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Sample records for additional endurance training

  1. Effect of Additional Respiratory Muscle Endurance Training in Young Well-Trained Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Lemaitre, Frédéric; Coquart, Jérémy B.; Chavallard, Florence; CASTRES, Ingrid; MUCCI, Patrick; Costalat, Guillaume; Chollet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    While some studies have demonstrated that respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) improves performances during various exercise modalities, controversy continues about the transfer of RMET effects to swimming performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the added effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET; normocapnic hyperpnea) on the respiratory muscle function and swimming performance of young well-trained swimmers. Two homogenous groups were recruited: ten swimmers performed RMET (RMET group) and ten swimmers performed no RMET (control group). During the 8-week RMET period, all swimmers followed the same training sessions 5-6 times/week. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance, performances on 50- and 200-m trials, effort perception, and dyspnea were assessed before and after the intervention program. The results showed that ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and performances were improved only in the RMET group. Moreover, perceived exertion and dyspnea were lower in the RMET group in both trials (i.e., 50- and 200-m). Consequently, the swim training associated with RMET was more effective than swim training alone in improving swimming performances. RMET can therefore be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. Key Points Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the performance. Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance. Respiratory muscle endurance training decreases the perceived exertion and dyspnea. Respiratory muscle endurance training can be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. PMID:24421721

  2. Effect of additional respiratory muscle endurance training in young well-trained swimmers.

    PubMed

    Lemaitre, Frédéric; Coquart, Jérémy B; Chavallard, Florence; Castres, Ingrid; Mucci, Patrick; Costalat, Guillaume; Chollet, Didier

    2013-01-01

    While some studies have demonstrated that respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) improves performances during various exercise modalities, controversy continues about the transfer of RMET effects to swimming performance. The objective of this study was to analyze the added effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET; normocapnic hyperpnea) on the respiratory muscle function and swimming performance of young well-trained swimmers. Two homogenous groups were recruited: ten swimmers performed RMET (RMET group) and ten swimmers performed no RMET (control group). During the 8-week RMET period, all swimmers followed the same training sessions 5-6 times/week. Respiratory muscle strength and endurance, performances on 50- and 200-m trials, effort perception, and dyspnea were assessed before and after the intervention program. The results showed that ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance, and performances were improved only in the RMET group. Moreover, perceived exertion and dyspnea were lower in the RMET group in both trials (i.e., 50- and 200-m). Consequently, the swim training associated with RMET was more effective than swim training alone in improving swimming performances. RMET can therefore be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers. Key PointsRespiratory muscle endurance training improves the performance.Respiratory muscle endurance training improves the ventilatory function parameters, chest expansion, respiratory muscle strength and endurance.Respiratory muscle endurance training decreases the perceived exertion and dyspnea.Respiratory muscle endurance training can be considered as a worthwhile ergogenic aid for young competitive swimmers.

  3. Endurance training at altitude.

    PubMed

    Saunders, Philo U; Pyne, David B; Gore, Christopher J

    2009-01-01

    Since the 1968 Olympic Games when the effects of altitude on endurance performance became evident, moderate altitude training ( approximately 2000 to 3000 m) has become popular to improve competition performance both at altitude and sea level. When endurance athletes are exposed acutely to moderate altitude, a number of physiological responses occur that can comprise performance at altitude; these include increased ventilation, increased heart rate, decreased stroke volume, reduced plasma volume, and lower maximal aerobic power ((.)Vo(2max)) by approximately 15% to 20%. Over a period of several weeks, one primary acclimatization response is an increase in the volume of red blood cells and consequently of (.)Vo(2max). Altitudes > approximately 2000 m for >3 weeks and adequate iron stores are required to elicit these responses. However, the primacy of more red blood cells for superior sea-level performance is not clear-cut since the best endurance athletes in the world, from Ethiopia (approximately 2000 to 3000 m), have only marginally elevated hemoglobin concentrations. The substantial reduction in (.)Vo(2max) of athletes at moderate altitude implies that their training should include adequate short-duration (approximately 1 to 2 min), high-intensity efforts with long recoveries to avoid a reduction in race-specific fitness. At the elite level, athlete performance is not dependent solely on (.)Vo(2max), and the "smallest worthwhile change" in performance for improving race results is as little as 0.5%. Consequently, contemporary statistical approaches that utilize the concept of the smallest worthwhile change are likely to be more appropriate than conventional statistical methods when attempting to understand the potential benefits and mechanisms of altitude training.

  4. Postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhances endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in mouse skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Tamura, Yuki; Matsunaga, Yutaka; Masuda, Hiroyuki; Takahashi, Yumiko; Takahashi, Yuki; Terada, Shin; Hoshino, Daisuke; Hatta, Hideo

    2014-10-01

    A recent study demonstrated that heat stress induces mitochondrial biogenesis in C2C12 myotubes, thereby implying that heat stress may be an effective treatment to enhance endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether heat stress actually induces mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle in vivo is unclear. In the present study, we report the novel findings that 1) whole body heat stress produced by exposure of ICR mice to a hot environment (40°C, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk) induced mitochondrial adaptations such as increased mitochondrial enzyme activity (citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase) and respiratory chain protein content (complexes I-V) in skeletal muscle in vivo and 2) postexercise whole body heat stress additively enhanced endurance training-induced mitochondrial adaptations (treadmill running, 25 m/min, 30 min/day, 5 days/wk, 3 wk). Moreover, to determine the candidate mechanisms underlying mitochondrial adaptations, we investigated the acute effects of postexercise whole body heat stress on the phosphorylation status of cellular signaling cascades that subsequently induce mitochondrial gene transcription. We found that whole body heat stress boosted the endurance exercise-induced phosphorylation of p38 MAPK, increased the phosphorylation status of p70S6K, a biomarker of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 activity, and unexpectedly dephosphorylated AMP-activated protein kinase and its downstream target acetyl-CoA carboxylase in skeletal muscle. Our present observations suggest that heat stress can act as an effective postexercise treatment. Heat stress treatment appeared to be clinically beneficial for people who have difficulty participating in sufficient exercise training, such as the elderly, injured athletes, and patients.

  5. Altitude and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Rusko, Heikki K; Tikkanen, Heikki O; Peltonen, Juha E

    2004-10-01

    The benefits of living and training at altitude (HiHi) for an improved altitude performance of athletes are clear, but controlled studies for an improved sea-level performance are controversial. The reasons for not having a positive effect of HiHi include: (1) the acclimatization effect may have been insufficient for elite athletes to stimulate an increase in red cell mass/haemoglobin mass because of too low an altitude (< 2000-2200 m) and/or too short an altitude training period (<3-4 weeks); (2) the training effect at altitude may have been compromised due to insufficient training stimuli for enhancing the function of the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems; and (3) enhanced stress with possible overtraining symptoms and an increased frequency of infections. Moreover, the effects of hypoxia in the brain may influence both training intensity and physiological responses during training at altitude. Thus, interrupting hypoxic exposure by training in normoxia may be a key factor in avoiding or minimizing the noxious effects that are known to occur in chronic hypoxia. When comparing HiHi and HiLo (living high and training low), it is obvious that both can induce a positive acclimatization effect and increase the oxygen transport capacity of blood, at least in 'responders', if certain prerequisites are met. The minimum dose to attain a haematological acclimatization effect is > 12 h a day for at least 3 weeks at an altitude or simulated altitude of 2100-2500 m. Exposure to hypoxia appears to have some positive transfer effects on subsequent training in normoxia during and after HiLo. The increased oxygen transport capacity of blood allows training at higher intensity during and after HiLo in subsequent normoxia, thereby increasing the potential to improve some neuromuscular and cardiovascular determinants of endurance performance. The effects of hypoxic training and intermittent short-term severe hypoxia at rest are not yet clear and they require further study.

  6. Specificity of Cardiovascular Endurance Training.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Riley, Calberth B., Jr.; Johnson, James H.

    This study determined the specificity of cardiovascular endurance training on a bicycle ergometer. Eighteen male subjects were tested on a heart rate response test of 150 beats per minute on a bicycle ergometer at the pace of 50 revolutions per minute (rpm) and at 160 beats per minute at 60 and 80 rpm, with the resistance equal to the force of…

  7. Effects of endurance training only versus same-session combined endurance and strength training on physical performance and serum hormone concentrations in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Schumann, Moritz; Mykkänen, Olli-Pekka; Doma, Kenji; Mazzolari, Raffaele; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of endurance training only (E, n = 14) and same-session combined training, when strength training is repeatedly preceded by endurance loading (endurance and strength training (E+S), n = 13) on endurance (1000-m running time during incremental field test) and strength performance (1-repetition maximum (1RM) in dynamic leg press), basal serum hormone concentrations, and endurance loading-induced force and hormone responses in recreationally endurance-trained men. E was identical in the 2 groups and consisted of steady-state and interval running, 4-6 times per week for 24 weeks. E+S performed additional mixed-maximal and explosive-strength training (2 times per week) immediately following an incremental running session (35-45 min, 65%-85% maximal heart rate). E and E+S decreased running time at week 12 (-8% ± 5%, p = 0.001 and -7% ± 3%, p < 0.001) and 24 (-13% ± 5%, p < 0.001 and -9% ± 5%, p = 0.001). Strength performance decreased in E at week 24 (-5% ± 5%, p = 0.014) but was maintained in E+S (between-groups at week 12 and 24, p = 0.014 and 0.011, respectively). Basal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations remained unaltered in E and E+S but testosterone/sex hormone binding globulin ratio decreased in E+S at week 12 (-19% ± 26%, p = 0.006). At week 0 and 24, endurance loading-induced acute force (-5% to -9%, p = 0.032 to 0.001) and testosterone and cortisol responses (18%-47%, p = 0.013 to p < 0.001) were similar between E and E+S. This study showed no endurance performance benefits when strength training was performed repeatedly after endurance training compared with endurance training only. This was supported by similar acute responses in force and hormonal measures immediately post-endurance loading after the training with sustained 1RM strength in E+S.

  8. Strength and Endurance Training Prescription in Healthy and Frail Elderly

    PubMed Central

    Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Bottaro, Martim; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    Aging is associated with declines in the neuromuscular and cardiovascular systems, resulting in an impaired capacity to perform daily activities. Frailty is an age-associated biological syndrome characterized by decreases in the biological functional reserve and resistance to stressors due to changes in several physiological systems, which puts older individuals at special risk of disability. To counteract the neuromuscular and cardiovascular declines associated with aging, as well as to prevent and treat the frailty syndrome, the strength and endurance training seems to be an effective strategy to improve muscle hypertrophy, strength and power output, as well as endurance performance. The first purpose of this review was discuss the neuromuscular adaptations to strength training, as well as the cardiovascular adaptations to endurance training in healthy and frail elderly subjects. In addition, the second purpose of this study was investigate the concurrent training adaptations in the elderly. Based on the results found, the combination of strength and endurance training (i.e., concurrent training) performed at moderate volume and moderate to high intensity in elderly populations is the most effective way to improve both neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory functions. Moreover, exercise interventions that include muscle power training should be prescribed to frail elderly in order to improve the overall physical status of this population and prevent disability. PMID:24900941

  9. [Endurance training and cardial adaptation (athlete's heart)].

    PubMed

    Dickhuth, Hans-Hermann; Röcker, Kai; Mayer, Frank; König, Daniel; Korsten-Reck, Ulrike

    2004-06-01

    One essential function of the cardiovascular system is to provide an adequate blood supply to all organs, including the skeletal muscles at rest and during exercise. Adaptation to chronic exercise proceeds mainly via the autonomic nervous system. On the one hand, peripheral muscles influence the autonomic reactions through "feedback" control via ergoreceptors, in particular, mechano- and chemoreceptors. On the other hand, there is central control in the sense of a "feed forward" regulation, e. g., the reaction of an athlete before competition. Along with other influential factors, such as circulatory presso-, chemo-, and volume receptors, the incoming impulses are processed in vegetative centers.A cardiovascular reaction, then, is the result of nerval and humoral sympathetic and parasympathetic activity. At rest, the parasympathetic tone dominates. It reduces heart frequency and conduction velocity. The high vagal tone is initially reduced with increasing physical exertion and switches at higher intensity to increasingly sympathetic activation. This mechanism of reaction to exercise is supported by inverse central and peripheral transmissions.Chronic endurance training leads to an improved local aerobic capacity of the exercised musculature. At rest, it augments parasympathetic activity when the muscle mass is sufficiently large, i. e., 20-30% of the skeletal musculature. The extent of the adaptation depends on individual factors, such as scope, intensity of training, and type of muscle fiber. A higher vagal tone delays the increase in the sympathetic tone during physical exertion. The regulatory range of heart rate, contractility, diastolic function, and blood pressure is increased. In addition, adaptation results in functional and structural changes in the vascular system. Cardiocirculatory work is economized, and maximum performance and oxygen uptake are improved. Endurance training exceeding an individual limit causes harmonic enlargement and hypertrophy of the

  10. Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Competitive Swimmers

    PubMed Central

    Aspenes, Stian; Kjendlie, Per-Ludvik; Hoff, Jan; Helgerud, Jan

    2009-01-01

    A combined intervention of strength and endurance training is common practice in elite swimming training, but the scientific evidence is scarce. The influences between strength and endurance training have been investigated in other sports but the findings are scattered. Some state the interventions are negative to each other, some state there is no negative relationship and some find bisected and supplementary benefits from the combination when training is applied appropriately. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of a combined intervention among competitive swimmers. 20 subjects assigned to a training intervention group (n = 11) or a control group (n = 9) from two different teams completed the study. Anthropometrical data, tethered swimming force, land strength, performance in 50m, 100m and 400m, work economy, peak oxygen uptake, stroke length and stroke rate were investigated in all subjects at pre- and post-test. A combined intervention of maximal strength and high aerobic intensity interval endurance training 2 sessions per week over 11 weeks in addition to regular training were used, while the control group continued regular practice with their respective teams. The intervention group improved land strength, tethered swimming force and 400m freestyle performance more than the control group. The improvement of the 400m was correlated with the improvement of tethered swimming force in the female part of the intervention group. No change occurred in stroke length, stroke rate, performance in 50m or 100m, swimming economy or peak oxygen uptake during swimming. Two weekly dry-land strength training sessions for 11 weeks increase tethered swimming force in competitive swimmers. This increment further improves middle distance swimming performance. 2 weekly sessions of high- intensity interval training does not improve peak oxygen uptake compared with other competitive swimmers. Key points Two weekly sessions of dry land strength training improves the

  11. Does Endurance Training Compensate for Neurotrophin Deficiency Following Diabetic Neuropathy?

    PubMed Central

    Eslami, Rasoul; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Kazemi, Abdolreza; Dakhili, Amir Bahador; Sorkhkamanzadeh, Ghazaleh; Sheikhy, Ayob

    2016-01-01

    Background A lack of neurotrophic support is believed to contribute to the development of diabetic neuropathy. On the other hand, neurotrophins have consistently been shown to increase in the central and peripheral nervous system following exercise, but the effects of exercise intervention on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and nerve growth factor (NGF) in diabetic neuropathy are not understood. Objectives This experimental study was designed and carried out at the Tarbiat Modares university (TMU) in Tehran, Iran, to investigate the hypothesis that increased activity as endurance training can help to increase the endogenous expression of neurotrophins in diabetic rats. Methods This was an experimental study with 2 × 2 factorial plans performed at TMU in Iran. Sampling was accidental and 28 adult male Wistar rats in the body mass range of 326.3 ± 8.4 g comprised the sample, with each rat randomly assigned to four groups: diabetic control (DC), diabetic training (DT), healthy control (HC), and healthy training (HT). To induce diabetic neuropathy, after 12 hours of food deprivation, an intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ) solution (45 mg/Kg) method was used. Two weeks after STZ injection, the endurance training protocol was performed for 6 weeks; 24 hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed. Real-time PCR was used for BDNF and NGF expression. Results The data indicate that diabetes decreases BDNF and NGF expression in sensory (92%, P = 0.01; 90%, P = 0.038, respectively) and motor (93%, P = 0.05; 60%, P = 0.029, respectively) roots. However, NGF mRNA levels in the DT group were significantly higher than in the HC group ((7.1-fold), P = 0.01; (2.2-fold), P = 0.001, respectively, for sensory and motor roots), but this was not shown for BDNF. In addition, endurance training can increase NGF expression in healthy rats ((7.4-fold), P = 0.01; (3.8-fold), P = 0.001, respectively, for sensory and motor roots). Conclusions This

  12. Blood Volume: Its Adaptation to Endurance Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Convertino, Victor A.

    1991-01-01

    Expansion of blood volume (hypervolemia) has been well documented in both cross-sectional and longitudinal studies as a consequence of endurance exercise training. Plasma volume expansion can account for nearly all of the exercise-induced hypervolemia up to 2-4 wk; after this time expansion may be distributed equally between plasma and red cell volumes. The exercise stimulus for hypervolemia has both thermal and nonthermal components that increase total circulating plasma levels of electrolytes and proteins. Although protein and fluid shifts from the extravascular to intravascular space may provide a mechanism for rapid hypervolemia immediately after exercise, evidence supports the notion that chronic hypervolemia associated with exercise training represents a net expansion of total body water and solutes. This net increase of body fluids with exercise training is associated with increased water intake and decreased urine volume output. The mechanism of reduced urine output appears to be increased renal tubular reabsorption of sodium through a more sensitive aldosterone action in man. Exercise training-induced hypervolemia appears to be universal among most animal species, although the mechanisms may be quite different. The hypervolemia may provide advantages of greater body fluid for heat dissipation and thermoregulatory stability as well as larger vascular volume and filling pressure for greater cardiac stroke volume and lower heart rates during exercise.

  13. A Submaximal Running Test With Postexercise Cardiac Autonomic and Neuromuscular Function in Monitoring Endurance Training Adaptation.

    PubMed

    Vesterinen, Ville; Nummela, Ari; Laine, Tanja; Hynynen, Esa; Mikkola, Jussi; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2017-01-01

    Vesterinen, V, Nummela, A, Laine, T, Hynynen, E, Mikkola, J, and Häkkinen, K. A submaximal running test with postexercise cardiac autonomic and neuromuscular function in monitoring endurance training adaptation. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 233-243, 2017-The aim of this study was to investigate whether a submaximal running test (SRT) with postexercise heart rate recovery (HRR), heart rate variability (HRV), and countermovement jump (CMJ) measurements could be used to monitor endurance training adaptation. Thirty-five endurance-trained men and women completed an 18-week endurance training. Maximal endurance performance and maximal oxygen uptake were measured every 8 weeks. In addition, SRTs with postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ measurements were carried out every 4 weeks. Submaximal running test consisted of two 6-minute stages at 70 and 80% of maximum heart rate (HRmax) and a 3-minute stage at 90% HRmax, followed by a 2-minute recovery stage for measuring postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ test. The highest responders according to the change of maximal endurance performance showed a significant improvement in running speeds during stages 2 and 3 in SRT, whereas no changes were observed in the lowest responders. The strongest correlation was found between the change of maximal endurance performance and running speed during stage 3, whereas no significant relationships were found between the change of maximal endurance performance and the changes of postexercise HRR, HRV, and CMJ. Running speed at 90% HRmax intensity was the most sensitive variable to monitor adaptation to endurance training. The present submaximal test showed potential to monitor endurance training adaptation. Furthermore, it may serve as a practical tool for athletes and coaches to evaluate weekly the effectiveness of training program without interfering in the normal training habits.

  14. Strength training prior to endurance exercise: impact on the neuromuscular system, endurance performance and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Conceição, Matheus; Cadore, Eduardo Lusa; González-Izal, Miriam; Izquierdo, Mikel; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Pinto, Ronei Silveira; Goltz, Fernanda Reistenbach; Schneider, Cláudia Dornelles; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Bottaro, Martim; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2014-12-09

    This study aimed to investigate the acute effects of two strength-training protocols on the neuromuscular and cardiorespiratory responses during endurance exercise. Thirteen young males (23.2 ± 1.6 years old) participated in this study. The hypertrophic strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 squats at 75% of maximal dynamic strength. The plyometric strength-training protocol was composed of 6 sets of 8 jumps performed with the body weight as the workload. Endurance exercise was performed on a cycle ergometer at a power corresponding to the second ventilatory threshold until exhaustion. Before and after each protocol, a maximal voluntary contraction was performed, and the rate of force development and electromyographic parameters were assessed. After the hypertrophic strength-training and plyometric strength-training protocol, significant decreases were observed in the maximal voluntary contraction and rate of force development, whereas no changes were observed in the electromyographic parameters. Oxygen uptake and a heart rate during endurance exercise were not significantly different among the protocols. However, the time-to-exhaustion was significantly higher during endurance exercise alone than when performed after hypertrophic strength-training or plyometric strength-training (p <0.05). These results suggest that endurance performance may be impaired when preceded by strength-training, with no oxygen uptake or heart rate changes during the exercise.

  15. Altitude training for elite endurance performance: a 2012 update.

    PubMed

    Fudge, Barry W; Pringle, Jamie S M; Maxwell, Neil S; Turner, Gareth; Ingham, Stephen A; Jones, Andrew M

    2012-01-01

    Altitude training is commonly used by endurance athletes and coaches in pursuit of enhancement of performance on return to sea level. The purpose of the current review article was to update and evaluate recent literature relevant to the practical application of altitude training for endurance athletes. Consequently, the literature can be considered in either of two categories: performance-led investigations or mechanistic advancements/insights. Each section discusses the relevant literature and proposes future directions where appropriate.

  16. Endurance capacity and neuromuscular fatigue following high vs moderate-intensity endurance training: a randomised trial.

    PubMed

    O'Leary, Thomas J; Collett, Johnny; Howells, Ken; Morris, Martyn G

    2017-02-16

    High-intensity exercise induces significant central and peripheral fatigue, however the effect of endurance training on these mechanisms of fatigue is poorly understood. We compared the effect of cycling endurance training of disparate intensities on high-intensity exercise endurance capacity and the associated limiting central and peripheral fatigue mechanisms. Twenty adults were randomly assigned to 6 weeks of either high-intensity interval training (HIIT, 6-8 × 5 min at halfway between lactate threshold and maximal oxygen uptake [50%Δ]) or volume matched moderate-intensity continuous training (CONT, ~60-80 min at 90% lactate threshold). Two time to exhaustion (TTE) trials at 50%Δ were completed pre- and post-training to assess endurance capacity; the two post-training trials were completed at the pre-training 50%Δ (same absolute intensity) and the 'new' post-training 50%Δ (same relative intensity). Pre- and post-exercise responses to femoral nerve and motor cortex stimulation were examined to determine peripheral and central fatigue, respectively. HIIT resulted in greater increases in TTE at the same absolute and relative intensities as pre-training (148% and 43%, respectively) compared with CONT (38% and -4%, respectively). Compared with pre-training, HIIT increased the level of potentiated quadriceps twitch reduction (-34% vs -43%, respectively) and attenuated the level of voluntary activation reduction (-7% vs -3%, respectively) following the TTE trial at the same relative intensity. There were no other training effects on neuromuscular fatigue development. This suggests that central fatigue resistance contributes to enhanced high-intensity exercise endurance capacity after HIIT by allowing greater performance to be extruded from the muscle. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  17. Addition of vitamin B12 to exercise training improves cycle ergometer endurance in advanced COPD patients: A randomized and controlled study.

    PubMed

    Paulin, Fernanda Viana; Zagatto, Alessandro Moura; Chiappa, Gaspar R; Müller, Paulo de Tarso

    2017-01-01

    Vitamin B12 is essential in the homocysteine, mitochondrial, muscle and hematopoietic metabolisms, and its effects on exercise tolerance and kinetics adjustments of oxygen consumption (V'O2p) in rest-to-exercise transition in COPD patients are unknown. This randomized, double-blind, controlled study aimed to verify a possible interaction between vitamin B12 supplementation and these outcomes. After recruiting 69 patients, 35 subjects with moderate-to-severe COPD were eligible and 32 patients concluded the study, divided into four groups (n = 8 for each group): 1. rehabilitation group; 2. rehabilitation plus B12 group; 3. B12 group; and 4. placebo group. The primary endpoint was cycle ergometry endurance before and after 8 weeks and the secondary endpoints were oxygen uptake kinetics parameters (time constant). The prevalence of vitamin B12 deficiency was high (34.4%) and there was a statistically significant interaction (p < 0.05), favoring a global effect of supplementation on exercise tolerance in the supplemented groups compared to the non-supplemented groups, even after adjusting for confounding variables (p < 0.05). The same was not found for the kinetics adjustment variables (τV'O2p and MRTV'O2p, p > 0.05 for both). Supplementation with vitamin B12 appears to lead to discrete positive effects on exercise tolerance in groups of subjects with more advanced COPD and further studies are needed to establish indications for long-term supplementation.

  18. Mixed maximal and explosive strength training in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Mikkola, Jussi; Salo, Tiina; Hokka, Laura; Vesterinen, Ville; Kraemer, William J; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-03-01

    Supervised periodized mixed maximal and explosive strength training added to endurance training in recreational endurance runners was examined during an 8-week intervention preceded by an 8-week preparatory strength training period. Thirty-four subjects (21-45 years) were divided into experimental groups: men (M, n = 9), women (W, n = 9), and control groups: men (MC, n = 7), women (WC, n = 9). The experimental groups performed mixed maximal and explosive exercises, whereas control subjects performed circuit training with body weight. Endurance training included running at an intensity below lactate threshold. Strength, power, endurance performance characteristics, and hormones were monitored throughout the study. Significance was set at p ≤ 0.05. Increases were observed in both experimental groups that were more systematic than in the control groups in explosive strength (12 and 13% in men and women, respectively), muscle activation, maximal strength (6 and 13%), and peak running speed (14.9 ± 1.2 to 15.6 ± 1.2 and 12.9 ± 0.9 to 13.5 ± 0.8 km Ł h). The control groups showed significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, but Speak increased only in MC. Submaximal running characteristics (blood lactate and heart rate) improved in all groups. Serum hormones fluctuated significantly in men (testosterone) and in women (thyroid stimulating hormone) but returned to baseline by the end of the study. Mixed strength training combined with endurance training may be more effective than circuit training in recreational endurance runners to benefit overall fitness that may be important for other adaptive processes and larger training loads associated with, e.g., marathon training.

  19. Endurance training: is it bad for you?

    PubMed Central

    Gruttad’Auria, Claudia I.; Baiamonte, Pierpaolo; Mazzuca, Emilia; Castrogiovanni, Alessandra; Bonsignore, Maria R.

    2016-01-01

    Educational aims To illustrate the characteristics of endurance exercise training and its positive effects on health. To provide an overview on the effects of endurance training on airway cells and bronchial reactivity. To summarise the current knowledge on respiratory health problems in elite athletes. Endurance exercise training exerts many positive effects on health, including improved metabol­ism, reduction of cardiovascular risk, and reduced all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Intense endurance exercise causes mild epithelial injury and inflammation in the airways, but does not appear to exert detrimental effects on respiratory health or bronchial reactivity in recreational/non-elite athletes. Conversely, elite athletes of both summer and winter sports show increased susceptibility to development of asthma, possibly related to environmental exposures to allergens or poor conditioning of inspired air, so that a distinct phenotype of “sports asthma” has been proposed to characterise such athletes, who more often practise aquatic and winter sports. Overall, endurance training is good for health but may become deleterious when performed at high intensity or volume. PMID:27408632

  20. Creatine supplementation enhances endurance performance in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Malin, Steven K; Cotugna, Nancy

    2008-01-01

    Minimal evidence has shown creatine (Cr) supplementation to enhance endurance performance in either humans or rats. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of Cr supplementation on endurance performance during high-intensity exercise in trained male rats. Endurance performance was defined as the distance run. Sixteen days of running were performed over 28 days. A cycle of 7 days consisted of 2 days of training, 1 day off, 2 days of training then 2 days off and this was repeated over a total of 28 days. Cr was administered on all 28 days. Treatment rats (n = 7) drank water containing Cr while the control rats drank water with no supplement (n = 6). The Cr group's average distance run increased significantly from baseline to exercise day 16 (baseline = 128.91 m ± 18.23 vs. exercise day 16 = 217.11m ± 18.11; p < 0.005), while the control groups did not (baseline = 137.24 m ± 10.14, exercise day 16 = 101.04 m ± 14.97; p > 0.05). Over the course of the study, the treatment group's running endurance improved by 81% compared to baseline (p < 0.001) and we conclude that Cr supplementation provided rats an increased ability to run farther demonstrating possible implications for improving endurance athletes' performances.

  1. Respiratory muscle endurance training: effect on normoxic and hypoxic exercise performance.

    PubMed

    Keramidas, Michail E; Debevec, Tadej; Amon, Mojca; Kounalakis, Stylianos N; Simunic, Bostjan; Mekjavic, Igor B

    2010-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of respiratory muscle endurance training on endurance exercise performance in normoxic and hypoxic conditions. Eighteen healthy males were stratified for age and aerobic capacity; and randomly assigned either to the respiratory muscle endurance training (RMT = 9) or to the control training group (CON = 9). Both groups trained on a cycle-ergometer 1 h day(-1), 5 days per week for a period of 4 weeks at an intensity corresponding to 50% of peak power output. Additionally, the RMT group performed a 30-min specific endurance training of respiratory muscles (isocapnic hyperpnea) prior to the cycle ergometry. Pre, Mid, Post and 10 days after the end of training period, subjects conducted pulmonary function tests (PFTs), maximal aerobic tests in normoxia (VO(2max)NOR), and in hypoxia (VO(2max)HYPO; F(I)O(2) = 0.12); and constant-load tests at 80% of VO(2max)NOR in normoxia (CLT(NOR)), and in hypoxia (CLTHYPO). Both groups enhanced VO(2max)NOR (CON: +13.5%; RMT: +13.4%), but only the RMT group improved VO(2max)HYPO Post training (CON: -6.5%; RMT: +14.2%). Post training, the CON group increased peak power output, whereas the RMT group had higher values of maximum ventilation. Both groups increased CLT(NOR) duration (CON: +79.9%; RMT: +116.6%), but only the RMT group maintained a significantly higher CLT(NOR) 10 days after training (CON: +56.7%; RMT: +91.3%). CLT(HYPO) remained unchanged in both groups. Therefore, the respiratory muscle endurance training combined with cycle ergometer training enhanced aerobic capacity in hypoxia above the control values, but did not in normoxia. Moreover, no additional effect was obtained during constant-load exercise.

  2. Nutritional strategies to modulate the adaptive response to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Hawley, John A

    2013-01-01

    In recent years, advances in molecular biology have allowed scientists to elucidate how endurance exercise training stimulates skeletal muscle remodeling (i.e. promotes mitochondrial biogenesis). A growing field of interest directly arising from our understanding of the molecular bases of training adaptation is how nutrient availability can alter the regulation of many contraction-induced events in muscle in response to endurance exercise. Acutely manipulating substrate availability can exert profound effects on muscle energy stores and patterns of fuel metabolism during exercise, as well as many processes activating gene expression and cell signaling. Accordingly, such interventions when repeated over weeks and months have the potential to modulate numerous adaptive processes in skeletal muscle that ultimately drive the phenotype-specific characteristics observed in highly trained athletes. In this review, the molecular and cellular events that occur in skeletal muscle during and after endurance exercise are discussed and evidence provided to demonstrate that nutrient availability plays an important role in modulating many of the adaptive responses to training. Emphasis is on human studies that have determined the regulatory role of muscle glycogen availability on cell metabolism, endurance training capacity and performance.

  3. Evidence for mild thyroidal impairment in women undergoing endurance training

    SciTech Connect

    Boyden, T.W.; Pamenter, R.W.; Stanforth, P.; Rotkis, T.; Wilmore, J.H.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of endurance training on body composition and the pituitary-thyroid axis were studied in 29 healthy, young (mean age, 28.7 yr), regularly menstruating women. Women who were initially jogging a mean of 13.5 miles/week were selected for this study to minimize dropouts. Body composition, measured by hydrostatic weighing, and nonfasting plasma concentrations of T/sub 4/, T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, TSH, and TRH-stimulated TSH, measured by RIA, were examined initially and after each subject's weekly mileage had increased to 30 miles (..delta..30, mean total body weight did not change, mean fat weight decreased (-1.02 kg/ P<0.005), and mean lean weight increased (+0.75 kg; P<0.05). T/sub 4/ and unstimulated TSH did not change. However, mean (+/- SE) T/sub 3/ decreased from 107.2 +/- 4.4 to 97.9 +/- 3.4 ng/dl (P<0.025), and mean rT/sub 3/ decreased from 170.9 +/- 13.9 to 154.6 +/- 13.2 pg/ml (P<0.025). The decrease in T/sub 3/ and rT/sub 3/ were accompanied by significantly greater TSH responses to TRH stimulation (mean (+/- SE) area under TSH curve, 1381.4 +/- 123 vs. 1712.8 +/- 202 ..mu..IU/ml-min; P < 0.01). These results indicate that physically active women who undergo additional endurance training 1) become more lean without a change in total body weight, and 2) have changes in T/sub 3/, rT/sub 3/, and TRH-stimulated TSH indicative of mild thyroidal impairment.

  4. Effect of endurance training on dental erosion, caries, and saliva.

    PubMed

    Frese, C; Frese, F; Kuhlmann, S; Saure, D; Reljic, D; Staehle, H J; Wolff, D

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this investigation was to give insights into the impact of endurance training on oral health, with regard to tooth erosion, caries, and salivary parameters. The study included 35 triathletes and 35 non-exercising controls. The clinical investigation comprised oral examination, assessment of oral status with special regard to caries and erosion, saliva testing during inactivity, and a self-administered questionnaire about eating, drinking, and oral hygiene behavior. In addition, athletes were asked about their training habits and intake of beverages and sports nutrition. For saliva assessment during exercise, a subsample of n = 15 athletes volunteered in an incremental running field test (IRFT). Athletes showed an increased risk for dental erosion (P = 0.001). No differences were observed with regard to caries prevalence and salivary parameters measured during inactivity between athletes and controls. Among athletes, a significant correlation was found between caries prevalence and the cumulative weekly training time (r = 0.347, P = 0.04). In athletes after IRFT and at maximum workload, saliva flow rates decreased (P = 0.001 stimulated; P = 0.01 unstimulated) and saliva pH increased significantly (P = 0.003). Higher risk for dental erosions, exercise-dependent caries risk, and load-dependent changes in saliva parameters point out the need for risk-adapted preventive dental concepts in the field of sports dentistry.

  5. Effects of submaximal and supramaximal interval training on determinants of endurance performance in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Paquette, M; Le Blanc, O; Lucas, S J E; Thibault, G; Bailey, D M; Brassard, P

    2017-03-01

    We compared the effects of submaximal and supramaximal cycling interval training on determinants of exercise performance in moderately endurance-trained men. Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max ), peak power output (Ppeak ), and peak and mean anaerobic power were measured before and after 6 weeks (3 sessions/week) of submaximal (85% maximal aerobic power [MP], HIIT85 , n = 8) or supramaximal (115% MP, HIIT115 , n = 9) interval training to exhaustion in moderately endurance-trained men. High-intensity training volume was 47% lower in HIIT115 vs HIIT85 (304 ± 77 vs 571 ± 200 min; P < 0.01). Exercise training was generally associated with increased VO2max (HIIT85 : +3.3 ± 3.1 mL/kg/min; HIIT115 : +3.3 ± 3.6 ml/kg/min; Time effect P = 0.002; Group effect: P = 0.95), Ppeak (HIIT85 : +18 ± 9 W; HIIT115 : +16 ± 27 W; Time effect P = 0.045; Group effect: P = 0.49), and mean anaerobic power (HIIT85 : +0.42 ± 0.69 W/kg; HIIT115 : +0.55 ± 0.65 W/kg; Time effect P = 0.01; Group effect: P = 0.18). Six weeks of submaximal and supramaximal interval training performed to exhaustion seems to equally improve VO2max and anaerobic power in endurance-trained men, despite half the accumulated time spent at the target intensity.

  6. Comparison between two types of anaerobic speed endurance training in competitive soccer players

    PubMed Central

    Krustrup, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of additional in-season speed endurance production versus speed endurance maintenance training regimes on performance in competitive male soccer players. In a randomised controlled trial 18 male sub-elite players were exposed to additional speed endurance production (SEP) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM) training (two additional sessions/wk for 4 weeks) during the competitive season. Players performed the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 2 test (YYIR2) and a repeated sprint test (RST) pre- and post-intervention. Yo-Yo IR2 performance increased (p<0.001) by 50 ± 8% and 26 ± 5% in SEP and SEM, respectively, with greater (p=0.03) improvement in SEP. RST performance improved by 2.1 ± 0.3% and 1.3 ± 0.4% in SEP and SEM, respectively, while the RST fatigue index decreased (4.4 ± 0.8 to 3.4 ± 0.5%; p<0.04) in SEP only. Peak and average speed during training were higher (p<0.001) in SEP than in SEM (24.5 ± 0.3 vs 19.2 ± 0.3 and 15.5 ± 0.1 km·h-1 vs 9.4 ± 0.1 km·h-1). Additional in-season anaerobic speed endurance production and maintenance training improves high-intensity exercise performance in competitive soccer players with superior effects of speed endurance production training. PMID:28149381

  7. Exercise is good for your blood pressure: effects of endurance training and resistance training.

    PubMed

    Fagard, R H

    2006-09-01

    blood pressure of 3.5 mmHg (P < 0.01) associated with exercise and a non-significant reduction of systolic blood pressure of 3.2 mmHg (P = 0.10). 5. In conclusion, dynamic aerobic endurance training decreases blood pressure through a reduction of systemic vascular resistance, in which the sympathetic nervous system and the renin-angiotensin system appear to be involved, and favourably affects concomitant cardiovascular risk factors. In addition, the few available data suggest that resistance training is able to reduce blood pressure.

  8. Endurance training in patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls: differences and similarities.

    PubMed

    Keller-Varady, Katriona; Hasan, Alkomiet; Schneider-Axmann, Thomas; Hillmer-Vogel, Ursula; Adomßent, Björn; Wobrock, Thomas; Schmitt, Andrea; Niklas, Andree; Falkai, Peter; Malchow, Berend

    2016-08-01

    The aims were to examine the feasibility of and adaptations to endurance training in persons diagnosed with schizophrenia and to address the question whether the principles and beneficial effects of endurance training established in the healthy population apply also to patients with schizophrenia. In this controlled interventional study, 22 patients with schizophrenia and 22 healthy controls performed a standardized aerobic endurance training on bicycle ergometers over 12 weeks. Another group of 21 patients with schizophrenia played table soccer. Endurance capacity was measured with incremental cycle ergometry before and after the intervention and 3 months later. A specific set of outcome parameters was defined. The training stimuli can be assumed to be similar in both endurance groups. Endurance capacity improved significantly in the endurance groups, but not in the table soccer group. Patients and healthy controls showed comparable adaptations to endurance training, as assessed by physical working capacity and maximal achieved power. Differences were found in changes of performance at a lactate concentration of 3 mmol/l. Endurance training was feasible and effective in both groups. The principles and types of training that are usually applied to healthy controls need to be verified in patients with schizophrenia. Nevertheless, patients benefited from endurance training in terms of improvement of endurance capacity and reduction in the baseline deficit in comparison with healthy controls. Therefore, endurance training should be implemented in future therapy programs. These programs need to pay special attention to the differences between patients with schizophrenia and healthy controls.

  9. Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability.

    PubMed

    Vila-Chã, Carolina; Falla, Deborah

    2016-02-01

    This study evaluates and compares the effects of strength and endurance training on motor unit discharge rate variability and force steadiness of knee extensor muscles. Thirty sedentary healthy men (age, 26.0±3.8yrs) were randomly assigned to strength training, endurance training or a control group. Conventional endurance and strength training was performed 3days per week, over a period of 6weeks. Maximum voluntary contraction (MVC), time to task failure (at 30% MVC), coefficient of variation (CoV) of force and of the discharges rates of motor units from the vastus medialis obliquus and vastus lateralis were determined as subjects performed 20% and 30% MVC knee extension contractions before and after training. CoV of motor unit discharges rates was significantly reduced for both muscles following strength training (P<0.001), but did not change in the endurance (P=0.875) or control group (P=0.995). CoV of force was reduced after the strength training intervention only (P<0.01). Strength training, but not endurance training, reduces motor unit discharge rate variability and enhances force steadiness of the knee extensors. These results provide new insights into the neuromuscular adaptations that occur with different training methods.

  10. Green tea extract supplementation does not hamper endurance-training adaptation but improves antioxidant capacity in sedentary men.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yu-Chi; Lin, Jung-Charng; Bernard, Jeffrey R; Liao, Yi-Hung

    2015-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of green tea extract (GTE) supplementation combined with endurance training on endurance capacity and performance in sedentary men. Forty untrained men (age: 20 ± 1 years) participated in this study. Subjects were assigned to 1 of 4 treatments: (i) placebo-control (CTRL), (ii) GTE, (iii) endurance training (Ex), and (iv) endurance training with GTE (ExGTE). During the 4-week intervention, exercise training was prescribed as 75% oxygen uptake reserve for three 20-min sessions per week, and either GTE (250 mg/day) or placebo was provided. Endurance capacity, malondialdehyde (MDA), total antioxidant status (TAS), and creatine kinase (CK) were examined. Ex and ExGTE but not GTE improved exhaustive-run time (Ex: +8.2%, p = 0.031; ExGTE: +14.3%, p < 0.001); in addition, Ex and ExGTE significantly increased maximal oxygen uptake by ∼14% (p = 0.041) and ∼17% (p = 0.017) above the values of the CTRL group, respectively. Both Ex and ExGTE significantly decreased the increase of CK by ∼11%-32% below that of CTRL following an exhaustive run (Ex: p = 0.007; ExGTE: p = 0.001). Moreover, TAS levels increased by ∼11% in ExGTE after training (p = 0.040), and GTE, Ex, and ExGTE markedly attenuated exercise-induced MDA production (p = 0.01, p = 0.005, p = 0.011, respectively). In conclusion, this investigation demonstrated that daily ingestion of GTE during endurance training does not impair improvements in endurance capacity. Moreover, endurance training combined with GTE not only increases antioxidant capacity without attenuating endurance training adaptations, but also further attenuates acute exercise-induced CK release.

  11. The effect of endurance running training on asthmatic adults.

    PubMed Central

    Freeman, W; Nute, M G; Williams, C

    1989-01-01

    Nine mild to moderate asthmatic adults (three males, six females) and six non-asthmatics (one male, five females) underwent endurance running training three times per week for five weeks, at self selected running speeds on a motorized treadmill. After training, the asthmatic group had a significantly higher maximum oxygen uptake, significantly lower blood lactate and heart rate in submaximal running, and significantly reduced time to complete a two mile treadmill run, partly attributable to the ability to exercise at a higher % VO2 max after training. These training induced changes of the asthmatic group were generally of a greater magnitude than those shown by the non-asthmatic group. Although seven of the nine asthmatics did show a reduction in the post-exercise fall in FEV1 after the five week training period, this was not statistically significant for the asthmatic group as a whole. The results of this study therefore suggest that endurance running training can improve the aerobic fitness of asthmatic adults, and may reduce the severity of exercise-induced asthma. PMID:2605441

  12. Chronic and acute effects of endurance training on telomere length.

    PubMed

    Borghini, Andrea; Giardini, Guido; Tonacci, Alessandro; Mastorci, Francesca; Mercuri, Antonella; Mrakic-Sposta, Simona; Sposta, Simona Mrakic; Moretti, Sarah; Andreassi, Maria Grazia; Pratali, Lorenza

    2015-09-01

    Telomere shortening is considered a cellular marker of health status and biological ageing. Exercise may influence the health and lifespan of an individual by affecting telomere length (TL). However, it is unclear whether different endurance exercise levels may have beneficial or detrimental effects on biological aging. The aims of the study were to assess both chronic and acute effects of endurance training on TL after an exceptional and extreme trail race. TL was assessed in 20 endurance athletes (17 males; age = 45.4 ± 9.2 years) and 42 age- and gender-matched sedentary controls (32 males; age = 45.9 ± 9.5 years) with quantitative real-time PCR at baseline conditions. Of the 20 runners enrolled in the 'Tor des Géants ®' ultra-distance trail race, 15 athletes (12 males; age = 47.2 ± 8.5 years) were re-evaluated at the intermediate point and 14 athletes (11 males; age = 47.1 ± 8.8 years) completed the competition and were analysed at the final point. Comparison between the two groups (endurance athletes vs. sedentary controls) revealed a significant difference in TL (1.28 ± 0.4 vs. 1.02 ± 0.3, P = 0.005). TL was better preserved in elder endurance runners compared with the same age control group (1.3 ± 0.27 vs. 0.91 ± 0.21, P = 0.003). TL was significantly reduced at the intermediate (0.88 ± 0.36 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.002) and final point compared with baseline measurements (0.86 ± 0.4 vs. 1.11 ± 0.34, P = 0.0006) for athletes engaged in the ultra-marathon race. Our data suggest that chronic endurance training may provide protective effects on TL attenuating biological aging. Conversely, acute exposure to an ultra-distance endurance trail race implies telomere shortening probably caused by oxidative DNA damage.

  13. Concurrent strength and endurance training exercise sequence does not affect neuromuscular adaptations in older men.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Eurico Nestor; Rech, Anderson; Minozzo, Felipe; Botton, Cintia Ehlers; Radaelli, Regis; Teixeira, Bruno Costa; Reischak-Oliveira, Alvaro; Pinto, Ronei Silveira

    2014-12-01

    Concurrent training is an effective method for increasing skeletal muscle performance in aging individuals, but controversy exists as to whether chronic neuromuscular and functional adaptations are affected by the intra-session exercise sequence. Therefore the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training exercise sequence on muscular and functional adaptations of older participants. Thirty-six healthy older men not engaged in systematic exercise training programs for at least 6 months were divided into a control group (CON; 65.8±5.3 years), or in the training groups: endurance-strength (ES; 63.2±3.3 years), or strength-endurance (SE; 67.1±6.1 years). Training groups underwent 12 weeks of concurrent endurance and power-like strength training, starting every exercise session with either endurance (in ES) or strength (in SE) exercises. Measurements included knee extension one repetition maximum (1RM), knee extension power, 30 second sit-to-stand test (30SS), maximum vastus lateralis surface electromyographic activity, and rectus femoris echo intensity (RFEI). Significant increases in maximal strength (ES +18±11.3%; SE +14.2±6.0%; p≤0.05), peak power (ES +22.2±19.4%; SE +26.3±31.3%; p≤0.05), and 30SS performance (ES +15.2±7.2%; SE +13.2±11.8%; p≤0.05) were observed only in the training groups, with no differences between ES and SE. Maximum muscular activity was greater after 12weeks at training groups (p≤0.05), and reductions in RFEI were found only in ES and SE (p≤0.05). These results demonstrate that concurrent strength and endurance training performed twice a week effectively increases muscular performance and functional capacity in older men, independent of the intra-session exercise sequence. Additionally, the RFEI decreases indicate an additional adaptation to concurrent training.

  14. Effect of endurance training on gross energy expenditure during exercise.

    PubMed

    Gardner, A W; Poehlman, E T; Corrigan, D L

    1989-08-01

    We compared the effect of endurance exercise training on gross energy expenditure (GEE) during steady-state exercise in 20 younger men (31.2 +/- 0.6 years) and 20 middle-aged men (49.2 +/- 1.1 years). The subjects trained for eight months. The training program consisted of three 45-min walking and jogging exercise sessions per week at an intensity of approximately 60-85% of the heart rate at peak VO2. We administered bicycle ergometer tests at 0, 4, and 8 months into training. Participants exercised at a power output of 100 W for 10 min using a pedaling frequency of 50 rpm. We determined GEE (kcal/min) by measuring the oxygen consumption and respiratory exchange ratio. We found a significant reduction (p less than 0.05) in GEE (0.7-1.3 kcal/min) following 4 months of endurance training in both age groups, with a further reduction (p less than 0.05) noted in only the middle-aged group at month 8. We found no difference (p greater than 0.05) in GEE between the younger and middle-aged men. We conclude that chronic exercise may modify GEE during a submaximal exercise bout and that this adaptation is similar in magnitude in younger and middle-aged men.

  15. Endurance training, overtraining and baroreflex sensitivity in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We examined heavy training-induced changes in baroreflex sensitivity, plasma volume and resting heart rate and blood pressure variability in female endurance athletes. Nine athletes (experimental training group, ETG) increased intense training (70-90% VO2max) volume by 130% and low-intensity training (< 70% Vo2max) volume by 100% during 6-9 weeks, whereas the corresponding increases in six control athletes (CG) were 5% and 10% respectively. Maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in the ETG and CG did not change, but in five ETG athletes VO2max decreased from 53.0 +/- 2.2 (mean +/- SEM) (CI 46.8-59.2) ml kg-1 min-1 to 50.2 +/- 2.3 (43.8-56.6) ml kg-1 min-1 (P < 0.01), indicating overtraining. Baroreflex sensitivity (BRS) measured using the phenylephrine technique and blood pressure variability (BPV) did not change, but the low-frequency power of the R-R interval variability increased in the ETG (P < 0.05). The relative change in plasma volume was 7% in the ETG and 3% in the CG. The changes in BRS did not correlate with the changes in plasma volume, heart rate variability and BPV. We conclude that heavy endurance training and overtraining did not change baroreflex sensitivity or BPV but significantly increased the low-frequency power of the R-R interval variability during supine rest in female athletes as a marker of increased cardiac sympathetic modulation.

  16. Effect of endurance and resistance training on regional fat mass and lipid profile.

    PubMed

    Perez-Gomez, Jorge; Vicente-Rodríguez, Germán; Ara Royo, Ignacio; Martínez-Redondo, Diana; Puzo Foncillas, José; Moreno, Luis A; Díez-Sánchez, Carmen; Casajús, José A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of 10-week of endurance training or resistance training on regional and abdominal fat, and in the lipid profile, examining the associations among the changes in body composition, weight, waist circumference and lipid profile. Body composition, waist circumference and lipid profile were analyzed in 26 volunteers healthy young men (age 22.5 ± 1.9 yr), randomly assigned to: endurance group (EG), resistance group (RG) or control group (CG). The EG significantly decreased after training the body weight, body mass index, total body fat and percentage of fat, fat and percentage of fat at the trunk and at the abdominal region and High-Density Lipoprotein. The RG significantly increased total lean mass and decreased total cholesterol, High-Density and Low- Density Lipoprotein. Close relationship were found among changes in weight, total lean mass, regional fat mass, waist circumference and changes in lipid profile (all p < 0.05). We concluded that 10-week of endurance training decreased abdominal and body fat in young men, while 10-week of resistance training increased total lean mass. These types of training had also effects on lipid profile that seem to be to some extent associated to changes in body composition; however it requires additional investigation.

  17. Four weeks of speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during exercise and maintains muscle oxidative capacity despite a reduction in training volume.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Hellsten, Ylva; Nielsen, Jens Jung; Fernström, Maria; Sahlin, Kent; Bangsbo, Jens

    2009-01-01

    We studied the effect of an alteration from regular endurance to speed endurance training on muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, as well as energy expenditure during submaximal exercise and its relationship to mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3 (UCP3) in humans. Seventeen endurance-trained runners were assigned to either a speed endurance training (SET; n = 9) or a control (Con; n = 8) group. For a 4-wk intervention (IT) period, SET replaced the ordinary training ( approximately 45 km/wk) with frequent high-intensity sessions each consisting of 8-12 30-s sprint runs separated by 3 min of rest (5.7 +/- 0.1 km/wk) with additional 9.9 +/- 0.3 km/wk at low running speed, whereas Con continued the endurance training. After the IT period, oxygen uptake was 6.6, 7.6, 5.7, and 6.4% lower (P < 0.05) at running speeds of 11, 13, 14.5, and 16 km/h, respectively, in SET, whereas remained the same in Con. No changes in blood lactate during submaximal running were observed. After the IT period, the protein expression of skeletal muscle UCP3 tended to be higher in SET (34 +/- 6 vs. 47 +/- 7 arbitrary units; P = 0.06). Activity of muscle citrate synthase and 3-hydroxyacyl-CoA dehydrogenase, as well as maximal oxygen uptake and 10-km performance time, remained unaltered in both groups. In SET, the capillary-to-fiber ratio was the same before and after the IT period. The present study showed that speed endurance training reduces energy expenditure during submaximal exercise, which is not mediated by lowered mitochondrial UCP3 expression. Furthermore, speed endurance training can maintain muscle oxidative capacity, capillarization, and endurance performance in already trained individuals despite significant reduction in the amount of training.

  18. Superoxide production pathways in aortas of diabetic rats: beneficial effects of insulin therapy and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Malardé, L; Rebillard, A; Le Douairon-Lahaye, S; Vincent, S; Zguira, M S; Lemoine-Morel, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Groussard, C

    2014-04-01

    Superoxide (O 2 (·-) ) overproduction, by decreasing the nitric oxide ((·)NO) bioavailability, contributes to vascular complications in type 1 diabetes. In this disease, the vascular O 2 (·-) can be produced by the NADPH oxidase (NOX), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and xanthine oxidase (XO). This study aimed to determine the contribution of each enzymatic pathway in hyperglycemia-induced O 2 (·-) overproduction, and the effects of an endurance training program and insulin therapy, associated or not, on the O 2 (·-) production (amount and related enzymes) in diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into diabetic (D), diabetic treated with insulin (D-Ins), diabetic trained (D-Tr), or diabetic insulin-treated and trained (D-Ins + Tr) groups. An additional healthy group was used as control. Insulin therapy (Glargine Lantus, Sanofi) and endurance training (treadmill run: 60 min/day, 25 m/min, 5 days/week) started 1 week after diabetes induction by streptozotocin (45 mg/kg), and lasted for 8 weeks. At the end of the protocol, the O 2 (·-) production in aorta rings was evaluated by histochemical analyses (DHE staining). Each production pathway was studied by inhibiting NOX (apocynin), NOS (L-Name), or XO (allopurinol) before DHE staining. Diabetic rats exhibited hyperglycemia-induced O 2 (·-) overproduction, resulting from NOX, NOS, and XO activation. Insulin therapy and endurance training, associated or not, decreased efficiently and similarly the O 2 (·-) overproduction. Insulin therapy reduced the hyperglycemia and decreased the three enzymatic pathways implicated in the O 2 (·-) production. Endurance training decreased directly the NOS and XO activity. While both therapeutic strategies activated different pathways, their association did not reduce the O 2 (·-) overproduction more significantly.

  19. Comparison of resistance and concurrent resistance and endurance training regimes in the development of strength.

    PubMed

    Shaw, Brandon S; Shaw, Ina; Brown, Gregory A

    2009-12-01

    Resistance and endurance training are often performed concurrently in most exercise programs and in rehabilitative settings in an attempt to acquire gains in more than 1 physiologic system. However, it has been proposed that by simultaneously performing these 2 modes of exercise training, the strength gains achieved by resistance training alone may be impaired. Thus, the aim of this study was to compare the effects of 16 weeks of resistance training and concurrent resistance and endurance training on muscular strength development in 38 sedentary, apparently healthy males (25 yr +/- 8 mo). Subjects were age-matched and randomly assigned to either a control (Con) group (n = 12), resistance training (Res) group (n = 13), or concurrent resistance and endurance training (Com) group (n = 13). After 16 weeks, no changes were found in the strength of the subjects in the Con group. Resistance training and concurrent resistance and endurance training significantly (p < or = 0.05) improved strength in all of the 8 prescribed exercises. The data also indicated that 16 weeks of concurrent resistance training and endurance training was as effective in eliciting improvements in strength as resistance training alone in previously sedentary males. As such, concurrent resistance and endurance training does not impede muscular strength gains and can be prescribed simultaneously for the development of strength in sedentary, apparently healthy males and thus may invoke all the physiologic adaptations of resistance and endurance training at once.

  20. Regional fat changes induced by localized muscle endurance resistance training.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Campos-Jara, Christian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Alvarez-Lepín, Cristian; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a localized muscle endurance resistance training program on total body and regional tissue composition. Seven men and 4 women (aged 23 ± 1 years) were trained with their nondominant leg during 12 weeks, 3 sessions per week. Each session consisted of 1 set of 960-1,200 repetitions (leg press exercise), at 10-30% 1 repetition maximum. Before and after training, body mass, bone mass, bone mineral density (BMD), lean mass, fat mass, and fat percentage were determined by dual-emission x-ray absorptiometry. Energy intakes were registered using a food recall questionnaire. At the whole-body level, body mass, bone mass, BMD, lean mass, or body fat percentage were not significantly changed. However, body fat mass significantly decreased by 5.1% (preexercise: 13.5 ± 6.3 kg; postexercise: 12.8 ± 5.4 kg, p < 0.05). No significant changes in bone mass, lean mass, fat mass, or fat percentage were observed in both the control and trained leg. A significant (p < 0.05) decrease in fat mass was observed in the upper extremities and trunk (10.2 and 6.9%, respectively, p < 0.05). The reduction of fat mass in the upper extremities and trunk was significantly greater (p < 0.05) than the fat mass change observed in the trained leg but not in the control leg. No significant changes were observed in energy intake pre- and postexercise intervention (2,646 ± 444 kcal·d-1 and 2,677 ± 617 kcal·d-1, respectively). In conclusion, the training program was effective in reducing fat mass, but this reduction was not achieved in the trained body segment. The present results expand the limited knowledge available about the plastic heterogeneity of regional body tissues when a localized resistance training program is applied.

  1. Influence of resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance and muscle power and strength in young athletes.

    PubMed

    Ignjatovic, Aleksandar; Radovanovic, D; Stankovic, R; Marković, Z; Kocic, J

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of additional resistance training on cardiorespiratory endurance in young (15.8 ± 0.8 yrs) male basketball players. Experimental group subjects (n=23) trained twice per week for 12 weeks using a variety of general free-weight and machine exercises designed for strength acquisition, beside ongoing regular basketball training program. Control group subject (n=23) participated only in basketball training program. Oxygen uptake (VO(2max)) and related gas exchange measures were determined continuously during maximal exercise test using an automated cardiopulmonary exercise system. Muscle power of the extensors and flexors was measured by a specific computerized tensiometer. Results from the experimental group (VO(2max) 51.6 ± 5.7 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) pre vs. 50.9 ± 5.4 ml.min(-1).kg(-1) post resistance training) showed no change (p>0.05) in cardiorespiratory endurance, while muscle strength and power of main muscle groups increased significantly. These data demonstrate no negative cardiorespiratory performance effects on adding resistance training to ongoing regular training program in young athletes.

  2. Performance and Endocrine Responses to Differing Ratios of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2016-03-01

    The present study examined functional strength and endocrine responses to varying ratios of strength and endurance training in a concurrent training regimen. Thirty resistance trained men completed 6 weeks of 3 d·wk of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON). Strength training was conducted using whole-body multijoint exercises, whereas endurance training consisted of treadmill running. Assessments of maximal strength, lower-body power, and endocrine factors were conducted pretraining and after 3 and 6 weeks. After the intervention, ST and CT3 elicited similar increases in lower-body strength; furthermore, ST resulted in greater increases than CT1 and CON (all p ≤ 0.05). All training conditions resulted in similar increases in upper-body strength after training. The ST group observed greater increases in lower-body power than all other conditions (all p ≤ 0.05). After the final training session, CT1 elicited greater increases in cortisol than ST (p = 0.008). When implemented as part of a concurrent training regimen, higher volumes of endurance training result in the inhibition of lower-body strength, whereas low volumes do not. Lower-body power was attenuated by high and low frequencies of endurance training. Higher frequencies of endurance training resulted in increased cortisol responses to training. These data suggest that if strength development is the primary focus of a training intervention, frequency of endurance training should remain low.

  3. Endurance exercise training in Guillain-Barre syndrome.

    PubMed

    Pitetti, K H; Barrett, P J; Abbas, D

    1993-07-01

    The purpose of this case study was to determine whether an individual who had residual deficits following an acute incidence of Guillain-Barre Syndrome (GBS) would experience improved physiological adaptations following aerobic endurance training. A 57-year-old man who needed the aid of a crutch for walking three years following an acute bout of GBS participated in this study. Peak work level (watts), oxygen consumption (VO2 mL/min; mL/kg.min), and ventilation (VE, L/min) were determined on a bicycle ergometer (BE), a Schwinn Air-Dyne ergometer (SAE), and an arm crank ergometer (ACE) before and after exercise training. Isokinetic leg strength measured using a dynamometer and total work capacity in watts using BE were also determined before and after training. The subject trained for 16 weeks at an approximate frequency of 3 days/week, an average duration of 30 minutes, and an average intensity of 75% to 80% of pretraining peak HR. A 9% and 11% improvement was seen in peak oxygen consumption for the SAE and BE, respectively. For peak ventilation, a 23% and 11% improvement was seen for the SAE and BE, respectively. For the ACE, a 16% increase in peak ventilation was seen, with no improvement in aerobic capacity. Total work capacity on the BE was improved by 29% following training. Positive improvements were also seen in isokinetic leg strength. This study demonstrated that a man still suffering residual symptoms following an incidence of GBS was able to improve his cardiopulmonary and work capacity and isokinetic strength of his legs following a supervised training program using the SAE. The subject also reported improvements in activities of daily living.

  4. Transference of kettlebell training to strength, power, and endurance.

    PubMed

    Manocchia, Pasquale; Spierer, David K; Lufkin, Adrienne K S; Minichiello, Jacqueline; Castro, Jessica

    2013-02-01

    Kettlebells are a popular implement in many strength and conditioning programs, and their benefits are touted in popular literature, books, and videos. However, clinical data on their efficacy are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine whether kettlebell training transfers strength and power to weightlifting and powerlifting exercises and improves muscular endurance. Thirty-seven subjects were assigned to an experimental (EXP, n = 23; mean age = 40.9 ± 12.9 years) or a control group (CON; n = 14; mean age = 39.6 ± 15.8 years), range 18-72 years. The participants were required to perform assessments including a barbell clean and jerk, barbell bench press, maximal vertical jump, and 45° back extensions to volitional fatigue before and after a 10-week kettlebell training program. Training was structured in a group setting for 2 d·wk(-1) for 10 weeks. A repeated measures analysis of variance was conducted to determine group × time interactions and main effects. Post hoc pairwise comparisons were conducted when appropriate. Bench press revealed a time × group interaction and a main effect (p < 0.05). Clean and jerk and back extension demonstrated a trend toward a time × group interaction, but it did not reach significance (p = 0.053). However, clean and jerk did reveal a main effect for time (p < 0.05). No significant findings were reported for maximal vertical jump. The results demonstrate a transfer of power and strength in response to 10 weeks of training with kettlebells. Traditional training methods may not be convenient or accessible for strength and conditioning specialists, athletes, coaches, and recreational exercisers. The current data suggest that kettlebells may be an effective alternative tool to improve performance in weightlifting and powerlifting.

  5. Comparison of effects of strength and endurance training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

    PubMed

    Ortega, Francisco; Toral, Javier; Cejudo, Pilar; Villagomez, Rafael; Sánchez, Hildegard; Castillo, José; Montemayor, Teodoro

    2002-09-01

    We determined the effect of different exercise training modalities in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, including strength training (n = 17), endurance training (n = 16), and combined strength and endurance (n = 14) (half of the endurance and half of the strengthening exercises). Data were compared at baseline, the end of the 12-week exercise-training program, and 12 weeks later. Improvement in the walking distance was only significant in the strength group. Increases in submaximal exercise capacity for the endurance group were significantly higher than those observed in the strength group but were of similar magnitude than those in the combined training modality, which in turn were significantly higher than for the strength group. Increases in the strength of the muscle groups measured in five weight lifting exercises were significantly higher in the strength group than in the endurance group but were of similar magnitude than in the combined training group, which again showed significantly higher increases than subjects in the endurance group. Any training modality showed significant improvements of the breathlessness score and the dyspnea dimension of the chronic respiratory questionnaire. In conclusion, the combination of strength and endurance training seems an adequate training strategy for chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients.

  6. Effect of resistance training regimens on treadmill running and neuromuscular performance in recreational endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, Jussi; Vesterinen, Ville; Taipale, Ritva; Capostagno, Benoit; Häkkinen, Keijo; Nummela, Ari

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of heavy resistance, explosive resistance, and muscle endurance training on neuromuscular, endurance, and high-intensity running performance in recreational endurance runners. Twenty-seven male runners were divided into one of three groups: heavy resistance, explosive resistance or muscle endurance training. After 6 weeks of preparatory training, the groups underwent an 8-week resistance training programme as a supplement to endurance training. Before and after the 8-week training period, maximal strength (one-repetition maximum), electromyographic activity of the leg extensors, countermovement jump height, maximal speed in the maximal anaerobic running test, maximal endurance performance, maximal oxygen uptake ([V·]O(₂max)), and running economy were assessed. Maximal strength improved in the heavy (P = 0.034, effect size ES = 0.38) and explosive resistance training groups (P = 0.003, ES = 0.67) with increases in leg muscle activation (heavy: P = 0.032, ES = 0.38; explosive: P = 0.002, ES = 0.77). Only the heavy resistance training group improved maximal running speed in the maximal anaerobic running test (P = 0.012, ES = 0.52) and jump height (P = 0.006, ES = 0.59). Maximal endurance running performance was improved in all groups (heavy: P = 0.005, ES = 0.56; explosive: P = 0.034, ES = 0.39; muscle endurance: P = 0.001, ES = 0.94), with small though not statistically significant improvements in [V·]O(₂max) (heavy: ES = 0.08; explosive: ES = 0.29; muscle endurance: ES = 0.65) and running economy (ES in all groups < 0.08). All three modes of strength training used concurrently with endurance training were effective in improving treadmill running endurance performance. However, both heavy and explosive strength training were beneficial in improving neuromuscular characteristics, and heavy resistance training in particular contributed to improvements in high-intensity running characteristics. Thus, endurance

  7. Neuromuscular and cardiovascular adaptations during concurrent strength and endurance training in untrained men.

    PubMed

    Mikkola, J; Rusko, H; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E M; Häkkinen, K

    2012-09-01

    This study examined the effects of concurrent strength and endurance training on neuromuscular and endurance characteristics compared to strength or endurance training alone. Previously untrained men were divided into strength (S: n=16), endurance (E: n=11) or concurrent strength and endurance (SE: n=11) training groups. S and E trained 2 times and SE 2 + 2 times a week for strength and endurance during the 21-week period. Maximal unilateral isometric and bilateral concentric forces of leg muscles increased similarly in S and SE by 20-28% (p<0.01) and improvements in isometric forces were accompanied by increases (p<0.05) of maximal muscle activation. Rate of force development of isometric action (p<0.05) improved only in S. The increase in muscle cross-sectional area of the quadriceps femoris in SE (11%, p<0.001) were greater than in S (6%, p<0.001) or in E (2%, p<0.05). SE and E increased maximal cycling power (SE: 17% and E: 11%, p<0.001) and VO(2MAX) (SE: 17%, p<0.001 and E: 5%, ns.). These results suggest that the present moderate volume 21-week concurrent SE training in previously untrained men optimizes the magnitude of muscle hypertrophy, maximal strength and endurance development, but interferes explosive strength development, compared with strength or endurance training alone.

  8. The training intensity distribution among well-trained and elite endurance athletes

    PubMed Central

    Stöggl, Thomas L.; Sperlich, Billy

    2015-01-01

    Researchers have retrospectively analyzed the training intensity distribution (TID) of nationally and internationally competitive athletes in different endurance disciplines to determine the optimal volume and intensity for maximal adaptation. The majority of studies present a “pyramidal” TID with a high proportion of high volume, low intensity training (HVLIT). Some world-class athletes appear to adopt a so-called “polarized” TID (i.e., significant % of HVLIT and high-intensity training) during certain phases of the season. However, emerging prospective randomized controlled studies have demonstrated superior responses of variables related to endurance when applying a polarized TID in well-trained and recreational individuals when compared with a TID that emphasizes HVLIT or threshold training. The aims of the present review are to: (1) summarize the main responses of retrospective and prospective studies exploring TID; (2) provide a systematic overview on TIDs during preparation, pre-competition, and competition phases in different endurance disciplines and performance levels; (3) address whether one TID has demonstrated greater efficacy than another; and (4) highlight research gaps in an effort to direct future scientific studies. PMID:26578968

  9. Concurrent training in elite male runners: the influence of strength versus muscular endurance training on performance outcomes.

    PubMed

    Sedano, Silvia; Marín, Pedro J; Cuadrado, Gonzalo; Redondo, Juan C

    2013-09-01

    Much recent attention has been given to the compatibility of combined aerobic and anaerobic training modalities. However, few of these studies have reported data related to well-trained runners, which is a potential limitation. Therefore, because of the limited evidence available for this population, the main aim was to determine which mode of concurrent strength-endurance training might be the most effective at improving running performance in highly trained runners. Eighteen well-trained male runners (age 23.7 ± 1.2 years) with a maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) more than 65 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1) were randomly assigned into 1 of the 3 groups: Endurance-only Group (n = 6), who continued their usual training, which included general strength training with Thera-band latex-free exercise bands and endurance training; Strength Group (SG; n = 6) who performed combined resistance and plyometric exercises and endurance training; Endurance-SG (ESG; n = 6) who performed endurance-strength training with loads of 40% and endurance training. The study comprised 12 weeks of training in which runners trained 8 times a week (6 endurance and 2 strength sessions) and 5 weeks of detraining. The subjects were tested on 3 different occasions (countermovement jump height, hopping test average height, 1 repetition maximum, running economy (RE), VO2max, maximal heart rate [HRmax], peak velocity (PV), rating of perceived exertion, and 3-km time trial were measured). Findings revealed significant time × group interaction effects for almost all tests (p < 0.05). We can conclude that concurrent training for both SG and ESG groups led to improved maximal strength, RE, and PV with no significant effects on the VO2 kinetics pattern. The SG group also seems to show improvements in 3-km time trial tests.

