Science.gov

Sample records for additional energy costs

  1. Solar energy systems cost

    SciTech Connect

    Lavender, J.A.

    1980-01-01

    Five major areas of work currently being pursued in the United States in solar energy which will have a significant impact on the world's energy situation in the future are addressed. The five significant areas discussed include a technical description of several solar technologies, current and projected cost of the selected solar systems, and cost methodologies which are under development. In addition, sensitivity considerations which are unique to solar energy systems and end user applications are included. A total of six solar technologies - biomass, photovoltaics, wind, ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC), solar thermal, and industrial process heat (IPH) have been included in a brief technical description to present the variety of systems and their techncial status. System schematics have been included of systems which have been constructed, are currently in the detail design and test stage of development, or are of a conceptual nature.

  2. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  3. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  4. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  5. Cutting Energy Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rittner-Heir, Robbin M.

    2003-01-01

    Describes school-district energy-conservation efforts including teaching students to save energy, retrofitting schools, hiring energy consulting companies, and activating the sleep function on computer monitors. Also describes the federal Energy Star program (www.energystar.gov). (PKP)

  6. Cost Estimation of Laser Additive Manufacturing of Stainless Steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Piili, Heidi; Happonen, Ari; Väistö, Tapio; Venkataramanan, Vijaikrishnan; Partanen, Jouni; Salminen, Antti

    Laser additive manufacturing (LAM) is a layer wise fabrication method in which a laser beam melts metallic powder to form solid objects. Although 3D printing has been invented 30 years ago, the industrial use is quite limited whereas the introduction of cheap consumer 3D printers, in recent years, has familiarized the 3D printing. Interest is focused more and more in manufacturing of functional parts. Aim of this study is to define and discuss the current economic opportunities and restrictions of LAM process. Manufacturing costs were studied with different build scenarios each with estimated cost structure by calculated build time and calculating the costs of the machine, material and energy with optimized machine utilization. All manufacturing and time simulations in this study were carried out with a research machine equal to commercial EOS M series equipment. The study shows that the main expense in LAM is the investment cost of the LAM machine, compared to which the relative proportions of the energy and material costs are very low. The manufacturing time per part is the key factor to optimize costs of LAM.

  7. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... as prescribed in 3416.307(b): Additional Cost Principles (MAR 2011) (a) Bid and Proposal Costs. Bid and proposal costs are the immediate costs of preparing bids, proposals, and applications...

  8. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... clause: Additional Cost Principles (January 2006) (a) Bid and proposal (B & P) costs. (1) B & P costs are the immediate costs of preparing bids, proposals, and applications for potential Federal and non-Federal contracts, grants, and agreements, including the development of scientific, cost, and other...

  9. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... scientific, cost, and other data needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. Bid and proposal... as prescribed in 3416.307(b): Additional Cost Principles (MAR 2011) (a) Bid and Proposal Costs. Bid and proposal costs are the immediate costs of preparing bids, proposals, and applications...

  10. Additional Sawmill Electrical Energy Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Hatch & Associates.

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential for reducing use of electrical energy at lumber dry kilns by reducing fan speeds part way through the lumber drying process. It included three tasks: to quantify energy savings at a typical mill through field tests; to investigate the level of electric energy use at a representative sample of other mills and thereby to estimate the transferability of the conservation to the region; and to prepare a guidebook to present the technology to mill operators, and to allow them to estimate the economic value of adopting the technique at their facilities. This document reports on the first two tasks.

  11. Saving Green on Energy Costs

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tacke, Diane L.

    2006-01-01

    In recent years, colleges and universities have begun efforts to reduce their energy costs, an initiative that can not only save an institution money, but also strengthen relationships across campus. Board leadership has been central to this endeavor in setting goals, prioritizing projects, and financing those projects. Using her experiences with…

  12. Identification of cost effective energy conservation measures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bierenbaum, H. S.; Boggs, W. H.

    1978-01-01

    In addition to a successful program of readily implemented conservation actions for reducing building energy consumption at Kennedy Space Center, recent detailed analyses have identified further substantial savings for buildings representative of technical facilities designed when energy costs were low. The techniques employed for determination of these energy savings consisted of facility configuration analysis, power and lighting measurements, detailed computer simulations and simulation verifications. Use of these methods resulted in identification of projected energy savings as large as $330,000 a year (approximately two year break-even period) in a single building. Application of these techniques to other commercial buildings is discussed

  13. Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Commercial Energy Code Compliance

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Cohan, David F.

    2016-08-22

    An important question for commercial energy code compliance is: “How much energy cost savings can better compliance achieve?” This question is in sharp contrast to prior efforts that used a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. A field investigation method is being developed that goes beyond the binary approach to determine how much energy cost savings is not realized. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance for newly constructed office buildings in climate zone 4C. Field data collected from actual buildings on specific conditions relative to code requirements was then applied to the simulation results to find the potential lost energy savings for a single building or for a sample of buildings. This new methodology was tested on nine office buildings in climate zone 4C. The amount of additional energy cost savings they could have achieved had they complied fully with the 2012 International Energy Conservation Code is determined. This paper will present the results of the test, lessons learned, describe follow-on research that is needed to verify that the methodology is both accurate and practical, and discuss the benefits that might accrue if the method were widely adopted.

  14. Energy cost of creating quantum coherence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Avijit; Singh, Uttam; Bhattacharya, Samyadeb; Pati, Arun Kumar

    2016-05-01

    We consider physical situations where the resource theories of coherence and thermodynamics play competing roles. In particular, we study the creation of quantum coherence using unitary operations with limited thermodynamic resources. We find the maximal coherence that can be created under unitary operations starting from a thermal state and find explicitly the unitary transformation that creates the maximal coherence. Since coherence is created by unitary operations starting from a thermal state, it requires some amount of energy. This motivates us to explore the trade-off between the amount of coherence that can be created and the energy cost of the unitary process. We also find the maximal achievable coherence under the constraint on the available energy. Additionally, we compare the maximal coherence and the maximal total correlation that can be created under unitary transformations with the same available energy at our disposal. We find that when maximal coherence is created with limited energy, the total correlation created in the process is upper bounded by the maximal coherence, and vice versa. For two-qubit systems we show that no unitary transformation exists that creates the maximal coherence and maximal total correlation simultaneously with a limited energy cost.

  15. Pension Costs on DOD Contracts: Additional Guidance Needed to Ensure Costs Are Consistent and Reasonable

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    support from a team of DOD actuaries . DOD audits projected and actual costs for contracts, including pension costs, to ensure they are allowable...qualified and credentialed actuaries ) and collected contractor data on incurred CAS pension costs from 2002 to 2011. To understand how pension costs... Actuary of the GAO for actuarial soundness. We also gathered contractor projections of CAS pension costs for 2012 to 2016. See appendix I for additional

  16. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  17. 2010 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Lantz, E.; Schwabe, P.; Smith, A.

    2012-04-01

    This document provides a detailed description of NREL's levelized cost of wind energy equation, assumptions, and results in 2010, including historical cost trends and future projections for land-based and offshore utility-scale wind.

  18. Energy Cost Reduction for Automotive Service Facilities.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federal Energy Administration, Washington, DC.

    This handbook on energy cost reduction for automotive service facilities consists of four sections. The importance and economic benefits of energy conservation are discussed in the first section. In the second section six energy cost reduction measures are discussed: relamping interior areas; relamping and reducing interior lighting; setting back…

  19. The relative cost of biomass energy transport.

    PubMed

    Searcy, Erin; Flynn, Peter; Ghafoori, Emad; Kumar, Amit

    2007-04-01

    Logistics cost, the cost of moving feedstock or products, is a key component of the overall cost of recovering energy from biomass. In this study, we calculate for small- and large-project sizes, the relative cost of transportation by truck, rail, ship, and pipeline for three biomass feedstocks, by truck and pipeline for ethanol, and by transmission line for electrical power. Distance fixed costs (loading and unloading) and distance variable costs (transport, including power losses during transmission), are calculated for each biomass type and mode of transportation. Costs are normalized to a common basis of a giga Joules of biomass. The relative cost of moving products vs feedstock is an approximate measure of the incentive for location of biomass processing at the source of biomass, rather than at the point of ultimate consumption of produced energy. In general, the cost of transporting biomass is more than the cost of transporting its energy products. The gap in cost for transporting biomass vs power is significantly higher than the incremental cost of building and operating a power plant remote from a transmission grid. The cost of power transmission and ethanol transport by pipeline is highly dependent on scale of project. Transport of ethanol by truck has a lower cost than by pipeline up to capacities of 1800 t/d. The high cost of transshipment to a ship precludes shipping from being an economical mode of transport for distances less than 800 km (woodchips) and 1500 km (baled agricultural residues).

  20. 48 CFR 246.470-1 - Assessment of additional costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Assessment of additional costs. 246.470-1 Section 246.470-1 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE ACQUISITION REGULATIONS SYSTEM, DEPARTMENT OF DEFENSE CONTRACT MANAGEMENT QUALITY ASSURANCE Government Contract...

  1. Additive Manufacturing of Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion Components

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Bowman, Randy; Cooper, Ken; Fikes, John; Taminger, Karen; Wright, Belinda

    2014-01-01

    NASA is currently developing Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. These Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) tasks are funded through NASA's Game Changing Development Program in the Space Technology Mission Directorate. The LCUSP project will develop a copper alloy additive manufacturing design process and develop and optimize the Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) manufacturing process to direct deposit a nickel alloy structural jacket and manifolds onto an SLM manufactured GRCop chamber and Ni-alloy nozzle. In order to develop these processes, the project will characterize both the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLMproduced GRCop-84, and will explore and document novel design techniques specific to AM combustion devices components. These manufacturing technologies will be used to build a 25K-class regenerative chamber and nozzle (to be used with tested DMLS injectors) that will be tested individually and as a system in hot fire tests to demonstrate the applicability of the technologies. These tasks are expected to bring costs and manufacturing time down as spacecraft propulsion systems typically comprise more than 70% of the total vehicle cost and account for a significant portion of the development schedule. Additionally, high pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design to be time consuming and costly to build. LCUSP presents an opportunity to develop and demonstrate a process that can infuse these technologies into industry, build competition, and drive down costs of future engines.

  2. Additively Manufactured Low Cost Upper Stage Combustion Chamber

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Protz, Christopher; Cooper, Ken; Ellis, David; Fikes, John; Jones, Zachary; Kim, Tony; Medina, Cory; Taminger, Karen; Willingham, Derek

    2016-01-01

    Over the past two years NASA's Low Cost Upper Stage Propulsion (LCUSP) project has developed Additive Manufacturing (AM) technologies and design tools aimed at reducing the costs and manufacturing time of regeneratively cooled rocket engine components. High pressure/high temperature combustion chambers and nozzles must be regeneratively cooled to survive their operating environment, causing their design fabrication to be costly and time consuming due to the number of individual steps and different processes required. Under LCUSP, AM technologies in Sintered Laser Melting (SLM) GRCop-84 and Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication (EBF3) Inconel 625 have been significantly advanced, allowing the team to successfully fabricate a 25k-class regenerative chamber. Estimates of the costs and schedule of future builds indicate cost reductions and significant schedule reductions will be enabled by this technology. Characterization of the microstructural and mechanical properties of the SLM-produced GRCop-84, EBF3 Inconel 625 and the interface layer between the two has been performed and indicates the properties will meet the design requirements. The LCUSP chamber is to be tested with a previously demonstrated SLM injector in order to advance the Technology Readiness Level (TRL) and demonstrate the capability of the application of these processes. NASA is advancing these technologies to reduce cost and schedule for future engine applications and commercial needs.

  3. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 1

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Vine, Ed; Price, Sarah; Sturges, Andrew; Rosenquist, Greg

    2013-04-01

    The purpose of this literature review is to summarize key findings regarding the costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance—primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. The review takes into consideration over 150 documents that discuss, to some extent, code enforcement. This review emphasizes those documents that specifically focus on costs associated with energy code enforcement. Given the low rates of building energy code compliance that have been reported in existing studies, as well as the many barriers to both energy code compliance and enforcement, this study seeks to identify the costs of initiatives to improve compliance and enforcement. Costs are reported primarily as presented in the original source. Some costs are given on a per home or per building basis, and others are provided for jurisdictions of a certain size. This literature review gives an overview of state-based compliance rates, barriers to code enforcement, and U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and key stakeholder involvement in improving compliance with building energy codes. In addition, the processes and costs associated with compliance and enforcement of building energy codes are presented. The second phase of this study, which will be presented in a different report, will consist of surveying 34 experts in the building industry at the national and state or local levels in order to obtain additional cost information, building on the findings from the first phase, as well as recommendations for where to most effectively spend money on compliance and enforcement.

  4. 2014 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, Christopher; Stehly, Tyler; Maples, Ben; Settle, Edward

    2015-10-01

    This report uses representative commercial projects to estimate the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for both land-based and offshore wind plants in the United States for 2014. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, the analysis relies on both market and modeled data to maintain an up-to-date understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) are used in this analysis to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  5. Reducing energy costs in nursing homes

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1981-01-01

    The handbook presents ideas and techniques for energy conservation in nursing homes. Case studies were developed of nursing homes located in different parts of the US. The typical nursing home assessed was proprietary, of intermediate-care level, medicaid-certified, and had less than 200 beds. Specific energy conservation measures were analyzed to determine the energy and dollar savings that could be realized. These include reducing heat loss through the building shell; reducing hot water costs; recovering the heat generated by dryers; reducing lighting costs; reducing heating and cooling costs, and analyzing fuels and fuel rates. A case for converting electric clothes dryers to gas was analyzed. (MCW)

  6. 2013 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Mone, C.; Smith, A.; Maples, B.; Hand, M.

    2015-02-01

    This report uses representative project types to estimate the levelized cost of wind energy (LCOE) in the United States for 2013. Scheduled to be published on an annual basis, it relies on both market and modeled data to maintain a current understanding of wind generation cost trends and drivers. It is intended to provide insight into current component-level costs and a basis for understanding current component-level costs and a basis for understanding variability in the LCOE across the industry. Data and tools developed from this analysis are used to inform wind technology cost projections, goals, and improvement opportunities.

  7. Capturing Waste Gas: Saves Energy, Lower Costs

    SciTech Connect

    2013-07-12

    In June 2009, ArcelorMittal learned about the potential to receive a 50% cost-matching grant from the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) administered by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). ArcelorMittal applied for the competitive grant and, in November, received $31.6 million as a DOE cost-sharing award. By matching the federal funding, ArcelorMittal was able to construct a new, high efficiency Energy Recovery & Reuse 504 Boiler and supporting infrastructure.

  8. Environmental impacts and costs of energy.

    PubMed

    Rabl, Ari; Spadaro, Joseph V

    2006-09-01

    Environmental damage is one of the main justifications for continued efforts to reduce energy consumption and to shift to cleaner sources such as solar energy. In recent years there has been much progress in the analysis of environmental damages, in particular thanks to the ExternE (External Costs of Energy) Project of the European Commission. This article presents a summary of the methodology and key results for the external costs of the major energy technologies. Even though the uncertainties are large, the results provide substantial evidence that the classical air pollutants (particles, No(x), and SO(2)) from fossil fuels impose significant public health costs, comparable to the cost of global warming from CO(2) emissions. The total external costs are relatively low for natural gas (in the range of about 0.5-1 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries), but much higher for coal and lignite (in the range of about 2-6 eurocents/kWh for most EU countries). By contrast, the external costs of nuclear, wind, and photovoltaics are very low. The external costs of hydro are extremely variable from site to site, and the ones of biomass depend strongly on the specific technologies used and can be quite large for combustion.

  9. Cost projections for Redox Energy storage systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Michaels, K.; Hall, G.

    1980-01-01

    A preliminary design and system cost analysis was performed for the redox energy storage system. A conceptual design and cost estimate was prepared for each of two energy applications: (1) electric utility 100-MWh requirement (10-MW for ten hours) for energy storage for utility load leveling application, and (2) a 500-kWh requirement (10-kW for 50 hours) for use with a variety of residential or commercial applications, including stand alone solar photovoltaic systems. The conceptual designs were based on cell performance levels, system design parameters, and special material costs. These data were combined with estimated thermodynamic and hydraulic analysis to provide preliminary system designs. Results indicate that the redox cell stack to be amenable to mass production techniques with a relatively low material cost.

  10. Flexibility: The Key to Cutting Energy Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stern, Joanne

    This speech provides concrete ways for school districts to save on energy costs, based on the general concept of flexibility in energy systems. These methods have been successfully implemented in the Salem (Oregon) school district. The first idea is to set up a weekly, rather than annual, bidding system to increase fuel price options. This…

  11. 2011 Cost of Wind Energy Review

    SciTech Connect

    Tegen, S.; Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Maples, B.; Smith, A.; Schwabe, P.

    2013-03-01

    This report describes the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) for a typical land-based wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011, as well as the modeled LCOE for a fixed-bottom offshore wind turbine installed in the United States in 2011. Each of the four major components of the LCOE equation are explained in detail, such as installed capital cost, annual energy production, annual operating expenses, and financing, and including sensitivity ranges that show how each component can affect LCOE. These LCOE calculations are used for planning and other purposes by the U.S. Department of Energy's Wind Program.

  12. Identifying ways to cut energy costs.

    PubMed

    Wright, Bill

    2013-05-01

    Few industry sectors have energy demands quite like healthcare. By definition, many buildings involved in treating the sick and injured need to be open 24 hours a day, seven days a week. Here the Electrical Contractors' Association's (ECA's) head of Energy Solutions, Bill Wright, describes some of the building improvements and technologies that he says are a 'sure fire way to cut energy costs', both in new-build projects, and during refurbishment of hospitals and other healthcare facilities.

  13. Renewable Energy Planning: Multiparametric Cost Optimization; Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Walker, A.

    2008-05-01

    This paper describes a method for determining the combination of renewable energy technologies that minimize life-cycle cost at a facility, often with a specified goal regarding percent of energy use from renewable sources. Technologies include: photovoltaics (PV); wind; solar thermal heat and electric; solar ventilation air preheating; solar water heating; biomass heat and electric (combustion, gasification, pyrolysis, anaerobic digestion); and daylighting. The method rests upon the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL's) capabilities in characterization of technology cost and performance, geographic information systems (GIS) resource assessment, and life-cycle cost analysis. The paper discusses how to account for the way candidate technologies interact with each other, and the solver routine used to determine the combination that minimizes life-cycle cost. Results include optimal sizes of each technology, initial cost, operating cost, and life-cycle cost, including incentives from utilities or governments. Results inform early planning to identify and prioritize projects at a site for subsequent engineering and economic feasibility study.

