Influencing Beliefs for Adoption of a Learning Analytics Tool: An Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ali, Liaqat; Asadi, Mohsen; Gasevic, Dragan; Jovanovic, Jelena; Hatala, Marek

    2013-01-01

    Present research and development offer various learning analytics tools providing insights into different aspects of learning processes. Adoption of a specific tool for practice is based on how its learning analytics are perceived by educators to support their pedagogical and organizational goals. In this paper, we propose and empirically validate…

  2. An Empirical Taxonomy of Social-Psychological Risk Indicators in Youth Suicide

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hyde, Toni; Kirkland, John; Bimler, David; Pechtel, Pia

    2005-01-01

    The current study integrates descriptive (though primarily social-psychological) statements about youth suicide into a coherent, empirically supported taxonomy. Drawing from relevant literature, a set of 107 items characterizing these contributions about youth suicide was created. Seventy-two participants sorted these statements according to their…

  3. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C.; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J.; McGee, Gail G.; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P.; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-01-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions…

  4. An Empirical Case Study of a Child Sexual Abuse Prevention Initiative in Georgia

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schober, Daniel J.; Fawcett, Stephen B.; Thigpen, Sally; Curtis, Anna; Wright, Renee

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This empirical case study describes Prevent Child Abuse Georgia's effort to prevent child sexual abuse (CSA) by educating communities throughout the state on supporting preventive behaviour. The initiative consisted of three major components: (1) dissemination of CSA prevention messages and materials; (2) a statewide helpline that…

  5. The Theoretical and Empirical Basis for Meditation as an Intervention for PTSD

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Ariel J.; Strauss, Jennifer L.; Bomyea, Jessica; Bormann, Jill E.; Hickman, Steven D.; Good, Raquel C.; Essex, Michael

    2012-01-01

    In spite of the existence of good empirically supported treatments for posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD), consumers and providers continue to ask for more options for managing this common and often chronic condition. Meditation-based approaches are being widely implemented, but there is minimal research rigorously assessing their effectiveness.…

  6. Pluvials, Droughts, Energetics, and the Mongol Empire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hessl, A. E.; Pederson, N.; Baatarbileg, N.

    2012-12-01

    The success of the Mongol Empire, the largest contiguous land empire the world has ever known, is a historical enigma. At its peak in the late 13th century, the empire influenced areas from the Hungary to southern Asia and Persia. Powered by domesticated herbivores, the Mongol Empire grew at the expense of agriculturalists in Eastern Europe, Persia, and China. What environmental factors contributed to the rise of the Mongols? What factors influenced the disintegration of the empire by 1300 CE? Until now, little high resolution environmental data have been available to address these questions. We use tree-ring records of past temperature and water to illuminate the role of energy and water in the evolution of the Mongol Empire. The study of energetics has long been applied to biological and ecological systems but has only recently become a theme in understanding modern coupled natural and human systems (CNH). Because water and energy are tightly linked in human and natural systems, studying their synergies and interactions make it possible to integrate knowledge across disciplines and human history, yielding important lessons for modern societies. We focus on the role of energy and water in the trajectory of an empire, including its rise, development, and demise. Our research is focused on the Orkhon Valley, seat of the Mongol Empire, where recent paleoenvironmental and archeological discoveries allow high resolution reconstructions of past human and environmental conditions for the first time. Our preliminary records indicate that the period 1210-1230 CE, the height of Chinggis Khan's reign is one of the longest and most consistent pluvials in our tree ring reconstruction of interannual drought. Reconstructed temperature derived from five millennium-long records from subalpine forests in Mongolia document warm temperatures beginning in the early 1200's and ending with a plunge into cold temperatures in 1260. Abrupt cooling in central Mongolia at this time is

  7. 75 FR 56084 - Empire Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-09-15

    ... Federal Energy Regulatory Commission Empire Pipeline, Inc.; Notice of Application September 3, 2010. Take notice that on August 26, 2010, Empire Pipeline, Inc. (Empire), 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York... extending Empire's existing system from its interconnection with the facilities of Millennium...

  8. Teacher Support in Computer-Supported Lab Work: Bridging the Gap between Lab Experiments and Students' Conceptual Understanding

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Furberg, Anniken

    2016-01-01

    This paper reports on a study of teacher support in a setting where students engaged with computer-supported collaborative learning (CSCL) in science. The empirical basis is an intervention study where secondary school students and their teacher performed a lab experiment in genetics supported by a digital learning environment. The analytical…

  9. Bio-empirical mode decomposition: visible and infrared fusion using biologically inspired empirical mode decomposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sissinto, Paterne; Ladeji-Osias, Jumoke

    2013-07-01

    Bio-EMD, a biologically inspired fusion of visible and infrared (IR) images based on empirical mode decomposition (EMD) and color opponent processing, is introduced. First, registered visible and IR captures of the same scene are decomposed into intrinsic mode functions (IMFs) through EMD. The fused image is then generated by an intuitive opponent processing the source IMFs. The resulting image is evaluated based on the amount of information transferred from the two input images, the clarity of details, the vividness of depictions, and range of meaningful differences in lightness and chromaticity. We show that this opponent processing-based technique outperformed other algorithms based on pixel intensity and multiscale techniques. Additionally, Bio-EMD transferred twice the information to the fused image compared to other methods, providing a higher level of sharpness, more natural-looking colors, and similar contrast levels. These results were obtained prior to optimization of color opponent processing filters. The Bio-EMD algorithm has potential applicability in multisensor fusion covering visible bands, forensics, medical imaging, remote sensing, natural resources management, etc.

  10. Neutron Characterization for Additive Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Watkins, Thomas; Bilheux, Hassina; An, Ke; Payzant, Andrew; DeHoff, Ryan; Duty, Chad; Peter, William; Blue, Craig; Brice, Craig A.

    2013-01-01

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is leveraging decades of experience in neutron characterization of advanced materials together with resources such as the Spallation Neutron Source (SNS) and the High Flux Isotope Reactor (HFIR) shown in Fig. 1 to solve challenging problems in additive manufacturing (AM). Additive manufacturing, or three-dimensional (3-D) printing, is a rapidly maturing technology wherein components are built by selectively adding feedstock material at locations specified by a computer model. The majority of these technologies use thermally driven phase change mechanisms to convert the feedstock into functioning material. As the molten material cools and solidifies, the component is subjected to significant thermal gradients, generating significant internal stresses throughout the part (Fig. 2). As layers are added, inherent residual stresses cause warping and distortions that lead to geometrical differences between the final part and the original computer generated design. This effect also limits geometries that can be fabricated using AM, such as thin-walled, high-aspect- ratio, and overhanging structures. Distortion may be minimized by intelligent toolpath planning or strategic placement of support structures, but these approaches are not well understood and often "Edisonian" in nature. Residual stresses can also impact component performance during operation. For example, in a thermally cycled environment such as a high-pressure turbine engine, residual stresses can cause components to distort unpredictably. Different thermal treatments on as-fabricated AM components have been used to minimize residual stress, but components still retain a nonhomogeneous stress state and/or demonstrate a relaxation-derived geometric distortion. Industry, federal laboratory, and university collaboration is needed to address these challenges and enable the U.S. to compete in the global market. Work is currently being conducted on AM technologies at the ORNL

  11. Empirical formula of crustal torsional oscillations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotani, Hajime

    2016-02-01

    Crustal torsional oscillations depend on not only crust properties but also the stellar mass and radius. Thus, one could extract stellar information by identifying the observed frequencies of stellar oscillations with the crustal torsional oscillations. Owing to the confinement of torsional oscillations inside the crust region of neutron stars, we successfully derive an empirical formula for the fundamental crustal torsional oscillations as a function of the stellar mass, radius, the so-called slope parameter of the nuclear symmetry energy, and the angular index of oscillations, with which one can estimate the frequencies with high accuracy. This empirical formula could be valuable in both the astrophysics and nuclear physics communities.

  12. Empire State eyes pipeline construction date

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1992-08-10

    This paper reports that construction of the Empire State Pipeline in New York state will get under way possibly as early as this winter. The action will follow approval by Canada's National Energy Board earlier this summer of an essential pipeline connection out of southern Ontario. The 155 mile, 24 in. line has been on hold for a year following denial by NEB of TransCanada PipeLines Ltd.'s proposed link to Empire in southwestern Ontario. Cost of the Blackhorse extension is estimated at $39 million (Canadian). NEB cited firm gas purchase commitments of 203 MMcfd underpinning the expansion.

  13. An Empirical Bayes Approach to Spatial Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, C. N.; Kostal, H.

    1983-01-01

    Multi-channel LANDSAT data are collected in several passes over agricultural areas during the growing season. How empirical Bayes modeling can be used to develop crop identification and discrimination techniques that account for spatial correlation in such data is considered. The approach models the unobservable parameters and the data separately, hoping to take advantage of the fact that the bulk of spatial correlation lies in the parameter process. The problem is then framed in terms of estimating posterior probabilities of crop types for each spatial area. Some empirical Bayes spatial estimation methods are used to estimate the logits of these probabilities.

  14. The curious conversion of Empire Blue Cross.

    PubMed

    Robinson, James C

    2003-01-01

    The for-profit conversion of Empire Blue Cross in New York challenges the case law and conventional policy wisdom that financial assets from formerly nonprofit organizations should be used to endow independent charitable foundations. The appropriation of Empire's assets by state government itself, and their subsequent deployment to subsidize health care institutions and repay political obligations, changes the conversion process from one that pits nonprofits against for-profits to one that pits private, nonprofit organizations against public-sector programs in the competition for new financial resources. PMID:12889758

  15. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January 1... costs, shall be eligible to receive safety net additive pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section....

  16. 47 CFR 36.605 - Calculation of safety net additive.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Calculation of safety net additive. 36.605... § 36.605 Calculation of safety net additive. (a) “Safety net additive support.” Beginning January 1... costs, shall be eligible to receive safety net additive pursuant to paragraph (c) of this section....

  17. Assessing soil ecosystem services using empirical indicators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bodí, Merche B.; Struyf, Eric; Staes, Jan; Meire, Patrick

    2014-05-01

    Studying the soil from the ecosystem services (ES) approach is a way to embrace the complexity and multiple functions of the soil systems and its interactions with the environment and with humans. The ES approach is ideal for developing a sustainable and integrated land management and to concern people about the value of conserving soil. However, this approach is generally used up to know only for soil provisioning services as well as the potential for carbon storage, but not for other services such as soil erosion or water buffering. In addition, those studies carried out are focussed in coarse spatial scale, without identifying the spatial or temporal variability. One of the reasons of this bias arises from the difficulties of obtaining a broad and reliable dataset of indicators from empirical sources. This constrain is sorted out with the action of SOGLO project (the Soil System Under Global Change), an interuniversity attraction pole project (2012-2017) involving different universities from Belgium. The project brings the opportunity to obtain a unique soil dataset for an improved and integrated analysis of the feedbacks between the soil system and fluxes of sediment, carbon (C), nutrients and water in response to anthropogenic forcings at different spatial and temporal scales in experimental sites in both Brazil and in Belgium. Within this broad project, the objective of the present work is to elucidate how different land uses in Belgium (forest, grassland, cropland with conventional tillage and with reduced tillage both with crop rotation) affect the delivery and trade-off of soil ecosystem services. We did this by measuring and comparing a range of indicators of soil ecosystem services in different lands uses during a range of 5 years. Specifically we investigated quantity of SOC in the soil and DOC in the soil solution and at the discharge point (SOC storage service/water buffering services); Si, N, P in the soil, dissolved in the soil solution and at the

  18. Toward a Technology of "Nonaversive" Behavioral Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horner, Robert H.; Dunlap, Glen; Koegel, Robert L.; Carr, Edward G.; Sailor, Wayne; Anderson, Jacki; Albin, Richard W.; O'Neill, Robert E.

    2005-01-01

    Nonaversive behavior management is an approach to supporting people with undesirable behaviors that integrates technology and values. Although this approach has attracted numerous proponents, more adequate definition and empirical documentation are still needed. This article presents an introduction to the nonaversive approach. Important…

  19. Supportive Care.

    PubMed

    Olsen, Pia Riis; Lorenzo, Rosalía

    2016-01-01

    This chapter takes its point of departure in psychosocial aspects of supportive care in adolescent and young adult cancer care. The purpose is to describe some of the challenges that these young people face following a cancer diagnosis and guide healthcare professionals in how to provide care that improves the quality of life. In most hospitals and healthcare systems, adolescents and young adults are cared for and treated in settings for children or adults. Accordingly, healthcare professionals may lack attention to and knowledge about what characterize young peoples' life situation, their special needs and how to meet them. The topics we include in the chapter are the following: the youth friendly environment, social support and social network, parents, information during a psychosocial crisis event, the use of HEADSS, peer support, fertility, body image and self-esteem, after treatment and future challenges and palliative and end of life care. PMID:27595353

  20. Synchronized time stamp support

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalkowski, J.

    1994-02-16

    New software has been added to IOC core to maintain time stamps. The new software has the ability to maintain time stamps over all IOCs on a network. The purpose of this paper is to explain how EPICS will synchronize the time stamps. In addition, this paper will explain how to configure and use the new EPICS time stamp support software.