  10. Performance and neuromuscular adaptations following differing ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2013-12-01

    The interference effect attenuates strength and hypertrophic responses when strength and endurance training are conducted concurrently; however, the influence of training frequency on these responses remain unclear when varying ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training are performed. Therefore, the purpose of the study was to examine the strength, limb girth, and neuromuscular adaptations to varying ratios of concurrent strength and endurance training. Twenty-four men with >2 years resistance training experience completed 6 weeks of 3 days per week of (a) strength training (ST), (b) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 3:1 (CT3), (c) concurrent strength and endurance training ratio 1:1 (CT1), or (d) no training (CON) in an isolated limb model. Assessments of maximal voluntary contraction by means of isokinetic dynamometry leg extensions (maximum voluntary suppression [MVC]), limb girth, and neuromuscular responses through electromyography (EMG) were conducted at baseline, mid-intervention, and postintervention. After training, ST and CT3 conditions elicited greater MVC increases than CT1 and CON conditions (p ≤ 0.05). Strength training resulted in significantly greater increases in limb girth than both CT1 and CON conditions (p = 0.05 and 0.004, respectively). The CT3 induced significantly greater limb girth adaptations than CON condition (p = 0.04). No effect of time or intervention was observed for EMG (p > 0.05). In conclusion, greater frequencies of endurance training performed increased the magnitude of the interference response on strength and limb girth responses after 6 weeks of 3 days a week of training. Therefore, the frequency of endurance training should remain low if the primary focus of the training intervention is strength and hypertrophy.

  11. Effect of endurance training on glucose transport capacity and glucose transporter expression in rat skeletal muscle

    SciTech Connect

    Ploug, T.; Stallknecht, B.M.; Pedersen, O.; Kahn, B.B.; Ohkuwa, T.; Vinten, J.; Galbo, H. )

    1990-12-01

    The effect of 10 wk endurance swim training on 3-O-methylglucose (3-MG) uptake (at 40 mM 3-MG) in skeletal muscle was studied in the perfused rat hindquarter. Training resulted in an increase of approximately 33% for maximum insulin-stimulated 3-MG transport in fast-twitch red fibers and an increase of approximately 33% for contraction-stimulated transport in slow-twitch red fibers compared with nonexercised sedentary muscle. A fully additive effect of insulin and contractions was observed both in trained and untrained muscle. Compared with transport in control rats subjected to an almost exhaustive single exercise session the day before experiment both maximum insulin- and contraction-stimulated transport rates were increased in all muscle types in trained rats. Accordingly, the increased glucose transport capacity in trained muscle was not due to a residual effect of the last training session. Half-times for reversal of contraction-induced glucose transport were similar in trained and untrained muscles. The concentrations of mRNA for GLUT-1 (the erythrocyte-brain-Hep G2 glucose transporter) and GLUT-4 (the adipocyte-muscle glucose transporter) were increased approximately twofold by training in fast-twitch red muscle fibers. In parallel to this, Western blot demonstrated a approximately 47% increase in GLUT-1 protein and a approximately 31% increase in GLUT-4 protein. This indicates that the increases in maximum velocity for 3-MG transport in trained muscle is due to an increased number of glucose transporters.

  12. Effects of strength and endurance exercise order on endocrine responses to concurrent training.

    PubMed

    Jones, Thomas W; Howatson, Glyn; Russell, Mark; French, Duncan N

    2017-04-01

    The present study examined the effect of strength and endurance training order on the endocrine milieu associated with strength development and performance during concurrent training. A randomised, between-groups design was employed with 30 recreationally resistance-trained males completing one of four acute experimental training protocols; strength training (ST), strength followed by endurance training (ST-END), endurance followed by strength training (END-ST) or no training (CON). Blood samples were taken before each respective exercise protocol, immediately upon cessation of exercise, and 1 h post cessation of exercise. Blood samples were subsequently analysed for total testosterone, cortisol and lactate concentrations. Ability to maintain 80% 1RM during strength training was better in ST and ST-END than END-ST (both p < .05). Immediately following the respective exercise protocols all training interventions elicited significant increases in testosterone (p < .05). ST and END-ST resulted in greater increases in cortisol than ST-END (both p < .05). The testosterone:cortisol ratio was similar following the respective exercise protocols. Blood lactate concentrations post-training were greater following END-ST and ST than ST-END (both p < .05). Conducting endurance exercise prior to strength training resulted in impaired strength training performance. Blood cortisol and lactate concentrations were greater when endurance training was conducted prior to strength training than vice versa. As such, it may be suggested that conducting endurance prior to strength training may result in acute unfavourable responses to strength training when strength training is conducted with high loads.

  13. Menstrual Cycle Effects on Anaerobic Power, Muscular Strength, and Muscular Endurance in Trained and Untrained Females.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rosenburg, Beth S.; And Others

    A study determined if anaerobic power, isometric strength, and isometric endurance are affected by the menstrual cycle and if endurance trained females and untrained females are affected in the same manner on these performance parameters. Subjects were healthy, normally menstruating females, ages 18-34 years who were classified as either trained…

  14. Training adaptation and heart rate variability in elite endurance athletes: opening the door to effective monitoring.

    PubMed

    Plews, Daniel J; Laursen, Paul B; Stanley, Jamie; Kilding, Andrew E; Buchheit, Martin

    2013-09-01

    The measurement of heart rate variability (HRV) is often considered a convenient non-invasive assessment tool for monitoring individual adaptation to training. Decreases and increases in vagal-derived indices of HRV have been suggested to indicate negative and positive adaptations, respectively, to endurance training regimens. However, much of the research in this area has involved recreational and well-trained athletes, with the small number of studies conducted in elite athletes revealing equivocal outcomes. For example, in elite athletes, studies have revealed both increases and decreases in HRV to be associated with negative adaptation. Additionally, signs of positive adaptation, such as increases in cardiorespiratory fitness, have been observed with atypical concomitant decreases in HRV. As such, practical ways by which HRV can be used to monitor training status in elites are yet to be established. This article addresses the current literature that has assessed changes in HRV in response to training loads and the likely positive and negative adaptations shown. We reveal limitations with respect to how the measurement of HRV has been interpreted to assess positive and negative adaptation to endurance training regimens and subsequent physical performance. We offer solutions to some of the methodological issues associated with using HRV as a day-to-day monitoring tool. These include the use of appropriate averaging techniques, and the use of specific HRV indices to overcome the issue of HRV saturation in elite athletes (i.e., reductions in HRV despite decreases in resting heart rate). Finally, we provide examples in Olympic and World Champion athletes showing how these indices can be practically applied to assess training status and readiness to perform in the period leading up to a pinnacle event. The paper reveals how longitudinal HRV monitoring in elites is required to understand their unique individual HRV fingerprint. For the first time, we demonstrate how

  15. Neuromuscular adaptations during combined strength and endurance training in endurance runners: maximal versus explosive strength training or a mix of both.

    PubMed

    Taipale, R S; Mikkola, J; Vesterinen, V; Nummela, A; Häkkinen, K

    2013-02-01

    This study compared the effects of mixed maximal strength and explosive strength training with maximal strength training and explosive strength training combined with endurance training over an 8-week training intervention. Male subjects (age 21-45 years) were divided into three strength training groups, maximal (MAX, n = 11), explosive (EXP, 10) and mixed maximal and explosive (MIX, 9), and a circuit training control group, (CON, 7). Strength training one to two times a week was performed concurrently with endurance training three to four times a week. Significant increases in maximal dynamic strength (1RM), countermovement jump (CMJ), maximal muscle activation during 1RM in MAX and during CMJ in EXP, peak running speed (S (peak)) and running speed at respiratory compensation threshold (RCT(speed)) were observed in MAX, EXP and MIX. Maximal isometric strength and muscle activation, rate of force development (RFD), maximal oxygen uptake [Formula: see text] and running economy (RE) at 10 and 12 km hr(-1) did not change significantly. No significant changes were observed in CON in maximal isometric strength, RFD, CMJ or muscle activation, and a significant decrease in 1RM was observed in the final 4 weeks of training. RE in CON did not change significantly, but significant increases were observed in S (peak), RCT(speed) and [Formula: see text] Low volume MAX, EXP and MIX strength training combined with higher volume endurance training over an 8-week intervention produced significant gains in strength, power and endurance performance measures of S (peak) and RCT(speed), but no significant changes were observed between groups.

  16. Acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses to combined strength and endurance loadings: the "order effect" in recreationally endurance trained runners.

    PubMed

    Taipale, Ritva S; Schumann, Moritz; Mikkola, Jussi; Nyman, Kai; Kyröläinen, Heikki; Nummela, Ari; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2014-01-01

    The study examined the acute neuromuscular and metabolic responses and recovery (24 and 48 h) to combined strength and endurance sessions (SEs). Recreationally endurance trained men (n = 12) and women (n = 10) performed: endurance running followed immediately by a strength loading (combined endurance and strength session (ES)) and the reverse order (SE). Maximal strength (MVC), countermovement jump height (CMJ), and creatine kinase activity were measured pre-, mid-, post-loading and at 24 and 48 h of recovery. MVC and CMJ were decreased (P < 0.05) at post-ES and SE sessions in men. Only MVC decreased in ES and SE women (P < 0.05). During recovery, no order differences in MVC were observed between sessions in men, but MVC and CMJ remained decreased. During recovery in women, a delayed decrease in CMJ was observed in ES but not in SE (P < 0.01), while MVC returned to baseline at 24 h. Creatine kinase increased (P < 0.05) during both ES and SE and peaked in all groups at 24 h. The present combined ES and SE sessions induced greater neuromuscular fatigue at post in men than in women. The delayed fatigue response in ES women may be an order effect related to muscle damage.

  17. Effects of Different Resistance Training Protocols on Upper-Body Strength and Endurance Development in Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Loud, Rita LaRosa; O'Connell, Jill; Glover, Scott; O'Connell, Jason; Westcott, Wayne L.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effects of four resistance training protocols on upper body strength and muscular endurance development in children. Untrained children trained twice per week for 8 weeks, using general conditioning exercises and different upper-body conditioning protocols. Results indicated that higher-repetition training protocols enhanced…

  18. Concurrent strength and endurance training: the influence of dependent variable selection.

    PubMed

    Leveritt, Michael; Abernethy, Peter J; Barry, Ben; Logan, Peter A

    2003-08-01

    Twenty-six active university students were randomly allocated to resistance (R, n = 9), endurance (E, n = 8), and concurrent resistance and endurance (C, n = 9) training conditions. Training was completed 3 times per week in all conditions, with endurance training preceding resistance training in the C group. Resistance training involved 4 sets of upper- and lower-body exercises with loads of 4-8 repetition maximum (RM). Each endurance training session consisted of five 5-minute bouts of incremental cycle exercise at between 40 and 100% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO2peak). Parameters measured prior to and following training included strength (1RM and isometric and isokinetic [1.04, 3.12, 5.20, and 8.67 rad.s(-1)] strength), .VO2peak and Wingate test performance (peak power output [PPO], average power, and relative power decline). Significant improvements in 1RM strength were observed in the R and C groups following training. .VO2peak significantly increased in E and C but was significantly reduced in R after training. Effect size (ES) transformations on the other dependent variables suggested that performance changes in the C group were not always similar to changes in the R or E groups. These ES data suggest that statistical power and dependent variable selection are significant issues in enhancing our insights into concurrent training. It may be necessary to assess a range of performance parameters to monitor the relative effectiveness of a particular concurrent training regimen.

  19. Training Content and Potential Impact on Performance: A Comparison of Young Male and Female Endurance-Trained Runners

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Garcin, M.; Fleury, A.; Ansart, N.; Mille-Hamard, L.; Billat, V.

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to compare the content of 8 weeks of training in young endurance-trained male and female runners and study the potential impact of this training content on performance. Fourteen men and 11 women performed two criterion exercises until exhaustion on an outdoor track before and after the 8-week training…

  20. Eccentric resistance training increases and retains maximal strength, muscle endurance, and hypertrophy in trained men.

    PubMed

    Coratella, Giuseppe; Schena, Federico

    2016-11-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of different resistance training protocols on muscle strength, endurance, and hypertrophy after training and detraining. Thirty-four resistance-trained males were randomized in concentric-only (CONC), eccentric-only (ECC), traditional concentric-eccentric (TRAD) bench press resistance training or control group. The training volume was equalized among the intervention groups. Bench press of 1-repetition maximum (1RM)/body mass, maximum number of repetitions (MNR), and chest circumference were evaluated at the baseline, after 6 weeks of training, and after 6 weeks of detraining. All intervention groups reported significant 1RM/body mass increases after training (CONC baseline: 1.04 ± 0.06, post-training: 1.12 ± 0.08, p < 0.05; ECC baseline: 1.08 ± 0.04, post-training: 1.15 ± 0.05, p < 0.05; TRAD baseline: 1.06 ± 0.08, post-training: 1.11 ± 0.10, p < 0.05). After detraining, only ECC retained 1RM/body mass above the baseline (1.17 ± 0.07, p < 0.05), while CONC and TRAD returned to baseline values. Only ECC improved and retained MNR (baseline: 22 ± 3; post-training: 25 ± 3, and post-detraining: 25 ± 4, p < 0.05 compared with baseline) and chest circumference (baseline: 98.3 ± 2.4 cm, post-training: 101.7 ± 2.2 cm and post-detraining: 100.7 ± 2.3 cm. p < 0.05 compared with baseline), while no significant changes occurred in both CONC and TRAD. The incorporation of eccentric training can be recommended for counteracting the negative effects of detraining or forced physical inactivity.

  1. Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Ramaekers, Monique; Hespel, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Training with limited carbohydrate availability can stimulate adaptations in muscle cells to facilitate energy production via fat oxidation. Here we investigated the effect of consistent training in the fasted state, vs. training in the fed state, on muscle metabolism and substrate selection during fasted exercise. Twenty young male volunteers participated in a 6-wk endurance training program (1-1.5 h cycling at ∼70% Vo(₂max), 4 days/wk) while receiving isocaloric carbohydrate-rich diets. Half of the subjects trained in the fasted state (F; n = 10), while the others ingested ample carbohydrates before (∼160 g) and during (1 g·kg body wt⁻¹·h⁻¹) the training sessions (CHO; n = 10). The training similarly increased Vo(₂max) (+9%) and performance in a 60-min simulated time trial (+8%) in both groups (P < 0.01). Metabolic measurements were made during a 2-h constant-load exercise bout in the fasted state at ∼65% pretraining Vo(₂max). In F, exercise-induced intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) breakdown was enhanced in type I fibers (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased in type IIa fibers (P = 0.07). Training did not affect IMCL breakdown in CHO. In addition, F (+21%) increased the exercise intensity corresponding to the maximal rate of fat oxidation more than did CHO (+6%) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, maximal citrate synthase (+47%) and β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (+34%) activity was significantly upregulated in F (P < 0.05) but not in CHO. Also, only F prevented the development exercise-induced drop in blood glucose concentration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, F is more effective than CHO to increase muscular oxidative capacity and at the same time enhances exercise-induced net IMCL degradation. In addition, F but not CHO prevented drop of blood glucose concentration during fasting exercise.

  2. Beneficial metabolic adaptations due to endurance exercise training in the fasted state

    PubMed Central

    Van Proeyen, Karen; Szlufcik, Karolina; Nielens, Henri; Ramaekers, Monique

    2011-01-01

    Training with limited carbohydrate availability can stimulate adaptations in muscle cells to facilitate energy production via fat oxidation. Here we investigated the effect of consistent training in the fasted state, vs. training in the fed state, on muscle metabolism and substrate selection during fasted exercise. Twenty young male volunteers participated in a 6-wk endurance training program (1–1.5 h cycling at ∼70% V̇o2max, 4 days/wk) while receiving isocaloric carbohydrate-rich diets. Half of the subjects trained in the fasted state (F; n = 10), while the others ingested ample carbohydrates before (∼160 g) and during (1 g·kg body wt−1·h−1) the training sessions (CHO; n = 10). The training similarly increased V̇o2max (+9%) and performance in a 60-min simulated time trial (+8%) in both groups (P < 0.01). Metabolic measurements were made during a 2-h constant-load exercise bout in the fasted state at ∼65% pretraining V̇o2max. In F, exercise-induced intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) breakdown was enhanced in type I fibers (P < 0.05) and tended to be increased in type IIa fibers (P = 0.07). Training did not affect IMCL breakdown in CHO. In addition, F (+21%) increased the exercise intensity corresponding to the maximal rate of fat oxidation more than did CHO (+6%) (P < 0.05). Furthermore, maximal citrate synthase (+47%) and β-hydroxyacyl coenzyme A dehydrogenase (+34%) activity was significantly upregulated in F (P < 0.05) but not in CHO. Also, only F prevented the development exercise-induced drop in blood glucose concentration (P < 0.05). In conclusion, F is more effective than CHO to increase muscular oxidative capacity and at the same time enhances exercise-induced net IMCL degradation. In addition, F but not CHO prevented drop of blood glucose concentration during fasting exercise. PMID:21051570

  3. Effects of Three Resistance Training Programs on Muscular Strength and Absolute and Relative Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Anderson, Tim; Kearney, Jay T.

    1982-01-01

    The effects of three resistance training programs on male college students' muscular strength and absolute and relative muscular endurance were investigated. Results show that human skeletal muscle makes both general and specific adaptations to a training stimulus, and that the balance of these adaptations is to some extent dependent upon the…

  4. Self-Reported Dietary Intake Following Endurance, Resistance and Concurrent Endurance and Resistance Training

    PubMed Central

    Shaw, Brandon S.; Shaw, Ina; Brown, Gregory A.

    2008-01-01

    With regards to obesity-related disease the impact of exercise training on health depends on the ability of exercise to promote a negative energy balance. Exercise's effect on promoting a negative energy balance is more likely to occur if exercise can induce a favourable dietary intake such as a reduced relative fat content in the diet. As such, the aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the effectiveness of aerobic training, weight training and concurrent aerobic and weight training on self-reported dietary intake. The effects of 16 weeks of aerobic (n = 12), weight (n = 13) and concurrent aerobic and weight training (n = 13) on self-reported dietary intakes were compared in previously sedentary males using the computer-based Dietary Manager® software programme. Only the concurrent aerobic and weight training group showed significant (p ≤ 0.05) reductions in total kilocalories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats consumed while the aerobic training group showed significant reductions in fat intake at the completion of the experimental period (before: 91.0 ± 42.1g versus after: 77.1 ± 62.1g). However, no changes were observed in self-reported dietary intake in the weight training or non-exercising control groups. It is concluded that concurrent aerobic and weight training is the most effective mode of exercise at promoting a favourable improvement in self-reported dietary intake in the short term. This finding provides support for efforts to promote increases in overall physical activity in an attempt to modify the patterns of dietary intake. Key pointsConcurrent aerobic and weight training can significantly reduce the amount of total kilocalories, carbohydrates, proteins and fats consumed.Aerobic training can significantly reduce fat intake.Weight training resulted in no changes in dietary intake.Concurrent aerobic and weight training is the most effective mode of exercise at promoting a favourable improvement in self-reported dietary intake. PMID

  5. Effect of endurance training on lung function: a one year study

    PubMed Central

    Kippelen, P; Caillaud, C; Robert, E; Connes, P; Godard, P; Prefaut, C

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To identify in a follow up study airway changes occurring during the course of a sport season in healthy endurance athletes training in a Mediterranean region. Methods: Respiratory pattern and function were analysed in 13 healthy endurance trained athletes, either during a maximal exercise test, or at rest and during recovery through respiratory manoeuvres (spirometry and closing volume tests). The exercise test was conducted on three different occasions: during basic endurance training and then during the precompetition and competitive periods. Results: During the competitive period, a slight but non-clinically significant decrease was found in forced vital capacity (–3.5%, p = 0.0001) and an increase in slope of phase III (+25%, p = 0.0029), both at rest and after exercise. No concomitant reduction in expiratory flow rates was noticed. During maximal exercise there was a tachypnoeic shift over the course of the year (mean (SEM) breathing frequency and tidal volume were respectively 50 (2) cycles/min and 3.13 (0.09) litres during basic endurance training v 55 (3) cycles/min and 2.98 (0.10) litres during the competitive period; p<0.05). Conclusions: This study does not provide significant evidence of lung function impairment in healthy Mediterranean athletes after one year of endurance training. PMID:16118298

  6. Human torque velocity adaptations to sprint, endurance, or combined modes of training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shealy, M. J.; Callister, R.; Dudley, G. A.; Fleck, S. J.

    1992-01-01

    We had groups of athletes perform sprint and endurance run training independently or concurrently for 8 weeks to examine the voluntary in vivo mechanical responses to each type of training. Pre- and posttraining angle-specific peak torque during knee extension and flexion were determined at 0, 0.84, 1.65, 2.51, 3.35, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1 and normalized for lean body mass. Knee extension torque in the sprint-trained group increased across all test velocities, the endurance-trained group increased at 2.51, 3.34, 4.19, and 5.03 radian.sec-1, and the group performing the combined training showed no change at any velocity. Knee flexion torque of the sprint and combined groups decreased at 0.84, 1.65, and 2.51 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the sprint-trained group also decreased at 0 radian.sec-1 and in the combined group at 3.34 radian.sec-1. Knee flexion torque in the endurance-trained group showed no change at any velocity of contraction. Mean knee flexion:extension ratios across the test velocities significantly decreased in the sprint-trained group. Knee extension endurance during 30 seconds of maximal contractions significantly increased in all groups. Only the sprint-trained group showed a significant increase in endurance of the knee flexors. These data suggest that changes in the voluntary in vivo mechanical characteristics of knee extensor and flexor skeletal muscles are specific to the type of run training performed.

  7. Potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity in CKD?

    PubMed

    Howden, Erin J; Lawley, Justin S; Esler, Murray; Levine, Benjamin D

    2017-05-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD), is characterized by a progressive loss of renal function and increase in cardiovascular risk. In this review paper, we discuss the pathophysiology of increased sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients and raise the possibility of endurance exercise being an effective countermeasure to address this problem. We specifically focus on the potential role of endurance training in altering renal sympathetic nerve activity as increased renal sympathetic nerve activity negatively impacts kidney function as well indirectly effects multiple other systems and organs. Recent technological advances in device based therapy have highlighted the detrimental effect of elevated renal sympathetic nerve activity in CKD patients, with kidney function and blood pressure being improved post renal artery nerve denervation in selected patients. These developments provide optimism for the development of alternative and/or complementary strategies to lower renal sympathetic nerve activity. However, appropriately designed studies are required to confirm preliminary observations, as the widespread use of the renal denervation approach to lower sympathetic activity presently has limited feasibility. Endurance training may be one alternative strategy to reduce renal sympathetic nerve activity. Here we review the role of endurance training as a potential alternative or adjunctive to current therapy in CKD patients. We also provide recommendations for future research to assist in establishing an evidence base for the use of endurance training to lower renal sympathetic activity in CKD patients.

  8. Endurance training of respiratory muscles improves cycling performance in fit young cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Holm, Paige; Sattler, Angela; Fregosi, Ralph F

    2004-01-01

    Background Whether or not isolated endurance training of the respiratory muscles improves whole-body endurance exercise performance is controversial, with some studies reporting enhancements of 50 % or more, and others reporting no change. Twenty fit (VO2 max 56.0 ml/kg/min), experienced cyclists were randomly assigned to three groups. The experimental group (n = 10) trained their respiratory muscles via 20, 45 min sessions of hyperpnea. The placebo group (n = 4) underwent "sham" training (20, 5 min sessions), and the control group (n = 6) did no training. Results After training, the experimental group increased their respiratory muscle endurance capacity by 12 %. Performance on a bicycle time trial test designed to last about 40 min improved by 4.7 % (9 of 10 subjects showed improvement). There were no test-re-test improvements in either respiratory muscle or bicycle exercise endurance performance in the placebo group, nor in the control group. After training, the experimental group had significantly higher ventilatory output and VO2, and lower PCO2, during constant work-rate exercise; the placebo and control groups did not show these changes. The perceived respiratory effort was unchanged in spite of the higher ventilation rate after training. Conclusions The results suggest that respiratory muscle endurance training improves cycling performance in fit, experienced cyclists. The relative hyperventilation with no change in respiratory effort sensations suggest that respiratory muscle training allows subjects to tolerate the higher exercise ventilatory response without more dyspnea. Whether or not this can explain the enhanced performance is unknown. PMID:15132753

  9. Effect of Sequencing Strength and Endurance Training in Young Male Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Makhlouf, Issam; Castagna, Carlo; Manzi, Vincenzo; Laurencelle, Louis; Behm, David G; Chaouachi, Anis

    2016-03-01

    This study examined the effects of strength and endurance training sequence (strength before or after endurance) on relevant fitness variables in youth soccer players. Fifty-seven young elite-level male field soccer players (13.7 ± 0.5 years; 164 ± 8.3 cm; 53.5 ± 8.6 kg; body fat; 15.6 ± 3.9%) were randomly assigned to a control (n = 14, CG) and 3 experimental training groups (twice a week for 12 weeks) strength before (SE, n = 15), after (ES, n = 14) or on alternate days (ASE, n = 14) with endurance training. A significant (p = 0.001) intervention main effect was detected. There were only trivial training sequence differences (ES vs. SE) for all variables (p > 0.05). The CG showed large squat 1 repetition maximum (1RM) and medium sprint, change of direction ability, and jump improvements. ASE demonstrated a trivial difference in endurance performance with ES and SE (p > 0.05). Large to medium greater improvements for SE and ES were reported compared with ASE for sprinting over 10 and 30 m (p < 0.02). The SE squat 1RM was higher than in ASE (moderate, p < 0.02). Postintervention differences between ES and SE with CG fitness variables were small to medium (p ≤ 0.05) except for a large SE advantage with the Yo-Yo intermittent recovery test (p < 0.001, large). This study showed no effect of intrasession training sequence on soccer fitness-relevant variables. However, combining strength and endurance within a single training session provided superior results vs. training on alternate days. Concurrent training may be considered as an effective and safe training method for the development of the prospective soccer player.

  10. The TRPM4 channel is functionally important for the beneficial cardiac remodeling induced by endurance training.

    PubMed

    Gueffier, Mélanie; Zintz, Justin; Lambert, Karen; Finan, Amanda; Aimond, Franck; Chakouri, Nourdine; Hédon, Christophe; Granier, Mathieu; Launay, Pierre; Thireau, Jérôme; Richard, Sylvain; Demion, Marie

    2017-02-21

    Cardiac hypertrophy (CH) is an adaptive process that exists in two distinct forms and allows the heart to adequately respond to an organism's needs. The first form of CH is physiological, adaptive and reversible. The second is pathological, irreversible and associated with fibrosis and cardiomyocyte death. CH involves multiple molecular mechanisms that are still not completely defined but it is now accepted that physiological CH is associated more with the PI3-K/Akt pathway while the main signaling cascade activated in pathological CH involves the Calcineurin-NFAT pathway. It was recently demonstrated that the TRPM4 channel may act as a negative regulator of pathological CH by regulating calcium entry and thus the Cn-NFAT pathway. In this study, we examined if the TRPM4 channel is involved in the physiological CH process. We evaluated the effects of 4 weeks endurance training on the hearts of Trpm4 (+/+) and Trpm4 (-/-) mice. We identified an elevated functional expression of the TRPM4 channel in cardiomyocytes after endurance training suggesting a potential role for the channel in physiological CH. We then observed that Trpm4 (+/+) mice displayed left ventricular hypertrophy after endurance training associated with enhanced cardiac function. By contrast, Trpm4 (-/-) mice did not develop these adaptions. While Trpm4 (-/-) mice did not develop gross cardiac hypertrophy, the cardiomyocyte surface area was larger and associated with an increase of Tunel positive cells. Endurance training in Trpm4 (+/+) mice did not increase DNA fragmentation in the heart. Endurance training in Trpm4 (+/+) mice was associated with activation of the classical physiological CH Akt pathway while Trpm4 (-/-) favored the Calcineurin pathway. Calcium studies demonstrated that TRPM4 channel negatively regulates calcium entry providing support for activation of the Cn-NFAT pathway in Trpm4 (-/-) mice. In conclusion, we provide evidence for the functional expression of TRPM4 channel in response

  11. Endurance training facilitates myoglobin desaturation during muscle contraction in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Takakura, Hisashi; Furuichi, Yasuro; Yamada, Tatsuya; Jue, Thomas; Ojino, Minoru; Hashimoto, Takeshi; Iwase, Satoshi; Hojo, Tatsuya; Izawa, Tetsuya; Masuda, Kazumi

    2015-03-24

    At onset of muscle contraction, myoglobin (Mb) immediately releases its bound O2 to the mitochondria. Accordingly, intracellular O2 tension (PmbO2) markedly declines in order to increase muscle O2 uptake (mVO2). However, whether the change in PmbO2 during muscle contraction modulates mVO2 and whether the O2 release rate from Mb increases in endurance-trained muscles remain unclear. The purpose of this study was, therefore, to determine the effect of endurance training on O2 saturation of Mb (SmbO2) and PmbO2 kinetics during muscle contraction. Male Wistar rats were subjected to a 4-week swimming training (Tr group; 6 days per week, 30 min × 4 sets per day) with a weight load of 2% body mass. After the training period, deoxygenated Mb kinetics during muscle contraction were measured using near-infrared spectroscopy under hemoglobin-free medium perfusion. In the Tr group, the VmO2peak significantly increased by 32%. Although the PmbO2 during muscle contraction did not affect the increased mVO2 in endurance-trained muscle, the O2 release rate from Mb increased because of the increased Mb concentration and faster decremental rate in SmbO2 at the maximal twitch tension. These results suggest that the Mb dynamics during muscle contraction are contributing factors to faster VO2 kinetics in endurance-trained muscle.

  12. Popularity of hypoxic training methods for endurance-based professional and amateur athletes.

    PubMed

    Álvarez-Herms, J; Julià-Sánchez, S; Hamlin, M J; Corbi, F; Pagès, T; Viscor, G

    2015-05-01

    Scientific debate continues into whether hypoxic training has any performance benefit for athletes, and although this type of training seems popular, to our knowledge little empirical evidence on its popularity with endurance-based athletes exists. To quantify the usage of hypoxic training in endurance-based athletes we asked 203 athletes (amateur = 108, professional = 95) to complete a 17-question survey during 2013-2014 season. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes were 4.5 times (3.0-6.8, odds ratio, 95% confidence limits) more likely to undertake hypoxic training. Live-high train-low was the most popular hypoxic training protocol for athletes (52% professional and 80% amateur) with live-high train-high also used (38% professional, 20% amateur). Compared to amateurs, professional athletes tended to use evidence-based hypoxic training methods, seek advice on hypoxic training from reliable sources and were generally more realistic about the potential performance gains as a result of hypoxic training. Almost one third (25-30%) of all athletes suffered illness during their hypoxic training. Compared to amateurs, professional athletes are more likely to undertake hypoxic training and tend to follow current scientific guidelines. Attenuation of the ill effects that occur during hypoxic training may be accomplished if athletes give more attention to monitoring stress and training levels.

  13. Muscle mechanical properties of strength and endurance athletes and changes after one week of intensive training.

    PubMed

    de Paula Simola, Rauno Álvaro; Raeder, Christian; Wiewelhove, Thimo; Kellmann, Michael; Meyer, Tim; Pfeiffer, Mark; Ferrauti, Alexander

    2016-10-01

    The study investigates whether tensiomyography (TMG) is sensitive to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue after either one week of intensive strength (ST) or endurance (END) training. Fourteen strength (24.1±2.0years) and eleven endurance athletes (25.5±4.8years) performed an intensive training period of 6days of ST or END, respectively. ST and END groups completed specific performance tests as well as TMG measurements of maximal radial deformation of the muscle belly (Dm), deformation time between 10% and 90% Dm (Tc), rate of deformation development until 10% Dm (V10) and 90% Dm (V90) before (baseline), after training period (post1), and after 72h of recovery (post2). Specific performance of both groups decreased from baseline to post1 (P<0.05) and returned to baseline values at post2 (P<0.05). The ST group showed higher countermovement jump (P<0.05) and shorter Tc (P<0.05) at baseline. After training, Dm, V10, and V90 were reduced in the ST (P<0.05) while TMG changes were less pronounced in the END. TMG could be a useful tool to differentiate between strength and endurance athletes, and to monitor fatigue and recovery especially in strength training.

  14. Neuromuscular adaptations to different modes of combined strength and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Eklund, D; Pulverenti, T; Bankers, S; Avela, J; Newton, R; Schumann, M; Häkkinen, K

    2015-02-01

    The present study investigated neuromuscular adaptations between same-session combined strength and endurance training with 2 loading orders and different day combined training over 24 weeks. 56 subjects were divided into different day (DD) combined strength and endurance training (4-6 d·wk(-1)) and same-session combined training: endurance preceding strength (E+S) or vice versa (S+E) (2-3 d·wk(-1)). Dynamic and isometric strength, EMG, voluntary activation, muscle cross-sectional area and endurance performance were measured. All groups increased dynamic one-repetition maximum (p<0.001; DD 13±7%, E+S 12±9% and S+E 17±12%) and isometric force (p<0.05-0.01), muscle cross-sectional area (p<0.001) and maximal power output during cycling (p<0.001). DD and S+E increased voluntary activation during training (p<0.05-0.01). In E+S no increase in voluntary activation was detected after 12 or 24 weeks. E+S also showed unchanged and S+E increased maximum EMG after 24 weeks during maximal isometric muscle actions. A high correlation (p<0.001, r=0.83) between the individual changes in voluntary activation and maximal knee extension force was found for E+S during weeks 13-24. Neural adaptations showed indications of being compromised and highly individual relating to changes in isometric strength when E+S-training was performed, while gains in one-repetition maximum, endurance performance and hypertrophy did not differ between the training modes.

  15. Combined speed endurance and endurance exercise amplify the exercise-induced PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA response in trained human muscle.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Brandt, Nina; Pilegaard, Henriette; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the mRNA response related to mitochondrial biogenesis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and myogenesis in trained human skeletal muscle to speed endurance exercise (S), endurance exercise (E), and speed endurance followed by endurance exercise (S + E). Seventeen trained male subjects (maximum oxygen uptake (VO2-max): 57.2 ± 3.7 (mean ± SD) mL·min(-1)·kg(-1)) performed S (6 × 30 sec all-out), E (60 min ~60% VO2-max), and S + E on a cycle ergometer on separate occasions. Muscle biopsies were obtained at rest and 1, 2, and 3 h after the speed endurance exercise (S and S + E) and at rest, 0, 1, and 2 h after exercise in E In S and S + E, muscle peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1 (PGC-1α) and pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase-4 (PDK4) mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. Muscle PGC-1α and PDK4 mRNA levels were higher (P < 0.05) after exercise in S + E than in S and E, and higher (P < 0.05) in S than in E after exercise. In S and S + E, muscle vascular endothelial growth factor mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 1 (S only), 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S + E, muscle regulatory factor-4 and muscle heme oxygenase-1 mRNA were higher (P < 0.05) 1, 2, and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest. In S, muscle hexokinase II mRNA was higher (P < 0.05) 2 and 3 h after speed endurance exercise than at rest and higher (P < 0.05) than in E after exercise. These findings suggest that in trained subjects, speed endurance exercise provides a stimulus for muscle mitochondrial biogenesis, substrate regulation, and angiogenesis that is not evident with endurance exercise. These responses are reinforced when speed endurance exercise is followed by endurance exercise.

  16. Acetic acid enhances endurance capacity of exercise-trained mice by increasing skeletal muscle oxidative properties.

    PubMed

    Pan, Jeong Hoon; Kim, Jun Ho; Kim, Hyung Min; Lee, Eui Seop; Shin, Dong-Hoon; Kim, Seongpil; Shin, Minkyeong; Kim, Sang Ho; Lee, Jin Hyup; Kim, Young Jun

    2015-01-01

    Acetic acid has been shown to promote glycogen replenishment in skeletal muscle during exercise training. In this study, we investigated the effects of acetic acid on endurance capacity and muscle oxidative metabolism in the exercise training using in vivo mice model. In exercised mice, acetic acid induced a significant increase in endurance capacity accompanying a reduction in visceral adipose depots. Serum levels of non-esterified fatty acid and urea nitrogen were significantly lower in acetic acid-fed mice in the exercised mice. Importantly, in the mice, acetic acid significantly increased the muscle expression of key enzymes involved in fatty acid oxidation and glycolytic-to-oxidative fiber-type transformation. Taken together, these findings suggest that acetic acid improves endurance exercise capacity by promoting muscle oxidative properties, in part through the AMPK-mediated fatty acid oxidation and provide an important basis for the application of acetic acid as a major component of novel ergogenic aids.

  17. Endurance training and aerobic fitness in young people.

    PubMed

    Baquet, Georges; van Praagh, Emmanuel; Berthoin, Serge

    2003-01-01

    Training-induced adaptations in aerobic fitness have been extensively studied in adults, and some exercise scientists have recommended similar training programmes for young people. However, the subject of the response to aerobic training of children and adolescents is controversial. The effects of exercise training on prepubertal children are particularly debatable. The latter may be partly explained by different training designs, which make comparisons between studies very problematic. We have analysed the procedures applied to protocol design and training methods to highlight the real impact of aerobic training on the peak oxygen uptake (V-dotO2) of healthy children and adolescents. In accordance with previously published reviews on trainability in youngsters, research papers were rejected from the final analysis according to criteria such as the lack of a control group, an unclear training protocol, inappropriate statistical procedures, small sample size, studies with trained or special populations, or with no peak V-dotO2 data. Factors such as maturity, group constitution, consistency between training and testing procedures, drop out rates, or attendance were considered, and possible associations with changes in peak V-dotO2 with training are discussed. From 51 studies reviewed, 22 were finally retained. In most of the studies, there was a considerable lack of research regarding circumpubertal individuals in general, and particularly in girls. The results suggest that methodologically listed parameters will exert a potential influence on the magnitude of peak V-dotO2 improvement. Even if little difference is reported for each parameter, it is suggested that the sum of errors will result in a significant bias in the assessment of training effects. The characteristics of each training protocol were also analysed to establish their respective potential influence on peak V-dotO2 changes. In general, aerobic training leads to a mean improvement of 5-6% in the peak V

  18. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. A 10-week crossover, ...

  19. Physiological Adaptations to Chronic Endurance Exercise Training in Patients with Coronary Artery Disease.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Physician and Sportsmedicine, 1987

    1987-01-01

    In a roundtable format, five doctors explore the reasons why regular physical activity should continue to play a significant role in the rehabilitation of patients with coronary artery disease. Endurance exercise training improves aerobic capacity, reduces blood pressure, and decreases risk. (Author/MT)

  20. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers.

    PubMed

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45-75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max.

  1. Resistance versus endurance training in patients with COPD and peripheral muscle weakness.

    PubMed

    Spruit, M A; Gosselink, R; Troosters, T; De Paepe, K; Decramer, M

    2002-06-01

    The effects of endurance training on exercise capacity and health-related quality of life (HRQL) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients have been studied thoroughly, while resistance training has been rarely evaluated. This study investigated the effects of resistance training in comparison with endurance training in patients with moderate to severe COPD and peripheral muscle weakness (isometric knee extension peak torque <75% predicted). Forty-eight patients (age 64+/-8 yrs, forced expiratory volume in one second 38+/-17% pred) were randomly assigned to resistance training (RT, n=24) or endurance training (ET, n=24). The former consisted of dynamic strengthening exercises. The latter consisted of walking, cycling and arm cranking. Respiratory and peripheral muscle force, exercise capacity, and HRQL were re-evaluated in all patients who completed the 12-week rehabilitation (RT n=14, ET n=16). Statistically significant increases in knee extension peak torque (RT 20+/-21%, ET 42+/-21%), maximal knee flexion force (RT 31+/-39%, ET 28+/-37%), elbow flexion force (RT 24+/-19%, ET 33+/-25%), 6-min walking distance (6MWD) (RT 79+/-74 m, ET 95+/-57 m), maximum workload (RT 15+/-16 Watt, ET 14+/-13 Watt) and HRQL (RT 16+/-25 points, ET 16+/-15 points) were observed. No significant differences in changes in HRQL and 6MWD were seen between the two treatments. Resistance training and endurance training have similar effects on peripheral muscle force, exercise capacity and health-related quality of life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients with peripheral muscle weakness.

  2. Physiological implications of altitude training for endurance performance at sea level: a review.

    PubMed

    Bailey, D M; Davies, B

    1997-09-01

    Acclimatisation to environmental hypoxia initiates a series of metabolic and musculocardio-respiratory adaptations that influence oxygen transport and utilisation, or better still, being born and raised at altitude, is necessary to achieve optimal physical performance at altitude, scientific evidence to support the potentiating effects after return to sea level is at present equivocal. Despite this, elite athletes continue to spend considerable time and resources training at altitude, misled by subjective coaching opinion and the inconclusive findings of a large number of uncontrolled studies. Scientific investigation has focused on the optimisation of the theoretically beneficial aspects of altitude acclimatisation, which include increases in blood haemoglobin concentration, elevated buffering capacity, and improvements in the structural and biochemical properties of skeletal muscle. However, not all aspects of altitude acclimatisation are beneficial; cardiac output and blood flow to skeletal muscles decrease, and preliminary evidence has shown that hypoxia in itself is responsible for a depression of immune function and increased tissue damage mediated by oxidative stress. Future research needs to focus on these less beneficial aspects of altitude training, the implications of which pose a threat to both the fitness and the health of the elite competitor. Paul Bert was the first investigator to show that acclimatisation to a chronically reduced inspiratory partial pressure of oxygen (P1O2) invoked a series of central and peripheral adaptations that served to maintain adequate tissue oxygenation in healthy skeletal muscle, physiological adaptations that have been subsequently implicated in the improvement in exercise performance during altitude acclimatisation. However, it was not until half a century later that scientists suggested that the additive stimulus of environmental hypoxia could potentially compound the normal physiological adaptations to endurance

  3. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ratamess, Nicholas A.; Beller, Noah A.; Gonzalez, Adam M.; Spatz, Gregory E.; Hoffman, Jay R.; Ross, Ryan E.; Faigenbaum, Avery D.; Kang, Jie

    2016-01-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects’ peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s-1 [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey’s post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key points Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women. Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press

  4. The Effects of Multiple-Joint Isokinetic Resistance Training on Maximal Isokinetic and Dynamic Muscle Strength and Local Muscular Endurance.

    PubMed

    Ratamess, Nicholas A; Beller, Noah A; Gonzalez, Adam M; Spatz, Gregory E; Hoffman, Jay R; Ross, Ryan E; Faigenbaum, Avery D; Kang, Jie

    2016-03-01

    The transfer of training effects of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training to dynamic exercise performance remain poorly understood. Thus, the purpose of the present study was to investigate the magnitude of isokinetic and dynamic one repetition-maximum (1RM) strength and local muscular endurance increases after 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training. Seventeen women were randomly assigned to either an isokinetic resistance training group (IRT) or a non-exercising control group (CTL). The IRT group underwent 6 weeks of training (2 days per week) consisting of 5 sets of 6-10 repetitions at 75-85% of subjects' peak strength for the isokinetic chest press and seated row exercises at an average linear velocity of 0.15 m s(-1) [3-sec concentric (CON) and 3-sec eccentric (ECC) phases]. Peak CON and ECC force during the chest press and row, 1RM bench press and bent-over row, and maximum number of modified push-ups were assessed pre and post training. A 2 x 2 analysis of variance with repeated measures and Tukey's post hoc tests were used for data analysis. The results showed that 1RM bench press (from 38.6 ± 6.7 to 43.0 ± 5.9 kg), 1RM bent-over row (from 40.4 ± 7.7 to 45.5 ± 7.5 kg), and the maximal number of modified push-ups (from 39.5 ± 13.6 to 55.3 ± 13.1 repetitions) increased significantly only in the IRT group. Peak isokinetic CON and ECC force in the chest press and row significantly increased in the IRT group. No differences were shown in the CTL group for any measure. These data indicate 6 weeks of multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic muscle strength and local muscular endurance performance in addition to specific isokinetic strength gains in women. Key pointsMultiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increases dynamic maximal muscular strength, local muscular endurance, and maximal isokinetic strength in women.Multiple-joint isokinetic resistance training increased 1RM strength in the bench press (by

  5. Aging influences adaptations of the neuromuscular junction to endurance training.

    PubMed

    Deschenes, M R; Roby, M A; Glass, E K

    2011-09-08

    This investigation sought to determine if aging affected adaptations of the neuromuscular junction (NMJ) to exercise training. Twenty young adult (8 months) and 20 aged (24 months) rats were assigned to either a program of treadmill exercise, or sedentary conditions. Following the 10-week experimental period, rats were euthanized, and soleus and plantaris muscles were removed and frozen. Longitudinal sections of the muscles were fluorescently stained to visualize pre-synaptic nerve terminals and post-synaptic endplates on both slow- and fast-twitch fibers. Images were collected with confocal microscopy and quantified. Muscle cross-sections were histochemically stained to assess muscle fiber profiles (size and fiber type). Our analysis of NMJs revealed a high degree of specificity and sensitivity to aging, exercise training, and their interaction. In the soleus, slow-twitch NMJs demonstrated significant (P ≤ 0.05) training-induced adaptations in young adult, but not aged rats. In the fast-twitch NMJs of the soleus, aging, but not training, was associated with remodeling. In the plantaris, aging, but not training, remodeled the predominant fast-twitch NMJs, but only pre-synaptically. In contrast, the slow-twitch NMJs of the plantaris displayed morphologic adaptations to both aging and exercise in pre- and post-synaptic components. Muscle fiber profiles indicated that changes in NMJ size were unrelated to adaptations of their fibers. Our data show that aging interferes with the ability of NMJs to adapt to exercise training. Results also reveal complexity in the coordination of synaptic responses among different muscles, and different fiber types within muscles, in their adaptation to aging and exercise training.

  6. Handgrip and general muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bedrest with isometric and isotonic leg exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Starr, J. C.; Van Beaumont, W.; Convertino, V. A.

    1983-01-01

    Measurements of maximal grip strength and endurance at 40 percent max strength were obtained for 7 men 19-21 years of age, 1-2 days before and on the first recovery day during three 2-week bedrest (BR) periods, each separated by a 3-week ambulatory recovery period. The subjects performed isometric exercise (IME) for 1 hr/day, isotonic exercise (ITE) for 1 hr/day, and no exercise (NOE) in the three BR periods. It was found that the mean maximal grip strength was unchanged after all three BR periods. Mean grip endurance was found to be unchanged after IME and ITE training, but was significantly reduced after NOE. These results indicate that IME and ITE training during BR do not increase or decrease maximal grip strength, alghough they prevent loss of grip endurance, while the maximal strength of all other major muscle groups decreases in proportion to the length of BR to 70 days. The maximal strength reduction of the large muscle groups was found to be about twice that of the small muscle groups during BR. In addition, it is shown that changes in maximal strength after spaceflight, BR, or water immersion deconditioning cannot be predicted from changes in submaximal or maximal oxygen uptake values.

  7. Endurance training for elderly women: moderate vs low intensity.

    PubMed

    Foster, V L; Hume, G J; Byrnes, W C; Dickinson, A L; Chatfield, S J

    1989-11-01

    This investigation evaluated the efficacy of training at moderate-60% Maximal Heart Rate Reserve, HRRmax, (MOD) and low-40% HRRmax (LOW) intensities in a population of older American women (N = 16, mean age = 78.4 years). Prior to and immediately following a 10-week training program consisting of exercising at the prescribed heart-rate intensity with a caloric expenditure of 100 calories, the following measurements were performed: Maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max), Maximal Lactate Production (HLAmax), Maximal Heart Rate (HRmax), Maximal Workstage (WSmax), Total Cholesterol (TOTC), High Density Lipoprotein Cholesterol (HDLC), and Rate Pressure Product Max (RPPmax). Significant differences, p less than .05, were noted pre- to post-training for measures of VO2max, whether expressed in 1.min-1 or ml.kg-1.min-1, and WSmax. No statistical differences existed between the groups pre- or post-training for these measures. The results suggest that the low-intensity exercise prescription provides an adequate training stimulus for older women who have been sedentary and who might be at higher risk for cardiac or musculoskeletal injury, particularly at the initiation of an exercise program.

  8. Faster heart rate and muscular oxygen uptake kinetics in type 2 diabetes patients following endurance training.

    PubMed

    Koschate, Jessica; Drescher, Uwe; Brinkmann, Christian; Baum, Klaus; Schiffer, Thorsten; Latsch, Joachim; Brixius, Klara; Hoffmann, Uwe

    2016-11-01

    Cardiorespiratory kinetics were analyzed in type 2 diabetes patients before and after a 12-week endurance exercise-training intervention. It was hypothesized that muscular oxygen uptake and heart rate (HR) kinetics would be faster after the training intervention and that this would be detectable using a standardized work rate protocol with pseudo-random binary sequences. The cardiorespiratory kinetics of 13 male sedentary, middle-aged, overweight type 2 diabetes patients (age, 60 ± 8 years; body mass index, 33 ± 4 kg·m(-2)) were tested before and after the 12-week exercise intervention. Subjects performed endurance training 3 times a week on nonconsecutive days. Pseudo-random binary sequences exercise protocols in combination with time series analysis were used to estimate kinetics. Greater maxima in cross-correlation functions (CCFmax) represent faster kinetics of the respective parameter. CCFmax of muscular oxygen uptake (pre-training: 0.31 ± 0.03; post-training: 0.37 ± 0.1, P = 0.024) and CCFmax of HR (pre-training: 0.25 ± 0.04; post-training: 0.29 ± 0.06, P = 0.007) as well as peak oxygen uptake (pre-training: 24.4 ± 4.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1); post-training: 29.3 ± 6.5 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1), P = 0.004) increased significantly over the course of the exercise intervention. In conclusion, kinetic responses to changing work rates in the moderate-intensity range are similar to metabolic demands occurring in everyday habitual activities. Moderate endurance training accelerated the kinetic responses of HR and muscular oxygen uptake. Furthermore, the applicability of the used method to detect these accelerations was demonstrated.

  9. Effect of endurance training on cardiac morphology in Alaskan sled dogs.

    PubMed

    Stepien, R L; Hinchcliff, K W; Constable, P D; Olson, J

    1998-10-01

    The cardiac morphology of 77 conscious Alaskan sled dogs before and after 5 mo of endurance training (20 km/day team pulling a sled and musher) was studied using two-dimensional and M-mode echocardiography. Subgroups included dogs with at least one season of previous training ("veterans") and dogs undergoing their first season of training ("rookies"). Training resulted in a significant (P < 0.05) decrease in resting heart rate (-15%) and significant increases in interventricular septal thickness (systole, 15%; diastole, 13%), left ventricular (LV) internal dimension in diastole (LVIDd, 4%), LV free wall thickness in systole (9%) and diastole (LVWd, 9%), and left atrial diameter (5%) in all dogs, but the increase in LVWd was greater in rookies (16%) than in veterans (7%). Training increased end-diastolic volume index (8%), LV mass index (24%), and heart weight index (24%) and decreased the LVIDd-to-LVWd ratio (-6%) but did not alter cardiac index. We conclude that increased LV mass attributable to LV dilation and hypertrophy is associated with endurance training in Alaskan sled dogs. Disproportionate LV wall thickening accompanying LV dilation suggests that cardiac morphological changes are due to volume and pressure loading. These training-induced changes are similar to those documented in human athletes undergoing combined isometric and isotonic training and differ from studies of dogs trained on treadmills.

  10. Quantification of Training and Competition Loads in Endurance Sports: Methods and Applications.

    PubMed

    Mujika, Iñigo

    2016-12-05

    Training quantification is basic to evaluate an endurance athlete's responses to the training loads, ensure adequate stress/recovery balance and determine the relationship between training and performance. Quantifying both external and internal workload is important, because the external workload does not measure the biological stress imposed by the exercise sessions. Generally used quantification methods include retrospective questionnaires, diaries, direct observation and physiological monitoring, often based on the measurement of oxygen uptake, heart rate and blood lactate concentration. Other methods in use in endurance sports include speed measurement and the measurement of power output, made possible by recent technological advances, such as power meters in cycling and triathlon. Among subjective methods of quantification the RPE stands out because of its wide use. Concurrent assessments of the various quantification methods allow researchers and practitioners to evaluate stress/recovery balance, adjust individual training programmes and determine the relationships between external load, internal load and athletes' performance. This brief review summarizes the most relevant external and internal workload quantification methods in endurance sports, and provides practical examples of their implementation to adjust the training programmes of elite athletes in accordance to their individualized stress/recovery balance.

  11. Endurance training enhances vasodilation induced by nitric oxide in human skin.

    PubMed

    Boegli, Yann; Gremion, Gerald; Golay, Sandrine; Kubli, Sandrine; Liaudet, Lucas; Leyvraz, Pierre-François; Waeber, Bernard; Feihl, François

    2003-11-01

    Endurance training modifies the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow, as manifested by a greater augmentation of skin perfusion for the same increase in core temperature in athletes, in comparison with sedentary subjects. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that a component of this adaptation might reside in a higher ability of cutaneous blood vessels to respond to vasodilatory stimuli. We recruited healthy nonsmoking males, either endurance trained or sedentary, in two different age ranges (18-35 y and >50 y). Skin blood flow was measured in the forearm skin, using a laser Doppler imager, allowing to record the vasodilatory responses to the following stimuli: iontophoresis of acetylcholine (an endothelium-dependent vasodilator), iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside (a nitric oxide donor), and release of a temporary interruption of arterial inflow (reactive hyperemia). There was no effect of training on reactive hyperemia or the response to acetylcholine. In contrast, the increase in perfusion following the iontophoresis of sodium nitroprusside, expressed in perfusion units, was larger in trained than in sedentary subjects (younger: 398 +/- 54 vs 350 +/- 87, p < 0.05; older 339 +/- 72 vs 307 +/- 66, p < 0.05). In conclusion, endurance training enhances the vasodilatory effects of nitric oxide in the human dermal microcirculation, at least in forearm skin. These observations have considerable physiologic interest in view of recent data indicating that nitric oxide mediates in part the cutaneous vasodilation induced by heat stress in humans. Therefore, the augmentation of nitric oxide bioactivity in the dermal microcirculation might be one mechanism whereby endurance training modifies the thermoregulatory control of skin blood flow.

  12. Neuromuscular Characteristics of Endurance--And Power-Trained Athletes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koceja, David M.; Davison, Edwin; Robertson, Christopher T.

    2004-01-01

    In response to chronic physical training, the human neuromuscular system undergoes significant and specific adaptations. More importantly, these influences are the result of the type and quantity of physical activity. One of the simplest neuromuscular mechanisms is the spinal stretch reflex. The reflex system was previously viewed as inflexible,…

  13. A multidisciplinary approach to overreaching detection in endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Le Meur, Yann; Hausswirth, Christophe; Natta, Françoise; Couturier, Antoine; Bignet, Frank; Vidal, Pierre Paul

    2013-02-01

    In sport, high training load required to reach peak performance pushes human adaptation to their limits. In that process, athletes may experience general fatigue, impaired performance, and may be identified as overreached (OR). When this state lasts for several months, an overtraining syndrome is diagnosed (OT). Until now, no variable per se can detect OR, a requirement to prevent the transition from OR to OT. It encouraged us to further investigate OR using a multivariate approach, including physiological, biomechanical, cognitive, and perceptive monitoring. Twenty-four highly trained triathletes were separated into an overload group and a normo-trained group (NT) during 3 wk of training. Given the decrement of their running performance, 11 triathletes were diagnosed as OR after this period. A discriminant analysis showed that the changes of eight parameters measured during a maximal incremental test could explain 98.2% of the OR state (lactatemia, heart rate, biomechanical parameters and effort perception). Variations in heart rate and lactatemia were the two most discriminating factors. When the multifactorial analysis was restricted to these variables, the classification score reached 89.5%. Catecholamines and creatine kinase concentrations at rest did not change significantly in both groups. Running pattern was preserved and cognitive performance decrement was observed only at exhaustion in OR subjects. This study showed that monitoring various variables is required to prevent the transition between NT and OR. It emphasized that an OR index, which combines heart rate and blood lactate concentration changes after a strenuous training period, could be helpful to routinely detect OR.

  14. Effects of combined strength and endurance training on treadmill load carrying walking performance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, Jarkko; Häkkinen, Arja; Karavirta, Laura; Nyman, Kai; Izquierdo, Mikel; Gorostiaga, Esteban M; Avela, Janne; Korhonen, Janne; Knuutila, Veli-Pekka; Kraemer, William J; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2010-06-01

    The present study examined the effects of twice weekly total body strength training (ST), endurance cycling (ET), and combined ST and ET (2+2 times a week) (SET) training on the load carrying walking test performance on the treadmill (TM) and changes in neuromuscular and endurance performance during a 21-week training period in aging men. Forty healthy men (54.8+/-8.0 years) were divided into 3 training groups (ET n=9, ST n=11, SET n=11) and a control group (C, n=9). Peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak), heart rate, and blood lactate concentration were measured before and after a 21-week training program using a graded TM and maximal incremental bicycle ergometer (BE) tests. Isometric forces, vertical jump, and electromyographic activity of leg extensor and/or forearm flexor (F) muscles were measured before and after training and the TM tests. Increases of 20-21% in strength and of 7-12% in cycling BE VO2peak occurred in the training groups, whereas the changes of C remained minor. VO2peak was associated, both before and after training, with TM exercise time in all groups (from r=0.65, p=0.030 to r=0.93, p<0.001). Only SET showed a significant training-induced increase (p=0.011) in exercise time of the TM walking with no significant increase in TM VO2peak. The present data suggest that in older men ET and SET induced specific increases in BE VO2peak and ST and SET in strength. However, only SET increased walking exercise time indicating improved load carrying walking performance because of large individual differences in the magnitude of the development of either strength or endurance capacities.

  15. Regulation of ubiquitin proteasome pathway molecular markers in response to endurance and resistance exercise and training.

    PubMed

    Stefanetti, Renae J; Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2015-07-01

    Knowledge on the effects of divergent exercise on ostensibly protein degradation pathways may be valuable for counteracting muscle wasting and for understanding muscle remodelling. This study examined mRNA and/or protein levels of molecular markers of the ubiquitin proteasome pathway (UPP), including FBXO32 (atrogin-1), MURF-1, FBXO40, FOXO1 and FOXO3. Protein substrates of atrogin-1-including EIF3F, MYOG and MYOD1-and of MURF-1-including PKM and MHC-were also measured. Subjects completed 10 weeks of endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT) followed by a single-bout of endurance exercise (EE) or resistance exercise (RE). Following training, atrogin-1, FBXO40, FOXO1 and FOXO3 mRNA increased independently of exercise mode, whereas MURF-1 mRNA and FOXO3 protein increased following ET only. No change in other target proteins occurred post-training. In the trained state, single-bout EE, but not RE, increased atrogin-1, MURF-1, FBXO40, FOXO1, FOXO3 mRNA and FOXO3 protein. In contrast to EE, FBXO40 mRNA and protein decreased following single-bout RE. MURF-1 and FOXO1 protein levels as well as the protein substrates of atrogin-1 and MURF-1 were unchanged following training and single-bout exercise. This study demonstrates that the intracellular signals elicited by ET and RT result in an upregulation of UPP molecular markers, with a greater increase following ET. However, in the trained state, the expression levels of UPP molecular markers are increased following single-bout EE, but are less responsive to single-bout RE. This suggests that adaptations following endurance exercise training are more reliant on protein UPP degradation processes than adaptations following resistance exercise training.

  16. Regulation of the STARS signaling pathway in response to endurance and resistance exercise and training.

    PubMed

    Lamon, Séverine; Wallace, Marita A; Stefanetti, Renae J; Rahbek, Stine K; Vendelbo, Mikkel H; Russell, Aaron P; Vissing, Kristian

    2013-09-01

    The striated muscle activator of Rho signaling (STARS) protein and members of its downstream signaling pathway, including myocardin-related transcription factor-A (MRTF-A) and SRF, are increased in response to prolonged resistance exercise training but also following a single bout of endurance cycling. The aim of the present study was to measure and compare the regulation of STARS, MRTF-A and SRF mRNA and protein following 10 weeks of endurance training (ET) versus resistance training (RT), as well as before and following a single bout of endurance (EE) versus resistance exercise (RE). Following prolonged training, STARS, MRTF-A and SRF mRNA levels were all increased by similar magnitude, irrespective of training type. In the training-habituated state, STARS mRNA increased following a single-bout RE when measured 2.5 and 5 h post-exercise and had returned to resting level by 22 h following exercise. MRTF-A and SRF mRNA levels were decreased by 2.5, 5, and 22 h following a single bout of RE and EE exercise when compared to their respective basal levels, with no significant difference seen between the groups at any of the time points. No changes in protein levels were observed following the two modes of exercise training or a single bout of exercise. This study demonstrates that the stress signals elicited by ET and RT result in a comparable regulation of members of the STARS pathway. In contrast, a single bout of EE and RE, performed in the trained state, elicit different responses. These observations suggest that in the trained state, the acute regulation of the STARS pathway following EE or RE may be responsible for exercise-specific muscle adaptations.

  17. The Impact of Endurance Training on Human Skeletal Muscle Memory, Global Isoform Expression and Novel Transcripts

    PubMed Central

    Lindholm, Maléne E; Giacomello, Stefania; Werne Solnestam, Beata; Kjellqvist, Sanela

    2016-01-01

    Regularly performed endurance training has many beneficial effects on health and skeletal muscle function, and can be used to prevent and treat common diseases e.g. cardiovascular disease, type II diabetes and obesity. The molecular adaptation mechanisms regulating these effects are incompletely understood. To date, global transcriptome changes in skeletal muscles have been studied at the gene level only. Therefore, global isoform expression changes following exercise training in humans are unknown. Also, the effects of repeated interventions on transcriptional memory or training response have not been studied before. In this study, 23 individuals trained one leg for three months. Nine months later, 12 of the same subjects trained both legs in a second training period. Skeletal muscle biopsies were obtained from both legs before and after both training periods. RNA sequencing analysis of all 119 skeletal muscle biopsies showed that training altered the expression of 3,404 gene isoforms, mainly associated with oxidative ATP production. Fifty-four genes had isoforms that changed in opposite directions. Training altered expression of 34 novel transcripts, all with protein-coding potential. After nine months of detraining, no training-induced transcriptome differences were detected between the previously trained and untrained legs. Although there were several differences in the physiological and transcriptional responses to repeated training, no coherent evidence of an endurance training induced transcriptional skeletal muscle memory was found. This human lifestyle intervention induced differential expression of thousands of isoforms and several transcripts from unannotated regions of the genome. It is likely that the observed isoform expression changes reflect adaptational mechanisms and processes that provide the functional and health benefits of regular physical activity. PMID:27657503

  18. Effect of Endurance Cardiovascular Training Intensity on Erectile Dysfunction Severity in Men With Ischemic Heart Disease.

    PubMed

    Kalka, Dariusz; Domagala, Zygmunt A; Kowalewski, Piotr; Rusiecki, Leslaw; Koleda, Piotr; Marciniak, Wojciech; Dworak, Jacek; Adamus, Jerzy; Wojcieszczyk, Joanna; Pyke, Edel; Pilecki, Witold

    2015-09-01

    The protective effect of physical activity on arteries is not limited to coronary vessels, but extends to the whole arterial system, including arteries, in which endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerotic changes are one of the key factors affecting erectile dysfunction development. The objective of this study was to report whether the endurance training intensity and training-induced chronotropic response are linked with a change in erectile dysfunction intensity in men with ischemic heart disease. A total of 150 men treated for ischemic heart disease, who suffered from erectile dysfunction, were analyzed. The study group consisted of 115 patients who were subjected to a cardiac rehabilitation program. The control group consisted of 35 patients who were not subjected to any cardiac rehabilitation. An IIEF-5 (International Index of Erectile Function) questionnaire was used for determining erectile dysfunction before and after cardiac rehabilitation. Cardiac training intensity was objectified by parameters describing work of endurance training. The mean initial intensity of erectile dysfunction in the study group was 12.46 ± 6.01 (95% confidence interval [CI] = 11.35-13.57). Final erectile dysfunction intensity (EDI) assessed after the cardiac rehabilitation program in the study group was 14.35 ± 6.88 (95% CI = 13.08-15.62), and it was statistically significantly greater from initial EDI. Mean final training work was statistically significantly greater than mean initial training work. From among the parameters describing training work, none were related significantly to reduction of EDI. In conclusion, cardiac rehabilitation program-induced improvement in erection severity is not correlated with endurance training intensity. Chronotropic response during exercise may be used for initial assessment of change in cardiac rehabilitation program-induced erection severity.

  19. Paired changes in electromechanical delay and musculo-tendinous stiffness after endurance or plyometric training.

    PubMed

    Grosset, Jean-Francois; Piscione, Julien; Lambertz, Daniel; Pérot, Chantal

    2009-01-01

    When measured in vivo electromechanical delay (EMD) depends mainly on the elastic properties of the muscle-tendon unit. Recent studies have shown changes in stiffness of the triceps surae (TS) following a period of training. To confirm the influence of musculo-tendinous stiffness on EMD, this study investigates paired changes in these two parameters after a training period. Two types of training known to induce opposite changes in stiffness were analysed. EMD and musculo-tendinous stiffness were measured on adult subjects before and after 10 weeks of endurance (n = 21) or plyometric (n = 9) trainings. EMD was defined as the time lag between the TS M-wave latency and the onset of muscle twitch evoked at rest by supramaximal electrical stimulations of the posterior tibial nerve. Quick release tests were used to evaluate the musculo-tendinous stiffness of the ankle plantar flexors. The stiffness index was defined as the slope of the relationship between angular stiffness and external torque values. Endurance training, known to preferentially activate the slow, stiffer muscle fibers, leads to a decrease in EMD and to an increase in stiffness index. Following plyometric training, which specifically recruits fast, more compliant fibers, EMD and the stiffness index exhibited adaptations directionally opposite to those seen with endurance training. When pooling the data for the two subject groups, a correlation was found between changes in EMD and changes in musculo-tendinous stiffness indexes. Thus, changes in EMD values are proposed to indirectly link to changes in musculo-tendinous stiffness for subjects involved in muscle training.

  20. Satellite cell response to erythropoietin treatment and endurance training in healthy young men

    PubMed Central

    Hoedt, Andrea; Christensen, Britt; Nellemann, Birgitte; Mikkelsen, Ulla Ramer; Hansen, Mette; Schjerling, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Key point Erythropoietin (Epo) treatment may induce myogenic differentiation factor (MyoD) expression and prevent apoptosis in satellite cells (SCs) in murine and in vitro models.Endurance training stimulates SC proliferation in vivo in murine and human skeletal muscle.In the present study, we show, in human skeletal muscle, that treatment with an Epo‐stimulating agent (darbepoetin‐α) in vivo increases the content of MyoD+ SCs in healthy young men. Moreover, we report that Epo receptor mRNA is expressed in adult human SCs, suggesting that Epo may directly target SCs through ligand‐receptor interaction.Moreover, endurance training, but not Epo treatment, increases the SC content in type II myofibres, as well as the content of MyoD+ SCs.Collectively, our results suggest that Epo treatment can regulate human SCs in vivo, supported by Epo receptor mRNA expression in human SCs. In effect, long‐term Epo treatment during disease conditions involving anaemia may impact SCs and warrants further investigation. Abstract Satellite cell (SC) proliferation is observed following erythropoitin treatment in vitro in murine myoblasts and endurance training in vivo in human skeletal muscle. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of prolonged erythropoiesis‐stimulating agent (ESA; darbepoetin‐α) treatment and endurance training, separately and combined, on SC quantity and commitment in human skeletal muscle. Thirty‐five healthy, untrained men were randomized into four groups: sedentary‐placebo (SP, n = 9), sedentary‐ESA (SE, n = 9), training‐placebo (TP, n = 9) or training‐ESA (TE, n = 8). ESA/placebo was injected once weekly and training consisted of ergometer cycling three times a week for 10 weeks. Prior to and following the intervention period, blood samples and muscle biopsies were obtained and maximal oxygen uptake (V˙O2, max ) was measured. Immunohistochemical analyses were used to quantify fibre type specific SCs (Pax7+), myonuclei

  1. Effect of Progressive Volume-Based Overload During Plyometric Training on Explosive and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Burgos, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Zapata, Daniel; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Baez, Eduardo I; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Peñailillo, Luis; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of the study was to compare the effects of progressive volume-based overload with constant volume-based overload on muscle explosive and endurance performance adaptations during a biweekly short-term (i.e., 6 weeks) plyometric training intervention in young soccer players. Three groups of young soccer players (age 13.0 ± 2.3 years) were divided into: control (CG; n = 8) and plyometric training with (PPT; n = 8) and without (NPPT; n = 8) a progressive increase in volume (i.e., 16 jumps per leg per week, with an initial volume of 80 jumps per leg each session). Bilateral and unilateral horizontal and vertical countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index (RSI20), maximal kicking velocity (MKV), 10-m sprint, change of direction speed (CODS), and Yo-Yo intermittent recovery level 1 test (Yo-Yo IR1) were measured. Although both experimental groups significantly increased CMJA, RSI20, CODS, and endurance performance, only PPT showed a significant improvement in MKV and 10-m sprint time. In addition, only PPT showed a significantly higher performance improvement in jumping, MKV, and Yo-Yo IR1 compared with CG. Also, PPT showed higher meaningful improvement compared with NPPT in all (except 1) jump performance measures. Furthermore, although PPT involved a higher total volume compared with NPPT, training efficiency (i.e., percentage change in performance/total jump volume) was similar between groups. Our results show that PPT and NPPT ensured significant improvement in muscle explosive and endurance performance measures. However, a progressive increase in plyometric training volume seems more advantageous to induce soccer-specific performance improvements.