  14. Software Cuts Homebuilding Costs, Increases Energy Efficiency

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2015-01-01

    To sort out the best combinations of technologies for a crewed mission to Mars, NASA Headquarters awarded grants to MIT's Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics to develop an algorithm-based software tool that highlights the most reliable and cost-effective options. Utilizing the software, Professor Edward Crawley founded Cambridge, Massachussetts-based Ekotrope, which helps homebuilders choose cost- and energy-efficient floor plans and materials.

  15. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... needed to support the bids, proposals, and applications. (2) B & P costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs. (3) B & P costs of past accounting periods are unallowable in the current period. However, if the organization's established practice is to treat these costs by some...

  16. 48 CFR 3452.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... ACQUISITION REGULATION CLAUSES AND FORMS SOLICITATION PROVISIONS AND CONTRACT CLAUSES Texts of Provisions and... costs of the current accounting period are allowable as indirect costs; bid and proposal costs of past accounting periods are unallowable as costs of the current period. However, if the organization's...

  17. Optimizing Data Centre Energy and Environmental Costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aikema, David Hendrik

    Data centres use an estimated 2% of US electrical power which accounts for much of their total cost of ownership. This consumption continues to grow, further straining power grids attempting to integrate more renewable energy. This dissertation focuses on assessing and reducing data centre environmental and financial costs. Emissions of projects undertaken to lower the data centre environmental footprints can be assessed and the emission reduction projects compared using an ISO-14064-2-compliant greenhouse gas reduction protocol outlined herein. I was closely involved with the development of the protocol. Full lifecycle analysis and verifying that projects exceed business-as-usual expectations are addressed, and a test project is described. Consuming power when it is low cost or when renewable energy is available can be used to reduce the financial and environmental costs of computing. Adaptation based on the power price showed 10--50% potential savings in typical cases, and local renewable energy use could be increased by 10--80%. Allowing a fraction of high-priority tasks to proceed unimpeded still allows significant savings. Power grid operators use mechanisms called ancillary services to address variation and system failures, paying organizations to alter power consumption on request. By bidding to offer these services, data centres may be able to lower their energy costs while reducing their environmental impact. If providing contingency reserves which require only infrequent action, savings of up to 12% were seen in simulations. Greater power cost savings are possible for those ceding more control to the power grid operator. Coordinating multiple data centres adds overhead, and altering at which data centre requests are processed based on changes in the financial or environmental costs of power is likely to increase this overhead. Tests of virtual machine migrations showed that in some cases there was no visible increase in power use while in others power use

  18. Cost-effective energy efficiency in the Czech Republic

    SciTech Connect

    Shankle, S.A.; Secrest, T.J.; Zemen, Z.; Popelka, A.

    1994-08-01

    Energy efficiency is a particularly important issue in the emerging economies of Eastern Europe. Much of the energy used in the Czech Republic is supplied by lignite, a soft brown form of coal. Its combustion is largely responsible for an extreme acid rain problem and other forms of air pollution and land use complications. Additionally, inefficient energy use is prevalent, placing additional stresses on an already fragile economy. This paper reports on a project in the mid-sized (250,000 residents) and industrial city of Plzen, in the Czech Republic. The Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) process, developed by PNL for the U.S. Department of Energy`s (DOE`s) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), was applied to the city to determine the level of cost-effective energy efficiency potential in the city. Significant potential was found to exist, primarily in large, cooperatively owned apartment buildings heated by district systems.

  19. The High Cost of Saving Energy Dollars.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rose, Patricia

    1985-01-01

    In alternative financing a private company provides the capital and expertise for improving school energy efficiency. Savings are split between the school system and the company. Options for municipal leasing, cost sharing, and shared savings are explained along with financial, procedural, and legal considerations. (MLF)

  20. How To Attack Rising Energy Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    2001-01-01

    Presents manufacturer and engineer suggestions on how schools can solve their rising energy costs in the face of more demanding classroom needs placing greater demands of Heating and air conditioning ventilation systems. The use of CO2 sensors, boiler technology and two-pipe systems are explored. (GR)

  1. Determining energy costs for milling solid matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guangbin, Yu., Dr.; Kuznetsova, M. M.; Marakhovskii, M. B.; Aleksina, A. A.

    2015-05-01

    The article provides findings of analytical research into the process of milling friable matter in a ball mill. We have received an expression to determine energy cost of milling with the account of the method of milling and the characteristics of the material to be ground.

  2. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  3. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  4. 48 CFR 352.216-70 - Additional cost principles.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... include independent research and development (IR & D) costs covered by the following paragraph, or pre-award costs covered by paragraph 36 of Attachment B to OMB Circular A-122. (b) IR & D costs. (1) IR & D...-Federal contracts, grants, or other agreements. (2) IR & D shall be allocated its proportionate share...

  5. Energy Cost Impact of Non-Residential Energy Code Requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.

    2016-08-22

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code contains 396 separate requirements applicable to non-residential buildings; however, there is no systematic analysis of the energy cost impact of each requirement. Consequently, limited code department budgets for plan review, inspection, and training cannot be focused on the most impactful items. An inventory and ranking of code requirements based on their potential energy cost impact is under development. The initial phase focuses on office buildings with simple HVAC systems in climate zone 4C. Prototype building simulations were used to estimate the energy cost impact of varying levels of non-compliance. A preliminary estimate of the probability of occurrence of each level of non-compliance was combined with the estimated lost savings for each level to rank the requirements according to expected savings impact. The methodology to develop and refine further energy cost impacts, specific to building type, system type, and climate location is demonstrated. As results are developed, an innovative alternative method for compliance verification can focus efforts so only the most impactful requirements from an energy cost perspective are verified for every building and a subset of the less impactful requirements are verified on a random basis across a building population. The results can be further applied in prioritizing training material development and specific areas of building official training.

  6. Cost effective seasonal storage of wind energy

    SciTech Connect

    Cavallo, A.J.; Keck, M.B.

    1995-09-01

    Seasonal variation of the wind electric potential on the Great Plains could be a significant obstacle to the large scale utilization of wind generated electricity. Wind power densities usually are greatest during the spring, and decrease by at least 30 percent relative to the annual average in many areas during the summer months, when demand is highest. This problem can be overcome by using an oversized wind farm and a compressed air energy storage system (a baseload wind energy system). A minimum volume storage reservoir is needed to transform intermittent wind energy to baseload power, while a larger reservoir can be used to store excess power produced during the spring for either peak power or baseload output during the summer. The yearly average cost of energy increases by about 3 percent for the largest storage reservoir, indicating the seasonal storage of wind energy is economically as well as technically feasible.

  7. The Cost of Enforcing Building Energy Codes: Phase 2

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Alison; Price, Sarah K.; Vine, Ed

    2014-10-15

    The purpose of this study is to present key findings regarding costs associated with enforcing building energy code compliance–primarily focusing on costs borne by local government. Building codes, if complied with, have the ability to save a significant amount of energy. However, energy code compliance rates have been significantly lower than 100%. Renewed interest in building energy codes has focused efforts on increasing compliance, particularly as a result of the 2009 American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) requirement that in order for states to receive additional energy grants, they must have “a plan for the jurisdiction achieving compliance with the building energy code…in at least 90 percent of new and renovated residential and commercial building space” by 2017 (Public Law 111-5, Section 410(2)(C)). One study by the Institute for Market Transformation (IMT) estimated the costs associated with reaching 90% compliance to be $810 million, or $610 million in additional funding over existing expenditures, a non-trivial value. [Majersik & Stellberg 2010] In this context, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL) conducted a study to better pinpoint the costs of enforcement through a two-phase process.

  8. Cost of energy from utility-scale PV systems

    SciTech Connect

    Stolte, W.J.; Whisnant, R.A.; McGowin, C.R.

    1994-12-31

    The cost of energy produced by three different photovoltaic (PV) power plants was estimated based on PV cell and module technology expected to be available by 1995. Plant designs were created for two high concentration PV plants (500 suns), both based on advanced back-contact silicon cell technology, and a thin-film, flat plate plant using copper indium diselenide (CIS) cell technology. The concentrator plants included a central receiver plant using stretched-membrane heliostats and a Fresnel-lens module plant, both utilizing two-axis tracking. Basic plant design factors were selected to minimize 30-year levelized energy costs. Total capital requirements to construct the three plants were estimated through detailed cost estimates. Costs of the cell and module components of the plants were determined by modeling their manufacturing processes when producing modules at an annual rate of both 25 MW/year and 100 MW/year. Energy outputs were determined by computer modeling with hourly insolation and temperature profiles for the two sites. Power system simulation studies were carried out to estimate the impact of the PV plants on system power production cost using synthetic, but realistic, utility system definitions. Both high and low growth rate utility system expansion plans were considered, and capacity and energy credits were calculated. Additionally, credits were calculated for environmental externalities. Benefit/cost ratios for each plant and site were determined. The results of the study provide projections in 1990 dollars of the cost of electric energy from utility-scale PV plants assuming a mature technology that may be available by about 1995. The cost of energy produced by the CIS flat plate plant was projected to be as low as 10.8 cents/kWh. The concentrator plant results were only slightly higher at 12.3 cents/kWh for the Fresnel lens plant and 13.1 cents/kWh for the central receiver plant. 18 refs., 11 figs., 7 tabs.

  9. Generating clean energy at high efficiency and low cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Yan P.

    1991-06-01

    This paper is related to thermal energy conversion with particular attention to the utilization of thermal energy from environmental fluids according to concepts in equilibrium and nonequilibrium thermodynamics. The first step is to prove that a single fluid heat source can produce useful work, so that thermal energy of environmental fluids is not at 'dead state.' An ocean thermal energy conversion (OTEC) system can be easily constructed at higher efficiency and lower cost than existing OTEC systems. An atmosphere thermal energy conversion (ATEC) system of high efficiency and low cost is more sophisticated. It requires open or closed counter-clockwise cycles comprising isothermal compressible flow with or without heat transfer. Combination of one of such ATEC System and a cyclic system, and supplementation of fossil or nuclear fission fuel as an additional heat source are discussed for particular applications.

  10. Larger Turbines and the Future Cost of Wind Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.

    2011-03-01

    The move to larger turbines has been observed in the United States and around the world. Turbine scaling increases energy capture while reducing general project infrastructure costs and landscape impacts, each of which of can reduce the cost of wind energy. However, scaling in the absence of innovation, can increase turbine costs. The ability of turbine designers and manufacturers to continue to scale turbines, while simultaneously reducing costs, is an important factor in long-term viability of the industry. This research seeks to better understand how technology innovation can allow the continued development of larger turbines on taller towers while also achieving lower cost of energy. Modeling incremental technology improvements identified over the past decade demonstrates that cost reductions on the order of 10%, and capacity factor improvements on the order of 5% (for sites with annual mean wind speed of 7.25 m/s at 50m), are achievable for turbines up to 3.5 MW. However, to achieve a 10% cost reduction and a 10% capacity factor improvement for turbines up to 5 MW, additional technology innovations must be developed and implemented.

  11. U.S. Department of Energy Hydrogen Storage Cost Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Law, Karen; Rosenfeld, Jeffrey; Han, Vickie; Chan, Michael; Chiang, Helena; Leonard, Jon

    2013-03-11

    The overall objective of this project is to conduct cost analyses and estimate costs for on- and off-board hydrogen storage technologies under development by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on a consistent, independent basis. This can help guide DOE and stakeholders toward the most-promising research, development and commercialization pathways for hydrogen-fueled vehicles. A specific focus of the project is to estimate hydrogen storage system cost in high-volume production scenarios relative to the DOE target that was in place when this cost analysis was initiated. This report and its results reflect work conducted by TIAX between 2004 and 2012, including recent refinements and updates. The report provides a system-level evaluation of costs and performance for four broad categories of on-board hydrogen storage: (1) reversible on-board metal hydrides (e.g., magnesium hydride, sodium alanate); (2) regenerable off-board chemical hydrogen storage materials(e.g., hydrolysis of sodium borohydride, ammonia borane); (3) high surface area sorbents (e.g., carbon-based materials); and 4) advanced physical storage (e.g., 700-bar compressed, cryo-compressed and liquid hydrogen). Additionally, the off-board efficiency and processing costs of several hydrogen storage systems were evaluated and reported, including: (1) liquid carrier, (2) sodium borohydride, (3) ammonia borane, and (4) magnesium hydride. TIAX applied a bottom-up costing methodology customized to analyze and quantify the processes used in the manufacture of hydrogen storage systems. This methodology, used in conjunction with ® software and other tools, developed costs for all major tank components, balance-of-tank, tank assembly, and system assembly. Based on this methodology, the figure below shows the projected on-board high-volume factory costs of the various analyzed hydrogen storage systems, as designed. Reductions in the key cost drivers may bring hydrogen storage system costs closer to this DOE target

  12. 76 FR 64931 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-10-19

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of... the request for information on Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis published in the Federal Register... Energy Code Cost Analysis and provide docket number EERE-2011-BT-BC-0046. Comments may be submitted...

  13. High energy costs: Assessing the burden

    SciTech Connect

    Landsberg, H.H.

    1982-01-01

    This volume presents the papers that provided the agenda for a joint Resources for the Future-Brookings Conference held in October 1980: High Energy Costs: Assessing the Burden. A short report, summarizing the substance of the papers, picking up pieces of the debate, and extending as well as commenting on what was written and said at the conference was published in October 1981. With the release of the papers themselves the authors are completing their report to the public, in the belief that the gaps in data, analysis and scope revealed in the course of the project will challenge others to pick up where they left off. This is much to be desired, for it is certain that energy prices will continue to rise for some time to come and that the uneven impact of price increases will continue to be a divisive factor, adding just one more to the many problems that beset energy policy making.

  14. Energy cost and optimisation in breath-hold diving.

    PubMed

    Trassinelli, M

    2016-05-07

    diminished by reducing the volume of gas-filled body parts in divers close to neutral buoyancy. This provides a possible additional explanation for the observed exhalation of air before diving in phocid seals to minimise dive energy cost. Until now the only explanation for this phenomenon has been a reduction in the risk of decompression sickness.

  15. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  16. Potential cost savings from investments in energy-conserving irrigation systems

    SciTech Connect

    Patton, W.P.; Wilfert, G.L.; Harrer, B.J.; Clark, M.A.; Sherman, K.L.

    1982-10-01

    A comparative analysis is presented of the levelized costs of selected irrigation systems, with an emphasis on the costs and benefits of energy savings. The net economic benefits are evaluated, measured as energy cost savings minus additional capital and operating costs, of some energy-conserving systems. Energy use in irrigation and descriptions of both the conventional and the energy-saving technologies involved in the analysis are discussed. The approach used in the analysis is outlined, and comparative analysis results are discussed. Detailed cost information is presented by state. (LEW)

  17. Understanding Cost-Effectiveness of Energy Efficiency Programs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    This paper discusses the five standard tests used to assess the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency, how states are using these tests, and how the tests can be used to determine the cost-effectiveness of energy efficiency measures.

  18. 76 FR 57982 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-19

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis Correction In notice... components''. BILLING CODE 1505-01-P...

  19. Global warming and least-cost energy planning

    SciTech Connect

    Cavanagh, R.C. )

    1989-01-01

    Energy consumption is implicated in the growing emissions of all the major greenhouse gases'': carbon dioxide, methane, chlorofluorocarbons, nitrous oxide, and tropospheric ozone. All trap heat emitted from the earth's surface, a phenomenon that could accelerate to destroy the same planetary ecosystems that it has nurtured in the past. Strategies for reducing carbon dioxide emissions are this article's principal concern; increases in such emissions account for about half the projected atmospheric warming, with the increases themselves principally attributable to fossil fuel combustion. The United States is the world's largest emissions source, and while it cannot succeed alone, neither can it abdicate leadership responsibilities without all but ensuring failure. This article contends that US energy policy has been working to increase, rather than forestall, the danger of global warming. In particular, recent trends toward deregulation of the energy sector are grossly insufficient as solutions to the problem, although not necessarily inconsistent with them. The article outlines a way to organize urgent US and international energy policy reforms, drawing on the experience of certain state utility regulators with an approach called least-cost energy planning.'' Least-cost planning recognizes improvements in the efficiency of energy use as a major source of additional energy supplies, and seeks fair competition for energy investment dollars between conservation measures and production facilities.

  20. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  1. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  2. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  3. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  4. 10 CFR 434.508 - Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the design energy consumption and design energy cost. 434.508 Section 434.508 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost...

  5. Cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications

    SciTech Connect

    Akhil, A.; Swaminathan, S.; Sen, R.K.

    1997-02-01

    Under the sponsorship of the Department of Energy, Office of Utility Technologies, the Energy Storage System Analysis and Development Department at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) conducted a cost analysis of energy storage systems for electric utility applications. The scope of the study included the analysis of costs for existing and planned battery, SMES, and flywheel energy storage systems. The analysis also identified the potential for cost reduction of key components.

  6. Energy cost of walking with flat feet.

    PubMed

    Otman, S; Basgöze, O; Gökce-Kutsal, Y

    1988-08-01

    A comparative study has been conducted to assess the effects of arch support on oxygen consumption in 20 subjects with flat feet who were generally complaining about fatigue, and also to explore whether their feeling of weariness was objective or not. The resting, walking and final recovery heart rates, blood pressures, and walking oxygen consumption values of the patients with flat feet were measured and calculated and compared to a control group using treadmill and oxygen consumption devices. In stage one the patients did not wear any arch support. Then suitable arch supports were prepared for each patient and in stage two they wore these arch supports. The results did not show any significant difference between the resting heart rates, blood pressure and oxygen consumptions. However, differences in walking heart rate, systolic blood pressure, final recovery heart rate, oxygen consumption, and energy cost values were found to be significant between stage one and two of the test in the patient group. The difference in walking diastolic blood pressure values without and with arch support were found to be insignificant. It may therefore be deduced that oxygen consumption during walking is decreased when a suitable arch support is applied to patients with flat feet.

  7. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  8. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  9. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  10. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  11. 7 CFR 1709.5 - Determination of energy cost benchmarks.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ...), other petroleum products, wood and other biomass fuels, coal, wind and solar energy. ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of energy cost benchmarks. 1709.5... SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ASSISTANCE TO HIGH ENERGY COST COMMUNITIES General Requirements §...