  1. Process of making supported catalyst

    SciTech Connect

    Schwarz, James A.; Subramanian, Somasundaram

    1992-01-01

    Oxide supported metal catalysts have an additional metal present in intimate association with the metal catalyst to enhance catalytic activity. In a preferred mode, iridium or another Group VIII metal catalyst is supported on a titania, alumina, tungsten oxide, silica, or composite oxide support. Aluminum ions are readsorbed onto the support and catalyst, and reduced during calcination. The aluminum can be added as aluminum nitrate to the iridium impregnate solution, e.g. chloroiridic acid.

  2. Differentiated Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flannagan, Jenny Sue; Kelly, Mike

    2009-01-01

    Supporting teachers begins with designing professional learning that is responsive to their needs. Gone are the days of one-size-fits all professional development. Principals cannot ensure that all teachers are effective in the classroom if they don't create learning opportunities that move all teachers toward expertise with teaching. In this…

  3. Administrative Support.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Doran, Dorothy; And Others

    This guide is intended to assist business education teachers in administrative support courses. The materials presented are based on the Arizona validated occupational competencies and tasks for the occupations of receptionist, secretary, and administrative assistant. Word processing skills have been infused into each of the three sections. The…

  4. Supporting Diversity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Horton, Betty, Ed.; And Others

    1996-01-01

    This newsletter feature issue focuses on services for persons with developmental disabilities that support the whole person by acknowledging, respecting, and incorporating aspects of identity such as race, ethnicity, religion, sexual orientation, gender, age, and class. Articles include: (1) "Serving the Whole Person: The Journey to Embracing…

  5. Mirror Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Baron, Richard L. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Disclosed herein is a method of making a mirror support comprising a composite, the composite comprising a plurality of carbon nanotubes, wherein at least two of the plurality of carbon nanotubes are bonded to each other through a bridging moiety bound to each of the two carbon nanotubes, and a laminate comprising the composite.

  6. An Empirical Investigation into Programming Language Syntax

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stefik, Andreas; Siebert, Susanna

    2013-01-01

    Recent studies in the literature have shown that syntax remains a significant barrier to novice computer science students in the field. While this syntax barrier is known to exist, whether and how it varies across programming languages has not been carefully investigated. For this article, we conducted four empirical studies on programming…

  7. Traumatic Brain Injury: Empirical Family Assessment Techniques.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bishop, Duane S.; Miller, Ivan W.

    1988-01-01

    Methods are described for quantifying and formalizing assessment of traumatic brain injury patient families. The advantages and disadvantages of empirical and clinical assessment are outlined, and four family assessment methods are reviewed: self-report, interview, observation, and laboratory. Specific assessment instruments are noted along with…

  8. Compassion: An Evolutionary Analysis and Empirical Review

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goetz, Jennifer L.; Keltner, Dacher; Simon-Thomas, Emiliana

    2010-01-01

    What is compassion? And how did it evolve? In this review, we integrate 3 evolutionary arguments that converge on the hypothesis that compassion evolved as a distinct affective experience whose primary function is to facilitate cooperation and protection of the weak and those who suffer. Our empirical review reveals compassion to have distinct…

  9. University Student Satisfaction: An Empirical Analysis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Clemes, Michael D.; Gan, Christopher E. C.; Kao, Tzu-Hui

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to gain an empirical understanding of students' overall satisfaction with their academic university experiences. A hierarchal model is used as a framework for this analysis. Fifteen hypotheses are formulated and tested, in order to identify the dimensions of service quality as perceived by university students, to…

  10. Alternative Approaches to Evaluation in Empirical Microeconomics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blundell, Richard; Dias, Monica Costa

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews some of the most popular policy evaluation methods in empirical microeconomics: social experiments, natural experiments, matching, instrumental variables, discontinuity design, and control functions. It discusses identification of traditionally used average parameters and more complex distributional parameters. The adequacy,…

  11. Empirically Derived Subclassification of the Autistic Syndrome.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Siegel, Bryna; And Others

    1986-01-01

    A method for empirical classification of autistic and autisticlike children, based on behavior observations of 35 males and 11 females (ages 4-28 years) was examined. Factor and cluster analysis indicated four subtypes, characterized by perseverative thinking and play, motor disturbances, schizotypal/schizoid features, and anxiety and negativism.…

  12. Characterizing Student Expectations: A Small Empirical Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    This paper describes the results of a small empirical study (n = 130), in which undergraduate students in the Business Faculty of a UK university were asked to express views and expectations relating to the study of a mathematics. Factor analysis is used to identify latent variables emerging from clusters of the measured variables and these are…

  13. Empirically Based Myths: Astrology, Biorhythms, and ATIs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ragsdale, Ronald G.

    1980-01-01

    A myth may have an empirical basis through chance occurrence; perhaps Aptitude Treatment Interactions (ATIs) are in this category. While ATIs have great utility in describing, planning, and implementing instruction, few disordinal interactions have been found. Article suggests narrowing of ATI research with replications and estimates of effect…

  14. Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Reddy, Linda A., Ed.; Files-Hall, Tara M., Ed.; Schaefer, Charles E., Ed.

    2005-01-01

    "Empirically Based Play Interventions for Children" is a compilation of innovative, well-designed play interventions, presented for the first time in one text. Play therapy is the oldest and most popular form of child therapy in clinical practice and is widely considered by practitioners to be uniquely responsive to children's developmental needs.…

  15. Study of ESC [Empire State College] Graduates.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palola, Ernest G.; Ogden, Katharine

    This paper reports the results of a survey that examined the success or failure of Empire State College's first 29 graduates in obtaining admission to graduate school. Of the 13 applicants, 7 were accepted, 5 were waiting to hear, and 1 was rejected. Difficulties encountered by the applicants are discussed, as are the intentions of those not…

  16. ESC [Empire State College] Student Library Use.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, A. Paul, Jr.; Palola, Ernest G.

    This document reports results of a spring 1973 survey of library use by students at two of the four regional centers at Empire State College (ESC), the new, nontraditional college without a campus of the State University of New York. Because ESC is mandated not to duplicate the resources of the State, students must use existing public and academic…

  17. Self-Published Books: An Empirical "Snapshot"

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bradley, Jana; Fulton, Bruce; Helm, Marlene

    2012-01-01

    The number of books published by authors using fee-based publication services, such as Lulu and AuthorHouse, is overtaking the number of books published by mainstream publishers, according to Bowker's 2009 annual data. Little empirical research exists on self-published books. This article presents the results of an investigation of a random sample…

  18. Stimulus Overselectivity: Empirical Basis and Diagnostic Methods

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cipani, Ennio

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents the empirical basis for the phenomena known as stimulus overselectivity. Stimulus overselectivity involves responding on the basis of a restricted range of elements or features that are discriminative for reinforcement. The manner in which such a response pattern impedes the skill acquisition in children is identified. A…

  19. Technology as Knowledge: An Empirical Affirmation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Parayil, Govindan

    1991-01-01

    This article discusses the epistemic significance of technology as a form of knowledge using the Green Revolution in Indian agriculture as an empirical basis. The transformation of an existing traditionally based knowledge system through the transfer, creation, and local adaptation of new technological knowledge is described. (30 references) (LRW)

  20. African American Homeschooling Practices: Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mazama, Ama

    2016-01-01

    Despite a significant increase in scholarly interest for homeschooling, some of its most critical aspects, such as instructional daily practices, remain grossly understudied. This essay thus seeks to fill that void by presenting empirical evidence regarding the homeschooling practices of a specific group, African Americans. Most specifically, the…

  1. Empirical data on longitudinal dispersion in rivers

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nordin, Carl F.; Sabol, George V.

    1974-01-01

    Empirical data on longitudinal dispersion process in rivers are compiled from published and unpublished sources. Fifty-one sets of data, covering flows from about 30 cubic feet per second to 241,000 cubic feet per second (0.85 to 6,820 cubic meters per second), are analyzed graphically.

  2. Optimality of Empirical Z-R Relations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haddad, Z. S.; Rosenfield, D.

    1996-01-01

    This paper attempts to justify mathematically the two empirical approaches to the problem of deriving Z-R relations from (Z,R) measurements, namely the power-law regression and the probability matching method (PMM). The basic mathematical assumptions that apply in each case are explicitly identified.

  3. Complex dynamics and empirical evidence (Invited Paper)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Delli Gatti, Domenico; Gaffeo, Edoardo; Giulioni, Gianfranco; Gallegati, Mauro; Kirman, Alan; Palestrini, Antonio; Russo, Alberto

    2005-05-01

    Standard macroeconomics, based on a reductionist approach centered on the representative agent, is badly equipped to explain the empirical evidence where heterogeneity and industrial dynamics are the rule. In this paper we show that a simple agent-based model of heterogeneous financially fragile agents is able to replicate a large number of scaling type stylized facts with a remarkable degree of statistical precision.

  4. EMPIRE: Translating Multiculturalism into Local Programs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Spears, Jacqueline D.

    1993-01-01

    EMPIRE (Exemplary Multicultural Practices in Rural Schools) is a collaborative multicultural reform project involving the Rural Clearinghouse at Kansas State University and eight rural schools, two regional colleges, and state departments of education in Arizona and Washington. Each rural school is pursuing multicultural projects that are defined…

  5. The Linguistic Imperialism of Neoliberal Empire

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillipson, Robert

    2008-01-01

    The article explores the transition from the linguistic imperialism of the colonial and postcolonial ages to the increasingly dominant role of English as a neoimperial language. It analyzes "global" English as a key dimension of the U.S. empire. U.S. expansionism is a fundamental principle of the foreign policy of the United States that can be…

  6. Intuitive Expertise: Theories and Empirical Evidence

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harteis, Christian; Billett, Stephen

    2013-01-01

    Intuition has been long seen as an element of effective human performance in demanding tasks (i.e. expertise). But its form, constitutive elements and development remain subject to diverse explanations. This paper discusses these elements and explores theories and empirical evidence about what constitutes intuitive expertise, and offers an account…

  7. Software Development Management: Empirical and Analytical Perspectives

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kang, Keumseok

    2011-01-01

    Managing software development is a very complex activity because it must deal with people, organizations, technologies, and business processes. My dissertation consists of three studies that examine software development management from various perspectives. The first study empirically investigates the impacts of prior experience with similar…

  8. Student Discipline: Legal, Empirical, and Educational Perspectives.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Harris, J. John, III, Ed.; Bennett, Christine, Ed.

    This book presents four perspectives on student discipline: legal and historical, empirical, educational, and futuristic. Part I examines the legal history of student discipline in papers by J. John Harris III, Richard E. Fields, and A. Reynaldo Contreras (Chapter 1); Richard E. Fields (Chapter 2); and David G. Carter, Sr. and Cynthia L. Jackson…

  9. Ranking Techniques and the Empirical Log Law.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brookes, Bertram C.

    1984-01-01

    Four empirical laws of bibliometrics--anomalous number, Lotka's, Zipf's, and Bradford's--together with Laplace's "law of succession" and de Solla Price's cumulative advantage distribution are shown to be almost identical. A simple model shows that the frequency forms conform with inverse square law over appropriate interval. (Fifteen references)…

  10. Empiric treatment of neonatal sepsis in developing countries.

    PubMed

    Obiero, Christina W; Seale, Anna C; Berkley, James A

    2015-06-01

    Infections are among the leading causes of neonatal mortality, and about 75% of the burden occurs in developing countries. Diagnosis of neonatal sepsis in these countries is dependent on the recognition of a set of nonspecific clinical signs that maximize sensitivity because staff making initial assessments may not have specialist pediatric training. Accurate diagnosis is usually limited by the unavailability of reliable microbiological investigation. The World Health Organization recommends ampicillin (or penicillin; cloxacillin if staphylococcal infection is suspected) plus gentamicin for empiric treatment of neonates with suspected clinical sepsis or meningitis. However, there is a lack of comprehensive data on the causes of infection and antimicrobial susceptibility in developing countries to support these recommendations, especially in rural settings. Bacterial pathogens (predominantly Gram negative) with reduced susceptibility to empiric medication have been reported, with variations both between and within regions. Nosocomial infections with resistant organisms and high case fatality challenge the first-line use of cephalosporins. Improving local surveillance data using standardized antimicrobial susceptibility testing methods and validation of diagnostic algorithms against microbial findings are essential. Standardized reporting of treatment outcomes is required to evaluate practice, provide guidance on second-line regimes and for studies of new approaches, such as simplified community-based regimens, and to determine the appropriate duration of empiric treatment for apparently low-risk neonates with early resolution of clinical signs, or where available, negative blood cultures. Thus, a multifaceted approach, with attention to microbiological quality assurance, is needed to better guide antimicrobial use and reduce mortality and long-term impairments. PMID:25806843

  11. Empirical corrections for atmospheric neutral density derived from thermospheric models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Forootan, Ehsan; Kusche, Jürgen; Börger, Klaus; Henze, Christina; Löcher, Anno; Eickmans, Marius; Agena, Jens