  2. Single and Concurrent Effects of Endurance and Resistance Training on Pulmonary Function

    PubMed Central

    Khosravi, Maryam; Tayebi, Seyed Morteza; Safari, Hamed

    2013-01-01

    Objective(s): As not only few evidences but also contradictory results exist with regard to the effects of resistance training (RT) and resistance plus endurance training (ERT) on respiratory system, so the purpose of this research was therefore to study single and concurrent effects of endurance and resistance training on pulmonary function. Materials and Methods: Thirty seven volunteer healthy inactive women were randomly divided into 4 groups: without training as control (C), Endurance Training (ET), RT, and ERT. A spirometry test was taken 24 hrs before and after the training course. The training period (8 weeks, 3 sessions/week) for ET was 20-26 min/session running with 60-80% maximum heart rate (HR max); for RT two circuits/session, 40-60s for each exercise with 60-80% one repetition maximum (1RM), and 1 and 3 minutes active rest between exercises and circuits respectively; and for ERT was in agreement with either ET or RT protocols, but the times of running and circuits were half of ET and RT. Results: ANCOVA showed that ET and ERT increased significantly (P< 0.05) vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), and forced expiratory flows to 25%-75%; ET, RT and ERT increased significantly (P< 0.05) maximum voluntary ventilation (MVV); and only ET increased significantly (P<0.05) peak expiratory flows (PEF); but ET, RT and ERT had no significant effect (P>0.05) on forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1) and FEV1/FVC ratio. Conclusion: In conclusion, ET combined with RT (ERT) has greater effect on VC, FVC, FEF rating at25%-75%, and also on PEF except MVV, rather than RT, and just ET has greater effect rather than ERT. PMID:24250940

  3. Energy expenditure and dietary intake during high-volume and low-volume training periods among male endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Drenowatz, Clemens; Eisenmann, Joey C; Carlson, Joseph J; Pfeiffer, Karin A; Pivarnik, James M

    2012-04-01

    The primary purpose of this study was to examine dietary intake in endurance-trained athletes during a week of high-volume and a week of low-volume training while measuring exercise energy expenditure (EEE), resting metabolic rate (RMR), and nonexercise activity thermogenesis (NEAT). In addition, compliance with current American College of Sports Medicine/American Dietetic Association nutrition and performance recommendations for macronutrients was evaluated. Energy expenditure and dietary intake were measured in 15 male endurance athletes during 2 nonconsecutive weeks resembling a high-volume and a low-volume training period. Anthropometric measurements were taken and percentage body fat was determined at the beginning and end of each week of training. Total daily energy expenditure (TDEE) was calculated by summing RMR, NEAT, and EEE. Dietary intake was assessed with an online food-frequency questionnaire completed at the end of each week of data collection. Despite significant differences between TDEE and energy intake, no difference in body composition between the beginning and end of either week of training was observed, suggesting underreporting of caloric intake. Further, no changes in total caloric intake or macronutrient intake occurred even though TDEE increased significantly during the high-volume training. Reported carbohydrate intake (4.5 g·kg(-1)) and fiber intake (25 g·day(-1)) were below recommendations, whereas fat intake (1.3 g·kg(-1)) was slightly above recommendations. In summary, no short-term dietary adjustments occurred in response to differences in training regimen. Because these athletes were generally consuming a Western diet, they may have required some support to achieve desirable intakes for health and performance.

  4. Increased intramuscular lipid synthesis and low saturation relate to insulin sensitivity in endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bergman, Bryan C; Perreault, Leigh; Hunerdosse, Devon M; Koehler, Mary C; Samek, Ali M; Eckel, Robert H

    2010-05-01

    Intramuscular triglyceride (IMTG) has received considerable attention as a potential mechanism promoting insulin resistance. Endurance-trained athletes have high amounts of IMTG but are insulin sensitive, suggesting IMTG content alone does not change insulin action. Recent data suggest increased muscle lipid synthesis protects against fat-induced insulin resistance. We hypothesized that rates of IMTG synthesis at rest would be increased in athletes compared with controls. Eleven sedentary men and 11 endurance-trained male cyclists participated in this study. An intravenous glucose tolerance test was performed to assess insulin action. After 3 days of dietary control and an overnight fast, [13C16]palmitate was infused at 0.0174 micromol.kg(-1).min(-1) for 4 h, followed by a muscle biopsy to measure isotope incorporation into IMTG and diacylglycerol. Compared with controls, athletes were twice as insulin sensitive (P=0.004) and had a significantly greater resting IMTG concentration (athletes: 20.4+/-1.6 microg IMTG/mg dry wt, controls: 14.5+/-1.8 microg IMTG/mg dry wt, P=0.04) and IMTG fractional synthesis rate (athletes: 1.56+/-0.37%/h, controls: 0.61+/-0.15%/h, P=0.03). Stearoyl-CoA desaturase 1 mRNA expression (P=0.02) and protein content (P=0.03) were also significantly greater in athletes. Diacylglycerol, but not IMTG, saturation was significantly less in athletes compared with controls (P=0.002). These data indicate endurance-trained athletes have increased synthesis rates of skeletal muscle IMTG and decreased saturation of skeletal muscle diacylglycerol. Increased synthesis rates are not due to recovery from exercise and are likely adaptations to chronic endurance exercise training.

  5. Effects of Heavy Strength Training on Running Performance and Determinants of Running Performance in Female Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Vikmoen, Olav; Raastad, Truls; Seynnes, Olivier; Bergstrøm, Kristoffer; Ellefsen, Stian; Rønnestad, Bent R.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of the current study was to investigate the effects of adding strength training to normal endurance training on running performance and running economy in well-trained female athletes. We hypothesized that the added strength training would improve performance and running economy through altered stiffness of the muscle-tendon complex of leg extensors. Methods Nineteen female endurance athletes [maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max): 53±3 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, 5.8 h weekly endurance training] were randomly assigned to either normal endurance training (E, n = 8) or normal endurance training combined with strength training (E+S, n = 11). The strength training consisted of four leg exercises [3 x 4–10 repetition maximum (RM)], twice a week for 11 weeks. Muscle strength, 40 min all-out running distance, running performance determinants and patellar tendon stiffness were measured before and after the intervention. Results E+S increased 1RM in leg exercises (40 ± 15%) and maximal jumping height in counter movement jump (6 ± 6%) and squat jump (9 ± 7%, p < 0.05). This was accompanied by increased muscle fiber cross sectional area of both fiber type I (13 ± 7%) and fiber type II (31 ± 20%) in m. vastus lateralis (p < 0.05), with no change in capillary density in m. vastus lateralis or the stiffness of the patellar tendon. Neither E+S nor E changed running economy, fractional utilization of VO2max or VO2max. There were also no change in running distance during a 40 min all-out running test in neither of the groups. Conclusion Adding heavy strength training to endurance training did not affect 40 min all-out running performance or running economy compared to endurance training only. PMID:26953893

  6. The effect of training during treatment with chemotherapy on muscle strength and endurance capacity: A systematic review.

    PubMed

    Van Moll, Christel C A; Schep, Goof; Vreugdenhil, Art; Savelberg, Hans H C M; Husson, Olga

    2016-05-01

    Background Treatment of cancer with chemotherapy decreases endurance capacity and muscle strength. Training during chemotherapy might prevent this. There are no clear guidelines concerning which type of training and which training dose are effective. This review aims to gain insight into the different training modalities during chemotherapy and the effects of such training to improve endurance capacity and muscle strength in order to obtain the knowledge to compose a future training program which trains cancer patients in the most effective way. Material and methods A systematic search of PubMed was carried out. In total, 809 studies of randomized controlled trials studying the effects of training during chemotherapy on endurance capacity and muscle strength were considered. Only 14 studies met all the inclusion criteria. The studies were assessed on methodological quality by using Cochrane criteria for randomized controlled trials. Results The quality of the studies was generally poor and the study populations varied considerably as the training programs were very heterogeneous. Variables of endurance capacity reported beneficial effects in 10 groups (59%). Increases due to training ranged from 8% to 31%. Endurance capacity decreased in nine of 13 control groups (69%), which ranged from 1% to 32%. Muscle strength improved significantly in 17 of 18 intervention groups (94%), ranging from 2% to 38%. Muscle strength also improved in 11 of 14 control groups (79%), but this increase was only minimal, ranging from 1.3% to 6.5%. Conclusions This review indicates that training during chemotherapy may help in preventing the decrease in muscle strength and endurance capacity. It is important to know which training intensity and duration is the most effective in training cancer patients, to provide a training program suitable for every cancer patient. Training should be based on good research and should be implemented into international guidelines and daily practice. More

  7. Verification Testing to Confirm VO2max in Altitude-Residing, Endurance-Trained Runners.

    PubMed

    Weatherwax, R M; Richardson, T B; Beltz, N M; Nolan, P B; Dalleck, L

    2016-06-01

    We sought to explore the utility of the verification trial to confirm individual attainment of 'true' VO2max in altitude-residing, endurance-trained runners during treadmill exercise. 24 elite endurance-trained men and women runners (age=21.5±3.3 yr, ht=174.8±9.3 cm, body mass=60.5±6.7 kg, PR 800 m 127.5±13.1 s) completed a graded exercise test (GXT) trial (VO2max=60.0±5.8 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)), and returned 20 min after incremental exercise to complete a verification trial (VO2max=59.6±5.7 mL·kg(-1)·min(-1)) of constant load, supramaximal exercise. The incidence of 'true' VO2max confirmation using the verification trial was 24/24 (100%) with all participants revealing differences in VO2max≤3% (the technical error of our equipment) between the GXT and verification trials. These findings support use of the verification trial to confirm VO2max attainment in altitude-residing, endurance-trained runners.

  8. Endurance training and insulin therapy need to be associated to fully exert their respective beneficial effects on oxidant stress and glycemic regulation in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Malardé, L; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Le Douairon-Lahaye, S; Zguira, M S; Vincent, S; Lemoine-Morel, S; Groussard, C

    2014-04-01

    In type 1 diabetic subjects, hyperglycemia-induced oxidant stress (OS) plays a central role in the onset and development of diabetes complications. This study aimed to assess the benefits of an endurance training program and insulin therapy, alone or in combination, on the glycemic regulation, markers for OS, and antioxidant system in diabetic rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into diabetic (D), insulin-treated diabetic (D-Ins), diabetic trained (D-Tr), or insulin-treated diabetic trained (D-Ins+ Tr) groups. An additional healthy group served as control group. Insulin therapy (Lantus, insulin glargine, Sanofi) and endurance training (a treadmill run of 60 min/day, 25 m/min, 5 days/week) were initiated 1 week after streptozotocin-induced diabetes (45 mg/kg) and lasted for 8 weeks. At the end of the protocol, blood glucose and fructosamine levels, markers for skeletal muscle OS (CML, isoprostanes, GSH/GSSG) and antioxidant system (SOD and GPx activity, ORAC) were assessed. In diabetic rats, the glycemic control was altered and OS marker levels were increased, while the antioxidant system activity remained unchanged. Insulin treatment improved the glycemic regulation, the pro-antioxidant status, and contributed to the reduction of OS marker levels. Endurance training decreased OS marker levels without improving the antioxidant enzyme activity. Endurance training and insulin therapy acted independently (by different ways), but their association prolonged the insulin action and allowed a better adaptation of the antioxidant system. To conclude, our results demonstrate that combination of insulin treatment and endurance training leads to greater benefits on the glycemic regulation and oxidant status.

  9. Differential effects of endurance training and creatine depletion on regional mitochondrial adaptations in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed Central

    Roussel, D; Lhenry, F; Ecochard, L; Sempore, B; Rouanet, J L; Favier, R

    2000-01-01

    To examine the combined effects of 2-week endurance training and 3-week feeding with beta-guanidinopropionic acid (GPA) on regional adaptability of skeletal muscle mitochondria, intermyofibrillar mitochondria (IFM) and subsarcolemmal mitochondria (SSM) were isolated from quadriceps muscles of sedentary control, trained control, sedentary GPA-fed and trained GPA-fed rats. Mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation was assessed polarographically by using pyruvate plus malate, succinate (plus rotenone), and ascorbate plus N,N,N',N'-tetramethyl-p-phenylenediamine (TMPD) (plus antimycin) as respiratory substrates. Assays of cytochrome c oxidase and F(1)-ATPase activities were also performed. In sedentary control rats, IFM exhibited a higher oxidative capacity than SSM, whereas F(1)-ATPase activities were similar. Training increased the oxidative phosphorylation capacity of mitochondria with both pyruvate plus malate and ascorbate plus TMPD as substrates, with no differences between IFM and SSM. In contrast, the GPA diet mainly improved the overall SSM oxidative phosphorylation capacity, irrespective of the substrate used. Finally, the superimposition of training to feeding with GPA strongly increased both oxidase and enzymic activities in SSM, whereas no cumulative effects were found in IFM mitochondria. It therefore seems that endurance training and feeding with GPA, which are both known to alter the energetic status of the muscle cell, might mediate distinct biochemical adaptations in regional skeletal muscle mitochondria. PMID:10947970

  10. Acute antioxidant supplementation improves endurance performance in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Bentley, David J; Dank, Steven; Coupland, Rory; Midgley, Adrian; Spence, Ian

    2012-01-01

    This study examined the acute effects of a single dose of an antioxidant (AO; Lactaway® containing pycnogenol) on time to fatigue (TTF). Nine trained cyclists [mean ± SD age 35 ± 10 yrs; body mass 71.6 ± 10.2 kg; VO2 peak 63 ± 11 ml/kg/min] performed on two separate occasions a continuous protocol of 5 min at 50% of peak power output (PPO), 8 min at 70% of PPO, and then cycled to fatigue at 95% PPO. Four hours prior to the exercise protocol, the subjects consumed the supplement or a placebo (counterbalanced, double blind protocol). Cyclists, on average, rode for 80 s more in the Lactaway trial than they did in the placebo trial. There was considerable evidence (chances ≥94.5%) for substantial positive treatment effects for TTF and the other performance-related variables (excluding [BLa] at 95% PPO). Other studies are necessary to confirm these results and identify the mechanisms underlying the observed effects.

  11. Divergent cell signaling after short-term intensified endurance training in human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Benziane, Boubacar; Burton, Timothy J; Scanlan, Brendan; Galuska, Dana; Canny, Benedict J; Chibalin, Alexander V; Zierath, Juleen R; Stepto, Nigel K

    2008-12-01

    Endurance training represents one extreme in the continuum of skeletal muscle plasticity. The molecular signals elicited in response to acute and chronic exercise and the integration of multiple intracellular pathways are incompletely understood. We determined the effect of 10 days of intensified cycle training on signal transduction in nine inactive males in response to a 1-h acute bout of cycling at the same absolute workload (164 +/- 9 W). Muscle biopsies were taken at rest and immediately and 3 h after the acute exercise. The metabolic signaling pathways, including AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR), demonstrated divergent regulation by exercise after training. AMPK phosphorylation increased in response to exercise ( approximately 16-fold; P < 0.05), which was abrogated posttraining (P < 0.01). In contrast, mTOR phosphorylation increased in response to exercise ( approximately 2-fold; P < 0.01), which was augmented posttraining (P < 0.01) in the presence of increased mTOR expression (P < 0.05). Exercise elicited divergent effects on mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways after training, with exercise-induced extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2 phosphorylation being abolished (P < 0.01) and p38 MAPK maintained. Finally, calmodulin kinase II (CaMKII) exercise-induced phosphorylation and activity were maintained (P < 0.01), despite increased expression ( approximately 2-fold; P < 0.05). In conclusion, 10 days of intensified endurance training attenuated AMPK, ERK1/2, and mTOR, but not CaMKII and p38 MAPK signaling, highlighting molecular pathways important for rapid functional adaptations and maintenance in response to intensified endurance exercise and training.

  12. More resistant tendons obtained from the association of Heteropterys aphrodisiaca and endurance training

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Popular Brazilian medicine uses Heteropterys aphrodisiaca infusion as a tonic or stimulant, for the treatment of nervous debility and breakdown and for muscle and bone weakness. This study investigated the effects of Heteropterys aphrodisiaca infusion on the tendon properties and extracellular matrix of rats under endurance training. Methods Wistar rats were grouped as follows: CS- control sedentary, HS- H. aphrodisiaca sedentary, CT-control trained, HT- H. aphrodisiaca trained. The training protocol consisted in running on a motorized treadmill, five times a week, with weekly increase in treadmill speed and duration. Control groups received water while the HS and HT groups received H. aphrodisiaca infusion, daily, by gavage for the 8 weeks of training. Achilles tendons were frozen for biochemical and biomechanical analysis or preserved in Karnovsky's fixative, then processed for histomorphological analysis with light microscopy. Results Biomechanical analysis showed significant increase in maximum load, maximum stress, modulus of elasticity and stiffness of the HT animals' tendons. The metalloproteinase-2 activity was reduced in the HT group. The compression region of HT animals' tendons had a stronger and more intense metachromasy, which suggests an increase in glycosaminoglycan concentration in this region of the tendon. The most intense birefringence was observed in both compression and tension regions of HT animals' tendons, which may indicate a higher organizational level of collagen bundles. The hydroxyproline content increased in the HT group. Conclusions The association of endurance training with H. aphrodisiaca resulted in more organized collagen bundles and more resistant tendons to support higher loads from intense muscle contraction. Despite the clear anabolic effects of Heteropterys aphrodisiaca and the endurance exercise association, no side effects were observed, such as those found for synthetic anabolic androgenic steroids. PMID

  13. Endurance training prevents negative effects of the hypoxia mimetic dimethyloxalylglycine on cardiac and skeletal muscle function.

    PubMed

    Favier, Francois B; Britto, Florian A; Ponçon, Benjamin; Begue, Gwenaelle; Chabi, Beatrice; Reboul, Cyril; Meyer, Gregory; Py, Guillaume

    2016-02-15

    Hypoxic preconditioning is a promising strategy to prevent hypoxia-induced damages to several tissues. This effect is related to prior stabilization of the hypoxia-inducible factor-1α via inhibition of the prolyl-hydroxylases (PHDs), which are responsible for its degradation under normoxia. Although PHD inhibition has been shown to increase endurance performance in rodents, potential side effects of such a therapy have not been explored. Here, we investigated the effects of 1 wk of dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG) treatment (150 mg/kg) on exercise capacity, as well as on cardiac and skeletal muscle function in sedentary and endurance-trained rats. DMOG improved maximal aerobic velocity and endurance in both sedentary and trained rats. This effect was associated with an increase in red blood cells without significant alteration of skeletal muscle contractile properties. In sedentary rats, DMOG treatment resulted in enhanced left ventricle (LV) weight together with impairment in diastolic function, LV relaxation, and pulse pressure. Moreover, DMOG decreased maximal oxygen uptake (state 3) of isolated mitochondria from skeletal muscle. Importantly, endurance training reversed the negative effects of DMOG treatment on cardiac function and restored maximal mitochondrial oxygen uptake to the level of sedentary placebo-treated rats. In conclusion, we provide here evidence that the PHD inhibitor DMOG has detrimental influence on myocardial and mitochondrial function in healthy rats. However, one may suppose that the deleterious influence of PHD inhibition would be potentiated in patients with already poor physical condition. Therefore, the present results prompt us to take into consideration the potential side effects of PHD inhibitors when administrated to patients.

  14. Altitude training for elite endurance athletes: A review for the travel medicine practitioner.

    PubMed

    Flaherty, Gerard; O'Connor, Rory; Johnston, Niall

    2016-01-01

    High altitude training is regarded as an integral component of modern athletic preparation, especially for endurance sports such as middle and long distance running. It has rapidly achieved popularity among elite endurance athletes and their coaches. Increased hypoxic stress at altitude facilitates key physiological adaptations within the athlete, which in turn may lead to improvements in sea-level athletic performance. Despite much research in this area to date, the exact mechanisms which underlie such improvements remain to be fully elucidated. This review describes the current understanding of physiological adaptation to high altitude training and its implications for athletic performance. It also discusses the rationale and main effects of different training models currently employed to maximise performance. Athletes who travel to altitude for training purposes are at risk of suffering the detrimental effects of altitude. Altitude illness, weight loss, immune suppression and sleep disturbance may serve to limit athletic performance. This review provides an overview of potential problems which an athlete may experience at altitude, and offers specific training recommendations so that these detrimental effects are minimised.

  15. Cornu cervi pantotrichum supplementation improves physiological adaptions during intensive endurance training

    PubMed Central

    HUANG, Wen-Ching; HUANG, Chi-Chang; CHUANG, Hsiao-Li; CHIU, Chien-Chao; CHEN, Wen-Chyuan; HSU, Mei-Chich

    2017-01-01

    Cornu cervi pantotrichum (CCP), used in traditional Chinese medicine, is a well-known yang-invigorating agent with multifunctional bioactivities. We previously showed, through an acute exercise challenge, that short-term CCP supplementation improved physical activities and fatigue-associated biochemical indices. Questions about the long-term effects of CCP treatment on exercise performance and physical fatigue, as well as safety, with intensive exercise training need further research. ICR-strain mice were randomly assigned to three groups: (1) sedentary control and vehicle treatment (SC); (2) exercise training with vehicle treatment (ET); and (3) ET with CCP treatment at 4,108 mg/kg/day (ET+CCP). We assessed the physical performance, body compositions, and serum levels of lactate, ammonia, glucose and creatine kinase (CK) after an acute exercise challenge. The ET and ET+CCP groups had significantly increased grip strength and endurance swimming time, and decreased serum lactate and ammonia levels after the acute exercise challenge than the SC group. Moreover, serum ammonia and CK levels in the ET+CCP group were significantly decreased when compared to that of the ET only group. In regard to the body composition, the ET+CCP group inhibits the decrease in fat tissue, and related biochemical changes induced by the high intensity endurance training CCP supplementation combined with high-intensity endurance exercise could significantly improve the physiological adaptions related to fatigue or energy consumption and maintain the fat composition when compared to treatment with training only. Therefore, CCP may potentially improve the physiological adaptions in intensive exercise training. PMID:28163267

  16. Muscular endurance repetitions to predict bench press strength in men of different training levels.

    PubMed

    Mayhew, J L; Prinster, J L; Ware, J S; Zimmer, D L; Arabas, J R; Bemben, M G

    1995-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the accuracy of predicting maximal bench press (BP) strength (1-RM) from relative endurance performance in various groups of men. The subjects included untrained students (n = 35), resistance trained students (n = 28), college wrestlers (n = 21), soccer players (n = 22), football players (n = 51), high school students (n = 35), and resistance-trained middle-aged men (n = 24). Each subject performed a 1-RM test according to the same standard procedure. Within 4-10 days, the subject selected a weight to perform as many repetitions as possible to failure. Six relative endurance prediction equations produced validity coefficients of r = 0.86 to 0.98 in each group and r = 0.82 to 0.98 in the composite group (n = 220). In subjects completing < or = 10 repetitions-to-failure, three equations significantly overpredicted and two significantly underpredicted 1-RM scores. The Brzycki equation was the most accurate. In subjects completing > 10 repetitions to failure, three equations significantly overpredicted and three significantly underpredicted 1-RM scores. While caution should be used when employing relative muscular endurance performance to estimate 1-RM strength in the bench press, the average of two equations may reduce the error.

  17. Electrical and mechanical H(max)-to-M(max) ratio in power- and endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Maffiuletti, N A; Martin, A; Babault, N; Pensini, M; Lucas, B; Schieppati, M

    2001-01-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the mechanical and electromyographic (EMG) characteristics of soleus motor units activated during maximal H reflex and direct M response among subjects with different histories of physical activity. Power-trained athletes produced stronger twitches, with a higher rate of twitch tension buildup and relaxation, than their endurance counterparts for both maximal H-reflex and maximal M-wave responses. The maximal H-reflex-to-maximal M-wave ratios for both force output (twitch) and EMG wave amplitude were significantly lower in power-trained than endurance-trained athletes. However, power-trained athletes exhibited a significantly greater twitch-to-EMG ratio for the reflexly activated motor units with respect to the entire motor pool, whereas endurance-trained athletes had comparable twitch-to-EMG ratios for both reflexly and directly activated units. Power training increases the force output of the whole ensemble of the motor units, thereby compensating for the lower efficacy of the reflex transmission between Ia spindle afferent input and soleus alpha-motoneuron. On the other hand, the lower level of force evoked by the reflexly activated units in endurance-trained athletes is associated with a greater motor pool reflex excitability. Therefore, endurance-trained athletes produce the necessary force by recruitment of more slow-twitch units than do other subjects for comparable levels of force and type of task.

  18. Triceps surae muscle-tendon properties in older endurance- and sprint-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Stenroth, Lauri; Cronin, Neil J; Peltonen, Jussi; Korhonen, Marko T; Sipilä, Sarianna; Finni, Taija

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that aging is associated with alterations in muscle architecture and tendon properties (Morse CI, Thom JM, Birch KM, Narici MV. Acta Physiol Scand 183: 291-298, 2005; Narici MV, Maganaris CN, Reeves ND, Capodaglio P. J Appl Physiol 95: 2229-2234, 2003; Stenroth L, Peltonen J, Cronin NJ, Sipila S, Finni T. J Appl Physiol 113: 1537-1544, 2012). However, the possible influence of different types of regular exercise loading on muscle architecture and tendon properties in older adults is poorly understood. To address this, triceps surae muscle-tendon properties were examined in older male endurance (OE, n = 10, age = 74.0 ± 2.8 yr) and sprint runners (OS, n = 10, age = 74.4 ± 2.8 yr), with an average of 42 yr of regular training experience, and compared with age-matched [older control (OC), n = 33, age = 74.8 ± 3.6 yr] and young untrained controls (YC, n = 18, age = 23.7 ± 2.0 yr). Compared with YC, Achilles tendon cross-sectional area (CSA) was 22% (P = 0.022), 45% (P = 0.001), and 71% (P < 0.001) larger in OC, OE, and OS, respectively. Among older groups, OS had significantly larger tendon CSA compared with OC (P = 0.033). No significant between-group differences were observed in Achilles tendon stiffness. In older groups, Young's modulus was 31-44%, and maximal tendon stress 44-55% lower, than in YC (P ≤ 0.001). OE showed shorter soleus fascicle length than both OC (P < 0.05) and YC (P < 0.05). These data suggest that long-term running does not counteract the previously reported age-related increase in tendon CSA, but, instead, may have an additive effect. The greatest Achilles tendon CSA was observed in OS followed by OE and OC, suggesting that adaptation to running exercise is loading intensity dependent. Achilles tendon stiffness was maintained in older groups, even though all older groups displayed larger tendon CSA and lower tendon Young's modulus. Shorter soleus muscle fascicles in OE runners may be an adaptation to life

  19. The Effect of Concurrent Strength and Endurance Training on Electromechanical Delay, Maximum Voluntary Contraction, and Rate of Force Development.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1989-08-01

    endurance training with the other. Physical characteristics of the groups are shown in Table 1. Training: The training exercise involved hip and knee...bouts of unilateral cycle exercise perforned at 90-100% unilateral cycle exercise )OMmax. Three minute rest periods intervened between bouts. Training was...continuation of training, MVC increased signiticantly and muscle hypertrophy occurred. EMID, however, was not reduced further, nor was it maintained

  20. Acute Effect of Dynamic Stretching on Endurance Running Performance in Well-Trained Male Runners.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, Taichi; Takizawa, Kazuki; Shibata, Keisuke

    2015-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to clarify the acute effect of dynamic stretching (DS) on relative high-intensity endurance running performance. The endurance running performances of 7 well-trained middle- or long-distance male runners were assessed on a treadmill after 2 types of pretreatment. The pretreatments were nonstretching (NS) and DS treatment. In the DS treatment, DS was performed as 1 set of 10 repetitions as quickly as possible for the 5 muscle groups in lower extremities. The endurance running performances were evaluated by time to exhaustion (TTE) and total running distance (TRD) during running at a velocity equivalent to 90% maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) in each subject. The oxygen uptake (VO2) during running was measured as an index of running economy (RE). The TTE (928.6 ± 215.0 seconds) after DS treatment was significantly (p < 0.01) more prolonged compared with that (785.3 ± 206.2 seconds) after NS. The TRD (4,301.2 ± 893.8 m) after DS treatment was also significantly (p < 0.01) longer than that (3,616.9 ± 783.3 m) after NS. The changes in the VO2 during running, however, did not significantly (p > 0.05) differ between the pretreatments. The results demonstrated that the DS treatment improved the endurance performance of running at a velocity equivalent to 90% VO2max in well-trained male runners, although it did not change the RE. This running velocity is equivalent to that for a 3,000- or 5,000-m race. Our finding suggests that performing DS during warm-up before a race is effective for improving performance.

  1. Acute arginine supplementation fails to improve muscle endurance or affect blood pressure responses to resistance training.

    PubMed

    Greer, Beau K; Jones, Brett T

    2011-07-01

    Dietary supplement companies claim that arginine supplements acutely enhance skeletal muscular endurance. The purpose of this study was to determine whether acute arginine α-ketoglutarate supplementation (AAKG) will affect local muscle endurance of the arm and shoulder girdle or the blood pressure (BP) response to anaerobic exercise. Twelve trained college-aged men (22.6 ± 3.8 years) performed 2 trials of exercise separated by at least 1 week. At 4 hours before, and 30 minutes before exercise, a serving of an AAKG supplement (3,700 mg arginine alpha-ketoglutarate per serving) or placebo was administered. Resting BP was assessed pre-exercise after 16 minutes of seated rest, and 5 and 10 minutes postexercise. Three sets each of chin-ups, reverse chin-ups, and push-ups were performed to exhaustion with 3 minutes of rest between each set. Data were analyzed using repeated-measures analysis of variance and paired t-tests. The AAKG supplementation did not improve muscle endurance or significantly affect the BP response to anaerobic work. Subjects performed fewer total chin-ups (23.75 ± 6.38 vs. 25.58 ± 7.18) and total trial repetitions (137.92 ± 28.18 vs. 141.08 ± 28.57) in the supplement trial (p ≤ 0.05). Subjects executed fewer reverse chin-ups (5.83 ± 1.85 vs. 6.75 ± 2.09) during set 2 after receiving the supplement as compared to the placebo (p < 0.05). Because AAKG supplementation may hinder muscular endurance, the use of these supplements before resistance training should be questioned.

  2. Ibuprofen administration during endurance training cancels running-distance-dependent adaptations of skeletal muscle in mice.

    PubMed

    Machida, M; Takemasa, T

    2010-10-01

    Exercise training induces many adaptations in skeletal muscle, representative examples of which include an increase in the IIa myofibre and an increase in the capillary-to-fibre ratio (C:F ratio). Moreover, these phenomena are thought to be dependent on running distance. Ibuprofen is one non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug that is often used as an analgesic, but its effect on skeletal muscle adaptation during endurance training is unclear. In the present study, therefore, we administered ibuprofen to mice during running wheel exercise for four weeks, and examined its effects on the increase in the IIa myofibre and the C:F ratio in skeletal muscle. We observed a significant increase of the IIa myofibre and C:F ratio even in the presence of ibuprofen. Moreover, in untreated mice, there was a significant positive and strong correlation between these parameters and running distance. These results indicate that the increase in the IIa myofibre and the C:F ratio in skeletal muscle usually depend on running distance. Interestingly, we observed no significant correlation between these parameters and running distance in ibuprofen-administered mice. Moreover, we found no significant increase of these parameters when the running distance was significantly increased, in comparison with untreated mice. These results indicate that ibuprofen administration during endurance training cancels running-distance-dependent adaptations in skeletal muscle. This suggests that even if ibuprofen administration facilitates longer-distance running, no further effects of training on skeletal muscle can be expected.

  3. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women.

    PubMed

    Howe, Stephanie M; Hand, Taryn M; Larson-Meyer, D Enette; Austin, Kathleen J; Alexander, Brenda M; Manore, Melinda M

    2016-04-18

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18-40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3-36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3-36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance.

  4. Six sessions of sprint interval training increases muscle oxidative potential and cycle endurance capacity in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Hughes, Scott C; Heigenhauser, George J F; Bradwell, Suzanne N; Gibala, Martin J

    2005-06-01

    Parra et al. (Acta Physiol. Scand 169: 157-165, 2000) showed that 2 wk of daily sprint interval training (SIT) increased citrate synthase (CS) maximal activity but did not change "anaerobic" work capacity, possibly because of chronic fatigue induced by daily training. The effect of fewer SIT sessions on muscle oxidative potential is unknown, and aside from changes in peak oxygen uptake (Vo(2 peak)), no study has examined the effect of SIT on "aerobic" exercise capacity. We tested the hypothesis that six sessions of SIT, performed over 2 wk with 1-2 days rest between sessions to promote recovery, would increase CS maximal activity and endurance capacity during cycling at approximately 80% Vo(2 peak). Eight recreationally active subjects [age = 22 +/- 1 yr; Vo(2 peak) = 45 +/- 3 ml.kg(-1).min(-1) (mean +/- SE)] were studied before and 3 days after SIT. Each training session consisted of four to seven "all-out" 30-s Wingate tests with 4 min of recovery. After SIT, CS maximal activity increased by 38% (5.5 +/- 1.0 vs. 4.0 +/- 0.7 mmol.kg protein(-1).h(-1)) and resting muscle glycogen content increased by 26% (614 +/- 39 vs. 489 +/- 57 mmol/kg dry wt) (both P < 0.05). Most strikingly, cycle endurance capacity increased by 100% after SIT (51 +/- 11 vs. 26 +/- 5 min; P < 0.05), despite no change in Vo(2 peak). The coefficient of variation for the cycle test was 12.0%, and a control group (n = 8) showed no change in performance when tested approximately 2 wk apart without SIT. We conclude that short sprint interval training (approximately 15 min of intense exercise over 2 wk) increased muscle oxidative potential and doubled endurance capacity during intense aerobic cycling in recreationally active individuals.

  5. No Effect of Exercise Intensity on Appetite in Highly-Trained Endurance Women

    PubMed Central

    Howe, Stephanie M.; Hand, Taryn M.; Larson-Meyer, D. Enette; Austin, Kathleen J.; Alexander, Brenda M.; Manore, Melinda M.

    2016-01-01

    In endurance-trained men, an acute bout of exercise is shown to suppress post-exercise appetite, yet limited research has examined this response in women. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of exercise intensity on appetite and gut hormone responses in endurance-trained women. Highly-trained women (n = 15, 18–40 years, 58.4 ± 6.4 kg, VO2MAX = 55.2 ± 4.3 mL/kg/min) completed isocaloric bouts (500 kcals or 2093 kJ) of moderate-intensity (MIE, 60% VO2MAX) and high-intensity (HIE, 85% VO2MAX) treadmill running at the same time of day, following a similar 48-h diet/exercise period, and at least 1-week apart. Blood was drawn pre-exercise (baseline), immediately post-exercise and every 20-min for the next 60-min. Plasma concentrations of acylated ghrelin, PYY3–36, GLP-1 and subjective appetite ratings via visual analog scale (VAS) were assessed at each time point. Acylated ghrelin decreased (p = 0.014) and PYY3–36 and GLP-1 increased (p = 0.036, p < 0.0001) immediately post-exercise, indicating appetite suppression. VAS ratings of hunger and desire to eat decreased immediately post-exercise (p = 0.0012, p = 0.0031, respectively), also indicating appetite suppression. There were no differences between exercise intensities for appetite hormones or VAS. Similar to males, post-exercise appetite regulatory hormones were altered toward suppression in highly-trained women and independent of energy cost of exercise. Results are important for female athletes striving to optimize nutrition for endurance performance. PMID:27096869

  6. Haematological and iron-related parameters of male endurance and strength trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Spodaryk, K

    1993-01-01

    To obtain more information on the effects of long-lasting endurance and strength training on the constituents of the blood, several haematological and iron-related parameters were measured at rest in 39 male athletes from the Polish team who participated in the Olympics in Seoul in 1988. The athletes were divided into two groups: endurance-trained subjects (group E, cyclists, canoeists and rowers; n = 22) and strength-trained subjects (group S, wrestlers and judo; n = 17). The control group was composed of untrained male subjects (n = 48). Blood samples were taken from an antecubital vein with the subject at rest for determinations of haemoglobin concentration ([Hb]), packed cell volume (PCV), erythrocyte (RBC) and reticulocyte count, plasma free haemoglobin concentration, haptoglobin concentration, serum iron, transferrin concentration and ferritin concentrations ([Ferr]); red blood cells were used for estimation of glutamato-oxalate transaminase (GOT) activity and free erythrocyte protoporphyrin concentration ([FEP]). The mean [Hb], PVC, RBC measured in the E athletes were significantly lower than in the control group but were comparable to those obtained in the S atheletes. There were no significantly differences in the haematological indices [mean corpuscular volume (MCV), mean copuscular haemoglobin and mean corpuscular haemoglobin concentration] between the groups of atheletes and the control group. A significant increase in reticulocytosis and GOT activity was observed in the endurance-trained athletes. No impairment of erythropoiesis was observed as indicated by several sensitive markers of haemoglobin formation (FEP, MCV and inspection of blood smears) in the athletes.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  7. Altered skeletal muscle mitochondrial biogenesis but improved endurance capacity in trained OPA1-deficient mice

    PubMed Central

    Caffin, F; Prola, A; Piquereau, J; Novotova, M; David, DJ; Garnier, A; Fortin, D; Alavi, MV; Veksler, V; Ventura-Clapier, R; Joubert, F

    2013-01-01

    The role of OPA1, a GTPase dynamin protein mainly involved in the fusion of inner mitochondrial membranes, has been studied in many cell types, but only a few studies have been conducted on adult differentiated tissues such as cardiac or skeletal muscle cells. Yet OPA1 is highly expressed in these cells, and could play different roles, especially in response to an environmental stress like exercise. Endurance exercise increases energy demand in skeletal muscle and repeated activity induces mitochondrial biogenesis and activation of fusion–fission cycles for the synthesis of new mitochondria. But currently no study has clearly shown a link between mitochondrial dynamics and biogenesis. Using a mouse model of haploinsufficiency for the Opa1 gene (Opa1+/−), we therefore studied the impact of OPA1 deficiency on the adaptation ability of fast skeletal muscles to endurance exercise training. Our results show that, surprisingly, Opa1+/− mice were able to perform the same physical activity as control mice. However, the adaptation strategies of both strains after training differed: while in control mice mitochondrial biogenesis was increased as expected, in Opa1+/− mice this process was blunted. Instead, training in Opa1+/− mice led to an increase in endurance capacity, and a specific adaptive response involving a metabolic remodelling towards enhanced fatty acid utilization. In conclusion, OPA1 appears necessary for the normal adaptive response and mitochondrial biogenesis of skeletal muscle to training. This work opens new perspectives on the role of mitochondrial dynamics in skeletal muscle cells and during adaptation to stress. PMID:24042504

  8. Maximal Strength Training Improves Surfboard Sprint and Endurance Paddling Performance in Competitive and Recreational Surfers.

    PubMed

    Coyne, Joseph O C; Tran, Tai T; Secomb, Josh L; Lundgren, Lina E; Farley, Oliver R L; Newton, Robert U; Sheppard, Jeremy M

    2017-01-01

    Coyne, JOC, Tran, TT, Secomb, JL, Lundgren, LE, Farley, ORL, Newton, RU, and Sheppard, JM. Maximal strength training improves surfboard sprint and endurance paddling performance in competitive and recreational surfers. J Strength Cond Res 31(1): 244-253, 2017-Upper-body (UB) strength has very high correlations with faster surfboard paddling speeds. However, there is no research examining the effects of improving UB strength has on surfboard paddling ability. This study aimed to determine the influence that improvements in UB closed-kinetic chain maximal strength have on surfboard paddling in both competitive and recreational surfers. Seventeen competitive and recreational male surfers (29.7 ± 7.7 years, 177.4 ± 7.4 cm, 76.7 ± 9.9 kg) participated in a repeated-measures, parallel control study design. Anthropometry; 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint; and 400-m endurance surfboard paddling tests along with pull-up and dip 1 repetition maximum strength tests were assessed pre- and postintervention. Subjects in the training group performed 5 weeks of maximal strength training in the pull-up and dip. Differences between the training and control groups were examined postintervention. The training group increased their speed over the 5-, 10-, and 15-m sprint, whereas the control group became slower (d = 0.71, 0.51, and 0.4, respectively). The training group also displayed faster endurance paddling performance compared with the control group (d = 0.72). Short-term exposure to maximal strength training elicits improvements in paddling performance measures. However, the magnitude of performance increases seems to be dependent on initial strength levels with differential responses between strong and weaker athletes. Although a longer maximal strength training period may have produced more significant paddling improvements in stronger subjects, practitioners are unlikely to have any more than 5 weeks in an uninterrupted block with competitive surfing athletes. This study reveals

  9. Effects of upper-body sprint-interval training on strength and endurance capacities in female cross-country skiers

    PubMed Central

    Vandbakk, Kristine; Welde, Boye; Kruken, Andrea Hovstein; Baumgart, Julia; Ettema, Gertjan; Karlsen, Trine; Sandbakk, Øyvind

    2017-01-01

    This study compared the effects of adding upper-body sprint-intervals or continuous double poling endurance training to the normal training on maximal upper-body strength and endurance capacity in female cross-country skiers. In total, 17 female skiers (age: 18.1±0.8yr, body mass: 60±7 kg, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max): 3.30±0.37 L.min-1) performed an 8-week training intervention. Here, either two weekly sessions of six to eight 30-s maximal upper-body double poling sprint-intervals (SIG, n = 8) or 45–75 min of continuous low-to-moderate intensity double poling on roller skis (CG, n = 9) were added to their training. Before and after the intervention, the participants were tested for physiological and kinematical responses during submaximal and maximal diagonal and double poling treadmill roller skiing. Additionally, we measured maximal upper-body strength (1RM) and average power at 40% 1RM in a poling-specific strength exercise. SIG improved absolute VO2max in diagonal skiing more than CG (8% vs 2%, p<0.05), and showed a tendency towards higher body-mass normalized VO2max (7% vs 2%, p = 0.07). Both groups had an overall improvement in double poling peak oxygen uptake (10% vs 6% for SIG and CG) (both p<0.01), but no group-difference was observed. SIG improved 1RM strength more than CG (18% vs 10%, p<0.05), while there was a tendency for difference in average power at 40% 1RM (20% vs 14%, p = 0.06). Oxygen cost and kinematics (cycle length and rate) in double poling and diagonal remained unchanged in both groups. In conclusion, our study demonstrates that adding upper-body sprint-interval training is more effective than continuous endurance training in improving upper-body maximal strength and VO2max. PMID:28241030

  10. The effects of endurance training and thiamine supplementation on anti-fatigue during exercise

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Sung-Keun; Baek, Seung-Hui; Choi, Seung-Wook

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to find the effect of endurance training and thiamine supplementation on anti-fatigue during the exercise. Each nine students from K Women’s University went through three cross-over treatments: placebo treatment, training treatment and thiamine treatment. Training treatment was performed with bicycle ergometer exercise for four weeks (five days per week). Each exercise was performed for an hour with intensity set at 70% (50rpm) of maximal oxygen uptake. Thiamine treatment group was given 10mg of thiamine tetrahydrofurfuryl disulfide per one kilogram for four weeks. The bicycle ergometer exercise was performed at 70% of maximal oxygen uptake in exercise intensity which 60 minutes of exercise was performed at 50rpm . Lactate concentration was significantly decreased during 15 to 30 minutes of exercise for those with training treatment and 15 to 60 minutes of exercise for those with thiamine treatment compared to placebo treatment group. Ammonia concentration was significantly decreased during 15 to 60 minutes of exercise and 15 to 30 minutes of recovery for those with training and thiamine treatment compared to placebo treatment. Resting blood thiamine concentrations of placebo treatment were significantly lower than training treatment. 60 minutes after the exercise, plasma thiamine concentration was significantly increased in all treatment group. To sum up the previous, thiamine intake during exercise positively benefits carbohydrate metabolism in a way that will decrease lactate concentration, ammonia concentration, and anti- fatigue by reducing the RPE. Therefore, we can consider thiamine intake to be utilized as similar benefits as endurance training. PMID:25566430

  11. Effect of prolonged exercise on muscle citrate concentration before and after endurance training in men.

    PubMed

    Coggan, A R; Spina, R J; Kohrt, W M; Holloszy, J O

    1993-02-01

    It has been hypothesized that endurance training reduces carbohydrate utilization during exercise via citrate-mediated inhibition of phosphofructokinase (PFK). To test this hypothesis, vastus lateralis muscle biopsy samples were obtained from eight men before and immediately (approximately 10 s) after 2 h of cycle ergometer exercise at 60% of pretraining peak O2 uptake, both before and after 12 wk of endurance exercise training (3 days/wk running, 3 days/wk interval cycling). Training increased muscle citrate synthase (CS) activity from 3.69 +/- 0.48 (SE) to 5.30 +/- 0.42 mol.h-1.kg protein-1 and decreased the mean respiratory exchange ratio during exercise from 0.92 +/- 0.01 to 0.88 +/- 0.01 (both P < 0.001). Muscle citrate concentration at the end of exercise correlated significantly with CS activity (r = 0.70; P < 0.005) and was slightly but not significantly higher after training (0.80 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.54 +/- 0.19 mmol/kg dry wt; P = 0.16). Muscle glucose 6-phosphate (G-6-P) concentration at the end of exercise, however, was 31% lower in the trained state (1.17 +/- 0.10 vs. 1.66 +/- 0.27 mmol/kg dry wt; P < 0.05), in keeping with a 36% decrease in the amount of muscle glycogen utilized (133 +/- 22 vs. 209 +/- 19 mmol.kg dry wt-1.2 h-1; P < 0.01). The lower G-6-P concentration after training suggests that the training-induced reduction in carbohydrate utilization results from attenuation of flux before the PFK step in glycolysis and is not due to citrate-mediated inhibition of PFK.

  12. Metabolic and hormonal response to short term fasting after endurance training in the rat.

    PubMed

    Guezennec, C Y; Serrurier, B; Aymonod, M; Merino, D; Pesquies, P C

    1984-11-01

    The metabolic and hormonal response to short term fasting was studied after endurance exercise training. Rats were kept running on a motor driven rodent treadmill 5 days/wk for periods up to 1 h/day for 6 wk. Trained and untrained rats were then fasted for 24 h and 48 h. Liver and muscle glycogen, blood glucose, lactate, beta OH butyrate, glycerol, plasma insulin, testosterone and corticosterone were measured in fed and fasted trained and untrained rats. 48 h fasted trained rats show a lower level of blood lactate (1.08 +/- 0.05 vs 1.33 +/- 0.08 mmol/l-1 of blood glycerol (1 +/- 0.11 vs 0.84 +/- 0.08 mmol/l-1), and of muscle glycogen. There is a significant increase in plasma corticosterone in 48 h fasted trained rats from fed values. Plasma testosterone decreases during fasting, the values are higher in trained rats. Plasma insulin decreases during fasting without any difference between the two groups. These results show higher lipolysis, and decreased glycogenolysis in trained animals during 48 h fasting. The difference between the groups in steroid hormone response could reduce neoglucogenesis and muscle proteolysis in trained animals.

  13. Antioxidant and antiapoptotic effects of pine needle powder ingestion and endurance training in high cholesterol-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Hyobin; Lee, Nam-Ho; Ryu, Sungpil

    2014-01-01

    [Purpose] Pine needle is a kind of medicinal plant ingested traditionally for a variety of purposes. Therefore, we examined the antioxidant and antiapoptotic capacities of pine needle ingestion in high cholesterol-fed and endurance exercise-trained rats. [Methods] Animals were divided into six groups as; CON: normal diet control group; EX: normal diet and exercise training group; HC: high cholesterol diet group; HCE: high cholesterol diet and exercise training group; HCP: high cholesterol and pine needle group; HCPE: high-cholesterol and pine needle diet with exercise training group, respectively. Each group consisted of seven Sprague-Dawley male rats. The swim-training groups, EX, HCE, and HCPE swam in the swim pool 60 min/d and 5 d/week for 5 weeks. During the rearing periods, freeze-dried pine needle powder mix with 5% of the high cholesterol diet was supplied to the HCP and HCPE groups. Gastrocnemius muscle was used as the skeletal muscle. Malondialdehyde (MDA), Mn-containing superoxide dismutase (Mn-SOD), Cu, Zn containing superoxide dismutase (Cu,Zn-SOD), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) were analyzed for their antioxidant capacities. Finally, p53, Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2), caspase-3 protein expression was analyzed to determine antiapoptotic ability. [Results] MDA showed low content in HCPE compared to the HC. Mn-SOD, Cu,Zn-SOD, and GPx protein expression was significantly increased by pine needle ingestion and/or exercise training. In addition, suppression of p53 protein expression resulted in Bcl-2 increase followed by caspase-3 decrease with/without pine needle ingestion and exercise training. [Conclusion] When exercise training in addition to pine needle powder ingestion may be a helpful nutritional regimen to athletes and exercisers. PMID:25566467

  14. Myocardial work during endurance training and resistance training: a daily comparison, from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Adams, Jenny; Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Strauss, Danielle; Anderson, Valerie; Lawrence, Anne; Malorzo, Emily

    2010-04-01

    Patients in cardiac rehabilitation are typically advised to complete a period of supervised endurance training before beginning resistance training. In this study, however, we compared the peak rate-pressure product (RPP, a calculated indicator of myocardial work) of patients during two types of exercise-treadmill walking and chest press-from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-one patients (4 women and 17 men, aged 35 to 70 years) were enrolled in the study; they were referred for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or both. The participants did treadmill walking and chest press exercises during each workout session. Peak values for heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded, and the peak RPP was calculated (peak HR multiply sign in box peak SBP). Paired t tests were used to compare the data collected during the two types of exercise across 19 workout sessions. The mean peak values for HR, SBP, and RPP were lower during resistance training than during endurance training; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), with only one exception (the SBP for session 1). Across all 19 workout sessions, the participants performed more myocardial work, as indicated by the peak RPP, during treadmill walking than during the chest press.

  15. Myocardial work during endurance training and resistance training: a daily comparison, from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation

    PubMed Central

    Hubbard, Matthew; McCullough-Shock, Tiffany; Simms, Kay; Cheng, Dunlei; Hartman, Julie; Strauss, Danielle; Anderson, Valerie; Lawrence, Anne; Malorzo, Emily

    2010-01-01

    Patients in cardiac rehabilitation are typically advised to complete a period of supervised endurance training before beginning resistance training. In this study, however, we compared the peak rate-pressure product (RPP, a calculated indicator of myocardial work) of patients during two types of exercise—treadmill walking and chest press—from workout session 1 through completion of cardiac rehabilitation. Twenty-one patients (4 women and 17 men, aged 35 to 70 years) were enrolled in the study; they were referred for cardiac rehabilitation after myocardial infarction, percutaneous coronary intervention, or both. The participants did treadmill walking and chest press exercises during each workout session. Peak values for heart rate (HR) and systolic blood pressure (SBP) were recorded, and the peak RPP was calculated (peak HR ⊠ peak SBP). Paired t tests were used to compare the data collected during the two types of exercise across 19 workout sessions. The mean peak values for HR, SBP, and RPP were lower during resistance training than during endurance training; the differences were statistically significant (P < 0.05), with only one exception (the SBP for session 1). Across all 19 workout sessions, the participants performed more myocardial work, as indicated by the peak RPP, during treadmill walking than during the chest press. PMID:20396420

  16. One- and two-dimensional echocardiography in body builders and endurance-trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Urhausen, A; Kindermann, W

    1989-04-01

    The object of the study was to investigate possible myocardial adaptations to intensive body building training and to differentiate them from the athlete's heart resulting from high intensive endurance training. Seven top-level body builders (BB) were examined by one- and two-dimensional echocardiography and bicycle ergometer step test. They were compared with seven highly endurance-trained athletes (E) using the matched pair procedure. BB showed normal blood pressure at rest and during ergometric exercise; their ergometric performance was in the normal range of sedentary subjects. Absolute left ventricular muscle mass (LVMM) as well as one-dimensional measurements of wall thickness and internal diameters were found to be similar in BB and E, while body weight and surface-related values were clearly higher in E. The ratios between LV myocardial thickness and internal diameter (M-mode) as well as between LVMM and LV volume (combined one- and two-dimensional method) were not statistically different between BB (0.356 +/- 0.077 and 1.10 +/- 0.16) and E (0.436 +/- 0.062 and 1.26 +/- 0.21). LV contractility was similar in both groups. Diastolic parameters showed only a slight tendency toward slower isovolumetric relaxation in BB. A significant correlation existed between lean body mass and LVMM in BB but not in E. The findings suggest that intense body building over a period of several years does not induce any form of concentric hypertrophy. Analogously to the increase in body dimensions, body building also causes an increase in heart size with an unchanged mass/volume ratio. There is no evidence of an enlargement of the heart in relation to body weight, as occurs in endurance athletes.

  17. Perilipin family (PLIN) proteins in human skeletal muscle: the effect of sex, obesity, and endurance training.

    PubMed

    Peters, Sandra J; Samjoo, Imtiaz A; Devries, Michaela C; Stevic, Ivan; Robertshaw, Holly A; Tarnopolsky, Mark A

    2012-08-01

    Proteins that coat the lipid droplets (also known as PAT proteins or perilipin (PLIN) family proteins) have diverse functions that are not well elucidated in many tissues. In skeletal muscle, there is even less known about the functions or characteristics of these proteins or how they might change in response to perturbations that alter both intramyocellular lipid (IMCL) content and fat utilization and oxidation. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to examine the human muscle content and gene expression of the four skeletal muscle PLIN proteins in both lean and obese men and women and how this was changed following a 12-week endurance training protocol. PLIN2-PLIN5 proteins were all more abundant in women than in men (p = 0.037 and p < 0.0001, respectively), consistent with higher IMCL content observed in female skeletal muscle. PLIN5 (previously known as OXPAT) is of particular interest because it has previously been associated primarily with oxidative tissues that rely heavily on fat oxidation for energy production. Although PLIN5 was not different between lean and obese subjects, it was the only PLIN protein to increase in response to endurance training in both sexes. PLIN5 correlated with IMCL volume (p < 0.0001), but in general, the other PLIN proteins did not correlate well with IMCL volume, suggesting that the relationship between lipid accumulation and PLIN family protein content is not a simple one. Although more work is necessary, it is clear that PLIN5 likely plays an important role in IMCL accumulation and oxidation, both of which increase with endurance training in human skeletal muscle.

  18. Endurance training alters skeletal muscle MCT contents in T2DM men.

    PubMed

    Opitz, D; Lenzen, E; Schiffer, T; Hermann, R; Hellmich, M; Bloch, W; Brixius, K; Brinkmann, C

    2014-12-01

    Patients suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) often exhibit chronic elevated lactate levels which can promote peripheral insulin resistance by disturbing skeletal muscle insulin-signaling. Monocarboxylate transporter (MCT) proteins transfer lactate molecules through cellular membranes. MCT-1 and MCT-4 are the main protein isoforms expressed in human skeletal muscle, with MCT-1 showing a higher affinity (lower Km) for lactate than MCT-4. T2DM patients have reduced membranous MCT-1 proteins. Consequently, the lactate transport between muscle cells and the circulation as well as within an intracellular lactate shuttle, involving mitochondria (where lactate can be further metabolized), can be negatively affected. This study investigates whether moderate cycling endurance training (3 times per week for 3 months) can change skele-tal muscle MCT contents in T2DM men (n=8, years=56±9, body mass index (BMI)=32±4 kg/m(2)). Protein content analyses (immuno-histochemical stainings) were performed in bio-psies taken from the vastus lateralis muscle. Intracellular MCT-1 proteins were up-regulated (relative increase+89%), while intracellular MCT-4 contents were down-regulated (relative decrease - 41%) following endurance training. Sarcolemmal MCT-1 and MCT-4 did not change. The question of whether the training-induced up-regulation of intracellular MCT-1 leads to an improved lactate transport (and clearance) in T2DM patients requires further research.

  19. Effects of extreme endurance running on cardiac autonomic nervous modulation in healthy trained subjects.

    PubMed

    Sztajzel, Juan; Atchou, Guillaume; Adamec, Richard; Bayes de Luna, Antonio

    2006-01-15

    This study examined spectral components of heart rate variability (HRV) during endurance mountain running in 8 healthy trained subjects. The data showed that during this type of mountain running, all spectral components of HRV may severely decrease, particularly very-low-frequency and low-frequency (LF) power, suggesting extreme activation of the sympathetic nervous system. The physiologic response of the heart in this situation was the downregulation of the beta-adrenergic receptors to protect myocardial function, with a subsequent increase in parasympathetic tone, reflected by an increase in high-frequency (HF) power and a decrease in the LF/HF ratio.

  20. Fitness, body composition and blood lipids following 3 concurrent strength and endurance training modes.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Häkkinen, Arja; Laukkanen, Jari Antero; Balandzic, Milica; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-07-01

    This study investigated changes in physical fitness, body composition, and blood lipid profile following 24 weeks of 3 volume-equated concurrent strength and endurance training protocols. Physically active, healthy male and female participants (aged 18-40 years) performed strength and endurance sessions on different days (DD; men, n = 21; women, n = 18) or in the same session with endurance preceding strength (ES; men, n = 16; women, n = 15) or vice versa (SE; men, n = 18; women, n = 14). The training volume was matched in all groups. Maximal leg press strength (1-repetition maximum (1RM)) and endurance performance (maximal oxygen consumption during cycling), body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry), and blood lipids were measured. 1RM and maximal oxygen consumption increased in all groups in men (12%-17%, p < 0.001; and 7%-18%, p < 0.05-0.001, respectively) and women (13%-21%, p < 0.01-0.001; and 10%-25%, p < 0.01-0.001, respectively). Maximal oxygen consumption increased more in DD vs. ES and SE both in men (p = 0.003-0.008) and women (p = 0.008-0.009). Total body lean mass increased in all groups (3%-5%, p < 0.01-0.001). Only DD led to decreased total body fat (men, -14% ± 15%, p < 0.001; women, -13% ± 14%, p = 0.009) and abdominal-region fat (men, -18% ± 14%, p = 0.003; women, -17% ± 15%, p = 0.003). Changes in blood lipids were correlated with changes in abdominal-region fat in the entire group (r = 0.283, p = 0.005) and in DD (r = 0.550, p = 0.001). In conclusion, all modes resulted in increased physical fitness and lean mass, while only DD led to decreases in fat mass. Same-session SE and ES combined training is effective in improving physical fitness while volume-equated, but more frequent DD training may be more suitable for optimizing body composition and may be possibly useful in early prevention of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases.

  1. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Iaia, F. Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P.; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6–8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6–8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01) the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01) and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01%) but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001) and 3.8% (p<0.05) higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles’ ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained

  2. The Effect of Two Speed Endurance Training Regimes on Performance of Soccer Players.

    PubMed

    Iaia, F Marcello; Fiorenza, Matteo; Perri, Enrico; Alberti, Giampietro; Millet, Grégoire P; Bangsbo, Jens

    2015-01-01

    In order to better understand the specificity of training adaptations, we compared the effects of two different anaerobic training regimes on various types of soccer-related exercise performances. During the last 3 weeks of the competitive season, thirteen young male professional soccer players (age 18.5±1 yr, height 179.5±6.5 cm, body mass 74.3±6.5 kg) reduced the training volume by ~20% and replaced their habitual fitness conditioning work with either speed endurance production (SEP; n = 6) or speed endurance maintenance (SEM; n = 7) training, three times per wk. SEP training consisted of 6-8 reps of 20-s all-out running bouts followed by 2 min of passive recovery, whereas SEM training was characterized by 6-8 x 20-s all-out efforts interspersed with 40 s of passive recovery. SEP training reduced (p<0.01) the total time in a repeated sprint ability test (RSAt) by 2.5%. SEM training improved the 200-m sprint performance (from 26.59±0.70 to 26.02±0.62 s, p<0.01) and had a likely beneficial impact on the percentage decrement score of the RSA test (from 4.07±1.28 to 3.55±1.01%) but induced a very likely impairment in RSAt (from 83.81±2.37 to 84.65±2.27 s). The distance covered in the Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery test level 2 was 10.1% (p<0.001) and 3.8% (p<0.05) higher after SEP and SEM training, respectively, with possibly greater improvements following SEP compared to SEM. No differences were observed in the 20- and 40-m sprint performances. In conclusion, these two training strategies target different determinants of soccer-related physical performance. SEP improved repeated sprint and high-intensity intermittent exercise performance, whereas SEM increased muscles' ability to maximize fatigue tolerance and maintain speed development during both repeated all-out and continuous short-duration maximal exercises. These results provide new insight into the precise nature of a stimulus necessary to improve specific types of athletic performance in trained young

  3. Acute Endocrine and Force Responses and Long-Term Adaptations to Same-Session Combined Strength and Endurance Training in Women.

    PubMed

    Eklund, Daniela; Schumann, Moritz; Kraemer, William J; Izquierdo, Mikel; Taipale, Ritva S; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-01-01

    This study examined acute hormone and force responses and strength and endurance performance and muscle hypertrophy before and after 24 weeks of same-session combined strength and endurance training in previously untrained women. Subjects were assigned 1 of 2 training orders: endurance preceding strength (E + S, n = 15) or vice versa (S + E, n = 14). Acute force and hormone responses to a combined loading (continuous cycling and a leg press protocol in the assigned order) were measured. Additionally, leg press 1 repetition maximum (1RM), maximal workload during cycling (Wmax), and muscle cross-sectional area (CSA) were assessed. Loading-induced decreases in force were significant (p < 0.01-0.001) before (E + S = 20 ± 11%, S + E = 18 ± 5%) and after (E + S = 24 ± 6%, S + E = 22 ± 8%) training. Recovery was completed within 24 hours in both groups. The acute growth hormone (GH) response was significantly (p < 0.001) higher after S + E than E + S at both weeks 0 and 24. Testosterone was significantly (p < 0.001) elevated only after the S + E loading at week 24 but was not significantly different from E + S. Both groups significantly (p < 0.001) improved 1RM (E + S = 13 ± 12%, S + E = 16 ± 10%), Wmax (E + S = 21 ± 10%, S + E = 16 ± 12%), and CSA (E + S = 15 ± 10%, S + E = 11 ± 8%). This study showed that the acute GH response to combined endurance and strength loadings was significantly larger in S + E compared with E + S both before and after 24 weeks of same-session combined training. Strength and endurance performance and CSA increased to similar extents in both groups during 24 weeks despite differences in the kinetics of GH. Previously untrained women can improve performance and increase muscle CSA using either exercise order.

  4. Short-term periodized aerobic training does not attenuate strength capacity or jump performance in recreational endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Clemente-Suárez, V J; González-Ravé, J M; Navarro-Valdivielso, F

    2014-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of three different distributions of aerobic training on the isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance [SJ, CMJ and Abalakov (ABA)] in thirty middle-aged endurance athletes (38.7 ± 9.8 yrs; 174.7 ± 6.5 cm; 72.0 ± 9.8 kg). Three zones of training were required to quantify volume of training: Zone 1, low-intensity-training < VT1; Zone 2, threshold-training, between VT1 and VT2; and Zone 3, high-intensity-training > VT2. The INC group (n = 10) began training in the Zone 1 and then gradually built up training in Zone 2 and Zone 3, thereby increasing the intensity of aerobic activity over the 4-week training period. The CON group (n = 10) performed the same activity every week in Zones 1, 2 and 3. The FRE group followed a free distribution of endurance training loads (n = 10). The results showed significant decreases in peak torque knee extension 30° (p < 0.05) in CON group and significant decreases (p < 0.05) in ABA in FRE group. Results provide a physiological basis to support several performance studies that consistently indicate 5 d·wk(-1) endurance training does not impair strength development over the short term. In conclusion, variations in volume and intensity in training groups did not interfere with isokinetic strength and vertical jump performance.

  5. Effects of plyometric training on endurance and explosive strength performance in competitive middle- and long-distance runners.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Baez, Eduardo B; Martínez, Cristian; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of a short-term plyometric training program on explosive strength and endurance performance in highly competitive middle- and long-distance runners. Athletes were randomly assigned to a control group (CG, n = 18, 12 men) and an explosive strength training group (TG, n = 18, 10 men). Drop jump (DJ) from 20 (DJ20) and 40 cm (DJ40), countermovement jump with arms (CMJA), 20-m sprint time, and 2.4-km endurance run time test were carried out before and after 6 weeks of explosive strength training. Also, the combined standardized performance (CSP) in the endurance and explosive strength test was analyzed. After intervention, the CG did not show any significant change in performance, whereas the TG showed a significant reduction in 2.4-km endurance run time (-3.9%) and 20-m sprint time (-2.3%) and an increase in CMJA (+8.9%), DJ20 (+12.7%), and DJ40 (16.7%) explosive performance. Strength training group also exhibited a significant increase in CSP, although the CG showed significant reduction. We conclude that properly programmed concurrent explosive strength and endurance training could be advantageous for middle- and long-distance runners in their competitive performance, especially in events characterized by sprinting actions with small time differences at the end of the race.

  6. Concurrent speed endurance and resistance training improves performance, running economy, and muscle NHE1 in moderately trained runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Christensen, Peter M; Larsen, Sonni; Andersen, Thomas Rostgaard; Thomassen, Martin; Bangsbo, Jens

    2014-11-15

    The purpose of this study was to examine whether speed endurance training (SET, repeated 30-s sprints) and heavy resistance training (HRT, 80-90% of 1 repetition maximum) performed in succession are compatible and lead to performance improvements in moderately trained endurance runners. For an 8-wk intervention period (INT) 23 male runners [maximum oxygen uptake (V̇O(2max)) 59 ± 1 ml·min(-1)·kg(-1); values are means ± SE] either maintained their training (CON, n = 11) or performed high-intensity concurrent training (HICT, n = 12) consisting of two weekly sessions of SET followed by HRT and two weekly sessions of aerobic training with an average reduction in running distance of 42%. After 4 wk of HICT, performance was improved (P < 0.05) in a 10-km run (42:30 ± 1:07 vs. 44:11 ± 1:08 min:s) with no further improvement during the last 4 wk. Performance in a 1,500-m run (5:10 ± 0:05 vs. 5:27 ± 0:08 min:s) and in the Yo-Yo IR2 test (706 ± 97 vs. 491 ± 65 m) improved (P < 0.001) only following 8 wk of INT. In HICT, running economy (189 ± 4 vs. 195 ± 4 ml·kg(-1)·km(-1)), muscle content of NHE1 (35%) and dynamic muscle strength was augmented (P < 0.01) after compared with before INT, whereas V̇O(2max), muscle morphology, capillarization, content of muscle Na(+)/K(+) pump subunits, and MCT4 were unaltered. No changes were observed in CON. The present study demonstrates that SET and HRT, when performed in succession, lead to improvements in both short- and long-term running performance together with improved running economy as well as increased dynamic muscle strength and capacity for muscular H(+) transport in moderately trained endurance runners.

  7. Effect of endurance versus resistance training on quadriceps muscle dysfunction in COPD: a pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Iepsen, Ulrik Winning; Munch, Gregers Druedal Wibe; Rugbjerg, Mette; Rinnov, Anders Rasmussen; Zacho, Morten; Mortensen, Stefan Peter; Secher, Niels H; Ringbaek, Thomas; Pedersen, Bente Klarlund; Hellsten, Ylva; Lange, Peter; Thaning, Pia

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Exercise is an important countermeasure to limb muscle dysfunction in COPD. The two major training modalities in COPD rehabilitation, endurance training (ET) and resistance training (RT), may both be efficient in improving muscle strength, exercise capacity, and health-related quality of life, but the effects on quadriceps muscle characteristics have not been thoroughly described. Methods Thirty COPD patients (forced expiratory volume in 1 second: 56% of predicted, standard deviation [SD] 14) were randomized to 8 weeks of ET or RT. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained before and after the training intervention to assess muscle morphology and metabolic and angiogenic factors. Symptom burden, exercise capacity (6-minute walking and cycle ergometer tests), and vascular function were also assessed. Results Both training modalities improved symptom burden and exercise capacity with no difference between the two groups. The mean (SD) proportion of glycolytic type IIa muscle fibers was reduced after ET (from 48% [SD 11] to 42% [SD 10], P<0.05), whereas there was no significant change in muscle fiber distribution with RT. There was no effect of either training modality on muscle capillarization, angiogenic factors, or vascular function. After ET the muscle protein content of phosphofructokinase was reduced (P<0.05) and the citrate synthase content tended increase (P=0.08) but no change was observed after RT. Conclusion Although both ET and RT improve symptoms and exercise capacity, ET induces a more oxidative quadriceps muscle phenotype, counteracting muscle dysfunction in COPD. PMID:27822028

  8. High Training Volumes are Associated with a Low Number of Self-Reported Sick Days in Elite Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Mårtensson, Sandra; Nordebo, Kristina; Malm, Christer

    2014-12-01

    It has been proposed that high exercise loads increase the risk of infection, most frequently reported as upper respiratory tract infections, by suppressing the immune system. Most athletes will not train when experiencing sickness due to the fear of health complications. However, high training volumes are incompatible with high rates of non-training days, regardless of the cause. The purpose of this observational study was to examine the relationship between self-reported, exercise-constraining days of sickness (days when the athlete decided not to train due to symptoms of disease, either self-reported or by a physician) and the volumes of exercise training in elite endurance athletes by analyzing data from training logs kept for several years. The subjects included 11 elite endurance athletes (8 male, 3 female) competing at national and international levels in cross-country skiing, biathlon and long-distance running. Training logs available from these 11 subjects added to a total of 61 training years. The number of training hours per year (462, 79-856; median, range) was significantly and negatively correlated to the reported number of days not training due to sickness (15, 0-164) by a 3(rd) degree polynomial regression (R(2) = 0.48, F ratio = 18, p < 0.0001). We conclude that elite endurance athletes can achieve high training volumes only if they also experience few sick-days. Key pointsTop level performance demands high training volumes and intensities, which may compromise immune function.Elite athletes must have an immune system capable of intact function also when under sever physiological and psychological stress.Elite performance, especially in endurance sports, is therefore incompatible with a high rate of infections.A negative correlation between infections and exercise training load among elite athletes is consequently observed - the less sick you are the more you can train.