  12. Reduce Operating Costs with an EnergySmart School Project

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Department of Energy, 2008

    2008-01-01

    Energy costs are a school district's second highest expenditure after personnel. Public schools currently spend more than $8 billion per year for energy. School energy expenditures rose, on average, 20 percent per year between 2000 and 2002--and the costs continue to rise. Natural gas prices alone increased 14 percent annually between 2003 and…

  13. Energy Submetering: The Key to Cost-Effective Conservation.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Turner, W. D.; McBride, John R.

    1999-01-01

    Examines the monitoring results from two large-scale metering and energy information projects: Texas LoanSTAR Program; and the Texas A & M Campus Project. Data suggest implementing an energy metering system is cost effective, particularly if the system can be coupled with skilled engineering applications such as energy cost allocation and…

  14. 76 FR 56413 - Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-09-13

    ... of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy Building Energy Codes Cost Analysis AGENCY: Office of... changes to residential building energy codes. DOE supports the development of the International Code Council's (ICC) International Energy Conservation Code (IECC), the national model code adopted by...

  15. Energy, greenhouse gas, and cost reductions for municipal recycling systems.

    PubMed

    Chester, Mikhail; Martin, Elliot; Sathaye, Nakul

    2008-03-15

    Curbside recycling programs can be more cost-effective than landfilling and lead to environmental benefits from the recovery of materials. Significant reductions in energy and emissions are derived from the decrease of energy-intensive production with virgin materials. In many cities, competing priorities can lead to limited consideration given to system optimal collection and processing strategies that can drive down costs and increase revenue while simultaneously reducing system energy consumption and greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. We evaluate three alterations to a hypothetical California city's recycling network to discern the conditions under which the changes.constitute system improvements to cost, energy, and emissions. The system initially operates with a collection zoning scheme that does not mitigate the impact of seasonal variations in consumer tonnage. In addition, two collection organizations operate redundantly, collecting recyclables from different customer types on the same street network. Finally, the system is dual stream, meaning recyclables are separated at the curbside. In some scenarios, this practice can limit the consumer participation rate leading to lower collection quantities. First, we evaluate a "business as usual" (BAU) scenario and find that the system operates at a $1.7 M/yr loss but still avoids a net 18.7 GJ and 1700 kg of greenhouse gas equivalent (GGE) per ton of material recycled. Second, we apply an alternative zoning scheme for collection that creates a uniform daily pickup demand throughout the year reducing costs by $0.2 M/yr, energy by 30 MJ/ton, and GHG emissions by 2 kg GGE/ton. Next, the two collection organizations are consolidated into a single entity further reducing vehicle fleet size and weekly vehicle miles traveled resulting in savings from BAU of $0.3 M/yr, 100 MJ/ton, and 8 kg GGE/ton. Lastly, we evaluate a switch to a single-stream system (where recyclables are commingled). We showthat single-stream recycling

  16. Draft Submission; Social Cost of Energy Generation

    SciTech Connect

    1990-01-05

    This report is intended to provide a general understanding of the social costs associated with electric power generation. Based on a thorough review of recent literature on the subject, the report describes how these social costs can be most fully and accurately evaluated, and discusses important considerations in applying this information within the competitive bidding process. [DJE 2005

  17. 47 CFR 25.111 - Additional information and ITU cost recovery.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 47 Telecommunication 2 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Additional information and ITU cost recovery....111 Additional information and ITU cost recovery. (a) The Commission may request from any party at any... interference caused by radio stations authorized by other Administrations is guaranteed unless ITU...

  18. 78 FR 17648 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-03-22

    ... measurement of the estimated annual operating costs or other measures of energy consumption for certain... that the estimated annual operating costs of a covered product be calculated from measurements of...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  19. 77 FR 24940 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2012-04-26

    ... measurement of the estimated annual operating costs or other measures of energy consumption for certain... that the estimated annual operating costs of a covered product be calculated from measurements of...: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy AGENCY: Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy,...

  20. Green Energy in New Construction: Maximize Energy Savings and Minimize Cost

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ventresca, Joseph

    2010-01-01

    People often use the term "green energy" to refer to alternative energy technologies. But green energy doesn't guarantee maximum energy savings at a minimum cost--a common misconception. For school business officials, green energy means getting the lowest energy bills for the lowest construction cost, which translates into maximizing green energy…

  1. Report on Cost-Effectiveness and Energy Svaings from Application of Low-Cost Wireless Sensing

    SciTech Connect

    Kintner-Meyer, Michael CW; Skorpik, James R.; Reid, Larry D.

    2004-12-02

    This report characterizes commercially available wireless technologies that are already being used in building applications or that are suitable for use in commercial buildings. The discussion provides an overview of fundamental concepts of radial broadcasting systems, as well as mesh networks, and will highlight the opportunities and challenges in their integration into existing wired control networks. This report describes two demonstration projects of wireless sensors and their integration into existing control networks and discusses their cost per sensor, their ease of installation, and their reliability. It also describes the load control strategies implemented as a consequence of having the additional data provided by the wireless sensors and provides estimates of the resulting energy and cost savings. The report concludes with presentation of some general future prospects for wireless technologies in buildings applications.

  2. Design Data Sheet: Calculation of Surface Ship Annual Energy Usage, Annual Energy Cost, and Fully Burdened Cost of Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-07

    F76 for ship propulsion and power generation and JP5 for aircraft. JP5 is also used occasionally for ship propulsion and power generation. While...applications, the FBCE includes the acquisition cost of a barrel of ship propulsion fuel burdened with the additional indirect costs associated with...fuel used for Navy ship propulsion and electrical power generation. JP5 is primarily used for powering aircraft. The FY 2011 DoD composite standard

  3. Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure development program: Cost analysis requirements

    SciTech Connect

    Custer, W.R. Jr.; Messick, C.D.

    1996-03-31

    This report was prepared to support development of the Department of Energy Environmental Management cost infrastructure -- a new capability to independently estimate and analyze costs. Currently, the cost data are reported according to a structure that blends level of effort tasks with product and process oriented tasks. Also. the budgetary inputs are developed from prior year funding authorizations and from contractor-developed parametric estimates that have been adjusted to planned funding levels or appropriations. Consequently, it is difficult for headquarters and field-level activities to use actual cost data and technical requirements to independently assess the costs generated and identify trends, potential cost savings from process improvements, and cost reduction strategies.

  4. Cost of photovoltaic energy systems as determined by balance-of-system costs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenblum, L.

    1978-01-01

    The effect of the balance-of-system (BOS), i.e., the total system less the modules, on photo-voltaic energy system costs is discussed for multikilowatt, flat-plate systems. Present BOS costs are in the range of 10 to 16 dollars per peak watt (1978 dollars). BOS costs represent approximately 50% of total system cost. The possibility of future BOS cost reduction is examined. It is concluded that, given the nature of BOS costs and the lack of comprehensive national effort focussed on cost reduction, it is unlikely that BOS costs will decline greatly in the next several years. This prognosis is contrasted with the expectations of the Department of Energy National Photovoltaic Program goals and pending legislation in the Congress which require a BOS cost reduction of an order of magnitude or more by the mid-1980s.

  5. Levelized Cost and Levelized Avoided Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook

    EIA Publications

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents average values of levelized costs for generating technologies entering service in 2018, 2022, and 2040 as represented in the National Energy Modeling System (NEMS) for the Annual Energy Outlook 2016 (AEO2016) Reference case.

  6. Get Real on Campus Energy Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Hignite, Karla

    2002-01-01

    Asserts that the complexity of interrelated energy management factors means that business officers have to be more closely involved in assessing and communicating the effects of energy on campus maintenance and operations and utility budgets. Discusses identifying appropriate energy initiatives, developing realistic utility infrastructure plans…

  7. Put the Heat on Cutting Energy Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Steller, Arthur W.; Pell, Carroll J.

    1985-01-01

    The school board establishes a commitment to efficient energy management through its policies and budget priorities. Such a policy should include a statement of purpose, assign accountability for improving energy efficiency, and ensure that mandated standards are maintained. To permanently prevent energy waste, a gradual change to a comprehensive…

  8. Sensitivity Analysis of Offshore Wind Cost of Energy (Poster)

    SciTech Connect

    Dykes, K.; Ning, A.; Graf, P.; Scott, G.; Damiami, R.; Hand, M.; Meadows, R.; Musial, W.; Moriarty, P.; Veers, P.

    2012-10-01

    No matter the source, offshore wind energy plant cost estimates are significantly higher than for land-based projects. For instance, a National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) review on the 2010 cost of wind energy found baseline cost estimates for onshore wind energy systems to be 71 dollars per megawatt-hour ($/MWh), versus 225 $/MWh for offshore systems. There are many ways that innovation can be used to reduce the high costs of offshore wind energy. However, the use of such innovation impacts the cost of energy because of the highly coupled nature of the system. For example, the deployment of multimegawatt turbines can reduce the number of turbines, thereby reducing the operation and maintenance (O&M) costs associated with vessel acquisition and use. On the other hand, larger turbines may require more specialized vessels and infrastructure to perform the same operations, which could result in higher costs. To better understand the full impact of a design decision on offshore wind energy system performance and cost, a system analysis approach is needed. In 2011-2012, NREL began development of a wind energy systems engineering software tool to support offshore wind energy system analysis. The tool combines engineering and cost models to represent an entire offshore wind energy plant and to perform system cost sensitivity analysis and optimization. Initial results were collected by applying the tool to conduct a sensitivity analysis on a baseline offshore wind energy system using 5-MW and 6-MW NREL reference turbines. Results included information on rotor diameter, hub height, power rating, and maximum allowable tip speeds.

  9. Optimizing Ice Thermal Storage to Reduce Energy Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hall, Christopher L.

    Energy cost for buildings is an issue of concern for owners across the U.S. The bigger the building, the greater the concern. A part of this is due to the energy required to cool the building and the way in which charges are set when paying for energy consumed during different times of the day. This study will prove that designing ice thermal storage properly will minimize energy cost in buildings. The effectiveness of ice thermal storage as a means to reduce energy costs lies within transferring the time of most energy consumption from on-peak to off-peak periods. Multiple variables go into the equation of finding the optimal use of ice thermal storage and they are all judged with the final objective of minimizing monthly energy costs. This research discusses the optimal design of ice thermal storage and its impact on energy consumption, energy demand, and the total energy cost. A tool for optimal design of ice thermal storage is developed, considering variables such as chiller and ice storage sizes and charging and discharge times. The simulations take place in a four-story building and investigate the potential of Ice Thermal Storage as a resource in reducing and minimizing energy cost for cooling. The simulations test the effectiveness of Ice Thermal Storage implemented into the four-story building in ten locations across the United States.

  10. Economics of solar energy: Short term costing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klee, H.

    The solar economics based on life cycle costs are refuted as both imaginary and irrelevant. It is argued that predicting rates of inflation and fuel escalation, expected life, maintenance costs, and legislation over the next ten to twenty years is pure guesswork. Furthermore, given the high mobility level of the U.S. population, the average consumer is skeptical of long run arguments which will pay returns only to the next owners. In the short term cost analysis, the house is sold prior to the end of the expected life of the system. The cash flow of the seller and buyer are considered. All the relevant factors, including the federal tax credit and the added value of the house because of the solar system are included.

  11. Low cost solar energy collection system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, C. G.; Stephans, J. B. (Inventor)

    1977-01-01

    A fixed, linear, ground-based primary reflector having an extended, curved sawtooth contoured surface covered with a metallized polymeric reflecting material, reflected solar energy to a movably supported collector that was kept at the concentrated line focus of the reflector primary. Efficient utilization leading to high temperatures from the reflected solar energy was obtained by cylindrical shaped secondary reflectors that directed off-angle energy to the absorber pipe.

  12. WREF 2012: THE PAST AND FUTURE COST OF WIND ENERGY

    SciTech Connect

    NREL,; Wiser, Ryan; Lantz, Eric; Hand, Maureen

    2012-03-26

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions. Our findings indicate that steady cost reductions were interrupted between 2004 and 2010, but falling turbine prices and improved turbine performance are expected to drive a historically low LCOE for current installations. In addition, the majority of studies indicate continued cost reductions on the order of 20%-30% through 2030. Moreover, useful cost projections are likely to benefit from stronger consideration of the interactions between capital cost and performance as well as trends in the quality of the wind resource where projects are located, transmission, grid integration, and other cost variables.

  13. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling. A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, Jason S.; Grace, Robert C.; Rickerson, Wilson H.

    2011-05-01

    This report serves as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about levelized cost of energy (LCOE) calculations, including cost-based incentives. The report identifies key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlights the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and presents recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, FITs, or similar policies. These recommendations shaped the design of NREL's Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST), which is used by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist with analyses of policy and renewable energy incentive payment structures. Authored by Jason S. Gifford and Robert C. Grace of Sustainable Energy Advantage LLC and Wilson H. Rickerson of Meister Consultants Group, Inc.

  14. Metabolic costs of capital energy storage in a small-bodied ectotherm.

    PubMed

    Griffen, Blaine D

    2017-04-01

    Reproduction is energetically financed using strategies that fall along a continuum from animals that rely on stored energy acquired prior to reproduction (i.e., capital breeders) to those that rely on energy acquired during reproduction (i.e., income breeders). Energy storage incurs a metabolic cost. However, previous studies suggest that this cost may be minimal for small-bodied ectotherms. Here I test this assumption. I use a laboratory feeding experiment with the European green crab Carcinus maenas to establish individuals with different amounts of energy storage. I then demonstrate that differences in energy storage account for 26% of the variation in basal metabolic costs. The magnitudes of these costs for any individual crab vary through time depending on the amount of energy it has stored, as well as on temperature-dependent metabolism. I use previously established relationships between temperature- and mass-dependent metabolic rates, combined with a feasible annual pattern of energy storage in the Gulf of Maine and annual sea surface temperature patterns in this region, to estimate potential annual metabolic costs expected for mature female green crabs. Results indicate that energy storage should incur an ~8% increase in metabolic costs for female crabs, relative to a hypothetical crab that did not store any energy. Translated into feeding, for a medium-sized mature female (45 mm carapace width), this requires the consumption of an additional ~156 mussels annually to support the metabolic cost of energy storage. These results indicate, contrary to previous assumptions, that the cost of energy storage for small-bodied ectotherms may represent a considerable portion of their basic operating energy budget. An inability to meet these additional costs of energy storage may help explain the recent decline of green crabs in the Gulf of Maine where reduced prey availability and increased consumer competition have combined to hamper green crab foraging success in

  15. Using Mother Nature to Subdue Energy Costs.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fickes, Michael

    1997-01-01

    Describes a Kansas City elementary school's successful energy conservation via its environmental design that includes the use of ground source heat pumps and computer energy management systems. Also discusses how this design concept contributes to the educational experience of the school's students. (GR)

  16. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  17. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  18. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  19. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  20. 7 CFR 1710.253 - Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation capacity.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Engineering and cost studies-addition of generation... TO ELECTRIC LOANS AND GUARANTEES Construction Work Plans and Related Studies § 1710.253 Engineering... engineering and cost studies as specified by RUS. The studies shall cover a period from the beginning of...

  1. Clean energy deployment: addressing financing cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ameli, Nadia; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2012-09-01

    New methods are needed to accelerate clean energy policy adoption. To that end, this study proposes an innovative financing scheme for renewable and energy efficiency deployment. Financing barriers represent a notable obstacle for energy improvements and this is particularly the case for low income households. Implementing a policy such as PACE—property assessed clean energy—allows for the provision of upfront funds for residential property owners to install electric and thermal solar systems and make energy efficiency improvements to their buildings. This paper will inform the design of better policies tailored to the creation of the appropriate conditions for such investments to occur, especially in those countries where most of the population belongs to the low-middle income range facing financial constraints.

  2. Prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to livestock trade.

    PubMed

    Hop, G E; Mourits, M C M; Slager, R; Oude Lansink, A G J M; Saatkamp, H W

    2013-05-01

    Compared with the domestic trade in livestock, intra-communal trade across the European Union (EU) is subject to costly, additional veterinary measures. Short-distance transportation just across a border requires more measures than long-distance domestic transportation, while the need for such additional cross-border measures can be questioned. This study examined the prospects for cost reductions from relaxing additional cross-border measures related to trade within the cross-border region of the Netherlands (NL) and Germany (GER); that is, North Rhine Westphalia and Lower Saxony. The study constructed a deterministic spread-sheet cost model to calculate the costs of both routine veterinary measures (standard measures that apply to both domestic and cross-border transport) and additional cross-border measures (extra measures that only apply to cross-border transport) as applied in 2010. This model determined costs by stakeholder, region and livestock sector, and studied the prospects for cost reduction by calculating the costs after the relaxation of additional cross-border measures. The selection criteria for relaxing these measures were (1) a low expected added value on preventing contagious livestock diseases, (2) no expected additional veterinary risks in case of relaxation of measures and (3) reasonable cost-saving possibilities. The total cost of routine veterinary measures and additional cross-border measures for the cross-border region was €22.1 million, 58% (€12.7 million) of which came from additional cross-border measures. Two-thirds of this €12.7 million resulted from the trade in slaughter animals. The main cost items were veterinary checks on animals (twice in the case of slaughter animals), export certification and control of export documentation. Four additional cross-border measures met the selection criteria for relaxation. The relaxation of these measures could save €8.2 million (€5.0 million for NL and €3.2 million for GER) annually

  3. Construction Cost Growth for New Department of Energy Nuclear Facilities

    SciTech Connect

    Kubic, Jr., William L.

    2014-05-25

    Cost growth and construction delays are problems that plague many large construction projects including the construction of new Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities. A study was conducted to evaluate cost growth of large DOE construction projects. The purpose of the study was to compile relevant data, consider the possible causes of cost growth, and recommend measures that could be used to avoid extreme cost growth in the future. Both large DOE and non-DOE construction projects were considered in this study. With the exception of Chemical and Metallurgical Research Building Replacement Project (CMRR) and the Mixed Oxide Fuel Fabrication Facility (MFFF), cost growth for DOE Nuclear facilities is comparable to the growth experienced in other mega construction projects. The largest increase in estimated cost was found to occur between early cost estimates and establishing the project baseline during detailed design. Once the project baseline was established, cost growth for DOE nuclear facilities was modest compared to non-DOE mega projects.

  4. An evaluation of the US Department of Energy`s reducing swimming pool energy costs initiative

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, R.W.; Irwin, R.