    2016-04-01

    Accurately predicting satellite positions is a prerequisite for various applications from space situational awareness to precise orbit determination (POD). Given the fact that atmospheric drag represents a dominant influence on the position of low-Earth orbit objects, an accurate evaluation of thermospheric mass density is of great importance to low Earth orbital prediction. Over decades, various empirical atmospheric models have been developed to support computation of density changes within the atmosphere. The quality of these models is, however, restricted mainly due to the complexity of atmospheric density changes and the limited resolution of indices used to account for atmospheric temperature and neutral density changes caused by solar and geomagnetic activity. Satellite missions, such as Challenging Mini-Satellite Payload (CHAMP) and Gravity Recovery and Climate Experiment (GRACE), provide a direct measurement of non-conservative accelerations, acting on the surface of satellites. These measurements provide valuable data for improving our knowledge of thermosphere density and winds. In this paper we present two empirical frameworks to correct model-derived neutral density simulations by the along-track thermospheric density measurements of CHAMP and GRACE. First, empirical scale factors are estimated by analyzing daily CHAMP and GRACE acceleration measurements and are used to correct the density simulation of Jacchia and MSIS (Mass-Spectrometer-Incoherent-Scatter) thermospheric models. The evolution of daily scale factors is then related to solar and magnetic activity enabling their prediction in time. In the second approach, principal component analysis (PCA) is applied to extract the dominant modes of differences between CHAMP/GRACE observations and thermospheric model simulations. Afterwards an adaptive correction procedure is used to account for long-term and high-frequency differences. We conclude the study by providing recommendations on possible

  12. Lack of Evidence Supporting the Effectiveness of Disaster Supply Kits.

    PubMed

    Heagele, Tara N

    2016-06-01

    We reviewed the available evidence in support of the effectiveness of disaster supply kits presently used in household emergency preparedness in the United States. The expectation that people should take responsibility for their own disaster preparedness has largely not taken into account contextual influences on disaster preparedness. The efficiency of current disaster supply kits used during critical postdisaster periods has not been empirically tested. Professional recommendations regarding the composition of disaster supply kits containing at least water, food, first aid, hygiene, and clothing have not been universally defined. This lack of consensus may lead to the assembling of disaster supply kits yielding suboptimal results. The use of disaster supply kits should continue to be nationally recommended, although additional research is needed to demonstrate their beneficial impact on survival and resilience after a disaster. PMID:27077362

  13. Empirical Drug Therapy for Idiopathic Male Infertility: What is the New Evidence?

    PubMed

    Garg, Harshit; Kumar, Rajeev

    2015-12-01

    Idiopathic male infertility is empirically managed using a number of drugs. We reviewed 64 articles published in the last 10 years on such drug therapy. There was severe heterogeneity in data along with poor definition of outcome parameters. Pregnancy or live birth rate was not reported in many studies. Antiestrogens appear to improve pregnancy rates while there is some data supporting the use of aromatase inhibitors. Antioxidants significantly increase the rate of both live birth and pregnancy but the data are limited. However, valid end-points based on data are limited for the empirical use of drugs in idiopathic male infertility. PMID:26255035

  14. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2005-10-01

    Thank you! Over the past year, AGU has received 12,104 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from the National Oceanographic Partnership Program and National Association of Geoscience Teachers. Together their generosity has benefited AGU non revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5,000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000 or more) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major gifts and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($200-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$199). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are among our most loyal Supporters.

  15. Supporting Members and Friends

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-09-01

    Thank you! Over the past 20 months AGU has received a record 22,159 gifts, both large and small, from members and friends. The Union has also received corporate contributions, National Science Foundation grants, and support from four federal agencies (NASA, NOAA, EPA, and USGS). Together their generosity has benefited AGU non-revenue producing programs that are critical to our science and the future health of the Union. The following list gratefully acknowledges annual gifts of $100 or more and cumulative giving of $5000 or more. The 1919 Society ($100,000+) and Benefactors ($5,000-$99,999) recognize single major and cumulative contributions. Three circles acknowledge annual giving: President's Circle ($1,000 or more), Leadership Circle ($250-$999), and Supporters Circle ($100-$249). Supporting Life Members, who contribute a one-time gift of $1,200 in addition to lifetime dues, are recognized as our most loyal Supporters.

  16. Supporting members

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Life Supporting Members L. Thomas Aldrich Thomas D. Barrow Hugh J . A. Chivers Allan V. Cox Samuel S. Goldich Pembroke J. Hart A. Ivan Johnson Helmut E. Landsberg Paolo Lanzano Murli H. Manghnani L. L. Nettleton Charles B. Officer Hyman Orlin Ned A. Ostenso Erick O. Schonstedt Waldo E. Smith Athelstan Spilhaus A. F. Spilhaus, Jr. John W. Townsend, Jr. James A. Van Allen Leonard W. Weis Charles A. Whitten J. Tuzo Wilson

  17. Success After Graduation. A Study of the Baccalaureate Graduates of Empire State College.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehmann, Timothy

    Empire State College (ESC) has an interest in following the progress of its recent graduates in the world of work as well as discovering what happens to those graduates wishing to continue their education. To obtain this information a survey was conducted of all graduates and additional data analyzed that was contained in each graduate's file.…

  18. Spectral analysis of Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations based on the empirical mode decomposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kurzyna, J.; Mazouffre, S.; Lazurenko, A.; Albarede, L.; Bonhomme, G.; Makowski, K.; Dudeck, M.; Peradzynski, Z.

    2005-12-15

    Hall-effect thruster plasma oscillations recorded by means of probes located at the channel exit are analyzed using the empirical mode decomposition (EMD) method. This self-adaptive technique permits to decompose a nonstationary signal into a set of intrinsic modes, and acts as a very efficient filter allowing to separate contributions of different underlying physical mechanisms. Applying the Hilbert transform to the whole set of modes allows to identify peculiar events and to assign them a range of instantaneous frequency and power. In addition to 25 kHz breathing-type oscillations which are unambiguously identified, the EMD approach confirms the existence of oscillations with instantaneous frequencies in the range of 100-500 kHz typical for ion transit-time oscillations. Modeling of high-frequency modes ({nu}{approx}10 MHz) resulting from EMD of measured wave forms supports the idea that high-frequency plasma oscillations originate from electron-density perturbations propagating azimuthally with the electron drift velocity.

  19. Empirical mode decomposition and synchrogram approach to cardiorespiratory synchronization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ming-Chya; Hu, Chin-Kun

    2006-05-01

    We use the empirical mode decomposition method to decompose experimental respiratory signals into a set of intrinsic mode functions (IMFs), and consider one of these IMFs as a respiratory rhythm. We then use the Hilbert spectral analysis to calculate the instantaneous phase of the IMF. Heartbeat data are finally incorporated to construct the cardiorespiratory synchrogram, which is a visual tool for inspecting synchronization. We perform analysis on 20 data sets collected by the Harvard medical school from ten young ( 21-34years old) and ten elderly ( 68-81years old) rigorously screened healthy subjects. Our results support the existence of cardiorespiratory synchronization. We also investigate the origin of the cardiorespiratory synchronization by addressing the problem of correlations between regularities of respiratory and cardiac signals. Our analysis shows that regularity of respiratory signals plays a dominant role in the cardiorespiratory synchronization.

  20. The Use of Empirical Data Sources in HRA

    SciTech Connect

    Bruce Hallbert; David Gertman; Julie Marble; Harold Blackman; Jim Byers

    2004-02-01

    This paper presents a review of available information related to human performance to support Human Reliability Analysis (HRA) performed for nuclear power plants (NPPs). A number of data sources are identified as potentially useful. These include NPP licensee event reports (LERs), augmented inspection team (AIT) reports, operator requalification data, results from the literature in experimental psychology, and the Aviation Safety Reporting System (ASRSs). The paper discusses how utilizing such information improves our capability to model and quantify human performance. In particular the paper discusses how information related to performance shaping factors (PSFs) can be extracted from empirical data to determine their size effect, their relative effects, as well as their interactions. The paper concludes that appropriate use of existing sources can help addressing some of the important issues we are currently facing in HRA.

  1. An empirical test of the concomitantly variable codon hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Merlo, Lauren M. F.; Lunzer, Mark; Dean, Antony M.

    2007-01-01

    A central assumption of models of molecular evolution, that each site in a sequence evolves independently of all other sites, lacks empirical support. We investigated the extent to which sites evolve codependently in triosephosphate isomerase (TIM), a ubiquitous glycolytic enzyme conserved in both structure and function. Codependencies among sites, or concomitantly variable codons (covarions), are evident from the reduced function and misfolding of hybrid TIM proteins. Although they exist, we find covarions are relatively rare, and closely related proteins are unlikely to have developed them. However, the potential for covarions increases with genetic distance so that highly divergent proteins may have evolved codependencies between many sites. The evolution of covarions undermines a key assumption in phylogenetics and calls into question our ability to disentangle ancient relationships among major taxonomic groups. PMID:17578921

  2. Environmental performance indicators: an empirical study of Canadian manufacturing firms.

    PubMed

    Henri, Jean-François; Journeault, Marc

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this exploratory study is to examine the importance of measurement and use of environmental performance indicators (EPIs) within manufacturing firms. Two research questions are investigated: (i) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with the importance of measurement of various categories of EPIs? (ii) To what extent are firm characteristics associated with global and specific uses of EPIs? More specifically, this paper examines four uses of EPIs (i.e. to monitor compliance, to motivate continuous improvement, to support decision making, and to provide data for external reporting) as well as four characteristics of firms, namely environmental strategy, International Organization for Standardization (ISO) 14001 compliance, size, and ownership. This study contributes to the environmental management accounting literature by collecting and analyzing empirical evidence that provides a better understanding of the associations among firm characteristics and EPIs. PMID:17368921

  3. Empirical and normative ethics: a synthesis relating to the care of older patients.

    PubMed

    Jonasson, Lise-Lotte; Liss, Per-Erik; Westerlind, Björn; Berterö, Carina

    2011-11-01

    The aim of this study was to synthesize the concepts from empirical studies and analyze, compare and interrelate them with normative ethics. The International Council of Nurses (ICN) and the Health and Medical Service Act are normative ethics. Five concepts were used in the analysis; three from the grounded theory studies and two from the theoretical framework on normative ethics. A simultaneous concept analysis resulted in five outcomes: interconnectedness, interdependence, corroboratedness, completeness and good care are all related to the empirical perspective of the nurse's interaction with the older patient, and the normative perspective, i.e. that found in ICN code and SFS law. Empirical ethics and normative ethics are intertwined according to the findings of this study. Normative ethics influence the nurse's practical performance and could be supporting documents for nurses as professionals. PMID:21733960

  4. Siloxene-supported catalysts for ethylene polymerization

    SciTech Connect

    Badley, R.D.; Johnson, M.M. )

    1993-06-01

    A new type of Ziegler ethylene polymerization catalyst has been formed using as a support, siloxene, a layer compound with an empirical formula of Si[sub 2]H[sub 2]O. Siloxene is a reducing compound, and it reacts with excess TiCl[sub 4], giving an inactive brown solid with 5.2% Ti and 8.0% Cl. However, when additional TiCl[sub 4] is reduced by a metal alkyl and precipitated onto the brown solid, a catalyst with moderate activity is formed. Maximum activity for ethylene polymerization was obtained when the catalyst was pretreated with n-butylmagnesium, contained 0.06 g CaCl[sub 2]/g siloxene, and was run at 80[degrees]C with 40-50 ppm of TEA cocatalyst. These catalysts are very active in the initial portion of the reaction, but the activity decreases rapidly over the first 30 min. Their hydrogen response and hexene incorporation is similar to that observed with other Ziegler catalysts. 17 refs., 7 figs., 2 tabs.

  5. Supporting tools of solar-terrestrial science

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1989-01-01

    Solar-terrestrial science is pursued by individuals and teams of workers situated in academia, research institutes, industry, and government laboratories. Progress in the field is made in various ways, but publication of results in scientific journals is the principal means of assuring that the knowledge gained from research is available to the public, now and in the future. In general, much of the research in the field is made via careful evaluation of data viewed in the context of fundamental physical principles as set forth in theoretical and analytical models, and computer simulations of physical processes. In addition, there is accumulation of knowledge expressed in the development of empirical or phenomenological models. Experience gained over the past three decades of solar-terrestrial research indicated that advances in the field require a diversity of resources and that the health of the entire discipline depends upon a balance among these. To maintain the health of the discipline, NASA and other federal funding agencies concerned with solar-terrestrial research must work together to insure that the following resources are available in reasonable measure to support solar-terrestrial research endeavors: ground-based facilities; balloons and rockets; spaceborne experiments; information networks; computational resources; models of solar terrestrial processes; data bases and archives; and research students.

  6. Empirical research in medical ethics: How conceptual accounts on normative-empirical collaboration may improve research practice

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background The methodology of medical ethics during the last few decades has shifted from a predominant use of normative-philosophical analyses to an increasing involvement of empirical methods. The articles which have been published in the course of this so-called 'empirical turn' can be divided into conceptual accounts of empirical-normative collaboration and studies which use socio-empirical methods to investigate ethically relevant issues in concrete social contexts. Discussion A considered reference to normative research questions can be expected from good quality empirical research in medical ethics. However, a significant proportion of empirical studies currently published in medical ethics lacks such linkage between the empirical research and the normative analysis. In the first part of this paper, we will outline two typical shortcomings of empirical studies in medical ethics with regard to a link between normative questions and empirical data: (1) The complete lack of normative analysis, and (2) cryptonormativity and a missing account with regard to the relationship between 'is' and 'ought' statements. Subsequently, two selected concepts of empirical-normative collaboration will be presented and how these concepts may contribute to improve the linkage between normative and empirical aspects of empirical research in medical ethics will be demonstrated. Based on our analysis, as well as our own practical experience with empirical research in medical ethics, we conclude with a sketch of concrete suggestions for the conduct of empirical research in medical ethics. Summary High quality empirical research in medical ethics is in need of a considered reference to normative analysis. In this paper, we demonstrate how conceptual approaches of empirical-normative collaboration can enhance empirical research in medical ethics with regard to the link between empirical research and normative analysis. PMID:22500496

  7. Rapid Estimates of the Source-Time Function and Mw using Empirical Green's Function Deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benz, H.; Herrmann, R. B.