  9. Increased energy and nutrient intake during training and competition improves elite triathletes' endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Frentsos, J A; Baer, J T

    1997-03-01

    Dietary habits were evaluated in 6 elite triathletes (4 male, 2 female). Analysis of 7-day diet records showed mean daily energy and carbohydrate intake to be insufficient to support estimated requirements. Mean intakes of vitamins and most minerals exceeded the Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) except zinc chromium, which did not meet 66% of recommended amounts. Individualized nutrition intervention using the Diabetic Food Exchange System to support performance during training and competition was provided. To improve dietary intake, subjects consumed fortified nutrition supplements (Reliv, Inc.) before and after daily training. Follow-up 7-day diet records showed that average energy intake and percentage of energy from carbohydrate increased, as did intakes of zinc and chromium. Triathletes' performance in a short course triathlon was improved compared to a similar competition completed prior to the nutrition intervention. Following the intervention, triathletes were able to meet recommended daily energy, macronutrient, and micronutrient intakes and improve endurance performance.

  10. Endurance performance in well-trained mice is enhanced by short-duration intermittent hypoxia via improved muscle fatty acid metabolism.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Junichi

    2017-03-05

    The author previously reported that short-duration intermittent hypoxia had additive effects on improvements in endurance capacity by enhancing fatty acid metabolism. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of short-duration intermittent hypoxia on endurance capacity in well-trained mice. Mice in the training group were housed in a cage with a wheel activity device for 7 weeks from 5 weeks old. Voluntary running markedly increased maximal exercise capacity (by 5.9-fold). Trained mice were then subjected to either normoxic treadmill training (Tr) or training with short-duration intermittent hypoxia (12% O2 for 15 min, 20.9% O2 for 10 min, 4 times, IntTr) for 4 weeks. Maximal exercise capacity was significantly greater in IntTr (by 36%) than in Tr. Total carnitine palmitoyl transferase activity in the soleus and plantaris muscles was significantly greater in IntTr (by 13% and 22%, respectively) than in Tr. Training with intermittent hypoxia significantly increased the proportion of type I fibres in the plantaris and red gastrocnemius muscles. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha expression in the nucleus was significantly greater in the soleus (5.2-fold) and red gastrocnemius (3.1-fold) muscles in IntTr than in Tr. While FAT/CD36 protein expression significantly increased after training with and without intermittent hypoxia in the red gastrocnemius muscle, its expression levels were markedly higher (by 21%) in IntTr than in Tr. The present results suggest that exercise training under normoxic atmosphere with short-duration intermittent hypoxia represents a useful strategy for improving endurance performance in highly trained rodents. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  11. Endurance or resistance training in primary care after in-patient rehabilitation for COPD?

    PubMed

    Skumlien, Siri; Aure Skogedal, Ellen; Skrede Ryg, Morten; Bjørtuft, Øystein

    2008-03-01

    Resistance (RT) and endurance training (ET) prescribed by a rehabilitation centre and carried out under the supervision of primary care physiotherapists after the completion of 4 weeks of multidisciplinary in-patient pulmonary rehabilitation (IPR) were compared regarding capacity to induce further health effects. After IPR, 40 chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients were allocated to RT or ET twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome variables were walking capacity (treadmill endurance time, TET; 6-min walking distance, 6MWD), functional status (Glittre ADL-test; Hyrim Physical Activity Questionnaire) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) (St. George's Respiratory Questionnaire, SGRQ). Body functions variables were included as secondary outcome measures. HRQOL and physical activity were reinvestigated after 1 year. Median attendance rates were not different between RT (21, interquartile range [17;23]) and ET (22 [18;24]). Both groups improved in TET (RT 7.7 min 95% CI {3.6;12}, ET 5.7 min {1.7;9.8}). 6MWD increased significantly after ET (46 m {20;72}). Functional status was unchanged. SGRQ tended to further improve after RT (-3.2{-7.4;1.2}), while ET maintained the improvement gained during IPR. Body functions measures changed according to training modality. After 1 year, a majority of patients in both groups were exercising regularly, but SGRQ was significantly better than pre-IPR only in the RT group (-7.9{-14.3;-1.5}). We conclude that supervised RT or ET twice weekly sustains and improves the effects of IPR. With no large differences detected between the two training modalities, the choice of training may be guided by individual needs, patient preferences and the availability of equipment.

  12. Global Proteome Changes in the Rat Diaphragm Induced by Endurance Exercise Training

    PubMed Central

    Burniston, Jatin G.; Kavazis, Andreas N.; Morton, Aaron B.; Wiggs, Michael P.; Ahn, Bumsoo; Smuder, Ashley J.; Powers, Scott K.

    2017-01-01

    Mechanical ventilation (MV) is a life-saving intervention for many critically ill patients. Unfortunately, prolonged MV results in the rapid development of diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. Importantly, endurance exercise training results in a diaphragmatic phenotype that is protected against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy and weakness. The mechanisms responsible for this exercise-induced protection against ventilator-induced diaphragmatic atrophy remain unknown. Therefore, to investigate exercise-induced changes in diaphragm muscle proteins, we compared the diaphragmatic proteome from sedentary and exercise-trained rats. Specifically, using label-free liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we performed a proteomics analysis of both soluble proteins and mitochondrial proteins isolated from diaphragm muscle. The total number of diaphragm proteins profiled in the soluble protein fraction and mitochondrial protein fraction were 813 and 732, respectively. Endurance exercise training significantly (P<0.05, FDR <10%) altered the abundance of 70 proteins in the soluble diaphragm proteome and 25 proteins of the mitochondrial proteome. In particular, key cytoprotective proteins that increased in relative abundance following exercise training included mitochondrial fission process 1 (Mtfp1; MTP18), 3-mercaptopyruvate sulfurtransferase (3MPST), microsomal glutathione S-transferase 3 (Mgst3; GST-III), and heat shock protein 70 kDa protein 1A/1B (HSP70). While these proteins are known to be cytoprotective in several cell types, the cyto-protective roles of these proteins have yet to be fully elucidated in diaphragm muscle fibers. Based upon these important findings, future experiments can now determine which of these diaphragmatic proteins are sufficient and/or required to promote exercise-induced protection against inactivity-induced muscle atrophy. PMID:28135290

  13. Training status (endurance or sprint) and catecholamine response to the Wingate-test in women.

    PubMed

    Jacob, C; Zouhal, H; Vincent, S; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Berthon, P M; Bentué-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    2002-07-01

    The aim of this study was to verify if, as for men, training status induces different catecholamine responses to exercise. To do this, we investigated the effect of training status (sprint or endurance) on plasma catecholamine response to a supramaximal exercise in women. Nineteen subjects took part in our study: six untrained subjects (UT), seven endurance trained subjects (ET) and six sprint trained ones (ST). The trained subjects (ET and ST) were all competing at a high national level. The maximal power (W max ) and the mean power (W) were determined from the Wingate-test. Blood lactate, adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) were analysed at rest (La 0, A 0 and NA 0 ), immediately at the end of the exercise (A max and NA max ) and after 5 min recovery (La max [3 min in arterialized blood], A 5 and NA 5 ). The disappearance of A and NA was judged by the ratio (A max -A 5 )/A max and (NA max -NA 5 )/NA 5. The ratio A max /NA max was considered as an index of the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity. As expected, during the Wingate-test ST exhibited significantly higher performances compared to UT and ET. But in contrast to the men's data no difference was observed between the three groups both for La max (13.1 +/- 0.8 mmol x L (-1); 14.8 +/- 1.0 mmol x L (-1) and 11.2 +/- 0.5 mmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT), NA max (22.1 +/- 1.2 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 2.4 nmol x L (-1) and 20.2 +/- 7 nmol x L (-1)respectively for ET, ST and UT) and A max (4.1 +/- 0.8 nmol x L (-1); 2.6 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1); 13.1 +/- 0.6 nmol x L (-1) respectively for ET, ST and UT). Consequently the ratio A max /NA max was similar in UT, ET and ST (respectively 0.2 +/- 0.03; 0.2 +/- 0.04; 0.17 +/- 0.04), These results indicated, in contrast to the men's data, that the catecholamine response to the Wingate-test did not differ between female subjects of different status of training. In conclusion this study did not find any significant effect of training

  14. Endurance training in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: conversion of pathological into physiological cardiac hypertrophy.

    PubMed

    Garciarena, Carolina D; Pinilla, Oscar A; Nolly, Mariela B; Laguens, Ruben P; Escudero, Eduardo M; Cingolani, Horacio E; Ennis, Irene L

    2009-04-01

    The effect of endurance training (swimming 90 min/d for 5 days a week for 60 days) on cardiac hypertrophy was investigated in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR). Sedentary SHRs (SHR-Cs) and normotensive Wistar rats were used as controls. Exercise training enhanced myocardial hypertrophy assessed by left ventricular weight/tibial length (228+/-7 versus 251+/-5 mg/cm in SHR-Cs and exercised SHRs [SHR-Es], respectively). Myocyte cross-sectional area increased approximately 40%, collagen volume fraction decreased approximately 50%, and capillary density increased approximately 45% in SHR-Es compared with SHR-Cs. The mRNA abundance of atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 was decreased by the swimming routine (100+/-19% versus 41+/-10% and 100+/-8% versus 61+/-9% for atrial natriuretic factor and myosin light chain 2 in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively). The expression of sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump was significantly augmented, whereas that of Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger was unchanged (93+/-7% versus 167+/-8% and 158+/-13% versus 157+/-7%, sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca(2+) pump and Na(+)/Ca(2+) exchanger in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; P<0.05). Endurance training inhibited apoptosis, as reflected by a decrease in caspase 3 activation and poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase-1 cleavage, and normalized calcineurin activity without inducing significant changes in the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt pathway. The swimming routine improved midventricular shortening determined by echocardiography (32.4+/-0.9% versus 36.9+/-1.1% in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; P<0.05) and decreased the left ventricular free wall thickness/left ventricular cavity radius toward an eccentric model of cardiac hypertrophy (0.59+/-0.02 versus 0.53+/-0.01 in SHR-Cs and SHR-Es, respectively; P<0.05). In conclusion, we present data demonstrating the effectiveness of endurance training to convert pathological into physiological hypertrophy improving cardiac performance. The reduction of

  15. The Effects of Hyperhydrating Supplements Containing Creatine and Glucose on Plasma Lipids and Insulin Sensitivity in Endurance-Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Polyviou, Thelma P.; Pitsiladis, Yannis P.; Celis-Morales, Carlos; Brown, Benjamin; Speakman, John R.; Malkova, Dalia

    2015-01-01

    The addition of carbohydrate (CHO) in the form of simple sugars to creatine (Cr) supplements is central. The study aimed to determine whether ingestion of glucose (Glu) simultaneously with Cr and glycerol (Cr/Gly) supplement is detrimental to plasma lipids of endurance-trained individuals and find out whether modification arising can be attenuated by replacing part of the Glu with alpha lipoic acid (Ala). Twenty-two endurance-trained cyclists were randomized to receive Cr/Gly/Glu (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, and 150 g Glu) or Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (11.4 g Cr-H2O, 1 g Gly/kg BM, 100 g Glu, and 1 g Ala) for 7 days. Fasting concentration of TAG increased significantly (P < 0.01) after supplementation with Cr/Gly/Glu (before: 0.9 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.3 ± 0.4 mmol/L) and Cr/Gly/Glu/Ala (before: 0.8 ± 0.2 mmol/L; after: 1.2 ± 0.5 mmol/L) but changes were not different between the groups. Supplementation significantly (P < 0.05) increased the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio but had no effect on fasting concentration of total, HDL-, and LDL-cholesterol and insulin resistance. Thus, addition of Glu to Cr containing supplements enhances plasma TAG concentration and the TAG to HDL-cholesterol ratio and this enhancement cannot be attenuated by partial replacement of Glu with Ala. PMID:26167296

  16. Effect of endurance training upon lipid metabolism in the liver of cachectic tumour-bearing rats.

    PubMed

    Lira, F S; Tavares, F L; Yamashita, A S; Koyama, C H; Alves, M J; Caperuto, E C; Batista, M L; Seelaender, M

    2008-08-01

    The syndrome of cancer cachexia is accompanied by several alterations in lipid metabolism, and the liver is markedly affected. Previous studies showed that moderate exercise training may prevent liver fat accumulation through diminished delivery of lipids to the liver, increased hepatic oxidation and increased incorporation of triacylglycerol (TAG) into very low density lipoprotein (VLDL). Our aim was to examine the influence of moderate intensity training (8 weeks) upon TAG content, VLDL assembly and secretion, apolipoprotein B (apoB) and microsomal transfer protein (MTP) gene expression in the liver of cachectic tumour-bearing rats. Animals were randomly assigned to a sedentary control (SC), sedentary tumour-bearing (ST) or exercise-trained control (EC) or to an exercise trained tumour-bearing (ET) group. Trained rats ran on a treadmill (60% VO(2max)) for 60 min day(-1), 5 day week(-1), for 8 weeks. TAG content and the rate of VLDL secretion (followed for 3 h), as well as mRNA expression of apoB and MTP, and total cholesterol, VLDL-TAG, VLDL-cholesterol, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-cholesterol) and tumour weight were evaluated. VLDL-cholesterol showed a decrease in ST (p < 0.05) in relation to SC. Serum TAG, VLDL-TAG and tissue TAG content were all increased in ST (p < 0.01), when compared with SC. ST showed a lower rate of VLDL secretion (p < 0.05) and reduced expression of apoB (p < 0.001) and MTP (p < 0.001), when compared with SC. These parameters were restored to control values (p < 0.05) when the animals were submitted to the exercise training protocol. Tumour weight decreased 10-fold after training (p < 0.001). It is possible to affirm, therefore, that endurance training promoted the re-establishment of lipid metabolism in cachectic tumour-bearing animals, especially in relation to VLDL secretion and assembly.

  17. Acclimation Training Improves Endurance Cycling Performance in the Heat without Inducing Endotoxemia

    PubMed Central

    Guy, Joshua H.; Pyne, David B.; Deakin, Glen B.; Miller, Catherine M.; Edwards, Andrew M.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: While the intention of endurance athletes undertaking short term heat training protocols is to rapidly gain meaningful physical adaption prior to competition in the heat, it is currently unclear whether or not this process also presents an overt, acute challenge to the immune system. The aim of this study was therefore to examine the effects of heat training on both endurance performance and biomarkers associated with inflammatory and immune system responses. Methods: Moderately-actively males (n = 24) were allocated randomly to either HOT (n = 8, 35°C, and 70% RH; NEUTRAL (n = 8, 20°C, and 45% RH); or a non-exercising control group, (CON, n = 8). Over the 18 day study HOT and NEUTRAL performed seven training sessions (40 min cycling at 55 of VO2 max) and all participants completed three heat stress tests (HST) at 35°C and 70% RH. The HST protocol comprised three × sub-maximal intervals followed by a 5 km time trial on a cycle ergometer. Serum samples were collected before and after each HST and analyzed for interleukin-6, immunoglobulin M and lipopolysaccharide. Results: Both HOT and NEUTRAL groups experienced substantial improvement to 5 km time trial performance (HOT −33 ± 20 s, p = 0.02, NEUTRAL −39 ± 18 s, p = 0.01) but only HOT were faster (−45 ± 25 s, and −12 s ± 7 s, p = 0.01) in HST3 compared to baseline and HST2. Interleukin-6 was elevated after exercise for all groups however there were no significant changes for immunoglobulin M or lipopolysaccharide. Conclusions: Short-term heat training enhances 5 km cycling time trial performance in moderately-fit subjects by ~6%, similar in magnitude to exercise training in neutral conditions.Three top-up training sessions yielded a further 3% improvement in performance for the HOT group. Furthermore, the heat training did not pose a substantial challenge to the immune system. PMID:27524970

  18. Effects of heavy resistance training on maximal and explosive force production, endurance and serum hormones in adolescent handball players.

    PubMed

    Gorostiaga, E M; Izquierdo, M; Iturralde, P; Ruesta, M; Ibáñez, J

    1999-10-01

    To determine the effects of 6-weeks of heavy-resistance training on physical fitness and serum hormone status in adolescents (range 14-16 years old) 19 male handball players were divided into two different groups: a handball training group (NST, n = 10), and a handball and heavy-resistance strength training group (ST, n = 9). A third group of 4 handball goalkeepers of similar age served as a control group (C, n = 4). After the 6-week training period, the ST group showed an improvement in maximal dynamic strength of the leg extensors (12.2%; P < 0.01) and the upper extremity muscles (23%; P < 0.01), while no changes were observed in the NST and C groups. Similar differences were observed in the maximal isometric unilateral leg extension forces. The height of the vertical jump increased in the NST group from 29.5 (SD 4) cm to 31.4 (SD 5) cm (P < 0.05) while no changes were observed in the ST and C groups. A significant increase was observed in the ST group in the velocity of the throwing test [from 71.7 (SD 7) km x h(-1) to 74.0 (SD 7) km x h(-1); P < 0.001] during the 6-week period while no changes were observed in the NST and C groups. During a submaximal endurance test running at 11 km x h(-1), a significant decrease in blood lactate concentration occurred in the NST group [from 3.3 (SD 0.9) mmol x l(-1) to 2.4 (SD 0.8) mmol x l(-1); P < 0.01] during the experiment, while no change was observed in the ST or C groups. Finally, a significant increase (P < 0.01) was noted in the testosterone:cortisol ratio in the C group, while the increase in the NST group approached statistical significance (P < 0.08) and no changes in this ratio occurred in the ST group. The present findings suggested that the addition of 6-weeks of heavy resistance training to the handball training resulted in gains in maximal strength and throwing velocity but it compromised gains in leg explosive force production and endurance running. The tendency for a compromised testosterone:cortisol ratio

  19. Acute metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses to different endurance training protocols.

    PubMed

    Wahl, P; Mathes, S; Köhler, K; Achtzehn, S; Bloch, W; Mester, J

    2013-10-01

    In the last years, mainly 2 high-intensity-training (HIT) protocols became common: first, a Wingate-based "all-out" protocol and second, a 4×4 min protocol. However, no direct comparison between these protocols exists, and also a comparison with high-volume-training (HVT) is missing. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to compare these 3 endurance training protocols on metabolic, hormonal, and psychological responses. Twelve subjects performed: 1) HVT [130 min at 55% peak power output (PPO)]; 2) 4×4 min at 95% PPO; 3) 4×30 s all-out. Human growth hormone (hGH), testosterone, and cortisol were determined before (pre) and 0', 30', 60', 180' after each intervention. Metabolic stimuli and perturbations were characterized by lactate, blood gas (pH, BE, HCO₃⁻, pO₂, PCO₂), and spirometric analysis. Furthermore, changes of the person's perceived physical state were determined. The 4×30 s training caused the highest increases in cortisol and hGH, followed by 4 × 4 min and HVT. Testosterone levels were significantly increased by all 3 exercise protocols. Metabolic stress was highest during and after 4×30 s, followed by 4×4 min and HVT. The 4×30 s training was also the most demanding intervention from an athlete's point of view. In conclusion, the results suggest that 4×30 s and 4×4 min promote anabolic processes more than HVT, due to higher increases of hGH, testosterone, and the T/C ratio. It can be speculated that the acute hormonal increase and the metabolic perturbations might play a positive role in optimizing training adaptation and in eliciting health benefits as it has been shown by previous long term training studies using similar exercise protocols.

  20. Combined lower body endurance and upper body resistance training improves performance and health parameters in healthy active elderly.

    PubMed

    Verney, Julien; Kadi, Fawzi; Saafi, Mohamed A; Piehl-Aulin, Karin; Denis, Christian

    2006-06-01

    We investigated the effects of combined lower body (LB) endurance and upper body (UB) resistance training on endurance, strength, blood lipid profile and body composition in active older men. Ten healthy still active men (73+/-4 years, V(O2) peak: 36 (31-41) ml min-1 kg-1) were tested before and after 14 weeks of combined training (3 times week-1). Training consisted of 3x12 min of high intensity interval training on a bicycle for endurance interspersed by 3x12 min of UB resistance exercises. V(O2) peak during leg cycling and arm cranking, isokinetic torque of knee extensor and shoulder abductor and the cross-sectional area (CSA) of several muscles from UB and LB were measured. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD) and abdominal fat area were measured on MRI scans. Total body composition was assessed by hydrostatic weighing (HW) and dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA). Blood lipid profile was assessed before and after training. By the end of the training period, V(O2) peak (l min-1) increased significantly by 9 and 16% in leg cycling and arm cranking tests, respectively. Maximal isokinetic torque increased both for the knee extensor and shoulder abductor muscle groups. CSA increased significantly in deltoid muscle. Percentage of body fat decreased by 1.3% (P<0.05) and abdominal fat and SAD decreased by 12 and 6%, respectively (P<0.01). There was also a significant decrease in total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein. Thus, combined LB endurance and UB resistance training can improve endurance, strength, body composition and blood lipid profile even in healthy active elderly.

  1. Anti-fatigue effects of troxerutin on exercise endurance capacity, oxidative stress and MMP-9 levels in trained male rats.

    PubMed

    Zamanian, Mohammad; Hajizadeh, Mohammad R; Nadimi, Ali Esmaeili; Shamsizadeh, Ali; Allahtavakoli, Mohammad

    2017-02-18

    The aim of this study was to investigate effects of troxerutin (TRX) on endurance capacity, oxidative stress and MMP-9 levels in trained male rats. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into five groups. The control (Vehicle) and exercise training (5 days/week) with vehicle treatment (Exercise), exercise training with TRX treatment at 75 (Ex-TRX75), 150 (Ex-TRX150), and 300 mg/kg (Ex-TRX300). The treated groups received TRX by gavage every day while the other groups received water for 30 days. On the 30(th) day, rats were sacrificed immediately after exhaustive swimming test, and some biochemical parameters were measured. Exhaustion swimming time in the Ex-TRX75, Ex-TRX150 and Ex-TRX300 groups significantly increased 1.2, 1.93 and 2.1-fold compared to the Vehicle group, respectively. TRX significantly increased glucose level (P ˂ 0.05) and reduced CK activity (P ˂ 0.001) compared to the Vehicle and exercise groups. TRX300 significantly reduced ALP and LDH activities (P ˂ 0.05) and BUN (P ˂ 0.05) and MMP-9 levels (P ˂ 0.05) compared to the Vehicle and Exercise groups. Additionally, TRX300 and TRX150 significantly increased SOD activity compared to the Vehicle group (P ˂ 0.05). Our results provide experimental evidence in supporting clinical use of TRX as an effective agent against fatigue. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  2. Skeletal muscle metabolic adaptations to endurance exercise training are attainable in mice with simvastatin treatment

    PubMed Central

    Southern, William M.; Nichenko, Anna S.; Shill, Daniel D.; Spencer, Corey C.; Jenkins, Nathan T.; McCully, Kevin K.

    2017-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that a 6-week regimen of simvastatin would attenuate skeletal muscle adaptation to low-intensity exercise. Male C57BL/6J wildtype mice were subjected to 6-weeks of voluntary wheel running or normal cage activities with or without simvastatin treatment (20 mg/kg/d, n = 7–8 per group). Adaptations in in vivo fatigue resistance were determined by a treadmill running test, and by ankle plantarflexor contractile assessment. The tibialis anterior, gastrocnemius, and plantaris muscles were evaluated for exercised-induced mitochondrial adaptations (i.e., biogenesis, function, autophagy). There was no difference in weekly wheel running distance between control and simvastatin-treated mice (P = 0.51). Trained mice had greater treadmill running distance (296%, P<0.001), and ankle plantarflexor contractile fatigue resistance (9%, P<0.05) compared to sedentary mice, independent of simvastatin treatment. At the cellular level, trained mice had greater mitochondrial biogenesis (e.g., ~2-fold greater PGC1α expression, P<0.05) and mitochondrial content (e.g., 25% greater citrate synthase activity, P<0.05), independent of simvastatin treatment. Mitochondrial autophagy-related protein contents were greater in trained mice (e.g., 40% greater Bnip3, P<0.05), independent of simvastatin treatment. However, Drp1, a marker of mitochondrial fission, was less in simvastatin treated mice, independent of exercise training, and there was a significant interaction between training and statin treatment (P<0.022) for LC3-II protein content, a marker of autophagy flux. These data indicate that whole body and skeletal muscle adaptations to endurance exercise training are attainable with simvastatin treatment, but simvastatin may have side effects on muscle mitochondrial maintenance via autophagy, which could have long-term implications on muscle health. PMID:28207880

  3. Glucose transporters and maximal transport are increased in endurance-trained rat soleus

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slentz, C. A.; Gulve, E. A.; Rodnick, K. J.; Henriksen, E. J.; Youn, J. H.; Holloszy, J. O.

    1992-01-01

    Voluntary wheel running induces an increase in the concentration of the regulatable glucose transporter (GLUT4) in rat plantaris muscle but not in soleus muscle (K. J. Rodnick, J. O. Holloszy, C. E. Mondon, and D. E. James. Diabetes 39: 1425-1429, 1990). Wheel running also causes hypertrophy of the soleus in rats. This study was undertaken to ascertain whether endurance training that induces enzymatic adaptations but no hypertrophy results in an increase in the concentration of GLUT4 protein in rat soleus (slow-twitch red) muscle and, if it does, to determine whether there is a concomitant increase in maximal glucose transport activity. Female rats were trained by treadmill running at 25 m/min up a 15% grade, 90 min/day, 6 days/wk for 3 wk. This training program induced increases of 52% in citrate synthase activity, 66% in hexokinase activity, and 47% in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration in soleus muscles without causing hypertrophy. Glucose transport activity stimulated maximally with insulin plus contractile activity was increased to roughly the same extent (44%) as GLUT4 protein content in soleus muscle by the treadmill exercise training. In a second set of experiments, we examined whether a swim-training program increases glucose transport activity in the soleus in the presence of a maximally effective concentration of insulin. The swimming program induced a 44% increase in immunoreactive GLUT4 protein concentration. Glucose transport activity maximally stimulated with insulin was 62% greater in soleus muscle of the swimmers than in untrained controls. Training did not alter the basal rate of 2-deoxyglucose uptake.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS).

  4. Serum free light chains are reduced in endurance trained older adults: Evidence that exercise training may reduce basal inflammation in older adults.

    PubMed

    Heaney, Jennifer L J; Phillips, Anna C; Drayson, Mark T; Campbell, John P

    2016-05-01

    Traditionally, free light chains (FLCs) are used as key serum biomarkers in the diagnosis and monitoring of plasma cell malignancies, but polyclonal FLCs can also be used as an accurate real-time indicator of immune-activation and inflammation. The primary aim of the present study was to assess the effects of exercise training status on serum FLCs in older adults, and secondly, to examine if training status moderated serum FLC responses to acute exercise. Kappa and lambda serum FLC levels were measured in 45 healthy older adults (aged ≥ 60 years) who were either sedentary, physically active or endurance trained. FLCs were measured at baseline and in response to an acute bout of submaximal exercise. The endurance trained group had significantly lower levels of kappa and lambda serum FLCs compared with physically active or sedentary elderly adults; these effects were independent of age, BMI and renal function. There was no significant difference in whole immunoglobulins between groups. Exercise training status had no effect on serum FLC responses to acute exercise, which were marginal. In conclusion, endurance training was associated with lower FLC levels compared with less physically active individuals. These findings suggest that long-term endurance training may be beneficial in reducing basal inflammation in older adults as well as elevated FLCs present in inflammatory and autoimmune conditions, often associated with ageing. FLCs may serve as a useful biomarker for monitoring the efficacy of exercise intervention studies in healthy and clinical populations.

  5. Cardiac systolic regional function and synchrony in endurance trained and untrained females

    PubMed Central

    Hedman, Kristofer; Tamás, Éva; Bjarnegård, Niclas; Brudin, Lars; Nylander, Eva

    2015-01-01

    Background Most studies on cardiac function in athletes describe overall heart function in predominately male participants. We aimed to compare segmental, regional and overall myocardial function and synchrony in female endurance athletes (ATH) and in age-matched sedentary females (CON). Methods In 46 ATH and 48 CON, echocardiography was used to measure peak longitudinal systolic strain and myocardial velocities in 12 left ventricular (LV) and 2 right ventricular (RV) segments. Regional and overall systolic function were calculated together with four indices of dyssynchrony. Results There were no differences in regional or overall LV systolic function between groups, or in any of the four dyssynchrony indices. Peak systolic velocity (s′) was higher in the RV of ATH than in CON (9.7±1.5 vs 8.7±1.5 cm/s, p=0.004), but not after indexing by cardiac length (p=0.331). Strain was similar in ATH and CON in 8 of 12 LV myocardial segments. In septum and anteroseptum, basal and mid-ventricular s′ was 6–7% and 17–19% higher in ATH than in CON (p<0.05), respectively, while s′ was 12% higher in CON in the basal LV lateral wall (p=0.013). After indexing by cardiac length, s′ was only higher in ATH in the mid-ventricular septum (p=0.041). Conclusions We found differences between trained and untrained females in segmental systolic myocardial function, but not in global measures of systolic function, including cardiac synchrony. These findings give new insights into cardiac adaptation to endurance training and could also be of use for sports cardiologists evaluating female athletes. PMID:27900120

  6. Anaerobic energy provision does not limit Wingate exercise performance in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Calbet, J A L; De Paz, J A; Garatachea, N; Cabeza de Vaca, S; Chavarren, J

    2003-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of severe acute hypoxia on exercise performance and metabolism during 30-s Wingate tests. Five endurance- (E) and five sprint- (S) trained track cyclists from the Spanish National Team performed 30-s Wingate tests in normoxia and hypoxia (inspired O(2) fraction = 0.10). Oxygen deficit was estimated from submaximal cycling economy tests by use of a nonlinear model. E cyclists showed higher maximal O(2) uptake than S (72 +/- 1 and 62 +/- 2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1), P < 0.05). S cyclists achieved higher peak and mean power output, and 33% larger oxygen deficit than E (P < 0.05). During the Wingate test in normoxia, S relied more on anaerobic energy sources than E (P < 0.05); however, S showed a larger fatigue index in both conditions (P < 0.05). Compared with normoxia, hypoxia lowered O(2) uptake by 16% in E and S (P < 0.05). Peak power output, fatigue index, and exercise femoral vein blood lactate concentration were not altered by hypoxia in any group. Endurance cyclists, unlike S, maintained their mean power output in hypoxia by increasing their anaerobic energy production, as shown by 7% greater oxygen deficit and 11% higher postexercise lactate concentration. In conclusion, performance during 30-s Wingate tests in severe acute hypoxia is maintained or barely reduced owing to the enhancement of the anaerobic energy release. The effect of severe acute hypoxia on supramaximal exercise performance depends on training background.

  7. Gene expression in skeletal muscle of coronary artery disease patients after concentric and eccentric endurance training.

    PubMed

    Zoll, J; Steiner, R; Meyer, K; Vogt, M; Hoppeler, H; Flück, M

    2006-03-01

    Low-intensity concentric (CET) and eccentric (EET) endurance-type training induce specific structural adaptations in skeletal muscle. We evaluated to which extent steady-state adaptations in transcript levels are involved in the compensatory alterations of muscle mitochondria and myofibrils with CET versus EET at a matched metabolic exercise intensity of medicated, stable coronary patients (CAD). Biopsies were obtained from vastus lateralis muscle before and after 8 weeks of CET (n=6) or EET (n=6). Transcript levels for factors involved in mitochondrial biogenesis (PGC-1alpha, Tfam), mitochondrial function (COX-1, COX-4), control of contractile phenotype (MyHC I, IIa, IIx) as well as mechanical stress marker (IGF-I) were quantified using an reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction approach. After 8 weeks of EET, a reduction of the COX-4 mRNA level by 41% and a tendency for a drop in Tfam transcript concentration (-33%, P=0.06) was noted. This down-regulation corresponded to a drop in total mitochondrial volume density. MyHC-IIa transcript levels were specifically decreased after EET, and MyHC-I mRNA showed a trend towards a reduction (P=0.08). Total fiber cross-sectional area was not altered. After CET and EET, the IGF-I mRNA level was significantly increased. The PGC-1alpha significantly correlated with Tfam, and both PGC-1alpha and Tfam significantly correlated with COX-1 and COX-4 mRNAs. Post-hoc analysis identified significant interactions between the concurrent medication and muscular transcript levels as well as fiber size. Our findings support the concept that specific transcriptional adaptations mediate the divergent mitochondrial response of muscle cells to endurance training under different load condition and indicate a mismatch of processes related to muscle hypertrophy in medicated CAD patients.

  8. Effects of high-intensity circuit training, low-intensity circuit training and endurance training on blood pressure and lipoproteins in middle-aged overweight men

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to determine the physiological effects of an high-intensity circuit training (HICT) on several cardiovascular disease risk factors in healthy, overweight middle-aged subjects, and to compare the effects of HICT to traditional endurance training (ET) and low-intensity circuit training (LICT). Methods Fifty-eight participants (ages 61±3.3 yrs, BMI 29.8±0.9) were randomly assigned to one of the three exercise treatment groups: HICT, LICT and ET. The three groups exercised three times per week, 50 min per session for 12 weeks. Baseline and after intervention anthropometric characteristics: body weight (BW), fat mass (FM); blood pressure: diastolic (DBP) and systolic (SBP), blood parameters; CHOL-t (total cholesterol), LDL-C (low density lipoprotein-cholesterol), HDL-C (high density lipoprotein-cholesterol), TG (triglycerides), ApoB and ratio ApoB/ApoA1 were measured. Results Compared to other groups, HICT showed significantly higher reductions in FM, DBP, CHOLt, LDL-C, TG, ApoB and significantly greater increases in high density HDL-C. LICT resulted in the greatest reduction in SBP. All groups showed a significant improvement of BW without any significant differences between groups. Conclusions Our findings indicate that high-intensity circuit training is more effective in improving blood pressure, lipoproteins and triglycerides than endurance training alone or lower intensity circuit training. PMID:24004639

  9. Endurance training induces fiber type-specific revascularization in hindlimb skeletal muscles of rats with chronic heart failure

    PubMed Central

    Ranjbar, Kamal; Ardakanizade, Malihe; Nazem, Farzad

    2017-01-01

    Objective(s): Previous studies showed that skeletal muscle microcirculation was reduced in chronic heart failure. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of endurance training on capillary and arteriolar density of fast and slow twitch muscles in rats with chronic heart failure. Materials and Methods: Four weeks after surgeries (left anterior descending (LAD) artery occlusion), chronic heart failure rats were divided into 3 groups: Sham (Sham, n=10); Sedentary (Sed, n=10); Exercise training (Ex, n=10). Ex group rats were subjected to endurance training in the form of treadmill running with moderate intensity for 10 weeks. Results: Exercise training significantly increased capillary density and capillary to fiber ratio (P<0.05) in slow twitch muscle, but didn’t change fast twitch muscle capillary density and capillary to fiber ratio. Furthermore, arteriolar density in fast twitch muscle increased remarkably (P<0.05) in response to training, but slow twitch muscle arteriolar density did not change in response to exercise in chronic heart failure rats. HIF-1 increased (P<0.01) but VEGF and FGF-2 mRNA did not change in slow twitch muscle after training. In fast twitch muscle, HIF-1 mRNA increased (P<0.05), and VEGF and angiostatin decreased (P<0.01) significantly after training. Conclusion: Endurance training ameliorates fast and slow twitch muscle revascularization non-uniformly in chronic heart failure rats by increasing capillary density in slow twitch muscle and arteriolar density in fast twitch muscle. The difference in revascularization at slow and fast twitch muscles may be induced by the difference in angiogenic and angiostatic gene expression response to endurance training. PMID:28133530

  10. Effects of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance in male and female soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Vergara-Pedreros, Marcelo; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez-Salazar, Cristian; Alvarez, Cristian; Nakamura, Fábio Yuzo; De La Fuente, Carlos I; Caniuqueo, Alexis; Alonso-Martinez, Alicia M; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2016-01-01

    In a randomised controlled trial design, effects of 6 weeks of plyometric training on maximal-intensity exercise and endurance performance were compared in male and female soccer players. Young (age 21.1 ± 2.7 years) players with similar training load and competitive background were assigned to training (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) and control (women, n = 19; men, n = 21) groups. Players were evaluated for lower- and upper-body maximal-intensity exercise, 30 m sprint, change of direction speed and endurance performance before and after 6 weeks of training. After intervention, the control groups did not change, whereas both training groups improved jumps (effect size (ES) = 0.35-1.76), throwing (ES = 0.62-0.78), sprint (ES = 0.86-1.44), change of direction speed (ES = 0.46-0.85) and endurance performance (ES = 0.42-0.62). There were no differences in performance improvements between the plyometric training groups. Both plyometric groups improved more in all performance tests than the controls. The results suggest that adaptations to plyometric training do not differ between men and women.

  11. Effects of endurance training on the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation phases in professional cyclists

    PubMed Central

    Chicharro, J.; Hoyos, J.; Lucia, A.

    2000-01-01

    Objectives—To evaluate the changes produced in both the isocapnic buffering and hypocapnic hyperventilation (HHV) phases of professional cyclists (n = 11) in response to endurance training, and to compare the results with those of amateur cyclists (n = 11). Methods—Each professional cyclist performed three laboratory exercise tests to exhaustion during the active rest (autumn: November), precompetition (winter: January), and competition (spring: May) periods of the sports season. Amateur cyclists only performed one exercise test during the competition period. The isocapnic buffering and HHV ranges were calculated during each test and defined as VO2 and power output (W). Results—No significant differences were found in the isocapnic buffering range in each of the periods of the sports season in professional cyclists. In contrast, there was a significant reduction in the HHV range (expressed in W) during both the competition (p<0.01) and precompetition(p<0.05) periods compared with the rest period. On the other hand, a longer HHV range (p<0.01) was observed in amateur cyclists than in professional cyclists (whether this was expressed in terms of VO2 or W). Conclusions—No change is observed in the isocapnic buffering range of professional cyclists throughout a sports season despite a considerable increase in training loads and a significant reduction in HHV range expressed in terms of power output. Key Words: training; cycling; isocapnic buffering; hypocapnic hyperventilation PMID:11131234

  12. Effects of sprint interval and continuous endurance training on serum levels of inflammatory biomarkers.

    PubMed

    Hovanloo, Fariborz; Arefirad, Tahereh; Ahmadizad, Sajad

    2013-05-31

    Chronic and inflammatory diseases are major causes of mortality. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of exercise have been confirmed, but the effect of different types of exercise on inflammatory markers is different. The aim of this study is comparing the effects of two types of sprint interval (SIT) and continuous endurance (CET) training on inflammatory markers. Sixteen students who had recreational activities participated in this study and were randomly assigned to one of the two protocols. The SIT protocol consisted of four to six 30-s "all-out" Wingate tests separated by 4 minutes of recovery and The CET protocol included 90-120 minutes of cycling at 65% Vo2max. The two protocols were performed 3 days per week and for two weeks. In each group, two blood samples were collected before and 2 days (24 and 48 hrs) after the training. Results showed that there was no significant difference between the two training protocols on all measured parameters (p>0.05). The results of present study showed that the SIT and CET have identical effects on inflammatory markers.

  13. Acute-Phase Inflammatory Response to Single-Bout HIIT and Endurance Training: A Comparative Study

    PubMed Central

    Kaspar, Felix; Jelinek, Herbert F.; Perkins, Steven; Al-Aubaidy, Hayder A.; deJong, Bev; Butkowski, Eugene

    2016-01-01

    Objective. This study compared acute and late effect of single-bout endurance training (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) on the plasma levels of four inflammatory cytokines and C-reactive protein and insulin-like growth factor 1. Design. Cohort study with repeated-measures design. Methods. Seven healthy untrained volunteers completed a single bout of ET and HIIT on a cycle ergometer. ET and HIIT sessions were held in random order and at least 7 days apart. Blood was drawn before the interventions and 30 min and 2 days after the training sessions. Plasma samples were analyzed with ELISA for the interleukins (IL), IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-10, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1), insulin growth factor 1 (IGF-1), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Statistical analysis was with Wilcoxon signed-rank tests. Results. ET led to both a significant acute and long-term inflammatory response with a significant decrease at 30 minutes after exercise in the IL-6/IL-10 ratio (−20%; p = 0.047) and a decrease of MCP-1 (−17.9%; p = 0.03). Conclusion. This study demonstrates that ET affects the inflammatory response more adversely at 30 minutes after exercise compared to HIIT. However, this is compensated by a significant decrease in MCP-1 at two days associated with a reduced risk of atherosclerosis. PMID:27212809

  14. Extremely short duration high-intensity training substantially improves endurance performance in triathletes.

    PubMed

    Jakeman, John; Adamson, Simon; Babraj, John

    2012-10-01

    High-intensity training (HIT) involving 30-s sprints is an effective training regimen to improve aerobic performance. We tested whether 6-s HITs can improve aerobic performance in triathletes. Six subelite triathletes (age, 40 ± 9 years; weight, 86 ± 11 kg; body mass index, 26 ± 3 kg·m⁻²) took part in cycle HIT and 6 endurance-trained subelite athletes (age, 36 ± 9 years; weight, 82 ± 11 kg; BMI, 26 ± 3 kg·m⁻²) maintained their normal training routine. Before and after 2 weeks of HIT, involving 10 × 6-s sprints or normal activity, participants performed a self-paced 10-km time trial and a time to exhaustion test on a cycle ergometer. Finger prick blood samples were taken throughout the time to exhaustion test to determine blood lactate concentration. Two weeks of HIT resulted in a 10% decrease in self-paced 10-km time trial (p = 0.03) but no significant change in time to exhaustion. The time taken to reach onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA, defined as the point where blood lactate reaches 4 mmol·L⁻¹) was significantly increased following 2 weeks of HIT (p = 0.003). The change in time trial performance was correlated to the change in time taken to reach OBLA (R² = 0.63; p = 0.001). We concluded that a very short duration HIT is a very effective training regimen to improve aerobic performance in subelite triathletes and this is associated with a delay in blood lactate build-up.

  15. The Road to Gold: Training and Peaking Characteristics in the Year Prior to a Gold Medal Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Tønnessen, Espen; Sylta, Øystein; Haugen, Thomas A.; Hem, Erlend; Svendsen, Ida S.; Seiler, Stephen

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To describe training variations across the annual cycle in Olympic and World Champion endurance athletes, and determine whether these athletes used tapering strategies in line with recommendations in the literature. Methods Eleven elite XC skiers and biathletes (4 male; 28±1 yr, 85±5 mL. min−1. kg−1 , 7 female, 25±4 yr, 73±3 mL. min−1. kg−1 ) reported one year of day-to-day training leading up to the most successful competition of their career. Training data were divided into periodization and peaking phases and distributed into training forms, intensity zones and endurance activity forms. Results Athletes trained ∼800 h/500 sessions.year−1, including ∼500 h. year−1 of sport-specific training. Ninety-four percent of all training was executed as aerobic endurance training. Of this, ∼90% was low intensity training (LIT, below the first lactate threshold) and 10% high intensity training (HIT, above the first lactate threshold) by time. Categorically, 23% of training sessions were characterized as HIT with primary portions executed at or above the first lactate turn point. Training volume and specificity distribution conformed to a traditional periodization model, but absolute volume of HIT remained stable across phases. However, HIT training patterns tended to become more polarized in the competition phase. Training volume, frequency and intensity remained unchanged from pre-peaking to peaking period, but there was a 32±15% (P<.01) volume reduction from the preparation period to peaking phase. Conclusions The annual training data for these Olympic and World champion XC skiers and biathletes conforms to previously reported training patterns of elite endurance athletes. During the competition phase, training became more sport-specific, with 92% performed as XC skiing. However, they did not follow suggested tapering practice derived from short-term experimental studies. Only three out of 11 athletes took a rest day during the final 5 days

  16. The effect of almond consumption on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Almonds are a healthy tree nut food with high nutrient density. Their consumption has been shown to ameliorate oxidative stress, inflammation, etc. The objective of the study was to examine the effect of almonds on elements of endurance exercise performance in trained athletes. Methods A 10-week crossover, placebo controlled study was conducted. Eight trained male cyclists and two triathletes were randomly assigned to consume 75 g/d whole almonds (ALM) or isocaloric cookies (COK) with equal subject number. They consumed the assigned food for 4 wks and then the alternate food for another 4 wks. They underwent 3 performance tests including 125-min steady status exercise (SS) and 20-min time trial (TT) on an indoor stationary trainer at the start of the study (BL) and at the end of each intervention phase. Venous blood was collected in the morning prior to the performance test for biochemical measurements and finger blood during the test for glucose determination. Carbohydrate and fat oxidation, energy expenditure, and oxygen use were calculated using respiratory gas analysis. Results ALM increased cycling distance during TT by 1.7 km as compared BL (21.9 vs. 20.2 km, P = 0.053) and COK increased 0.6 km (20.8 vs. 20.2 km, P > 0.05). ALM, but not COK, led to higher CHO and lower fat oxidation and less oxygen consumption during TT than BL (P < 0.05), whereas there was no significant difference in heart rate among BL, ALM and COK. ALM maintained higher blood glucose level after TT than COK (P < 0.05). ALM had higher vitamin E and haemoglobin and lower serum free fatty acid (P < 0.05), slightly elevated serum arginine and nitric oxide and plasma insulin (P > 0.05) than BL, and a higher total antioxidant capacity than COK (P < 0.05). Conclusions Whole almonds improved cycling distance and the elements related to endurance performance more than isocaloric cookies in trained athletes as some nutrients in almonds may contribute to

  17. Respiratory muscle endurance training in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: impact on exercise capacity, dyspnea, and quality of life.

    PubMed

    Scherer, T A; Spengler, C M; Owassapian, D; Imhof, E; Boutellier, U

    2000-11-01

    Inspiratory muscle training may have beneficial effects in certain patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Because of the lack of a home training device, normocapnic hyperpnea has rarely been used as a training mode for patients with COPD, and is generally considered unsuitable to large-scale application. To study the effects of hyperpnea training, we randomized 30 patients with COPD and ventilatory limitation to respiratory muscle training (RMT; n = 15) with a new portable device or to breathing exercises with an incentive spirometer (controls; n = 15). Both groups trained twice daily for 15 min for 5 d per week for 8 wk. Training-induced changes were significantly greater in the RMT than in the control group for the following variables: respiratory muscle endurance measured through sustained ventilation (+825 +/- 170 s [mean +/- SEM] versus -27 +/- 61 s, p < 0.001), inspiratory muscle endurance measured through incremental inspiratory threshold loading (+58 +/- 10 g versus +21.7 +/- 9.5 g, p = 0.016), maximal expiratory pressure (+20 +/- 7 cm H(2)O versus -6 +/- 6 cm H(2)O, p = 0.009), 6-min walking distance (+58 +/- 11 m versus +11 +/- 11 m, p = 0.002), V O(2peak) (+2.5 +/- 0.6 ml/kg/min versus -0.3 +/- 0.9 ml/kg/min, p = 0.015), and the SF-12 physical component score (+9.9 +/- 2.7 versus +1.8 +/- 2.4, p = 0.03). Changes in dyspnea, maximal inspiratory pressure, treadmill endurance, and the SF-12 mental component score did not differ significantly between the RMT and control groups. In conclusion, home-based respiratory muscle endurance training with the new device used in this study is feasible and has beneficial effects in subjects with COPD and ventilatory limitation.

  18. Effects of curative treatment emphasizing endurance training on the performance and blood pressure of hypertensive and normotensives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Worms, F.

    1981-01-01

    The problem of normal values of blood pressure after exercise taking into account the blood pressure at the end of the exercise test is discussed. Hypertensives showed a lower working capacity than normotensives. In normotensives, however, systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise correlated well with the working capacity. After the endurance cure submaximal blood pressure was markedly lower in hypertensives with a striking dependence on the level of initial values. Systolic blood pressure at the end of an exercise test was not changed significantly. Most probably it is not possible to overcome this malregulation in hypertensives by endurance training alone.

  19. Similar metabolic adaptations during exercise after low volume sprint interval and traditional endurance training in humans.

    PubMed

    Burgomaster, Kirsten A; Howarth, Krista R; Phillips, Stuart M; Rakobowchuk, Mark; Macdonald, Maureen J; McGee, Sean L; Gibala, Martin J

    2008-01-01

    Low-volume 'sprint' interval training (SIT) stimulates rapid improvements in muscle oxidative capacity that are comparable to levels reached following traditional endurance training (ET) but no study has examined metabolic adaptations during exercise after these different training strategies. We hypothesized that SIT and ET would induce similar adaptations in markers of skeletal muscle carbohydrate (CHO) and lipid metabolism and metabolic control during exercise despite large differences in training volume and time commitment. Active but untrained subjects (23 +/- 1 years) performed a constant-load cycling challenge (1 h at 65% of peak oxygen uptake (.VO(2peak)) before and after 6 weeks of either SIT or ET (n = 5 men and 5 women per group). SIT consisted of four to six repeats of a 30 s 'all out' Wingate Test (mean power output approximately 500 W) with 4.5 min recovery between repeats, 3 days per week. ET consisted of 40-60 min of continuous cycling at a workload that elicited approximately 65% (mean power output approximately 150 W) per day, 5 days per week. Weekly time commitment (approximately 1.5 versus approximately 4.5 h) and total training volume (approximately 225 versus approximately 2250 kJ week(-1)) were substantially lower in SIT versus ET. Despite these differences, both protocols induced similar increases (P < 0.05) in mitochondrial markers for skeletal muscle CHO (pyruvate dehydrogenase E1alpha protein content) and lipid oxidation (3-hydroxyacyl CoA dehydrogenase maximal activity) and protein content of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma coactivator-1alpha. Glycogen and phosphocreatine utilization during exercise were reduced after training, and calculated rates of whole-body CHO and lipid oxidation were decreased and increased, respectively, with no differences between groups (all main effects, P < 0.05). Given the markedly lower training volume in the SIT group, these data suggest that high-intensity interval training is a time

  20. Acute Physiological and Thermoregulatory Responses to Extended Interval Training in Endurance Runners: Influence of Athletic Performance and Age

    PubMed Central

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor Manuel; Latorre-Román, Pedro Ángel

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to describe the acute impact of extended interval training (EIT) on physiological and thermoregulatory levels, as well as to determine the influence of athletic performance and age effect on the aforementioned response in endurance runners. Thirty-one experienced recreational male endurance runners voluntarily participated in this study. Subjects performed EIT on an outdoor running track, which consisted of 12 runs of 400 m. The rate of perceived exertion, physiological response through the peak and recovery heart rate, blood lactate, and thermoregulatory response through tympanic temperature, were controlled. A repeated measures analysis revealed significant differences throughout EIT in examined variables. Cluster analysis grouped according to the average performance in 400 m runs led to distinguish between athletes with a higher and lower sports level. Cluster analysis was also performed according to age, obtaining an older group and a younger group. The one-way analysis of variance between groups revealed no significant differences (p≥0.05) in the response to EIT. The results provide a detailed description of physiological and thermoregulatory responses to EIT in experienced endurance runners. This allows a better understanding of the impact of a common training stimulus on the physiological level inducing greater accuracy in the training prescription. Moreover, despite the differences in athletic performance or age, the acute physiological and thermoregulatory responses in endurance runners were similar, as long as EIT was performed at similar relative intensity. PMID:26839621

  1. Ventilatory Responses at Peak Exercise in Endurance-Trained Obese Adults

    PubMed Central

    Lorenzo, Santiago

    2013-01-01

    Background: Alterations in respiratory mechanics predispose healthy obese individuals to low lung volume breathing, which places them at risk of developing expiratory flow limitation (EFL). The high ventilatory demand in endurance-trained obese adults further increases their risk of developing EFL and increases their work of breathing. The objective of this study was to investigate the prevalence and magnitude of EFL in fit obese (FO) adults via measurements of breathing mechanics and ventilatory dynamics during exercise. Methods: Ten (seven women and three men) FO (mean ± SD, 38 ± 5 years, 38% ± 5% body fat) and 10 (seven women and three men) control obese (CO) (38 ± 5 years, 39% ± 5% body fat) subjects underwent hydrostatic weighing, pulmonary function testing, cycle exercise testing, and the determination of the oxygen cost of breathing during eucapnic voluntary hyperpnea. Results: There were no differences in functional residual capacity (43% ± 6% vs 40% ± 9% total lung capacity [TLC]), residual volume (21% ± 4% vs 21% ± 4% TLC), or FVC (111% ± 13% vs 104% ± 15% predicted) between FO and CO subjects, respectively. FO subjects had higher FEV1 (111% ± 13% vs 99% ± 11% predicted), TLC (106% ± 14% vs 94% ± 7% predicted), peak expiratory flow (123% ± 14% vs 106% ± 13% predicted), and maximal voluntary ventilation (128% ± 15% vs 106% ± 13% predicted) than did CO subjects. Peak oxygen uptake (129% ± 16% vs 86% ± 15% predicted), minute ventilation (128 ± 35 L/min vs 92 ± 25 L/min), and work rate (229 ± 54 W vs 166 ± 55 W) were higher in FO subjects. Mean inspiratory (4.65 ± 1.09 L/s vs 3.06 ± 1.21 L/s) and expiratory (4.15 ± 0.95 L/s vs 2.98 ± 0.76L/s) flows were greater in FO subjects, which yielded a greater breathing frequency (51 ± 8 breaths/min vs 41 ± 10 breaths/min) at peak exercise in FO subjects. Mechanical ventilatory constraints in FO subjects were similar to those in CO subjects despite the greater ventilatory demand in FO

  2. The effect of endurance training and downhill running on the expression of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α and HSP72 in rat skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Isanejad, Amin; Saraf, Zahir Hassan; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Gharakhanlou, Reza; Shamsi, Mahdieh Molanouri; Paulsen, Gøran

    2015-06-01

    This study investigated changes in the myokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α, as well as HSP72, after endurance training and after a session of downhill running. Twenty-eight rats were allocated to four different groups: 1. Eight weeks of endurance training at 65-70% VO2max (Trained); 2. Endurance training and a single session of downhill running on a 16° slope (Trained plus downhill); 3. A single session of downhill running (Sedentary plus downhill); and 4. Sedentary (Control, no exercise). Soleus and extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscles were harvested 48h after training and/or a single session of downhill running and protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and HSP72 were measured and compared to the levels in the control animals. Creatine kinase (CK) was measured in plasma. Endurance training augmented intramuscular levels of HSP72 and IL-6 in both soleus and EDL muscles (p<0.05). Endurance training elevated IL-1β and decreased TNF-α significantly only in EDL (P<0.05). IL-6 increased in both sedentary and trained rats after downhill running (P<0.05), while HSP72 increased only in the previously sedentary rats. CK was lower in trained than sedentary rats after downhill running. In conclusion, endurance training for 8weeks elevated muscular HSP72 protein levels, which might have preconditioned the muscles for a single session of downhill running, as indicated by the CK and HSP72 responses. Interestingly, IL-6 was augmented by endurance training and further increased by downhill running. IL-1β, along with IL-6, was increased by endurance training, and these myokines thus appear to be differently regulated than TNF-α.

  3. Monitoring VO2max during fourteen weeks of endurance training using the CardioCoach.

    PubMed

    Vehrs, Pat R; Keller, David M; George, James D; Hager, Ronald L; Fellingham, Gilbert W

    2007-02-01

    This study evaluated the validity of the desktop CardioCoach metabolic system to measure VO2max and VEmax. Sixteen subjects (mean age = 19.5 +/- 3.2 years) completed 2 maximal graded exercise tests following the same protocol before and after 7 and 14 weeks of endurance training. Subjects' VO2max and VEmax were measured by either the CardioCoach or the ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 metabolic measurement system (TrueOne). An alpha level of significance of p < 0.05 was maintained for all statistical analyses. The time to test completion and the final treadmill grade of the exercise tests performed by both the CardioCoach and the TrueOne increased over the 3 testing periods, confirming an improvement in cardiorespiratory fitness resulting from the 14 weeks of training. A linear growth curve analysis indicated that there were statistically significant differences between VO2max (ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) as measured by the TrueOne and the CardioCoach before (44.4 +/- 5.0 and 49.3 +/- 5.4) and after 7 weeks (46.0 +/- 5.2 and 48.2 +/- 5.4) of training but not after 14 weeks of training (47.8 +/- 5.6 and 48.4 +/- 5.2). Significant differences also existed in VEmax (L x min(-1)) as measured by the TrueOne and the CardioCoach before (76.8 +/- 17.7 and 71.9 +/- 13.7), after 7 weeks (81.4 +/- 16.2 and 72.8 +/- 14.1), and after 14 weeks (86.8 +/- 19.4 and 74.2 +/- 13.1) of training. Although significant growth of VO2max (0.24 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) x wk(-1)) and VEmax (0.71 L x min(-1) x wk(-1)) was measured by the TrueOne over 14 weeks of training, the CardioCoach was unable to detect growth in VO2max (-0.02 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) x wk(-1)) or VEmax (0.17 L x min(-1) x wk(-1)). This study indicates that the CardioCoach did not accurately measure or monitor changes in VO2max or VEmax resulting from training.

  4. Different types of compression clothing do not increase sub-maximal and maximal endurance performance in well-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Sperlich, Billy; Haegele, Matthias; Achtzehn, Silvia; Linville, John; Holmberg, Hans-Christer; Mester, Joachim

    2010-04-01

    Three textiles with increasing compressive surface were compared with non-compressive conventional clothing on physiological and perceptual variables during sub-maximal and maximal running. Fifteen well-trained endurance athletes (mean+/-s: age 27.1+/-4.8 years, VO(2max) 63.7+/-4.9 ml x min(-1) x kg(-1)) performed four sub-maximal (approximately 70% VO(2max)) and maximal tests with and without different compression stockings, tights, and whole-body compression suits. Arterial lactate concentration, oxygen saturation and partial pressure, pH, oxygen uptake, and ratings of muscle soreness were recorded before, during, and after all tests. In addition, we assessed time to exhaustion. Sub-maximal (P=0.22) and maximal oxygen uptake (P=0.26), arterial lactate concentration (P=0.16; 0.20), pH (P=0.23; 0.46), oxygen saturation (P=0.13; 0.26), and oxygen partial pressure (P=0.09; 0.20) did not differ between the types of clothing (effect sizes=0.00-0.45). Ratings of perceived exertion (P=0.10; 0.15), muscle soreness (P=0.09; 0.10) and time to exhaustion (P=0.16) were also unaffected by the different clothing (effect sizes=0.28-0.85). This was the first study to evaluate the effect on endurance performance of different types of compression clothing with increasing amounts of compressive surface. Overall, there were no performance benefits when using the compression garments.

  5. HIIT enhances endurance performance and aerobic characteristics more than high-volume training in trained rowers.

    PubMed

    Ní Chéilleachair, Niamh J; Harrison, Andrew J; Warrington, Giles D

    2016-07-20

    This study compared the effects of long slow distance training (LSD) with high-intensity interval training (HIIT) in rowers. Nineteen well-trained rowers performed three tests before and after an 8-week training intervention: (1) 2000 m time trial; (2) seven-stage incremental step test to determine maximum oxygen uptake ([Formula: see text]O2max), power output at [Formula: see text]O2max (W[Formula: see text]O2max), peak power output (PPO), rowing economy and blood lactate indices and (3) seven-stroke power-output test to determine maximal power output (Wmax) and force (Fmax). After baseline testing, participants were randomly assigned either to a HIIT or LSD group. The LSD comprised 10 weekly aerobic sessions. The HIIT also comprised 10 weekly sessions: 8 aerobic and 2 HIIT. The HIIT sessions comprised 6-8 × 2.5 min intervals at 100% PPO with recovery time based on heart rate (HR) returning to 70% HRmax. Results demonstrated that the HIIT produced greater improvement in 2000 m time trial performance than the LSD (effect size (ES) = 0.25). Moreover, the HIIT produced greater improvements in [Formula: see text]O2max (ES = 0.95, P = 0.035) and power output at lactate threshold (WLT) (ES = 1.15, P = 0.008). Eight weeks of HIIT performed at 100% PPO is more effective than LSD in improving performance and aerobic characteristics in well-trained rowers.

  6. Mesenchymal stem cell therapy associated with endurance exercise training: Effects on the structural and functional remodeling of infarcted rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Lavorato, Victor Neiva; Del Carlo, Ricardo Junqueira; da Cunha, Daise Nunes Queiroz; Okano, Barbara Silva; Belfort, Felipe Gomes; de Freitas, Juliana Silveira; da Mota, Gloria de Fatima Alves; Quintão-Júnior, Judson Fonseca; Silame-Gomes, Luis Henrique Lobo; Drummond, Filipe Rios; Carneiro-Júnior, Miguel Araújo; de Oliveira, Edilamar Menezes; Monteiro, Betania Souza; Prímola-Gomes, Thales Nicolau; Natali, Antônio José

    2016-01-01

    We tested the effects of early mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) therapy associated with endurance exercise on the structural and functional cardiac remodeling of rats with myocardial infarctation (MI). Male Wistar rats (40 days old) were divided into 6 groups: control and exercise sham; control and exercise MI; and control and exercise MI MSC. MI was surgically induced and bone marrow-derived MSCs were immediately injected via caudal vein (concentration: 1 × 10(6 )cells). Twenty-four hours later ET groups exercised on a treadmill (5 days/week; 60 min/day; 60% of maximal running velocity) for 12 weeks. Structural and functional changes were determined by echocardiography. Contractility and intracellular global calcium ([Ca(2 +)]i) transient were measured in myocytes from the left ventricular (LV) non-infarcted area. Calcium regulatory proteins were measured by Western blot. MI increased (p < 0.05) heart, ventricular and LV weights and its ratios to body weight; LV internal dimension in diastole (LVID-D) and in systole (LVID-S) and LV free wall in diastole (LVFW-D), but reduced the thickness of interventricular septum in systole (IVS-S), ejection fraction (EF) and fractional shortening (FS). MI augmented (p < 0.05) the times to peak and to half relaxation of cell shortening as well as the amplitude of the [Ca(2 +)]i transient and the times to peak and to half decay. Early MSCs therapy restored LVFW-D, IVS-S and the amplitude and time to half decay of the [Ca(2 +)]i transient. Early endurance exercise intervention increased (p < 0.05) LVFW-S, IVS-S, EF and FS, and reduced the times to peak and to half relaxation of cell shortening, and the amplitude of the [Ca(2 +)]i transient. Exercise training also increased the expression of left ventricular SERCA2a and PLBser16. Nevertheless, the combination of these therapies did not cause additive effects. In conclusion, combining early MSCs therapy and endurance exercise does not potentiate the benefits of such treatments to

  7. Climbing-specific finger endurance: a comparative study of intermediate rock climbers, rowers and aerobically trained individuals.

    PubMed

    Grant, S; Shields, C; Fitzpatrick, V; Loh, W Ming; Whitaker, A; Watt, I; Kay, J W

    2003-08-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the climbing-specific finger endurance of climbers, rowers and aerobically leg trained athletes. Twenty-seven males aged 21.2 +/- 2.2 years (mean +/- s) volunteered for the study. The participants were intermediate rock climbers (n = 9), rowers (n = 9) and leg trained athletes (n = 9). Maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) was determined on climbing-specific finger apparatus. Endurance isometric exercise was performed at 40% MVC in three tests performed in a random order: (1) sustained exercise; (2) 6 s exercise, 4 s rest; and (3) 18 s exercise, 12 s rest. Pre- and post-exercise blood pressure and blood lactate concentration, together with post-exercise pain perception, were measured. The climbers had a significantly greater MVC (383 +/- 35.6 N) than the rowers (321 +/- 49.5 N, P = 0.007) and aerobically leg trained athletes (288 +/- 60.6 N, P = 0.001). There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of endurance times for any of the tests. In the test with 18 s exercise and 12 s rest, the climbers showed a significantly higher increase in blood lactate concentration, on average, than the rowers by 0.01-0.89 mmol x l(-1) (P = 0.006); there were no significant differences, on average, in the comparisons of climbers and the leg trained athletes and rowers and the leg trained athletes. There were no significant differences in the average changes in blood pressure from rest to post-exercise between any of the groups. Although the climbers had greater MVC on average than the other two groups, there were no significant differences in average endurance times amongthe groups. These findings suggest that training for rock climbing and participation in rock climbing may result in some specific adaptations. However, we acknowledge that this study is descriptive and there is the possibility that differences between groups could be attributed to self-selection.

  8. Effects of vitamin C and E supplementation on endogenous antioxidant systems and heat shock proteins in response to endurance training

    PubMed Central

    Cumming, Kristoffer T.; Raastad, Truls; Holden, Geir; Bastani, Nasser E.; Schneeberger, Damaris; Paronetto, Maria Paola; Mercatelli, Neri; Østgaard, Hege N.; Ugelstad, Ingrid; Caporossi, Daniela; Blomhoff, Rune; Paulsen, Gøran

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species are important signal molecules for adaptations to training. Due to the antioxidant properties of vitamin C and E, supplementation has been shown to blunt adaptations to endurance training. In this study, we investigated the effects of vitamin C and E supplementation and endurance training on adaptations in endogenous antioxidants and heat shock proteins (HSP). Thirty seven males and females were randomly assigned to receive Vitamin C and E (C + E; C: 1000 mg, E: 235 mg daily) or placebo (PLA), and underwent endurance training for 11 weeks. After 5 weeks, a subgroup conducted a high intensity interval session to investigate acute stress responses. Muscle and blood samples were obtained to investigate changes in proteins and mRNA related to the antioxidant and HSP system. The acute response to the interval session revealed no effects of C + E supplementation on NFκB activation. However, higher stress responses to exercise in C + E group was indicated by larger translocation of HSPs and a more pronounced gene expression compared to PLA. Eleven weeks of endurance training decreased muscle GPx1, HSP27 and αB‐crystallin, while mnSOD, HSP70 and GSH remained unchanged, with no influence of supplementation. Plasma GSH increased in both groups, while uric acid decreased in the C + E group only. Our results showed that C + E did not affect long‐term training adaptations in the antioxidant‐ and HSP systems. However, the greater stress responses to exercise in the C + E group might indicate that long‐term adaptations occurs through different mechanisms in the two groups. PMID:25293598

  9. 48 CFR 301.604-74 - Additional COTR training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 301.604-74 Additional COTR training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional COTR training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Additional COTR...

  10. 48 CFR 301.604-74 - Additional COTR training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 301.604-74 Additional COTR training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional COTR training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional COTR...

  11. 48 CFR 301.604-74 - Additional COTR training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 301.604-74 Additional COTR training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional COTR training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Additional COTR...

  12. 48 CFR 301.604-74 - Additional COTR training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 301.604-74 Additional COTR training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional COTR training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Additional COTR...

  13. 48 CFR 301.604-74 - Additional COTR training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 301.604-74 Additional COTR training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional COTR training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event that... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 4 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Additional COTR...

  14. Changes in body surface temperature during speed endurance work-out in highly-trained male sprinters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korman, Paweł; Straburzyńska-Lupa, Anna; Kusy, Krzysztof; Kantanista, Adam; Zieliński, Jacek

    2016-09-01

    The mechanism of thermoregulatory adaptation to exercise cannot yet be fully explained, however, infrared thermography (IRT) seems to have potential for monitoring physiological changes during exercise and training. It is a non-contact and easy to use technology to measure heat radiation from the body surface. The objective of the study was to examine the temperature changes over time on lower limbs in sprinters during speed endurance training session. Eight sprinters, specialized in distances 100 m and 200 m, aged 21-29 years, members of the Polish national team, were evaluated during an outdoor speed endurance work-out. Their track session comprised of warm-up, specific drills for sprinting technique, and speed endurance exercise. The surface temperature of lower limbs was measured and thermal images were taken using infrared camera after each part of the session. The speed endurance training session brought about specific time course of body surface (legs) temperature. The warm-up induced a significant decline in surface temperature by ∼2.5 °C, measured both on the front and back of lower limbs (p < 0.001), followed by a temperature stabilization until the end of the session. No significant asymmetry between the front and back sides of legs was observed. Body surface temperature may help identify an individual optimal time to terminate warm up and start the main part of the training session. It may also be useful for the assessment of muscle activity symmetry in cyclical activities, such as sprint running. This is of particular relevance when a training session is performed outdoors in changeable weather conditions.

  15. Effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Abreu, P.; Vitzel, K.F.; Monteiro, I.C.C.R.; Lima, T.I.; Queiroz, A.N.; Leal-Cardoso, J.H.; Hirabara, S.M.; Ceccatto, V.M.