    1997-06-01

    The US Department of Energy`s Reduce Swimming Pool Energy Costs (RSPEC) initiative developed and distributed a set of consumer-oriented fact sheets and the Energy Smart Pools software package to over 1300 pool owners, builders, and product manufacturers and retailers since the fall of 1994. The purpose was to promote the adoption of cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy measures in swimming pools. An evaluation request for feedback was recently sent to all who had received the materials to determine the impact of the program. With a minimal government investment, the RSPEC program has generated significant sales of pool energy efficiency and renewable energy technologies resulting in significant energy savings. These are very conservative numbers since they are based only on the fourteen percent of RSPEC program participants who returned the evaluations. Results are also from only one year of use. Results will continue to multiply as savings accumulate over the years, more pool industry people receive the RSPEC materials, and more energy efficiency and renewable energy products are sold.

  5. Reactors Save Energy, Costs for Hydrogen Production

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2014-01-01

    While examining fuel-reforming technology for fuel cells onboard aircraft, Glenn Research Center partnered with Garrettsville, Ohio-based Catacel Corporation through the Glenn Alliance Technology Exchange program and a Space Act Agreement. Catacel developed a stackable structural reactor that is now employed for commercial hydrogen production and results in energy savings of about 20 percent.

  6. Cutter Energy Efficient Lighting: Cost Study Report

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-05-01

    when at port. These circumstances usually result when the facility does not have the capacity to deliver the amount of power needed by the Cutter...systems, information technologies, air conditioning and heating , galley appliances, and lighting are heavy consumers of electrical power . Additionally...vibration, impact, electrical interference, illumination, and wet/ harsh environmental conditions . (2) Marine grade lighting is corrosion resistant and

  7. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2012-03-01

    This fact sheet is an overview of the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP). The Federal Government, as the nation's largest energy consumer, has a tremendous opportunity and acknowledged responsibility to lead by example. The U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP) plays a critical role in this effort. FEMP facilitates the Federal Government's implementation of sound, cost-effective energy management and investment practices to enhance the nation's energy security and environmental stewardship. FEMP does this by focusing on the needs of its Federal customers, delivering an array of services across a variety of program areas.

  8. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  9. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  10. 42 CFR 413.355 - Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... RENAL DISEASE SERVICES; OPTIONAL PROSPECTIVELY DETERMINED PAYMENT RATES FOR SKILLED NURSING FACILITIES Prospective Payment for Skilled Nursing Facilities § 413.355 Additional payment: QIO photocopy and mailing costs. An additional payment is made to a skilled nursing facility in accordance with § 476.78 of...

  11. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities forpetroleum refineries

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2005-02-15

    The petroleum refining industry in the United States is the largest in the world, providing inputs to virtually any economic sector,including the transport sector and the chemical industry. The industry operates 146 refineries (as of January 2004) around the country,employing over 65,000 employees. The refining industry produces a mix of products with a total value exceeding $151 billion. Refineries spend typically 50 percent of cash operating costs (i.e., excluding capital costs and depreciation) on energy, making energy a major cost factor and also an important opportunity for cost reduction. Energy use is also a major source of emissions in the refinery industry making energy efficiency improvement an attractive opportunity to reduce emissions and operating costs. Voluntary government programs aim to assist industry to improve competitiveness through increased energy efficiency and reduced environmental impact. ENERGY STAR (R), a voluntary program managed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, stresses the need for strong and strategic corporate energy management programs. ENERGY STAR provides energy management tools and strategies for successful corporate energy management programs. This Energy Guide describes research conducted to support ENERGY STAR and its work with the petroleum refining industry.This research provides information on potential energy efficiency opportunities for petroleum refineries. This Energy Guide introduces energy efficiency opportunities available for petroleum refineries. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure, and production of the refining industry and the energy used in the refining and conversion processes. Specific energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The Energy Guide draws upon the experiences with energy efficiency measures of petroleum refineries worldwide

  12. Costs and energy efficiency of a dual-mode system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Heft, R. C.

    1977-01-01

    The life cycle costs of a dual mode system for both public and semiprivate ownership are examined, and the costs in terms of levelized required revenue per passenger mile are presented. The energy use of the dual mode vehicle is analyzed by means of a detailed vehicle simulation program for the control policy and guideway system. Several different propulsion systems are considered.

  13. Wind Plant Cost of Energy: Past and Future (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2013-03-01

    This presentation examines trends in wind plant cost of energy over the last several decades and discusses methods and examples of projections for future cost trends. First, the presentation explores cost trends for wind energy from the 1980s, where there had been an overall downward trend in wind plant energy costs. Underlying factors that influenced these trends, including turbine technology innovation for lower wind speed sites, are explored. Next, the presentation looks at projections for the future development of wind energy costs and discusses a variety of methods for establishing these projections including the use of learning curves, qualitative assessment using expert elicitation, and engineering-based analysis. A comparison of the methods is provided to explore their relative merits. Finally, a brief introduction is provided for the U.S. Department of Energy program-wide shift towards an integrative use of qualitative and quantitative methods for assessing the potential impacts of wind plant technology innovations on reducing the wind plant cost of energy.

  14. Life-cycle cost analysis of energy efficiency design options for residential furnaces and boilers

    SciTech Connect

    Lutz, James; Lekov, Alex; Whitehead, Camilla Dunham; Chan, Peter; Meyers,Steve; McMahon, James

    2004-01-20

    In 2001, the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) initiated a rulemaking process to consider whether to amend the existing energy efficiency standards for furnaces and boilers. A key factor in DOE's consideration of new standards is the economic impacts on consumers of possible revisions to energy-efficiency standards. Determining cost-effectiveness requires an appropriate comparison of the additional first cost of energy efficiency design options with the savings in operating costs. DOE's preferred approach involves comparing the total life-cycle cost (LCC) of owning and operating a more efficient appliance with the LCC for a baseline design. This study describes the method used to conduct the LCC analysis and presents the estimated change in LCC associated with more energy-efficient equipment. The results indicate that efficiency improvement relative to the baseline design can reduce the LCC in each of the product classes considered.

  15. Testing energy non-additivity in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Loret, N.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a particular effect which can be expected in scenarios of deviations from special relativity induced by Planckian physics: the loss of additivity in the total energy of a system of particles. We argue about the necessity to introduce a length scale to control the effects of non-additivity for macroscopic objects and consider white dwarfs as an appropriate laboratory to test this kind of new physics. We study the sensitivity of the mass-radius relation of the Chandrasekhar model to these corrections by comparing the output of a simple phenomenological model to observational data of white dwarfs.

  16. Energy and predation costs of firefly courtship signals.

    PubMed

    Woods, William A; Hendrickson, Holly; Mason, Jennifer; Lewis, Sara M

    2007-11-01

    Animal courtship signals include many highly conspicuous traits and behaviors, and it is generally assumed that such signals must balance the benefits of attracting mates against some fitness costs. However, few studies have assessed the multiple costs potentially incurred by any one courtship signal, so we have limited understanding of the relative importance of different costs. This study provides the first comprehensive assessment of signal costs for Photinus fireflies (Coleoptera: Lampyridae), using controlled experiments to measure both the energy and predation costs associated with their bioluminescent courtship signals. We measured energy required to generate bioluminescent flashes, using differential open-flow respirometry, and found that flash signaling results in only a nominal increase in energy expenditure above resting levels. These results suggest that the energy required to generate bioluminescent flashes represents a minor component of the total cost of firefly courtship. However, controlled field experiments revealed that visually oriented predators imposed major costs on firefly courtship signals, with higher signaling rates significantly increasing the likelihood of predation. Together with previous results demonstrating that female fireflies prefer more conspicuous courtship signals, these results support the importance of multiple-receiver communication networks in driving signal evolution.

  17. A phenomenological cost model for high energy particle accelerators

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiltsev, V.

    2014-07-01

    Accelerator-based facilities have enabled forefront research in high-energy physics for more than half a century. The accelerator technology of colliders has progressed immensely, while beam energy, luminosity, facility size, and cost have grown by several orders of magnitude. The method of colliding beams has not fully exhausted its potential but has slowed down considerably in its progress. In this paper we derive a simple scaling model for the cost of large accelerators and colliding beam facilities based on costs of 17 big facilities which have been either built or carefully estimated. Although this approach cannot replace an actual cost estimate based on an engineering design, this parameterization is to indicate a somewhat realistic cost range for consideration of what future frontier accelerator facilities might be fiscally realizable.

  18. Starship Sails Propelled by Cost-Optimized Directed Energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benford, J.

    Microwave and laser-propelled sails are a new class of spacecraft using photon acceleration. It is the only method of interstellar flight that has no physics issues. Laboratory demonstrations of basic features of beam-driven propulsion, flight, stability (`beam-riding'), and induced spin, have been completed in the last decade, primarily in the microwave. It offers much lower cost probes after a substantial investment in the launcher. Engineering issues are being addressed by other applications: fusion (microwave, millimeter and laser sources) and astronomy (large aperture antennas). There are many candidate sail materials: carbon nanotubes and microtrusses, beryllium, graphene, etc. For acceleration of a sail, what is the cost-optimum high power system? Here the cost is used to constrain design parameters to estimate system power, aperture and elements of capital and operating cost. From general relations for cost-optimal transmitter aperture and power, system cost scales with kinetic energy and inversely with sail diameter and frequency. So optimal sails will be larger, lower in mass and driven by higher frequency beams. Estimated costs include economies of scale. We present several starship point concepts. Systems based on microwave, millimeter wave and laser technologies are of equal cost at today's costs. The frequency advantage of lasers is cancelled by the high cost of both the laser and the radiating optic. Cost of interstellar sailships is very high, driven by current costs for radiation source, antennas and especially electrical power. The high speeds necessary for fast interstellar missions make the operating cost exceed the capital cost. Such sailcraft will not be flown until the cost of electrical power in space is reduced orders of magnitude below current levels.

  19. The energy situation. [emphasizing various energy sources, costs, and environmental effects

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    Energy reserves from the principal energy sources other than petroleum and natural gas are summarized. It was found that energy sources are being consumed at rates which exceed the ability to replace them through new discoveries and technology improvements. The costs and implications to environment for using coal and nuclear energy are discussed. Tables are presented on energy consumption, cost of reclamation, and water power capacity.

  20. Energy Management System Lowers U.S. Navy Energy Costs Through PV System Interconnection (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    To meet the U.S. Navy's energy goals, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and the Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) spent two years collaborating on demonstrations that tested market-ready energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration. One such technology - an energy management system - was identified as a promising method for reducing energy use and costs, and can contribute to increasing energy security.

  1. Reducing Building HVAC Costs with Site-Recovery Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pargeter, Stephen J.

    2012-01-01

    Building owners are caught between two powerful forces--the need to lower energy costs and the need to meet or exceed outdoor air ventilation regulations for occupant health and comfort. Large amounts of energy are wasted each day from commercial, institutional, and government building sites as heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC)…

  2. Installed Cost Benchmarks and Deployment Barriers for Residential Solar Photovoltaics with Energy Storage: Q1 2016

    SciTech Connect

    Ardani, Kristen; O'Shaughnessy, Eric; Fu, Ran; McClurg, Chris; Huneycutt, Joshua; Margolis, Robert

    2016-12-01

    In this report, we fill a gap in the existing knowledge about PV-plus-storage system costs and value by providing detailed component- and system-level installed cost benchmarks for residential systems. We also examine other barriers to increased deployment of PV-plus-storage systems in the residential sector. The results are meant to help technology manufacturers, installers, and other stakeholders identify cost-reduction opportunities and inform decision makers about regulatory, policy, and market characteristics that impede solar plus storage deployment. In addition, our periodic cost benchmarks will document progress in cost reductions over time. To analyze costs for PV-plus-storage systems deployed in the first quarter of 2016, we adapt the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's component- and system-level cost-modeling methods for standalone PV. In general, we attempt to model best-in-class installation techniques and business operations from an installed-cost perspective. In addition to our original analysis, model development, and review of published literature, we derive inputs for our model and validate our draft results via interviews with industry and subject-matter experts. One challenge to analyzing the costs of PV-plus-storage systems is choosing an appropriate cost metric. Unlike standalone PV, energy storage lacks universally accepted cost metrics, such as dollars per watt of installed capacity and lifetime levelized cost of energy. We explain the difficulty of arriving at a standard approach for reporting storage costs and then provide the rationale for using the total installed costs of a standard PV-plus-storage system as our primary metric, rather than using a system-size-normalized metric.

  3. Discrete Fluctuations in Memory Erasure without Energy Cost.

    PubMed

    Croucher, Toshio; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A

    2017-02-10

    According to Landauer's principle, erasing one bit of information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett (VB) explored information erasure within the context of generalized Gibbs ensembles and demonstrated that for energy-degenerate spin reservoirs the cost of erasure can be solely in terms of a minimum amount of spin angular momentum and no energy. As opposed to the Landauer case, the cost of erasure in this case is associated with an intrinsically discrete degree of freedom. Here we study the discrete fluctuations in this cost and the probability of violation of the VB bound. We also obtain a Jarzynski-like equality for the VB erasure protocol. We find that the fluctuations below the VB bound are exponentially suppressed at a far greater rate and more tightly than for an equivalent Jarzynski expression for VB erasure. We expose a trade-off between the size of the fluctuations and the cost of erasure. We find that the discrete nature of the fluctuations is pronounced in the regime where reservoir spins are maximally polarized. We also state the first laws of thermodynamics corresponding to the conservation of spin angular momentum for this particular erasure protocol. Our work will be important for novel heat engines based on information erasure schemes that do not incur an energy cost.

  4. Discrete Fluctuations in Memory Erasure without Energy Cost

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Croucher, Toshio; Bedkihal, Salil; Vaccaro, Joan A.

    2017-02-01

    According to Landauer's principle, erasing one bit of information incurs a minimum energy cost. Recently, Vaccaro and Barnett (VB) explored information erasure within the context of generalized Gibbs ensembles and demonstrated that for energy-degenerate spin reservoirs the cost of erasure can be solely in terms of a minimum amount of spin angular momentum and no energy. As opposed to the Landauer case, the cost of erasure in this case is associated with an intrinsically discrete degree of freedom. Here we study the discrete fluctuations in this cost and the probability of violation of the VB bound. We also obtain a Jarzynski-like equality for the VB erasure protocol. We find that the fluctuations below the VB bound are exponentially suppressed at a far greater rate and more tightly than for an equivalent Jarzynski expression for VB erasure. We expose a trade-off between the size of the fluctuations and the cost of erasure. We find that the discrete nature of the fluctuations is pronounced in the regime where reservoir spins are maximally polarized. We also state the first laws of thermodynamics corresponding to the conservation of spin angular momentum for this particular erasure protocol. Our work will be important for novel heat engines based on information erasure schemes that do not incur an energy cost.

  5. Dissociating compatibility effects and distractor costs in the additional singleton paradigm.

    PubMed

    Folk, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    The interpretation of identity compatibility effects associated with irrelevant items outside the nominal focus of attention has fueled much of the debate over early versus late selection and perceptual load theory. However, compatibility effects have also played a role in the debate over the extent to which the involuntary allocation of spatial attention (i.e., attentional capture) is completely stimulus-driven or whether it is contingent on top-down control settings. For example, in the context of the additional singleton paradigm, irrelevant color singletons have been found to produce not only an overall cost in search performance but also significant compatibility effects. This combination of search costs and compatibility effects has been taken as evidence that spatial attention is indeed allocated in a bottom-up fashion to the salient but irrelevant singletons. However, it is possible that compatibility effects in the additional singleton paradigm reflect parallel processing of identity associated with low perceptual load rather than an involuntary shift of spatial attention. In the present experiments, manipulations of load were incorporated into the traditional additional singleton paradigm. Under low-load conditions, both search costs and compatibility effects were obtained, replicating previous studies. Under high-load conditions, search costs were still present, but compatibility effects were eliminated. This dissociation suggests that the costs associated with irrelevant singletons may reflect filtering processes rather than the allocation of spatial attention.

  6. Energy storage systems cost update : a study for the DOE Energy Storage Systems Program.

    SciTech Connect

    Schoenung, Susan M.

    2011-04-01

    This paper reports the methodology for calculating present worth of system and operating costs for a number of energy storage technologies for representative electric utility applications. The values are an update from earlier reports, categorized by application use parameters. This work presents an update of energy storage system costs assessed previously and separately by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Energy Storage Systems Program. The primary objective of the series of studies has been to express electricity storage benefits and costs using consistent assumptions, so that helpful benefit/cost comparisons can be made. Costs of energy storage systems depend not only on the type of technology, but also on the planned operation and especially the hours of storage needed. Calculating the present worth of life-cycle costs makes it possible to compare benefit values estimated on the same basis.

  7. Reliability, energy, and cost effects of wind-powered generation integrated with a conventional generating system

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Buehring, W.A.; Huber, C.C.; Hub, K.A.

    1980-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation is to examine the potential impacts of incorporating wind turbines, without the aid of energy-storage devices, into a conventional electrical generating system. This study focuses on the contribution to generating-system reliability of wind turbines, and the methods used to calculate these benefits. In addition, a simple cost model was developed to estimate ranges of breakeven costs for wind turbines based on the sum of fuel cost savings, variable operation and maintenance (0 and M) cost savings, and reliability benefits of the wind turbines.

  8. Energy cost of vessel disturbance to Kittlitz's Murrelets Brachyramphus brevirostris

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Agness, Alison M.; Marshall, Kristin N.; Piatt, John F.; Ha, James C.; VanBlaricom, Glenn R.

    2013-01-01

    We evaluated the energy cost of vessel disturbance for individual Kittlitz’s Murrelets Brachyramphus brevirostris in Glacier Bay National Park and Preserve in Alaska, USA. We used Monte Carlo simulations to model the daily energy expense associated with flight from vessels by both breeding and non-breeding birds and evaluated risk based on both the magnitude of costs incurred and the degree to which the costs may be chronic. We used two scenarios of vessel disturbance for average- and peak-vessel traffic. Because they are more likely to fly away from vessels, non-breeding birds had a greater increase in energy expenditure when disturbed (up to 30% increase under the average scenario and >50% increase under the peak scenario) than breeders (up to 10% and 30% increases under the average and peak scenarios, respectively). Likewise, non-breeding birds were more likely to experience chronic increases in energy expense (i.e. a greater percentage of days with an increase in energy expenditure) than breeding birds. Our modeling results indicated that breeding and non-breeding birds were both susceptible to fitness consequences (e.g. reduced reproductive success and survival) resulting from the energy cost.