    2010-12-01

    The USGS’s National Earthquake Information Center uses a variety of network-averaged measures (e.g. mb, Ms) and waveform modeling (e.g., W-phase and CMT procedures) to determine the magnitude of an earthquake. Magnitude estimates are initially poorly constrained because the station sampling required for a robust estimate have not been reached. To provide faster and more accurate estimates of the moment magnitude within the first ten minutes of occurrence, NEIC is investigating the use of empirical Green’s function deconvolution to determine both the moment magnitude and the relative source-time function of the earthquake source. The procedure involves computing the expected source mechanism based on a moment tensor catalog, deconvolution of pre-computed Green’s function synthetic seismograms from the observed waveforms, network-averaging of the deconvolution results to determine the moment magnitude and a network averaged source time function. In addition, if waveform data are available for a previously modeled earthquake for which the moment tensor results are known and for which common stations observed the two events, an empirical Green’s function deconvolution of the two events is performed at each station to determine the relative moment-magnitude and source-time functions. In order to do these computations robustly and automatically, NEIC has had to develop new infrastructure to support these computations that includes a moment tensor catalog server from which composite mechanisms for the region can be estimated and a database of GSN and US Backbone waveforms for all events for which moment tensor solutions have been calculated since 1990. Initial results indicated that for most M6 or larger events worldwide, NEIC can compute within 10 minutes of origin time an initial moment magnitude that is typically within +/-0.2 of the final moment magnitude determined from waveform modeling (W-phase). In addition, the deconvolution processing provides an initial

  8. Bioregenerative life support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, Bill

    1990-01-01

    Bioregenerative life support systems utilize plant growth for food, water, and atmosphere revitalization. Simulation studies of a simplified model are presented that suggest survivability in the face of partial plant growth chamber failure. Simulation studies demonstrate the potential for a bioregenerative life support system on an extended mission. In addition to robustness and survivability in terms of the food supply, the plant growth chamber produces exactly the right amount of oxygen for the crew's metabolic needs. The amount of water taken up by the plants during food production is balanced by the crew's metabolic water production.

  9. Collyria seals in the Roman Empire.

    PubMed

    Perez-Cambrodi, Rafael J; Pinero, David P; Mavrou, Ariadni; Cervino, Alejandro; Brautaset, Rune; Murube del Castillo, Juan

    2013-01-01

    Roman seals associated with collyria (Latin expression for eye drops/washes and lotions for eye maintenance) provide valuable information about eye care in the antiquity. These small, usually stone-made pieces bore engravings with the names of eye doctors and also the collyria used to treat an eye disease. The collyria seals have been found all over the Roman empire and Celtic territories in particular and were usually associated with military camps. In Hispania (Iberian Peninsula), only three collyria seals have been found. These findings speak about eye care in this ancient Roman province as well as about of the life of the time. This article takes a look at the utility and social significance of the collyria seals and seeks to give an insight in the ophthalmological practice of in the Roman Empire. PMID:23883086

  10. Empiric Antibiotic Therapy of Nosocomial Bacterial Infections.

    PubMed

    Reddy, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Broad-spectrum antibiotics are commonly used by physicians to treat various infections. The source of infection and causative organisms are not always apparent during the initial evaluation of the patient, and antibiotics are often given empirically to patients with suspected sepsis. Fear of attempting cephalosporins and carbapenems in penicillin-allergic septic patients may result in significant decrease in the spectrum of antimicrobial coverage. Empiric antibiotic therapy should sufficiently cover all the suspected pathogens, guided by the bacteriologic susceptibilities of the medical center. It is important to understand the major pharmacokinetic properties of antibacterial agents for proper use and to minimize the development of resistance. In several septic patients, negative cultures do not exclude active infection and positive cultures may not represent the actual infection. This article will review the important differences in the spectrum of commonly used antibiotics for nosocomial bacterial infections with a particular emphasis on culture-negative sepsis and colonization. PMID:24413366

  11. Comparing and Contrasting Consensus versus Empirical Domains

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Kot, Bobby; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Reed, Jordan; Furst, Jacob; Newton, Julia L.; Strand, Elin Bolle; Vernon, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Since the publication of the CFS case definition [1], there have been a number of other criteria proposed including the Canadian Consensus Criteria [2] and the Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: International Consensus Criteria. [3] Purpose The current study compared these domains that were developed through consensus methods to one obtained through more empirical approaches using factor analysis. Methods Using data mining, we compared and contrasted fundamental features of consensus-based criteria versus empirical latent factors. In general, these approaches found the domain of Fatigue/Post-exertional malaise as best differentiating patients from controls. Results Findings indicated that the Fukuda et al. criteria had the worst sensitivity and specificity. Conclusions These outcomes might help both theorists and researchers better determine which fundamental domains to be used for the case definition. PMID:26977374

  12. Empirical law for fault-creep events

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Crough, S.T.; Burford, R.O.

    1977-01-01

    Fault-creep events measured on the San Andreas and related faults near Hollister, California, can be described by a rheological model consisting of a spring, power-law dashpotand sliding block connected in series. An empirical creep-event law, derived from many creep-event records analyzed within the constraints of the model, provides a remarkably simple and accurate representation of creep-event behavior. The empirical creep law is expressed by the equation: D(t)= Df [1-1/{ct(n-1)Dfn-1+1}/(n-1)] where D is the value of displacement at time t following the onset of an event, Df is the final equilibrium value of the event displacementand C is a proportionality constant. This discovery should help determine whether the time-displacement character of creep events is controlled by the material properties of fault gouge, or by other parameters. ?? 1977.

  13. Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bulakh, Andrey

    2014-05-01

    Porphyry of Russian Empires in Paris A. G. Bulakh (St Petersburg State University, Russia) So called "Schokhan porphyry" from Lake Onega, Russia, belongs surely to stones of World cultural heritage. One can see this "porphyry" at facades of a lovely palace of Pavel I and in pedestal of the monument after Nicolas I in St Petersburg. There are many other cases of using this stone in Russia. In Paris, sarcophagus of Napoleon I Bonaparte is constructed of blocks of this stone. Really, it is Proterozoic quartzite. Geology situation, petrography and mineralogical characteristic will be reported too. Comparison with antique porphyre from the Egyptian Province of the Roma Empire is given. References: 1) A.G.Bulakh, N.B.Abakumova, J.V.Romanovsky. St Petersburg: a History in Stone. 2010. Print House of St Petersburg State University. 173 p.

  14. Empirical models of the magnetospheric magnetic field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jordan, C. E.

    1994-01-01

    A general overview of magnetospheric modeling is given, along with a more detailed discussion of several empirical models which are widely used. These models are composed of representations of the Earth's main internal field (basically a bipolar field), plus external field contributions due to ring currents (carried by the particles in the Van Allen radiation belts), magnetopause currents (the boundary surface between the Earth's magnetic field and interplanetary magnetic field carried by the solar wind), and tail currents (carried by particles in the neutral sheet of the magnetotail). The empirical models presented here are the Mead-Fairfield, Olsen-Pfitzer tilt-dependent (1977), Tsyganenko-Usamo, Tsyganenko (1987), Olsen-Pfitzer dynamic (1988), Tsyganenko (1989), and Hilmer-Voight models. The derivations, agreement with quiet time and storm time data from the two satellite programs, Spacecraft Charging at High Altitudes (SCATHA) and Combined Release Radiation Effects Satellite (CRRES), and computational requirements of these models are compared.

  15. Utilizing Monte Carlo Simulations to Optimize Institutional Empiric Antipseudomonal Therapy

    PubMed Central

    Tennant, Sarah J.; Burgess, Donna R.; Rybak, Jeffrey M.; Martin, Craig A.; Burgess, David S.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a common pathogen implicated in nosocomial infections with increasing resistance to a limited arsenal of antibiotics. Monte Carlo simulation provides antimicrobial stewardship teams with an additional tool to guide empiric therapy. We modeled empiric therapies with antipseudomonal β-lactam antibiotic regimens to determine which were most likely to achieve probability of target attainment (PTA) of ≥90%. Microbiological data for P. aeruginosa was reviewed for 2012. Antibiotics modeled for intermittent and prolonged infusion were aztreonam, cefepime, meropenem, and piperacillin/tazobactam. Using minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) from institution-specific isolates, and pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic parameters from previously published studies, a 10,000-subject Monte Carlo simulation was performed for each regimen to determine PTA. MICs from 272 isolates were included in this analysis. No intermittent infusion regimens achieved PTA ≥90%. Prolonged infusions of cefepime 2000 mg Q8 h, meropenem 1000 mg Q8 h, and meropenem 2000 mg Q8 h demonstrated PTA of 93%, 92%, and 100%, respectively. Prolonged infusions of piperacillin/tazobactam 4.5 g Q6 h and aztreonam 2 g Q8 h failed to achieved PTA ≥90% but demonstrated PTA of 81% and 73%, respectively. Standard doses of β-lactam antibiotics as intermittent infusion did not achieve 90% PTA against P. aeruginosa isolated at our institution; however, some prolonged infusions were able to achieve these targets. PMID:27025644

  16. Empirical reconstruction of storm-time steady magnetospheric convection events

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stephens, G. K.; Sitnov, M. I.; Kissinger, J.; Tsyganenko, N. A.; McPherron, R. L.; Korth, H.; Anderson, B. J.

    2013-12-01

    We investigate the storm-scale morphology of the magnetospheric magnetic field as well as underlying distributions of electric currents, equatorial plasma pressure and entropy for four Steady Magnetospheric Convection (SMC) events that occurred during the May 2000 and October 2011 magnetic storms. The analysis is made using the empirical geomagnetic field model TS07D, in which the structure of equatorial currents is not predefined and it is dictated by data. The model also combines the strengths of statistical and event-oriented approaches in mining data for the reconstruction of the magnetic field. The formation of a near-Earth minimum of the equatorial magnetic field in the midnight sector is inferred from data without ad hoc assumptions of a special current system postulated in earlier empirical reconstructions. In addition, a new SMC class is discovered where the minimum equatorial field is substantially larger and located closer to Earth. The magnetic field tailward of the minimum is also much larger, and the corresponding region of accumulated magnetic flux may occupy a very short tail region. The equatorial current and plasma pressure are found to be strongly enhanced far beyond geosynchronous orbit and in a broad local time interval covering the whole nightside region. This picture is consistent with independent recent statistical studies of the SMC pressure distributions, global MHD and kinetic RCM-E simulations. Distributions of the flux tube volume and entropy inferred from data reveal different mechanisms of the magnetotail convection crisis resolution for two classes of SMC events.

  17. Viscosity measurements and empirical predictions for coal slags

    SciTech Connect

    Matyas, Josef; Sundaram, S K; Rodriguez, Carmen P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro; Arrigoni, Benjamin M

    2009-10-25

    Slag viscosity in slagging coal gasifier is an important factor affecting the gasification regime and operating cost. Most of the empirical viscosity models of coal slags that are available in the literature are applicable to only limited ranges of temperature and composition. To develop a reliable slag viscosity model, additional data are needed. Slag viscosity was measured under air or reducing atmosphere (calculated pO2~1.2 10-12 atm at 1400°C) at temperatures in the range of 1150-1550°C on 63 statistically designed slags, including 5 actual coal slag compositions and 4 validation slag compositions. The Arrhenius equation, with Arrhenius coefficients A = constant and B expressed as linear function of mass fractions of nine major components was used to fit the viscosity/temperature data. This Arrhenius relationship represents the viscosity–temperature relationship of tested slags reasonably well, = 0.981 (reducing atmosphere) and = 0.974 (air atmosphere). The validation of the model with four randomly selected slags (two from the SciGlass database and two from experimental design) indicated an accurately measured viscosity-temperature data and a fairly good predictive performance of slag viscosity models over designed compositions. The capability of the developed model to predict the viscosity of coal slags under reducing atmosphere was found to be a superior to a number of the most commonly used empirical models in the literature that are based on simplified oxide melts and British or Australian coal ash slags.

  18. The Structure of Psychopathology: Toward an Expanded Quantitative Empirical Model

    PubMed Central

    Wright, Aidan G.C.; Krueger, Robert F.; Hobbs, Megan J.; Markon, Kristian E.; Eaton, Nicholas R.; Slade, Tim

    2013-01-01

    There has been substantial recent interest in the development of a quantitative, empirically based model of psychopathology. However, the majority of pertinent research has focused on analyses of diagnoses, as described in current official nosologies. This is a significant limitation because existing diagnostic categories are often heterogeneous. In the current research, we aimed to redress this limitation of the existing literature, and to directly compare the fit of categorical, continuous, and hybrid (i.e., combined categorical and continuous) models of syndromes derived from indicators more fine-grained than diagnoses. We analyzed data from a large representative epidemiologic sample (the 2007 Australian National Survey of Mental Health and Wellbeing; N = 8,841). Continuous models provided the best fit for each syndrome we observed (Distress, Obsessive Compulsivity, Fear, Alcohol Problems, Drug Problems, and Psychotic Experiences). In addition, the best fitting higher-order model of these syndromes grouped them into three broad spectra: Internalizing, Externalizing, and Psychotic Experiences. We discuss these results in terms of future efforts to refine emerging empirically based, dimensional-spectrum model of psychopathology, and to use the model to frame psychopathology research more broadly. PMID:23067258

  19. The Pill vs. the Sword: Additional Considerations

    PubMed Central

    Lottes, Ilsa L.