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this research was to investigate the effects of endurance training on reduction of plasma glucose during high intensity constant and incremental speed tests in Wistar rats. We hypothesized that plasma glucose might be decreased in the exercised group during heavy (more intense) exercise. Twenty-four 10-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to sedentary and exercised groups. The prescription of endurance exercise training intensity was determined as 60% of the maximum intensity reached at the incremental speed test. The animals were trained by running on a motorized treadmill, five days/week for a total period of 67 weeks. Plasma glucose during the constant speed test in the exercised group at 20 m/min was reduced at the 14th, 21st and 28th min compared to the sedentary group, as well at 25 m/min at the 21st and 28th min. Plasma glucose during the incremental speed test was decreased in the exercised group at the moment of exhaustion (48th min) compared to the sedentary group (27th min). Endurance training positively modulates the mitochondrial activity and capacity of substrate oxidation in muscle and liver. Thus, in contrast to other studies on high load of exercise, the effects of endurance training on the decrease of plasma glucose during constant and incremental speed tests was significantly higher in exercised than in sedentary rats and associated with improved muscle and hepatic oxidative capacity, constituting an important non-pharmacological intervention tool for the prevention of insulin resistance, including type 2 diabetes mellitus. PMID:27783805

  16. Combined effects of endurance training and dietary unsaturated fatty acids on physical performance, fat oxidation and insulin sensitivity.

    PubMed

    Boss, Andreas; Lecoultre, Virgile; Ruffieux, Christiane; Tappy, Luc; Schneiter, Philippe

    2010-04-01

    Endurance training improves exercise performance and insulin sensitivity, and these effects may be in part mediated by an enhanced fat oxidation. Since n-3 and n-9 unsaturated fatty acids may also increase fat oxidation, we hypothesised that a diet enriched in these fatty acids may enhance the effects of endurance training on exercise performance, insulin sensitivity and fat oxidation. To assess this hypothesis, sixteen normal-weight sedentary male subjects were randomly assigned to an isoenergetic diet enriched with fish and olive oils (unsaturated fatty acid group (UFA): 52 % carbohydrates, 34 % fat (12 % SFA, 12 % MUFA, 5 % PUFA), 14 % protein), or a control diet (control group (CON): 62 % carbohydrates, 24 % fat (12 % SFA, 6 % MUFA, 2 % PUFA), 14 % protein) and underwent a 10 d gradual endurance training protocol. Exercise performance was evaluated by measuring VO2max and the time to exhaustion during a cycling exercise at 80 % VO2max; glucose homeostasis was assessed after ingestion of a test meal. Fat oxidation was assessed by indirect calorimetry at rest and during an exercise at 50 % VO2max. Training significantly increased time to exhaustion, but not VO2max, and lowered incremental insulin area under the curve after the test meal, indicating improved insulin sensitivity. Those effects were, however, of similar magnitude in UFA and CON. Fat oxidation tended to increase in UFA, but not in CON. This difference was, however, not significant. It is concluded that a diet enriched with fish- and olive oil does not substantially enhance the effects of a short-term endurance training protocol in healthy young subjects.

  17. Evaluation of fitness level by the oxygen uptake efficiency slope after a short-term intermittent endurance training.

    PubMed

    Mourot, L; Perrey, S; Tordi, N; Rouillon, J D

    2004-02-01

    Several indicators are used as indices of cardiorespiratory reserve. Among them, oxygen uptake (VO(2)) at peak and ventilatory threshold (VAT) levels are the most common used. In the present study, endurance training was used to evaluate and compare the usefulness of a new index, the Oxygen Uptake Efficiency Slope (OUES) as an alternative to the previous ones. Fifteen physical education student women participated in the study (8 as a trained group [T: age (mean +/- SD) 21.9 +/- 3.3 y, height 165.1 +/- 5.5 cm, weight 60.4 +/- 3.3 kg] and 7 as a control group [C: age 21.7 +/- 1.9 y, height 165.4 +/- 7.2 cm, weight 59.6 +/- 8.6 kg]). Before and after 6 weeks of the Square-Wave Endurance Exercise Test (SWEET) training program or daily activities, they performed an incremental test (30 W/3 min) on a cycle ergometer to determined VO(2), power output and parameters associated with breathing efficiency (the respiratory equivalents, and the ventilatory dead space to tidal volume ratio [Vd/Vt]) at peak- and VAT-levels. The slope of the relationship between ventilation and carbon dioxide production was also calculated. OUES, derived from the logarithmic relationship between VO(2) and minute ventilation (V(E)), was determined at 75 % (OUES75), 90 % (OUES90) and 100 % (OUES100) of exercise duration. After endurance training in T, VO(2) and power output were significantly improved at peak- and VAT-levels while all breathing efficiency indices remained unchanged. No changes were observed in C after 6 weeks. Despite significant correlation between OUES values and VO(2) at peak- and VAT-levels, OUES75, OUES90 and OUES100 did not significantly change after endurance training. While VO(2) and power output at peak- and VAT-levels increased in all T, training-induced changes in OUES appeared more variable. We concluded that OUES was not sufficiently sensitive to highlight improvement of cardiorespiratory reserve after endurance training whereas VO(2) at peak and VAT levels did.

  18. Endurance exercise training increases insulin responsiveness in isolated adipocytes through IRS/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

    PubMed

    Peres, Sidney B; de Moraes, Solange M Franzói; Costa, Cecilia E M; Brito, Luciana C; Takada, Julie; Andreotti, Sandra; Machado, Magaly A; Alonso-Vale, Maria Isabel C; Borges-Silva, Cristina N; Lima, Fabio B

    2005-03-01

    Endurance exercise training promotes important metabolic adaptations, and the adipose tissue is particularly affected. The aim of this study was to investigate how endurance exercise training modulates some aspects of insulin action in isolated adipocytes and in intact adipose tissue. Male Wistar rats were submitted to daily treadmill running (1 h/day) for 7 wk. Sedentary age-matched rats were used as controls. Final body weight, body weight gain, and epididymal fat pad weight did not show any statistical differences between groups. Adipocytes from trained rats were smaller than those from sedentary rats (205 +/- 16.8 vs. 286 +/- 26.4 pl; P < 0.05). Trained rats showed decreased plasma glucose (4.9 +/- 0.13 vs. 5.3 +/- 0.07 mM; P < 0.05) and insulin levels (0.24 +/- 0.012 vs. 0.41 +/- 0.049 mM; P < 0.05) and increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake (23.1 +/- 3.1 vs. 12.1 +/- 2.9 pmol/cm(2); P < 0.05) compared with sedentary rats. The number of insulin receptors and the insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation of insulin receptor-beta subunit did not change between groups. Insulin-induced tyrosine phosphorylation insulin receptor substrates (IRS)-1 and -2 increased significantly (1.57- and 2.38-fold, respectively) in trained rats. Insulin-induced IRS-1/phosphatidylinositol 3 (PI3)-kinase (but not IRS-2/PI3-kinase) association and serine Akt phosphorylation also increased (2.06- and 3.15-fold, respectively) after training. The protein content of insulin receptor-beta subunit, IRS-1 and -2, did not differ between groups. Taken together, these data support the hypothesis that the increased adipocyte responsiveness to insulin observed after endurance exercise training is modulated by IRS/PI3-kinase/Akt pathway.

  19. Effects of morning versus evening combined strength and endurance training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and serum hormone concentrations.

    PubMed

    Küüsmaa, Maria; Schumann, Moritz; Sedliak, Milan; Kraemer, William J; Newton, Robert U; Malinen, Jari-Pekka; Nyman, Kai; Häkkinen, Arja; Häkkinen, Keijo

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the effects of 24 weeks of morning versus evening same-session combined strength (S) and endurance (E) training on physical performance, muscle hypertrophy, and resting serum testosterone and cortisol diurnal concentrations. Forty-two young men were matched and assigned to a morning (m) or evening (e) E + S or S + E group (mE + S, n = 9; mS + E, n = 9; eE + S, n = 12; and eS + E, n = 12). Participants were tested for dynamic leg press 1-repetition maximum (1RM) and time to exhaustion (Texh) during an incremental cycle ergometer test both in the morning and evening, cross-sectional area (CSA) of vastus lateralis and diurnal serum testosterone and cortisol concentrations (0730 h; 0930 h; 1630 h; 1830 h). All groups similarly increased 1RM in the morning (14%-19%; p < 0.001) and evening (18%-24%; p < 0.001). CSA increased in all groups by week 24 (12%-20%, p < 0.01); however, during the training weeks 13-24 the evening groups gained more muscle mass (time-of-day main effect; p < 0.05). Texh increased in all groups in the morning (16%-28%; p < 0.01) and evening (18%-27%; p < 0.001), however, a main effect for the exercise order, in favor of E + S, was observed on both testing times (p < 0.051). Diurnal rhythms in testosterone and cortisol remained statistically unaltered by the training order or time. The present results indicate that combined strength and endurance training in the evening may lead to larger gains in muscle mass, while the E + S training order might be more beneficial for endurance performance development. However, training order and time seem to influence the magnitude of adaptations only when the training period exceeded 12 weeks.

  20. Erythropoietin administration alone or in combination with endurance training affects neither skeletal muscle morphology nor angiogenesis in healthy young men.

    PubMed

    Larsen, Mads S; Vissing, Kristian; Thams, Line; Sieljacks, Peter; Dalgas, Ulrik; Nellemann, Birgitte; Christensen, Britt

    2014-10-01

    The aim was to investigate the ability of an erythropoiesis-stimulating agent (ESA), alone or in combination with endurance training, to induce changes in human skeletal muscle fibre and vascular morphology. In a comparative study, 36 healthy untrained men were randomly dispersed into the following four groups: sedentary-placebo (SP, n = 9); sedentary-ESA (SE, n = 9); training-placebo (TP, n = 10); or training-ESA (TE, n = 8). The ESA or placebo was injected once weekly. Training consisted of progressive bicycling three times per week for 10 weeks. Before and after the intervention period, muscle biopsies and magnetic resonance images were collected from the thigh muscles, blood was collected, body composition measured and endurance exercise performance evaluated. The ESA treatment (SE and TE) led to elevated haematocrit, and both ESA treatment and training (SE, TP and TE) increased maximal O2 uptake. With regard to skeletal muscle morphology, TP alone exhibited increases in whole-muscle cross-sectional area and fibre diameter of all fibre types. Also exclusively for TP was an increase in type IIa fibres and a corresponding decrease in type IIx fibres. Furthermore, an overall training effect (TP and TE) was statistically demonstrated in whole-muscle cross-sectional area, muscle fibre diameter and type IIa and type IIx fibre distribution. With regard to muscle vascular morphology, TP and TE both promoted a rise in capillary to muscle fibre ratio, with no differences between the two groups. There were no effects of ESA treatment on any of the muscle morphological parameters. Despite the haematopoietic effects of ESA, we provide novel evidence that endurance training rather than ESA treatment induces adaptational changes in angiogenesis and muscle morphology.

  1. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is heterogeneously distributed in equine myofibers and highly expressed in endurance trained horses.

    PubMed

    Gondim, Fernando J; Modolo, Luzia V; Campos, Gerson E R; Salgado, I

    2005-01-01

    Mammalian skeletal muscle expresses splice variants of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS). Skeletal muscles have a metabolically heterogeneous population of myofibers, and fiber composition in equine skeletal muscle is correlated with athletic ability in endurance events. In this study, we investigated whether nNOS expression in equine skeletal muscle is related to fiber type and endurance training. Biopsy samples obtained from the gluteus medius of sedentary- (SH) and endurance-trained (TH) horses were examined for the electrophoretic mobility of myosin heavy chain (MHC) and NOS activity. Serial tissue cross-sections were stained for myosin ATPase and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) reductase, and also immunostained for nNOS. The gluteus medius of TH had higher levels of nNOS expression and activity when compared to muscle from SH. In SH, nNOS was restricted to the subsarcolemmal area while in TH nNOS was also present at cytoplasmic sites. A splice variant of nNOS was heterogeneously distributed among the different myofibers, its expression being higher in fast-oxidative-glycolytic type IIA fibers than in fast-glycolytic type IIX fibers and absent in slow-twitch type I fibers. Trained horses had a significantly higher relative content of type IIA fibers, a greater oxidative capacity, and a lower percentage of type IIX fibers when compared with SH. The differences in muscle fiber typing between the 2 groups of horses reflected alterations that probably resulted from the endurance-training program. Overall, these results show that nNOS is differentially expressed and localized in the gluteus medius according to the fiber type and the athletic conditioning of the horses.

  2. Influence of 3 months endurance training on red cell deformability in non insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, B; Opitz, D; Bloch, W; Brixius, K

    2013-08-01

    The main purpose of the study was to examine if 3 months of bicycle endurance training alters the red cell deformability in non insulin dependent type 2 diabetes mellitus men.The red cell deformability was measured with the Laser assisted optical rotational cell analyzer. The maximal elongation index and the semimaximal shear stress were measured with the Lineweaver Burke model.At the beginning and the end of the intervention the patients passed a bicycle ergometry test. As a reference group, 13 males without diabetes passed the same testing procedure. Blood samplings were taken before testing, immediately after physical exhaustion and after a 30 min recovery phase.After the training period diabetic patients could significantly reduce BMI, fasting glucose and HbA1c. The reference group had significantly higher elongation indices than the diabetes patients independent from training status. After the training period the basal values of the maximal elongation index did not change significantly. However, maximal elongation indices were significantly reduced after physical examination and in resting time.The semimaximal shear stress of diabetes patients did not alter during the training period. In comparison to the reference group semimaximal shear stress was significantly reduced at all measurement times.This pilot study proves that the maximal elongation index is significantly decreased in diabetes mellitus patients. After 3 months endurance training the red cells become more rigid while the semimaximal shear stress remains constant. Further interventions are required to analyze the exact cause of the presented findings.

  3. THE RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN THE NUMBER OF REPETITIONS PERFORMED AT GIVEN INTENSITIES IS DIFFERENT IN ENDURANCE AND STRENGTH TRAINED ATHLETES

    PubMed Central

    Richens, B.

    2014-01-01

    Prescribing training intensity and volume is a key problem when designing resistance training programmes. One approach is to base training prescription on the number of repetitions performed at a given percentage of repetition maximum due to the correlation found between these two measures. However, previous research has raised questions as to the accuracy of this method, as the repetitions completed at different percentages of 1RM can differ based upon the characteristics of the athlete. The objective of this study was therefore to evaluate the effect of an athlete's training background on the relationship between the load lifted (as a percentage of one repetition maximum) and the number of repetitions achieved. Eight weightlifters and eight endurance runners each completed a one repetition maximum test on the leg press and completed repetitions to fatigue at 90, 80 and 70% of their one repetition maximum. The endurance runners completed significantly more repetitions than the weightlifters at 70% (39.9 ± 17.6 versus 17.9 ± 2.8; p < 0.05) and 80% (19.8 ± 6.4 versus 11.8 ± 2.7; p < 0.05) of their one repetition maximum but not at 90% (10.8 ± 3.9 versus 7.0 ± 2.1; p > 0.05) of one repetition maximum. These differences could be explained by the contrasting training adaptations demanded by each sport. This study suggests that traditional guidelines may underestimate the potential number of repetitions that can be completed at a given percentage of 1RM, particularly for endurance trained athletes. PMID:24899782

  4. Echocardiographic assessment of right ventricle adaptation to endurance training in young rowers – speckle tracking echocardiography

    PubMed Central

    Krol, W; Burkhard-Jagodzinska, K; Jakubiak, A; Klusiewicz, A; Chwalbinska, J; Pokrywka, A; Sitkowski, D; Dluzniewski, M; Braksator, W

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the relationship between the degree of cardiorespiratory fitness and the function of the right ventricle (RV). 117 rowers, age 17.5±1.5 years. All subjects underwent cardiopulmonary exercise. Standard echocardiography and 2D speckle tracking echocardiography with evaluation of longitudinal strain in each segment of the RV (basal – RVLS-B; mid – RVLS-M, apical – RVLS-A) and global RV free-wall strain (RVLS-G) were performed. RVLS-B values were lower compared to the RVLS-M (-25.8±4.4 vs -29.3±3.5; p<0.001) and RVLS-A values (-25.8±4.4 vs -26.2±3.4; p=0.85). Correlations between VO2max and RVLS were observed in men: RVLS-G strain (r = 0.43; p <0.001); RVLS-B (r = 0.30; p = 0.02); RVLS-M (r = 0.38; p = 0.02). A similar relationship was not observed in the group of women. The strongest predictors corresponding to a change in global and basal strain were VO2max and training time: RVLS-G (VO2max: β = 0.18, p = 0.003; training time: β = -0.39; p = 0.02) and RVLS-B (VO2max: β = 0.23; p = 0.0001 training time: β = -1.16; p = 0.0001). The global and regional reduction of RV systolic function positively correlates with the level of fitness, and this relationship is observed already in young athletes. The character of the relationship between RV deformation parameters and the variables that determine the physical performance depend on gender. The dependencies apply to the proximal fragment of the RV inflow tract, which may be a response to the type of flow during exercise in endurance athletes. PMID:28090137

  5. Influence of training volume and acute physical exercise on the homocysteine levels in endurance-trained men: interactions with plasma folate and vitamin B12.

    PubMed

    König, D; Bissé, E; Deibert, P; Müller, H-M; Wieland, H; Berg, A

    2003-01-01

    The interrelation between physical exercise and plasma levels of homocysteine (Hcy), vitamin B(12), and folic acid has not been examined. Therefore, we investigated the influence of extensive endurance training and acute intense exercise on plasma concentrations of total Hcy, vitamin B(12), and folic acid in 42 well-trained male triathletes. Examinations and blood sampling took place before and after a 30-day endurance training period as well as before and 1 and 24 h after a competitive exercise (sprint triathlon). Following the training period, no significant change in Hcy levels could be detected for the whole group. Subgroup analysis in quartiles of training volume revealed that - as compared with the lowest quartile (low-training group: 9.1 h training/week) - athletes in the highest training quartile (high-training group: 14.9 h training/week) exhibited a significant decrease in Hcy levels (from 12.7 +/- 2.3 to 11.7 +/- 2.4 micromol/l as compared with levels of 12.5 +/- 1.5 and 12.86 +/- 1.5 micromol/l in the low-training group; p < 0.05). The plasma folate levels were significantly higher in the high-training group at all points of examination (p < 0.05). 1 h and 24 h after competition, the Hcy concentration increased in all athletes independent of the previous training volume (24 h: 12.3 +/- 1.8 vs. 13.5 +/- 2.6 micromol/l; p < 0.001), although the increase was decisively stronger in the low-training group. 1 h after competition, the plasma folate concentration increased (7.03 +/- 2.1 vs. 8.33 +/- 2.1 ng/ml; p < 0.05) in all athletes. Multivariate analysis showed that the exercise-induced increase in the Hcy levels was dependent on baselines levels of folate and training volume, but not on the vitamin B(12) levels. In conclusion, although intense exercise acutely increased the Hcy levels, chronic endurance exercise was not associated with higher Hcy concentrations. Moreover, athletes with the highest training volume, exhibiting also the highest plasma folate

  6. A prospective randomised longitudinal MRI study of left ventricular adaptation to endurance and resistance exercise training in humans.

    PubMed

    Spence, Angela L; Naylor, Louise H; Carter, Howard H; Buck, Christopher L; Dembo, Lawrence; Murray, Conor P; Watson, Philip; Oxborough, David; George, Keith P; Green, Daniel J

    2011-11-15

    The principle that 'concentric' cardiac hypertrophy occurs in response to strength training, whilst 'eccentric' hypertrophy results from endurance exercise has been a fundamental tenet of exercise science. This notion is largely based on cross-sectional comparisons of athletes using echocardiography. In this study, young (27.4 ± 1.1 years) untrained subjects were randomly assigned to supervised, intensive, endurance (END, n = 10) or resistance (RES, n = 13) exercise and cardiac MRI scans and myocardial speckle tracking echocardiography were performed at baseline, after 6 months of training and after a subsequent 6 weeks of detraining. Aerobic fitness increased significantly in END (3.5 to 3.8 l min(-1), P < 0.05) but was unchanged in RES. Muscular strength significantly improved compared to baseline in both RES and END ( = 53.0 ± 1.1 versus 36.4 ± 4.5 kg, both P < 0.001) as did lean body mass (2.3 ± 0.4 kg, P < 0.001 versus 1.4 ± 0.6 kg P < 0.05). MRI derived left ventricular (LV) mass increased significantly following END (112.5 ± 7.3 to 121.8 ± 6.6 g, P < 0.01) but not RES, whilst training increased end-diastolic volume (LVEDV, END: +9.0 ± 5.0 versus RES +3.1 ± 3.6 ml, P = 0.05). Interventricular wall thickness significantly increased with training in END (1.06 ± 0.0 to 1.14 ± 0.06, P < 0.05) but not RES. Longitudinal strain and strain rates did not change following exercise training. Detraining reduced aerobic fitness, LV mass and wall thickness in END (P < 0.05), whereas LVEDV remained elevated. This study is the first to use MRI to compare LV adaptation in response to intensive supervised endurance and resistance training. Our findings provide some support for the 'Morganroth hypothesis', as it pertains to LV remodelling in response to endurance training, but cast some doubt over the proposal that remodelling occurs in response to resistance training.

  7. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training.

    PubMed

    Fyfe, Jackson J; Bartlett, Jonathan D; Hanson, Erik D; Stepto, Nigel K; Bishop, David J

    2016-01-01

    -body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training.

  8. Endurance Training Intensity Does Not Mediate Interference to Maximal Lower-Body Strength Gain during Short-Term Concurrent Training

    PubMed Central

    Fyfe, Jackson J.; Bartlett, Jonathan D.; Hanson, Erik D.; Stepto, Nigel K.; Bishop, David J.

    2016-01-01

    -body strength and indices of CMJ performance compared with RT performed alone. This suggests endurance training intensity is not a critical mediator of interference to maximal strength gain during short-term concurrent training. PMID:27857692

  9. Square-wave endurance exercise test (SWEET) for training and assessment in trained and untrained subjects. I. Description and cardiorespiratory responses.

    PubMed

    Gimenez, M; Servera, E; Salinas, W

    1982-01-01

    A new 45 min Square-Wave Endurance Exercise Test (SWEET) performed on a cycle ergometer and designed for endurance training was studied in 43 normal subjects: Untrained (U), twelve women and seven men and Trained (T), eight women and 16 men. Among them seven were elite sportsmen (E). Preliminary measurements were made of VO2 max by constant power and Maximal Tolerated Power (MTP) in a progressive test (+ 30 W/3 min). To the SWEET's base, established as a % of individual MTP, a peak of 1 min at MTP was added every 5 minutes. Maximum Intensity of Endurance during the SWEET (MIE45) is defined by both maximal heart rate (HR) at the end of the test and the impossibility of maintaining 5% above the percent MTP of the MIE45 for 45 min. Exhaustion was reached at the end of the MIE45, which could be expressed as % MTP, as total energy expenditure (TEE) in liters of O2, or as total mechanical work (TMW) in kiloJoules per kg of weight (kJ . kg-1). VE, VCO2, VO2 and HR were continuously measured. VO2 max, TMW and % MTP were significantly higher in T than in U subjects. The E subjects show the highest values of those parameters. TMW and TEE were well correlated (r = 0.992, p less than 0.001, n = 43) indicating good efficiency. TMW in T (r = 0.453) and in E men (r = 0.442) were however less well correlated to the VO2 max. MIE45 therefore gives different information in the evaluation of "endurance capacity" at the time of measurement than that provided by VO2 max. Because of the high TEE per session it could be useful for endurance training of T and U subjects.

  10. Nutritional Supplements for Endurance Athletes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rasmussen, Christopher J.

    Athletes engaged in heavy endurance training often seek additional nutritional strategies to help maximize performance. Specific nutritional supplements exist to combat certain factors that limit performance beginning with a sound everyday diet. Research has further demonstrated that safe, effective, legal supplements are in fact available for today's endurance athletes. Several of these supplements are marketed not only to aid performance but also to combat the immunosuppressive effects of intense endurance training. It is imperative for each athlete to research the legality of certain supplements for their specific sport or event. Once the legality has been established, it is often up to each individual athlete to decipher the ethics involved with ingesting nutritional supplements with the sole intent of improving performance.

  11. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance.

    PubMed

    Hamlin, Michael J; Olsen, Peter D; Marshall, Helen C; Lizamore, Catherine A; Elliot, Catherine A

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using "top-up" sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1-3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second "top-up" intervention (Post 4-5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: -1.8 ± 1.6%, -1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: -2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: -2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: -1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: -1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3-5 (-2.0 ± 2.4%, -2.2 ± 2.4%, -1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13-37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of "top-up" training after intervention 1, had little effect on either group. Repeat-sprint training in

  12. Hypoxic Repeat Sprint Training Improves Rugby Player's Repeated Sprint but Not Endurance Performance

    PubMed Central

    Hamlin, Michael J.; Olsen, Peter D.; Marshall, Helen C.; Lizamore, Catherine A.; Elliot, Catherine A.

    2017-01-01

    This study aims to investigate the performance changes in 19 well-trained male rugby players after repeat-sprint training (six sessions of four sets of 5 × 5 s sprints with 25 s and 5 min of active recovery between reps and sets, respectively) in either normobaric hypoxia (HYP; n = 9; FIO2 = 14.5%) or normobaric normoxia (NORM; n = 10; FIO2 = 20.9%). Three weeks after the intervention, 2 additional repeat-sprint training sessions in hypoxia (FIO2 = 14.5%) was investigated in both groups to gauge the efficacy of using “top-up” sessions for previously hypoxic-trained subjects and whether a small hypoxic dose would be beneficial for the previously normoxic-trained group. Repeated sprint (8 × 20 m) and Yo-Yo Intermittent Recovery Level 1 (YYIR1) performances were tested twice at baseline (Pre 1 and Pre 2) and weekly after (Post 1–3) the initial intervention (intervention 1) and again weekly after the second “top-up” intervention (Post 4–5). After each training set, heart rate, oxygen saturation, and rate of perceived exertion were recorded. Compared to baseline (mean of Pre 1 and Pre 2), both the hypoxic and normoxic groups similarly lowered fatigue over the 8 sprints 1 week after the intervention (Post 1: −1.8 ± 1.6%, −1.5 ± 1.4%, mean change ± 90% CI in HYP and NORM groups, respectively). However, from Post 2 onwards, only the hypoxic group maintained the performance improvement compared to baseline (Post 2: −2.1 ± 1.8%, Post 3: −2.3 ± 1.7%, Post 4: −1.9 ± 1.8%, and Post 5: −1.2 ± 1.7%). Compared to the normoxic group, the hypoxic group was likely to have substantially less fatigue at Post 3–5 (−2.0 ± 2.4%, −2.2 ± 2.4%, −1.6 ± 2.4% Post 3, Post 4, Post 5, respectively). YYIR1 performances improved throughout the recovery period in both groups (13–37% compared to baseline) with unclear differences found between groups. The addition of two sessions of “top-up” training after intervention 1, had little effect on either

  13. Effects of strength, endurance, and concurrent training on aerobic power and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men.

    PubMed

    Cadore, Eduardo L; Pinto, Ronei S; Pinto, Stephanie S; Alberton, Cristine L; Correa, Cleiton S; Tartaruga, Marcus P; Silva, Eduardo M; Almeida, Ana P V; Trindade, Guilherme T; Kruel, Luiz F M

    2011-03-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of concurrent training on endurance capacity and dynamic neuromuscular economy in elderly men. Twenty-three healthy men (65 ± 4 years) were divided into 3 groups: concurrent (CG, n = 8), strength (SG, n = 8), and aerobic training group (EG, n = 7). Each group trained 3 times a week for 12 weeks, strength training, aerobic training, or both types of training in the same session. The maximum aerobic workload (Wmax) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) of the subjects were evaluated on a cycle ergometer before and after the training period. Moreover, during the maximal test, muscle activation was measured at each intensity by means of electromyographic signals from the vastus lateralis (VL), rectus femoris (RF), biceps femoris long head, and gastrocnemius lateralis to determine the dynamic neuromuscular economy. After training, significant increases in VO2peak and Wmax were only found in the CG and EG (p < 0.05), with no difference between groups. Moreover, there was a significant decrease in myoelectric activity of the RF muscle at 50 (EG), 75 and 100 W (EG and CG) and in the VL for the 3 groups at 100 W (p < 0.05). No change was seen in the electrical signal from the lateral gastrocnemius muscle and biceps femoris. The results suggest specificity in adaptations investigated in elderly subjects, because the most marked changes in the neuromuscular economy occurred in the aerobically trained groups.

  14. Effects of individualized versus group task-oriented circuit training on balance ability and gait endurance in chronic stroke inpatients.

    PubMed

    Kim, Bonggil; Park, Yunjin; Seo, Yonggon; Park, Sangseo; Cho, Hyeyoung; Moon, Hyunghoon; Lee, Haelim; Kim, Myungki; Yu, Jaeho

    2016-06-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of task-oriented circuit training on the balance ability and gait endurance of chronic stroke inpatients. [Subjects and Methods] The participants were 30 patients who had stroke >6 months previously, resulting in a disability such as hemiparesis. The participants were randomly divided into the group task-oriented circuit training group and the individual task-oriented circuit-training group. They performed eight types of modified task-oriented training. Balance ability and gait endurance were measured by using the Berg balance scale questionnaire and the 6-min walk test, respectively, before and after the experiment. [Results] Significant differences were observed between before and after the intervention in all variables. There was a significant difference between groups in Berg balance scale scores; however, no significant differences were seen in the timed up and go test and the 6-min walk test. [Conclusion] The results of this study indicated that group exercise can better improve the balance ability of chronic stroke inpatients after stroke than can individualized exercise intervention.

  15. Between 21 and 34 years of age, aging alters the catecholamine responses to supramaximal exercise in endurance trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Zouhal, H; Gratas-Delamarche, A; Rannou, F; Granier, P; Bentue-Ferrer, D; Delamarche, P

    1999-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of aging and training on the adrenaline (A) and noradrenaline (NA) responses during the Wingate-test in three age groups of subjects: 21 year old untrained subjects (21U), 21 year old endurance trained (21T) (national elite runners), 34 year old endurance trained (34T) (national elite runners). Performances during the test were judged using the usual parameters of peak power (Wmax) and mean power (W) expressed in absolute or relative values. A and NA responses were measured at rest (A0 and NA0) immediately at the end of the exercise (Amax and NAmax) and after 5 minutes recovery (A5 and NA5). Plasma maximal lactate (La(max)) was determined 3 minutes after the end of the exercise. Wmax, W and La(max) were always significantly lower in 34T compared to 21T and 21U. The catecholamine responses were similar in 21T and 21U. Inversely, a significantly lower value of Amax was observed in 34T (2.01 +/- 0.5 nmol x l(-1)) compared to 21U (3.62 +/- 0.3 nmol x l(-1)) associated with a significantly higher value of NA(max) in 34T versus 21T and 21U. Thus, the Amax/NA(max) ratio was found to be significantly lower in the older subjects versus both 21T and 21U. All these findings indicated that endurance training did not affect the sympathoadrenergic responses to a supramaximal exercise and suggested that only one decade may reduce the capacity of the medulla to secrete adrenaline and therefore the adrenal medulla responsiveness to the sympathetic nervous activity.

  16. 34. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    34. VIEW OF SUBMARINE ESCAPE TRAINING TANK PRIOR TO ADDITION OF BLISTERS IN 1959, LOOKING SOUTHEAST - U.S. Naval Submarine Base, New London Submarine Escape Training Tank, Albacore & Darter Roads, Groton, New London County, CT

  17. Training in the fasted state facilitates re-activation of eEF2 activity during recovery from endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Van Proeyen, K; De Bock, K; Hespel, P

    2011-07-01

    Nutrition is an important co-factor in exercise-induced training adaptations in muscle. We compared the effect of 6 weeks endurance training (3 days/week, 1-2 h at 75% VO(2peak)) in either the fasted state (F; n = 10) or in the high carbohydrate state (CHO, n = 10), on Ca(2+)-dependent intramyocellular signalling in young male volunteers. Subjects in CHO received a carbohydrate-rich breakfast before each training session, as well as ingested carbohydrates during exercise. Before (pretest) and after (posttest) the training period, subjects performed a 2 h constant-load exercise bout (~70% of pretest VO(2peak)) while ingesting carbohydrates (1 g/kg h(-1)). A muscle biopsy was taken from m. vastus lateralis immediately before and after the test, and after 4 h of recovery. Compared with pretest, in the posttest basal eukaryotic elongation factor 2 (eEF2) phosphorylation was elevated in CHO (P < 0.05), but not in F. In the pretest, exercise increased the degree of eEF2 phosphorylation about twofold (P < 0.05), and values returned to baseline within the 4 h recovery period in each group. However, in the posttest dephosphorylation of eEF2 was negated after recovery in CHO, but not in F. Independent of the dietary condition training enhanced the basal phosphorylation status of Phospholamban at Thr(17), 5'-AMP-activated protein kinase α (AMPKα), and Acetyl CoA carboxylase β (ACCβ), and abolished the exercise-induced increase of AMPKα and ACCβ (P < 0.05). In conclusion, training in the fasted state, compared with identical training with ample carbohydrate intake, facilitates post-exercise dephosphorylation of eEF2. This may contribute to rapid re-activation of muscle protein translation following endurance exercise.

  18. The Effects of Caffeine Supplementation on Physiological Responses to Submaximal Exercise in Endurance-Trained Men

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objectives The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise, with a focus on blood lactate concentration ([BLa]). Methods Using a randomised, single-blind, crossover design; 16 endurance-trained, male cyclists (age: 38 ± 8 years; height: 1.80 ± 0.05 m; body mass: 76.6 ± 7.8 kg; V˙O2max: 4.3 ± 0.6 L∙min-1) completed four trials on an electromagnetically-braked cycle ergometer. Each trial consisted of a six-stage incremental test (3 minute stages) followed by 30 minutes of passive recovery. One hour before trials 2–4, participants ingested a capsule containing 5 mg∙kg-1 of either caffeine or placebo (maltodextrin). Trials 2 and 3 were designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on various physiological responses during exercise and recovery. In contrast, Trial 4 was designed to evaluate the effects of caffeine on [BLa] during passive recovery from an end-exercise concentration of 4 mmol∙L-1. Results Relative to placebo, caffeine increased [BLa] during exercise, independent of exercise intensity (mean difference: 0.33 ± 0.41 mmol∙L-1; 95% likely range: 0.11 to 0.55 mmol∙L-1), but did not affect the time-course of [BLa] during recovery (p = 0.604). Caffeine reduced ratings of perceived exertion (mean difference: 0.5 ± 0.7; 95% likely range: 0.1 to 0.9) and heart rate (mean difference: 3.6 ± 4.2 b∙min-1; 95% likely range: 1.3 to 5.8 b∙min-1) during exercise, with the effect on the latter dissipating as exercise intensity increased. Supplement × exercise intensity interactions were observed for respiratory exchange ratio (p = 0.004) and minute ventilation (p = 0.034). Conclusions The results of the present study illustrate the clear, though often subtle, effects of caffeine on physiological responses to submaximal exercise. Researchers should be aware of these responses, particularly when evaluating the physiological effects of various experimental interventions. PMID:27532605

  19. Sex differences in exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in endurance-trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Guenette, Jordan A; Romer, Lee M; Querido, Jordan S; Chua, Romeo; Eves, Neil D; Road, Jeremy D; McKenzie, Donald C; Sheel, A William

    2010-07-01

    There is evidence that female athletes may be more susceptible to exercise-induced arterial hypoxemia and expiratory flow limitation and have greater increases in operational lung volumes during exercise relative to men. These pulmonary limitations may ultimately lead to greater levels of diaphragmatic fatigue in women. Accordingly, the purpose of this study was to determine whether there are sex differences in the prevalence and severity of exercise-induced diaphragmatic fatigue in 38 healthy endurance-trained men (n = 19; maximal aerobic capacity = 64.0 +/- 1.9 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)) and women (n = 19; maximal aerobic capacity = 57.1 +/- 1.5 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1)). Transdiaphragmatic pressure (Pdi) was calculated as the difference between gastric and esophageal pressures. Inspiratory pressure-time products of the diaphragm and esophagus were calculated as the product of breathing frequency and the Pdi and esophageal pressure time integrals, respectively. Cervical magnetic stimulation was used to measure potentiated Pdi twitches (Pdi,tw) before and 10, 30, and 60 min after a constant-load cycling test performed at 90% of peak work rate until exhaustion. Diaphragm fatigue was considered present if there was a >or=15% reduction in Pdi,tw after exercise. Diaphragm fatigue occurred in 11 of 19 men (58%) and 8 of 19 women (42%). The percent drop in Pdi,tw at 10, 30, and 60 min after exercise in men (n = 11) was 30.6 +/- 2.3, 20.7 +/- 3.2, and 13.3 +/- 4.5%, respectively, whereas results in women (n = 8) were 21.0 +/- 2.1, 11.6 +/- 2.9, and 9.7 +/- 4.2%, respectively, with sex differences occurring at 10 and 30 min (P < 0.05). Men continued to have a reduced contribution of the diaphragm to total inspiratory force output (pressure-time product of the diaphragm/pressure-time product of the esophagus) during exercise, whereas diaphragmatic contribution in women changed very little over time. The findings from this study point to a female diaphragm that is more resistant

  20. Effect of unilateral, bilateral, and combined plyometric training on explosive and endurance performance of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Burgos, Carlos H; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David C; Martínez, Cristian; Álvarez, Cristian; Castro-Sepúlveda, Mauricio; Marques, Mário C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2015-05-01

    The aim of the study was to compare the effects of bilateral, unilateral, or combined bilateral and unilateral plyometric training (PT) on muscle power output, endurance, and balance performance adaptations in young soccer players. Four groups of young soccer players (age 11.4 ± 2.2 years) were divided into control group (CG; n = 14), bilateral group (BG; n = 12), unilateral group (UG; n = 16), and bilateral + unilateral group (B + UG; n = 12). Players were measured in unilateral and bilateral countermovement jump with arms, 5 multiple bounds test, 20-cm drop jump reactive strength index, maximal kicking velocity, sprint and agility test time, endurance, and balance performance. The PT was applied during 6 weeks, 2 sessions per week, for a total of 2,160 jumps. After intervention, all PT groups showed a statistically significant (p ≤ 0.05) change in all performance measures, with no statistically significant differences between treatments. Among the 21 performance measures, the B + UG showed a significantly (p ≤ 0.05) higher performance change in 13 of them vs. the CG, whereas the UG and BG showed only 6 and 3, respectively. The current study showed that bilateral, unilateral, and combined bilateral and unilateral PT ensured significant improvement in several muscular power and endurance performance measures in young soccer players. However, the combination of unilateral and bilateral drills seems more advantageous to induce superior performance improvements.

  1. Acute effects of high-intensity intermittent training on kinematics and foot strike patterns in endurance runners.

    PubMed

    Latorre-Román, P Á; García Pinillos, F; Bujalance-Moreno, P; Soto-Hermoso, V M

    2016-08-11

    The main purpose of this study was to evaluate running kinematic characteristics and foot strike patterns (FSP) during early and late stages of actual and common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT): 5 × 2000 m with 120-s recovery between runs. Thirteen healthy, elite, highly trained male endurance runners participated in this study. They each had a personal record in the half-marathon of 70 ± 2.24 min, and each had a minimum experience of 4 years of training and competition. Heart rate (HR) and rate of perceived exertion (RPE) were monitored during HIIT. High levels of exhaustion were reached by the athletes during HIIT (HRpeak: 174.30 bpm; RPE: 17.23). There was a significant increase of HRpeak and RPE during HIIT; nevertheless, time for each run remained unchanged. A within-protocol paired t-test (first vs. last run) revealed no significant changes (P ≥ 0.05) in kinematics variables and FSP variables during HIIT. There were no substantial changes on kinematics and FSP characteristics in endurance runners after fatigue induced by a HIIT. Only the minimum ankle alignment showed a significant change. The author suggests that these results might be due to both the high athletic level of participants and their experience in HIIT.

  2. Comparison of Two Kinds of Endurance Training Programs on the Effects of the Ability to Recover in Amateur Soccer Players

    PubMed Central

    Rogan, Slavko

    2015-01-01

    Background: High intensity intermittent aerobic exercise is an elementary endurance training exercise to build soccer endurance. Many studies exist with professional soccer players. But limited research has been conducted with amateur soccer players. Objectives: The aim of this study was to compare and assess the effects of the shuttle-run method and the Hoff-track method on the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within three weeks. Patients and Methods: Two amateur soccer teams were randomly assigned to shuttle-run group (n = 24; SRG) (SRG: shuttle-run group) or Hoff-track group (n = 18; HTG) (HTG: hoff-track group). They performed 2 times/week over three weeks their program. SRG performed a 20 m high speed shuttle-run until exhaustion and HTG covered at their highest speed level an obstacle track. Before and after training the yo-yo intermittent recovery test level 2 (YYIRTL2) was conducted. Results: Significant differences were observed within (P < 0.05) and between the groups (P = 0.06; ES = 0.50) in distance covering during YYIRTL2. Conclusions: Both training methods seem to improve the ability to recover in amateur soccer players within a short time period during the competition season. PMID:26448831

  3. Endurance and Resistance Training Affect High Fat Diet-Induced Increase of Ceramides, Inflammasome Expression, and Systemic Inflammation in Mice.

    PubMed

    Mardare, Cornelia; Krüger, Karsten; Liebisch, Gerhard; Seimetz, Michael; Couturier, Aline; Ringseis, Robert; Wilhelm, Jochen; Weissmann, Norbert; Eder, Klaus; Mooren, Frank-Christoph

    2016-01-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of differentiated exercise regimes on high fat-induced metabolic and inflammatory pathways. Mice were fed a standard diet (ST) or a high fat diet (HFD) and subjected to regular endurance training (ET) or resistance training (RT). After 10 weeks body weight, glucose tolerance, fatty acids (FAs), circulating ceramides, cytokines, and immunological mediators were determined. The HFD induced a significant increase in body weight and a disturbed glucose tolerance (p < 0.05). An increase of plasma FA, ceramides, and inflammatory mediators in adipose tissue and serum was found (p < 0.05). Both endurance and resistance training decreased body weight (p < 0.05) and reduced serum ceramides (p < 0.005). While RT attenuated the increase of NLRP-3 (RT) expression in adipose tissue, ET was effective in reducing TNF-α and IL-18 expression. Furthermore, ET reduced levels of MIP-1γ, while RT decreased levels of IL-18, MIP-1γ, Timp-1, and CD40 in serum (p < 0.001), respectively. Although both exercise regimes improved glucose tolerance (p < 0.001), ET was more effective than RT. These results suggest that exercise improves HFD-induced complications possibly through a reduction of ceramides, the reduction of inflammasome activation in adipose tissues, and a systemic downregulation of inflammatory cytokines.

  4. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study

    PubMed Central

    Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David Cristóbal; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; White, Allan; Cerda-Kohler, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6 ± 1.6 years) were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH) training (n = 6) and normobaric normoxic (NN) training (n = 6) groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid), plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX]), arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE), and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO) were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size) after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players. PMID:28083148

  5. Effects of Exercise Training under Hyperbaric Oxygen on Oxidative Stress Markers and Endurance Performance in Young Soccer Players: A Pilot Study.

    PubMed

    Burgos, Carlos; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Andrade, David Cristóbal; Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Araneda, Oscar F; White, Allan; Cerda-Kohler, Hugo

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of three weeks of hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) training on oxidative stress markers and endurance performance in young soccer players. Participants (18.6 ± 1.6 years) were randomized into hyperbaric-hyperoxic (HH) training (n = 6) and normobaric normoxic (NN) training (n = 6) groups. Immediately before and after the 5th, 10th, and 15th training sessions, plasma oxidative stress markers (lipid hydroperoxides and uric acid), plasma antioxidant capacity (6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid [TROLOX]), arterial blood gases, acid-base balance, bases excess (BE), and blood lactate analyses were performed. Before and after intervention, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and peak power output (PPO) were determined. Neither HH nor NN experienced significant changes on oxidative stress markers or antioxidant capacity during intervention. VO2max and PPO were improved (moderate effect size) after HH training. The results suggest that HBO2 endurance training does not increase oxidative stress markers and improves endurance performance in young soccer players. Our findings warrant future investigation to corroborate that HBO2 endurance training could be a potential training approach for highly competitive young soccer players.

  6. The effect of six weeks of sling exercise training on trunk muscular strength and endurance for clients with low back pain

    PubMed Central

    You, Yu-Lin; Su, Tzu-Kai; Liaw, Lih-Jiun; Wu, Wen-Lan; Chu, I-Hua; Guo, Lan-Yuen

    2015-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 6 weeks sling exercise training for clients with low back pain on the levels of pain, disability, muscular strength and endurance. [Subjects and Methods] Twelve chronic LBP subjects participated in this study. Subjects were randomly divided into a control group and a training group. Subjects in the training group performed sling exercise training for six weeks, and participants in the control group did not perform any exercise. [Results] Pain, disability levels and muscular strength significantly improved in the training group, but not in the control group. The left multifidus showed a significant improvement in muscular endurance, measured as the slope of the median frequency after training. [Conclusion] Six weeks of sling exercise training was effective at reducing pain intensity, and improving the disability level and trunk muscular strength of subjects with low back pain. PMID:26356255

  7. An acute oral dose of caffeine does not alter glucose kinetics during prolonged dynamic exercise in trained endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Roy, B D; Bosman, M J; Tarnopolsky, M A

    2001-08-01

    This study investigated the possible influence of oral caffeine administration on endogenous glucose production and energy substrate metabolism during prolonged endurance exercise. Twelve trained endurance athletes [seven male, five female; peak oxygen consumption (VO2peak) = 65.5 ml.kg-1.min-1] performed 60 min of cycle ergometry at 65% VO2peak twice, once after oral caffeine administration (6 mg.kg-1) (CAF) and once following consumption of a placebo (PLA). CAF and PLA were administered in a randomized double-blind manner 75 min prior to exercise. Plasma glucose kinetics were determined with a primed-continuous infusion of [6,6-2H]glucose. No differences in oxygen consumption (VO2), and carbon dioxide production (VCO2) were observed between CAF and PLA, at rest or during exercise. Blood glucose concentrations were similar between the two conditions at rest and also during exercise. Exercise did lead to an increase in serum free fatty acid (FFA) concentrations for both conditions; however, no differences were observed between CAF and PLA. Both the plasma glucose rate of appearance (Ra) and disappearance (Rd) increased at the onset of exercise (P < 0.05), but were not affected by CAF, as compared to PLA. CAF did lead to a higher plasma lactate concentration during exercise (P < 0.05). It was concluded that an acute oral dose of caffeine does not influence plasma glucose kinetics or energy substrate oxidation during prolonged exercise in trained endurance athletes. However, CAF did lead to elevated plasma lactate concentrations. The exact mechanism of the increase in plasma lactate concentrations remains to be determined.

  8. Isokinetic Strength and Endurance During 30-day 6 deg Head-Down Bed Rest with Isotonic and Isokinetic Exercise Training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bond, M.; Bulbulian, R.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle orgometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  9. Isokinetic strength and endurance during 30-day 6 degrees head-down bed rest with isotonic and isokinetic exercise training

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, J. E.; Bernauer, E. M.; Ertl, A. C.; Bulbulian, R.; Bond, M.

    1994-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to determine if an intensive, intermittent, isokinetic, lower extremity exercise training program would attenuate or eliminate the decrease of muscular strength and endurance during prolonged bed rest (BR). The 19 male subjects (36 +/- 1 yr, 178 +/- 2 cm, 76.5 +/- 1.7 kg) were allocated into a no exercise (NOE) training group (N = 5), an isotonic (lower extremity cycle ergometer) exercise (ITE) training group (N = 7), and an isokinetic (isokinetic knee flexion-extension) exercise (IKE) training group (N = 7). Peak knee (flexion and extension) and shoulder (abduction-adduction) functions were measured weekly in all groups with one 5-repetition set. After BR, average knee extension total work decreased by 16% with NOE, increased by 27% with IKE, and was unchanged with ITE. Average knee flexion total work and peak torque (strength) responses were unchanged in all groups. Force production increased by 20% with IKE and was unchanged with NOE and ITE. Shoulder total work was unchanged in all groups, while gross average peak torque increased by 27% with ITE and by 22% with IKE, and was unchanged with NOE. Thus, while ITE training can maintain some isokinetic functions during BR, maximal intermittent IKE training can increase other functions above pre-BR control levels.

  10. Carbohydrate restricted recovery from long term endurance exercise does not affect gene responses involved in mitochondrial biogenesis in highly trained athletes

    PubMed Central

    Jensen, Line; Gejl, Kasper D; Ørtenblad, Niels; Nielsen, Jakob L; Bech, Rune D; Nygaard, Tobias; Sahlin, Kent; Frandsen, Ulrik

    2015-01-01

    The aim was to determine if the metabolic adaptations, particularly PGC-1α and downstream metabolic genes were affected by restricting CHO following an endurance exercise bout in trained endurance athletes. A second aim was to compare baseline expression level of these genes to untrained. Elite endurance athletes (VO2max 66 ± 2 mL·kg−1·min−1, n = 15) completed 4 h cycling at ∼56% VO2max. During the first 4 h recovery subjects were provided with either CHO or only H2O and thereafter both groups received CHO. Muscle biopsies were collected before, after, and 4 and 24 h after exercise. Also, resting biopsies were collected from untrained subjects (n = 8). Exercise decreased glycogen by 67.7 ± 4.0% (from 699 ± 26.1 to 239 ± 29.5 mmol·kg−1·dw−1) with no difference between groups. Whereas 4 h of recovery with CHO partly replenished glycogen, the H2O group remained at post exercise level; nevertheless, the gene expression was not different between groups. Glycogen and most gene expression levels returned to baseline by 24 h in both CHO and H2O. Baseline mRNA expression of NRF-1, COX-IV, GLUT4 and PPAR-α gene targets were higher in trained compared to untrained. Additionally, the proportion of type I muscle fibers positively correlated with baseline mRNA for PGC-1α, TFAM, NRF-1, COX-IV, PPAR-α, and GLUT4 for both trained and untrained. CHO restriction during recovery from glycogen depleting exercise does not improve the mRNA response of markers of mitochondrial biogenesis. Further, baseline gene expression of key metabolic pathways is higher in trained than untrained. PMID:25677542

  11. Respiratory muscle endurance after training in athletes and non-athletes: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

    PubMed

    Sales, Ana Tereza do N; Fregonezi, Guilherme A de F; Ramsook, Andrew H; Guenette, Jordan A; Lima, Illia Nadinne D F; Reid, W Darlene

    2016-01-01

    The objectives of this systematic review was to evaluate the effects of respiratory muscle training (RMT) on respiratory muscle endurance (RME) and to determine the RME test that demonstrates the most consistent changes after RMT. Electronic searches were conducted in EMBASE, MEDLINE, COCHRANE CENTRAL, CINHAL and SPORTDiscus. The PEDro scale was used for quality assessment and meta-analysis were performed to compare effect sizes of different RME tests. Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. Isocapnic hyperpnea training was performed in 40% of the studies. Meta-analysis showed that RMT improves RME in athletes (P = 0.0007) and non-athletes (P = 0.001). Subgroup analysis showed differences among tests; maximal sustainable ventilatory capacity (MSVC) and maximal sustainable threshold loading tests demonstrated significant improvement after RMT (P = 0.007; P = 0.003 respectively) compared to the maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV) (P = 0.11) in athletes whereas significant improvement after RMT was only shown by MSVC in non-athletes. The effect size of MSVC was greater compared to MVV in studies that performed both tests. The meta-analysis results provide evidence that RMT improves RME in athletes and non-athletes and MSVC test that examine endurance over several minutes are more sensitive to improvement after RMT.

  12. Effects of endurance training on endocrine response to physical exercise after 5 days of bed rest in healthy male subjects.

    PubMed

    Koska, Juraj; Ksinantová, Lucia; Kvetnanský, Richard; Hamar, Dusan; Martinkovic, Miroslav; Vigas, Milan

    2004-06-01

    The study was designed to evaluate how a bout of endurance training (ET) influences the endocrine response after head-down bed rest (HDBR). Eleven healthy males completed the study, which consisted of a 6-wk ET followed by 5 days of -6 degrees head-down HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pretraining maximal aerobic capacity (VO(2max)) was performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO(2max) by 13%. The response of norepinephrine was attenuated after ET and exaggerated after HDBR (P < 0.001). The differences in epinephrine responses were not statistically significant. The responses of cortisol and plasma renin activity (PRA) were unchanged after ET and were enhanced after HDBR (P < 0.001). The response of growth hormone after HDBR was reduced (P < 0.05). Only the change in cortisol response was associated with the increment of VO(2max) after ET (r = 0.68, P < 0.01). Endurance training failed to completely prevent changes in endocrine responses seen after HDBR. Improvement of physical fitness was associated with an enhancement of the cortisol response to exercise following the period of bed rest.

  13. Effect of strength and high-intensity training on jumping, sprinting, and intermittent endurance performance in prepubertal soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ferrete, Carlos; Requena, Bernardo; Suarez-Arrones, Luís; de Villarreal, Eduardo Sáez

    2014-02-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a 26-week on-field combined strength and high-intensity training on the physical performance capacity among prepubertal soccer players who were undertaking a competitive phase of training. Twenty-four prepubertal soccer players between the age of 8 and 9 years were randomly assigned to 2 groups: a control (C; n = 13) and an experimental group (S; n = 11). Both groups performed an identical soccer-training program, whereas the S group also performed combined strength and high-intensity training before the soccer-specific training. The 15-m sprint time (seconds), countermovement jump (CMJ) displacement, Yo-Yo intermittent endurance test (Yo-Yo IE), and Sit and Reach flexibility were each measured before (baseline) and after 9 (T2), 18 (T3), and 26 weeks (posttest) of training. There were no significant differences between the groups in any of the variables tested at baseline. After 26 weeks, significant improvements were found in the CMJ (6.72%; effect size [ES] = 0.37), Yo-Yo IE (49.57%, ES = 1.39), and Flexibility (7.26%; ES = 0.37) variables for the S group. Conversely, significant decreases were noted for the CMJ (-10.82%; ES = 0.61) and flexibility (-13.09%; ES = 0.94) variables in the C group. A significant negative correlation was found between 15-m sprint time and CMJ (r = -0.77) and Yo-Yo IE (r = -0.77) in the S group. Specific combined strength and high-intensity training in prepubertal soccer players for 26 weeks produced a positive effect on performance qualities highly specific to soccer. Therefore, we propose modifications to current training methodology for prepubertal soccer players to include strength and high-intensity training for athlete preparation in this sport.

  14. Effect of endurance and/or strength training on muscle fiber size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity in hemodialysis patients.

    PubMed

    Lewis, Michael I; Fournier, Mario; Wang, Huiyuan; Storer, Thomas W; Casaburi, Richard; Kopple, Joel D

    2015-10-15

    We previously reported reduced limb muscle fiber succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and capillarity density and increased cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of all fiber types in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients compared with matched controls that may contribute to their effort intolerance and muscle weakness. This study evaluated whether endurance training (ET), strength training (ST), or their combination (EST) alters these metabolic and morphometric aberrations as a mechanism for functional improvement. Five groups were evaluated: 1) controls; 2) MHD/no training; 3) MHD/ET; 4) MHD/ST; and 5) MHD/EST. Training duration was 21.5 ± 0.7 wk. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained after HD at baseline and at study end. Muscle fibers were classified immunohistochemically, and fiber CSAs were computed. Individual fiber SDH activity was determined by a microdensitometric assay. Capillaries were identified using antibodies against endothelial cells. Type I and IIA fiber CSAs decreased significantly (10%) with EST. In the ET group, SDH activity increased 16.3% in type IIA and 19.6% in type IIX fibers. Capillary density increased significantly by 28% in the EST group and 14.3% with ET. The number of capillaries surrounding individual fiber type increased significantly in EST and ET groups. Capillary-to-fiber ratio increased significantly by 11 and 9.6% in EST and ET groups, respectively. We conclude that increments in capillarity and possibly SDH activity in part underlie improvements in endurance of MHD patients posttraining. We speculate that improved specific force and/or neural adaptations to exercise underlie improvements in limb muscle strength of MHD patients.

  15. Effect of endurance and/or strength training on muscle fiber size, oxidative capacity, and capillarity in hemodialysis patients

    PubMed Central

    Fournier, Mario; Wang, Huiyuan; Storer, Thomas W.; Casaburi, Richard; Kopple, Joel D.

    2015-01-01

    We previously reported reduced limb muscle fiber succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) activity and capillarity density and increased cross-sectional areas (CSAs) of all fiber types in maintenance hemodialysis (MHD) patients compared with matched controls that may contribute to their effort intolerance and muscle weakness. This study evaluated whether endurance training (ET), strength training (ST), or their combination (EST) alters these metabolic and morphometric aberrations as a mechanism for functional improvement. Five groups were evaluated: 1) controls; 2) MHD/no training; 3) MHD/ET; 4) MHD/ST; and 5) MHD/EST. Training duration was 21.5 ± 0.7 wk. Vastus lateralis muscle biopsies were obtained after HD at baseline and at study end. Muscle fibers were classified immunohistochemically, and fiber CSAs were computed. Individual fiber SDH activity was determined by a microdensitometric assay. Capillaries were identified using antibodies against endothelial cells. Type I and IIA fiber CSAs decreased significantly (10%) with EST. In the ET group, SDH activity increased 16.3% in type IIA and 19.6% in type IIX fibers. Capillary density increased significantly by 28% in the EST group and 14.3% with ET. The number of capillaries surrounding individual fiber type increased significantly in EST and ET groups. Capillary-to-fiber ratio increased significantly by 11 and 9.6% in EST and ET groups, respectively. We conclude that increments in capillarity and possibly SDH activity in part underlie improvements in endurance of MHD patients posttraining. We speculate that improved specific force and/or neural adaptations to exercise underlie improvements in limb muscle strength of MHD patients. PMID:26183484

  16. Impact of Long-Term Endurance Training vs. Guideline-Based Physical Activity on Brain Structure in Healthy Aging

    PubMed Central

    Wood, Katelyn N.; Nikolov, Robert; Shoemaker, J. Kevin

    2016-01-01

    Brain structure is a fundamental determinant of brain function, both of which decline with age in the adult. Whereas short-term exercise improves brain size in older adults, the impact of endurance training on brain structure when initiated early and sustained throughout life, remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that long-term competitive aerobic training enhances cortical and subcortical mass compared to middle to older-aged healthy adults who adhere to the minimum physical activity guidelines. Observations were made in 16 masters athletes (MA; 53 ± 6 years, VO2max = 55 ± 10 ml/kg/min, training > 15 years), and 16 active, healthy, and cognitively intact subjects (HA; 58 ± 9 years, VO2max = 38 ± 7 ml/kg/min). T1-weighted structural acquisition at 3T enabled quantification of cortical thickness and subcortical gray and white matter volumes. Cardiorespiratory fitness correlated strongly with whole-brain cortical thickness. Subcortical volumetric mass at the lateral ventricles, R hippocampus, R amygdala, and anterior cingulate cortex, correlated with age but not fitness. In a region-of-interest (ROI) group-based analysis, MA expressed greater cortical thickness in the medial prefrontal cortex, pre and postcentral gyri, and insula. There was no effect of group on the rate of age-related cortical or subcortical decline. The current data suggest that lifelong endurance training that produces high levels of cardiorespiratory fitness, builds cortical reserve early in life, and sustains this benefit over the 40–70 year age span. This reserve likely has important implications for neurological health later in life. PMID:27445798

  17. Blunted growth hormone response to maximal exercise in middle-aged versus young subjects and no effect of endurance training.

    PubMed

    Zaccaria, M; Varnier, M; Piazza, P; Noventa, D; Ermolao, A

    1999-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the GH response to exercise and the effects of endurance training on this response in early middle-aged men. Seven healthy middle-aged [M; 42.0+/-2.4 (+/-SD) yr old] and five young (Y; 21.2+/-1.1 yr old) competition cyclists were investigated before and after 4 months of intensive endurance training. Subjects performed an exhaustive incremental exercise test (50 watts for 3 min) with gas exchange measurement, and blood samples for lactate, glucose, and GH determinations were drawn before exercise, at the end of the exercise, and in the recovery phase (1, 3, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min). Basal insulin-like growth factor I was also determined. At exhaustion no differences were found in relative maximal heart rate or blood lactate and glucose peaks. On the contrary, the two groups had markedly different GH responses; in fact, the peak GH response to exhaustive exercise was much lower in M than in Y (8.1+/-1.3 vs. 57.1+/-15.5 microg/L; P<0.01). The training, similar in subjects of the same group, increased progressively from 182 to 300 km/week (+64.8%) in M and from 350 to 600 km/week (+71.4%) in Y. After the training, the percent increase in maximal oxygen consumption was similar in the two groups (M, +15.2%; Y, +17.5%), confirming that the efficiency of the training performed was comparable. In neither group did training have any effect on the GH peak response to exercise, confirming the blunted GH response in M compared to Y (6.7+/-1.0 vs. 61.0+/-12.9 microg/L; P<0.01). Similarly, insulin-like growth factor I concentrations were not significantly affected by training. In conclusion, active middle-aged subjects, compared with the young, showed a blunted GH response to a physiological stimulus such as exercise, indicating that the age-related decline in GH secretion appears in early middle age. This response was not modified by training in either early middle-aged or young subjects.

  18. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers.

    PubMed

    Kapilevich, Leonid V; Zakharova, Anna N; Kabachkova, Anastasia V; Kironenko, Tatyana A; Orlov, Sergei N

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons.

  19. Dynamic and Static Exercises Differentially Affect Plasma Cytokine Content in Elite Endurance- and Strength-Trained Athletes and Untrained Volunteers

    PubMed Central

    Kapilevich, Leonid V.; Zakharova, Anna N.; Kabachkova, Anastasia V.; Kironenko, Tatyana A.; Orlov, Sergei N.

    2017-01-01

    Extensive exercise increases the plasma content of IL-6, IL-8, IL-15, leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), and several other cytokines via their augmented transcription in skeletal muscle cells. However, the relative impact of aerobic and resistant training interventions on cytokine production remains poorly defined. In this study, we compared effects of dynamic and static load on cytokine plasma content in elite strength- and endurance-trained athletes vs. healthy untrained volunteers. The plasma cytokine content was measured before, immediately after, and 30 min post-exercise using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Pedaling on a bicycle ergometer increased IL-6 and IL-8 content in the plasma of trained athletes by about 4- and 2-fold, respectively. In contrast to dynamic load, weightlifting had negligible impact on these parameters in strength exercise-trained athletes. Unlike IL-6 and IL-8, dynamic exercise had no impact on IL-15 and LIF, whereas static load increases the content of these cytokines by ~50%. Two-fold increment of IL-8 content seen in athletes subjected to dynamic exercise was absent in untrained individuals, whereas the ~50% increase in IL-15 triggered by static load in the plasma of weightlifting athletes was not registered in the control group. Thus, our results show the distinct impact of static and dynamic exercises on cytokine content in the plasma of trained athletes. They also demonstrate that both types of exercises differentially affect cytokine content in plasma of athletes and untrained persons. PMID:28194116

  20. Mechanisms of Attenuation of Pulmonary V’O2 Slow Component in Humans after Prolonged Endurance Training

    PubMed Central

    Zoladz, Jerzy A.; Majerczak, Joanna; Grassi, Bruno; Szkutnik, Zbigniew; Korostyński, Michał; Gołda, Sławomir; Grandys, Marcin; Jarmuszkiewicz, Wiesława; Kilarski, Wincenty; Karasinski, Janusz; Korzeniewski, Bernard

    2016-01-01

    In this study we have examined the effect of prolonged endurance training program on the pulmonary oxygen uptake (V’O2) kinetics during heavy-intensity cycling-exercise and its impact on maximal cycling and running performance. Twelve healthy, physically active men (mean±SD: age 22.33±1.44 years, V’O2peak 3198±458 mL ∙ min-1) performed an endurance training composed mainly of moderate-intensity cycling, lasting 20 weeks. Training resulted in a decrease (by ~5%, P = 0.027) in V’O2 during prior low-intensity exercise (20 W) and in shortening of τp of the V’O2 on-kinetics (30.1±5.9 s vs. 25.4±1.5 s, P = 0.007) during subsequent heavy-intensity cycling. This was accompanied by a decrease of the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics by 49% (P = 0.001) and a decrease in the end-exercise V’O2 by ~5% (P = 0.005). An increase (P = 0.02) in the vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 mRNA level and a tendency (P = 0.06) to higher capillary-to-fiber ratio in the vastus lateralis muscle were found after training (n = 11). No significant effect of training on the V’O2peak was found (P = 0.12). However, the power output reached at the lactate threshold increased by 19% (P = 0.01). The power output obtained at the V’O2peak increased by 14% (P = 0.003) and the time of 1,500-m performance decreased by 5% (P = 0.001). Computer modeling of the skeletal muscle bioenergetic system suggests that the training-induced decrease in the slow component of V’O2 on-kinetics found in the present study is mainly caused by two factors: an intensification of the each-step activation (ESA) of oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) complexes after training and decrease in the ‘‘additional” ATP usage rising gradually during heavy-intensity exercise. PMID:27104346

  1. The effect of a low carbohydrate beverage with added protein on cycling endurance performance in trained athletes.

    PubMed

    Ferguson-Stegall, Lisa; McCleave, Erin L; Ding, Zhenping; Kammer, Lynne M; Wang, Bei; Doerner, Phillip G; Liu, Yang; Ivy, John L

    2010-10-01

    Ingesting carbohydrate plus protein during prolonged variable intensity exercise has demonstrated improved aerobic endurance performance beyond that of a carbohydrate supplement alone. The purpose of the present study was to determine if a supplement containing a mixture of different carbohydrates (glucose, maltodextrin, and fructose) and a moderate amount of protein given during endurance exercise would increase time to exhaustion (TTE), despite containing 50% less total carbohydrate than a carbohydrate-only supplement. We also sought post priori to determine if there was a difference in effect based on percentage of ventilatory threshold (VT) at which the subjects cycled to exhaustion. Fifteen trained male and female cyclists exercised on 2 separate occasions at intensities alternating between 45 and 70% VO2max for 3 hours, after which the workload increased to ∼74-85% VO2max until exhaustion. Supplements (275 mL) were provided every 20 minutes during exercise, and these consisted of a 3% carbohydrate/1.2% protein supplement (MCP) and a 6% carbohydrate supplement (CHO). For the combined group (n = 15), TTE in MCP did not differ from CHO (31.06 ± 5.76 vs. 26.03 ± 4.27 minutes, respectively, p = 0.064). However, for subjects cycling at or below VT (n = 8), TTE in MCP was significantly greater than for CHO (45.64 ± 7.38 vs. 35.47 ± 5.94 minutes, respectively, p = 0.006). There were no significant differences in TTE for the above VT group (n = 7). Our results suggest that, compared to a traditional 6% CHO supplement, a mixture of carbohydrates plus a moderate amount of protein can improve aerobic endurance at exercise intensities near the VT, despite containing lower total carbohydrate and caloric content.

  2. Effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular performance and plasma cytokines in healthy trained men

    PubMed Central

    Buraczewska, M; Miśkiewicz, Z; Dąbrowski, J; Steczkowska, M; Kozacz, A; Ziemba, A

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of ultra-endurance exercise on left ventricular (LV) performance and plasma concentration of interleukin (IL)-6, IL-10, IL-18 and tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) as well as to examine the relationships between exercise-induced changes in plasma cytokines and those in echocardiographic indices of LV function in ultra-marathon runners. Nine healthy trained men (mean age 30±1.0 years) participated in a 100-km ultra-marathon. Heart rate, blood pressure, ejection fraction (EF), fractional shortening (FS), ratio of early (E) to late (A) mitral inflow peak velocities (E/A), ratio of early (E’) to late (A’) diastolic mitral annulus peak velocities (E’/A’) and E-wave deceleration time (DT) were obtained by echocardiography before, immediately after and in the 90th minute of the recovery period. Blood samples were taken before each echocardiographic evaluation. The ultra-endurance exercise caused significant increases in plasma IL-6, IL-10, IL-18 and TNF-α. Echocardiography revealed significant decreases in both E and the E/A ratio immediately after exercise, without any significant changes in EF, FS, DT or the E/E’ ratio. At the 90th minute of the recovery period, plasma TNF-α and the E/A ratio did not differ significantly from the pre-exercise values, whereas FS was significantly lower than before and immediately after exercise. The increases in plasma TNF-α correlated with changes in FS (r=0.73) and DT (r=-0.73). It is concluded that ultra-endurance exercise causes alterations in LV diastolic function. The present data suggest that TNF-α might be involved in this effect. PMID:26985136

  3. Does wearing clothing made of a synthetic “cooling” fabric improve indoor cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes?

    PubMed Central

    Abdallah, Sara J; Krug, Robin; Jensen, Dennis

    2015-01-01

    This randomized, double-blind, crossover study examined the effects of a clothing ensemble made of a synthetic fabric promoted as having superior cooling properties (COOL) on exercise performance and its physiological and perceptual determinants during cycle exercise in ambient laboratory conditions that mimic environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. Twenty athletes (15 men:5 women) aged 25.8 ± 1.2 years (mean ± SEM) with a maximal rate of O2 consumption of 63.7 ± 1.5 mL·kg−1·min−1 completed cycle exercise testing at 85% of their maximal incremental power output to exhaustion while wearing an ensemble consisting of a fitted long-sleeved shirt and full trousers made of either COOL or a synthetic control fabric (CTRL). Exercise endurance time was not different under COOL versus CTRL conditions: 12.38 ± 0.98 versus 11.75 ± 1.10 min, respectively (P > 0.05). Similarly, COOL had no effect on detailed thermoregulatory (skin and esophageal temperatures), cardiometabolic, ventilatory, and perceptual responses to exercise (all P > 0.05). In conclusion, clothing made of a synthetic fabric with purported “cooling” properties did not improve high-intensity cycle exercise endurance in trained athletes under ambient laboratory conditions that mimic the environmental conditions of indoor training/sporting facilities. PMID:26290527

  4. Effects of strength, endurance and combined training on muscle strength, walking speed and dynamic balance in aging men.