  9. Assessing the Costs and Benefits of the Superior Energy Performance Program

    SciTech Connect

    Therkelsen, Peter; McKane, Aimee; Sabouini, Ridah; Evans, Tracy

    2013-07-01

    Industrial companies are seeking to manage energy consumption and costs, mitigate risks associated with energy, and introduce transparency into reports of their energy performance achievements. Forty industrial facilities are participating in the U.S. DOE supported Superior Energy Performance (SEP) program in which facilities implement an energy management system based on the ISO 50001 standard, and pursue third-party verification of their energy performance improvements. SEP certification provides industrial facilities recognition for implementing a consistent, rigorous, internationally recognized business process for continually improving energy performance and achievement of established energy performance improvement targets. This paper focuses on the business value of SEP and ISO 50001, providing an assessment of the costs and benefits associated with SEP implementation at nine SEP-certified facilities across a variety of industrial sectors. These cost-benefit analyses are part of the U.S. DOE?s contribution to the Global Superior Energy Performance (GSEP) partnership, a multi-country effort to demonstrate, using facility data, that energy management system implementation enables companies to improve their energy performance with a greater return on investment than business-as-usual (BAU) activity. To examine the business value of SEP certification, interviews were conducted with SEP-certified facilities. The costs of implementing the SEP program, including internal facility staff time, are described and a marginal payback of SEP certification has been determined. Additionally, more qualitative factors with regard to the business value and challenges related to SEP and ISO 50001 implementation are summarized.

  10. A study of power generation from a low-cost hydrokinetic energy system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davila Vilchis, Juana Mariel

    The kinetic energy in river streams, tidal currents, or other artificial water channels has been used as a feasible source of renewable power through different conversion systems. Thus, hydrokinetic energy conversion systems are attracting worldwide interest as another form of distributed alternative energy. Because these systems are still in early stages of development, the basic approaches need significant research. The main challenges are not only to have efficient systems, but also to convert energy more economically so that the cost-benefit analysis drives the growth of this alternative energy form. One way to view this analysis is in terms of the energy conversion efficiency per unit cost. This study presents a detailed assessment of a prototype hydrokinetic energy system along with power output costs. This experimental study was performed using commercial low-cost blades of 20 in diameter inside a tank with water flow speed up to 1.3 m/s. The work was divided into two stages: (a) a fixed-pitch blade configuration, using a radial permanent magnet generator (PMG), and (b) the same hydrokinetic turbine, with a variable-pitch blade and an axial-flux PMG. The results indicate that even though the efficiency of a simple blade configuration is not high, the power coefficient is in the range of other, more complicated designs/prototypes. Additionally, the low manufacturing and operation costs of this system offer an option for low-cost distributed power applications.

  11. Gelatin/graphene systems for low cost energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Landi, Giovanni; Fedi, Filippo; Sorrentino, Andrea; Iannace, Salvatore; Neitzert, Heinz C.

    2014-05-15

    In this work, we introduce the possibility to use a low cost, biodegradable material for temporary energy storage devices. Here, we report the use of biologically derived organic electrodes composed of gelatin ad graphene. The graphene was obtained by mild sonication in a mixture of volatile solvents of natural graphite flakes and subsequent centrifugation. The presence of exfoliated graphene sheets was detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) and Raman spectroscopy. The homogeneous dispersion in gelatin demonstrates a good compatibility between the gelatin molecules and the graphene particles. The electrical characterization of the resulting nanocomposites suggests the possible applications as materials for transient, low cost energy storage device.

  12. Geothermal Energy Development in the Eastern United States, Sensitivity analysis-cost of geothermal energy

    SciTech Connect

    Kane, S.M.; Kroll, P.; Nilo, B.

    1982-12-01

    The Geothermal Resources Interactive Temporal Simulation (GRITS) model is a computer code designed to estimate the costs of geothermal energy systems. The interactive program allows the user to vary resource, demand, and financial parameters to observe their effects on delivered costs of direct-use geothermal energy. Due to the large number and interdependent nature of the variables that influence these costs, the variables can be handled practically only through computer modeling. This report documents a sensitivity analysis of the cost of direct-use geothermal energy where each major element is varied to measure the responsiveness of cost to changes in that element. It is hoped that this analysis will assist those persons interested in geothermal energy to understand the most significant cost element as well as those individuals interested in using the GRITS program in the future.

  13. Encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing: RUBS and other methods of allocating energy costs to residents

    SciTech Connect

    McClelland, L

    1980-10-01

    Methods of encouraging energy conservation in multifamily housing by allocating energy costs to residents are discussed; specifically, methods appropriate for use in master metered buildings without equipment to monitor energy consumption in individual apartments are examined. Several devices available for monitoring individual energy consumption are also discussed plus methods of comparing the energy savings and cost effectiveness of monitoring devices with those of other means of promoting conservation. Specific information in Volume I includes a comparison study on energy use in master and individually metered buildings; types of appropriate conservation programs for master metered buildings; a description of the Resident Utility Billing System (RUBS); energy savings associated with RUBS; Resident reactions to RUBS; cost effectiveness of RUBS for property owners; potential abuses, factors limiting widespread use, and legal status of RUBS. Part I of Volume II contains a cost allocation decision guide and Part II in Volume II presents the RUBS Operations Manual. Pertinent appendices to some chapters are attached. (MCW)

  14. 76 FR 13168 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-03-10

    ... pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2... after-tax costs found in this notice. The representative average unit after-tax costs for electricity... energy Btu \\1\\ In commonly used terms test procedure Electricity $34.14 11.65 /kWh \\2,3\\...

  15. 75 FR 13123 - Energy Conservation Program for Consumer Products: Representative Average Unit Costs of Energy

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-03-18

    ... pursuant to the Energy Policy and Conservation Act. The five sources are electricity, natural gas, No. 2...-tax costs found in this notice. The representative average unit after-tax costs for electricity... energy \\1\\ In commonly used terms procedure Electricity $33.70 11.50 /kWh 2 3...... $.1150/kWh...

  16. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  17. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3 ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfills in evaluating the economic and financial feasibility of LFG energy project development. In 2014, LMOP developed a public version of the model, LFGcost-Web (Version 3.0), to allow landfill and industry stakeholders to evaluate project feasibility on their own. LFGcost-Web can analyze costs for 12 energy recovery project types. These project costs can be estimated with or without the costs of a gas collection and control system (GCCS). The EPA used select equations from LFGcost-Web to estimate costs of the regulatory options in the 2015 proposed revisions to the MSW Landfills Standards of Performance (also known as New Source Performance Standards) and the Emission Guidelines (herein thereafter referred to collectively as the Landfill Rules). More specifically, equations derived from LFGcost-Web were applied to each landfill expected to be impacted by the Landfill Rules to estimate annualized installed capital costs and annual O&M costs of a gas collection and control system. In addition, after applying the LFGcost-Web equations to the list of landfills expected to require a GCCS in year 2025 as a result of the proposed Landfill Rules, the regulatory analysis evaluated whether electr

  18. Energy life cycle cost analysis: Guidelines for public agencies

    SciTech Connect

    1995-03-01

    The State of Washington encourages energy-efficient building designs for public agencies. The Washington State Energy Office (WSEO) supports this goal by identifying advances in building technology and sharing this information with the design community and public administrators responsible for major construction projects. Many proven technologies can reduce operating costs-and save energy-to an extent that justifies some increases in construction costs. WSEO prepared these Energy Life Cycle Cost Analysis (ELCCA) guidelines for the individuals who are responsible for preparing ELCCA submittals for public buildings. Key terms and abbreviations are provided in Appendix A. Chapters 1 and 2 serve as an overview-providing background, defining energy life cycle cost analysis, explaining which agencies and projects are affected by the ELCCA requirements, and identifying changes to the guidelines that have been made since 1990. They explain {open_quotes}what needs to happen{close_quotes} and {open_quotes}why it needs to happen.{close_quotes} Chapters 3 to 7 provide the {open_quotes}how to,{close_quotes} the instructions and forms needed to prepare ELCCA submittals.

  19. In Brief: Hidden environment and health costs of energy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Showstack, Randy

    2009-10-01

    The hidden costs of energy production and use in the United States amounted to an estimated $120 billion in 2005, according to a 19 October report by the U.S. National Research Council. The report, “Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use,” examines hidden costs, including the cost of air pollution damage to human health, which are not reflected in market prices of energy sources, electricity, or gasoline. The report found that in 2005, the total annual external damages from sulfur dioxide, nitrogen oxides, and particulate matter created by coal-burning power plants that produced 95% of the nation's coal-generated electricity were about $62 billion, with nonclimate damages averaging about 3.2 cents for every kilowatt-hour of energy produced. It is estimated that by 2030, nonclimate damages will fall to 1.7 cents per kilowatt-hour. The 2030 figure assumes that new policies already slated for implementation are put in place.

  20. Environmental residuals and capital costs of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure

    SciTech Connect

    Ballou, S W; Dale, L; Johnson, R; Chambers, W; Mittelhauser, H

    1980-09-01

    The capital and environmental cost of energy recovery from municipal sludge and feedlot manure is analyzed. Literature on waste processing and energy conversion and interviews with manufacturers were used for baseline data for construction of theoretical models using three energy conversion processes: anaerobic digestion, incineration, and pyrolysis. Process characteristics, environmental impact data, and capital costs are presented in detail for each conversion system. The energy recovery systems described would probably be sited near large sources of sludge and manure, i.e., metropolitan sewage treatment plants and large feedlots in cattle-raising states. Although the systems would provide benefits in terms of waste disposal as well as energy production, they would also involve additional pollution of air and water. Analysis of potential siting patterns and pollution conflicts is needed before energy recovery systems using municipal sludge can be considered as feasible energy sources.

  1. Energy cost and energy sources during a simulated firefighting activity.

    PubMed

    Perroni, Fabrizio; Tessitore, Antonio; Cortis, Cristina; Lupo, Corrado; D'artibale, Emanuele; Cignitti, Lamberto; Capranica, Laura

    2010-12-01

    This study aimed to 1) analyze the energy requirement (VO2eq) and the contribution of the aerobic (VO2ex), anaerobic alactic (VO2al), and anaerobic lactic (VO2la-) energy sources of a simulated intervention; 2) ascertain differences in mean VO2 and heart rate (HR) during firefighting tasks; and 3) verify the relationship between time of job completion and the fitness level of firefighters. Twenty Italian firefighters (age = 32 ± 6 yr, VO2peak = 43.1 ± 4.9 mL·kg·min) performed 4 consecutive tasks (i.e., child rescue; 250-m run; find an exit; 250-m run) that required a VO2eq of 406.26 ± 73.91 mL·kg (VO2ex = 86 ± 5%; VO2al = 9 ± 3%; VO2la- = 5 ± 3%). After 30 minutes, the recovery HR (108 ± 15 beats·min) and VO2 (8.86±2.67mL·kg·min) were higher (p < 0.0001) than basal values (HR = 66 ± 8 beats·min; VO2 = 4.57 ± 1.07 mL·kg·min), indicating that passive recovery is insufficient in reducing the cardiovascular and thermoregulatory strain of the previous workload. Differences (p < 0.001) between tasks emerged for mean VO2 and HR, with a lack of significant correlation between the time of job completion and the firefighters' aerobic fitness. These findings indicate that unpredictable working conditions highly challenge expert firefighters who need adequate fitness levels to meet the requirements of their work. Practically, to enhance the fitness level of firefighters, specific interval training programs should include a wide variety of tasks requiring different intensities and decision-making strategies.

  2. Michigan Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the Michigan Uniform Energy Code

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Michigan homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the Michigan Uniform Energy Code is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Michigan homeowners will save $10,081 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $604 for the 2012 IECC.

  3. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing energy or water cost data. 436.17 Section 436.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.17 Establishing energy or water cost data....

  4. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Establishing energy or water cost data. 436.17 Section 436.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.17 Establishing energy or water cost data....

  5. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Establishing energy or water cost data. 436.17 Section 436.17 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION FEDERAL ENERGY MANAGEMENT AND PLANNING PROGRAMS Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.17 Establishing energy or water cost data....

  6. Energy conversion/power plant cost-cutting

    SciTech Connect

    Nichols, K.

    1996-12-31

    This presentation by Kenneth Nichols, Barber-Nichols, Inc., is about cost-cutting in the energy conversion phase and power plant phase of geothermal energy production. Mr. Nichols discusses several ways in which improvements could be made, including: use of more efficient compressors and other equipment as they become available, anticipating reservoir resource decline and planning for it, running smaller binary systems independent of human operators, and designing plants so that they are relatively maintenance-free.

  7. Low Cost Injection Mold Creation via Hybrid Additive and Conventional Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Dehoff, Ryan R.; Watkins, Thomas R.; List, III, Frederick Alyious; Carver, Keith; England, Roger

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of the proposed project between Cummins and ORNL is to significantly reduce the cost of the tooling (machining and materials) required to create injection molds to make plastic components. Presently, the high cost of this tooling forces the design decision to make cast aluminum parts because Cummins typical production volumes are too low to allow injection molded plastic parts to be cost effective with the amortized cost of the injection molding tooling. In addition to reducing the weight of components, polymer injection molding allows the opportunity for the alternative cooling methods, via nitrogen gas. Nitrogen gas cooling offers an environmentally and economically attractive cooling option, if the mold can be manufactured economically. In this project, a current injection molding design was optimized for cooling using nitrogen gas. The various components of the injection mold tooling were fabricated using the Renishaw powder bed laser additive manufacturing technology. Subsequent machining was performed on the as deposited components to form a working assembly. The injection mold is scheduled to be tested in a projection setting at a commercial vendor selected by Cummins.

  8. Annual energy usage reduction and cost savings of a school: end-use energy analysis.

    PubMed

    Roslizar, Aiman; Alghoul, M A; Bakhtyar, B; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m(2)/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm(2)/year.

  9. Annual Energy Usage Reduction and Cost Savings of a School: End-Use Energy Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Alghoul, M. A.; Bakhtyar, B.; Asim, Nilofar; Sopian, K.

    2014-01-01

    Buildings are among the largest consumers of energy. Part of the energy is wasted due to the habits of users and equipment conditions. A solution to this problem is efficient energy usage. To this end, an energy audit can be conducted to assess the energy efficiency. This study aims to analyze the energy usage of a primary school and identify the potential energy reductions and cost savings. A preliminary audit was conducted, and several energy conservation measures were proposed. The energy conservation measures, with reference to the MS1525:2007 standard, were modelled to identify the potential energy reduction and cost savings. It was found that the school's usage of electricity exceeded its need, incurring an excess expenditure of RM 2947.42. From the lighting system alone, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction of 5489.06 kWh, which gives a cost saving of RM 2282.52 via the improvement of lighting system design and its operating hours. Overall, it was found that there is a potential energy reduction and cost saving of 20.7% when the energy conservation measures are earnestly implemented. The previous energy intensity of the school was found to be 50.6 kWh/m2/year, but can theoretically be reduced to 40.19 kWh/mm2/year. PMID:25485294

  10. Energy Cost and Consumption Audit Program. 1975-76 Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Energy Task Force, Washington, DC.

    Results reported in this document were obtained from a questionnaire distributed to higher education business officers and physical plant directors requesting information on total campus and individual building energy cost and consumption for the fiscal year July 1, 1975, through June 30, 1976. Usable reports were received from 330 (22 percent) of…

  11. Energy Drain by Computers Stifles Efforts at Cost Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Keller, Josh

    2009-01-01

    The high price of storing and processing data is hurting colleges and universities across the country. In response, some institutions are embracing greener technologies to keep costs down and help the environment. But compared with other industries, colleges and universities have been slow to understand the problem and to adopt energy-saving…

  12. Energy conservation and cost benefits in the dairy processing industry

    SciTech Connect

    1982-01-01

    Guidance is given on measuring energy consumption in the plant and pinpointing areas where energy-conservation activities can return the most favorable economics. General energy-conservation techniques applicable to most or all segments of the dairy processing industry, including the fluid milk segment, are emphasized. These general techniques include waste heat recovery, improvements in electric motor efficiency, added insulation, refrigeration improvements, upgrading of evaporators, and increases in boiler efficiency. Specific examples are given in which these techniques are applied to dairy processing plants. The potential for energy savings by cogeneration of process steam and electricity in the dairy industry is also discussed. Process changes primarily applicable to specific milk products which have resulted in significant energy cost savings at some facilities or which promise significant contributions in the future are examined. A summary checklist of plant housekeeping measures for energy conservation and guidelines for economic evaluation of conservation alternatives are provided. (MHR)

  13. Developing a Cost Model and Methodology to Estimate Capital Costs for Thermal Energy Storage

    SciTech Connect

    Glatzmaier, G.

    2011-12-01

    This report provides an update on the previous cost model for thermal energy storage (TES) systems. The update allows NREL to estimate the costs of such systems that are compatible with the higher operating temperatures associated with advanced power cycles. The goal of the Department of Energy (DOE) Solar Energy Technology Program is to develop solar technologies that can make a significant contribution to the United States domestic energy supply. The recent DOE SunShot Initiative sets a very aggressive cost goal to reach a Levelized Cost of Energy (LCOE) of 6 cents/kWh by 2020 with no incentives or credits for all solar-to-electricity technologies.1 As this goal is reached, the share of utility power generation that is provided by renewable energy sources is expected to increase dramatically. Because Concentrating Solar Power (CSP) is currently the only renewable technology that is capable of integrating cost-effective energy storage, it is positioned to play a key role in providing renewable, dispatchable power to utilities as the share of power generation from renewable sources increases. Because of this role, future CSP plants will likely have as much as 15 hours of Thermal Energy Storage (TES) included in their design and operation. As such, the cost and performance of the TES system is critical to meeting the SunShot goal for solar technologies. The cost of electricity from a CSP plant depends strongly on its overall efficiency, which is a product of two components - the collection and conversion efficiencies. The collection efficiency determines the portion of incident solar energy that is captured as high-temperature thermal energy. The conversion efficiency determines the portion of thermal energy that is converted to electricity. The operating temperature at which the overall efficiency reaches its maximum depends on many factors, including material properties of the CSP plant components. Increasing the operating temperature of the power generation

  14. Cost effectiveness of the 1993 Model Energy Code in Colorado

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1995-06-01

    This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family homes in Colorado. The goal of this analysis was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to current construction practice in Colorado based on an objective methodology that determined the total life-cycle cost associated with complying with the 1993 MEC. This analysis was performed for the range of Colorado climates. The costs and benefits of complying with the 1993 NIEC were estimated from the consumer`s perspective. The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for homes built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to vary from 0.9 year in Steamboat Springs to 2.4 years in Denver. Compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1190 to $2274, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $119 to $227 (at 10% down). The net present value of all costs and benefits to the home buyer, accounting for the mortgage and taxes, varied from a savings of $1772 in Springfield to a savings of $6614 in Steamboat Springs. The ratio of benefits to costs ranged from 2.3 in Denver to 3.8 in Steamboat Springs.