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, I present additional information for policy-makers and researchers to consider in response to the view proposed by Potts et al that "the pill is mightier than the sword." I identify states with both high rates of terrorism and a youth bulge and discuss correlates of both these societal characteristics. The research examined supports the view that factors other than access to family planning are more important in facilitating terrorism. PMID:26673473

  20. Beyond Testing: Empirical Models of Insurance Markets

    PubMed Central

    Einav, Liran; Finkelstein, Amy; Levin, Jonathan

    2011-01-01

    We describe recent advances in the empirical analysis of insurance markets. This new research proposes ways to estimate individual demand for insurance and the relationship between prices and insurer costs in the presence of adverse and advantageous selection. We discuss how these models permit the measurement of welfare distortions arising from asymmetric information and the welfare consequences of potential government policy responses. We also discuss some challenges in modeling imperfect competition between insurers and outline a series of open research questions. PMID:21572939

  1. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic.

    PubMed

    Kerner, Boris S; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur. PMID:25314485

  2. Theoretical and Empirical Descriptions of Thermospheric Density

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Solomon, S. C.; Qian, L.

    2004-12-01

    The longest-term and most accurate overall description the density of the upper thermosphere is provided by analysis of change in the ephemeris of Earth-orbiting satellites. Empirical models of the thermosphere developed in part from these measurements can do a reasonable job of describing thermospheric properties on a climatological basis, but the promise of first-principles global general circulation models of the coupled thermosphere/ionosphere system is that a true high-resolution, predictive capability may ultimately be developed for thermospheric density. However, several issues are encountered when attempting to tune such models so that they accurately represent absolute densities as a function of altitude, and their changes on solar-rotational and solar-cycle time scales. Among these are the crucial ones of getting the heating rates (from both solar and auroral sources) right, getting the cooling rates right, and establishing the appropriate boundary conditions. However, there are several ancillary issues as well, such as the problem of registering a pressure-coordinate model onto an altitude scale, and dealing with possible departures from hydrostatic equilibrium in empirical models. Thus, tuning a theoretical model to match empirical climatology may be difficult, even in the absence of high temporal or spatial variation of the energy sources. We will discuss some of the challenges involved, and show comparisons of simulations using the NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIE-GCM) to empirical model estimates of neutral thermosphere density and temperature. We will also show some recent simulations using measured solar irradiance from the TIMED/SEE instrument as input to the TIE-GCM.

  3. Empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kerner, Boris S.; Hemmerle, Peter; Koller, Micha; Hermanns, Gerhard; Klenov, Sergey L.; Rehborn, Hubert; Schreckenberg, Michael

    2014-09-01

    Based on a study of anonymized GPS probe vehicle traces measured by personal navigation devices in vehicles randomly distributed in city traffic, empirical synchronized flow in oversaturated city traffic has been revealed. It turns out that real oversaturated city traffic resulting from speed breakdown in a city in most cases can be considered random spatiotemporal alternations between sequences of moving queues and synchronized flow patterns in which the moving queues do not occur.

  4. Empirical solar/stellar cycle simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Santos, Ângela R. G.; Cunha, Margarida S.; Avelino, Pedro P.

    2015-09-01

    As a result of the magnetic cycle, the properties of the solar oscillations vary periodically. With the recent discovery of manifestations of activity cycles in the seismic data of other stars, the understanding of the different contributions to such variations becomes even more important. With this in mind, we built an empirical parameterised model able to reproduce the properties of the sunspot cycle. The resulting simulations can be used to estimate the magnetic-induced frequency shifts.

  5. Bayesian photometric redshifts with empirical training sets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wolf, Christian

    2009-07-01

    We combine in a single framework the two complementary benefits of χ2 template fits and empirical training sets used e.g. in neural nets: χ2 is more reliable when its probability density functions (PDFs) are inspected for multiple peaks, while empirical training is more accurate when calibration and priors of query data and training set match. We present a χ2 empirical method that derives PDFs from empirical models as a subclass of kernel regression methods, and apply it to the Sloan Digital Sky Survey Data Release 5 sample of >75000 quasi-stellar objects, which is full of ambiguities. Objects with single-peak PDFs show <1 per cent outliers, rms redshift errors <0.05 and vanishing redshift bias. At z > 2.5, these figures are two times better. Outliers result purely from the discrete nature and limited size of the model, and rms errors are dominated by the intrinsic variety of object colours. PDFs classed as ambiguous provide accurate probabilities for alternative solutions and thus weights for using both solutions and avoiding needless outliers. E.g. the PDFs predict 78.0 per cent of the stronger peaks to be correct, which is true for 77.9 per cent of them. Redshift incompleteness is common in faint spectroscopic surveys and turns into a massive undetectable outlier risk above other performance limitations, but we can quantify residual outlier risks stemming from size and completeness of the model. We propose a matched χ2 error scale for noisy data and show that it produces correct error estimates and redshift distributions accurate within Poisson errors. Our method can easily be applied to future large galaxy surveys, which will benefit from the reliability in ambiguity detection and residual risk quantification.

  6. Empirical transverse charge densities in the nucleon and the nucleon-to-Delta transition

    SciTech Connect

    Carl Carlson; Marc Vanderhaeghen

    2008-01-01

    Using only the current empirical information on the nucleon electromagnetic form factors we map out the transverse charge density in proton and neutron as viewed from a light front moving towards a transversely polarized nucleon. These charge densities are characterized by a dipole pattern, in addition to the monopole field corresponding with the unpolarized density. Furthermore, we use the latest empirical information on the $N \\to \\Delta$ transition form factors to map out the transition charge density which induces the $N \\to \\Delta$ excitation. This transition charge density in a transversely polarized $N$ and $\\Delta$ contains both monopole, dipole and quadrupole patterns, the latter corresponding with a deformation of the hadron's charge distribution.

  7. A new empirical model for heterojunction phototransistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwei; Niu, Pingjuan; Guo, Weilian

    2006-01-01

    A new simplified heterojunction phototransistor (HPT) circuit model is given in this paper. Most of papers use Ebers-Moll model to describe the optical-electrical relations of HPT. Which is a physical based model and must be changed with different device structure. In this paper, an empirical model is employed. This model mainly formed by three parts: the photo current (I ph), base current (I b) and collector current(I c). A dependent current source is used to model the photo current between the collector and base. The photo current can be different from different optical power. Ib are depend on base-emitter voltage while Ic is a function of collector-emitter voltage, I b and I ph. Contrast with the Ebers-moll model, the empirical model greatly reduced the complexity of the circuit. The model parameters are extracted on measured Ic-Vce and gummel plots. Then, dates in some documents were used to test the empirical model. There is a good agreement with the measured results.

  8. Incorporation of additives into polymers

    DOEpatents

    McCleskey, T. Mark; Yates, Matthew Z.

    2003-07-29

    There has been invented a method for incorporating additives into polymers comprising: (a) forming an aqueous or alcohol-based colloidal system of the polymer; (b) emulsifying the colloidal system with a compressed fluid; and (c) contacting the colloidal polymer with the additive in the presence of the compressed fluid. The colloidal polymer can be contacted with the additive by having the additive in the compressed fluid used for emulsification or by adding the additive to the colloidal system before or after emulsification with the compressed fluid. The invention process can be carried out either as a batch process or as a continuous on-line process.

  9. Deciphering the roles of multiple additives in organocatalyzed Michael additions.

    PubMed

    Günler, Z Inci; Companyó, Xavier; Alfonso, Ignacio; Burés, Jordi; Jimeno, Ciril; Pericàs, Miquel A

    2016-05-21

    The synergistic effects of multiple additives (water and acetic acid) on the asymmetric Michael addition of acetone to nitrostyrene catalyzed by primary amine-thioureas (PAT) were precisely determined. Acetic acid facilitates hydrolysis of the imine intermediates, thus leading to catalytic behavior, and minimizes the formation of the double addition side product. In contrast, water slows down the reaction but minimizes catalyst deactivation, eventually leading to higher final yields. PMID:27128165

  10. The Empirical Basis for Determinations of Medical Futility

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Broce, Jose; Meyer, Klemens B.; Trikalinos, Thomas A.; Cohen, Joshua; Kent, David M.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND Decisions to limit treatment in critically ill patients often rely on publications that make claims of futility based on outcome data. Our objective was to systematically review the criteria for futility and the strength of empirical evidence across clinical studies that purport to support or refute claims of futility. METHODS The MEDLINE database was searched for relevant articles published between1980 and 2008. Selected studies reported original outcome data in critically ill or cardiac arrest patients and claimed that these data can support or refute decisions to limit treatment in comparable patients. Two authors independently abstracted data on patient characteristics, intervention, outcomes, cost, and design. RESULTS Forty seven studies supporting a claim of futility and 45 refuting it were reviewed. Median point estimate for adverse outcome in studies supporting claims of futility was 100% (range 75% to 100%); median lower 95% confidence limit was 91% (range 48% to 99%). Explicit thresholds for futility were missing in 88% of articles. The original criteria for quantitative futility were fulfilled by only 28% of data, and almost exclusively in studies of cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) for cardiac arrest. Substantial statistical overlap was observed between data brought in support of futility claims and data brought to refute them. CONCLUSIONS Most studies that purport to guide determinations of futility are based on insufficient data to provide statistical confidence for clinical decision-making. They usually lack explicit a priori thresholds for determination of futility. Many studies draw disparate conclusions based on statistically similar data. In most circumstances these problems preclude confident determinations of futility. PMID:20645019

  11. 30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    30. Photocopy of lithograph showing Empire Stores at corner (Baker, Ostheimer and Co.) from Everts, Ensign & Everts, Combination Atlas Map of Erie County, 1876 - Empire Stores, 501-505 State Street, Erie, Erie County, PA

  12. Use of a Spreadsheet to Help Students Understand the Origin of the Empirical Equation that Allows Estimation of the Extinction Coefficients of Proteins

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sims, Paul A.

    2012-01-01

    A brief history of the development of the empirical equation that is used by prominent, Internet-based programs to estimate (or calculate) the extinction coefficients of proteins is presented. In addition, an overview of a series of related assignments designed to help students understand the origin of the empirical equation is provided. The…

  13. 29 CFR 2570.39 - Opportunities to submit additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 9 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Opportunities to submit additional information. 2570.39... Prohibited Transaction Exemption Applications § 2570.39 Opportunities to submit additional information. (a) An applicant may notify the Department of its intent to submit additional information supporting...

  14. Industry Support

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2003-01-01

    NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) is responsible for the Advanced Communications for Air Traffic Management (AC/ATM) Project, a sub-element task of the Advanced Air Transportation Technologies (AATT) Project of the NASA Aviation System Capacity Program (ASC). The AC/ATM Project is developing new communications technologies and tools that will improve throughput in the U.S. Air Traffic Control System. The goal of the AC/ATM Project is to enable a communications infrastructure providing the capacity, efficiency, and flexibility necessary to realize benefits of the future mature Free-Flight environment. The capabilities and scope of communications technologies needed to accomplish this goal depend on characteristics of the future Free-Flight environment. There are many operational concepts being proposed for a future ATM system to enable user flexibility and efficiency. GRC s focus is on developing new technologies and techniques to support the digital communication of information involving airborne and ground-based users. However, the technologies and techniques must be integrated with the systems and services that industry and the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) are developing. Thus, GRC needs to monitor and provide input to the various industry and FAA organizations and committees that are specifying new systems and services. Adoption of technologies by the FAA is partially dependent on acceptance of the technology by the aviation community. The commercial aviation community in particular would like to adopt technologies that can be used throughout the world. As a result, the adoption of common or at least compatible technologies by European countries is a key factor in getting commitments to those technologies by the US aviation community. GRC desires to keep informed of European activities that relate to aviation communication technologies, particularly those that are being supported by Eurocontrol.

  15. What Motivates Public Support for Legally Mandated Mental Health Treatment?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Watson, Amy C.; Corrigan, Patrick W.; Angell, Beth

    2005-01-01

    The use of legal coercion to compel individuals to participate in mental health treatment is expanding despite a lack of empirical support for many of its forms. Policies supporting mandated treatment are made by legislators and judges, often based on perceptions of public concern. Using data from the MacArthur Mental Health Module contained in…

  16. Exploring Student Expectations in Mathematics Learning and Support

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Warwick, Jon

    2010-01-01

    This article reports on the results of an empirical study of student expectations and mathematical anxiety among first-year students who must study mathematics as a supporting discipline. The article describes the model of support we have developed mixing, as it does, the more traditional ideas of "filling knowledge gaps" with an exploration of…

  17. Use of a Group Support System for Collaborative Assessment.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kwok, Ron C. W.; Ma, Jian

    1999-01-01

    Reports on the use of an Internet-based Group Support System (GSS) for the collaborative assessment of student projects. Results of an empirical study that was conducted on undergraduate students show that GSS-supported collaborative assessment encourages students to take a deep approach to learning, which leads to better project performance.…

  18. The Essential Supports for School Improvement. Research Report

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebring, Penny Bender; Allensworth, Elaine; Bryk, Anthony S.; Easton, John Q.; Luppescu, Stuart

    2006-01-01

    This report sets forth a framework of essential supports and contextual resources for school improvement, examines empirical evidence on its key elements and how they link to improvements in student learning, and investigates how a school's essential supports interact with community context to affect student learning. The purpose of this research…

  19. A Framework to Support Mobile Learning in Multilingual Environments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jantjies, Mmaki E.; Joy, Mike

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents a multilingual mobile learning framework that can be used to support the pedagogical development of mobile learning systems which can support learning in under-resourced multilingual schools. The framework has been developed following two empirical mobile learning studies. Both studies were conducted in multilingual South…

  20. Lagrangian analysis of fluid transport in empirical vortex ring flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shadden, Shawn C.; Dabiri, John O.; Marsden, Jerrold E.