    PubMed

    Holviala, J; Kraemer, W J; Sillanpää, E; Karppinen, H; Avela, J; Kauhanen, A; Häkkinen, A; Häkkinen, K

    2012-04-01

    The aim of this study was to examine effects of 21-week twice weekly strength (ST), endurance (ET) and combined (ST + ET 2 + 2 times a week) (SET) training on neuromuscular, endurance and walking performances as well as balance. 108 healthy men (56.3 ± 9.9 years) were divided into three training (ST; n = 30, ET; n = 26, SET; n = 31) groups and controls (C n = 21). Dynamic 1RM and explosive leg presses (1RMleg, 50%1RMleg), peak oxygen uptake using a bicycle ergometer (VO(2peak)), 10 m loaded walking time (10WALK) and dynamic balance distance (DYND) were measured. Significant increases were observed in maximal 1RMleg of 21% in ST (p < 0.001) and 22% in SET (p < 0.001) and in explosive 50%1RMleg of 7.5% in ST (p = 0.005) and 10.2% in SET (p < 0.001). VO(2peak) increased by 12.5% in ET (p = 0.001) and 9.8% in SET (p < 0.001). Significant decreases occurred in 10WALK in ST (p < 0.001) and SET (p = 0.003) and also in DYND of -10.3% in ST (p = 0.002) and -8% in SET (p = 0.028). The changes in C remained minor in all variables. In conclusion, ST and SET training produced significant improvements in maximal and explosive strength, walking speed and balance without any interference effect in SET. Significant but moderate relationships were observed between strength and dynamic balance and walking speed, while no corresponding correlations were found in the ET group.

  5. Inter-Individual Variability in the Adaptive Responses to Endurance and Sprint Interval Training: A Randomized Crossover Study

    PubMed Central

    Rotundo, Mario P.; Whittall, Jonathan P.; Scribbans, Trisha D.; Graham, Ryan B.; Gurd, Brendon J.

    2016-01-01

    The current study examined the adaptive response to both endurance (END) and sprint interval training (SIT) in a group of twenty-one recreationally active adults. All participants completed three weeks (four days/ week) of both END (30 minutes at ~65% VO2peak work rate (WR) and SIT (eight, 20-second intervals at ~170% VO2peak WR separated by 10 seconds of active rest) following a randomized crossover study design with a three-month washout period between training interventions. While a main effect of training was observed for VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal heart rate (HR), considerable variability was observed in the individual responses to both END and SIT. No significant positive relationships were observed between END and SIT for individual changes in any variable. Non-responses were determined using two times the typical error (TE) of measurement for VO2peak (0.107 L/min), lactate threshold (15.7 W), and submaximal HR (10.7bpm). Non-responders in VO2peak, lactate threshold, and submaximal HR were observed following both END and SIT, however, the individual patterns of response differed following END and SIT. Interestingly, all individuals responded in at least one variable when exposed to both END and SIT. These results suggest that the individual response to exercise training is highly variable following different training protocols and that the incidence of non-response to exercise training may be reduced by changing the training stimulus for non-responders to three weeks of END or SIT. PMID:27936084

  6. No reserve in isokinetic cycling power at intolerance during ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Carrie; Wylde, Lindsey A; Benson, Alan P; Cannon, Daniel T; Rossiter, Harry B

    2016-01-01

    During whole body exercise in health, maximal oxygen uptake (V̇o2max) is typically attained at or immediately before the limit of tolerance (LoT). At the V̇o2max and LoT of incremental exercise, a fundamental, but unresolved, question is whether maximal evocable power can be increased above the task requirement, i.e., whether there is a "power reserve" at the LoT. Using an instantaneous switch from cadence-independent (hyperbolic) to isokinetic cycle ergometry, we determined maximal evocable power at the limit of ramp-incremental exercise. We hypothesized that in endurance-trained men at LoT, maximal (4 s) isokinetic power would not differ from the power required by the task. Baseline isokinetic power at 80 rpm (Piso; measured at the pedals) and summed integrated EMG from five leg muscles (ΣiEMG) were measured in 12 endurance-trained men (V̇o2max = 4.2 ± 1.0 l/min). Participants then completed a ramp incremental exercise test (20-25 W/min), with instantaneous measurement of Piso and ΣiEMG at the LoT. Piso decreased from 788 ± 103 W at baseline to 391 ± 72 W at LoT, which was not different from the required ramp-incremental flywheel power (352 ± 58 W; P > 0.05). At LoT, the relative reduction in Piso was greater than the relative reduction in the isokinetic ΣiEMG (50 ± 9 vs. 63 ± 10% of baseline; P < 0.05). During maximal ramp incremental exercise in endurance-trained men, maximum voluntary power is not different from the power required by the task and is consequent to both central and peripheral limitations in evocable power. The absence of a power reserve suggests both the perceptual and physiological limits of maximum voluntary power production are not widely dissociated at LoT in this population.

  7. Effects of combined endurance and strength training on muscle strength, power and hypertrophy in 40-67-year-old men.

    PubMed

    Karavirta, L; Häkkinen, A; Sillanpää, E; García-López, D; Kauhanen, A; Haapasaari, A; Alen, M; Pakarinen, A; Kraemer, W J; Izquierdo, M; Gorostiaga, E; Häkkinen, K

    2011-06-01

    Both strength and endurance training have several positive effects on aging muscle and physical performance of middle-aged and older adults, but their combination may compromise optimal adaptation. This study examined the possible interference of combined strength and endurance training on neuromuscular performance and skeletal muscle hypertrophy in previously untrained 40-67-year-old men. Maximal strength and muscle activation in the upper and lower extremities, maximal concentric power, aerobic capacity and muscle fiber size and distribution in the vastus lateralis muscle were measured before and after a 21-week training period. Ninety-six men [mean age 56 (SD 7) years] completed high-intensity strength training (S) twice a week, endurance training (E) twice a week, combined training (SE) four times per week or served as controls (C). SE and S led to similar gains in one repetition maximum strength of the lower extremities [22 (9)% and 21 (8)%, P<0.001], whereas E and C showed minor changes. Cross-sectional area of type II muscle fibers only increased in S [26 (22)%, P=0.002], while SE showed an inconsistent, non-significant change [8 (35)%, P=0.73]. Combined training may interfere with muscle hypertrophy in aging men, despite similar gains in maximal strength between the strength and the combined training groups.

  8. Well-trained endurance athletes' knowledge, insight, and experience of caffeine use.

    PubMed

    Desbrow, Ben; Leveritt, Michael

    2007-08-01

    This descriptive cross-sectional study assessed the perceptions, knowledge, and experiences of caffeine use by athletes competing at the 2005 Ironman Triathlon World Championships. Questionnaires were distributed to 140 athletes (105 men and 35 women, 40.3 +/- 10.7 y old) representing 16 countries during prerace registration. A large proportion (73%) of these endurance athletes believe that caffeine is ergogenic to their endurance performance, and 84% believe it improves their concentration. The most commonly reported positive caffeine experiences related to in-competition use of cola drinks (65%) and caffeinated gels (24%). The athletes' ability to accurately quantify the caffeine content of common food items was limited. The most popular sources of caffeine information were self-experimentation (16%), fellow athletes (15%), magazines (13%), and journal articles (12%). Over half the athletes (53%) could not identify an amount of caffeine required to improve their triathlon performance. Mean (+/- standard deviation) suggested doses were 3.8 (+/- 3) mg/kg body weight. Few side effects associated with taking caffeine during exercise were reported.

  9. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; Laughlin, M Harold

    2016-02-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply "more is better." Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and improved

  10. Effects of L-carnitine supplementation on physical performance and energy metabolism of endurance-trained athletes: a double-blind crossover field study.

    PubMed

    Colombani, P; Wenk, C; Kunz, I; Krähenbühl, S; Kuhnt, M; Arnold, M; Frey-Rindova, P; Frey, W; Langhans, W

    1996-01-01

    A double-blind crossover field study was performed to investigate the effects of acute L-carnitine supplementation on metabolism and performance of endurance-trained athletes during and after a marathon run. Seven male subjects were given supplements of 2 g L-carnitine 2 h before the start of a marathon run and again after 20 km of the run. The plasma concentration of metabolites and hormones was analysed 1 h before, immediately after and 1 h after the run, as well as the next morning after the run. In addition, the respiratory exchange ratio (R) was determined before and at the end of the run, and a submaximal performance test was completed on a treadmill the morning after the run. The administration of L-carnitine was associated with a significant increase in the plasma concentration of all analysed carnitine fractions (i.e. free carnitine, short-chain acylcarnitine, long-chain acylcarnitine, total acid soluble carnitine, total carnitine) but caused no significant change in marathon running time, in R, in the plasma concentrations of carbohydrate metabolites (glucose, lactate, pyruvate), of fat metabolites (free fatty acids, glycerol, beta-hydroxybutyrate), of hormones (insulin, glucagon, cortisol), and of enzyme activities (creatine kinase, lactate dehydrogenase). Moreover, there was no difference in the result of the submaximal performance test the morning after the run. In conclusion, acute administration of L-carnitine did not affect the metabolism or improve the physical performance of the endurance-trained athletes during the run and did not alter their recovery.

  11. The Effects of Simulated Microgravity and of Endurance Training on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Rat Cutaneous Small Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, O. L.; Kalentchuk, V. U.; Andreev-Andrievskii, A. A.; Borzykh, A. A.; Mochalov, S. V.; Buravkov, S. V.; Borovik, A. S.; Sharova, A. P.; Tarasova, O. S.

    2008-06-01

    We investigated neuroeffector mechanisms in cutaneous small arteries of rats after 2-wk tail suspension (TS) or 8-wk endurance training (ET). Contractile responses of saphenous artery were studied in vitro and the periarterial nerve plexus was stained with glyoxylic acid. In TS rats pronounced decrease of neurogenic contraction was observed that correlated with smaller density of periarterial nerve plexus. However, TS increased smooth muscle sensitivity to noradrenaline and serotonin. In ET rats neurogenic response was also diminished, but the sensitivity to the agonists was not changed. ET had no effect on nerve density, but reduced intensity of their fluorescence. Therefore, both TS and ET depress sympathetic neurotransmission in cutaneous small arteries, but through different mechanisms.

  12. Effect of intensified training on muscle ion kinetics, fatigue development, and repeated short-term performance in endurance-trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Gunnarsson, Thomas P; Christensen, Peter M; Thomassen, Martin; Nielsen, Lars R; Bangsbo, Jens

    2013-10-01

    The effects of intensified training in combination with a reduced training volume on muscle ion kinetics, transporters, and work capacity were examined. Eight well-trained cyclists replaced their regular training with speed-endurance training (12 × 30 s sprints) 2-3 times per week and aerobic high-intensity training (4-5 × 3-4 min at 90-100% of maximal heart rate) 1-2 times per week for 7 wk and reduced training volume by 70% (intervention period; IP). The duration of an intense exhaustive cycling bout (EX2; 368 ± 6 W), performed 2.5 min after a 2-min intense cycle bout (EX1), was longer (P < 0.05) after than before IP (4:16 ± 0:34 vs. 3:37 ± 0:28 min:s), and mean and peak power during a repeated sprint test improved (P < 0.05) by 4% and 3%, respectively. Femoral venous K(+) concentration in recovery from EX1 and EX2 was lowered (P < 0.05) after compared with before IP, whereas muscle interstitial K(+) concentration and net muscle K(+) release during exercise was unaltered. No changes in muscle lactate and H(+) release during and after EX1 and EX2 were observed, but the in vivo buffer capacity was higher (P < 0.05) after IP. Expression of the ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channel (Kir6.2) decreased by IP, with no change in the strong inward rectifying K(+) channel (Kir2.1), muscle Na(+)-K(+) pump subunits, monocarboxylate transporters 1 and 4 (MCT1 and MCT4), and Na(+)/H(+) exchanger 1 (NHE1). In conclusion, 7 wk of intensified training with a reduced training volume improved performance during repeated intense exercise, which was associated with a greater muscle reuptake of K(+) and muscle buffer capacity but not with the amount of muscle ion transporters.

  13. Effect of Beta-Hydroxy Beta-Methylbutyrate on the Onset of Blood Lactate Accumulation and VO2peak in Endurance-Trained Cyclists.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Vukovich, Matthew D.; Dreifort, Geri D.

    2001-01-01

    Examined the effect of beta-hydroxy beta-methylbutyrate (HMB) supplementation on maximal oxygen consumption (VO2peak) and onset of blood lactate accumulation (OBLA) in endurance-trained cyclists. Acute exercise did not affect plasma HMB concentrations. OBLA increased with HMB and leucine, with blood glucose significantly greater during the HMB…

  14. Quantitative immunofluorescence microscopy of subcellular GLUT4 distribution in human skeletal muscle: effects of endurance and sprint interval training.

    PubMed

    Bradley, Helen; Shaw, Christopher S; Worthington, Philip L; Shepherd, Sam O; Cocks, Matthew; Wagenmakers, Anton J M

    2014-07-01

    Increases in insulin-mediated glucose uptake following endurance training (ET) and sprint interval training (SIT) have in part been attributed to concomitant increases in glucose transporter 4 (GLUT4) protein content in skeletal muscle. This study used an immunofluorescence microscopy method to investigate changes in subcellular GLUT4 distribution and content following ET and SIT. Percutaneous muscle biopsy samples were taken from the m. vastus lateralis of 16 sedentary males in the overnight fasted state before and after 6 weeks of ET and SIT. An antibody was fully validated and used to show large (> 1 μm) and smaller (<1 μm) GLUT4-containing clusters. The large clusters likely represent trans-Golgi network stores and the smaller clusters endosomal stores and GLUT4 storage vesicles (GSVs). Density of GLUT4 clusters was higher at the fibre periphery especially in perinuclear regions. A less dense punctate distribution was seen in the rest of the muscle fibre. Total GLUT4 fluorescence intensity increased in type I and type II fibres following both ET and SIT. Large GLUT4 clusters increased in number and size in both type I and type II fibres, while the smaller clusters increased in size. The greatest increases in GLUT4 fluorescence intensity occurred within the 1 μm layer immediately adjacent to the PM. The increase in peripheral localisation and protein content of GLUT4 following ET and SIT is likely to contribute to the improvements in glucose homeostasis observed after both training modes.

  15. Endurance, interval sprint, and resistance exercise training: impact on microvascular dysfunction in type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Laughlin, M. Harold

    2015-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2D) alters capillary hemodynamics, causes capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle, and alters endothelial and vascular smooth muscle cell phenotype, resulting in impaired vasodilatory responses. These changes contribute to altered blood flow responses to physiological stimuli, such as exercise and insulin secretion. T2D-induced microvascular dysfunction impairs glucose and insulin delivery to skeletal muscle (and other tissues such as skin and nervous), thereby reducing glucose uptake and perpetuating hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia. In patients with T2D, exercise training (EX) improves microvascular vasodilator and insulin signaling and attenuates capillary rarefaction in skeletal muscle. EX-induced changes subsequently augment glucose and insulin delivery as well as glucose uptake. If these adaptions occur in a sufficient amount of tissue, and skeletal muscle in particular, chronic exposure to hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia and the risk of microvascular complications in all vascular beds will decrease. We postulate that EX programs that engage as much skeletal muscle mass as possible and recruit as many muscle fibers within each muscle as possible will generate the greatest improvements in microvascular function, providing that the duration of the stimulus is sufficient. Primary improvements in microvascular function occur in tissues (skeletal muscle primarily) engaged during exercise, and secondary improvements in microvascular function throughout the body may result from improved blood glucose control. We propose that the added benefit of combined resistance and aerobic EX programs and of vigorous intensity EX programs is not simply “more is better.” Rather, we believe the additional benefit is the result of EX-induced adaptations in and around more muscle fibers, resulting in more muscle mass and the associated microvasculature being changed. Thus, to acquire primary and secondary improvements in microvascular function and

  16. Enhanced Fatty Acid Oxidation and FATP4 Protein Expression after Endurance Exercise Training in Human Skeletal Muscle

    PubMed Central

    Jeppesen, Jacob; Jordy, Andreas B.; Sjøberg, Kim A.; Füllekrug, Joachim; Stahl, Andreas; Nybo, Lars; Kiens, Bente

    2012-01-01

    FATP1 and FATP4 appear to be important for the cellular uptake and handling of long chain fatty acids (LCFA). These findings were obtained from loss- or gain of function models. However, reports on FATP1 and FATP4 in human skeletal muscle are limited. Aerobic training enhances lipid oxidation; however, it is not known whether this involves up-regulation of FATP1 and FATP4 protein. Therefore, the aim of this project was to investigate FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression in the vastus lateralis muscle from healthy human individuals and to what extent FATP1 and FATP4 protein expression were affected by an increased fuel demand induced by exercise training. Eight young healthy males were recruited to the study. All subjects were non smokers and did not participate in regular physical activity (<1 time per week for the past 6 months, VO2peak 3.4±0.1 l O2 min−1). Subjects underwent an 8 week supervised aerobic training program. Training induced an increase in VO2peak from 3.4±0.1 to 3.9±0.1 l min−1 and citrate synthase activity was increased from 53.7±2.5 to 80.8±3.7 µmol g−1 min−1. The protein content of FATP4 was increased by 33%, whereas FATP1 protein content was reduced by 20%. Interestingly, at the end of the training intervention a significant association (r2 = 0.74) between the observed increase in skeletal muscle FATP4 protein expression and lipid oxidation during a 120 min endurance exercise test was observed. In conclusion, based on the present findings it is suggested that FATP1 and FATP4 proteins perform different functional roles in handling LCFA in skeletal muscle with FATP4 apparently more important as a lipid transport protein directing lipids for lipid oxidation. PMID:22235293

  17. Effects of simultaneous training for strength and endurance on upper and lower body strength and running performance.

    PubMed

    Hortobágyi, T; Katch, F I; Lachance, P F

    1991-03-01

    This study examined simultaneous training for strength and endurance during a 13-week, 3-day a week program of hydraulic resistive circuit training and running. Eighteen college males (U.S. Army ROTC) were placed into low resistance (LR; n = 10) or high resistance (HR; n = 8) groups, and 10 college males were controls and did not train. There were 20 exercise stations (7 upper and lower body, and 6 supplementary). LR and HR performed 2 circuits with a work/rest ratio of 20 to 40 s during the 40 min workout. LR trained at two low resistances (approximately 100 cm.s-1), while HR trained at a higher resistance (approximately 50 cm.s-1). Following the workout, subjects ran 2 miles. Pre and post tests included strength, physical fitness, and anthropometry. Strength was assessed with (1) hydraulic resistance dynamometry for 4 exercises at 2 speeds using a computerized dynamometer (Hydra-Fitness, Belton, TX); (2) isokinetic and isotonic upright squat and supine bench press using the Ariel Exerciser (Trabuco Canyon, CA); (3) concentric and eccentric arm flexion/extension at 60 and 120 degrees.s-1 on the Biodex dynamometer (Shirley, NY), and (4) 1-RM free weight concentric and eccentric arm flexion and extension. The fitness tests included 2-mile run, sit-ups, and push-ups. Anthropometry included 3 fatfolds, 6 girths, and arm and leg volume. There were no significant changes in body composition or interactions between the fitness test measures and the 2 training groups (p greater than 0.05). Improvements averaged 15% (run time), 30% (push-ups), and 19% (sit-ups; p less than 0.05). Significant improvements also occurred in 3 of 8 measures for hydraulic testing (overall change 8.8%), in 3 of 4 1-RM tests (9.4%), and in 2 of 8 Biodex tests (6%), but no significant changes for isokinetic and isotonic squat and bench press (1.9%). The change in overall strength averaged 6.5% compared to 16% in a prior study that used hydraulic resistive training without concomitant running. We

  18. Different effects of strength and endurance exercise training on COX-2 and mPGES expression in mouse brain are independent of peripheral inflammation.

    PubMed

    Krüger, K; Bredehöft, J; Mooren, F C; Rummel, C

    2016-07-01

    Acute endurance exercise has been shown to modulate cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 expression, which is suggested to affect neuronal plasticity and learning. Here, we investigated the effect of regular strength and endurance training on cerebral COX-2 expression, inflammatory markers in the brain, and circulating cytokines. Male C57BL/6N mice were assigned to either a sedentary control group (CG), an endurance training group (EG; treadmill running for 30 min/day, 5 times/wk, 10 wk), or a strength training group (SG; strength training by isometric holding, same duration as EG). Four days after the last bout of exercise, blood and brain were collected and analyzed using real-time PCR, Western blot, and a multiplexed immunoassay. In EG, COX-2 mRNA expression in the cortex/hippocampus increased compared with CG. A significant increase of COX-2 protein levels was observed in both cortex/hippocampus and hypothalamus of mice from the SG. Nuclear factor (NF)κB protein levels were significantly increased in mice from both exercise groups (hypothalamus). A significant increase in the expression of microsomal prostaglandin E synthase (mPGES), an enzyme downstream of COX-2, was found in the hypothalamus of both the EG and SG. While most inflammatory factors, like IL-1α, IL-18, and IL-2, decreased after training, a positive association was found between COX-2 mRNA expression (cortex/hippocampus) and plasma IL-6 in the EG. Taken together, this study demonstrates that both endurance as well as strength training induces COX-2 expression in the cortex/hippocampus and hypothalamus of mice. A potential mediator of COX-2 expression after training might be circulating interleukin (IL)-6. However, further research is necessary to elucidate the role of inflammatory pathways on brain plasticity after training.

  19. Effects of three day bed-rest on circulatory, metabolic and hormonal responses to oral glucose load in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smorawinski, J.; Kubala, P.; Kaciuba-Uociako, H.; Nazar, K.; Titow-Stupnicka, E.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Endurance trained long distance runners and untrained individuals underwent three days of bed rest and oral glucose loading. Before and after bed rest, individuals were given glucose tolerance tests, and their heart rates, blood pressure, blood glucose levels, insulin levels, and catecholamine interactions were measured. Results indicated that glucose tolerance is more affected by bed rest-induced deconditioning in untrained individuals than in trained individuals.

  20. Exercise performance and cardiovascular health variables in 70-year-old male soccer players compared to endurance-trained, strength-trained and untrained age-matched men.

    PubMed

    Randers, Morten Bredsgaard; Andersen, Jesper L; Petersen, Jesper; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D; Bangsbo, Jens; Saltin, Bengt; Krustrup, Peter

    2014-01-01

    The aim was to investigate performance variables and indicators of cardiovascular health profile in elderly soccer players (SP, n = 11) compared to endurance-trained (ET, n = 8), strength-trained (ST, n = 7) and untrained (UT, n = 7) age-matched men. The 33 men aged 65-85 years underwent a testing protocol including measurements of cycle performance, maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) and body composition, and muscle fibre types and capillarisation were determined from m. vastus lateralis biopsy. In SP, time to exhaustion was longer (16.3 ± 2.0 min; P < 0.01) than in UT (+48%) and ST (+41%), but similar to ET (+1%). Fat percentage was lower (P < 0.05) in SP (-6.5% points) than UT but not ET and ST. Heart rate reserve was higher (P < 0.05) in SP (104 ± 16 bpm) than UT (+21 bpm) and ST (+24 bpm), but similar to ET (+2 bpm), whereas VO2max was not significantly different in SP (30.2 ± 4.9 ml O2 · min(-1) · kg(-1)) compared to UT (+14%) and ST (+9%), but lower (P < 0.05) than ET (-22%). The number of capillaries per fibre was higher (P < 0.05) in SP than UT (53%) and ST (42%) but similar to ET. SP had less type IIx fibres than UT (-12% points). In conclusion, the exercise performance and cardiovascular health profile are markedly better for lifelong trained SP than for age-matched UT controls. Incremental exercise capacity and muscle aerobic capacity of SP are also superior to lifelong ST athletes and comparable to endurance athletes.

  1. Limitations in intense exercise performance of athletes - effect of speed endurance training on ion handling and fatigue development.

    PubMed

    Hostrup, Morten; Bangsbo, Jens

    2016-09-27

    Mechanisms underlying fatigue development and limitations for performance during intense exercise have been intensively studied during the past couple of decades. Fatigue development may involve several interacting factors and depends on type of exercise undertaken and training level of the individual. Intense exercise (½-6 min) causes major ionic perturbations (Ca(2+) , Cl(-) , H(+) , K(+) , lactate(-) and Na(+) ) that may reduce sarcolemmal excitability, Ca(2+) release and force production of skeletal muscle. Maintenance of ion homeostasis is thus essential to sustain force production and power output during intense exercise. Regular speed endurance training (SET), i.e. exercise performed at intensities above that corresponding to maximum oxygen consumption (V̇O2, max ), enhances intense exercise performance. However, most of the studies that have provided mechanistic insight into the beneficial effects of SET have been conducted in untrained and recreationally active individuals, making extrapolation towards athletes' performance difficult. Nevertheless, recent studies indicate that only a few weeks of SET enhances intense exercise performance in highly trained individuals. In these studies, the enhanced performance was not associated with changes in V̇O2, max and muscle oxidative capacity, but rather with adaptations in muscle ion handling, including lowered interstitial concentrations of K(+) during and in recovery from intense exercise, improved lactate(-) -H(+) transport and H(+) regulation, and enhanced Ca(2+) release function. The purpose of this Topical Review is to provide an overview of the effect of SET and to discuss potential mechanisms underlying enhancements in performance induced by SET in already well-trained individuals with special emphasis on ion handling in skeletal muscle.

  2. Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement is preserved with lifelong endurance training and is the main determinant of maximal cardiac output.

    PubMed

    Steding-Ehrenborg, Katarina; Boushel, Robert C; Calbet, José A; Åkeson, Per; Mortensen, Stefan P

    2015-12-01

    Age-related decline in cardiac function can be prevented or postponed by lifelong endurance training. However, effects of normal ageing as well as of lifelong endurance exercise on longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume are unknown. The aim of this study was to determine resting longitudinal and radial pumping in elderly athletes, sedentary elderly and young sedentary subjects. Furthermore, we aimed to investigate determinants of maximal cardiac output in elderly. Eight elderly athletes (63 ± 4 years), seven elderly sedentary (66 ± 4 years) and ten young sedentary subjects (29 ± 4 years) underwent cardiac magnetic resonance imaging. All subjects underwent maximal exercise testing and for elderly subjects maximal cardiac output during cycling was determined using a dye dilution technique. Longitudinal and radial contribution to stroke volume did not differ between groups (longitudinal left ventricle (LV) 52-65%, P = 0.12, right ventricle (RV) 77-87%, P = 0.16, radial 7.9-8.6%, P = 1.0). Left ventricular atrioventricular plane displacement (LVAVPD) was higher in elderly athletes and young sedentary compared with elderly sedentary subjects (14 ± 3, 15 ± 2 and 11 ± 1 mm, respectively, P < 0.05). There was no difference between groups for RVAVPD (P = 0.2). LVAVPD was an independent predictor of maximal cardiac output (R(2) = 0.61, P < 0.01, β = 0.78). Longitudinal and radial contributions to stroke volume did not differ between groups. However, how longitudinal pumping was achieved differed; elderly athletes and young sedentary subjects showed similar AVPD whereas this was significantly lower in elderly sedentary subjects. Elderly sedentary subjects achieved longitudinal pumping through increased short-axis area of the ventricle. Large AVPD was a determinant of maximal cardiac output and exercise capacity.

  3. Lipolysis, lipogenesis, and adiposity are reduced while fatty acid oxidation is increased in visceral and subcutaneous adipocytes of endurance-trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Pistor, Kathryn E; Sepa-Kishi, Diane M; Hung, Steven; Ceddia, Rolando B

    2014-01-01

    This study examined the alterations in triglyceride (TG) breakdown and storage in subcutaneous inguinal (SC Ing) and epididymal (Epid) fat depots following chronic endurance training. Male Wistar rats were either kept sedentary (Sed) or subjected to endurance training (Ex) at 70–85% peak VO2 for 6 weeks. At weeks 0, 3, and 6 blood was collected at rest and immediately after a bout of submaximal exercise of similar relative intensity to assess whole-body lipolysis. At week 6, adipocytes were isolated from Epid and SC Ing fat pads for the determination of lipolysis under basal or isoproterenol- and forskolin-stimulated conditions, basal and insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids, and fatty acid oxidation (FAO). Body weight, fat pad mass, and insulin were reduced by endurance training. Also, circulating non-esterified fatty acids (NEFAs) were 33% lower in Ex than Sed rats when exercising at the same relative intensity. This coincided with reduced isoproterenol-stimulated lipolysis in the Epid (27%) and SC Ing (25%) adipocytes in Ex rats. Similarly, forskolin-stimulated lipolysis was reduced in Epid (51%) and SC Ing (49%) adipocytes from Ex rats. Insulin-stimulated glucose incorporation into lipids in adipocytes from both fat depots from Ex rats was also lower (∼43%) than Sed controls. Conversely, FAO was increased in Epid (1.71-fold) and SC Ing (1.82-fold) adipocytes of Ex rats. In conclusion, chronic endurance exercise reduced lipolysis and lipogenesis while increasing FAO in Epid and SC Ing adipocytes. These are compatible with an energy-sparing adaptive response to reduced adiposity under chronic endurance training conditions. PMID:26167399

  4. The role of volume-load in strength and absolute endurance adaptations in adolescent's performing high- or low-load resistance training.

    PubMed

    Steele, James; Fisher, James P; Assunção, Ari R; Bottaro, Martim; Gentil, Paulo

    2017-02-01

    This study compared high- (HL) and low-load (LL) resistance training (RT) on strength, absolute endurance, volume-load, and their relationships in untrained adolescents. Thirty-three untrained adolescents of both sexes (males, n = 17; females, n = 16; 14 ± 1 years) were randomly assigned into either (i) HL (n = 17): performing 3 sets of 4-6 repetitions to momentary concentric failure; or (ii) LL (n = 16): performing 2 sets of 12-15 repetitions to momentary concentric failure. RT was performed for 2×/week for 9 weeks. Change in maximum strength (1 repetition maximum) and absolute muscular endurance for barbell bench press was assessed. Weekly volume-load was calculated as sets (n) × repetitions (n) × load (kg). Ninety-five percent confidence intervals (CIs) revealed that both groups significantly increased in strength and absolute endurance with large effect sizes (d = 1.51-1.66). There were no between-group differences for change in strength or absolute endurance. Ninety-five percent CIs revealed that both groups significantly increased in weekly volume-load with large effect sizes (HL = 1.66, LL = 1.02). There were no between-group differences for change in volume-load though average weekly volume-load was significantly greater for LL (p < 0.001). Significant Pearson's correlations were found for the HL group between average weekly volume-load and both strength (r = 0.650, p = 0.005) and absolute endurance (r = 0.552, p = 0.022) increases. Strength and absolute endurance increases do not differ between HL and LL conditions in adolescents when performed to momentary concentric failure. Under HL conditions greater weekly volume-load is associated with greater strength and absolute endurance increases.

  5. Concurrent Strength and Interval Endurance Training in Elite Water Polo Players.

    PubMed

    Botonis, Petros G; Toubekis, Argyris G; Platanou, Theodoros I

    2016-01-01

    This study compared the effects of different high-intensity interval training (HIIT) intervals performed concurrently with strength and specific water polo training on performance indices of elite players. During the precompetition season, 2 water polo clubs were assigned to either HIIT of 4 × 4 minutes (n = 7, HIIT4 × 4) or HIIT of 16 × 100-m swimming efforts (n = 7, HIIT16 × 100). Both clubs applied the swimming (6% above the speed corresponding to blood lactate concentration of 4.0 mmol · L) and strength training (85-90% of 1 repetition maximum, 5 repetitions, 4 sets) twice per week concurrently with specific water polo training. Before and after the 8-week intervention period, maximal bench press strength was measured and a speed-lactate test (5 × 200 m) was performed to determine the speed corresponding to lactate concentration of 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol · L(-1). Maximal strength was improved in both groups (HIIT4 × 4: 14 ± 4% vs. HIIT16 × 100: 19 ± 10%). Improvements in speed corresponding to 4.0, 5.0, and 10.0 mmol · L(-1) were shown only after HIIT4 × 4 (9 ± 5, 8 ± 3, 7 ± 2%, respectively; p < 0.01). However, HIIT16 × 100 was more effective in the differential velocity between 10.0 and 5.0 mmol · L(-) development (19 ± 20%, p = 0.03). During the precompetition season, HIIT and strength training together with specific water polo training performed concurrently improves muscle strength and allows specific adaptations enhancing swimming performance of elite water polo players.

  6. What changes and what endures - The capabilities and limitations of training and selection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Helmreich, Robert L.

    1983-01-01

    The contributions of psychology to aviation in the areas of selection, training, and evaluation, and the implementation of new technologies are discussed. The concept of personality traits versus modification of human behavior through principles of learning are analyzed. Particular consideration is given to achievement motivation (defined in terms of mastery, work, and competitiveness) and the differences between traits and attitudes. It is argued that personality traits are important dimensions of the self and are useful measures of individual differences. The selection of individuals with desired personality characteristics and the training of personnel to improve crew coordination, flight-deck management, and interpersonal efficacy are examined.

  7. Short-term glucocorticoid intake improves exercise endurance in healthy recreationally trained women.

    PubMed

    Le Panse, Bénédicte; Thomasson, Rémi; Jollin, Laetitia; Lecoq, Anne-Marie; Amiot, Virgile; Rieth, Nathalie; De Ceaurriz, Jacques; Collomp, Katia

    2009-11-01

    The present study investigated whether short-term oral administration of glucocorticoid would modify performance and selected hormonal and metabolic parameters during submaximal exercise in healthy women. Nine recreational female athletes completed cycling trials at 70-75% VO(2) max until exhaustion after either placebo (Pla, gelatin) or oral prednisone (Cor, Cortancyl, 50 mg per day for 1 week) treatment, according to a double-blind and randomized protocol. Blood samples were collected at rest; after 10, 20, and 30 min of exercise; at exhaustion; and after 10 and 20 min of passive recovery for adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH), dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), prolactin (PRL), growth hormone (GH), insulin (Ins), blood glucose (Glu), and lactate (Lac) determination. Cycling time was significantly increased with short-term Cor intake (Cor: 66.4 +/- 8.4 vs. Pla: 47.9 +/- 6.7 min, P < 0.01). ACTH and DHEA remained completely blunted throughout the experiment with Cor versus Pla (P < 0.01), whereas GH and PRL were significantly decreased with Cor after, respectively, 20 and 30 min of exercise (P < 0.05). No significant difference in Ins or Glu values was found between the two treatments but Lac concentrations were significantly increased with Cor versus Pla between 10 and 30 min of exercise (P < 0.05). These data indicate that short-term glucocorticoid intake improved endurance performance in women, but further investigation is needed to determine whether these results are applicable to elite female athletes and, if so, current WADA legislation needs to be changed.

  8. Improving Training Condition Assessment in Endurance Cyclists: Effects of Ganoderma lucidum and Ophiocordyceps sinensis Dietary Supplementation

    PubMed Central

    Rossi, Paola; Buonocore, Daniela; Altobelli, Elisa; Brandalise, Federico; Cesaroni, Valentina; Iozzi, Davide; Savino, Elena; Marzatico, Fulvio

    2014-01-01

    The main reasons for taking daily dietary supplements are to maintain good health, to improve homeostasis, and to create conditions for reducing the risk of disease. Due to growing market demand, the search for effective, nontoxic, natural compounds with antioxidant and ergogenic properties has increasingly become a matter of interest. This paper describes how a specific combination of fungal supplements can help improve the performance of endurance athletes. We report the effects of a brief 3-month trial of two fungal supplements, Ganoderma lucidum and Cordyceps sinensis (3 capsules of O. sinensis and 2 capsules of G. lucidum per day), in 7 healthy male volunteers, aged between 30 and 40 years, who are all amateur cyclists that participate in “Gran Fondo” cycling races. This trial investigated the effects of fungal supplements on the level of physical fitness of the athletes by monitoring and comparing the following biomarkers just before and after physical exertion: the testosterone/cortisol ratio in the saliva and oxidative stress (DPPH free radical scavenging activity). A decrease of more than 30% in the testosterone/cortisol ratio after race compared to before race was considered as a risk factor for nonfunctional overreaching (NFO) or the overtraining syndrome (OTS). The results show that, after 3 months of supplementation, the testosterone/cortisol ratio changed in a statistically significant manner, thereby protecting the athletes from NFO and OTS. Antioxidant activity was measured by quantifying the scavenging ability of the human serum on the synthetic free radical DPPH. After 3 months of fungal supplementation, the data demonstrate an increased scavenger capacity of free radicals in the athletes' serum after the race, thereby protecting the athletes from oxidative stress. PMID:24799948

  9. Effects of strength, explosive and plyometric training on energy cost of running in ultra-endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Giovanelli, Nicola; Taboga, Paolo; Rejc, Enrico; Lazzer, Stefano

    2017-04-10

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of a 12-week home-based strength, explosive and plyometric (SEP) training on the cost of running (Cr) in well-trained ultra-marathoners and to assess the main mechanical parameters affecting changes in Cr. Twenty-five male runners (38.2 ± 7.1 years; body mass index: 23.0 ± 1.1 kg·m(-2); V˙O2max: 55.4 ± 4.0 mlO2·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were divided into an exercise (EG = 13) and control group (CG = 12). Before and after a 12-week SEP training, Cr, spring-mass model parameters at four speeds (8, 10, 12, 14 km·h(-1)) were calculated and maximal muscle power (MMP) of the lower limbs was measured. In EG, Cr decreased significantly (p < .05) at all tested running speeds (-6.4 ± 6.5% at 8 km·h(-1); -3.5 ± 5.3% at 10 km·h(-1); -4.0 ± 5.5% at 12 km·h(-1); -3.2 ± 4.5% at 14 km·h(-1)), contact time (tc) increased at 8, 10 and 12 km·h(-1) by mean +4.4 ± 0.1% and ta decreased by -25.6 ± 0.1% at 8 km·h(-1) (p < .05). Further, inverse relationships between changes in Cr and MMP at 10 (p = .013; r = -0.67) and 12 km·h(-1) (p < .001; r = -0.86) were shown. Conversely, no differences were detected in the CG in any of the studied parameters. Thus, 12-week SEP training programme lower the Cr in well-trained ultra-marathoners at submaximal speeds. Increased tc and an inverse relationship between changes in Cr and changes in MMP could be in part explain the decreased Cr. Thus, adding at least three sessions per week of SEP exercises in the normal endurance-training programme may decrease the Cr.

  10. Limited Effects of Endurance or Interval Training on Visceral Adipose Tissue and Systemic Inflammation in Sedentary Middle-Aged Men

    PubMed Central

    Cooper, Joshua H. F.; Collins, Blake E. G.; Adams, David R.; Robergs, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. Limited data exists for the effects of sprint-interval training (SIT) and endurance training (ET) on total body composition, abdominal visceral adipose tissue, and plasma inflammation. Moreover, whether “active” or “passive” recovery in SIT provides a differential effect on these measures remains uncertain. Methods. Sedentary middle-aged men (n = 62; 49.5 ± 5.8 y; 29.7 ± 3.7 kg·m2) underwent abdominal computed tomography, dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, venepuncture, and exercise testing before and after the interventions, which included the following: 12 wks 3 d·wk−1 ET (n = 15; 50–60 min cycling; 80% HRmax), SIT (4–10 × 30 s sprint efforts) with passive (P-SIT; n = 15) or active recovery (A-SIT; n = 15); or nonexercise control condition (CON; n = 14). Changes in cardiorespiratory fitness, whole-body and visceral fat mass, and plasma systemic inflammation were examined. Results. Compared to CON, significant increases in interpolated power output (P-SIT, P < 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.041) and test duration (P-SIT, P = 0.001; ET, P = 0.012; A-SIT, P = 0.046) occurred after training. Final VO2 consumption was increased after P-SIT only (P < 0.001). Despite >90% exercise compliance, there was no change in whole-body or visceral fat mass or plasma inflammation (P > 0.05). Conclusion. In sedentary middle-aged men, SIT was a time-effective alternative to ET in facilitating conditioning responses yet was ineffective in altering body composition and plasma inflammation, and compared to passive recovery, evidenced diminished conditioning responses when employing active recovery. PMID:27777795

  11. Biochemical and hormonal changes in endurance trained volunteers during and after exposure to bed rest and chronic hyperhydration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zorbas, Y. G.; Naexu, K. A.; Yaroshenko, Y. N.

    2000-04-01

    The objective of this investigation was to assess the effect of a daily intake of fluid and salt supplementation on biochemical and hormonal changes in endurance trained volunteers aged 19-24 yrs during 30-day bed rest and during 15 days of post bed rest period. The studies were performed on 30 long distance runners aged 19-24 yrs who had a peak oxygen uptake of 66 ml/kg/min and had taken 14.5 km/day on average prior to their participation in the study. The volunteers were divided into three groups: the volunteers in the first group were under normal ambulatory conditions (control subjects); the second group subjected to bed rest alone unsupplemented (bed rested volunteers); the third group was submitted to bed rest and consumed daily 30 ml water/kg bodyweight and 0.1 g of sodium chloride (NaCl)/kg body weight (supplemented bed rested volunteers). The second and third groups of volunteers were kept under a rigorous bed rest regime for 30 days. During the pre bed rest period of 15 days, during the bed rest period of 30 days and during the post bed rest period of 15 days cyclic adenosine monophosphate, cyclic guanosine monophosphate, prostaglandins of pressor, prostaglandins depressor groups, renin activity in plasma and aldosterone in plasma and in urine were determined. We found that in bed rested volunteers without fluid and salt supplementation intake plasma renin activity and aldosterone in plasma and urine continued to increase during the bed rest period as plasma volume decreased. Moreover, in this group, cyclic nucleotides measured as an indicator of adrenosympathetic system activity increased and prostaglandins as local vasoactive substances decreased during the bed rest period. These variables returned toward the baselines in the post bed rest period as plasma volume deficit was restituted. On the other hand, the hormonal levels in the other two groups remained rather constant during the experimental period. We concluded that daily intake of fluid and salt

  12. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans and Veterans with Covered Service in Korea-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance, Termination, and Resources § 21.8284 Additional vocational... change that occurred after the child achieved a vocational goal under this subpart now prevents the...

  13. Role of Thermal Factors on Aerobic Capacity Improvements With Endurance Training

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-01-01

    intracellular homeostasis that occurs during trained by cycle-ergometer exercise at 60% of maximal oxygen muscular activity as cellular metabolism generates en...17). These differences could cause adaptations in car- vastus lateralis citrate synthase activity increased by 38% with diac responses to exercise ...plasma volume expansion have also been observed to result from repeated heat exposure, and aerobic exercise adaptations; physical fitness; body tempera

  14. Effect of eight weeks of endurance exercise training on right and left ventricular volume and mass in untrained obese subjects: a longitudinal MRI study.

    PubMed

    Vogelsang, T W; Hanel, B; Kristoffersen, U S; Petersen, C L; Mehlsen, J; Holmquist, N; Larsson, B; Kjaer, A

    2008-06-01

    The aim of the present investigation was to examine how 8 weeks of intense endurance training influenced right and left ventricular volumes and mass in obese untrained subjects. Ten overweight subjects (19-47 years; body mass index of 34+/-5 kg/m(2)) underwent intensive endurance training (rowing) three times 30 min/week for 8 weeks at a relative intensity of 72+/-8% of their maximal heart rate response (mean+/-SD). Before and after 8 weeks of endurance training, the left and the right end-diastolic volume (EDV), end-systolic volume (ESV), ejection fraction (EF), stroke volume (SV) and ventricular mass (VM) were measured by Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Submaximal heart rate decreased from 126+/-5 to 113+/-3 b.p.m. (10%; P<0.01), and from 155+/-5 to 141+/-4 b.p.m. (9%; P<0.001) at submaximal workloads of 70 and 140 W (110 W for women), respectively (mean+/-SEM). Resting ventricular parameters increased significantly: left ventricular SV, EDV and VM increased by 6%, 7% and 13%, respectively (P<0.01). The right side of the heart showed significant changes in SV, EDV and VM with increase of 4%, 4% and 12%, respectively (P<0.05). Eight weeks of endurance training significantly increased left ventricular SV and right ventricular SV, due to an increase in left ventricular EDV and right ventricular EDV. Furthermore, left VM and right VM increased. We conclude that using MRI and a longitudinal design it was possible to demonstrate similar and balanced changes in the right and left ventricle in response to training.

  15. Genomic and transcriptomic predictors of response levels to endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Sarzynski, Mark A; Ghosh, Sujoy; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-05-28

    Predicting the responsiveness to regular exercise is a topic of great relevance due to its potential role in personalized exercise medicine applications. The present review focuses on cardiorespiratory fitness (commonly measured by maximal oxygen uptake, V̇O2 max ), a trait with wide-ranging impact on health and performance indicators. Gains in V̇O2 max demonstrate large inter-individual variation even in response to standardized exercise training programmes. The estimated ΔVO2 max heritability of 47% suggests that genomic-based predictors alone are insufficient to account for the total trainability variance. Candidate gene and genome-wide linkage studies have not significantly contributed to our understanding of the molecular basis of trainability. A genome-wide association study suggested that V̇O2 max trainability is influenced by multiple genes of small effects, but these findings still await rigorous replication. Valuable evidence, however, has been obtained by combining skeletal muscle transcript abundance profiles with common DNA variants for the prediction of the V̇O2 max response to exercise training. Although the physiological determinants of V̇O2 max measured at a given time are largely enunciated, what is poorly understood are the details of tissue-specific molecular mechanisms that limit V̇O2 max and related signalling pathways in response to exercise training. Bioinformatics explorations based on thousands of variants have been used to interrogate pathways and systems instead of single variants and genes, and the main findings, along with those from exercise experimental studies, have been summarized here in a working model of V̇O2 max trainability.

  16. Class@Baikal: the Endurance of the UNESCO Training-Through-Research Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mazzini, A.; Akhmanov, G.; Khlystov, O.; Tokarev, M.; Korost, D. V.; Poort, J.; Fokina, A.; Giliazetdinova, D. R.; Yurchenko, A.; Vodopyanov, S.

    2014-12-01

    In July 2014, by the initiative of the Moscow State University and Limnological Institute of Russian Academy of Sciences, the first Training-through-Research Class@Baikal was launched in Lake Baikal, Russia. The cruise program focused on seafloor sampling and acoustic investigations of gas seeps, flares, mud volcanoes, slumps and debris flows, canyons and channels in the coastal proximity. A comprehensive multidisciplinary program to train students has been developed to cover sedimentology, fluid geochemistry, biology, geophysics and marine geology in general. Daily lectures were conducted on board by academics presenting pertinent research projects, and cruise planning and preliminary results were discussed with all the scientific crew. A daily blog with updates on the expedition activities, images, and ongoing cruise results, was also completed (i.e. visit the cruise blog: http://baikal.festivalnauki.ru/) and gave the opportunity to interact with experts as well as attract the interest also of a broader audience. This project is a follow up to the well-established UNESCO Training-through-Research (TTR) Floating University Programme (http://floatinguniversity.ru/) that covered large areas on the European and arctic margins since 1991 with 18 research cruises attended by about 1000 BSc, MSc and PhD students from Europe, Asia, Africa and America. The crucial goal of both programmes is the training of new generations of scientists through active research directly on the field. Students can access the collected data and samples for their Master and PhD projects. Typically an extensive set of analyses and data processing is completed in-house and the results and interpretations are presented at post cruise meetings and international conferences. The Baikal lake is 25 million years old rift zone and provides a large variety of active geological features that can be easily reached at daily sailing distance. This represents an extraordinary opportunity to switch and focus

  17. High intensity interval and endurance training have opposing effects on markers of heart failure and cardiac remodeling in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Simpson, Jeremy A; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05), and promoted a 20% (P<0.05) increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05), and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05). In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05) and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05). HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05), in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease.

  18. High Intensity Interval and Endurance Training Have Opposing Effects on Markers of Heart Failure and Cardiac Remodeling in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Holloway, Tanya M.; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L.; Simpson, Jeremy A.; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L.

    2015-01-01

    There has been re-emerging interest and significant work dedicated to investigating the metabolic effects of high intensity interval training (HIIT) in recent years. HIIT is considered to be a time efficient alternative to classic endurance training (ET) that elicits similar metabolic responses in skeletal muscle. However, there is a lack of information on the impact of HIIT on cardiac muscle in disease. Therefore, we determined the efficacy of ET and HIIT to alter cardiac muscle characteristics involved in the development of diastolic dysfunction, such as ventricular hypertrophy, fibrosis and angiogenesis, in a well-established rodent model of hypertension-induced heart failure before the development of overt heart failure. ET decreased left ventricle fibrosis by ~40% (P < 0.05), and promoted a 20% (P<0.05) increase in the left ventricular capillary/fibre ratio, an increase in endothelial nitric oxide synthase protein (P<0.05), and a decrease in hypoxia inducible factor 1 alpha protein content (P<0.05). In contrast, HIIT did not decrease existing fibrosis, and HIIT animals displayed a 20% increase in left ventricular mass (P<0.05) and a 20% decrease in cross sectional area (P<0.05). HIIT also increased brain natriuretic peptide by 50% (P<0.05), in the absence of concomitant angiogenesis, strongly suggesting pathological cardiac remodeling. The current data support the longstanding belief in the effectiveness of ET in hypertension. However, HIIT promoted a pathological adaptation in the left ventricle in the presence of hypertension, highlighting the need for further research on the widespread effects of HIIT in the presence of disease. PMID:25803693

  19. "Functional" Respiratory Muscle Training During Endurance Exercise Causes Modest Hypoxemia but Overall is Well Tolerated.

    PubMed

    Granados, Jorge; Gillum, Trevor L; Castillo, Weston; Christmas, Kevin M; Kuennen, Matthew R

    2016-03-01

    A novel commercial training mask purportedly allows for combined respiratory muscle training and altitude exposure during exercise. We examined the mask's ability to deliver on this claim. Ten men completed three bouts of treadmill exercise at a matched workload (60%VO2peak) in a controlled laboratory environment. During exercise, the mask was worn in 2 manufacturer-defined settings (9,000 ft [9K] and 15,000 ft [15K]) and a Sham configuration (∼3,500 ft). Ventilation (V(E)), tidal volume (V(T)), respiratory rate (R(R)), expired oxygen (F(E)O2) and carbon dioxide (F(E)CO2), peripheral oxygen saturation (S(P)O2), heart rate, and RPE were measured each minute during exercise, and subjects completed the Beck Anxiety Inventory (BAI) immediately after. The mask caused a reduction in V(E) of ∼20 L/min in both the 9K and 15K configurations (p < 0.001). This was due to a reduction in R(R) of ∼10 b·min, but not V(T), which was elevated by ∼250 ml (p < 0.001). F(E)O2 was reduced and F(E)CO2 was elevated above Sham in both 9K and 15K (p < 0.001). VO2 was not different across conditions (p = 0.210), but VCO2 trended lower at 9K (p = 0.093) and was reduced at 15K (p = 0.016). V(E)/VO2 was 18.3% lower than Sham at 9K and 19.2% lower at 15K. V(E)/VCO2 was 16.2% lower than Sham at 9K and 18.8% lower at 15K (all p < 0.001). Heart rate increased with exercise (p < 0.001) but was not different among conditions (p = 0.285). S(P)O2 averaged 94% in Sham, 91% at 9K, and 89% at 15K (p < 0.001). RPE and BAI were also higher in 9K and 15K (p < 0.010), but there was no difference among mask conditions. The training mask caused inadequate hyperventilation that led to arterial hypoxemia and psychological discomfort, but the magnitude of these responses were small and they did not vary across mask configurations.

  20. Leucine supplementation does not affect protein turnover and impairs the beneficial effects of endurance training on glucose homeostasis in healthy mice.

    PubMed

    Costa Júnior, José M; Rosa, Morgana R; Protzek, André O; de Paula, Flávia M; Ferreira, Sandra M; Rezende, Luiz F; Vanzela, Emerielle C; Zoppi, Cláudio C; Silveira, Leonardo R; Kettelhut, Isis C; Boschero, Antonio C; de Oliveira, Camila A M; Carneiro, Everardo M

    2015-04-01

    Endurance exercise training as well as leucine supplementation modulates glucose homeostasis and protein turnover in mammals. Here, we analyze whether leucine supplementation alters the effects of endurance exercise on these parameters in healthy mice. Mice were distributed into sedentary (C) and exercise (T) groups. The exercise group performed a 12-week swimming protocol. Half of the C and T mice, designated as the CL and TL groups, were supplemented with leucine (1.5 % dissolved in the drinking water) throughout the experiment. As well known, endurance exercise training reduced body weight and the retroperitoneal fat pad, increased soleus mass, increased VO2max, decreased muscle proteolysis, and ameliorated peripheral insulin sensitivity. Leucine supplementation had no effect on any of these parameters and worsened glucose tolerance in both CL and TL mice. In the soleus muscle of the T group, AS-160(Thr-642) (AKT substrate of 160 kDa) and AMPK(Thr-172) (AMP-Activated Protein Kinase) phosphorylation was increased by exercise in both basal and insulin-stimulated conditions, but it was reduced in TL mice with insulin stimulation compared with the T group. Akt phosphorylation was not affected by exercise but was lower in the CL group compared with the other groups. Leucine supplementation increased mTOR phosphorylation at basal conditions, whereas exercise reduced it in the presence of insulin, despite no alterations in protein synthesis. In trained groups, the total FoxO3a protein content and the mRNA for the specific isoforms E2 and E3 ligases were reduced. In conclusion, leucine supplementation did not potentiate the effects of endurance training on protein turnover, and it also reduced its positive effects on glucose homeostasis.

  1. Effect of three day bed-rest on circulatory and hormonal responses to active orthostatic test in endurance trained athletes and untrained subjects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kubala, P.; Smorawinski, J.; Kaciuba-Uscilko, H.; Nazar, K.; Bicz, B.; Greenleaf, J. E.

    1996-01-01

    Circulatory and hormonal parameters were measured in endurance-trained athletes and control subjects during orthostatic tolerance tests conducted prior to and after three days of bed rest. Heart rate and blood pressure changes due to bed rest appeared to be the same in both groups. Hormonal changes, however, were different between the two groups, with the athletes having decreased sympathoadrenal activity and increased plasma renin activity. Untrained subjects had changes in cortisol secretion only.

  2. Changes evaluated in soccer-specific power endurance either with or without a 10-week, in-season, intermittent, high-intensity training protocol.

    PubMed

    Siegler, Jason; Gaskill, Steven; Ruby, Brent

    2003-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in soccer-specific power endurance of 34 female high school soccer players throughout a season either with or without an intermittent, high-intensity exercise protocol. Thirty-four female high school soccer players were tested prior to the 2000 fall season and again 10 weeks later. The tests included an abridged 45-minute shuttle test (LIST), hydrostatic weighing, vertical jump, 20-m running-start sprint, and 30-second Wingate test. The experimental group (EG; n = 17, age 16.5 +/- 0.9 years) completed a 10-week in-season plyometric, resistive training, and high-intensity anaerobic program. The control group (n = 17, age 16.3 +/- 1.4 years) completed only traditional aerobic soccer conditioning. Statistical significance was set at alpha < 0.05. The experimental group showed significant improvements in the LIST (EG = delta 394 seconds +/- 124 seconds), 20-m sprint (EG = Delta-0.10 seconds +/- 0.10 seconds), increase in fat-free mass (EG = delta 1.14 kg +/- 1.22 kg), and decreases in fat mass (EG = Delta-1.40 kg +/- 1.47 kg) comparing pre- to postseason. This study indicates that a strength and plyometric program improved power endurance and speed over aerobic training only. Soccer-specific power endurance training may improve match performance and decrease fatigue in young female soccer players.

  3. Impact of iron depletion without anemia on performance in trained endurance athletes at the beginning of a training season: a study of female collegiate rowers.

    PubMed

    DellaValle, Diane M; Haas, Jere D

    2011-12-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the impact of iron depletion without anemia on performance in a sample of female collegiate rowers at the beginning of a training season (August 2008, January 2009, and September 2009). One hundred sixty-five female collegiate rowers from 5 colleges and universities in central New York State participated in a screening of iron status. Blood hemoglobin (Hgb), serum ferritin (sFer), and soluble transferrin receptor were measured to determine prevalence of iron depletion and anemia. Rowers' habitual moderate and vigorous physical activity, as well as their best time to complete a 2-km simulated race during the previous 3 months, were self-reported. Sixteen rowers (10%) were identified as anemic (Hgb <12.0 g/dl). Using a sFer cutoff of <20.0 μg/L, 30% (n = 44) of the nonanemic rowers were identified as iron depleted without anemia and reported 2-km times ~21 s slower (p < .004) than rowers with normal iron status. Given the high prevalence of iron depletion reported in this and other studies, screening for low iron stores at the start of a training program in female athletes involved in an endurance sport may be clinically useful. In this study, iron-depleted rowers (sFer <20-25 μg/L) reported a decrease in performance time compared with those with normal iron stores.

  4. Altered response of protein synthesis to nutritional state and endurance training in old rats.

    PubMed

    Mosoni, L; Valluy, M C; Serrurier, B; Prugnaud, J; Obled, C; Guezennec, C Y; Mirand, P P

    1995-02-01

    This study was undertaken to determine whether the loss of muscle protein mass during aging could be explained by a reduced sensitivity of muscle protein synthesis to feeding and exercise. Male Wistar rats aged 12 and 24 mo were exercised by treadmill running for 4 mo. Protein synthesis was measured by the flooding dose method in tibialis anterior, soleus, and liver of conscious rested, trained rats and age-matched controls in the postprandial or in the postabsorptive state. No marked change with age could be detected in basal muscle protein synthesis. In contrast, protein synthesis was stimulated in adult but not in old rats by feeding in tibialis anterior and by exercise in soleus. In liver, protein synthesis was not modified by age but was stimulated by feeding and by exercise, which improved the response to feeding. We conclude that the impact of nutrition on muscle protein synthesis is blunted in old age, which could contribute to the age-related loss of nutrition-sensitive muscle proteins.

  5. The Effect of Short and Long Term Endurance Training on Systemic, and Muscle and Prefrontal Cortex Tissue Oxygen Utilisation in 40 – 60 Year Old Women

    PubMed Central

    Lovell, Geoff P.; Askew, Christopher D.; Kerhervé, Hugo; Solomon, Colin

    2016-01-01

    Purpose Aerobic endurance training (ET) increases systemic and peripheral oxygen utilisation over time, the adaptation pattern not being linear. However, the timing and mechanisms of changes in oxygen utilisation, associated with training beyond one year are not known. This study tested the hypothesis that in women aged 40–60 years performing the same current training load; systemic O2 utilisation (VO2) and tissue deoxyhaemoglobin (HHb) in the Vastus Lateralis (VL) and Gastrocnemius (GAST) would be higher in long term trained (LTT; > 5 yr) compared to a short term trained (STT; 6–24 months) participants during ramp incremental (RI) cycling, but similar during square-wave constant load (SWCL) cycling performed at the same relative intensity (below ventilatory turn point [VTP]); and that pre-frontal cortex (PFC) HHb would be similar between participant groups in both exercise conditions. Methods Thirteen STT and 13 LTT participants performed RI and SWCL conditions on separate days. VO2, and VL, GAST, and PFC HHb were measured simultaneously. Results VO2peak was higher in LTT compared to STT, and VO2 was higher in LTT at each relative intensities of 25%, 80% and 90% of VTP in SWCL. HHb in the VL was significantly higher in LTT compared to STT at peak exercise (4.54 ± 3.82 vs 1.55 ± 2.33 μM), and at 25% (0.99 ± 1.43 vs 0.04 ± 0.96 μM), 80% (3.19 ± 2.93 vs 1.14 ± 1.82 μM) and 90% (4.62 ± 3.12 vs 2.07 ± 2.49 μM) of VTP in SWCL. Conclusions The additional (12.9 ± 9.3) years of ET in LTT, resulted in higher VO2, and HHb in the VL at peak exercise, and sub—VTP exercise. These results indicate that in women 40–60 years old, systemic and muscle O2 utilisation continues to improve with ET beyond two years. PMID:27832088

  6. Functional adaptations in the skeletal muscle microvasculature to endurance and interval sprint training in the type 2 diabetic OLETF rat.

    PubMed

    Martin, Jeffrey S; Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Crissey, Jacqueline M; Bender, Shawn B; Rector, R Scott; Thyfault, John P; Laughlin, M Harold

    2012-10-15

    Prevention and treatment of type 2 diabetes includes recommendation to perform aerobic exercise, but evidence indicates that high-intensity exercise training may confer greater benefit. Unique motor recruitment patterns during exercise elicit spatially focused increases in blood flow and subsequent adaptations. Therefore, using 20-wk-old Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima fatty (OLETF) rats with advanced insulin resistance, we examined whether 12 wk of exercise protocols that elicit different motor unit recruitment patterns, endurance exercise (EndEx), and interval sprint training (IST) induce spatially differential effects on endothelial-dependent dilation to acetylcholine (ACh; 1 nM-100 μM) and vasoreactivity to insulin (1-1,000 μIU/ml) in isolated, pressurized skeletal muscle resistance arterioles. Compared with sedentary OLETF rats, EndEx enhanced sensitivity to ACh in second-order arterioles perfusing the "red" (G2A-R) and "white" (G2A-W) portions of the gastrocnemius (EC(50): +36.0 and +31.7%, respectively), whereas IST only increased sensitivity to ACh in the G2A-R (+35.5%). Significant heterogeneity in the vasomotor response to insulin was observed between EndEx and IST as mean endothelin-1 contribution in EndEx was 27.3 ± 7.6 and 25.9 ± 11.0% lower in the G2A-R and G2A-W, respectively. These microvascular effects of exercise were observed in conjunction with training-related improvements in glycemic control (HbA1c: 6.84 ± 0.23, 5.39 ± 0.06, and 5.30 ± 0.14% in sedentary, EndEx, and IST, respectively). In summary, this study provides novel evidence that treatment of advanced insulin resistance in the OLETF rat with exercise paradigms that elicit diverse motor recruitment patterns produce differential adaptive responses in endothelial-dependent dilation and in the complex vascular actions of insulin.

  7. Effects of Six Weeks Endurance Training and Aloe Vera Supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF Levels in Mice with Breast Cancer

    PubMed

    Shirali, Saeed; Barari, Alireza; Hosseini, Seyed Ahmad; Khodadi, Elaheh

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine effects of six weeks endurance training and Aloe Vera supplementation on COX-2 and VEGF levels in mice with breast cancer. For this purpose, 35 rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: control (healthy) and 4 cancer groups: control (cancer only), training, Aloe Vera and Aloe Vera + training. Breast cancer tumors were generated in mice by implantind. The training program comprised six weeks of swimming training accomplished in three sessions per week. Training time started with 10 minutes on the first day and increased to 60 minutes in the second week and the water flow rate was increased from 7 to 15 liters per minute at a constant rate. Aloe Vera extract at a dose of 300 mg/kg BW was administrated to rats by intraperitoneal injection. At the end of the study period, rats were anesthetized and blood samples were taken. Significant differences were concluded at p<0.05 with Kolmogorov-Smirnov and Tukey tests to analyze the data. The results showed significant increase in levels of serum. COX-2 and VEGF levels in the cancer group compared with the healthy group. Administration of Aloe Vera extract caused significant decrease in the COX-2 level in the cancer group. Also, in the training (swimming exercise) and Aloe Vera + training cancer groups, we observed significant decrease in the VEGF level as compared to controls. Our results suggest that Aloe Vera and training inhibit the COX pathway and cause decrease production of prostaglandin E2. Hence administration of Aloe Vera in combination with endurance training might synergistically improve the host milieu in mice bearing breast cancers.

  8. Effects of Endurance Training on Heat-Exercise Tolerance in Men Wearing NBC Protective Clothing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-08-01

    carried on the head, hands, or feet. J Appl Physiol 27:687-690 39. Taylor NAS (1986) Eccrine sweat glands: adaptations to UNCLASSIFIED UNCLASSIFIED 22...environments. The additional strains imposed by protective clothing arise mainly because it is difficult for sweat to evaporate through relatively...include improved physical fitness, increased sweating , and expanded plasma volume. However, it is unclear whether such responses develop and/or are

  9. Twelve Weeks of Sprint Interval Training Improves Indices of Cardiometabolic Health Similar to Traditional Endurance Training despite a Five-Fold Lower Exercise Volume and Time Commitment

    PubMed Central

    Martin, Brian J.; MacInnis, Martin J.; Skelly, Lauren E.; Tarnopolsky, Mark A.; Gibala, Martin J.

    2016-01-01

    Aims We investigated whether sprint interval training (SIT) was a time-efficient exercise strategy to improve insulin sensitivity and other indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional moderate-intensity continuous training (MICT). SIT involved 1 minute of intense exercise within a 10-minute time commitment, whereas MICT involved 50 minutes of continuous exercise per session. Methods Sedentary men (27±8y; BMI = 26±6kg/m2) performed three weekly sessions of SIT (n = 9) or MICT (n = 10) for 12 weeks or served as non-training controls (n = 6). SIT involved 3x20-second ‘all-out’ cycle sprints (~500W) interspersed with 2 minutes of cycling at 50W, whereas MICT involved 45 minutes of continuous cycling at ~70% maximal heart rate (~110W). Both protocols involved a 2-minute warm-up and 3-minute cool-down at 50W. Results Peak oxygen uptake increased after training by 19% in both groups (SIT: 32±7 to 38±8; MICT: 34±6 to 40±8ml/kg/min; p<0.001 for both). Insulin sensitivity index (CSI), determined by intravenous glucose tolerance tests performed before and 72 hours after training, increased similarly after SIT (4.9±2.5 to 7.5±4.7, p = 0.002) and MICT (5.0±3.3 to 6.7±5.0 x 10−4 min-1 [μU/mL]-1, p = 0.013) (p<0.05). Skeletal muscle mitochondrial content also increased similarly after SIT and MICT, as primarily reflected by the maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS; P<0.001). The corresponding changes in the control group were small for VO2peak (p = 0.99), CSI (p = 0.63) and CS (p = 0.97). Conclusions Twelve weeks of brief intense interval exercise improved indices of cardiometabolic health to the same extent as traditional endurance training in sedentary men, despite a five-fold lower exercise volume and time commitment. PMID:27115137

  10. The effect of endurance training on the relationships between sex hormone binding globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, apoprotein A1 and physical fitness in pre-menopausal women with mild obesity.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, S; Shono, N; Kondo, Y; Nishizumi, M

    1994-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the relationships of change in high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) with changes in sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG), physical fitness and spontaneous dietary intake before and after endurance training. Ten pre-menopausal obese women (32 to 49 years) who had never smoked or regularly drunk alcohol participated in this study. Physical training at an intensity of lactate threshold was performed for six months at a frequency of three times per week for 60 minutes using a cycle ergometer. Together with a reduction in body weight (-4.1 kg; P < 0.05) and with increases in maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max = +3.4 ml/kg/min or +0.09 l/min; P < 0.05), the training induced some changes in both plasma lipid and lipoprotein. Although the total cholesterol (total-C), triglyceride, HDL2-C and apoprotein A1 (Apo A1) levels did not change, significant increases in HDL-C and HDL3-C, and significant reductions in Apo B, total-C/HDL-C ratio and fasting insulin concentrations were found after training. SHBG levels tended to increase after endurance training, but the changes were not significant. No alteration was observed in spontaneous dietary intake after training. A significant correlation (r = 0.648) was observed between the change in VO2 max(l/min) and the change in SHBG. In addition, changes in both VO2 max(l/min) and SHBG were significantly associated with changes in HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1. The changes in dietary intake did not correlate with the changes in SHBG, VO2max, HDL-C, HDL2-C and Apo A1.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  11. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress - A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes.

    PubMed

    Pokora, Ilona; Żebrowska, Aleksandra

    2016-04-01

    The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI). Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH) conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD), twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT) and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h(-1) which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h(-1) to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI) and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group - 70%). The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT) despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations.