  15. The Cost of an Additional Disability-Free Life Year for Older Americans: 1992–2005

    PubMed Central

    Cai, Liming

    2013-01-01

    Objective To estimate the cost of an additional disability-free life year for older Americans in 1992–2005. Data Source This study used 1992–2005 Medicare Current Beneficiary Survey, a longitudinal survey of Medicare beneficiaries with a rotating panel design. Study Design This analysis used multistate life table model to estimate probabilities of transition among a discrete set of health states (nondisabled, disabled, and dead) for two panels of older Americans in 1992 and 2002. Health spending incurred between annual health interviews was estimated by a generalized linear mixed model. Health status, including death, was simulated for each member of the panel using these transition probabilities; the associated health spending was cross-walked to the simulated health changes. Principal Findings Disability-free life expectancy (DFLE) increased significantly more than life expectancy during the study period. Assuming that 50 percent of the gains in DFLE between 1992 and 2005 were attributable to increases in spending, the average discounted cost per additional disability-free life year was $71,000. There were small differences between gender and racial/ethnic groups. Conclusions The cost of an additional disability-free life year was substantially below previous estimates based on mortality trends alone. PMID:22670874

  16. Battery energy storage systems life cycle costs case studies

    SciTech Connect

    Swaminathan, S.; Miller, N.F.; Sen, R.K.

    1998-08-01

    This report presents a comparison of life cycle costs between battery energy storage systems and alternative mature technologies that could serve the same utility-scale applications. Two of the battery energy storage systems presented in this report are located on the supply side, providing spinning reserve and system stability benefits. These systems are compared with the alternative technologies of oil-fired combustion turbines and diesel generators. The other two battery energy storage systems are located on the demand side for use in power quality applications. These are compared with available uninterruptible power supply technologies.

  17. R&D portfolio analysis of low carbon energy technologies to reduce climate change mitigation costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zdybel, Rose M.

    In this dissertation we analyze the effects of low carbon energy technology R&D portfolios on the cost of climate change mitigation. We use the results to create the analytical foundation for a decision support system aimed at effectively communicating the effects of uncertainty to decision makers. Specifically, we focus on three main areas. The first is generating a correlated probability distribution around detailed energy price forecasts. The second is showing how the availability of advanced energy technologies and combinations of them affect the marginal abatement cost curve. The third is creating the analytic foundation for a decision support system (DSS) by using an integrated assessment model to analyze the effects of combinations of low carbon energy technologies on CO2 concentration stabilization costs and then combining the results with probabilistic data from expert elicitations to analyze R&D portfolios. The third part also involves creating a multivariate regression model to represent the relationship between variables for additional analysis.

  18. Reproduction and lifespan: Trade-offs, overall energy budgets, intergenerational costs, and costs neglected by research.

    PubMed

    Jasienska, Grazyna

    2009-01-01

    In human females allocation of resources to support reproduction may cause their insufficient supply to other metabolic functions, resulting in compromised physiology, increased risks of diseases and, consequently, reduced lifespan. While many studies on both historical and contemporary populations show that women with high fertility indeed have shorter lifespans. This relationship is far from universal: a lack of correlation between fertility and lifespan, or even an increased lifespan of women with high fertility have also been documented. Reduced lifespan in women with high fertility may be undetectable due to methodological weaknesses of research or it may be truly absent, and its absence may be explained from biological principles. I will discuss the following reasons for a lack of the negative relationship, described in some demographic studies, between the number of children and lifespan in women: (1) Number of children is only a proxy of the total costs of reproduction and the cost of breastfeeding is often higher than the pregnancy cost but is often not taken into account. (2) Costs of reproduction can be interpreted in a meaningful way only when they are analyzed in relation to the overall energy budget of the woman. (3) Trade-offs between risks of different diseases due to reproduction yield different mortality predictions depending on the socio-economic status of the studied populations. (4) Costs of reproduction are related not only to having children but also to having grandchildren. Such intergenerational costs should be included in analysis of trade-offs between costs of reproduction and longevity.

  19. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two-axis, sun tracking solar energy collector is described. The collector design was specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion was used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, was the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allowed the control system to counter wide tolerances specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and to perform within a small tracking error.

  20. A low cost high temperature sun tracking solar energy collector

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Perkins, G. S.

    1977-01-01

    The design and economic evaluation of a low cost high temperature two axis sun tracking solar energy collector are described. The collector design is specifically intended for solar energy use with the freedom of motion about its two control axes being limited only to the amplitude required to track the sun. An examination of the performance criteria required in order to track the sun and perform the desired solar energy conversion is used as the starting point and guide to the design. This factor, along with its general configuration and structural aspect ratios, is the significant contributor to achieving low cost. The unique mechanical design allows the control system to counter wide tolerances that will be specified for the fabrication of the azimuth frame and perform within a small tracking error.

  1. Hybrid energy system cost analysis: San Nicolas Island, California

    SciTech Connect

    Olsen, T.L.; McKenna, E.

    1996-07-01

    This report analyzes the local wind resource and evaluates the costs and benefits of supplementing the current diesel-powered energy system on San Nicolas Island, California (SNI), with wind turbines. In Section 2.0 the SNI site, naval operations, and current energy system are described, as are the data collection and analysis procedures. Section 3.0 summarizes the wind resource data and analyses that were presented in NREL/TP 442-20231. Sections 4.0 and 5.0 present the conceptual design and cost analysis of a hybrid wind and diesel energy system on SNI, with conclusions following in Section 6. Appendix A presents summary pages of the hybrid system spreadsheet model, and Appendix B contains input and output files for the HYBRID2 program.

  2. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-10-01

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends—in part—on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world’s foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  3. Expert elicitation survey on future wind energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Jenni, Karen; Seel, Joachim; Baker, Erin; Hand, Maureen; Lantz, Eric; Smith, Aaron

    2016-09-12

    Wind energy supply has grown rapidly over the last decade. However, the long-term contribution of wind to future energy supply, and the degree to which policy support is necessary to motivate higher levels of deployment, depends -- in part -- on the future costs of both onshore and offshore wind. Here, we summarize the results of an expert elicitation survey of 163 of the world's foremost wind experts, aimed at better understanding future costs and technology advancement possibilities. Results suggest significant opportunities for cost reductions, but also underlying uncertainties. Under the median scenario, experts anticipate 24-30% reductions by 2030 and 35-41% reductions by 2050 across the three wind applications studied. Costs could be even lower: experts predict a 10% chance that reductions will be more than 40% by 2030 and more than 50% by 2050. Insights gained through expert elicitation complement other tools for evaluating cost-reduction potential, and help inform policy and planning, R&D and industry strategy.

  4. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-01-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  5. Low cost composite materials for wind energy conversion systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weingart, O.

    1980-06-01

    A winding process utilizing a low-cost E-glass fabric called transverse-filament tape for low-cost production of wind turbine generators (WTG) is described. The process can be carried out continuously at high speed to produce large one-piece parts with tapered wall thicknesses on a tapered mandrel. It is being used to manufacture blades for the NASA/DOE 200-ft-diameter MOD-1 WTG and Rockwell/DOE 40-kW small wind energy conversion system (SWECS).

  6. Cost effectiveness of the 1995 model energy code in Massachusetts

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1996-02-01

    This report documents an analysis of the cost effectiveness of the Council of American Building Officials` 1995 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in Massachusetts. The goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1995 MEC to the energy conservation requirements of the Massachusetts State Building Code-based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each.. This comparison was performed for three cities representing three geographical regions of Massachusetts--Boston, Worcester, and Pittsfield. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily condominium unit. Natural gas, oil, and electric resistance heating were examined. The Massachusetts state code has much more stringent requirements if electric resistance heating is used rather than other heating fuels and/or equipment types. The MEC requirements do not vary by fuel type. For single-family homes, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are more energy-efficient than the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. For multifamily housing, the 1995 MEC has requirements that are approximately equally energy-efficient to the non-electric resistance requirements of the current state code. The 1995 MEC is generally not more stringent than the electric resistance requirements of the state code, in fact; for multifamily buildings the 1995 MEC is much less stringent.

  7. Energy and Cost Optimized Technology Options to Meet Energy Needs of Food Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Hoffman, Michael G.; Wagner, Anne W.; Thornton, John

    2015-05-01

    Full Paper Submission for: Combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) distributed generation (DG) systems can provide electric power and, heating and cooling capability to commercial and industrial facilities directly onsite, while increasing energy efficiency, security of energy supply, grid independence and enhancing the environmental and economic situation for the site. Food processing industries often have simultaneous requirements for heat, steam, chilling and electricity making them well suited for the use of such systems to supply base-load or as peak reducing generators enabling reduction of overall energy use intensity. This paper documents analysis from a project evaluating opportunities enabled by CCHPDG for emission and cost reductions and energy storage systems installed onsite at food processing facilities. In addition, this distributed generation coupled with energy storage demonstrates a non-wires solution to delay or eliminate the need for upgrades to electric distribution systems. It was found that a dairy processing plant in the Pacific Northwest currently purchasing 15,000 MWh/yr of electricity and 190,000 MMBtu/yr of gas could be provided with a 1.1 MW CCHP system reducing the amount of electric power purchased to 450 MWh/yr while increasing the gas demand to 255,000 MMBtu/yr. The high percentage of hydro-power in this region resulted in CO2 emissions from CCHP to be higher than that attributed to the electric utility/regional energy mix. The value of this work is in documenting a real-world example demonstrating the value of CCHP to facility owners and financial decision makers to encourage them to more seriously consider CCHP systems when building or upgrading facilities.

  8. The energy cost of water independence: the case of Singapore.

    PubMed

    Vincent, Lenouvel; Michel, Lafforgue; Catherine, Chevauché; Pauline, Rhétoré

    2014-01-01

    Finding alternative resources to secure or increase water availability is a key issue in most urban areas. This makes the research of alternative and local water resources of increasing importance. In the context of political tension with its main water provider (Malaysia), Singapore has been implementing a comprehensive water policy for some decades, which relies on water demand management and local water resource mobilisation in order to reach water self-sufficiency by 2060. The production of water from alternative resources through seawater desalination or water reclamation implies energy consumptive technologies such as reverse osmosis. In the context of increasing energy costs and high primary energy dependency, this water self-sufficiency objective is likely to be an important challenge for Singapore. The aim of this paper is to quantify the long-term impact of Singapore's water policy on the national electricity bill and to investigate the impact of Singapore's projects to reduce its water energy footprint. We estimate that 2.0% of the Singaporean electricity demand is already dedicated to water and wastewater treatment processes. If its water-energy footprint dramatically increases in the coming decades, ambitious research projects may buffer the energy cost of water self-sufficiency.

  9. Dark energy and dark matter from an additional adiabatic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    The dark sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the Universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent γ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general γ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with γ =constant in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like nonrelativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both dark energy and dark matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The Λ CDM model is included in this family of theories when γ =0 . We fit our model to supernovae Ia, H (z ) and baryonic acoustic oscillation data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early Universe and the growth of small perturbations in this model are also discussed.

  10. The difference between energy consumption and energy cost: Modelling energy tariff structures for water resource recovery facilities.

    PubMed

    Aymerich, I; Rieger, L; Sobhani, R; Rosso, D; Corominas, Ll

    2015-09-15

    The objective of this paper is to demonstrate the importance of incorporating more realistic energy cost models (based on current energy tariff structures) into existing water resource recovery facilities (WRRFs) process models when evaluating technologies and cost-saving control strategies. In this paper, we first introduce a systematic framework to model energy usage at WRRFs and a generalized structure to describe energy tariffs including the most common billing terms. Secondly, this paper introduces a detailed energy cost model based on a Spanish energy tariff structure coupled with a WRRF process model to evaluate several control strategies and provide insights into the selection of the contracted power structure. The results for a 1-year evaluation on a 115,000 population-equivalent WRRF showed monthly cost differences ranging from 7 to 30% when comparing the detailed energy cost model to an average energy price. The evaluation of different aeration control strategies also showed that using average energy prices and neglecting energy tariff structures may lead to biased conclusions when selecting operating strategies or comparing technologies or equipment. The proposed framework demonstrated that for cost minimization, control strategies should be paired with a specific optimal contracted power. Hence, the design of operational and control strategies must take into account the local energy tariff.

  11. Pennsylvania Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IRC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Pennsylvania homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from Chapter 11 of the 2009 International Residential Code (IRC) is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Pennsylvania homeowners will save $8,632 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $515 for the 2012 IECC.

  12. Nevada Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-03

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Nevada homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Nevada homeowners will save $4,736 with the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $360 for the 2012 IECC.

  13. Development of low-cost silicon crystal growth techniques for terrestrial photovoltaic solar energy conversion

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zoutendyk, J. A.

    1976-01-01

    Because of the growing need for new sources of electrical energy, photovoltaic solar energy conversion is being developed. Photovoltaic devices are now being produced mainly from silicon wafers obtained from the slicing and polishing of cylindrically shaped single crystal ingots. Inherently high-cost processes now being used must either be eliminated or modified to provide low-cost crystalline silicon. Basic to this pursuit is the development of new or modified methods of crystal growth and, if necessary, crystal cutting. If silicon could be grown in a form requiring no cutting, a significant cost saving would potentially be realized. Therefore, several techniques for growth in the form of ribbons or sheets are being explored. In addition, novel techniques for low-cost ingot growth and cutting are under investigation.

  14. Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP): User`s guide. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C.; Willing, D.L.

    1994-07-01

    A microcomputer program called the Replacement Energy Cost Analysis Package (RECAP) has been developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) in determining the replacement energy costs associated with short-term shutdowns or deratings of one or more nuclear reactors. The calculations are based on the seasonal, unit-specific cost estimates for 1993--1996 previously published in NRC Report NUREG/CR--4012, Vol. 3 (1992), for all 112 US reactors. Because the RECAP program is menu-driven, the user can define specific case studies in terms of such parameters as the units to be included, the length and timing of the shutdown or derating period, the unit capacity factors, and the reference year for reporting cost results. In addition to simultaneous shutdown cases, more complicated situations, such as overlapping shutdown periods or shutdowns that occur in different years, can be examined through the use of a present-worth calculation option.

  15. Cost analysis of DAWT innovative wind energy systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Foreman, K. M.

    The results of a diffuser augmented wind turbine (DAWT) preliminary design study of three constructional material approaches and cost analysis of DAWT electrical energy generation are presented. Costs are estimated assuming a limited production run (100 to 500 units) of factory-built subassemblies and on-site final assembly and erection within 200 miles of regional production centers. It is concluded that with the DAWT the (busbar) cost of electricity (COE) can range between 2.0 and 3.5 cents/kW-hr for farm and REA cooperative end users, for sites with annual average wind speeds of 16 and 12 mph respectively, and 150 kW rated units. No tax credit incentives are included in these figures. For commercial end users of the same units and site characteristics, the COE ranges between 4.0 and 6.5 cents/kW-hr.

  16. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  17. Gait in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis: energy cost analysis.

    PubMed

    Mahaudens, P; Detrembleur, C; Mousny, M; Banse, X

    2009-08-01

    Walking is a very common activity for the human body. It is so common that the musculoskeletal and cardiovascular systems are optimized to have the minimum energetic cost at 4 km/h (spontaneous speed). A previous study showed that lumbar and thoracolumbar adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients exhibit a reduction of shoulder, pelvic, and hip frontal mobility during gait. A longer contraction duration of the spinal and pelvic muscles was also noted. The energetic cost (C) of walking is normally linked to the actual mechanical work muscles have to perform. This total mechanical work (W(tot)) can be divided in two parts: the work needed to move the shoulders and lower limbs relative to the center of mass of the body (COM(b)) is known as the internal work (W(int)), whereas additional work, known as external work (W(ext)), is needed to accelerate and lift up the COM(b) relative to the ground. Normally, the COM(b) goes up and down by 3 cm with every step. Pathological walking usually leads to an increase in W (tot) (often because of increased vertical displacement of the COM(b)), and consequently, it increases the energetic cost. The goal of this study is to investigate the effects of scoliosis and scoliosis severity on the mechanical work and energetic cost of walking. Fifty-four female subjects aged 12 to 17 were used in this study. Thirteen healthy girls were in the control group, 12 were in scoliosis group 1 (Cobb angle [Cb] < or = 20 degrees), 13 were in scoliosis group 2 (20 degrees < Cb < 40 degrees), and 16 were in scoliosis group 3 (Cb > or = 40 degrees). They were assessed by physical examination and gait analysis. The 41 scoliotic patients had an untreated progressive left thoracolumbar or lumbar AIS. During gait analysis, the subject was asked to walk on a treadmill at 4 km h(-1). Movements of the limbs were followed by six infrared cameras, which tracked markers fixed on the body. W(int) was calculated from the kinematics. The movements of the COM

  18. Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana; Jenne, D. Scott; Smith, Christopher S.; Copping, Andrea E.; Copeland, Guild

    2016-12-01

    The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publically available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied within the Reference Model Project. Comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.

  19. Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

    DOE PAGES

    Bull, Diana; Jenne, D. Scott; Smith, Christopher S.; ...

    2016-07-18

    The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publicly available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied withinmore » the Reference Model Project. Furthermore, comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.« less

  20. Levelized cost of energy for a Backward Bent Duct Buoy

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana; Jenne, D. Scott; Smith, Christopher S.; Copping, Andrea E.; Copeland, Guild

    2016-07-18

    The Reference Model Project, supported by the U.S. Department of Energy, was developed to provide publicly available technical and economic benchmarks for a variety of marine energy converters. The methodology to achieve these benchmarks is to develop public domain designs that incorporate power performance estimates, structural models, anchor and mooring designs, power conversion chain designs, and estimates of the operations and maintenance, installation, and environmental permitting required. The reference model designs are intended to be conservative, robust, and experimentally verified. The Backward Bent Duct Buoy (BBDB) presented in this paper is one of three wave energy conversion devices studied within the Reference Model Project. Furthermore, comprehensive modeling of the BBDB in a Northern California climate has enabled a full levelized cost of energy (LCOE) analysis to be completed on this device.

  1. Compressed air systems. A guidebook on energy and cost savings

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1984-03-30

    This guidebook shows how energy can be saved in compressed air systems. It discusses basic compressed air systems which are typical of those found in industry and describes them and the engineering practices behind them. Energy conservation recommendations follow. These recommendations cover equipment selection, design, maintenance, and operation. Included is information which will help the reader to make economic evaluations of various engineering and equipment alternatives as they affect operations and costs. The appendices include some modern computer based approaches to predicting pressure drop for designing compressed air distribution systems. Also included is a bibliography providing leads for further and more detailed technical information on these and related subjects.