    2006-04-01

    In this paper we apply dynamical systems analyses and computational tools to fluid transport in empirically measured vortex ring flows. Measurements of quasisteadily propagating vortex rings generated by a mechanical piston-cylinder apparatus reveal lobe dynamics during entrainment and detrainment that are consistent with previous theoretical and numerical studies. In addition, the vortex ring wake of a free-swimming Aurelia aurita jellyfish is measured and analyzed in the framework of dynamical systems to elucidate similar lobe dynamics in a naturally occurring biological flow. For the mechanically generated rings, a comparison of the net entrainment rate based on the present methods with a previous Eulerian analysis shows good correspondence. However, the current Lagrangian framework is more effective than previous analyses in capturing the transport geometry, especially when the flow becomes more unsteady, as in the case of the free-swimming jellyfish. Extensions of these results to more complex flow geometries is suggested.

  1. Empirical flow parameters : a tool for hydraulic model validity

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Asquith, William H.; Burley, Thomas E.; Cleveland, Theodore G.

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this project were (1) To determine and present from existing data in Texas, relations between observed stream flow, topographic slope, mean section velocity, and other hydraulic factors, to produce charts such as Figure 1 and to produce empirical distributions of the various flow parameters to provide a methodology to "check if model results are way off!"; (2) To produce a statistical regional tool to estimate mean velocity or other selected parameters for storm flows or other conditional discharges at ungauged locations (most bridge crossings) in Texas to provide a secondary way to compare such values to a conventional hydraulic modeling approach. (3.) To present ancillary values such as Froude number, stream power, Rosgen channel classification, sinuosity, and other selected characteristics (readily determinable from existing data) to provide additional information to engineers concerned with the hydraulic-soil-foundation component of transportation infrastructure.

  2. Two Empirical Models for Land-falling Hurricane Gust Factors

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Merceret, Franics J.

    2008-01-01

    Gaussian and lognormal models for gust factors as a function of height and mean windspeed in land-falling hurricanes are presented. The models were empirically derived using data from 2004 hurricanes Frances and Jeanne and independently verified using data from 2005 hurricane Wilma. The data were collected from three wind towers at Kennedy Space Center and Cape Canaveral Air Force Station with instrumentation at multiple levels from 12 to 500 feet above ground level. An additional 200-foot tower was available for the verification. Mean wind speeds from 15 to 60 knots were included in the data. The models provide formulas for the mean and standard deviation of the gust factor given the mean windspeed and height above ground. These statistics may then be used to assess the probability of exceeding a specified peak wind threshold of operational significance given a specified mean wind speed.

  3. ["Trema, apophany, apocalypse"--is Conrad's phase model empirically founded?].

    PubMed

    Hambrecht, M; Häfner, H

    1993-12-01

    Among several phase models of beginning schizophrenia, the study by Conrad ("Die beginnende Schizophrenie. Versuch einer Gestaltanalyse des Wahns") was particularly impressive in German psychiatry. The ABC-Schizophrenia-study with its representative sample of 267 first-admissions and a careful retrospective assessment of emerging symptomatology made it possible to test the empirical basis of Conrad's model. In this operationalization "trema" was confirmed as the frequent first stage of the disease process, whereas Conrad's hypothesized order of the two following phrases (first "apophany", then "apocalypse") could not be validated. Therefore, Conrad's model cannot completely be generalized. Because the methods employed so far have some limitations, analyses of additional data (especially reports by significant others) may control and probably enhance the presented results. PMID:8112705

  4. Energy performance assessment with empirical methods: application of energy signature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Belussi, L.; Danza, L.; Meroni, I.; Salamone, F.

    2015-03-01

    Energy efficiency and reduction of building consumption are deeply felt issues both at Italian and international level. The recent regulatory framework sets stringent limits on energy performance of buildings. Awaiting the adoption of these principles, several methods have been developed to solve the problem of energy consumption of buildings, among which the simplified energy audit is intended to identify any anomalies in the building system, to provide helpful tips for energy refurbishments and to raise end users' awareness. The Energy Signature is an operational tool of these methodologies, an evaluation method in which energy consumption is correlated with climatic variables, representing the actual energy behaviour of the building. In addition to that purpose, the Energy Signature can be used as an empirical tool to determine the real performances of the technical elements. The latter aspect is illustrated in this article.

  5. Sensitivity Analysis of Empirical Results on Civil War Onset

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hegre, Havard; Sambanis, Nicholas

    2006-01-01

    In the literature on civil war onset, several empirical results are not robust or replicable across studies. Studies use different definitions of civil war and analyze different time periods, so readers cannot easily determine if differences in empirical results are due to those factors or if most empirical results are just not robust. The authors…

  6. 75 FR 21287 - Empire Pipeline Inc.; Notice of Application

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-04-23

    ... Energy Regulatory Commission Empire Pipeline Inc.; Notice of Application April 16, 2010. Take notice that on February 2, 2010, Empire Pipeline, Inc. (EPI), 6363 Main Street, Williamsville, New York 14221... this petition should be directed to David W. Reitz, Attorney for Empire Pipeline, Inc., 6363...

  7. Advancing Empirical Scholarship to Further Develop Evaluation Theory and Practice

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Christie, Christina A.

    2011-01-01

    Good theory development is grounded in empirical inquiry. In the context of educational evaluation, the development of empirically grounded theory has important benefits for the field and the practitioner. In particular, a shift to empirically derived theory will assist in advancing more systematic and contextually relevant evaluation practice, as…

  8. Empirical ethics and its alleged meta-ethical fallacies.

    PubMed

    de Vries, Rob; Gordijn, Bert

    2009-05-01

    This paper analyses the concept of empirical ethics as well as three meta-ethical fallacies that empirical ethics is said to face: the is-ought problem, the naturalistic fallacy and violation of the fact-value distinction. Moreover, it answers the question of whether empirical ethics (necessarily) commits these three basic meta-ethical fallacies. PMID:19338520

  9. The implications of conceptual critiques and empirical research on unconscious processes for psychoanalytic theory.

    PubMed

    Eagle, Morris N

    2013-12-01

    The paper examines the implications of conceptual critiques and empirical research on psychoanalytic formulations of unconscious processes. Different conceptions of unconscious processes and states are discussed: as markers for brain states, as unformulated and not-spelled-out fleeting experiences, and as implicit knowledge. The author notes and discusses the interpersonal and interactional aspects of unconscious processes in classical theory as well as in contemporary formulations. Representative examples of empirical research on unconscious processes are presented and their implications for psychoanalytic conceptions are examined. The author then discusses the conception of unconscious processes that emerges in view of conceptual critiques, empirical research findings, and clinical phenomena. Finally, the emphasis of both early and late Freudian theory on integration of various aspects of the personality rather than (or at least in addition to) on conscious versus unconscious is noted, and various ways of understanding what it means to make the unconscious conscious are discussed. PMID:24325185

  10. Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Myalgic Encephalomyelitis: Toward An Empirical Case Definition

    PubMed Central

    Jason, Leonard A.; Kot, Bobby; Sunnquist, Madison; Brown, Abigail; Evans, Meredyth; Jantke, Rachel; Williams, Yolonda; Furst, Jacob; Vernon, Suzanne D.

    2015-01-01

    Current case definitions of Myalgic Encephalomyelitis (ME) and chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have been based on consensus methods, but empirical methods could be used to identify core symptoms and thereby improve the reliability. In the present study, several methods (i.e., continuous scores of symptoms, theoretically and empirically derived cut off scores of symptoms) were used to identify core symptoms best differentiating patients from controls. In addition, data mining with decision trees was conducted. Our study found a small number of core symptoms that have good sensitivity and specificity, and these included fatigue, post-exertional malaise, a neurocognitive symptom, and unrefreshing sleep. Outcomes from these analyses suggest that using empirically selected symptoms can help guide the creation of a more reliable case definition. PMID:26029488

  11. Advanced life support study

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1991-01-01

    Summary reports on each of the eight tasks undertaken by this contract are given. Discussed here is an evaluation of a Closed Ecological Life Support System (CELSS), including modeling and analysis of Physical/Chemical Closed Loop Life Support (P/C CLLS); the Environmental Control and Life Support Systems (ECLSS) evolution - Intermodule Ventilation study; advanced technologies interface requirements relative to ECLSS; an ECLSS resupply analysis; the ECLSS module addition relocation systems engineering analysis; an ECLSS cost/benefit analysis to identify rack-level interface requirements of the alternate technologies evaluated in the ventilation study, with a comparison of these with the rack level interface requirements for the baseline technologies; advanced instrumentation - technology database enhancement; and a clean room survey and assessment of various ECLSS evaluation options for different growth scenarios.

  12. Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vickers, John

    2015-01-01

    The Additive Construction with Mobile Emplacement (ACME) project is developing technology to build structures on planetary surfaces using in-situ resources. The project focuses on the construction of both 2D (landing pads, roads, and structure foundations) and 3D (habitats, garages, radiation shelters, and other structures) infrastructure needs for planetary surface missions. The ACME project seeks to raise the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) of two components needed for planetary surface habitation and exploration: 3D additive construction (e.g., contour crafting), and excavation and handling technologies (to effectively and continuously produce in-situ feedstock). Additionally, the ACME project supports the research and development of new materials for planetary surface construction, with the goal of reducing the amount of material to be launched from Earth.

  13. Does finger sense predict addition performance?

    PubMed

    Newman, Sharlene D

    2016-05-01

    The impact of fingers on numerical and mathematical cognition has received a great deal of attention recently. However, the precise role that fingers play in numerical cognition is unknown. The current study explores the relationship between finger sense, arithmetic and general cognitive ability. Seventy-six children between the ages of 5 and 12 participated in the study. The results of stepwise multiple regression analyses demonstrated that while general cognitive ability including language processing was a predictor of addition performance, finger sense was not. The impact of age on the relationship between finger sense, and addition was further examined. The participants were separated into two groups based on age. The results showed that finger gnosia score impacted addition performance in the older group but not the younger group. These results appear to support the hypothesis that fingers provide a scaffold for calculation and that if that scaffold is not properly built, it has continued differential consequences to mathematical cognition. PMID:26993292

  14. Enantioselective Michael Addition of Water

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Bi-Shuang; Resch, Verena; Otten, Linda G; Hanefeld, Ulf

    2015-01-01

    The enantioselective Michael addition using water as both nucleophile and solvent has to date proved beyond the ability of synthetic chemists. Herein, the direct, enantioselective Michael addition of water in water to prepare important β-hydroxy carbonyl compounds using whole cells of Rhodococcus strains is described. Good yields and excellent enantioselectivities were achieved with this method. Deuterium labeling studies demonstrate that a Michael hydratase catalyzes the water addition exclusively with anti-stereochemistry. PMID:25529526

  15. Empirical streamflow simulation for water resource management in data-scarce seasonal watersheds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shortridge, J. E.; Guikema, S. D.; Zaitchik, B. F.

    2015-10-01

    In the past decade, certain methods for empirical rainfall-runoff modeling have seen extensive development and been proposed as a useful complement to physical hydrologic models, particularly in basins where data to support process-based models is limited. However, the majority of research has focused on a small number of methods, such as artificial neural networks, despite the development of multiple other approaches for non-parametric regression in recent years. Furthermore, this work has generally evaluated model performance based on predictive accuracy alone, while not considering broader objectives such as model interpretability and uncertainty that are important if such methods are to be used for planning and management decisions. In this paper, we use multiple regression and machine-learning approaches to simulate monthly streamflow in five highly-seasonal rivers in the highlands of Ethiopia and compare their performance in terms of predictive accuracy, error structure and bias, model interpretability, and uncertainty when faced with extreme climate conditions. While the relative predictive performance of models differed across basins, data-driven approaches were able to achieve reduced errors when compared to physical models developed for the region. Methods such as random forests and generalized additive models may have advantages in terms of visualization and interpretation of model structure, which can be useful in providing insights into physical watershed function. However, the uncertainty associated with model predictions under climate change should be carefully evaluated, since certain models (especially generalized additive models and multivariate adaptive regression splines) became highly variable when faced with high temperatures.