  12. Application of A Physiological Strain Index in Evaluating Responses to Exercise Stress – A Comparison Between Endurance and High Intensity Intermittent Trained Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Żebrowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The study evaluated differences in response to exercise stress between endurance and high-intensity intermittent trained athletes in a thermoneutral environment using a physiological strain index (PSI). Thirty-two subjects participated in a running exercise under normal (23°C, 50% RH) conditions. The group included nine endurance trained athletes (middle-distance runners - MD), twelve high-intensity intermittent trained athletes (soccer players - HIIT) and eleven students who constituted a control group. The exercise started at a speed of 4 km·h–1 which was increased every 3 min by 2 km·h–1 to volitional exhaustion. The heart rate was recorded with a heart rate monitor and aural canal temperature was measured using an aural canal temperature probe. The physiological strain index (PSI) and the contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the overall physiological strain were calculated from the heart rate and aural canal temperature. The physiological strain index differed between the study and control participants, but not between the MD and HIIT groups. The physiological strain in response to exercise stress in a thermoneutral environment was mainly determined based on the circulatory strain (MD group - 73%, HIIT group – 70%). The contribution of the circulatory and thermal components to the physiological strain did not differ significantly between the trained groups (MD and HIIT) despite important differences in morphological characteristics and training-induced systemic cardiovascular and thermoregulatory adaptations. PMID:28149347

  13. High-intensity interval and endurance training are associated with divergent skeletal muscle adaptations in a rodent model of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Holloway, Tanya M; Bloemberg, Darin; da Silva, Mayne L; Quadrilatero, Joe; Spriet, Lawrence L

    2015-06-01

    Skeletal muscle is extremely adaptable to a variety of metabolic challenges, as both traditional moderate-intensity endurance (ET) and high-intensity interval training (HIIT) increases oxidative potential in a coordinated manner. Although these responses have been clearly demonstrated in healthy individuals, it remains to be determined whether both produce similar responses in the context of hypertension, one of the most prevalent and costly diseases worldwide. Therefore, in the current study, we used the Dahl sodium-sensitive rat, a model of hypertension, to determine the molecular responses to 4 wk of either ET or HIIT in the red (RG) and white gastrocnemius (WG) muscles. In the RG, both ET and HIIT increased the content of electron transport chain proteins and increased succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) content in type I fibers. Although both intensities of exercise shifted fiber type in RG (increased IIA, decreased IIX), only HIIT was associated with a reduction in endothelial nitric oxide synthase and an increase in HIF-1α proteins. In the WG, both ET and HIIT increased markers of the electron transport chain; however, HIIT decreased SDH content in a fiber-specific manner. ET increased type IIA, decreased IIB fibers, and increased capillarization, while, in contrast, HIIT increased the percentage of IIB fibers, decreased capillary-to-fiber ratios, decreased endothelial nitric oxide synthase, and increased hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein. Altogether, these data show that unlike in healthy animals, ET and HIIT have divergent effects in the skeletal muscle of hypertensive rats. This suggests ET may be optimal at improving the oxidative capacity of skeletal muscle in animals with hypertension.

  14. Effect of increased and maintained frequency of speed endurance training on performance and muscle adaptations in runners.

    PubMed

    Skovgaard, Casper; Almquist, Nicki Winfield; Bangsbo, Jens

    2017-01-01

    The aim of the study was, in runners accustomed to speed endurance training (SET), to examine the effect of increased and maintained frequency of SET on performance and muscular adaptations. After familiarization (FAM) to SET, 18 male (n = 14) and female (n = 4) runners (V̇o2max: 57.3 ± 3.4 ml/min; means ± SD) completed 20 sessions of maintained low-frequency (LF; every fourth day; n = 7) or high-frequency (HF; every second day; n = 11) SET. Before FAM as well as before and after an intervention period (INT), subjects completed a series of running tests and a biopsy from m. vastus lateralis was collected. Ten-kilometer performance improved (P < 0.05) ~3.5% during FAM with no further change during INT. Time to exhaustion at 90% vV̇o2max was 15 and 22% longer (P < 0.05) during FAM and a further 12 and 16% longer (P < 0.05) during INT in HF and LF, respectively. During FAM, muscle expression of NHE1 and maximal activity of citrate synthase (CS) and phosphofructokinase (PFK) increased (P < 0.05), running economy (RE) improved (P < 0.05), and V̇o2max was unchanged. During INT, both HF and LF increased (P < 0.05) muscle expression of NKAβ1, whereas maximal activity of CS and PFK, RE, and V̇o2max were unchanged. Furthermore, during INT, muscle expression of FXYD1 and SERCA1, and FXYD1 activity increased (P < 0.05) in HF, while muscle expression of SERCA2 decreased (P < 0.05) in LF. Thus increased or maintained frequency of SET leads to further improvements in short-term exercise capacity, but not in 10-km running performance. The better short-term exercise capacity may be associated with elevated expression of muscle proteins related to Na(+)/K(+) transportation and Ca(2+) reuptake.

  15. Effects of in-season low-volume high-intensity plyometric training on explosive actions and endurance of young soccer players.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Campillo, Rodrigo; Meylan, César; Alvarez, Cristian; Henríquez-Olguín, Carlos; Martínez, Cristian; Cañas-Jamett, Rodrigo; Andrade, David C; Izquierdo, Mikel

    2014-05-01

    Integrating specific training methods to improve explosive actions and endurance in youth soccer is an essential part of players' development. This study investigated the efficiency of short-term vertical plyometric training program within soccer practice to improve both explosive actions and endurance in young soccer players. Seventy-six players were recruited and assigned either to a training group (TG; n = 38; 13.2 ± 1.8 years) or a control group (CG; n = 38; 13.2 ± 1.8 years) group. All players trained twice per week, but the TG followed a 7-week plyometric program implemented within soccer practice, whereas the CG followed regular practice. Twenty-meter sprint time (20-m), Illinois agility test time, countermovement jump (CMJ) height, 20- (RSI20) and 40- (RSI40) cm drop jump reactive strength index, multiple 5 bounds distance (MB5), maximal kicking test for distance (MKD), and 2.4-km time trial were measured before and after the 7-week period. Plyometric training induced significant (p ≤ 0.05) and small to moderate standardized effect (SE) improvement in the CMJ (4.3%; SE = 0.20), RSI20 (22%; SE = 0.57), RSI40 (16%; SE = 0.37), MB5 (4.1%; SE = 0.28), Illinois agility test time (-3.5%, SE = -0.26), MKD (14%; SE = 0.53), 2.4-km time trial (-1.9%; SE = -0.27) performances but had a trivial and nonsignificant effect on 20-m sprint time (-0.4%; SE = -0.03). No significant improvements were found in the CG. An integrated vertical plyometric program within the regular soccer practice can substitute soccer drills to improve most explosive actions and endurance, but horizontal exercises should also be included to enhance sprinting performance.

  16. Endurance exercise training programs intestinal lipid metabolism in a rat model of obesity and type 2 diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Hung, Yu‐Han; Linden, Melissa A.; Gordon, Alicia; Scott Rector, R.; Buhman, Kimberly K.

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Endurance exercise has been shown to improve metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the physiological and molecular mechanisms for these benefits are not completely understood. Although endurance exercise has been shown to decrease lipogenesis, promote fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and increase mitochondrial biosynthesis in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver, its effects on intestinal lipid metabolism remain unknown. The absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, mediate the highly efficient absorption and processing of nutrients, including dietary fat for delivery throughout the body. We investigated how endurance exercise altered intestinal lipid metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long‐Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. We assessed mRNA levels of genes associated with intestinal lipid metabolism in nonhyperphagic, sedentary Long‐Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (L‐Sed), hyperphagic, sedentary OLETF rats (O‐Sed), and endurance exercised OLETF rats (O‐EndEx). O‐Sed rats developed hyperphagia‐induced obesity (HIO) and type 2 diabetes compared with L‐Sed rats. O‐EndEx rats gained significantly less weight and fat pad mass, and had improved serum metabolic parameters without change in food consumption compared to O‐Sed rats. Endurance exercise resulted in dramatic up‐regulation of a number of genes in intestinal lipid metabolism and mitochondrial content compared with sedentary rats. Overall, this study provides evidence that endurance exercise programs intestinal lipid metabolism, likely contributing to its role in improving metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes. PMID:25602012

  17. Endurance exercise training programs intestinal lipid metabolism in a rat model of obesity and type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Hung, Yu-Han; Linden, Melissa A; Gordon, Alicia; Rector, R Scott; Buhman, Kimberly K

    2015-01-01

    Endurance exercise has been shown to improve metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes; however, the physiological and molecular mechanisms for these benefits are not completely understood. Although endurance exercise has been shown to decrease lipogenesis, promote fatty acid oxidation (FAO), and increase mitochondrial biosynthesis in adipose tissue, muscle, and liver, its effects on intestinal lipid metabolism remain unknown. The absorptive cells of the small intestine, enterocytes, mediate the highly efficient absorption and processing of nutrients, including dietary fat for delivery throughout the body. We investigated how endurance exercise altered intestinal lipid metabolism in obesity and type 2 diabetes using Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. We assessed mRNA levels of genes associated with intestinal lipid metabolism in nonhyperphagic, sedentary Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats (L-Sed), hyperphagic, sedentary OLETF rats (O-Sed), and endurance exercised OLETF rats (O-EndEx). O-Sed rats developed hyperphagia-induced obesity (HIO) and type 2 diabetes compared with L-Sed rats. O-EndEx rats gained significantly less weight and fat pad mass, and had improved serum metabolic parameters without change in food consumption compared to O-Sed rats. Endurance exercise resulted in dramatic up-regulation of a number of genes in intestinal lipid metabolism and mitochondrial content compared with sedentary rats. Overall, this study provides evidence that endurance exercise programs intestinal lipid metabolism, likely contributing to its role in improving metabolic outcomes in obesity and type 2 diabetes.

  18. Effects of a fixed-intensity of endurance training and pistacia atlantica supplementation on ATP-binding cassette G4 expression

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Adenosine triphosphate-cassette binding protein (ABC) type G is considered as a part of reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) process in modification and metabolism of plasma and tissue cholesterol. This study aims to evaluate the effect of endurance training with or without Pistacia atlantica (Baneh) supplementation on the female rat tissues ABC type G expression and its correlation with plasma high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) concentration. Methods Twenty Wistar rats (six to eight weeks old, 125–135 g weight) were arbitrarily allocated into training (n = 10) and control (n = 10) groups and further divided into saline-control (n = 5), saline-training (n = 5), Baneh-control (n = 5), and Baneh-training (n = 5). The training groups were given exercise on a motor-driven treadmill at 25 m/min (0% grade) for 60 min/day, 5 days/week for eight weeks. The rats were fed orally with Baneh extract and saline for six weeks. Seventy-two hours after the last training session, the rats were sacrificed and their tissues were excised for tissues ABCG4 expression which was detected by Real-time PCR method. Results The ABCG4 gene expressions were significantly higher in liver (P = 02), small intestine (P = 06), and visceral fat tissues (P = 04) of the trained rats compared to the tissues of the control rats, but were lower in Baneh treated rats (liver P = 045, small intestine P = 06 and visceral fat P = 004) with lower HDL-C concentrations (P = 008). Conclusions The Baneh administration lowered tissues ABCG4 expression and plasma HDL-C concentrations while endurance training increased the expression in female rat tissues. PMID:24267473

  19. Increased Nitric Oxide-Mediated Vasodilation of Bone Resistance Arteries Is Associated With Increased Trabecular Bone Volume After Endurance Training In Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dominguez, James M.; Prisby, Rhonda D.; Muller-Delp, Judy M.; Allen, Matthew R.; Delp, Michael D.

    2009-01-01

    Old age-associated osteoporosis is related to diminished bone blood flow and impaired nitric oxide (NO)-mediated vasodilation of the bone vasculature. Endurance exercise training restores the age-associated reduction of vasodilation in numerous vascular beds, as well as improving bone properties. The purpose of this study was to determine whether functional improvements in the bone vasculature are associated with increased bone properties after an endurance training intervention. Young adult (4–6mo) and old (24–26 mo) male Fischer-344 rats remained sedentary or were trained (15 m/min walking, 15° incline, 5 days/wk, 10–12 wk). Endothelium-dependent vasodilation of the femoral principal nutrient artery (PNA) was assessed in vitro using acetylcholine (ACh) and inhibitors of NO synthase (NOS) and cyclooxygenase (COX). PNA endothelium-dependent vasodilation was greater after training by 16% in young and by 24% in old animals. The NOS-mediated contribution to endothelium-dependent vasodilation was enhanced by 77% after training in old rats. Distal femur trabecular bone volume (BV/TV, %) was lower with old age in sedentary animals (young: 27±2%, old: 23±1%; P<0.05). Exercise-induced elevations in bone and marrow blood flow and the NOS signaling pathway were associated with greater BV/TV (young trained: 34±2%, old trained: 26±1%; P<0.05) relative to sedentary groups. These data demonstrate that training-induced increases in bone properties are associated with enhanced endothelium-dependent vasodilation through a NOS signaling pathway in the bone vasculature. PMID:19892040

  20. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 301.606-75 Additional Project Officer training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event... training requirements. 301.606-75 Section 301.606-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH...

  1. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 301.606-75 Additional Project Officer training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event... training requirements. 301.606-75 Section 301.606-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH...

  2. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 301.606-75 Additional Project Officer training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event... training requirements. 301.606-75 Section 301.606-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH...

  3. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 301.606-75 Additional Project Officer training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event... training requirements. 301.606-75 Section 301.606-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH...

  4. 48 CFR 301.606-75 - Additional Project Officer training requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... Responsibilities 301.606-75 Additional Project Officer training requirements. (a) See HHS' COTR Handbook for information on additional training requirements. (b) Training policy exceptions—(1) EVM training. In the event... training requirements. 301.606-75 Section 301.606-75 Federal Acquisition Regulations System HEALTH...

  5. Myocardial response to incremental exercise in endurance-trained athletes: influence of heart rate, contractility and the Frank-Starling effect.

    PubMed

    Warburton, Darren E R; Haykowsky, Mark J; Quinney, H Arthur; Blackmore, Derrick; Teo, Koon K; Humen, Dennis P

    2002-09-01

    Recent evidence indicates that endurance-trained athletes are able to increase their stroke volume (SV) throughout incremental upright exercise, probably due to a progressively greater effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism. This is contrary to the widely held belief that SV reaches a plateau at a submaximal heart rate (irrespective of fitness level), owing to a limitation in the time for diastolic filling. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate whether endurance-trained athletes rely on a progressively greater effect of the Frank-Starling mechanism throughout incremental exercise. A secondary purpose was to evaluate the effects of postural position on the cardiovascular responses to incremental exercise. Ten male cyclists participated in this investigation. Left ventricular function was assessed throughout incremental exercise in the supine and upright positions (counterbalanced) using radionuclide ventriculography. Stroke volume increased in a linear fashion during incremental exercise in both the upright and supine positions. The increases in cardiac output (Q) throughout incremental to maximal exercise (in both the supine and upright positions) were significantly related to changes in heart rate, myocardial contractility and the Frank-Starling mechanism. Percentage changes in end-diastolic volume and SV were significantly greater in the upright position versus the supine position, reflecting an increased reliance on the Frank-Starling effect to increase Q. We conclude from this investigation that highly trained endurance athletes are able to make progressively increasing usage of the Frank-Starling effect throughout incremental exercise. Postural position has a significant effect on the relative contribution of heart rate, myocardial contractility and the Frank-Starling mechanism to the increase in Q during exercise conditions.

  6. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-01-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel.

  7. Skeletal muscle Heat shock protein 60 increases after endurance training and induces peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 α1 expression

    PubMed Central

    Barone, Rosario; Macaluso, Filippo; Sangiorgi, Claudia; Campanella, Claudia; Marino Gammazza, Antonella; Moresi, Viviana; Coletti, Dario; Conway de Macario, Everly; Macario, Alberto JL; Cappello, Francesco; Adamo, Sergio; Farina, Felicia; Zummo, Giovanni; Di Felice, Valentina

    2016-01-01

    Heat shock protein 60 (Hsp60) is a chaperone localizing in skeletal muscle mitochondria, whose role is poorly understood. In the present study, the levels of Hsp60 in fibres of the entire posterior group of hindlimb muscles (gastrocnemius, soleus, and plantaris) were evaluated in mice after completing a 6-week endurance training program. The correlation between Hsp60 levels and the expression of four isoforms of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC1α) were investigated only in soleus. Short-term overexpression of hsp60, achieved by in vitro plasmid transfection, was then performed to determine whether this chaperone could have a role in the activation of the expression levels of PGC1α isoforms. The levels of Hsp60 protein were fibre-type specific in the posterior muscles and endurance training increased its content in type I muscle fibers. Concomitantly with the increased levels of Hsp60 released in the blood stream of trained mice, mitochondrial copy number and the expression of three isoforms of PGC1α increased. Overexpressing hsp60 in cultured myoblasts induced only the expression of PGC1 1α, suggesting a correlation between Hsp60 overexpression and PGC1 1 α activation. PMID:26812922

  8. Comparative changes in antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in cardiac, fast twitch and slow twitch skeletal muscles following endurance exercise training

    PubMed Central

    Hyatt, Hayden W; Smuder, Ashley J; Sollanek, Kurt J; Morton, Aaron B; Roberts, Michael D; Kavazis, Andreas N

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate exercise-induced transcriptional and protein responses of heart, soleus (slow oxidative), and plantaris (fast glycolytic) muscle in response to ten days of endurance exercise training. Four-month old female Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to either a sedentary (SED) or endurance exercise-training (EXE) group (n=8 per group). The heart, plantaris, and soleus were excised and used for biochemical analyses. Our results show that heart and plantaris from EXE animals had higher protein levels of superoxide dismutase 2 (SOD2) compared to SED animals (P<0.05). Also, the protein levels of catalase were higher in plantaris of EXE animals compared to SED animals (P<0.05). No significant differences existed for 4 hydroxynonenal (4HNE) conjugated proteins (index of oxidative damage) in the three tissues between SED and EXE animals. mRNA levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1 alpha (PGC-1α) were higher in plantaris of EXE animals compared to SED animals (P<0.05), and mRNA levels of estrogen-related receptor alpha (ERRα) were lower in the heart of EXE animals compared to SED animals. In conclusion, heart and plantaris are responsive to ten days of treadmill training, while greater exercise intensities or durations may be needed to elicit alterations in soleus. PMID:28078055

  9. Effect of endurance training on seizure susceptibility, behavioral changes and neuronal damage after kainate-induced status epilepticus in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Tchekalarova, J; Shishmanova, M; Atanasova, D; Stefanova, M; Alova, L; Lazarov, N; Georgieva, K

    2015-11-02

    The therapeutic efficacy of regular physical exercises in an animal model of epilepsy and depression comorbidity has been confirmed previously. In the present study, we examined the effects of endurance training on susceptibility to kainate (KA)-induced status epilepticus (SE), behavioral changes and neuronal damage in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs). Male SHRs were randomly divided into two groups. One group was exercised on a treadmill with submaximal loading for four weeks and the other group was sedentary. Immediately after the training period, SE was evoked in half of the sedentary and trained rats by KA, while the other half of the two groups received saline. Basal systolic (SP), diastolic (DP) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) of all rats were measured at the beginning and at the end of the training period. Anxiety, memory and depression-like behaviour were evaluated a month after SE. The release of 5-HT in the hippocampus was measured using a liquid scintillation method and neuronal damage was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. SP and MAP of exercised SHRs decreased in comparison with the initial values. The increased resistance of SHRs to KA-induced SE was accompanied by an elongated latent seizure-free period, improved object recognition memory and antidepressant effect after the training program. While the anticonvulsant and positive behavioral effects of endurance training were accompanied by an increase of 5-HT release in the hippocampus, it did not exert neuroprotective activity. Our results indicate that prior exercise is an effective means to attenuate KA-induced seizures and comorbid behavioral changes in a model of hypertension and epilepsy suggesting a potential influence of hippocampal 5-HT on a comorbid depression. However, this beneficial impact does not prevent the development of epilepsy and concomitant brain damage.

  10. Exhaustive endurance training for 6-9 weeks did not induce changes in intrinsic heart rate and cardiac autonomic modulation in female athletes.

    PubMed

    Uusitalo, A L; Uusitalo, A J; Rusko, H K

    1998-11-01

    We investigated the effects of progressively increased training load and overtraining on resting and intrinsic heart rate (IHR) and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM), and their relationships to performance variables. Nine athletes (ETG) increased training volume at 70-90% of maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max) by 130% (p<0.01) and training volume at <70% VO2max by 100% (p < 0.01) during 6-9 weeks. The corresponding increases in six female control athletes (CG) were 5 and 10%. Pharmacological blocking through atropine and propranolol and the Rosenblueth and Simeone model were used to calculate the sympathovagal balance index (Abal) and to measure IHR. The results were analysed using two-way analysis of variance. VO2max, IHR and Abal did not change. Resting heart rate had a tendency to decrease in the ETG and increase in the CG during the training period (interaction p < 0.01). Five ETG athletes demonstrated overtraining state (OA subgroup). Their VO2max (mean+/-SEM) decreased from 53.0+/-2.2 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) to 50.2+/-2.3 ml x kg(-1) x min(-1) (p < 0.01), but no changes in resting HR, IHR and Abal were found. A significant correlation between the baseline values of VO2max and the parasympathetic activity index was found (r=-0.59, p < 0.05). In conclusion, progressively increased training load and overtraining did not induce significant changes in intrinsic heart rate or cardiac autonomic modulation in female endurance athletes. Resting heart rate rather decreased with heavy endurance training and overtraining. High maximal oxygen uptake was correlated with high cardiac parasympathetic modulation.

  11. Laboratory endurance testing of a 25/75 sunflower oil-diesel fuel blend treated with fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Ziejewski, M.; Kaufman, K.R.; Tupa, R.C.

    1984-02-01

    The engine performance and durability effects of a barium smoke suppressant additive, Lubrizol 565, and an ashless polymeric additive, Lubrizol 552, in a 25-75 blend (v/v) of alkali refined sunflower oil with diesel fuel were investigated. The study was performed on a direct injected, turbocharged, and intercooled diesel engine. These additives were tested in an attempt to reduce carbon buildup problems observed while using an untreated 25-75 blend of sunflower oil and diesel fuel. Compared to the engine tests on the untreated 25-75 mixture, the barium smoke suppressant additive proved effective in cleaning the inside of injection nozzles (no needle sticking, no carbon build-up inside the orifices), reducing diesel exhaust smoke, and increasing engine power output. However, there was increased residue accumulation in the combustion chamber and on the exterior of the injection nozzle tips. The ashless dispersant additive also improved nozzle cleanliness but did not demonstrate any effect on engine power or cause excessive carbon buildup on the nozzle tips, top of the pistons, and cylinder head. The Lubrizol 552 dispersant looks very promising as an additive for vegetable oil diesel fuel blends for controlling excessive carbon and lacquer deposits.

  12. Nutrient Intake and Dietary Habits of Women Endurance Athletes.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wiseman, Juliet

    Dietary information was collected from a sample of women endurance athletes (n=16). Seven-day food intake records were taken using a semiweighted method. Questionnaires were used to obtain additional information on training, supplements, and attitudes toward diet. Notable features of the diets were a low average energy intake while mean intakes of…

  13. The anaerobic endurance of elite soccer players improved after a high-intensity training intervention in the 8-week conditioning program.

    PubMed

    Sporis, Goran; Ruzic, Lana; Leko, Goran

    2008-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate changes in anaerobic endurance in elite First-league soccer players throughout 2 consecutive seasons, in 2 phases, with and without high-intensity situational drills. Eighteen soccer players were tested before and after the 8-week summer conditioning and again in the next season. The measured variables included 300-yard shuttle run test, maximal heart rate, and maximal blood lactate at the end of the test. During the first phase of the study, the traditional sprint training was performed only 2 x weeks and consisted of 15 bouts of straight-line sprinting. In the second year the 4 x 4 min drills at an intensity of 90-95% of HRmax, separated by periods of 3-minute technical drills at 55-65% of HRmax were introduced. Statistical significance was set at P endurance as recorded in the 300-yard shuttle run test. After the intervention, the overall test running time improved significantly (55.74 +/- 1.63 s vs. 56.99 +/- 1.64 s; P < 0.05) with the maximal blood lactate at the end of the test significantly greater (15.4 +/- 1.23 mmol.L vs. 13.5 +/- 1.12 mmol.L. P < 0.01). As a result, this study showed some indication that situational high-intensity task training was more efficient than straight-line sprinting in improving anaerobic endurance measured by the 300-yard shuttle run test.

  14. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes.

    PubMed

    Rankinen, Tuomo; Fuku, Noriyuki; Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A; Alexeev, Dmitry G; Ahmetov, Ildus I; Boulay, Marcel R; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L; Garton, Fleur C; Generozov, Edward V; Govorun, Vadim M; Houweling, Peter J; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S; Kulemin, Nickolay A; Larin, Andrey K; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V; Pyankova, Olga N; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A; Uyba, Vladimir V; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  15. No Evidence of a Common DNA Variant Profile Specific to World Class Endurance Athletes

    PubMed Central

    Wolfarth, Bernd; Wang, Guan; Sarzynski, Mark A.; Alexeev, Dmitry G.; Ahmetov, Ildus I.; Boulay, Marcel R.; Cieszczyk, Pawel; Eynon, Nir; Filipenko, Maxim L.; Garton, Fleur C.; Generozov, Edward V.; Govorun, Vadim M.; Houweling, Peter J.; Kawahara, Takashi; Kostryukova, Elena S.; Kulemin, Nickolay A.; Larin, Andrey K.; Maciejewska-Karłowska, Agnieszka; Miyachi, Motohiko; Muniesa, Carlos A.; Murakami, Haruka; Ospanova, Elena A.; Padmanabhan, Sandosh; Pavlenko, Alexander V.; Pyankova, Olga N.; Santiago, Catalina; Sawczuk, Marek; Scott, Robert A.; Uyba, Vladimir V.; Yvert, Thomas; Perusse, Louis; Ghosh, Sujoy; Rauramaa, Rainer; North, Kathryn N.; Lucia, Alejandro; Pitsiladis, Yannis; Bouchard, Claude

    2016-01-01

    There are strong genetic components to cardiorespiratory fitness and its response to exercise training. It would be useful to understand the differences in the genomic profile of highly trained endurance athletes of world class caliber and sedentary controls. An international consortium (GAMES) was established in order to compare elite endurance athletes and ethnicity-matched controls in a case-control study design. Genome-wide association studies were undertaken on two cohorts of elite endurance athletes and controls (GENATHLETE and Japanese endurance runners), from which a panel of 45 promising markers was identified. These markers were tested for replication in seven additional cohorts of endurance athletes and controls: from Australia, Ethiopia, Japan, Kenya, Poland, Russia and Spain. The study is based on a total of 1520 endurance athletes (835 who took part in endurance events in World Championships and/or Olympic Games) and 2760 controls. We hypothesized that world-class athletes are likely to be characterized by an even higher concentration of endurance performance alleles and we performed separate analyses on this subsample. The meta-analysis of all available studies revealed one statistically significant marker (rs558129 at GALNTL6 locus, p = 0.0002), even after correcting for multiple testing. As shown by the low heterogeneity index (I2 = 0), all eight cohorts showed the same direction of association with rs558129, even though p-values varied across the individual studies. In summary, this study did not identify a panel of genomic variants common to these elite endurance athlete groups. Since GAMES was underpowered to identify alleles with small effect sizes, some of the suggestive leads identified should be explored in expanded comparisons of world-class endurance athletes and sedentary controls and in tightly controlled exercise training studies. Such studies have the potential to illuminate the biology not only of world class endurance performance but

  16. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability

    PubMed Central

    Goods, Paul S.R.; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J.; Gore, Christopher J.; Peeling, Peter

    2015-01-01

    To assess the impact of ‘top-up’ normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, ‘top-up’ training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this ‘top-up’ training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the ‘top-up’ training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points ‘Top-up’ repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players. The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.

  17. No Additional Benefit of Repeat-Sprint Training in Hypoxia than in Normoxia on Sea-Level Repeat-Sprint Ability.

    PubMed

    Goods, Paul S R; Dawson, Brian; Landers, Grant J; Gore, Christopher J; Peeling, Peter

    2015-09-01

    To assess the impact of 'top-up' normoxic or hypoxic repeat-sprint training on sea-level repeat-sprint ability, thirty team sport athletes were randomly split into three groups, which were matched in running repeat-sprint ability (RSA), cycling RSA and 20 m shuttle run performance. Two groups then performed 15 maximal cycling repeat-sprint training sessions over 5 weeks, in either normoxia (NORM) or hypoxia (HYP), while a third group acted as a control (CON). In the post-training cycling RSA test, both NORM (13.6%; p = 0.0001, and 8.6%; p = 0.001) and HYP (10.3%; p = 0.007, and 4.7%; p = 0.046) significantly improved overall mean and peak power output, respectively, whereas CON did not change (1.4%; p = 0.528, and -1.1%; p = 0.571, respectively); with only NORM demonstrating a moderate effect for improved mean and peak power output compared to CON. Running RSA demonstrated no significant between group differences; however, the mean sprint times improved significantly from pre- to post-training for CON (1.1%), NORM (1.8%), and HYP (2.3%). Finally, there were no group differences in 20 m shuttle run performance. In conclusion, 'top-up' training improved performance in a task-specific activity (i.e. cycling); however, there was no additional benefit of conducting this 'top-up' training in hypoxia, since cycle RSA improved similarly in both HYP and NORM conditions. Regardless, the 'top-up' training had no significant impact on running RSA, therefore the use of cycle repeat-sprint training should be discouraged for team sport athletes due to limitations in specificity. Key points'Top-up' repeat-sprint training performed on a cycle ergometer enhances cycle repeat-sprint ability compared to team sport training only in football players.The addition of moderate hypoxia to repeat-sprint training provides no additional performance benefits to sea-level repeat-sprint ability or endurance performance than normoxic repeat-sprint training.'Top-up' cycling repeat-sprint training

  18. Circulorespiratory Endurance.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Allsen, Philip E.

    1981-01-01

    Cardiovascular endurance is defined as the ability of the heart, lungs, and circulatory system to provide the cells of the body with the necessary substances to perform work for extended periods of time. People beginning such a program need to have an understanding of warming-up, intensity, duration, and frequency of an exercise program. (JN)

  19. The effect of 40-m repeated sprint training on maximum sprinting speed, repeated sprint speed endurance, vertical jump, and aerobic capacity in young elite male soccer players.

    PubMed

    Tønnessen, Espen; Shalfawi, Shaher A I; Haugen, Thomas; Enoksen, Eystein

    2011-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of 10 weeks' 40-m repeated sprint training program that does not involve strength training on sprinting speed and repeated sprint speed on young elite soccer players. Twenty young well-trained elite male soccer players of age (±SD) 16.4 (±0.9) years, body mass 67.2 (±9.1) kg, and stature 176.3 (±7.4) cm volunteered to participate in this study. All participants were tested on 40-m running speed, 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed, 20-m acceleration speed, 20-m top speed, countermovement jump (CMJ), and aerobic endurance (beep test). Participants were divided into training group (TG) (n = 10) and control group (CG) (n = 10). The study was conducted in the precompetition phase of the training program for the participants and ended 13 weeks before the start of the season; the duration of the precompetition period was 26 weeks. The TG followed a Periodized repeated sprint training program once a week. The training program consisted of running 40 m with different intensities and duration from week to week. Within-group results indicate that TG had a statistically marked improvement in their performance from pre to posttest in 40-m maximum sprint (-0.06 seconds), 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.12 seconds), 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), and CMJ (2.7 cm). The CG showed only a statistically notable improvement from pre to posttest in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.06 seconds). Between-group differences showed a statistically marked improvement for the TG over the CG in 10 × 40-m repeated sprint speed (-0.07 seconds) and 20- to 40-m top speed (-0.05 seconds), but the effect of the improvement was moderate. The results further indicate that a weekly training with repeated sprint gave a moderate but not statistically marked improvement in 40-m sprinting, CMJ, and beep test. The results of this study indicate that the repeated sprint program had a positive effect on several of the parameters tested

  20. 38 CFR 21.8284 - Additional vocational training.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... Children of Vietnam Veterans-Spina Bifida and Covered Birth Defects Vocational Training Program Entrance... goal under this subpart now prevents the child from: (1) Performing the duties of the occupation...

  1. The effects of 10 weeks of resistance training combined with beta-alanine supplementation on whole body strength, force production, muscular endurance and body composition.

    PubMed

    Kendrick, Iain P; Harris, Roger C; Kim, Hyo Jeong; Kim, Chang Keun; Dang, Viet H; Lam, Thanh Q; Bui, Toai T; Smith, Marcus; Wise, John A

    2008-05-01

    Carnosine (Carn) occurs in high concentrations in skeletal muscle is a potent physico-chemical buffer of H+ over the physiological range. Recent research has demonstrated that 6.4 g x day(-1) of beta-alanine (beta-ala) can significantly increase skeletal muscle Carn concentrations (M-[Carn]) whilst the resultant change in buffering capacity has been shown to be paralleled by significant improvements in anaerobic and aerobic measures of exercise performance. Muscle carnosine increase has also been linked to increased work done during resistance training. Prior research has suggested that strength training may also increase M-[Carn] although this is disputed by other studies. The aim of this investigation is to assess the effect of 10 weeks resistance training on M-[Carn], and, secondly, to investigate if increased M-[Carn] brought about through beta-ala supplementation had a positive effect on training responses. Twenty-six Vietnamese sports science students completed the study. The subjects completed a 10-week resistance-training program whilst consuming 6.4 g x day(-1) of beta-ala (beta-ALG) or a matched dose of a placebo (PLG). Subjects were assessed prior to and after training for whole body strength, isokinetic force production, muscular endurance, body composition. beta-Alanine supplemented subjects increased M-[Carn] by 12.81 +/- 7.97 mmol x kg(-1) dry muscle whilst there was no change in PLG subjects. There was no significant effect of beta-ala supplementation on any of the exercise parameters measured, mass or % body fat. In conclusion, 10 weeks of resistance training alone did not change M-[Carn].

  2. Aerobic endurance training improves nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) features via miR-33 dependent autophagy induction in high fat diet fed mice.

    PubMed

    Ghareghani, Parvin; Shanaki, Mehrnoosh; Ahmadi, Saeideh; Khoshdel, Ali Reza; Rezvan, Neda; Meshkani, Reza; Delfan, Maryam; Gorgani-Firuzjaee, Sattar

    2017-02-02

    Due to changes in life style, obesity and obesity related complication such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused worldwide health problems. Regular exercise has been frequently prescribed to combat metabolic complication of obesity but its molecular mechanism has not been fully illustrated. We investigated molecular mechanism of lipid lowering effect of exercise training in high fat diet fed mice by focusing on miR-33 expression and autophagy pathway. 24 mice were assigned to normal chow (NC) (n=8), high-fat diet (HFD) (n=16) group and subjected to NC and HFD for 13-weeks. HFD groups were divided to sedentary (HFD n=8) or continuous endurance training (HFD+CET, n=8) subgroups. The HFD+CET mice were subjected to treadmill running for 10-weeks in 23-week HFD course. HFD increased body weight, fasting blood sugar, triglyceride, cholesterol, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), liver lipogenic genes expression and reduced miR-33 mRNA expression and autopahgy pathway while training program reversed them. Exogenous miR-33 mimic sequence induced autophagy and reduced lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. Autophagy induction by rapamycin reduced lipogenesis and autophagy inhibition by chloroquine, enhanced lipogenesis in HepG2 cells. These findings suggest that aerobic exercise training as a non-pharmacological therapy exerts its lipid lowering effects by miR-33 dependent autophagy induction.

  3. The effects of 8 weeks of motor skill training on cardiorespiratory fitness and endurance performance in children with developmental coordination disorder.

    PubMed

    Farhat, Faiçal; Masmoudi, Kaouthar; Hsairi, Ines; Smits-Engelsman, Bouwien C M; Mchirgui, Radhouane; Triki, Chahnez; Moalla, Wassim

    2015-12-01

    Interventions based on everyday motor skills have been developed to be effective in children with developmental coordination disorder (DCD). The purpose of the present study was to examine the effects of motor skill training on exercise tolerance and cardiorespiratory fitness in children with DCD. Children were assigned to 3 groups: an experimental training group comprising 14 children with DCD, a control nontraining group comprising 13 children with DCD, and a control nontraining group comprising 14 typically developed children. All participants were tested twice with an interval of 8-weeks on a cardiopulmonary exercise test, pulmonary function testing, and a 6-min walk test. After the training program the maximal power output was significantly increased for DCD group at anaerobic threshold (p < 0.05) and at peak level (maximal oxygen uptake, p < 0.001). Improvement in power output was more pronounced at the anaerobic threshold (t (13) = -5.21, p < 0.001) than at the maximal intensity (maximal oxygen uptake, t (13) = -3.08, p < 0.01) in the DCD training group. Children with DCD that participated in the training program improved their walking distance (t (13) = -9.08, p < 0.001), had a higher maximum heart rate (t (13) = -3.41, p < 0.01), and reduced perceived exertion (t (13) = 2.75, p < 0.05). The DCD nontraining group and the typically developed group did not change on any of the measures. In conclusion, training delayed reaching the anaerobic threshold and improved aerobic endurance and exercise tolerance in children with DCD.

  4. Increases in skeletal muscle ATGL and its inhibitor G0S2 following 8 weeks of endurance training in metabolically different rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed

    Turnbull, Patrick C; Longo, Amanda B; Ramos, Sofhia V; Roy, Brian D; Ward, Wendy E; Peters, Sandra J

    2016-01-15

    Adipose triglyceride lipase (ATGL) catalyzes the rate-limiting removal of the first fatty acid from a triglyceride. ATGL is activated by comparative gene identification-58 and inhibited by G(0)/G(1) switch gene-2 protein (G0S2). Research in other tissues and cell culture indicates that inhibition is dependent on relative G0S2-to-ATGL protein content. G0S2 may also have several roles within mitochondria; however, this has yet to be observed in skeletal muscle. The purpose of this study was to determine if muscle G0S2 relative to ATGL content would decrease to facilitate intramuscular lipolysis following endurance training. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 10; age 51-53 days old) were progressively treadmill trained at a 10% incline for 8 wk ending with 25 m/min for 1 h compared with control. Sciatic nerve stimulation for hind-limb muscle contraction (and lipolysis) was administered for 30 min to one leg, leaving the opposing leg as a resting control. Soleus (SOL), red gastrocnemius (RG), and white gastrocnemius were excised from both legs following stimulation or control. ATGL protein increased in all trained muscles. Unexpectedly, G0S2 protein was greater in the trained SOL and RG. In RG-isolated mitochondria, G0S2 also increased with training, yet mitochondrial G0S2 content was unaltered with acute contraction; therefore, any role of G0S2 in the mitochondria does not appear to be acutely mediated by content alone. In summary, G0S2 increased with training in oxidative muscles and mitochondria but not following acute contraction, suggesting that inhibition is not through relative G0S2-to-ATGL content but through more complicated intracellular mechanisms.

  5. When energy balance is maintained, exercise does not induce negative fat balance in lean sedentary, obese sedentary, or lean endurance-trained individuals

    PubMed Central

    Gozansky, Wendolyn S.; Barry, Daniel W.; MacLean, Paul S.; Grunwald, Gary K.; Hill, James O.

    2009-01-01

    Fat oxidation during exercise is increased by endurance training, and evidence suggests that fat oxidation during exercise is impaired in obesity. Thus the primary aim of this study was to compare the acute effects of exercise on 24-h fat oxidation and fat balance in lean sedentary [LS, n = 10, body mass index (BMI) = 22.5 ± 6.5 kg/m2], lean endurance-trained (LT, n = 10, BMI = 21.2 ± 1.2 kg/m2), and obese sedentary (OS, n = 7, BMI = 35.5 ± 4.4 kg/m2) men and women. Twenty-four-hour energy expenditure and substrate oxidation were measured under sedentary (control; CON) and exercise (EX) conditions while maintaining energy balance. During EX, subjects performed 1 h of stationary cycling at 55% of aerobic capacity. Twenty-four-hour fat oxidation did not differ on the CON or EX day in LS (43 ± 9 vs. 29 ± 7 g/day, respectively), LT (53 ± 8 vs. 42 ± 5 g/day), or OS (58 ± 7 vs. 80 ± 9 g/day). However, 24-h fat balance was significantly more positive on EX compared with CON (P < 0.01). Twenty-four-hour glucose, insulin, and free fatty acid (FFA) profiles were similar on the EX and CON days, but after consumption of the first meal, FFA concentrations remained below fasting levels for the remainder of the day. These data suggest that when exercise is performed with energy replacement (i.e., energy balance is maintained), 24-h fat oxidation does not increase and in fact, may be slightly decreased. It appears that the state of energy balance is an underappreciated factor determining the impact of exercise on fat oxidation. PMID:19833807

  6. The effect of endurance training and subsequent physical inactivity on glycaemic control after oral glucose load and physical exercise in healthy men

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Radikova, Zofia; Ksinantova, Lucia; Kaciuba-Uscilko, Hanna; Nazar, Krystyna; Vigas, Milan; Koska, Juraj

    2007-02-01

    Physical inactivity during space flight has a profound effect on glucose metabolism. The aim of this study was to test whether endurance training (ET) may improve a negative effect of subsequent -6∘ head-down bed rest (HDBR) on glucose metabolism. Fourteen healthy males completed the study consisting of 6 weeks lasting ET followed by 6 days HDBR. Treadmill exercise at 80% of pre-training VO2max and 75 g oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) were performed before and after ET as well as after HDBR. ET increased VO2max by 11%. ET significantly lowered while HDBR had no effect on fasting and OGTT plasma glucose levels. ET had no effect while HDBR was followed by an augmentation of insulin and C-peptide response to OGTT. Insulin sensitivity tended to increase after ET and to decrease during HDBR, however, mostly without statistical significance. Plasma glucose, insulin and C-peptide response to exercise were elevated after HDBR only. Our study shows that antecedent physical training could ameliorate a negative effect of simulated microgravity on insulin-mediated glucose metabolism.

  7. Effects of oat β-glucan on endurance exercise and its anti-fatigue properties in trained rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Chao; Lv, Junli; Lo, Y Martin; Cui, Steve W; Hu, Xinzhong; Fan, Mingtao

    2013-02-15

    Oat β-glucan was purified from oat bran and its effects on running performance and related biochemical parameters were investigated. Four-week-old male Sparsgue-Dawley rats, fed with/without oat β-glucan (312.5 mg kg(-1) d(-1)) for 7 weeks, were subjected to run on a treadmill system to make them exhausted. All rats were immediately sacrificed after prolonged exercise, and the major metabolic substrates were measured in serum and liver. The results showed feeding dietary oat β-glucan to rats could significantly reduce the body weight and increase the maximum running time compared with normal control (P<0.05). Furthermore, dietary oat β-glucan decreased the levels of blood urea nitrogen, lactate acid, and creatine kinase activity in serum, and increased the levels of non-esterified fatty acids, lactic dehydrogenase activity in serum, and the content of liver glycogen. Therefore, the present study demonstrated that dietary oat β-glucan can enhance the endurance capacity of rats while facilitating their recovery from fatigue.

  8. Effects of 12-Week Endurance Training at Natural Low Altitude on the Blood Redox Homeostasis of Professional Adolescent Athletes: A Quasi-Experimental Field Trial.

    PubMed

    Tong, Tomas K; Kong, Zhaowei; Lin, Hua; He, Yeheng; Lippi, Giuseppe; Shi, Qingde; Zhang, Haifeng; Nie, Jinlei

    2016-01-01

    This field study investigated the influences of exposure to natural low altitude on endurance training-induced alterations of redox homeostasis in professional adolescent runners undergoing 12-week off-season conditioning program at an altitude of 1700 m (Alt), by comparison with that of their counterparts completing the program at sea-level (SL). For age-, gender-, and Tanner-stage-matched comparison, 26 runners (n = 13 in each group) were selected and studied. Following the conditioning program, unaltered serum levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total antioxidant capacity (T-AOC), and superoxide dismutase accompanied with an increase in oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and decreases of xanthine oxidase, reduced glutathione (GSH), and GSH/GSSG ratio were observed in both Alt and SL groups. Serum glutathione peroxidase and catalase did not change in SL, whereas these enzymes, respectively, decreased and increased in Alt. Uric acid (UA) decreased in SL and increased in Alt. Moreover, the decreases in GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio in Alt were relatively lower compared to those in SL. Further, significant interindividual correlations were found between changes in catalase and TBARS, as well as between UA and T-AOC. These findings suggest that long-term training at natural low altitude is unlikely to cause retained oxidative stress in professional adolescent runners.

  9. Pregnancy in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Penttinen, J; Erkkola, R

    1997-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to examine pregnancy and delivery among Finnish endurance athletes at the national top level. A questionnaire concerning first pregnancy was sent to 30 Finnish endurance athletes who had been at national top level in cross-country skiing, running, speed-skating or orienteering. Data on labour were collected retrospectively through a questionnaire and from the diaries in the hospital concerned. The next primipara in the diaries formed a member of the control group. Twenty-three athletes (77%) had regular menstrual cycles, seven (23%) had irregularities, and four of them had received hormonal treatment for this. Seven athletes (23%) had experienced spontaneous abortion during the first trimester in previous pregnancy. Sixteen (53%) did not notice any change in their exercise performance, three (10%) subjectively felt themselves to be in a better physical condition, and seven (23%) felt themselves to be in a worse condition than before the pregnancy. Four did not respond on the question. After delivery, 18 athletes continued to compete, the median interval being 8.2 months (range 2-24 months). Two of them (11%) achieved a better condition than before the pregnancy, 11 (61%) reached the same level and five (28%) did not achieve the same performance level. There were no significant differences in labour parameters between the athletes and controls. Endurance training had no harmful side-effects on the pregnancies or deliveries of the athletes. The effect of pregnancy on exercise performance is individual.

  10. Endurance exercise training increases APPL1 expression and improves insulin signaling in the hepatic tissue of diet-induced obese mice, independently of weight loss.

    PubMed

    Marinho, R; Ropelle, E R; Cintra, D E; De Souza, C T; Da Silva, A S R; Bertoli, F C; Colantonio, E; D'Almeida, V; Pauli, J R

    2012-07-01

    Hepatic insulin resistance is the major contributor to fasting hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes. The protein kinase Akt plays a central role in the suppression of gluconeogenesis involving forkhead box O1 (Foxo1) and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma co-activator 1 alpha (PGC-1α), and in the control of glycogen synthesis involving the glycogen synthase kinase beta (GSK3β) in the liver. It has been demonstrated that endosomal adaptor protein APPL1 interacts with Akt and blocks the association of Akt with its endogenous inhibitor, tribbles-related protein 3 (TRB3), improving the action of insulin in the liver. Here, we demonstrated that chronic exercise increased the basal levels and insulin-induced Akt serine phosphorylation in the liver of diet-induced obese mice. Endurance training was able to increase APPL1 expression and the interaction between APPL1 and Akt. Conversely, training reduced both TRB3 expression and TRB3 and Akt association. The positive effects of exercise on insulin action are reinforced by our findings that showed that trained mice presented an increase in Foxo1 phosphorylation and Foxo1/PGC-1α association, which was accompanied by a reduction in gluconeogenic gene expressions (PEPCK and G6Pase). Finally, exercised animals demonstrated increased at basal and insulin-induced GSK3β phosphorylation levels and glycogen content at 24 h after the last session of exercise. Our findings demonstrate that exercise increases insulin action, at least in part, through the enhancement of APPL1 and the reduction of TRB3 expression in the liver of obese mice, independently of weight loss.

  11. Role of sensory nerves in the rapid cutaneous vasodilator response to local heating in young and older endurance-trained and untrained men.

    PubMed

    Tew, Garry A; Klonizakis, Markos; Moss, James; Ruddock, Alan D; Saxton, John M; Hodges, Gary J

    2011-02-01

    The ability to increase skin blood flow (SkBF) rapidly in response to local heating is diminished with advanced age; however, the mechanisms are unclear. The primary aim of this study was to investigate the role of sensory nerves in this age-related change. A secondary aim was to investigate the effect of aerobic fitness on sensory nerve-mediated vasodilatation in young and aged skin. We measured SkBF (using laser Doppler flowmetry) in young and older endurance-trained and untrained men (n= 7 in each group) at baseline and during 35 min of local skin heating to 42°C at two sites on the ventral forearm. One site was pretreated with topical anaesthetic cream to block local sensory nerve function. Cutaneous vascular conductance (CVC) was calculated as SkBF divided by mean arterial pressure and normalized to maximal values (CVC(max)) achieved during local heating to 44°C. At the untreated site, the rapid vasodilatation during the first ~5 min of local heating (initial peak) was lower in the older untrained group (68 ± 3%CVC(max)) compared with all other groups (young trained, 76 ± 4%CVC(max); young untrained, 75 ± 5%CVC(max); and older trained, 81 ± 3%CVC(max); P < 0.05). Sensory nerve blockade abolished these differences among the groups (P > 0.05). The contribution of sensory nerve-mediated vasodilatation was lower in the older untrained group compared with all other groups (P< 0.05). Our results suggest that the age-related decline in the rapid vasodilator response to local heating in human skin is explained by diminished sensory nerve-mediated vasodilatation. These findings also indicate that this age-related change can be prevented through participation in regular aerobic exercise.

  12. Effect of caffeine on RPE and perceptions of pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a cycling time trial in endurance trained and active men.

    PubMed

    Astorino, Todd A; Cottrell, Trisha; Talhami Lozano, Andrea; Aburto-Pratt, Kylan; Duhon, Jessica

    2012-05-15

    Caffeine has been reported to alter perceptions of exertion, muscle pain, and mood, yet the majority of existing data were obtained in resting volunteers or during steady-state exercise. The primary aim of this study was to examine the effects of caffeine on rating of perceived exertion (RPE) and perceptions of leg pain, arousal, and pleasure/displeasure during a simulated cycling time trial. Endurance-trained (n=8, VO(2)max=57.5±3.9 mL/kg/min) and active (n=8, VO(2)max=46.5±6.3 mL/kg/min) men initially completed two familiarization trials separated by at least 48 h. Over the next three trials, they completed a 10 km time trial preceded by ingestion of drinks containing caffeine (5 mg/kg ingested on 2 separate days) or placebo. Treatments were ingested using a single-blind, crossover design, and participants were deceived as to the content of all drinks. During exercise, RPE (6-20 scale), leg pain (0-10 scale), arousal (Felt Arousal Scale), and pleasure/displeasure (Feeling Scale) were recorded using various categorical scales. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to assess differences in all variables across time and treatments, with fitness level used as a between-subjects variable. Pleasure/displeasure was altered (p<0.05, partial eta-squared (η(2))=0.23) with caffeine compared to placebo, although leg pain, RPE, and arousal were similar (p>0.05) across treatments. Caffeine increased (p<0.05, η(2)=0.27) cycling performance by 0.3-2.0% versus placebo, with no effect (p>0.05) of fitness level. Only in trained men; however, was there a significant caffeine-mediated improvement in cycling performance, which was consequent with diminished mood in trained and improved mood in active individuals.

  13. Effect of heavy strength training on muscle thickness, strength, jump performance, and endurance performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes.

    PubMed

    Rønnestad, Bent R; Kojedal, Oystein; Losnegard, Thomas; Kvamme, Bent; Raastad, Truls

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of supplemental heavy strength training on muscle thickness and determinants of performance in well-trained Nordic Combined athletes. Seventeen well-trained Nordic Combined athletes were assigned to either usual training supplemented with heavy strength training (STR; n = 8) or to usual training without heavy strength training (CON; n = 9). The strength training performed by STR consisted of one lower-body exercise and two upper-body exercises [3-5 repetition maximum (RM) sets of 3-8 repetitions], which were performed twice a week for 12 weeks. Architectural changes in m. vastus lateralis, 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, squat jump (SJ) height, maximal oxygen consumption (VO(2max)), work economy during submaximal treadmill skate rollerskiing, and performance in a 7.5-km rollerski time trial were measured before and after the intervention. STR increased 1RM in squat and seated pull-down, muscle thickness, and SJ performance more than CON (p < 0.05). There was no difference between groups in change in work economy. The two groups showed no changes in total body mass, VO(2max), or time-trial performance. In conclusion, 12 weeks of supplemental strength training improved determinants of performance in Nordic Combined by improving the athletes' strength and vertical jump ability without increasing total body mass or compromising the development of VO(2max).

  14. An Analysis of Training Adequacy and Additional Training Requirements as Perceived by Communications and Information Officers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-12-01

    beginning of their career, or on a Just - in - Time /recurring basis. The results of this thesis show that improvements in training are necessary, and should...emphasize both the beginning of an officer’s career as well as Just - in - Time training that can be used "anytime/anywhere."

  15. Atrial fibrillation in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Wilhelm, Matthias

    2014-08-01

    There is a growing population of veteran endurance athletes, regularly participating in training and competition. Although the graded benefit of exercise on cardiovascular health and mortality is well established, recent studies have raised concern that prolonged and strenuous endurance exercise may predispose to atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Atrial fibrillation (AF) and atrial flutter are facilitated by atrial remodelling, atrial ectopy, and an imbalance of the autonomic nervous system. Endurance sports practice has an impact on all of these factors and may therefore act as a promoter of these arrhythmias. In an animal model, long-term intensive exercise training induced fibrosis in both atria and increased susceptibility to AF. While the prevalence of AF is low in young competitive athletes, it increases substantially in the aging athlete, which is possibly associated with an accumulation of lifetime training hours and participation in competitions. A recent meta-analysis revealed a 5-fold increased risk of AF in middle-aged endurance athletes with a striking male predominance. Beside physical activity, height and absolute left atrial size are independent risk factors for lone AF and the stature of men per se may explain part of their higher risk of AF. Furthermore, for a comparable amount of training volume and performance, male non-elite athletes exhibit a higher blood pressure at rest and peak exercise, a more concentric type of left ventricular remodelling, and an altered diastolic function, possibly contributing to a more pronounced atrial remodelling. The sports cardiologist should be aware of the distinctive features of AF in athletes. Therapeutic recommendations should be given in close cooperation with an electrophysiologist. Reduction of training volume is often not desired and drug therapy not well tolerated. An early ablation strategy may be appropriate for some athletes with an impaired physical performance, especially when continuation of

  16. Ingestion of glucose or sucrose prevents liver but not muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise in trained cyclists.

    PubMed

    Gonzalez, Javier T; Fuchs, Cas J; Smith, Fiona E; Thelwall, Pete E; Taylor, Roy; Stevenson, Emma J; Trenell, Michael I; Cermak, Naomi M; van Loon, Luc J C

    2015-12-15

    The purpose of this study was to define the effect of glucose ingestion compared with sucrose ingestion on liver and muscle glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Fourteen cyclists completed two 3-h bouts of cycling at 50% of peak power output while ingesting either glucose or sucrose at a rate of 1.7 g/min (102 g/h). Four cyclists performed an additional third test for reference in which only water was consumed. We employed (13)C magnetic resonance spectroscopy to determine liver and muscle glycogen concentrations before and after exercise. Expired breath was sampled during exercise to estimate whole body substrate use. After glucose and sucrose ingestion, liver glycogen levels did not show a significant decline after exercise (from 325 ± 168 to 345 ± 205 and 321 ± 177 to 348 ± 170 mmol/l, respectively; P > 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Muscle glycogen concentrations declined (from 101 ± 49 to 60 ± 34 and 114 ± 48 to 67 ± 34 mmol/l, respectively; P < 0.05), with no differences between treatments. Whole body carbohydrate utilization was greater with sucrose (2.03 ± 0.43 g/min) vs. glucose (1.66 ± 0.36 g/min; P < 0.05) ingestion. Both liver (from 454 ± 33 to 283 ± 82 mmol/l; P < 0.05) and muscle (from 111 ± 46 to 67 ± 31 mmol/l; P < 0.01) glycogen concentrations declined during exercise when only water was ingested. Both glucose and sucrose ingestion prevent liver glycogen depletion during prolonged endurance-type exercise. Sucrose ingestion does not preserve liver glycogen concentrations more than glucose ingestion. However, sucrose ingestion does increase whole body carbohydrate utilization compared with glucose ingestion. This trial was registered at https://www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT02110836.

  17. Fuel for the work required: a practical approach to amalgamating train-low paradigms for endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Impey, Samuel G; Hammond, Kelly M; Shepherd, Sam O; Sharples, Adam P; Stewart, Claire; Limb, Marie; Smith, Kenneth; Philp, Andrew; Jeromson, Stewart; Hamilton, D Lee; Close, Graeme L; Morton, James P

    2016-05-01

    Using an amalgamation of previously studied "train-low" paradigms, we tested the effects of reduced carbohydrate (CHO) but high leucine availability on cell-signaling responses associated with exercise-induced regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis and muscle protein synthesis (MPS). In a repeated-measures crossover design, 11 males completed an exhaustive cycling protocol with high CHO availability before, during, and after exercise (HIGH) or alternatively, low CHO but high protein (leucine enriched) availability (LOW + LEU). Muscle glycogen was different (P < 0.05) pre-exercise (HIGH: 583 ± 158, LOW + LEU: 271 ± 85 mmol kg(-1) dw) but decreased (P < 0.05) to comparable levels at exhaustion (≈100 mmol kg(-1) dw). Despite differences (P < 0.05) in exercise capacity (HIGH: 158 ± 29, LOW + LEU: 100 ± 17 min), exercise induced (P < 0.05) comparable AMPKα2 (3-4-fold) activity, PGC-1α (13-fold), p53 (2-fold), Tfam (1.5-fold), SIRT1 (1.5-fold), Atrogin 1 (2-fold), and MuRF1 (5-fold) gene expression at 3 h post-exercise. Exhaustive exercise suppressed p70S6K activity to comparable levels immediately post-exercise (≈20 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)). Despite elevated leucine availability post-exercise, p70S6K activity remained suppressed (P < 0.05) 3 h post-exercise in LOW + LEU (28 ± 14 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)), whereas muscle glycogen resynthesis (40 mmol kg(-1) dw h(-1)) was associated with elevated (P < 0.05) p70S6K activity in HIGH (53 ± 30 fmol min(-1) mg(-1)). We conclude: (1) CHO restriction before and during exercise induces "work-efficient" mitochondrial-related cell signaling but; (2) post-exercise CHO and energy restriction maintains p70S6K activity at basal levels despite feeding leucine-enriched protein. Our data support the practical concept of "fuelling for the work required" as a potential strategy for which to amalgamate train-low paradigms into periodized training programs.

  18. 14 CFR 61.31 - Type rating requirements, additional training, and authorization requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... holder is already qualified. (k) Additional training required for night vision goggle operations. (1... aircraft using night vision goggles only if that person receives and logs ground training from an...: (i) Applicable portions of this chapter that relate to night vision goggle limitations and...

  19. Effect of tutorial input in addition to augmented feedback on manual dexterity training and its retention.

    PubMed

    Wierinck, E; Puttemans, V; van Steenberghe, D

    2006-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators can be used as tools in manual dexterity training. The visual feedback guides the subject towards proper performance but creates, at the same time, some dependency on this feedback. To overcome this drawback, the effect of adjunct tutorial input on motor learning behaviour was examined. Novice dental students were randomly assigned to one of two training groups or to a non-training control group, given the task of preparing a geometrical class 1 cavity in phantom teeth. The feedback (FB) group trained under augmented visual feedback conditions, provided by the VR system (DentSim). The feedback-plus (FB+) group received, in addition, standardised expert input to enrich the augmented feedback information. The control group, consisting of same year students, did not participate in any training programme. All preparations were evaluated by the VR scoring system. Performance analyses revealed an overall trend towards significant improvement with practice for the training groups. Performance of the FB+ group was most accurate across training. After 1 day and 3 weeks of no practice, both training groups outperformed the control group. After 4 months, however, only the FB+ condition was significantly more accurate than the control group. The same tendency was noted for the transfer tests. Consequently, cavity preparation experience on a VR system under the condition of frequently provided feedback supplemented with expert input was most beneficial to long time learning.

  20. A metabolomic study of the PPARδ agonist GW501516 for enhancing running endurance in Kunming mice

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wei; Gao, Rong; Xie, Xinni; Zheng, Zhibing; Li, Haijing; Li, Song; Dong, Fangting; Wang, Lili

    2015-01-01

    Exercise can increase peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ (PPARδ) expression in skeletal muscle. PPARδ regulates muscle metabolism and reprograms muscle fibre types to enhance running endurance. This study utilized metabolomic profiling to examine the effects of GW501516, a PPARδ agonist, on running endurance in mice. While training alone increased the exhaustive running performance, GW501516 treatment enhanced running endurance and the proportion of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH)-positive muscle fibres in both trained and untrained mice. Furthermore, increased levels of intermediate metabolites and key enzymes in fatty acid oxidation pathways were observed following training and/or treatment. Training alone increased serum inositol, glucogenic amino acids, and branch chain amino acids. However, GW501516 increased serum galactose and β-hydroxybutyrate, independent of training. Additionally, GW501516 alone raised serum unsaturated fatty acid levels, especially polyunsaturated fatty acids, but levels increased even more when combined with training. These findings suggest that mechanisms behind enhanced running capacity are not identical for GW501516 and training. Training increases energy availability by promoting catabolism of proteins, and gluconeogenesis, whereas GW501516 enhances specific consumption of fatty acids and reducing glucose utilization. PMID:25943561

  1. Impact of Endurance Exercise Training in the Fasted State on Muscle Biochemistry and Metabolism in Healthy Subjects: Can These Effects be of Particular Clinical Benefit to Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus and Insulin-Resistant Patients?

    PubMed

    Hansen, Dominique; De Strijcker, Dorien; Calders, Patrick

    2017-03-01

    Exercise training intervention is a cornerstone in the care of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and insulin resistance (IR), and it is pursued in order to optimize exercise interventions for these patients. In this regard, the nutritional state of patients during exercise (being in the fed or fasted state) can be of particular interest. The aim of the present review is to describe the impact of endurance exercise (training) in the fasted versus fed state on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to glycemic control or insulin sensitivity in healthy subjects. From these data it can then be deduced whether exercise training in the fasted state may be relevant to patients with T2DM or IR. In healthy subjects, acute endurance exercise in the fasted state is accompanied by lower blood insulin and elevated blood free fatty acid concentrations, stable blood glucose concentrations (in the first 60-90 min), superior intramyocellular triacylglycerol oxidation and whole-body lipolysis, and muscle glycogen preservation. Long-term exercise training in the fasted state in healthy subjects is associated with greater improvements in insulin sensitivity, basal muscle fat uptake capacity, and oxidation. Therefore, promising results of exercise (training) in the fasted state have been found in healthy subjects on parameters of muscle biochemistry and metabolism linked to insulin sensitivity and glycemic control. Whether exercise training intervention in which exercise sessions are organized in the fasted state may be more effective in improving insulin sensitivity or glycemic control in T2DM patients and insulin-resistant individuals warrants investigation.

  2. Common problems in endurance athletes.

    PubMed

    Cosca, David D; Navazio, Franco

    2007-07-15

    Endurance athletes alternate periods of intensive physical training with periods of rest and recovery to improve performance. An imbalance caused by overly intensive training and inadequate recovery leads to a breakdown in tissue reparative mechanisms and eventually to overuse injuries. Tendon overuse injury is degenerative rather than inflammatory. Tendinopathy is often slow to resolve and responds inconsistently to anti-inflammatory agents. Common overuse injuries in runners and other endurance athletes include patellofemoral pain syndrome, iliotibial band friction syndrome, medial tibial stress syndrome, Achilles tendinopathy, plantar fasciitis, and lower extremity stress fractures. These injuries are treated with relative rest, usually accompanied by a rehabilitative exercise program. Cyclists may benefit from evaluation on their bicycles and subsequent adjustment of seat height, cycling position, or pedal system. Endurance athletes also are susceptible to exercise-associated medical conditions, including exercise-induced asthma, exercise-associated collapse, and overtraining syndrome. These conditions are treatable or preventable with appropriate medical intervention. Dilutional hyponatremia is increasingly encountered in athletes participating in marathons and triathlons. This condition is related to overhydration with hypotonic fluids and may be preventable with guidance on appropriate fluid intake during competition.

  3. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  4. The neuronal response to electrical constant-amplitude pulse train stimulation: additive Gaussian noise.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, A J; Abbas, P J; Rubinstein, J T; Miller, C A

    2000-11-01

    Experimental results from humans and animals show that electrically evoked compound action potential (EAP) responses to constant-amplitude pulse train stimulation can demonstrate an alternating pattern, due to the combined effects of highly synchronized responses to electrical stimulation and refractory effects (Wilson et al., 1994). One way to improve signal representation is to reduce the level of across-fiber synchrony and hence, the level of the amplitude alternation. To accomplish this goal, we have examined EAP responses in the presence of Gaussian noise added to the pulse train stimulus. Addition of Gaussian noise at a level approximately -30 dB relative to EAP threshold to the pulse trains decreased the amount of alternation, indicating that stochastic resonance may be induced in the auditory nerve. The use of some type of conditioning stimulus such as Gaussian noise may provide a more 'normal' neural response pattern.

  5. Skeletal Muscle PGC-1β Signaling is Sufficient to Drive an Endurance Exercise Phenotype and to Counteract Components of Detraining in Mice.

    PubMed

    Lee, Samuel; Leone, Teresa C; Rogosa, Lisa; Rumsey, John; Ayala, Julio; Coen, Paul M; Fitts, Robert H; Vega, Rick B; Kelly, Daniel P

    2017-03-07

    PPARgamma coactivator-1 (PGC-1) α; ;and β serve as master transcriptional regulators of muscle mitochondrial functional capacity and are capable of enhancing muscle endurance when overexpressed in mice. We sought to determine whether muscle-specific transgenic overexpression of PGC-1β affects the detraining response following endurance training. First, we established and validated a mouse exercise training/detraining protocol. Secondly, we found that overexpression of PGC-1β in skeletal muscle of sedentary mice fully recapitulated the training response using multiple physiological and gene expression endpoints. Lastly, overexpression of PGC-1β during the detraining period resulted in a partial prevention of the detraining response. Specifically, an increase in ΔVO2max was maintained in trained mice with muscle overexpression of PGC-1β 6 weeks after cessation of training. However, other detraining responses, including changes in running performance and in situ 1/2 relaxation time (a measure of contractility) were not affected by overexpression of PGC-1β. We conclude that while activation of muscle PGC-1β is sufficient to drive the complete endurance phenotype in sedentary mice, it only partially prevents the detraining response following exercise training suggesting that the process of endurance detraining involves mechanisms beyond the reversal of muscle autonomous mechanisms involved in endurance fitness. In addition, the protocol described here should be useful for assessing early-stage proof-of-concept interventions in pre-clinical models of muscle disuse atrophy.

  6. Heart rate recovery and heart rate variability are unchanged in patients with coronary artery disease following 12 weeks of high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity endurance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Currie, Katharine D; Rosen, Lee M; Millar, Philip J; McKelvie, Robert S; MacDonald, Maureen J

    2013-06-01

    Decreased heart rate variability and attenuated heart rate recovery following exercise are associated with an increased risk of mortality in cardiac patients. This study investigated the effects of 12 weeks of moderate-intensity endurance exercise (END) and a novel low-volume high-intensity interval exercise protocol (HIT) on measures of heart rate recovery and heart rate variability in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD). Fourteen males with CAD participated in 12 weeks of END or HIT training, each consisting of 2 supervised exercise sessions per week. END consisted of 30-50 min of continuous cycling at 60% peak power output (PPO). HIT involved ten 1-min intervals at 88% PPO separated by 1-min intervals at 10% PPO. Heart rate recovery at 1 min and 2 min was measured before and after training (pre- and post-training, respectively) using a submaximal exercise bout. Resting time and spectral and nonlinear domain measures of heart rate variability were calculated. Following 12 weeks of END and HIT, there was no change in heart rate recovery at 1 min (END, 40 ± 12 beats·min(-1) vs. 37 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 31 ± 8 beats·min(-1) vs. 35 ± 8 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training) or 2 min (END, 44 ± 18 beats·min(-1) vs. 43 ± 19 beats·min(-1); HIT, 42 ± 10 beats·min(-1) vs. 50 ± 6 beats·min(-1); p ≥ 0.05 for pre- vs. post-training). All heart rate variability indices were unchanged following END and HIT training. In conclusion, neither END nor HIT exercise programs elicited training-induced improvements in cardiac autonomic function in patients with CAD. The absence of improvements with training may be attributed to the optimal medical management and normative pretraining state of our sample.

  7. 34 CFR 385.45 - What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? 385.45 Section 385.45 Education Regulations of the... additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? (a)...

  8. 34 CFR 385.45 - What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? 385.45 Section 385.45 Education Regulations of the... additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? (a)...

  9. 34 CFR 385.45 - What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 34 Education 2 2011-07-01 2010-07-01 true What additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? 385.45 Section 385.45 Education Regulations of the... additional application requirements apply to the training of individuals for rehabilitation careers? (a)...

  10. Caffeine and taurine enhance endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Imagawa, T F; Hirano, I; Utsuki, K; Horie, M; Naka, A; Matsumoto, K; Imagawa, S

    2009-07-01

    Caffeine enhances endurance performance; however, its effect on accumulated lactate remains unclear. Conversely, taurine, which also enhances endurance performance, decreases accumulated lactate. In this study, the effect of combination of caffeine and taurine on endurance performance was assessed. Mice ran on a treadmill, and the accumulated lactate was measured. In addition, muscle fibers from the gastrocnemius muscle of the mice were stained with ATPase and analyzed. The use of caffeine and taurine over a 2 week period enhanced endurance performance. Moreover, taurine significantly decreased the accumulated concentration of lactate over long running distances. However, the diameter of the cross-sections and ratios of Types I, IIA, and IIB muscle fibers were not affected.

  11. Post-exercise leg and forearm flexor muscle cooling in humans attenuates endurance and resistance training effects on muscle performance and on circulatory adaptation.