  2. The concepts of energy, environment, and cost for process design

    SciTech Connect

    Abu-Khader, M.M.; Speight, J.G.

    2004-05-01

    The process industries (specifically, energy and chemicals) are characterized by a variety of reactors and reactions to bring about successful process operations. The design of energy-related and chemical processes and their evolution is a complex process that determines the competitiveness of these industries, as well as their environmental impact. Thus, we have developed an Enviro-Energy Concept designed to facilitate sustainable industrial development. The Complete Onion Model represents a complete methodology for chemical process design and illustrates all of the requirements to achieve the best possible design within the accepted environmental standards. Currently, NOx emissions from industrial processes continue to receive maximum attention, therefore the issue problem of NOx emissions from industrial sources such as power stations and nitric acid plants is considered. The Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) is one of the most promising and effective commercial technologies. It is considered the Best Available Control Technology (BACT) for NOx reduction. The solution of NOx emissions problem is either through modifying the chemical process design and/or installing an end-of-pipe technology. The degree of integration between the process design and the installed technology plays a critical role in the capital cost evaluation. Therefore, integrating process units and then optimizing the design has a vital effect on the total cost. Both the environmental regulations and the cost evaluation are the boundary constraints of the optimum solution.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Vehicle Assembly Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst

    2008-01-01

    The motor vehicle industry in the U.S. spends about $3.6 billion on energy annually. In this report, we focus on auto assembly plants. In the U.S., over 70 assembly plants currently produce 13 million cars and trucks each year. In assembly plants, energy expenditures is a relatively small cost factor in the total production process. Still, as manufacturers face an increasingly competitive environment, energy efficiency improvements can provide a means to reduce costs without negatively affecting the yield or the quality of the product. In addition, reducing energy costs reduces the unpredictability associated with variable energy prices in today?s marketplace, which could negatively affect predictable earnings, an important element for publicly-traded companies such as those in the motor vehicle industry. In this report, we first present a summary of the motor vehicle assembly process and energy use. This is followed by a discussion of energy efficiency opportunities available for assembly plants. Where available, we provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have listed costs and typical payback periods. We include experiences of assembly plants worldwide with energy efficiency measures reviewed in the report. Our findings suggest that although most motor vehicle companies in the U.S. have energy management teams or programs, there are still opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption cost effectively. Further research on the economics of the measures for individual assembly plants, as part of an energy management program, is needed to assess the potential impact of selected technologies at these plants.

  4. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Pharmaceutical Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Galitsky, Christina; Chang, Sheng-chieh; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. pharmaceutical industry consumes almost $1 billion in energy annually. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. pharmaceutical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. pharmaceutical industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in the pharmaceutical manufacturing process. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in pharmaceutical and related facilities worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while meeting regulatory requirements and maintaining the quality of products manufactured. At individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures?as well as their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies.

  5. Selected bibliography: cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy technologies

    SciTech Connect

    1980-05-01

    This bibliography is a compilation of reports on the cost and energy savings of conservation and renewable energy applications throughout the United States. It is part of an overall effort to inform utilities of technological developments in conservation and renewable energy technologies and so aid utilities in their planning process to determine the most effective and economic combination of capital investments to meet customer needs. Department of Energy assessments of the applications, current costs and cost goals for the various technologies included in this bibliography are presented. These assessments are based on analyses performed by or for the respective DOE Program Offices. The results are sensitive to a number of variables and assumptions; however, the estimates presented are considered representative. These assessments are presented, followed by some conclusions regarding the potential role of the conservation and renewable energy alternative. The approach used to classify the bibliographic citations and abstracts is outlined.

  6. Promoting renewable energy and energy efficiency in Africa: a framework to evaluate employment generation and cost effectiveness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cantore, Nicola; Nussbaumer, Patrick; Wei, Max; Kammen, Daniel M.

    2017-03-01

    The ongoing debate over the cost-effectiveness of renewable energy (RE) and energy efficiency (EE) deployment often hinges on the current cost of incumbent fossil-fuel technologies versus the long-term benefit of clean energy alternatives. This debate is often focused on mature or ‘industrialized’ economies and externalities such as job creation. In many ways, however, the situation in developing economies is at least as or even more interesting due to the generally faster current rate of economic growth and of infrastructure deployment. On the one hand, RE and EE could help decarbonize economies in developing countries, but on the other hand, higher upfront costs of RE and EE could hamper short-term growth. The methodology developed in this paper confirms the existence of this trade-off for some scenarios, yet at the same time provides considerable evidence about the positive impact of EE and RE from a job creation and employment perspective. By extending and adopting a methodology for Africa designed to calculate employment from electricity generation in the U.S., this study finds that energy savings and the conversion of the electricity supply mix to renewable energy generates employment compared to a reference scenario. It also concludes that the costs per additional job created tend to decrease with increasing levels of both EE adoption and RE shares.

  7. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  8. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  9. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  10. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  11. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  12. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  13. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  14. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  15. 10 CFR 434.502 - Determination of the annual energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Determination of the annual energy cost budget. 434.502 Section 434.502 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR NEW FEDERAL COMMERCIAL AND MULTI-FAMILY HIGH RISE RESIDENTIAL BUILDINGS Building Energy Cost Compliance Alternative §...

  16. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  17. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1 Each floor... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  18. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  19. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  20. 10 CFR 434.506 - Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.506 Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 506.1Each floor shall... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Use of the reference building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.506 Section 434.506 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  1. 10 CFR 434.504 - Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Alternative § 434.504 Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 504.1 Determine the... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Use of the prototype building to determine the energy cost budget. 434.504 Section 434.504 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION ENERGY CODE FOR...

  2. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Glass Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina; Masanet, Eric; Graus, Wina

    2008-03-01

    The U.S. glass industry is comprised of four primary industry segments--flat glass, container glass, specialty glass, and fiberglass--which together consume $1.6 billion in energy annually. On average, energy costs in the U.S. glass industry account for around 14 percent of total glass production costs. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There is a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. glass industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, system, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. glass industry is provided along with a description of the major process steps in glass manufacturing. Expected savings in energy and energy-related costs are given for many energy efficiency measures, based on case study data from real-world applications in glass production facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. glass industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures--as well on as their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess potential implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  3. Identifying Low Cost Energy Improvements for School Buildings: An Energy Audit Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Minnesota State Dept. of Energy and Economic Development, St. Paul.

    This manual is a guide for performing energy audits in school buildings using low- and no-cost measures found effective in Minnesota. The manual helps school maintenance and administrative personnel conduct walk-through inspections of school buildings, focusing on the energy efficiency of their equipment and operations. The measures recommended…

  4. Impact of Financial Structure on the Cost of Solar Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, M.; Kreycik, C.; Bird, L.; Schwabe, P.; Cory, K.

    2012-03-01

    To stimulate investment in renewable energy generation projects, the federal government developed a series of support structures that reduce taxes for eligible investors--the investment tax credit, the production tax credit, and accelerated depreciation. The nature of these tax incentives often requires an outside investor and a complex financial arrangement to allocate risk and reward among the parties. These financial arrangements are generally categorized as 'advanced financial structures.' Among renewable energy technologies, advanced financial structures were first widely deployed by the wind industry and are now being explored by the solar industry to support significant scale-up in project development. This report describes four of the most prevalent financial structures used by the renewable sector and evaluates the impact of financial structure on energy costs for utility-scale solar projects that use photovoltaic and concentrating solar power technologies.

  5. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.17 Establishing energy or water cost data. (a... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Establishing energy or water cost data. 436.17 Section 436... shall establish water costs in the base year by multiplying the total units of water used in the...

  6. 10 CFR 436.17 - Establishing energy or water cost data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Methodology and Procedures for Life Cycle Cost Analyses § 436.17 Establishing energy or water cost data. (a... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Establishing energy or water cost data. 436.17 Section 436... shall establish water costs in the base year by multiplying the total units of water used in the...

  7. Evaluation of global onshore wind energy potential and generation costs.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yuyu; Luckow, Patrick; Smith, Steven J; Clarke, Leon

    2012-07-17

    In this study, we develop an updated global estimate of onshore wind energy potential using reanalysis wind speed data, along with updated wind turbine technology performance, land suitability factors, cost assumptions, and explicit consideration of transmission distance in the calculation of transmission costs. We find that wind has the potential to supply a significant portion of the world energy needs, although this potential varies substantially by region and with assumptions such as on what types of land can be used to site wind farms. Total global economic wind potential under central assumptions, that is, intermediate between optimistic and pessimistic, is estimated to be approximately 119.5 petawatt hours per year (13.6 TW) at less than 9 cents/kWh. A sensitivity analysis of eight key parameters is presented. Wind potential is sensitive to a number of input parameters, particularly wind speed (varying by -70% to +450% at less than 9 cents/kWh), land suitability (by -55% to +25%), turbine density (by -60% to +80%), and cost and financing options (by -20% to +200%), many of which have important policy implications. As a result of sensitivities studied here we suggest that further research intended to inform wind supply curve development focus not purely on physical science, such as better resolved wind maps, but also on these less well-defined factors, such as land-suitability, that will also have an impact on the long-term role of wind power.

  8. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds? 170.602 Section 170.602 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE... Funding Process § 170.602 If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional...

  9. Developing Information on Energy Savings and Associated Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficient Emerging Technologies Applicable in California

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Tengfang; Slaa, Jan Willem; Sathaye, Jayant

    2010-12-15

    California Energy Commission (CEC) and managed by California Institute for Energy and Environment (CIEE). The project purpose is to characterize energy savings, technology costs, market potential, and economic viability of newly selected technologies applicable to California. In this report, LBNL first performed technology reviews to identify new or under-utilized technologies that could offer potential in improving energy efficiency and additional benefits to California industries as well as in the U.S. industries, followed by detailed technology assessment on each targeted technology, with a focus on California applications. A total of eleven emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California were selected and characterized with detailed information in this report. The outcomes essentially include a multi-page summary profile for each of the 11 emerging or underutilized technologies applicable to California industries, based on the formats used in the technology characterization reports (Xu et al. 2010; Martin et al. 2000).

  10. Program Potential: Estimates of Federal Energy Cost Savings from Energy Efficient Procurement

    SciTech Connect

    Taylor, Margaret; Fujita, K. Sydny

    2012-09-17

    In 2011, energy used by federal buildings cost approximately $7 billion. Reducing federal energy use could help address several important national policy goals, including: (1) increased energy security; (2) lowered emissions of greenhouse gases and other air pollutants; (3) increased return on taxpayer dollars; and (4) increased private sector innovation in energy efficient technologies. This report estimates the impact of efficient product procurement on reducing the amount of wasted energy (and, therefore, wasted money) associated with federal buildings, as well as on reducing the needless greenhouse gas emissions associated with these buildings.

  11. Open-wheel race car driving: energy cost for pilots.

    PubMed

    Beaune, Bruno; Durand, Sylvain; Mariot, Jean-Pierre

    2010-11-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the energy cost of speedway open-wheel race car driving using actimetry. Eight pilot students participated in a training session consisting of 5 successive bouts of around 30 minutes driving at steady speed on the Bugatti speedway of Le Mans (France). Energy expenditure (EE, kcal) was determined continuously by the actimetric method using the standard equation. Energy cost was estimated through physical activity ratio (PAR = EE/BMR ratio, Mets) calculation after basal metabolism rate (BMR, kcal·min-1) estimation. A 1-met PAR value was attributed to the individual BMR of each volunteer. Bout durations and EE were not significantly different between driving bouts. Mean speed was 139.94 ± 2.96 km·h-1. Physical activity ratio values ranged 4.92 ± 0.50 to 5.43 ± 0.47 Mets, corresponding to a 5.27 ± 0.47-Mets mean PAR values and a 1.21 ± 0.41 kcal·min-1 mean BMR value. These results suggest that actimetry is a simple and efficient method for EE and PAR measurements in motor sports. However, further studies are needed in the future to accurately evaluate relationships between PAR and driving intensity or between PAR and race car type.

  12. Cost-of-Service Segmentation of Energy Consumers

    SciTech Connect

    Albert, A; Rajagopal, R

    2014-11-01

    Uncertainty in consumption is a key challenge at energy utility companies, which are faced with balancing highly stochastic demand with increasingly volatile supply characterized by significant penetration rates of intermittent renewable sources. This paper proposes a methodology to quantify uncertainty in consumption that highlights the dependence of the cost-of-service with volatility in demand. We use a large and rich dataset of consumption time series to provide evidence that there is a substantial degree of high-level structure in the statistics of consumption across users which may be partially explained by certain characteristics of the users. To uncover this structure, we propose a new technique for extracting typical statistical signatures of consumption-energy demand distributions (EDDs)-that is based on clustering distributions using a fast, approximated algorithm. We next study the factors influencing the choice of consumption signature and identify certain types of appliances and behaviors related to appliance operation that are most predictive. Finally, we comment on how structure in consumption statistics may be used to target residential energy efficiency programs to achieve greatest impact in curtailing cost of service.

  13. Magnetized Target Fusion: Prospects for Low-Cost Fusion Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siemon, Richard E.; Turchi, Peter J.; Barnes, Daniel C.; Degnan, James; Parks, Paul; Ryutov, Dmitri D.; Thio, Y. C. Francis; Schafer, Charles (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Magnetized Target Fusion (MTF) has attracted renewed interest in recent years because it has the potential to resolve one of the major problems with conventional fusion energy research - the high cost of facilities to do experiments and in general develop practical fusion energy. The requirement for costly facilities can be traced to fundamental constraints. The Lawson condition implies large system size in the case of conventional magnetic confinement, or large heating power in the case of conventional inertial confinement. The MTF approach is to use much higher fuel density than with conventional magnetic confinement (corresponding to megabar pressures), which results in a much-reduced system size to achieve Lawson conditions. Intrinsically the system must be pulsed because the pressures exceed the strength of any known material. To facilitate heating the fuel (or "target") to thermonuclear conditions with a high-power high-intensity source of energy, magnetic fields are used to insulate the high-pressure fuel from material surroundings (thus "magnetized target"). Because of magnetic insulation, the required heating power intensity is reduced by many orders of magnitude compared to conventional inertial fusion, even with relatively poor energy confinement in the magnetic field, such as that characterized by Bohm diffusion. In this paper we show semi-quantitatively why MTF-should allow fusion energy production without costly facilities within the same generally accepted physical constraints used for conventional magnetic and inertial fusion. We also briefly discuss potential applications of this technology ranging from nuclear rockets for space propulsion to a practical commercial energy system. Finally, we report on the exploratory research underway, and the interesting physics issues that arise in the MTF regime of parameters. Experiments at Los Alamos are focused on formation of a suitable plasma target for compression, utilizing the knowledge base for compact

  14. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... cost-share for an energy conservation measure grant in that building: (a) A non-Federally...

  15. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  16. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  17. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  18. 10 CFR 455.102 - Energy conservation measure cost-share credit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. 455.102 Section 455.102 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ENERGY CONSERVATION GRANT PROGRAMS FOR SCHOOLS AND HOSPITALS... Energy conservation measure cost-share credit. To the extent a State provides in its State Plan, DOE...

  19. The energy cost of voluntary running in the weasel Mustela nivalis.

    PubMed

    Chappell, Mark A; Szafrańska, Paulina A; Zub, Karol; Konarzewski, Marek

    2013-02-15

    The small size and elongate shape of weasels (Mustela nivalis) probably evolved to facilitate movement within the burrow systems of prey species, but result in high energy costs of thermoregulation. In this study we measured metabolic rates of weasels during voluntary locomotion to determine whether energy costs of transport are also high in these unusually shaped mammals. In addition, we measured the lower and upper limits of aerobic metabolism [resting metabolic rate (RMR) and maximal oxygen consumption in forced exercise (V(O(2),max))], and used the wide size range of adult weasels to investigate the intraspecific scaling of energy metabolism. Finally, we combined measurements of energy use during running with radiotracking and doubly labeled water data from free-living weasels to estimate the importance of locomotor costs in daily energy budgets. We found that weasels have higher than predicted costs of running, largely because of an elevated intercept of the speed versus metabolic rate relationship. Running costs were strongly affected by the approximately fourfold range of body size in adults. As reported in other studies, the RMR of weasels was considerably higher than predicted from body mass. Maximal oxygen consumption was also higher than predicted, but factorial aerobic scope (V(O(2),max)/RMR) was within the normal range for mammals. Intraspecific mass scaling of RMR and V(O(2),max) did not differ from typical interspecific mammalian allometries. In wild weasels, locomotor costs comprised roughly 5% of daily energy expenditures; this low value was primarily a result of short travel times and distances.

  20. Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space: HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    DeVieneni, Alayna; Velez, Carlos Andres; Benjamin, David; Hollenbeck, Jay

    2012-01-01

    Welcome to the HELIOS Technology Challenge Guide. This document is intended to serve as a general road map for participants of the HELIOS Technology Challenge [HTC] Program and the associated inaugural challenge: HTC-01: Cost-Effective Additive Manufacturing in Space. Please note that this guide is not a rule book and is not meant to hinder the development of innovative ideas. Its primary goal is to highlight the objectives of the HTC-01 Challenge and to describe possible solution routes and pitfalls that such technology may encounter in space. Please also note that participants wishing to demonstrate any hardware developed under this program during any future HELIOS Technology Challenge showcase event(s) may be subject to event regulations to be published separately at a later date.

  1. Rain increases the energy cost of bat flight.

    PubMed

    Voigt, Christian C; Schneeberger, Karin; Voigt-Heucke, Silke L; Lewanzik, Daniel

    2011-10-23

    Similar to insects, birds and pterosaurs, bats have evolved powered flight. But in contrast to other flying taxa, only bats are furry. Here, we asked whether flight is impaired when bat pelage and wing membranes get wet. We studied the metabolism of short flights in Carollia sowelli, a bat that is exposed to heavy and frequent rainfall in neotropical rainforests. We expected bats to encounter higher thermoregulatory costs, or to suffer from lowered aerodynamic properties when pelage and wing membranes catch moisture. Therefore, we predicted that wet bats face higher flight costs than dry ones. We quantified the flight metabolism in three treatments: dry bats, wet bats and no rain, wet bats and rain. Dry bats showed metabolic rates predicted by allometry. However, flight metabolism increased twofold when bats were wet, or when they were additionally exposed to rain. We conclude that bats may not avoid rain only because of sensory constraints imposed by raindrops on echolocation, but also because of energetic constraints.