  16. Age and Sex Effects in Anchoring Vignette Studies: Methodological and Empirical Contributions*

    PubMed Central

    Grol-Prokopczyk, Hanna

    2014-01-01

    Anchoring vignettes are an increasingly popular tool for identifying and correcting for group differences in use of subjective ordered response categories. However, existing techniques to maximize response consistency (use of the same standards for self-ratings as for vignette-ratings), which center on matching vignette characters’ demographic characteristics to respondents’ own characteristics, appear at times to be ineffective or to pose interpretive difficulties. Specifically, respondents often appear to neglect instructions to treat vignette characters as age peers. Furthermore, when vignette characters’ sex is matched to respondents’ sex, interpretation of sex differences in rating style is rendered problematic. This study applies two experimental manipulations to a national American sample (n=1,765) to clarify best practices for enhancing response consistency. First, an analysis of two methods of highlighting vignette characters’ age suggests that both yield better response consistency than previous, less prominent means. Second, a comparison of ratings of same- and opposite-sex vignette characters suggests that, with avoidable exceptions, the sex of the respondent rather than of the vignette character drives observed sex differences in rating style. Implications for interpretation and design of anchoring vignette studies are discussed. In addition, this study clarifies the importance of two additional measurement assumptions, cross-respondent vignette equivalence and cross-character vignette equivalence. It also presents empirical findings of significant sex, educational, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating health, and racial/ethnic differences in styles of rating political efficacy. These findings underscore the incomparability of unadjusted subjective self-ratings across demographic groups, and thus support the potential utility of the anchoring vignette method. PMID:25621079

  17. Gasoline additives, emissions, and performance

    SciTech Connect

    1995-12-31

    The papers included in this publication deal with the influence of fuel, additive, and hardware changes on a variety of vehicle performance characteristics. Advanced techniques for measuring these performance parameters are also described. Contents include: Fleet test evaluation of gasoline additives for intake valve and combustion chamber deposit clean up; A technique for evaluating octane requirement additives in modern engines on dynamometer test stands; A fleet test of two additive technologies comparing their effects on tailpipe emissions; Investigation into the vehicle exhaust emissions of high percentage ethanol blends; Variability in hydrocarbon speciation measurements at low emission (ULEV) levels; and more.

  18. Computational Process Modeling for Additive Manufacturing (OSU)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bagg, Stacey; Zhang, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Powder-Bed Additive Manufacturing (AM) through Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) or Selective Laser Melting (SLM) is being used by NASA and the Aerospace industry to "print" parts that traditionally are very complex, high cost, or long schedule lead items. The process spreads a thin layer of metal powder over a build platform, then melts the powder in a series of welds in a desired shape. The next layer of powder is applied, and the process is repeated until layer-by-layer, a very complex part can be built. This reduces cost and schedule by eliminating very complex tooling and processes traditionally used in aerospace component manufacturing. To use the process to print end-use items, NASA seeks to understand SLM material well enough to develop a method of qualifying parts for space flight operation. Traditionally, a new material process takes many years and high investment to generate statistical databases and experiential knowledge, but computational modeling can truncate the schedule and cost -many experiments can be run quickly in a model, which would take years and a high material cost to run empirically. This project seeks to optimize material build parameters with reduced time and cost through modeling.

  19. Indexing Learning Objects: Vocabularies and Empirical Investigation of Consistency

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kabel, Suzanne; De Hoog, Robert; Wielinga, Bob; Anjewierden, Anjo

    2004-01-01

    In addition to the LOM standard and instructional design specifications, as well as domain specific indexing vocabularies, a structured indexing vocabulary for the more elementary learning objects is advisable in order to support retrieval tasks of developers. Furthermore, because semantic indexing is seen as a difficult task, three issues…

  20. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-01-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step…

  1. 75 FR 27313 - Proposed Additions

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-05-14

    ... FROM PEOPLE WHO ARE BLIND OR SEVERELY DISABLED PROCUREMENT LIST Proposed Additions AGENCY: Committee for Purchase From People Who Are Blind or Severely Disabled. ACTION: Proposed additions to the... or Severely Disabled, Jefferson Plaza 2, Suite 10800, 1421 Jefferson Davis Highway,...

  2. Lay attitudes toward deception in medicine: Theoretical considerations and empirical evidence

    PubMed Central

    Pugh, Jonathan; Kahane, Guy; Maslen, Hannah; Savulescu, Julian

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: There is a lack of empirical data on lay attitudes toward different sorts of deception in medicine. However, lay attitudes toward deception should be taken into account when we consider whether deception is ever permissible in a medical context. The objective of this study was to examine lay attitudes of U.S. citizens toward different sorts of deception across different medical contexts. Methods: A one-time online survey was administered to U.S. users of the Amazon “Mechanical Turk” website. Participants were asked to answer questions regarding a series of vignettes depicting different sorts of deception in medical care, as well as a question regarding their general attitudes toward truth-telling. Results: Of the 200 respondents, the majority found the use of placebos in different contexts to be acceptable following partial disclosure but found it to be unacceptable if it involved outright lying. Also, 55.5% of respondents supported the use of sham surgery in clinical research, although 55% claimed that it would be unacceptable to deceive patients in this research, even if this would improve the quality of the data from the study. Respondents supported fully informing patients about distressing medical information in different contexts, especially when the patient is suffering from a chronic condition. In addition, 42.5% of respondents believed that it is worse to deceive someone by providing the person with false information than it is to do so by giving the person true information that is likely to lead them to form a false belief, without telling them other important information that shows it to be false. However, 41.5% believed that the two methods of deception were morally equivalent. Conclusions: Respondents believed that some forms of deception were acceptable in some circumstances. While the majority of our respondents opposed outright lying in medical contexts, they were prepared to support partial disclosure and the use of

  3. Empiric Potassium Supplementation and Increased Survival in Users of Loop Diuretics

    PubMed Central

    Leonard, Charles E.; Razzaghi, Hanieh; Freeman, Cristin P.; Roy, Jason A.; Newcomb, Craig W.; Hennessy, Sean

    2014-01-01

    Background The effectiveness of the clinical strategy of empiric potassium supplementation in reducing the frequency of adverse clinical outcomes in patients receiving loop diuretics is unknown. We sought to examine the association between empiric potassium supplementation and 1) all-cause death and 2) outpatient-originating sudden cardiac death (SD) and ventricular arrhythmia (VA) among new starters of loop diuretics, stratified on initial loop diuretic dose. Methods We conducted a one-to-one propensity score-matched cohort study using 1999–2007 US Medicaid claims from five states. Empiric potassium supplementation was defined as a potassium prescription on the day of or the day after the initial loop diuretic prescription. Death, the primary outcome, was ascertained from the Social Security Administration Death Master File; SD/VA, the secondary outcome, from incident, first-listed emergency department or principal inpatient SD/VA discharge diagnoses (positive predictive value = 85%). Results We identified 654,060 persons who met eligibility criteria and initiated therapy with a loop diuretic, 27% of whom received empiric potassium supplementation (N = 179,436) and 73% of whom did not (N = 474,624). The matched hazard ratio for empiric potassium supplementation was 0.93 (95% confidence interval, 0.89–0.98, p = 0.003) for all-cause death. Stratifying on initial furosemide dose, hazard ratios for empiric potassium supplementation with furosemide <40 and ≥40 milligrams/day were 0.93 (0.86–1.00, p = 0.050) and 0.84 (0.79–0.89, p<0.0001). The matched hazard ratio for empiric potassium supplementation was 1.02 (0.83–1.24, p = 0.879) for SD/VA. Conclusions Empiric potassium supplementation upon initiation of a loop diuretic appears to be associated with improved survival, with a greater apparent benefit seen with higher diuretic dose. If confirmed, these findings support the use of empiric potassium supplementation upon initiation of a

  4. Empirical mode decomposition for analyzing acoustical signals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Norden E. (Inventor)

    2005-01-01

    The present invention discloses a computer implemented signal analysis method through the Hilbert-Huang Transformation (HHT) for analyzing acoustical signals, which are assumed to be nonlinear and nonstationary. The Empirical Decomposition Method (EMD) and the Hilbert Spectral Analysis (HSA) are used to obtain the HHT. Essentially, the acoustical signal will be decomposed into the Intrinsic Mode Function Components (IMFs). Once the invention decomposes the acoustic signal into its constituting components, all operations such as analyzing, identifying, and removing unwanted signals can be performed on these components. Upon transforming the IMFs into Hilbert spectrum, the acoustical signal may be compared with other acoustical signals.

  5. An Empirical Study of Infrasonic Propagation

    SciTech Connect

    J. Paul Mutschlecner; Rodney W. Whitaker; Lawrence H. Auer

    1999-10-01

    Observations of atmospheric nuclear tests carried out at the Nevada Test Site from 1951 to 1958 provided data for an empirical investigation of how infrasonic signals are propagated to distances of about 250 km. Those observations and the analysis documented in this report involved signal amplitudes and average velocities and included three classes of signals: stratospheric, thermospheric, and tropospheric/surface. The authors' analysis showed that stratospheric winds have a dominant effect upon stratospheric signal amplitudes. The report outlines a method for normalizing stratospheric signal amplitudes for the effects of upper atmospheric winds and presents equations for predicting or normalizing amplitude and average velocity for the three types of signals.

  6. The empirical white dwarf cooling sequence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richer, H.; Goldsbury, R.; Heyl, J.; Bergeron, P.; Dotter, A.; Kalirai, J. S.; MacDonald, J.; Rich, R. M.; Stetson, P. B.; Tremblay, P.-E.; Woodley, K. A.

    White dwarf stars cool as they age, hence they can be used as chronometers for various stellar systems. Their value as clocks depends critically on how well we understand the physics of cooling. In this contribution we outline how to derive an empirical cooling sequence and then compare it with a standard white dwarf cooling model. Some differences are noted suggesting that there is still missing physics in the models. A more detailed version of this communication can be found in Goldsbury et al. (2012).

  7. Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions: Empirically Validated Treatments for Autism Spectrum Disorder.

    PubMed

    Schreibman, Laura; Dawson, Geraldine; Stahmer, Aubyn C; Landa, Rebecca; Rogers, Sally J; McGee, Gail G; Kasari, Connie; Ingersoll, Brooke; Kaiser, Ann P; Bruinsma, Yvonne; McNerney, Erin; Wetherby, Amy; Halladay, Alycia

    2015-08-01

    Earlier autism diagnosis, the importance of early intervention, and development of specific interventions for young children have contributed to the emergence of similar, empirically supported, autism interventions that represent the merging of applied behavioral and developmental sciences. "Naturalistic Developmental Behavioral Interventions (NDBI)" are implemented in natural settings, involve shared control between child and therapist, utilize natural contingencies, and use a variety of behavioral strategies to teach developmentally appropriate and prerequisite skills. We describe the development of NDBIs, their theoretical bases, empirical support, requisite characteristics, common features, and suggest future research needs. We wish to bring parsimony to a field that includes interventions with different names but common features thus improving understanding and choice-making among families, service providers and referring agencies. PMID:25737021

  8. Relative importance and utility of positive worker states: a review and empirical examination.

    PubMed

    Steele, John P; Rupayana, Disha D; Mills, Maura J; Smith, Michael R; Wefald, Andrew; Downey, Ronald G

    2012-01-01

    Our purpose was to identity the unique contribution, relative importance, and utility of positive worker states. Using Luthans et al.'s (2007) five positive organizational behavior criteria, a variety of positive worker states were reviewed and then empirically tested to establish if they met these criteria. Data were collected from 724 restaurant employees. Positive worker states included: job involvement, perceived organizational support, engagement, and vigor. Criteria were self-reported performance, customer service, turnover intention, satisfaction, and quality of life. Our review indicated consistency between predictor adequacy of meeting the criteria and their empirical relationship with key outcomes. This research found the positive worker states to be independent constructs that had differential effects depending on the focused outcome. Regression and relative weights analyses showed involvement was a weak predictor of outcomes, while perceived organizational support was the most consistent predictor. Vigor was most useful when predicting job performance. Quality of life was poorly explained. PMID:23094474

  9. Hypertension: empirical evidence and implications in 2014

    PubMed Central

    Makridakis, Spyros; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension (HTN) is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Despite this fact, there is widespread agreement that the treatment of HBP, over the last half century, has been a great achievement. However, after the release of the new Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure-8 (JNC-8) guidelines, there have been heated debates with regard to what are the most evidence-based blood pressure goals. While JNC-8 claims that the goal blood pressure for otherwise healthy patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140–159 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≥90–99 mm Hg) should be <140/90 mm Hg; a recent Cochrane meta-analysis is in direct conflict with these recommendations. Indeed, a 2012 Cochrane meta-analysis indicated that there is no evidence that treating otherwise healthy mild hypertension patients with antihypertensive therapy will reduce CV events or mortality. Additionally, the Cochrane meta-analysis showed that antihypertensive therapy was associated with a significant increase in withdrawal due to adverse events. Thus, the current evidence in the literature does not support the goals set by the JNC-8 guidelines. In this review we discussed the strengths and limitations of both lines of evidence and why it takes an evidence-based medication to reduce CV events/mortality (eg, how a goal blood pressure is achieved is more important than getting to the goal). As medications inherently cause side effects and come at a cost to the patient, the practice of evidence-based medicine becomes exceedingly important. Although the majority of HTN studies claim great advantages by lowering HBP, this review finds severe conflicts in the findings among the various HTN studies, as well as serious epistemological, methodological and statistical problems that cast doubt to such claims. PMID:25332797