    PubMed

    Yamane, Motoi; Teruya, Hiroyasu; Nakano, Masataka; Ogai, Ryuji; Ohnishi, Norikazu; Kosaka, Mitsuo

    2006-03-01

    The influence of regular post-exercise cold application to exercised muscles trained by ergometer cycling (leg muscles) or handgrip exercise using a weight-loaded handgrip ergometer (forearm flexor muscles) was studied in human volunteers. Muscle loads were applied during exercise programs three to four times a week for 4-6 weeks. Besides measuring parameters characterizing muscle performance, femoral and brachial artery diameters were determined ultrasonographically. Training effects were identified by comparing pre- and post-training parameters in matched groups separately for the trained limbs cooled after exercise by cold-water immersion and the corresponding trained limbs kept at room temperature. Significant training effects were three times more frequent in the control than in the cold group, including increases in artery diameters in the control but not in the cold group. It is concluded that training-induced molecular and humoral adjustments, including muscle hyperthermia, are physiological, transient and essential for training effects (myofiber regeneration, muscle hypertrophy and improved blood supply). Cooling generally attenuates these temperature-dependent processes and, in particular, hyperthermia-induced HSP formation. This seems disadvantageous for training, in contrast to the beneficial combination of rest, ice, compression and elevation in the treatment of macroscopic musculo-tendinous damage.

  12. Do Running Kinematic Characteristics Change over a Typical HIIT for Endurance Runners?

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Soto-Hermoso, Víctor M; Latorre-Román, Pedro Á

    2016-10-01

    García-Pinillos, F, Soto-Hermoso, VM, and Latorre-Román, PÁ. Do running kinematic characteristics change over a typical HIIT for endurance runners?. J Strength Cond Res 30(10): 2907-2917, 2016-The purpose of this study was to describe kinematic changes that occur during a common high-intensity intermittent training (HIIT) session for endurance runners. Twenty-eight male endurance runners participated in this study. A high-speed camera was used to measure sagittal-plane kinematics at the first and the last run during a HIIT (4 × 3 × 400 m). The dependent variables were spatial-temporal variables, joint angles during support and swing, and foot strike pattern. Physiological variables, rate of perceived exertion, and athletic performance were also recorded. No significant changes (p ≥ 0.05) in kinematic variables were found during the HIIT session. Two cluster analyses were performed, according to the average running pace-faster vs. slower, and according to exhaustion level reached-exhausted group vs. nonexhausted group (NEG). At first run, no significant differences were found between groups. As for the changes induced by the running protocol, significant differences (p ≤ 0.05) were found between faster and slower athletes at toe-off in θhip and θknee, whereas some changes were found in NEG in θhip during toe-off (+4.3°) and θknee at toe-off (-5.2°) during swing. The results show that a common HIIT session for endurance runners did not consistently or substantially perturb the running kinematics of trained male runners. Additionally, although some differences between groups have been found, neither athletic performance nor exhaustion level reached seems to be determinant in the kinematic response during a HIIT, at least for this group of moderately trained endurance runners.

  13. Effects of 12-week concurrent high-intensity interval strength and endurance training programme on physical performance in healthy older people.

    PubMed

    García-Pinillos, Felipe; Laredo-Aguilera, José A; Muñoz-Jiménez, Marcos; Latorre-Román, Pedro A

    2017-03-13

    This study aimed to analyse the effect of 12-week low-volume HIIT-based concurrent training programme on body composition, upper- and lower-body muscle strength, mobility and balance in older adults, as well as to compare it with a low- moderate-intensity continuous training. 90 active older adults were randomly assigned to experimental (EG, n=47), and control (CG, n=43) groups. Body composition and physical functioning were assessed before (pre-test) and after (post-test) a 12-week intervention. A 2-way repeated measures ANOVA was used to test for an interaction between training programme and groups. The time x group interaction revealed no significant between-group differences at pre-test (p≥0.05). The group x time interaction showed significant improvements for the EG in body composition parameters (p<0.05) and physical functioning (muscle strength: p<0.001; mobility: p<0.001; and balance: p<0.05); while the CG remained unchanged (p≥0.05). This HIIT-based concurrent training programme led to greater improvements in body composition, muscle strength, mobility and balance in healthy older people than a regular low- moderate-intensity continuous training, despite the reduction in overall training volume.

  14. Combat experiences, pre-deployment training, and outcome of exposure therapy for post-traumatic stress disorder in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom veterans.

    PubMed

    Price, Matthew; Gros, Daniel F; Strachan, Martha; Ruggiero, Kenneth J; Acierno, Ron

    2013-01-01

    The association between exposure to multiple potentially traumatic events (PTEs) and subsequent increased risk of post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, less is known about the relation between exposure to numerous PTEs, as is typical with military service, and treatment outcome. Furthermore, there has been little research examining military specific protective factors, such as pre-deployment preparedness, on PTSD treatment response. The current study investigated combat exposure and potential moderators of treatment outcome for exposure therapy in Operation Enduring Freedom/Operation Iraqi Freedom (OEF/OIF) veterans with PTSD. One hundred and eleven OEF/OIF veterans diagnosed with PTSD participated in 8 weeks of exposure therapy. Results indicated that increased combat exposure was associated with a reduced rate of change in PTSD symptoms but not depression symptoms. These findings were consistent across two measures of combat exposure. There was preliminary support for the moderating effect of pre-deployment preparedness on the association between combat exposure and treatment response. Together, these findings suggest that increased combat exposure is associated with poor treatment response in veterans with PTSD; however, this can be reduced by elevated pre-deployment preparedness.

  15. Enduring Strategic Rivalries

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-08-01

    W. Harl, Tulane University ............................................................................... 4-1 “1066 and All That”: English and...Islamic invasion England vs. France (1066 to 1453, the Middle Ages) The 1066 Norman conquest of France English defeat that saw their military...1453) The creation of powerful centralized proto- states (as in Hundred Years’ War) Total English defeat 1-11 Introduction to Enduring Strategic

  16. The Effect of Additional Dead Space on Respiratory Exchange Ratio and Carbon Dioxide Production Due to Training

    PubMed Central

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17”29 ± 1”31 to 18”47 ± 1”37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17”20 ± 1”18 to 18”45 ± 1”44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key Points The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production. In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only. No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings. The lack of

  17. The effect of additional dead space on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production due to training.

    PubMed

    Smolka, Lukasz; Borkowski, Jacek; Zaton, Marek

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training. The primary outcome measures were respiratory exchange ratio (RER) and carbon dioxide production (VCO2). Two groups of young healthy males: Experimental (Exp, n = 15) and Control (Con, n = 15), participated in this study. The training consisted of 12 sessions, performed twice a week for 6 weeks. A single training session consisted of continuous, constant-rate exercise on a cycle ergometer at 60% of VO2max which was maintained for 30 minutes. Subjects in Exp group were breathing through additional respiratory dead space (1200ml), while subjects in Con group were breathing without additional dead space. Pre-test and two post-training incremental exercise tests were performed for the detection of gas exchange variables. In all training sessions, pCO2 was higher and blood pH was lower in the Exp group (p < 0.001) ensuring respiratory acidosis. A 12-session training program resulted in significant increase in performance time in both groups (from 17"29 ± 1"31 to 18"47 ± 1"37 in Exp; p=0.02 and from 17"20 ± 1"18 to 18"45 ± 1"44 in Con; p = 0.02), but has not revealed a significant difference in RER and VCO2 in both post-training tests, performed at rest and during submaximal workload. We interpret the lack of difference in post-training values of RER and VCO2 between groups as an absence of inhibition in glycolysis and glycogenolysis during exercise with additional dead space. Key PointsThe purpose of the study was to investigate the effects of implementing additional respiratory dead space during cycloergometry-based aerobic training on respiratory exchange ratio and carbon dioxide production.In all training sessions, respiratory acidosis was gained by experimental group only.No significant difference in RER and VCO2 between experimental and control group due to the trainings.The lack of difference in post-training

  18. Effects of endurance exercise training on heart rate variability and susceptibility to sudden cardiac death: protection is not due to enhanced cardiac vagal regulation.

    PubMed

    Billman, George E; Kukielka, Monica

    2006-03-01

    Low heart rate variability (HRV) is associated with an increased susceptibility to ventricular fibrillation (VF). Exercise training can increase HRV (an index of cardiac vagal regulation) and could, thereby, decrease the risk for VF. To test this hypothesis, a 2-min coronary occlusion was made during the last min of a 18-min submaximal exercise test in dogs with healed myocardial infarctions; 20 had VF (susceptible), and 13 did not (resistant). The dogs then received either a 10-wk exercise program (susceptible, n=9; resistant, n=8) or an equivalent sedentary period (susceptible, n=11; resistant, n=5). HRV was evaluated at rest, during exercise, and during a 2-min occlusion at rest and before and after the 10-wk period. Pretraining, the occlusion provoked significantly (P<0.01) greater increases in HR (susceptible, 54.9+/-8.3 vs. resistant, 25.0+/-6.1 beats/min) and greater reductions in HRV (susceptible, -6.3+/-0.3 vs. resistant, -2.8+/-0.8 ln ms2) in the susceptible dogs compared with the resistant animals. Similar response differences between susceptible and resistant dogs were noted during submaximal exercise. Training significantly reduced the HR and HRV responses to the occlusion (HR, 17.9+/-11.5 beats/min; HRV, -1.2+/-0.8, ln ms2) in the susceptible dogs; similar response reductions were noted during exercise. In contrast, these variables were not altered in the sedentary susceptible dogs. Posttraining, VF could no longer be induced in the susceptible dogs, whereas four sedentary susceptible dogs died during the 10-wk control period, and the remaining seven animals still had VF when tested. Atropine decreased HRV but only induced VF in one of eight trained susceptible dogs. Thus exercise training increased cardiac vagal activity, which was not solely responsible for the training-induced VF protection.

  19. Cancer Control Research Training for Native Researchers: A Model for Development of Additional Native Researcher Training Programs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Becker, Thomas M.; Dunn, Esther; Tom-Orme, Lillian; Joe, Jennie

    2005-01-01

    Several social and biological scientists who have Native status are engaged in productive research careers, but the encouragement that has been offered to Native students to formulate career goals devoted to cancer etiology or cancer control in Native peoples has had limited success. Hence, the Native Researchers' Cancer Control Training Program…

  20. The Use of Functional Communication Training without Additional Treatment Procedures in an Inclusive School Setting

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Casey, Sean D.; Merical, Cheryl L.

    2006-01-01

    Functional communication training (FCT) is an intervention frequently used for students with developmental disabilities to reduce problematic behaviors and to increase prosocial behaviors. This intervention appears to be very effective when the communication responses trained are matched to the function of the student's problematic behaviors. In…

  1. 'Endurance': A Daunting Challenge

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image shows the approximate size of the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity in comparison to the impressive impact crater dubbed 'Endurance,' which is roughly 130 meters (430 feet) across. A model of Opportunity has been superimposed on top of an approximate true-color image taken by the rover's panoramic camera. Scientists are eager to explore Endurance for clues to the red planet's history. The crater's exposed walls provide a window to what lies beneath the surface of Mars and thus what geologic processes occurred there in the past. While recent studies of the smaller crater nicknamed 'Eagle' revealed an evaporating body of salty water, that crater was not deep enough to indicate what came before the water. Endurance may be able to help answer this question, but the challenge is getting to the scientific targets: most of the crater's rocks are embedded in vertical cliffs. Rover planners are developing strategies to overcome this obstacle.

    This image is a portion of a larger mosaic taken with the panoramic camera's 480-, 530- and 750-nanometer filters on sols 97 and 98.

  2. Arctigenin efficiently enhanced sedentary mice treadmill endurance.

    PubMed

    Tang, Xuan; Zhuang, Jingjing; Chen, Jing; Yu, Liang; Hu, Lihong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Xu

    2011-01-01

    Physical inactivity is considered as one of the potential risk factors for the development of type 2 diabetes and other metabolic diseases, while endurance exercise training could enhance fat oxidation that is associated with insulin sensitivity improvement in obesity. AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) as an energy sensor plays pivotal roles in the regulation of energy homeostasis, and its activation could improve glucose uptake, promote mitochondrial biogenesis and increase glycolysis. Recent research has even suggested that AMPK activation contributed to endurance enhancement without exercise. Here we report that the natural product arctigenin from the traditional herb Arctium lappa L. (Compositae) strongly increased AMPK phosphorylation and subsequently up-regulated its downstream pathway in both H9C2 and C2C12 cells. It was discovered that arctigenin phosphorylated AMPK via calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase (CaMKK) and serine/threonine kinase 11(LKB1)-dependent pathways. Mice treadmill based in vivo assay further indicated that administration of arctigenin improved efficiently mice endurance as reflected by the increased fatigue time and distance, and potently enhanced mitochondrial biogenesis and fatty acid oxidation (FAO) related genes expression in muscle tissues. Our results thus suggested that arctigenin might be used as a potential lead compound for the discovery of the agents with mimic exercise training effects to treat metabolic diseases.

  3. Comparison of strength training, aerobic training, and additional physical therapy as supplementary treatments for Parkinson’s disease: pilot study

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Alessandro; Barbirato, Dannyel; Araujo, Narahyana; Martins, Jose Vicente; Cavalcanti, Jose Luiz Sá; Santos, Tony Meireles; Coutinho, Evandro S; Laks, Jerson; Deslandes, Andrea C

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Physical rehabilitation is commonly used in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD) to improve their health and alleviate the symptoms. Objective We compared the effects of three programs, strength training (ST), aerobic training (AT), and physiotherapy, on motor symptoms, functional capacity, and electroencephalographic (EEG) activity in PD patients. Methods Twenty-two patients were recruited and randomized into three groups: AT (70% of maximum heart rate), ST (80% of one repetition maximum), and physiotherapy (in groups). Subjects participated in their respective interventions twice a week for 12 weeks. The assessments included measures of disease symptoms (Unified Parkinson’s Disease Rating Scale [UPDRS]), functional capacity (Senior Fitness Test), and EEG before and after 12 weeks of intervention. Results The PD motor symptoms (UPDRS-III) in the group of patients who performed ST and AT improved by 27.5% (effect size [ES]=1.25, confidence interval [CI]=−0.11, 2.25) and 35% (ES=1.34, CI=−0.16, 2.58), respectively, in contrast to the physiotherapy group, which showed a 2.9% improvement (ES=0.07, CI=−0.85, 0.99). Furthermore, the functional capacity of all three groups improved after the intervention. The mean frequency of the EEG analysis mainly showed the effect of the interventions on the groups (F=11.50, P=0.0001). Conclusion ST and AT in patients with PD are associated with improved outcomes in disease symptoms and functional capacity. PMID:25609935

  4. 20 CFR 641.874 - What conditions apply to a SCSEP grantee request to use additional funds for training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Administrative Requirements § 641.874 What conditions apply... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What conditions apply to a SCSEP grantee request to use additional funds for training and supportive service costs? 641.874 Section...

  5. 20 CFR 641.874 - What conditions apply to a SCSEP grantee request to use additional funds for training and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Administrative Requirements § 641.874 What conditions apply... 20 Employees' Benefits 3 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false What conditions apply to a SCSEP grantee request to use additional funds for training and supportive service costs? 641.874 Section...

  6. The Temperature of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    The colored dots in this image mosaic denote thermal data in features that make up the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The data was taken by the miniature thermal emission spectrometer instrument on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The information has been overlaid onto a view of the crater from the rover's navigation camera. Blue denotes cooler temperatures of about 220 degrees Kelvin (-63.67 degrees Fahrenheit or -53.15 degrees Celsius), and red denotes warmer temperatures of about 280 degrees Kelvin (44.33 degrees Fahrenheit or 6.85 degrees Celsius).

  7. The Colors of 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This false-color image shows visible mineral changes between the materials that make up the rim of the impact crater known as 'Endurance.' The image was taken by the panoramic camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity using all 13 color filters. The cyan blue color denotes basalts, whereas the dark green color denotes a mixture of iron oxide and basaltic materials. Reds and yellows indicate dusty material containing sulfates. Scientists are very interested in exploring the interior and exterior material around the crater's rim for clues to the processes that formed the crater, as well as the rocks and textures that define the crater.

  8. Layers Inside 'Endurance'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This view of rock layers exposed in the upper portion of the inner slope of 'Endurance Crater' was captured by the navigation camera on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity from the rover's position inside the crater during Opportunity's 134th sol on June 9, 2004. Scientists and engineers are assessing possible targets and routes among these rocks. The view is looking down into the crater, so the layers at the top of the image lie lower in the crater than the rocks in the foreground.

  9. Weird 'Endurance' Rock Ahead

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This image taken by the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity shows a bizarre, lumpy rock dubbed 'Wopmay' on the inner slopes of 'Endurance Crater.' Scientists say the rock's unusual texture is unlike any others observed so far at Meridiani Planum. Wopmay measures approximately 1 meter (3.3 feet) across. The image was taken by the rover's panoramic camera on sol 195 (Aug. 11, 2004). Opportunity will likely travel to this or a similar rock in coming sols for a closer look at the alien surface.

  10. Development of a Coping Strategies Questionnaire to Assess Endurance Performance,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-10-16

    assessing the performance of two individuals trained similarly for a sustained operation (an operation lasting longer than six hours) or other...endurance related tasks, a question that often arises is "why is one individual able to complete the mission or task while his similarly trained partner is...primarily with psychological processes (e.g. used positive mental Imagery), (2) eight training or event strategies (e.g. tapered for this race), (3) tw

  11. NATOs Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    governments, serves as the main policy mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. The United... mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. Additionally, the United States must continue...interest was to “Prevent the collapse of the global systems for trade, financial markets, energy supplies, and the environment.”8 NATO fills the role of

  12. NATO’s Relevance to United States Enduring National Interests Time to Remove the Training Wheels but Continue to Hold the Handle Bars

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-10

    governments, serves as the main policy mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. The United... mechanism by which it can influence Europe, and provides a venue for legitimacy and freedom of global action. Additionally, the United States must continue...interest was to “Prevent the collapse of the global systems for trade, financial markets, energy supplies, and the environment.”8 NATO fills the role of

  13. Cardiac autonomic control in high level Brazilian power and endurance track-and-field athletes.

    PubMed

    Abad, C C C; do Nascimento, A M; Gil, S; Kobal, R; Loturco, I; Nakamura, F Y; Mostarda, C T; Irigoyen, M C

    2014-08-01

    The autonomic nervous system (ANS) has an important role in physical performance. However, the cardiac ANS activity in high-level track and field athletes has been poorly explored. Thus, we tested the hypothesis that endurance and power athletes would present a markedly different cardiac autonomic control at rest. We analyzed the cardiac ANS by means of time and frequency domains heart rate variability (HRV) analyses and by symbolic analysis. Endurance athletes showed higher pulse interval than power athletes (1,265±126 vs. 1,031±98 ms respectively; p<0.05). No differences were found in time and frequency domains between the groups. However, the LF%, HF% and LF/HF ratio presented high effect sizes (1.46, 1.46 and 1.30, respectively). The symbolic analysis revealed that endurance athletes had higher 2V parasympathetic modulation (36±6.5) than power athletes (24±9.3; p<0.05). A reduced 0V sympathetic modulation was observed in endurance athletes (21±9.9) compared to power athletes (33±11; p<0.05 and ES=1.30). Our results suggest greater parasympathetic modulation and less sympathetic modulation in endurance athletes compared to power athletes. Additionally, the type of HRV analysis needs to be chosen with well-defined criteria and caution because their use in assessing cardiac autonomic modulation can interfere with the interpretation of results. In practical terms, symbolic analysis appears to better discriminate between cardiac autonomic activities of athletes with different training backgrounds than frequency domain analysis.

  14. Acute Ingestion of Sugar-free Red Bull Energy Drink has no Effect on Upper Body Strength and Muscular Endurance in Resistance Trained Men.

    PubMed

    Eckerson, Joan M; Bull, Anthony J; Baechle, Thomas R; Fischer, Chelsea A; O'Brien, Daniel C; Moore, Geri A; Yee, Jennifer C; Pulverenti, Timothy S

    2012-12-04

    ABSTRACT: Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms, as well as taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF, CAF-free placebo (PL) on one repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions x kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced weight lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received: (A) 500 ml of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 ml of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or (C) a SF, CAF-free 500 ml PL drink 60 min prior to testing on three separate occasions. Following a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 min rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures ANOVA (p<0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared to PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL= 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg·kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg·kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men.

  15. Acute ingestion of sugar-free red bull energy drink has no effect on upper body strength and muscular endurance in resistance trained men.

    PubMed

    Eckerson, Joan M; Bull, Anthony J; Baechle, Thomas R; Fischer, Chelsea A; O'Brien, Daniel C; Moore, Geri A; Yee, Jennifer C; Pulverenti, Timothy S

    2013-08-01

    Consumption of energy drinks by both recreational and competitive athletes has increased dramatically in recent years. The primary ingredients in many energy drinks include caffeine (CAF) in various forms and taurine. The purpose of this randomized, double-blind, crossover study was to examine the effect of sugar-free (SF) Red Bull (RB) containing CAF and taurine to a CAF only drink and a SF CAF-free placebo (PL) on 1 repetition maximum (1RM) bench press (BP) and the volume load (VL; repetitions × kg at 70% 1RM) during one BP set to failure in experienced lifters. Seventeen college-age men randomly received the following: (A) 500 mL of SF-RB containing CAF (160 mg) and taurine (2000 mg); (B) 500 mL of a SF drink containing CAF only (160 mg); or (C) a SF CAF-free 500 mL PL drink 60 minutes before testing on 3 separate occasions. After a standard warm-up, the 1RM was determined for each subject and, after 5 minutes rest, they completed repetitions to failure at 70% of their 1RM to assess VL. Differences between trials for 1RM BP and the VL were identified using repeated measures analysis of variance (p < 0.05). The results indicated that neither SF-RB nor the CAF drink had any effect on 1RM BP (115.13 ± 16.19 kg and 114.87 ± 16.16 kg, respectively) or VL (1173.08 ± 170.66 kg and 1164.14 ± 147.03 kg, respectively) compared with PL (1RM = 114.07 ± 16.09 kg; VL = 1141.46 ± 193.41 kg). Although the CAF content in the energy drinks used in the present study was low (∼2.0 mg/kg), the finding of no effect of the CAF containing energy drinks for 1RM BP are in agreement with previous studies using intakes up to 6.0 mg/kg. These findings suggest that SF-RB has no effect on upper body 1RM strength or VL in resistance trained men.

  16. Caffeine and exercise: metabolism, endurance and performance.

    PubMed

    Graham, T E

    2001-01-01

    Caffeine is a common substance in the diets of most athletes and it is now appearing in many new products, including energy drinks, sport gels, alcoholic beverages and diet aids. It can be a powerful ergogenic aid at levels that are considerably lower than the acceptable limit of the International Olympic Committee and could be beneficial in training and in competition. Caffeine does not improve maximal oxygen capacity directly, but could permit the athlete to train at a greater power output and/or to train longer. It has also been shown to increase speed and/or power output in simulated race conditions. These effects have been found in activities that last as little as 60 seconds or as long as 2 hours. There is less information about the effects of caffeine on strength; however, recent work suggests no effect on maximal ability, but enhanced endurance or resistance to fatigue. There is no evidence that caffeine ingestion before exercise leads to dehydration, ion imbalance, or any other adverse effects. The ingestion of caffeine as coffee appears to be ineffective compared to doping with pure caffeine. Related compounds such as theophylline are also potent ergogenic aids. Caffeine may act synergistically with other drugs including ephedrine and anti-inflammatory agents. It appears that male and female athletes have similar caffeine pharmacokinetics, i.e., for a given dose of caffeine, the time course and absolute plasma concentrations of caffeine and its metabolites are the same. In addition, exercise or dehydration does not affect caffeine pharmacokinetics. The limited information available suggests that caffeine non-users and users respond similarly and that withdrawal from caffeine may not be important. The mechanism(s) by which caffeine elicits its ergogenic effects are unknown, but the popular theory that it enhances fat oxidation and spares muscle glycogen has very little support and is an incomplete explanation at best. Caffeine may work, in part, by

  17. Additional Guidance and Training Needed to Improve Afghan National Army Pharmaceutical Distribution

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-07

    Nonstatistical Sample Discrepancies 24 Management Comments North Atlantic Treaty Organization Training Mission...4 The November 2011 penalties were for 1 percent of each vendor’s contract award amount for the 2 week delay. AT&L...officials assessed vendor penalties using an amount of 0.1 percent per day (0.5 percent for each week of delay). 5 All U.S. dollar amounts were converted

  18. Pediatric dentistry for the general practitioner: satisfying the need for additional education and training opportunities.

    PubMed

    Stewart, Ray E; Sanger, Roger G

    2014-11-01

    The Pediatric Oral Health Access Program is a joint project of the California Dental Association and the California Society of Pediatric Dentistry. The results have been remarkable in terms of the number of underserved children who have received oral health services. What is less certain is the number of general dentists who, as a result of the training, have been able and willing to provide comprehensive care to more and younger children.

  19. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  20. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  1. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  2. 20 CFR 641.540 - What types of training may grantees and sub-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ...-recipients provide to SCSEP participants in addition to the training received at a community service... LABOR PROVISIONS GOVERNING THE SENIOR COMMUNITY SERVICE EMPLOYMENT PROGRAM Services to Participants... addition to the training received at a community service assignment? (a) In addition to the...

  3. Master Athletes Are Extending the Limits of Human Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Lepers, Romuald; Stapley, Paul J.

    2016-01-01

    The increased participation of master athletes (i.e., >40 years old) in endurance and ultra-endurance events (>6 h duration) over the past few decades has been accompanied by an improvement in their performances at a much faster rate than their younger counterparts. Aging does however result in a decrease in overall endurance performance. Such age-related declines in performance depend upon the modes of locomotion, event duration, and gender of the participant. For example, smaller age-related declines in cycling performance than in running and swimming have been documented. The relative stability of gender differences observed across the ages suggests that the age-related declines in physiological function did not differ between males and females. Among the main physiological determinants of endurance performance, the maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) appears to be the parameter that is most altered by age. Exercise economy and the exercise intensity at which a high fraction of VO2max can be sustained (i.e., lactate threshold), seem to decline to a lesser extent with advancing age. The ability to maintain a high exercise-training stimulus with advancing age is emerging as the single most important means of limiting the rate of decline in endurance performance. By constantly extending the limits of (ultra)-endurance, master athletes therefore represent an important insight into the ability of humans to maintain physical performance and physiological function with advancing age. PMID:28018241

  4. Nutrition for endurance sports: marathon, triathlon, and road cycling.

    PubMed

    Jeukendrup, Asker E

    2011-01-01

    Endurance sports are increasing in popularity and athletes at all levels are looking for ways to optimize their performance by training and nutrition. For endurance exercise lasting 30 min or more, the most likely contributors to fatigue are dehydration and carbohydrate depletion, whereas gastrointestinal problems, hyperthermia, and hyponatraemia can reduce endurance exercise performance and are potentially health threatening, especially in longer events (>4 h). Although high muscle glycogen concentrations at the start may be beneficial for endurance exercise, this does not necessarily have to be achieved by the traditional supercompensation protocol. An individualized nutritional strategy can be developed that aims to deliver carbohydrate to the working muscle at a rate that is dependent on the absolute exercise intensity as well as the duration of the event. Endurance athletes should attempt to minimize dehydration and limit body mass losses through sweating to 2-3% of body mass. Gastrointestinal problems occur frequently, especially in long-distance races. Problems seem to be highly individual and perhaps genetically determined but may also be related to the intake of highly concentrated carbohydrate solutions, hyperosmotic drinks, as well as the intake of fibre, fat, and protein. Hyponatraemia has occasionally been reported, especially among slower competitors with very high intakes of water or other low sodium drinks. Here I provide a comprehensive overview of recent research findings and suggest several new guidelines for the endurance athlete on the basis of this. These guidelines are more detailed and allow a more individualized approach.

  5. Cardiovascular damage resulting from chronic excessive endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Patil, Harshal R; O'Keefe, James H; Lavie, Carl J; Magalski, Anthony; Vogel, Robert A; McCullough, Peter A

    2012-01-01

    A daily routine of physical activity is highly beneficial in the prevention and treatment of many prevalent chronic diseases, especially of the cardiovascular (CV) system. However, chronic, excessive sustained endurance exercise may cause adverse structural remodeling of the heart and large arteries. An evolving body of data indicates that chronically training for and participating in extreme endurance competitions such as marathons, ultra-marathons, Iron-man distance triathlons, very long distance bicycle racing, etc., can cause transient acute volume overload of the atria and right ventricle, with transient reductions in right ventricular ejection fraction and elevations of cardiac biomarkers, all of which generally return to normal within seven to ten days. In veteran extreme endurance athletes, this recurrent myocardial injury and repair may eventually result in patchy myocardial fibrosis, particularly in the atria, interventricular septum and right ventricle, potentially creating a substrate for atrial and ventricular arrhythmias. Furthermore, chronic, excessive, sustained, high-intensity endurance exercise may be associated with diastolic dysfunction, large-artery wall stiffening and coronary artery calcification. Not all veteran extreme endurance athletes develop pathological remodeling, and indeed lifelong exercisers generally have low mortality rates and excellent functional capacity. The aim of this review is to discuss the emerging understanding of the cardiac pathophysiology of extreme endurance exercise, and make suggestions about healthier fitness patterns for promoting optimal CV health and longevity.

  6. Lizard threat display handicaps endurance.

    PubMed Central

    Brandt, Y

    2003-01-01

    Honest-signalling theory asserts that threat displays reliably advertise attributes that influence fighting success. Endurance, as measured by treadmill performance, predicts the outcome of agonistic interactions among lizards. If threat displays in lizards function to advertise endurance capacity then variation in threat displays should correlate with endurance. I tested this prediction for the duration of threat posturing in male side-blotched lizards (Uta stansburiana) and examined whether threat displays act as quality handicaps, reliable signals that expend the attribute that is advertised. Individual variation in the duration of threat posturing correlated with endurance, while an experimental reduction of endurance diminished the duration of threat posturing. As expected of a quality handicap, endurance fell below baseline after display production. A restriction of aerobic metabolism can account for this effect. In threat posturing, lateral compression of the thorax may interfere with respiration or with circulation, limiting aerobic metabolism and causing a compensatory increase in anaerobic metabolism, thereby generating lactate and diminishing locomotor capacity. Concentrations of lactate measured after display production were higher than baseline, consistent with the proposed mechanism. By restricting aerobic metabolism, the threat posture can act as a quality handicap, simultaneously advertising and expending the endurance capacity of displaying lizards. PMID:12803896

  7. The effect of exercise training with an additional inspiratory load on inspiratory muscle fatigue and time-trial performance.

    PubMed

    McEntire, Serina J; Smith, Joshua R; Ferguson, Christine S; Brown, Kelly R; Kurti, Stephanie P; Harms, Craig A

    2016-08-01

    The purpose was to determine the effect of moderate-intensity exercise training (ET) on inspiratory muscle fatigue (IMF) and if an additional inspiratory load during ET (ET+IL) would further improve inspiratory muscle strength, IMF, and time-trial performance. 15 subjects were randomly divided to ET (n=8) and ET+IL groups (n=7). All subjects completed six weeks of exercise training three days/week at ∼70%V̇O2peak for 30min. The ET+IL group breathed through an inspiratory muscle trainer (15% PImax) during exercise. 5-mile, and 30-min time-trials were performed pre-training, weeks three and six. Inspiratory muscle strength increased (p<0.05) for both groups to a similar (p>0.05) extent. ET and ET+IL groups improved (p<0.05) 5-mile time-trial performance (∼10% and ∼18%) and the ET+IL group was significantly faster than ET at week 6. ET and ET+IL groups experienced less (p<0.05) IMF compared to pre-training following the 5-mile time-trial. In conclusion, these data suggest ET leads to less IMF, ET+IL improves inspiratory muscle strength and IMF, but not different than ET alone.

  8. Reading 'Endurance Crater'

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Figure 1

    This image shows the area inside 'Endurance Crater' that the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity has been examining. The rover is investigating the distinct layers of rock that make up this region. Each layer is defined by subtle color and texture variations and represents a separate chapter in Mars' history. The deeper the layer, the further back in time the rocks were formed. Scientists are 'reading' this history book by systematically studying each layer with the rover's scientific instruments. So far, data from the rover indicate that the top layers are sulfate-rich, like the rocks observed in 'Eagle Crater.' This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks.

    In figure 1, the layer labeled 'A' in this picture contains broken-up rocks that most closely resemble those of 'Eagle Crater.' Layers 'B,C and D' appear less broken up and more finely laminated. Layer 'E,' on the other hand, looks more like 'A.' At present, the rover is examining layer 'D.'

    So far, data from the rover indicates that the first four layers consist of sulfate-rich, jarosite-containing rocks like those observed in Eagle Crater. This implies that water processes were involved in forming the materials that make up these rocks, though the materials themselves may have been laid down by wind.

    This image was taken by Opportunity's navigation camera on sol 134 (June 9, 2004).

  9. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  10. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  11. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  12. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  13. 14 CFR 61.419 - How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of light-sport...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... training in an additional category or class of light-sport aircraft? 61.419 Section 61.419 Aeronautics and...: PILOTS, FLIGHT INSTRUCTORS, AND GROUND INSTRUCTORS Flight Instructors With a Sport Pilot Rating § 61.419 How do I obtain privileges to provide training in an additional category or class of...

  14. Increased expression of telomere-regulating genes in endurance athletes with long leukocyte telomeres.

    PubMed

    Denham, Joshua; O'Brien, Brendan J; Prestes, Priscilla R; Brown, Nicholas J; Charchar, Fadi J

    2016-01-15

    Leukocyte telomeres shorten with age, and excessive shortening is associated with age-related cardiometabolic diseases. Exercise training may prevent disease through telomere length maintenance although the optimal amount of exercise that attenuates telomere attrition is unknown. Furthermore, the underlying molecular mechanisms responsible for the enhanced telomere maintenance observed in endurance athletes is poorly understood. We quantified the leukocyte telomere length and analyzed the expression of telomere-regulating genes in endurance athletes and healthy controls (both n = 61), using quantitative PCR. We found endurance athletes have significantly longer (7.1%, 208-416 nt) leukocyte telomeres and upregulated TERT (2.0-fold) and TPP1 (1.3-fold) mRNA expression compared with controls in age-adjusted analysis. The telomere length and telomere-regulating gene expression differences were no longer statistically significant after adjustment for resting heart rate and relative V̇O(2 max) (all P > 0.05). Resting heart rate emerged as an independent predictor of leukocyte telomere length and TERT and TPP1 mRNA expression in stepwise regression models. To gauge whether volume of exercise was associated with leukocyte telomere length, we divided subjects into running and cycling tertiles (distance covered per week) and found individuals in the middle and highest tertiles had longer telomeres than individuals in the lowest tertile. These data emphasize the importance of cardiorespiratory fitness and exercise training in the prevention of biological aging. They also support the concept that moderate amounts of exercise training protects against biological aging, while higher amounts may not elicit additional benefits.

  15. Lack of Dehydroepiandrosterone Effect on a Combined Endurance and Resistance Exercise Program in Postmenopausal Women

    PubMed Central

    Igwebuike, Ada; Irving, Brian A.; Bigelow, Maureen L.; Short, Kevin R.; McConnell, Joseph P.; Nair, K. Sreekumaran

    2008-01-01

    Context: Recent studies disputed the widely promoted anti-aging effect of dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) supplementation; however, conflicting data exist on whether physiological DHEA supplementation enhances exercise training effects on body composition, physical performance, and cardiometabolic risk in healthy postmenopausal women. Objective: The aim of this study was to determine whether 12 wk of DHEA supplementation (50 mg/d) in postmenopausal women enhances exercise-related changes in body composition, physical performance, and cardiometabolic risk. Design and Setting: This study was a 12-wk randomized double-blind, placebo-controlled trial and took place at the Mayo Clinic General Clinical Research Center (Rochester, MN). Participants: Thirty-one sedentary, postmenopausal, Caucasian women (mean ± sem age 64.6 ± 1.0 yr) completed the study. Intervention: Participants were randomized to one of two 12-wk interventions: 1) exercise training plus 50 mg/d of DHEA (n = 17), or 2) exercise training plus placebo (n = 14). The exercise intervention consisted of both endurance (4 d/wk) and resistance (3 d/wk) exercise components. Main Outcome Measures: The main outcomes were measures of body composition, physical performance, and measures of cardiometabolic risk. Results: DHEA treatment with exercise resulted in increases in circulating sulfated DHEA (650%), total testosterone (100%), estradiol (165%), estrone (85%), and IGF-I (30%) (all P ≤ 0.05, for all within and between treatment comparisons). Although exercise training alone significantly improved physical performance, body composition, and insulin sensitivity, administration of DHEA provided no additional benefits. Conclusions: Twelve weeks of combined endurance and resistance training significantly improved body composition, physical performance, insulin sensitivity, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol particle number and size, whereas DHEA had no additional benefits. PMID:18029465

  16. Increasing Word-Reading Speed in Poor Readers: No Additional Benefits of Explicit Letter-Cluster Training

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marinus, Eva; de Jong, Peter; van der Leij, Aryan

    2012-01-01

    The present study examined whether explicit training of letter-clusters leads to more gains in word-reading speed than training of the separate letters of the same clusters. Ninety-nine poor reading second-grade children were randomly assigned to a cluster-training, a parallel letter-training, or a no-training condition. The cluster-training…

  17. Effects of excessive endurance activity on the heart.

    PubMed

    Seidl, Jamie; Asplund, Chad A

    2014-01-01

    Regular moderate exercise confers many cardiovascular and health benefits. Because of this, endurance sports events have become very popular with participation increasing tremendously over the past few years. In conjunction with this increase in popularity and participation, people also have increased the amount that they exercise with many training for and competing in ultraendurance events such as ultradistance running events, iron distance triathlons, or multiday races. This excess endurance activity may appear to increase the risk of cardiac abnormalities, which may increase the risk for long-term morbidity or mortality. While it is known that moderate exercise has benefits to cardiovascular health, ultimately, the long-term cardiac effects of excessive endurance activity are unclear. What is clear, however, is that moderate exercise is beneficial, and to date, the evidence does not support recommending against physical activity.

  18. Empowering Parents of Obese Children (EPOC): A randomized controlled trial on additional long-term weight effects of parent training.

    PubMed

    Warschburger, Petra; Kroeller, Katja; Haerting, Johannes; Unverzagt, Susanne; van Egmond-Fröhlich, Andreas

    2016-08-01

    Although inpatient lifestyle treatment for obese children and adolescents can be highly effective in the short term, long-term results are unconvincing. One possible explanation might be that the treatment takes place far from parents' homes, limiting the possibility to incorporate the parents, who play a major role in establishing and maintaining a healthy lifestyle in childhood and adolescence. The main goal was to develop a brief behaviorally oriented parent training program that enhances 'obesity-specific' parenting skills in order to prevent relapse. We hypothesized that the inclusion of additional parent training would lead to an improved long-term weight course of obese children. Parents of obese children (n = 686; 7-13 years old) either participated in complementary cognitive-behavioral group sessions (n = 336) or received written information only (n = 350) during the inpatient stay. Children of both groups attended multidisciplinary inpatient rehabilitation. BMI-SDS as a primary outcome was evaluated at baseline, post-intervention and at 6- and 12-month follow-up. Intention-to-treat (ITT) as well as per-protocol analyses (PPA) were performed. A significant within-group decrease of 0.24 (95% CI 0.18 to 0.30) BMI-SDS points from the beginning of the inpatient stay through the first year was found, but no group difference at the one-year follow-up (mean difference 0.02; 95% CI -0.04 to 0.07). We also observed an increase in quality of life scores, intake of healthy food and exercise for both groups, without differences between groups (ITT and PPA). Thus, while the inpatient treatment proved highly effective, additional parent training did not lead to better results in long-term weight maintenance or to better psychosocial well-being compared to written psycho-educational material. Further research should focus on subgroups to answer the question of differential treatment effects.

  19. Effect of Exercise Training and +Gz Acceleration Training on Men

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Greenleaf, John E.; Simonson, Shawn R.; Stocks, Jodie M.; Evans, Joyce; Knapp, Charles F.; Cowell, Stephenie A.; Pemberton, Kendra N.; Wilson, Heather W.; Vener, Jamie M.; Evetts, Simon N.

    2001-01-01

    Countermeasures for reduction in work capacity (maximal oxygen uptake and strength) during spaceflight and enhanced orthostatic intolerance during re-entry, landing and egress from the return vehicle are continuing problems. The purpose for this study was to test the hypothesis that passive-acceleration training; supine, interval, exercise plus acceleration training and exercise combined with acceleration training would improve orthostatic tolerance in ambulatory men; and that addition of the aerobic exercise conditioning would not alter this improved tolerance from that of passive-acceleration training. Seven men (24-38 yr) underwent "Passive" training on the Ames human-powered centrifuge (HPC) for 30 min, "Exercise" training on the cycle ergometer with constant +Gz acceleration; and "Combined" exercise training at 40% to 90% of the HPC +Gz(max) exercise level. Maximal supine exercise loads increased significant (P<0.05) by 8.3% (Passive), 12.6% (Exercise), and by 15.4% (Combined) after training, but their post-training maximal oxygen uptakes and maximal heart rates were unchanged. Maximal time to fatigue (endurance) was unchanged with Passive was increased (P<0.05) with Exercise and Combined training. Thus, the exercise in the Exercise and Combined training Phases resulted in greater maximal loads and endurance without effect on maximal oxygen uptake or heart rate. There was a 4% to 6% increase (P<0.05) in all four quadriceps muscle volumes (right and left) after post-Combined training. Resting pre-tilt heart rate was elevated by 12.9% (P<0.05) only after Passive training suggesting that the exercise training attenuated the HR response. Plasma volume (% Delta) was uniformly decreased by 8% to 14% (P<0.05) at tilt-tolerance pre- vs. post-training indicating essentially no effect of training on the level of hypovolemia. Post-training tilt-tolerance time and heart rate were increased (P<0.05) only with Passive training by 37.8% and by 29.1%, respectively. Thus

  20. Effects of systemic hypoxia on human muscular adaptations to resistance exercise training.

    PubMed

    Kon, Michihiro; Ohiwa, Nao; Honda, Akiko; Matsubayashi, Takeo; Ikeda, Tatsuaki; Akimoto, Takayuki; Suzuki, Yasuhiro; Hirano, Yuichi; Russell, Aaron P

    2014-06-01

    Hypoxia is an important modulator of endurance exercise-induced oxidative adaptations in skeletal muscle. However, whether hypoxia affects resistance exercise-induced muscle adaptations remains unknown. Here, we determined the effect of resistance exercise training under systemic hypoxia on muscular adaptations known to occur following both resistance and endurance exercise training, including muscle cross-sectional area (CSA), one-repetition maximum (1RM), muscular endurance, and makers of mitochondrial biogenesis and angiogenesis, such as peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator-1α (PGC-1α), citrate synthase (CS) activity, nitric oxide synthase (NOS), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), and capillary-to-fiber ratio. Sixteen healthy male subjects were randomly assigned to either a normoxic resistance training group (NRT, n = 7) or a hypoxic (14.4% oxygen) resistance training group (HRT, n = 9) and performed 8 weeks of resistance training. Blood and muscle biopsy samples were obtained before and after training. After training muscle CSA of the femoral region, 1RM for bench-press and leg-press, muscular endurance, and skeletal muscle VEGF protein levels significantly increased in both groups. The increase in muscular endurance was significantly higher in the HRT group. Plasma VEGF concentration and skeletal muscle capillary-to-fiber ratio were significantly higher in the HRT group than the NRT group following training. Our results suggest that, in addition to increases in muscle size and strength, HRT may also lead to increased muscular endurance and the promotion of angiogenesis in skeletal muscle.

  1. Comparison of incremental and constant load tests of inspiratory muscle endurance in COPD.

    PubMed

    Hill, K; Jenkins, S C; Philippe, D L; Shepherd, K L; Hillman, D R; Eastwood, P R

    2007-09-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the relative value of incremental and constant load tests in detecting changes in inspiratory muscle endurance following high-intensity inspiratory muscle training (H-IMT) in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. In total, 16 subjects (11 males; forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV(1)) 37.4+/-12.5%) underwent H-IMT. In addition, 17 subjects (11 males; FEV(1) 36.5+/-11.5%) underwent sham inspiratory muscle training (S-IMT). Training took place three times a week for 8 weeks. Baseline and post-training measurements were obtained of maximum threshold pressure sustained during an incremental load test (P(th,max)) and time breathing against a constant load (t(lim)). Breathing pattern was unconstrained. H-IMT increased P(th,max) and t(lim) relative to baseline and to any change seen following S-IMT. The effect size for P(th,max) was greater than for t(lim). Post-training tests were accompanied by changes in breathing pattern, including decreased duty cycle, which may have served to decrease inspiratory work and thereby contribute to the increase in P(th,max) and t(lim) in both groups. When assessing inspiratory muscle function in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease via tests in which the pattern of breathing is unconstrained, the current authors recommend incremental load tests be used in preference to constant load tests. However, to attribute changes in these tests to improvements in inspiratory muscle endurance, breathing pattern should be controlled.

  2. Iron and the endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Hinton, Pamela S

    2014-09-01

    Iron is a trace mineral that is highly significant to endurance athletes. Iron is critical to optimal athletic performance because of its role in energy metabolism, oxygen transport, and acid-base balance. Endurance athletes are at increased risk for suboptimal iron status, with potential negative consequences on performance, because of the combination of increased iron needs and inadequate dietary intake. This review paper summarizes the role of iron in maximal and submaximal exercise and describes the effects of iron deficiency on exercise performance. Mechanisms that explain the increased risk of iron deficiency in endurance athletes, including exercise-associated inflammation and hepcidin release on iron sequestration, are described. Information on screening athletes for iron deficiency is presented, and suggestions to increase iron intake through diet modification or supplemental iron are provided.

  3. Hodgkin's Lymphoma in an elite endurance athlete.

    PubMed

    Schumacher, Yorck Olaf; Muser, Klaus; Hirschberger, Barbara; Roecker, Kai; Dickhuth, Hans Herrmann; Pottgiesser, Torben

    2008-03-01

    Cancer is a life-threatening condition. We describe the case of a 22-yr-old world-class endurance athlete who presented with mild local lymphadenopathy but without any systemic complaints or impaired performance. He was subsequently diagnosed with stage III A (S) Hodgkin's lymphoma. A complete physiological workup before the diagnosis revealed high aerobic capacity. Immediately after six courses of escalated BEACOPP chemotherapy in an identical test setting, aerobic capacity was markedly reduced (-42%), mainly because of a decrease in total hemoglobin mass (-37%), despite maintaining a certain amount of endurance training. Other potentially performance-limiting systems such as heart, lung, or aerobic metabolism did not show any signs of impairment. Two months after chemotherapy, the athlete had recovered his hemoglobin mass, and his aerobic performance was almost back to pretherapy levels. This case illustrates that advanced malignancies can be present in elite athletes without affecting performance, and that aerobic capacity can be regained within a short time after systemic chemotherapy.

  4. The Additive Effects of Values Clarification Training to an Online Goal-Setting Procedure on Measures of Student Retention and Performance

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chase, Jared A.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide individuals with online tutorials to help participants generate strategies to achieve their academic goals and clarify their academic values to assess the additive effects of values clarification training to an online goal-setting training procedure on (1) measures of academic performance and (2) student…

  5. Effects of caloric restriction and overnight fasting on cycling endurance performance.

    PubMed

    Ferguson, Lisa M; Rossi, Kelly A; Ward, Emily; Jadwin, Emily; Miller, Todd A; Miller, Wayne C

    2009-03-01

    In addition to aerobic endurance and anaerobic capacity, high power-to-weight ratio (PWR) is important for cycling performance. Cyclists often try to lose weight before race season to improve body composition and optimize PWR. Research has demonstrated body fat-reducing benefits of exercise after fasting overnight. We hypothesized that fasted-state exercise in calorie-restricted trained cyclists would not result in performance decrements and that their PWR would improve significantly. We also hypothesized that substrate use during fasted-state submaximal endurance cycling would shift to greater reliance on fat. Ten trained, competitive cyclists completed a protocol consisting of baseline testing, 3 weeks of caloric restriction (CR), and post-CR testing. The testing sessions measured pre- and post-CR values for resting metabolic rate (RMR), body composition, VO2, PWR and power-to-lean weight ratio (PLWR), and power output, as well as 2-hour submaximal cycling performance, rating of perceived exertion (RPE), and respiratory exchange ratio (RER). There were no significant differences between baseline and post-CR for submaximal trial RER, power output, VO2, RMR, VO2max, or workload at VO2max. However, RPE was significantly lower, and PWR was significantly higher post-CR, whereas RER did not change. The cyclists' PWR and body composition improved significantly, and their overall weight, fat weight, and body fat percentage decreased. Lean mass was maintained. The cyclists' RPE decreased significantly during 2 hours of submaximal cycling post-CR, and there was no decrement in submaximal or maximal cycling performance after 3 weeks of CR combined with overnight fasting. Caloric restriction (up to 40% for 3 weeks) and exercising after fasting overnight can improve a cyclist's PWR without compromising endurance cycling performance.

  6. Effects of acute supplementation of L-arginine and nitrate on endurance and sprint performance in elite athletes.

    PubMed

    Sandbakk, Silvana Bucher; Sandbakk, Øyvind; Peacock, Oliver; James, Philip; Welde, Boye; Stokes, Keith; Böhlke, Nikolai; Tjønna, Arnt Erik

    2015-08-01

    This study examined the effects of acute supplementation with L-arginine and nitrate on running economy, endurance and sprint performance in endurance-trained athletes. In a randomised cross-over, double-blinded design we compared the effects of combined supplementation with 6 g L-arginine and 614 mg nitrate against 614 mg nitrate alone and placebo in nine male elite cross-country skiers (age 18 ± 0 years, VO2max 69.3 ± 5.8 ml ⋅ min(-1) ⋅ kg(-1)). After a 48-hour standardisation of nutrition and exercise the athletes were tested for plasma nitrate and nitrite concentrations, blood pressure, submaximal running economy at 10 km ⋅ h(-1) and 14 km ⋅ h(-1) at 1% incline and 180 m as well as 5-km time-trial running performances. Plasma nitrite concentration following L-arginine + nitrate supplementation (319 ± 54 nmol ⋅ L(-1)) did not differ from nitrate alone (328 ± 107 nmol ⋅ L(-1)), and both were higher than placebo (149 ± 64 nmol ⋅ L(-1), p < 0.01). There were no differences in physiological responses during submaximal running or in 5-km performance between treatments. The plasma nitrite concentrations indicate greater nitric oxide availability both following acute supplementation of L-arginine + nitrate and with nitrate alone compared to placebo, but no additional effect was revealed when L-arginine was added to nitrate. Still, there were no effects of supplementation on exercise economy or endurance running performance in endurance-trained cross-country skiers.

  7. How Cells Endure Extreme Conditions

    SciTech Connect

    2009-01-01

    One of natures most gripping feats of survival is now better understood. For the first time, Berkeley Lab scientists observed the chemical changes in individual cells that enable them to survive in conditions that should kill them. http://newscenter.lbl.gov/feature-stories/2009/07/07/cells-endure-extremes/

  8. Pilates for improvement of muscle endurance, flexibility, balance, and posture.

    PubMed

    Kloubec, June A

    2010-03-01

    Many claims have been made about the effectiveness of Pilates exercise on the basic parameters of fitness. The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of Pilates exercise on abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, upper-body muscular endurance, posture, and balance. Fifty subjects were recruited to participate in a 12-week Pilates class, which met for 1 hour 2 times per week. Subjects were randomly assigned to either the experimental (n = 25) or control group (n = 25). Subjects performed the essential (basic) mat routine consisting of approximately 25 separate exercises focusing on muscular endurance and flexibility of the abdomen, low back, and hips each class session. At the end of the 12-week period, a 1-way analysis of covariance showed a significant level of improvement (p < or = 0.05) in all variables except posture and balance. This study demonstrated that in active middle-aged men and women, exposure to Pilates exercise for 12 weeks, for two 60-minute sessions per week, was enough to promote statistically significant increases in abdominal endurance, hamstring flexibility, and upper-body muscular endurance. Participants did not demonstrate improvements in either posture or balance when compared with the control group. Exercise-training programs that address physical inactivity concerns and that are accessible and enjoyable to the general public are a desirable commodity for exercise and fitness trainers. This study suggests that individuals can improve their muscular endurance and flexibility using relatively low-intensity Pilates exercises that do not require equipment or a high degree of skill and are easy to master and use within a personal fitness routine.

  9. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  10. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  11. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  12. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  13. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  14. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  15. 14 CFR 33.49 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.49 Section 33.49... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Reciprocating Aircraft Engines § 33.49 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of 150 hours of...

  16. 14 CFR 35.39 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Endurance test. 35.39 Section 35.39... STANDARDS: PROPELLERS Tests and Inspections § 35.39 Endurance test. Endurance tests on the propeller system... propellers must be subjected to one of the following tests: (1) A 50-hour flight test in level flight or...

  17. 14 CFR 33.87 - Endurance test.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Endurance test. 33.87 Section 33.87... STANDARDS: AIRCRAFT ENGINES Block Tests; Turbine Aircraft Engines § 33.87 Endurance test. (a) General. Each engine must be subjected to an endurance test that includes a total of at least 150 hours of...

  18. Comparison between three different endurance tests in professional soccer players.

    PubMed

    Hoppe, Matthias W; Baumgart, Christian; Sperlich, Billy; Ibrahim, Hassan; Jansen, Christian; Willis, Sarah J; Freiwald, Juergen

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this study were (a) to assess and correlate interval shuttle run test (ISRT) performance, maximum oxygen uptake (V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max), running economy (RE), running velocity at the first rise in blood lactate concentrations above baseline (vLT) and running velocity at 4 mmol·L(-1) blood lactate concentration (v4) in professional soccer players and (b) to investigate whether a correlation exists between the respective results of time to exhaustion (T(lim)) from continuous and intermittent endurance tests, respectively. Eleven male professional field soccer players (mean ± SD: age 23.8 ± 3.0 years, V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max 58.2 ± 4.9 ml·kg(-1)·min(-1)) completed a continuous Incremental Test with lactate measurements to determine vLT and v4, a continuous Ramp Test with gas exchange analysis to determine V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max and RE, and an intermittent ISRT to determine intermittent endurance capacity during the first week of preseason preparation. There were significant correlations between ISRT performance and V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max (r = 0.70, p < 0.05), and between T(lim) in both continuous endurance tests (r = 0.89, p < 0.01). Between all other variables no significant correlations were found overall (best r = 0.60, p > 0.05). The assessment of all values of V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max, RE, vLT, and v4 should be included when investigating aerobic endurance performance among groups or over time in professional soccer players. Although V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max, RE, vLT, and v4 have been regarded as important factors of aerobic performance in endurance related sports, the present data revealed that V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max was the only factor, which correlated with intermittent endurance capacity in professional soccer players. Hence, V[Combining Dot Above]O(2)max should be increased through soccer-specific training interventions including universal agility components. The T(lim) in continuous and

  19. Effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults.

    PubMed

    Kanitz, Ana Carolina; Delevatti, Rodrigo Sudatti; Reichert, Thais; Liedtke, Giane Veiga; Ferrari, Rodrigo; Almada, Bruna Pereira; Pinto, Stephanie Santana; Alberton, Cristine Lima; Kruel, Luiz Fernando Martins

    2015-04-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of two deep water training programs on cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adults. Thirty-four older adults men were placed into two groups: deep water endurance training (ET; n = 16; 66 ± 4 years) and deep water strength prior to endurance training (concurrent training: CT; n = 18; 64 ± 4 years). The training period lasted 12 weeks, with three sessions a week. The resting heart rate and the oxygen uptake at peak (VO2peak) and at the second ventilatory threshold (VO2VT2) were evaluated during a maximal incremental test on a cycle ergometer before and after training. In addition, maximal dynamic strength (one repetition maximum test--1RM) and local muscular resistance (maximum repetitions at 60% 1RM) of the knee extensors and flexors were evaluated. After the training period, the heart rate at rest decreased significantly, while the VO2peak and VO2VT2 showed significant increases in both groups (p<0.05). Only the VO2VT2 resulted in significantly greater values for the ET compared to the CT group after the training (p<0.05). In addition, after training, there was a significant increase in the maximal dynamic strength of the knee extensors and the local muscular endurance of the knee extensors and flexors, with no difference between the groups (p > 0.05). In summary, the two training programs were effective at producing significant improvements in cardiorespiratory and muscular strength responses in older adult men. However, deep water endurance training at high intensities provides increased cardiorespiratory responses compared to CT and results in similar muscular strength responses.

  20. Recommendations for Healthy Nutrition in Female Endurance Runners: An Update

    PubMed Central

    Deldicque, Louise; Francaux, Marc

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this review is to present the basic principles of a healthy nutrition in female endurance runner enriched by the latest scientific recommendations. Female endurance runners are a specific population of athletes who need to take specifically care of daily nutrition due to the high load of training and the necessity to keep a rather low body mass. This paradoxical situation can create some nutritional imbalances and deficiencies. Female endurance athletes should pay attention to their total energy intake, which is often lower than their energy requirement. The minimal energy requirement has been set to 45 kcal/kg fat free mass/day plus the amount of energy needed for physical activity. The usual recommended amount of 1.2–1.4 g protein/kg/day has recently been questioned by new findings suggesting that 1.6 g/kg/day would be more appropriate for female athletes. Although a bit less sensitive to carbohydrate loading than their male counterparts, female athletes can benefit from this nutritional strategy before a race if the amount of carbohydrates reaches 8 g/kg/day and if their daily total energy intake is sufficient. A poor iron status is a common issue in female endurance runners but iron-enriched food as well as iron supplementation may help to counterbalance this poor status. Finally, they should also be aware that they may be at risk for low calcium and vitamin D levels. PMID:26075206

  1. Assessing fitness in endurance horses.

    PubMed

    Fraipont, Audrey; Van Erck, Emmanuelle; Ramery, Eve; Fortier, Guillaume; Lekeux, Pierre; Art, Tatiana

    2012-03-01

    A field test and a standardized treadmill test were used to assess fitness in endurance horses. These tests discriminated horses of different race levels: horses participating in races of 120 km and more showed higher values of VLA4 (velocity at which blood lactate reached 4 mmol/L) and V200 (velocity at which heart rates reached 200 beats per min) than horses of lower race levels.

  2. 'Endurance' Goal Across the Plains

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    This mosaic image from the Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity's panoramic camera provides an overview of the rover's drive direction toward 'Endurance Crater,' which is in the upper right corner of image.

    The plains appear to be uniform in character from the rovers current position all the way to Endurance Crater. Granules of various sizes blanket the plains. Spherical granules fancifully called blueberries are present some intact and some broken. Larger granules pave the surface, while smaller grains, including broken blueberries, form small dunes. Randomly distributed 1-centimeter (0.4 inch) sized pebbles (as seen just left of center in the foreground of the image) make up a third type of feature on the plains. The pebbles' composition remains to be determined. Scientists plan to examine these in the coming sols.

    Examination of this part of Mars by NASA's Mars Global Surveyor orbiter revealed the presence of hematite, which led NASA to choose Meridiani Planum as Opportunity's landing site. The rover science conducted on the plains of Meridiani Planum serves to integrate what the rovers are seeing on the ground with what orbital data have shown.

    Opportunity will make stop at a small crater called 'Fram' (seen in the upper left, with relatively large rocks nearby) before heading to the rim of Endurance Crater.

  3. Relationship between membrane Cl− conductance and contractile endurance in isolated rat muscles

    PubMed Central

    de Paoli, Frank Vincenzo; Broch-Lips, Martin; Pedersen, Thomas Holm; Nielsen, Ole Bækgaard

    2013-01-01

    Resting skeletal muscle fibres have a large membrane Cl− conductance (GCl) that dampens their excitability. Recently, however, muscle activity was shown to induce PKC-mediated reduction in GCl in rat muscles of 40–90%. To examine the physiological significance of this PKC-mediated GCl reduction for the function of muscles, this study explored effects of GCl reductions on contractile endurance in isolated rat muscles. Contractile endurance was assessed from the ability of muscle to maintain force during prolonged stimulation under conditions when GCl was manipulated by: (i) inhibition of PKC, (ii) reduction of solution Cl− or (iii) inhibition of ClC-1 Cl− channels using 9-anthracene-carboxylic acid (9-AC). Experiments showed that contractile endurance was optimally preserved by reductions in GCl similar to what occurs in active muscle. Contrastingly, further GCl reductions compromised the endurance. The experiments thus show a biphasic relationship between GCl and contractile endurance in which partial GCl reduction improves endurance while further GCl reduction compromises endurance. Intracellular recordings of trains of action potentials suggest that this biphasic dependency of contractile endurance on GCl reflects that lowering GCl enhances muscle excitability but low GCl also increases the depolarisation of muscle fibres during excitation and reduces their ability to re-accumulate K+ lost during excitation. If GCl becomes very low, the latter actions dominate causing reduced endurance. It is concluded that the PKC-mediated ClC-1 channel inhibition in active muscle reduces GCl to a level that optimises contractile endurance during intense exercise. PMID:23045345

  4. The limits of endurance exercise.

    PubMed

    Noakes, Timothy David

    2006-09-01

    A skeletal design which favours running and walking, including the greatest ratio of leg length to body weight of any mammal; the ability to sweat and so to exercise vigorously in the heat; and greater endurance than all land mammals other than the Alaskan Husky, indicates that humans evolved as endurance animals. The development of tools to accurately measure time and distance in the nineteenth century inspired some humans to define the limits of this special capacity. Beginning with Six-Day Professional Pedestrian Races in London and New York in the 1880s, followed a decade later by Six-Day Professional Cycling Races - the immediate precursor of the first six-day Tour de France Cycliste race in 1903, which itself inspired the 1928 and 1929 4,960 km "Bunion Derbies" between Los Angeles and New York across the breadth of the United States of America - established those unique sporting events that continue to challenge the modern limits of human endurance. But an analysis of the total energy expenditure achieved by athletes competing in those events establishes that none approaches those reached by another group - the explorers of the heroic age of polar exploration in the early twentieth century. Thus the greatest recorded human endurance performances occurred during the Antarctic sledding expeditions led by Robert Scott in 1911/12 and Ernest Shackleton in 1914/16. By man-hauling sleds for 10 hours daily for approximately 159 and 160 consecutive days respectively, members of those expeditions would have expended close to a total of 1,000,000 kcal. By comparison completing a Six-Day Pedestrian event (55,000 kcal) or the Tour de France (168,000 kcal), or cycling (180,000 kcal) or running (340,000 kcal) across America, requires a considerably smaller total energy expenditure. Thus the limits of human endurance were set at the start of the twentieth century and have not recently been approached. Given good health and an adequate food supply to prevent starvation and

  5. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers’ Strength and Isometric Endurance

    PubMed Central

    Ozimek, Mariusz; Staszkiewicz, Robert; Rokowski, Robert

    2016-01-01

    Abstract The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and “conditioning” variables on the one hand, and climber’s performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman’s rank) were found between climber’s competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7); much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 – 0.57). Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests. PMID:28149428

  6. Analysis of Tests Evaluating Sport Climbers' Strength and Isometric Endurance.

    PubMed

    Ozimek, Mariusz; Staszkiewicz, Robert; Rokowski, Robert; Stanula, Arkadiusz

    2016-12-01

    The present study was designed to determine which types of specific tests provide an effective evaluation of strength and endurance in highly trained competitive sport climbers. The research process consisted of three basic components: the measurement of selected somatic characteristics of the climbers, the assessment of their physical conditioning, and a search for correlations between the anthropometric and "conditioning" variables on the one hand, and climber's performance on the other. The sample of subjects consisted of 14 experienced volunteer climbers capable of handling 7a- 8a+/b on-sight rock climbing grades. The strongest correlations (Spearman's rank) were found between climber's competence and the relative results of the finger strength test (r = 0.7); much lower, but still statistically significant coefficients were found between the level of competence and the results of the muscle endurance tests (r = 0.53 - 0.57). Climbers aspiring to attain an elite level must have strong finger and forearm muscles, but most of all, they must be capable of releasing their potential during specific motor capability tests engaging these parts of the body. The forearm muscles of elite climbers must also be very resistant to fatigue. Since highly trained athletes vary only slightly in body mass, this variable does not have a major effect on their performance during strength and endurance tests.

  7. The Effect of Additional Training on Motor Outcomes at Discharge from Recovery Phase Rehabilitation Wards: A Survey from Multi-Center Stroke Data Bank in Japan

    PubMed Central

    Shiraishi, Nariaki; Suzuki, Yusuke; Matsumoto, Daisuke; Jeong, Seungwon; Sugiyama, Motoya; Kondo, Katsunori; Kuzuya, Masafumi

    2014-01-01

    Objectives The purpose of the present study was to examine the potential benefits of additional training in patients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation ward using the data bank of post-stroke patient registry. Subjects and Methods Subjects were 2507 inpatients admitted to recovery phase rehabilitation wards between November 2004 and November 2010. Participants were retrospectively divided into four groups based upon chart review; patients who received no additional rehabilitation, patients who were added with self-initiated off hours training, patients who were added with off hours training by ward staff, patients who received both self-initiated training and training by ward staff. Parameters for assessing outcomes included length of stay, motor/cognitive subscales of functional independent measures (FIM) and motor benefit of FIM calculated by subtracting the score at admission from that at discharge. Results Participants were stratified into three groups depending on the motor FIM at admission (≦28, 29∼56, 57≦) for comparison. Regarding outcome variables, significant inter-group differences were observed in all items examined within the subgroup who scored 28 or less and between 29 and 56. Meanwhile no such trends were observed in the group who scored 57 or more compared with those who scored less. In a decision tree created based upon Exhaustive Chi-squared Automatic Interaction Detection method, variables chosen were the motor FIM at admission (the first node) additional training (the second node), the cognitive FIM at admission(the third node). Conclusions Overall the results suggest that additional training can compensate for the shortage of regular rehabilitation implemented in recovery phase rehabilitation ward, thus may contribute to improved outcomes assessed by motor FIM at discharge. PMID:24626224

  8. Training for lifting; an unresolved ergonomic issue?

    PubMed

    Sedgwick, A W; Gormley, J T

    1998-10-01

    The paper describes a nine year project on lifting training which included nine trans-Australia consensus conferences attended by more than 900 health professionals. Major outcomes were: (1) The essence of lifting work is the need for the performer to cope with variability in task, environment, and self, and the essence of lifting skill is therefore adaptability; (2) the semi-squat approach provides the safest and most effective basis for lifting training; (3) for lifting training to be effective, the basic principles of skill learning must be systematically applied, with adaptability as a specific goal; (4) physical work capacity (aerobic power, strength, endurance, joint mobility) is a decisive ingredient of safe and effective lifting and, in addition to skill learning, should be incorporated in the training of people engaging regularly in heavy manual work; (5) if effective compliance with recommended skilled behaviour is to be achieved, then training must apply the principles and methods appropriate to adult learning and behaviour modification.

  9. Seeing 'Endurance' Through Infrared Eyes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Surface composition in 'Endurance Crater' is mapped with color-coded interpretation of data from the miniature thermal emission spectrometer on NASA's Mars Exploration Rover Opportunity. The information has been overlaid onto a view of the crater from Opportunity's panoramic camera. Green, such as on some slopes, indicates material rich in the mineral hematite. Blue and purple, such as on some cliffs of exposed rock, indicate the presence of basalt. Basaltic material is volcanic in origin, but the basalt may have been broken down into sand by weathering, then re-deposited by wind or water. Red indicates areas covered by martian dust.

  10. Training

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The Drinking Water Academy provides online training and information to ensure that water professionals, public officials, and involved citizens have the knowledge and skills necessary to protect our drinking water supply.

  11. [Therapeutic training and sports in chronic diseases of the lung].

    PubMed

    Podolsky, A; Haber, P

    1993-01-01

    Training is defined as systematic physical activity in order to improve the physical working capacity, which causes measurable morphological and functional changes in organs. Effects and the rules of applying aerobic endurance training in patients with chronic diseases of the lungs are dealt with. Training does not replace the normal medication, but is an additional therapeutic mean in order to regain physical working capacity, lost by chronic immobilization in the natural course of disease. Contraindications are acute diseases and exacerbations, but not a certain degree of the disease. Training does not improve the lung function, but the function of the other organs, the physical working capacity ist based on (circulation, musculature). This helps to use optimally the remaining reserves of lung function. Methods of aerobic endurance training are described, the definition of aims, performance diagnostic and the finding of the exact doses of training according to intensity, duration, frequency and the weekly netto training time. The training in different diseases of the lungs is discussed: In asthma bronchiale the prophylaxis of the exercise induced asthma and permitted and forbidden drugs for asthmatics according to the rules of international olympic committee. In chronic bronchitis with arterial hypoxemia, in restrictive lung diseases and in pulmonary hypertension. At last the way to prescribing training for patients with chronic pulmonary diseases is described as well as the advising of patients wishing to do sport by their own motivation or planning projects, for instance touristic ones, which require physical stress.

  12. The Effects of Preexercise Caffeinated Coffee Ingestion on Endurance Performance: An Evidence-Based Review.

    PubMed

    Higgins, Simon; Straight, Chad R; Lewis, Richard D

    2016-06-01

    Endurance athletes commonly ingest caffeine as a means to enhance training intensity and competitive performance. A widely-used source of caffeine is coffee, however conflicting evidence exists regarding the efficacy of coffee in improving endurance performance. In this context, the aims of this evidence-based review were threefold: 1) to evaluate the effects of preexercise coffee on endurance performance, 2) to evaluate the effects of coffee on perceived exertion during endurance performance, and 3) to translate the research into usable information for athletes to make an informed decision regarding the intake of caffeine via coffee as a potential ergogenic aid. Searches of three major databases were performed using terms caffeine and coffee, or coffee-caffeine, and endurance, or aerobic. Included studies (n = 9) evaluated the effects of caffeinated coffee on human subjects, provided the caffeine dose administered, administered caffeine ≥ 45 min before testing, and included a measure of endurance p