  10. Hypertension: empirical evidence and implications in 2014.

    PubMed

    Makridakis, Spyros; DiNicolantonio, James J

    2014-01-01

    High blood pressure (HBP) or hypertension (HTN) is one of the leading causes of cardiovascular (CV) morbidity and mortality throughout the world. Despite this fact, there is widespread agreement that the treatment of HBP, over the last half century, has been a great achievement. However, after the release of the new Joint National Committee on Prevention, Detection, Evaluation and Treatment of High Blood Pressure-8 (JNC-8) guidelines, there have been heated debates with regard to what are the most evidence-based blood pressure goals. While JNC-8 claims that the goal blood pressure for otherwise healthy patients with mild hypertension (systolic blood pressure ≥140-159 mm Hg and diastolic blood pressure ≥90-99 mm Hg) should be <140/90 mm Hg; a recent Cochrane meta-analysis is in direct conflict with these recommendations. Indeed, a 2012 Cochrane meta-analysis indicated that there is no evidence that treating otherwise healthy mild hypertension patients with antihypertensive therapy will reduce CV events or mortality. Additionally, the Cochrane meta-analysis showed that antihypertensive therapy was associated with a significant increase in withdrawal due to adverse events. Thus, the current evidence in the literature does not support the goals set by the JNC-8 guidelines. In this review we discussed the strengths and limitations of both lines of evidence and why it takes an evidence-based medication to reduce CV events/mortality (eg, how a goal blood pressure is achieved is more important than getting to the goal). As medications inherently cause side effects and come at a cost to the patient, the practice of evidence-based medicine becomes exceedingly important. Although the majority of HTN studies claim great advantages by lowering HBP, this review finds severe conflicts in the findings among the various HTN studies, as well as serious epistemological, methodological and statistical problems that cast doubt to such claims. PMID:25332797

  11. A More Precise Empirical Formula for Estimating Normalized Fog Attenuation in the Millimeter-Wave Frequency Range 30 ~ 100 GHz

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mao, Xia; Liu, Yun-Long; Chen, Li-Jiang; Xue, Yu-Li

    2013-04-01

    At millimeter wavelengths, normalized fog attenuation (NFA) in units of (dB/km)/ (g/m3) is generally calculated by the Rayleigh approximation when working wavelengths are much larger than the average diameter of fog droplets. The calculations of the Rayleigh approximation are much less than those of Mie scattering theory, but still complex and heavy. To solve the above problem and facilitate the engineering applications of the Rayleigh approximation, a new empirical formula is discussed to estimate NFA in the frequency range 30 ~ 100 GHz and the fog common temperature range -8 ~ 20 °C. The simulation results of the new formula are compared with those got by other three empirical formulae: the Altshuler empirical formula, the Liebe empirical formula and the Zhao empirical formula. Maximal absolute value of the relative errors (MAVRE) and Pearson correlation coefficient (PCC) indicate the largest deviation of estimated results and the fitting performance of an empirical formula, respectively. Comparisons show that the MAVRE of the new formula is only 4.482 %, which is much smaller than those of the other three formulae. The mean value of the Pearson correlation coefficients (PCCs) of the proposed formula is 0.999943, larger than those of other methods. Additionally, relative error (RE) curves of the four empirical formulae are given at four certain temperatures -8 °C, 0 °C, 10 °C and 20 °C.

  12. Development and Implementation of an Empirical Ionosphere Variability Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Minow, Joesph I.; Almond, Deborah (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    Spacecraft designers and operations support personnel involved in space environment analysis for low Earth orbit missions require ionospheric specification and forecast models that provide not only average ionospheric plasma parameters for a given set of geophysical conditions but the statistical variations about the mean as well. This presentation describes the development of a prototype empirical model intended for use with the International Reference Ionosphere (IRI) to provide ionospheric Ne and Te variability. We first describe the database of on-orbit observations from a variety of spacecraft and ground based radars over a wide range of latitudes and altitudes used to obtain estimates of the environment variability. Next, comparison of the observations with the IRI model provide estimates of the deviations from the average model as well as the range of possible values that may correspond to a given IRI output. Options for implementation of the statistical variations in software that can be run with the IRI model are described. Finally, we provide example applications including thrust estimates for tethered satellites and specification of sunrise Ne, Te conditions required to support spacecraft charging issues for satellites with high voltage solar arrays.

  13. Construction of embedding for empirical prognostic models of climate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feigin, A. M.; Mukhin, D.; Gavrilov, A.; Loskutov, E. M.

    2015-12-01

    Empirical approach to modeling and forecasting complex dynamical systems becomes more and more popular in climate science because of two reasons: (i) not confidence reproducing and forecasting some of key climate modes by existing global climate models, and (ii) increasing number and duration of climatic time series which can be considered as a source of information about dynamical laws underlying observational variability. Such an approach is aimed to construction of prognostic models by way of direct analysis of data without involving any detailed physical equations. We developed a method for empirical modeling basing on reconstruction of prognostic evolution operator in a form of random dynamical system [1] - stochastic mapping the current state of the system to the next one. The most crucial point in application of the method to the analysis of real climatic data is the construction of proper embedding: the optimal set of variables - "principal modes" - determining the phase space the model works in. This task is non-trivial due to huge dimension of time series of typical space-distributed climatic fields. We outline two main features these modes should have to capture the main dynamical properties of the system: (i) capturing teleconnections in the atmosphere-ocean system by taking into account time-lagged couplings in data and (ii) reflecting the nonlinear interactions between the time series at different grid points. In this report we present the methodology of empirical forecasting which includes the construction of an embedding on the basis of the above principals: multichannel singular spectrum analysis (MSSA) together with nonlinear principal component analysis (NPCA) are used for phase space construction from data. The proposed methodology is applied to the analysis of sea surface temperature and atmospheric pressure fields. Capabilities to predict various indices of climate (such as SOI, PDO, NAO, NTA, etc.) is demonstrated. This research was supported

  14. Priming addition facts with semantic relations.

    PubMed

    Bassok, Miriam; Pedigo, Samuel F; Oskarsson, An T

    2008-03-01

    Results from 2 relational-priming experiments suggest the existence of an automatic analogical coordination between semantic and arithmetic relations. Word pairs denoting object sets served as primes in a task that elicits "obligatory" activation of addition facts (5 + 3 activates 8; J. LeFevre, J. Bisanz, & L. Mrkonjic, 1988). Semantic relations between the priming words were either aligned or misaligned with the structure of addition (M. Bassok, V. M. Chase, & S. A. Martin, 1998). Obligatory activation of addition facts occurred when the digits were primed by categorically related words (tulips-daisies), which are aligned with addition, but did not occur when the digits were primed by unrelated words (hens-radios, Experiment 1) or by functionally related words (records-songs, Experiment 2), which are misaligned with addition. These findings lend support to the viability of automatic analogical priming (B. A. Spellman, K. J. Holyoak, & R. G. Morrison, 2001) and highlight the relevance of arithmetic applications to theoretical accounts of mental arithmetic. PMID:18315410

  15. Empirical Quantification of the Runaway Greenhouse Limit on Earth

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldblatt, C.; Dewey, M. C.

    2015-12-01

    There have been many modeling studies of the runaway greenhouse effect and the conditions required to produce one on an Earth-like planet, however these models have not been verified with empirical evidence. It has been suggested that the Earth's tropics may be near a state of localized runaway greenhouse, meaning the surface temperature and atmospheric composition in those areas could cause runaway greenhouse, were it not for the tempering effects of meridional heat transport and circulation (Pierrehumbert, 1995). Using the assumption that some areas of the Earth's tropics may be under these conditions, this study uses measurements of the atmospheric properties, surface properties, and radiation budgets of these areas to quantify a radiation limit for runaway greenhouse on Earth, by analyzing the dependence of outgoing longwave radiation (OLR) at the top of the atmosphere on surface temperature and total column water vapour. An upper limit on OLR for clear-sky conditions was found between 289.8 W/m2 and 292.2 W/m2, which occurred at surface temperatures near 300K. For surface temperatures above this threshold, total column water vapour increased, but OLR initially decreased and then remained relatively constant, between 273.6 W/m2 and 279.7 W/m2. These limits are in good agreement with recent modeling results (Goldblatt et al., 2013), supporting the idea that some of the Earth's tropics may be in localized runaway greenhouse, and that radiation limits for runaway greenhouse on Earth can be empirically derived. This research was done as part of Maura Dewey's undergraduate honours thesis at the University of Victoria. Refs: Robert T. Pierrehumbert. Thermostats, radiator fins, and the local runaway greenhouse. Journal of Atmospheric Sciences, 52(10):1784-1806, 1995. Colin Goldblatt, Tyler D. Robinson, Kevin J. Zahnle, and David Crisp. Low simulated radiation limit for runaway greenhouse climates. Nature Geoscience, 6:661-667, 2013.

  16. Landholding and fertility relationship: a review of the empirical evidence.

    PubMed

    Nagarajan, R

    1996-09-01

    This article reviews the empirical literature on the relationship between landholding and fertility in developing countries and the arguments and hypotheses of theories on the causal relationship between landholding and fertility. The hypotheses are examined in light of existing evidence. Future research issues are identified. Studies include those at the micro and macro levels and bivariate and multivariate analyses. Most of the empirical evidence supports a positive effect of landholding on fertility. Some studies show a negative relationship between ownership and fertility. Tenants tend to have larger families. Some studies show a negative relationship between land and child schooling, and a positive relationship between land and children's labor force participation rate. Studies are conceptually sloppy about distinguishing between landholding status and ownership. It is recommended that landholding measures identify size of landholding, size of operational holding, and size of ownership holding by whether it is cultivated or leased out. Each of these measures should have its own impact on fertility. Many analyses are flawed by the lack of inclusion of variables for education, marriage age, and duration of marriage. Studies do not indicate which variable initiated the change nor do studies identify important institutional conditions that influence reproduction. "Pure income effects" hypotheses and land security hypotheses assume stability of landholdings over time, which may not be true. Reverse causation between child labor and land hypotheses needs to be tested with longitudinal data on family formation and time spent and participation in economic affairs. Studies of fertility desires and contraceptive prevalence would explain fertility differences as the outcome of demand. Agrarian countries, such as India, would benefit from more extensive study of land-fertility relations. PMID:12292748

  17. Rationale for hedging initiatives: Empirical evidence from the energy industry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dhanarajata, Srirajata

    Theory offers different rationales for hedging including (i) financial distress and bankruptcy cost, (ii) capacity to capture attractive investment opportunities, (iii) information asymmetry, (iv) economy of scale, (v) substitution for hedging, (vi) managerial risk aversion, and (vii) convexity of tax schedule. The purpose of this dissertation is to empirically test the explanatory power of the first five theoretical rationales on hedging done by oil and gas exploration and production (E&P) companies. The level of hedging is measured by the percentage of production effectively hedged, calculated based on the concept of delta and delta-gamma hedging. I employ Tobit regression, principal components, and panel data analysis on dependent and raw independent variables. Tobit regression is applied due to the fact that the dependent variable used in the analysis is non-negative. Principal component analysis helps to reduce the dimension of explanatory variables while panel data analysis combines/pools the data that is a combination of time-series and cross-sectional. Based on the empirical results, leverage level is consistently found to be a significant factor on hedging activities, either due to an attempt to avoid financial distress by the firm, or an attempt to control agency cost by debtholders, or both. The effect of capital expenditures and discretionary cash flows are both indeterminable due possibly to a potential mismatch in timing of realized cash flow items and hedging decision. Firm size is found to be positively related to hedging supporting economy of scale hypothesis, which is introduced in past literature, as well as the argument that large firm usually are more sophisticated and should be more willing and more comfortable to use hedge instruments than smaller firms.

  18. Color Addition and Subtraction Apps

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ruiz, Frances; Ruiz, Michael J.

    2015-10-01

    Color addition and subtraction apps in HTML5 have been developed for students as an online hands-on experience so that they can more easily master principles introduced through traditional classroom demonstrations. The evolution of the additive RGB color model is traced through the early IBM color adapters so that students can proceed step by step in understanding mathematical representations of RGB color. Finally, color addition and subtraction are presented for the X11 colors from web design to illustrate yet another real-life application of color mixing.

  19. The Matthew effect in empirical data.

    PubMed

    Perc, Matjaž

    2014-09-01

    The Matthew effect describes the phenomenon that in societies, the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. It is closely related to the concept of preferential attachment in network science, where the more connected nodes are destined to acquire many more links in the future than the auxiliary nodes. Cumulative advantage and success-breads-success also both describe the fact that advantage tends to beget further advantage. The concept is behind the many power laws and scaling behaviour in empirical data, and it is at the heart of self-organization across social and natural sciences. Here, we review the methodology for measuring preferential attachment in empirical data, as well as the observations of the Matthew effect in patterns of scientific collaboration, socio-technical and biological networks, the propagation of citations, the emergence of scientific progress and impact, career longevity, the evolution of common English words and phrases, as well as in education and brain development. We also discuss whether the Matthew effect is due to chance or optimization, for example related to homophily in social systems or efficacy in technological systems, and we outline possible directions for future research. PMID:24990288

  20. The Matthew effect in empirical data

    PubMed Central

    Perc, Matjaž

    2014-01-01

    The Matthew effect describes the phenomenon that in societies, the rich tend to get richer and the potent even more powerful. It is closely related to the concept of preferential attachment in network science, where the more connected nodes are destined to acquire many more links in the future than the auxiliary nodes. Cumulative advantage and success-breads-success also both describe the fact that advantage tends to beget further advantage. The concept is behind the many power laws and scaling behaviour in empirical data, and it is at the heart of self-organization across social and natural sciences. Here, we review the methodology for measuring preferential attachment in empirical data, as well as the observations of the Matthew effect in patterns of scientific collaboration, socio-technical and biological networks, the propagation of citations, the emergence of scientific progress and impact, career longevity, the evolution of common English words and phrases, as well as in education and brain development. We also discuss whether the Matthew effect is due to chance or optimization, for example related to homophily in social systems or efficacy in technological systems, and we outline possible directions for future research. PMID:24990288