  2. Cost-Effective Solar Thermal Energy Storage: Thermal Energy Storage With Supercritical Fluids

    SciTech Connect

    2011-02-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: UCLA and JPL are creating cost-effective storage systems for solar thermal energy using new materials and designs. A major drawback to the widespread use of solar thermal energy is its inability to cost-effectively supply electric power at night. State-of-the-art energy storage for solar thermal power plants uses molten salt to help store thermal energy. Molten salt systems can be expensive and complex, which is not attractive from a long-term investment standpoint. UCLA and JPL are developing a supercritical fluid-based thermal energy storage system, which would be much less expensive than molten-salt-based systems. The team’s design also uses a smaller, modular, single-tank design that is more reliable and scalable for large-scale storage applications.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Breweries: An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Martin, Nathan; Worrell, Ernst; Lehman, Bryan

    2003-09-01

    Annually, breweries in the United States spend over $200 million on energy. Energy consumption is equal to 38 percent of the production costs of beer, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs, especially in times of high energy price volatility. After a summary of the beer making process and energy use, we examine energy efficiency opportunities available for breweries. We provide specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies that have implemented the measures, as well as references to technical literature. If available, we have also listed typical payback periods. Our findings suggest that given available technology, there are still opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the brewing industry. Brewers value highly the quality, taste and drinkability of their beer. Brewing companies have and are expected to continue to spend capital on cost-effective energy conservation measures that meet these quality, taste and drinkability requirements. For individual plants, further research on the economics of the measures, as well as their applicability to different brewing practices, is needed to assess implementation of selected technologies.

  4. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Athalye, Rahul A.; Hart, Philip R.; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Xie, YuLong; Goel, Supriya; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Liu, Bing

    2013-08-30

    The purpose of this analysis is to assess the relative energy and energy cost performance of commercial buildings designed to meet the requirements found in the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). Section 304(b) of the Energy Conservation and Production Act (ECPA), as amended, requires the Secretary of Energy to make a determination each time a revised version of ASHRAE Standard 90.1 is published with respect to whether the revised standard would improve energy efficiency in commercial buildings. As many states have historically adopted the IECC for both residential and commercial buildings, PNNL has evaluated the impacts of the commercial provisions of the 2006, 2009, and 2012 editions of the IECC. PNNL also compared energy performance with corresponding editions of ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1 to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  5. New-generation gas turbine helping brewery lighten energy costs

    SciTech Connect

    Brezonick, M.

    1994-10-01

    In nearly any manufacturing industry, the loss of electrical power can have a severe impact on the manufacturing process. The case of Labatt's Ontario Breweries in particular, the loss of electrical service puts a crimp in the brewmaster's art by forcing the company to dump large quantities of it's Labatt's Blue. To solve the problem, the company has installed a gas-turbine-drive cogeneration system to guard against brownout. The new 501-KB7 was developed from the well-established 501-KB5 turbine. It has improved power output over the 501-KB7 design, up from 4025 to 5225 kw, a higher 13.5:1 pressure ratio, and a 32% increased in airflow (20.4 kg/s). The Labatt's installation which became operational in 1993 reduced the Breweries energy cost because of 501-KB7 turbine's higher energy output. 3 figs.

  6. Integration Costs: Are They Unique to Wind and Solar Energy? Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Milligan, M.; Hodge, B.; Kirby, B.; Clark, C.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past several years, there has been considerable interest in assessing wind integration costs. This is understandable because wind energy does increase the variability and uncertainty that must be managed on a power system. However, there are other sources of variability and uncertainty that also must be managed in the power system. This paper describes some of these sources and shows that even the introduction of base-load generation can cause additional ramping and cycling. The paper concludes by demonstrating that integration costs are not unique to wind and solar, and should perhaps instead be assessed by power plant and load performance instead of technology type.

  7. Additive Manufacturing for Cost Efficient Production of Compact Ceramic Heat Exchangers and Recuperators

    SciTech Connect

    Shulman, Holly; Ross, Nicole

    2015-10-30

    An additive manufacture technique known as laminated object manufacturing (LOM) was used to fabricate compact ceramic heat exchanger prototypes. LOM uses precision CO2 laser cutting of ceramic green tapes, which are then precision stacked to build a 3D object with fine internal features. Modeling was used to develop prototype designs and predict the thermal response, stress, and efficiency in the ceramic heat exchangers. Build testing and materials analyses were used to provide feedback for the design selection. During this development process, laminated object manufacturing protocols were established. This included laser optimization, strategies for fine feature integrity, lamination fluid control, green handling, and firing profile. Three full size prototypes were fabricated using two different designs. One prototype was selected for performance testing. During testing, cross talk leakage prevented the application of a high pressure differential, however, the prototype was successful at withstanding the high temperature operating conditions (1300 °F). In addition, analysis showed that the bulk of the part did not have cracks or leakage issues. This led to the development of a module method for next generation LOM heat exchangers. A scale-up cost analysis showed that given a purpose built LOM system, these ceramic heat exchangers would be affordable for the applications.

  8. A Better Way to Store Energy for Less Cost

    SciTech Connect

    Darmon, Jonathan M.; Weiss, Charles J.; Hulley, Elliott B.; Helm, Monte L.; Bullock, R. Morris

    2013-01-01

    Representing the Center for Molecular Electrocatalysis (CME), this document is one of the entries in the Ten Hundred and One Word Challenge. As part of the challenge, the 46 Energy Frontier Research Centers were invited to represent their science in images, cartoons, photos, words and original paintings, but any descriptions or words could only use the 1000 most commonly used words in the English language, with the addition of one word important to each of the EFRCs and the mission of DOE energy. The mission of CME to understand, design and develop molecular electrocatalysts for solar fuel production and use.

  9. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  10. The Program Administrator Cost of Saved Energy for Utility Customer-Funded Energy Efficiency Programs

    SciTech Connect

    Billingsley, Megan A.; Hoffman, Ian M.; Stuart, Elizabeth; Schiller, Steven R.; Goldman, Charles A.; LaCommare, Kristina

    2014-03-19

    End-use energy efficiency is increasingly being relied upon as a resource for meeting electricity and natural gas utility system needs within the United States. There is a direct connection between the maturation of energy efficiency as a resource and the need for consistent, high-quality data and reporting of efficiency program costs and impacts. To support this effort, LBNL initiated the Cost of Saved Energy Project (CSE Project) and created a Demand-Side Management (DSM) Program Impacts Database to provide a resource for policy makers, regulators, and the efficiency industry as a whole. This study is the first technical report of the LBNL CSE Project and provides an overview of the project scope, approach, and initial findings, including: • Providing a proof of concept that the program-level cost and savings data can be collected, organized, and analyzed in a systematic fashion; • Presenting initial program, sector, and portfolio level results for the program administrator CSE for a recent time period (2009-2011); and • Encouraging state and regional entities to establish common reporting definitions and formats that would make the collection and comparison of CSE data more reliable. The LBNL DSM Program Impacts Database includes the program results reported to state regulators by more than 100 program administrators in 31 states, primarily for the years 2009–2011. In total, we have compiled cost and energy savings data on more than 1,700 programs over one or more program-years for a total of more than 4,000 program-years’ worth of data, providing a rich dataset for analyses. We use the information to report costs-per-unit of electricity and natural gas savings for utility customer-funded, end-use energy efficiency programs. The program administrator CSE values are presented at national, state, and regional levels by market sector (e.g., commercial, industrial, residential) and by program type (e.g., residential whole home programs, commercial new

  11. Assessing Potential Energy Cost Savings from Increased Energy Code Compliance in Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhang, Jian; Wang, Weimin

    2016-02-15

    The US Department of Energy’s most recent commercial energy code compliance evaluation efforts focused on determining a percent compliance rating for states to help them meet requirements under the American Recovery and Reinvestment Act (ARRA) of 2009. That approach included a checklist of code requirements, each of which was graded pass or fail. Percent compliance for any given building was simply the percent of individual requirements that passed. With its binary approach to compliance determination, the previous methodology failed to answer some important questions. In particular, how much energy cost could be saved by better compliance with the commercial energy code and what are the relative priorities of code requirements from an energy cost savings perspective? This paper explores an analytical approach and pilot study using a single building type and climate zone to answer those questions.

  12. The development of empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Young, David Morgan

    This research introduces a unique data analysis method and develops empirical models to evaluate energy use and energy cost in wastewater collection systems using operational variables. From these models, several Best Management Processes (BMPs) are identified that should benefit utilities and positively impact the operation of existing infrastructure as well as the design of new infrastructure. Further, the conclusions generated herein display high transferability to certain manufacturing processes. Therefore, it is anticipated that these findings will also benefit pumping applications outside of the water sector. Wastewater treatment is often the single largest expense at the local government level. Not surprisingly, significant research effort has been expended on examining the energy used in wastewater treatment. However, the energy used in wastewater collection systems remains underexplored despite significant potential for energy savings. Estimates place potential energy savings as high as 60% within wastewater collection; which, if applied across the United States equates to the energy used by nearly 125,000 American homes. Employing three years of data from Renewable Water Resources (ReWa), the largest wastewater utility in the Upstate of South Carolina, this study aims to develop useful empirical equations that will allow utilities to efficiently evaluate the energy use and energy cost of its wastewater collection system. ReWa's participation was motivated, in part, by their recent adoption of the United States Environmental Protection Agency "Effective Utility Strategies" within which exists a focus on energy management. The study presented herein identifies two primary variables related to the energy use and cost associated with wastewater collection: Specific Energy (Es) and Specific Cost (Cs). These two variables were found to rely primarily on the volume pumped by the individual pump stations and exhibited similar power functions for the three year

  13. Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Hand, M.; Wiser, R.

    2012-08-01

    The future of wind power will depend on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost reductions. To better understand the potential for cost reductions, this report provides a review of historical costs, evaluates near-term market trends, and summarizes the range of projected costs. It also notes potential sources of future cost reductions.

  14. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... Payment Plan? 171.555 Section 171.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND... Collections § 171.555 What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan? You will incur the following costs: (a) An administrative fee to process your Payment Plan, as required by 31 CFR 901.9....

  15. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  16. A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-07-14

    Resources Energy Technology Basics Electricity Grid Basics Costs Renewable Technologies Biomass Geothermal Solar Concentrators Solar Photovoltaics Wind...SPONSORED REPORT SERIES A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 14 July 2014...SUBTITLE A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  17. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  18. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  19. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities... Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. RUS, through the Electric Program, makes grants and loans to assist high energy cost rural communities. The Assistant Administrator, Electric Program,...

  20. ASHRAE Standard 62-1989: Energy, Cost, and Program Implications.

    SciTech Connect

    Steele, Tim R.; Brown, Marilyn A.

    1990-10-15

    ASHRAE Standard 62-1989 (Standard 62-89) Ventilation for Acceptable Indoor Air Quality'' is the new heating, ventilating, and air-conditioning (HVAC) industry consensus for ventilation air in commercial buildings. Bonneville Power Administration (Bonneville) references ASHRAE Standard 62-81 (the predecessor to Standard 62-89) in their current environmental documents for required ventilation rates. Through its use, it had become evident to Bonneville that Standard 62-81 needed interpretation. Now that the revised Standard (Standard 62-89) is available, its usefulness needs to be evaluated. Based on current information and public comment, the American Society of Heating, Refrigeration, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) revised Standard 62-1981 to Standard 62-89. Bonneville's study estimated the energy and cost implications of ASHRAE Standard 62-89 using simulations based on DOE-2.1D, a computer simulation program which estimates building use hourly as a function of building characteristics and climatic location. Ten types of prototypical commercial buildings used by Bonneville for load forecasting purposes were examined: Large and Small Office, Large and Small Retail, Restaurant, Warehouse, Hospital, Hotel, School, and Grocery. These building characterizations are based on survey and energy metering data and represent average or typical construction and operation practices and mechanical system types. Prototypical building ventilation rates were varied in five steps to estimate the impacts of outside air on building energy use. 11 refs., 14 tabs.

  1. Renewable Energy Cost Modeling: A Toolkit for Establishing Cost-Based Incentives in the United States; March 2010 -- March 2011

    SciTech Connect

    Gifford, J. S.; Grace, R. C.; Rickerson, W. H.

    2011-05-01

    This report is intended to serve as a resource for policymakers who wish to learn more about establishing cost-based incentives. The report will identify key renewable energy cost modeling options, highlight the policy implications of choosing one approach over the other, and present recommendations on the optimal characteristics of a model to calculate rates for cost-based incentives, feed-in tariffs (FITs), or similar policies. These recommendations will be utilized in designing the Cost of Renewable Energy Spreadsheet Tool (CREST). Three CREST models will be publicly available and capable of analyzing the cost of energy associated with solar, wind, and geothermal electricity generators. The CREST models will be developed for use by state policymakers, regulators, utilities, developers, and other stakeholders to assist them in current and future rate-setting processes for both FIT and other renewable energy incentive payment structures and policy analyses.

  2. Hidden Costs of Energy: Unpriced Consequences of Energy Production and Use

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    National Research Council

    2011-11-01

    The U.S. Congress directed the U.S. Department of the Treasury to arrange for a review by the National Academy of Sciences to define and evaluate the health, environmental, security, and infrastructural external costs and benefits associated with the production and consumption of energy--costs and benefits that are not or may not be fully incorporated into the market price of energy, into the federal tax or fee, or into other applicable revenue measures related to production and consumption of energy. In response, the National Research Council established the Committee on Health, Environmental, and Other External Costs and Benefits of Energy Production and Consumption, which prepared the report summarized in this chapter. The report estimates dollar values for several major components of these costs. The damages the committee was able to quantify were an estimated $120 billion in the U.S. in 2005, a number that reflects primarily health damages from air pollution associated with electricity generation and motor vehicle transportation. The figure does not include damages from climate change, harm to ecosystems, effects of some air pollutants such as mercury, and risks to national security, which the report examines but does not monetize.

  3. High Temperature Thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing Using Low-Cost, Open-Source Hardware

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gardner, John M.; Stelter, Christopher J.; Yashin, Edward A.; Siochi, Emilie J.

    2016-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (or 3D printing) via Fused Filament Fabrication (FFF), also known as Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), is a process where material is placed in specific locations layer-by-layer to create a complete part. Printers designed for FFF build parts by extruding a thermoplastic filament from a nozzle in a predetermined path. Originally developed for commercial printers, 3D printing via FFF has become accessible to a much larger community of users since the introduction of Reprap printers. These low-cost, desktop machines are typically used to print prototype parts or novelty items. As the adoption of desktop sized 3D printers broadens, there is increased demand for these machines to produce functional parts that can withstand harsher conditions such as high temperature and mechanical loads. Materials meeting these requirements tend to possess better mechanical properties and higher glass transition temperatures (Tg), thus requiring printers with high temperature printing capability. This report outlines the problems and solutions, and includes a detailed description of the machine design, printing parameters, and processes specific to high temperature thermoplastic 3D printing.

  4. Correcting for the free energy costs of bond or angle constraints in molecular dynamics simulations

    PubMed Central

    König, Gerhard; Brooks, Bernard R.

    2014-01-01

    Background Free energy simulations are an important tool in the arsenal of computational biophysics, allowing the calculation of thermodynamic properties of binding or enzymatic reactions. This paper introduces methods to increase the accuracy and precision of free energy calculations by calculating the free energy costs of constraints during post-processing. The primary purpose of employing constraints for these free energy methods is to increase the phase space overlap between ensembles, which is required for accuracy and convergence. Methods The free energy costs of applying or removing constraints are calculated as additional explicit steps in the free energy cycle. The new techniques focus on hard degrees of freedom and use both gradients and Hessian estimation. Enthalpy, vibrational entropy, and Jacobian free energy terms are considered. Results We demonstrate the utility of this method with simple classical systems involving harmonic and anharmonic oscillators, four-atomic benchmark systems, an alchemical mutation of ethane to methanol, and free energy simulations between alanine and serine. The errors for the analytical test cases are all below 0.0007 kcal/mol, and the accuracy of the free energy results of ethane to methanol is improved from 0.15 to 0.04 kcal/mol. For the alanine to serine case, the phase space overlaps of the unconstrained simulations range between 0.15 and 0.9%. The introduction of constraints increases the overlap up to 2.05%. On average, the overlap increases by 94% relative to the unconstrained value and precision is doubled. Conclusions The approach reduces errors arising from constraints by about an order of magnitude. Free energy simulations benefit from the use of constraints through enhanced convergence and higher precision. General Significance The primary utility of this approach is to calculate free energies for systems with disparate energy surfaces and bonded terms, especially in multi-scale molecular mechanics

  5. Department of Defense Energy and Logistics: Implications of Historic and Future Cost, Risk, and Capability Analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tisa, Paul C.

    Every year the DoD spends billions satisfying its large petroleum demand. This spending is highly sensitive to uncontrollable and poorly understood market forces. Additionally, while some stakeholders may not prioritize its monetary cost and risk, energy is fundamentally coupled to other critical factors. Energy, operational capability, and logistics are heavily intertwined and dependent on uncertain security environment and technology futures. These components and their relationships are less understood. Without better characterization, future capabilities may be significantly limited by present-day acquisition decisions. One attempt to demonstrate these costs and risks to decision makers has been through a metric known as the Fully Burdened Cost of Energy (FBCE). FBCE is defined as the commodity price for fuel plus many of these hidden costs. The metric encouraged a valuable conversation and is still required by law. However, most FBCE development stopped before the lessons from that conversation were incorporated. Current implementation is easy to employ but creates little value. Properly characterizing the costs and risks of energy and putting them in a useful tradespace requires a new framework. This research aims to highlight energy's complex role in many aspects of military operations, the critical need to incorporate it in decisions, and a novel framework to do so. It is broken into five parts. The first describes the motivation behind FBCE, the limits of current implementation, and outlines a new framework that aids decisions. Respectively, the second, third, and fourth present a historic analysis of the connections between military capabilities and energy, analyze the recent evolution of this conversation within the DoD, and pull the historic analysis into a revised framework. The final part quantifies the potential impacts of deeply uncertain futures and technological development and introduces an expanded framework that brings capability, energy, and

  6. The energy cost of cycling in young obese women.

    PubMed

    Lafortuna, Claudio L; Proietti, Marco; Agosti, Fiorenza; Sartorio, Alessandro

    2006-05-01

    In order to evaluate the difference in the energy cost of submaximal cycling between normal weight (NW) and obese (OB) females, nine OB (age 23.2 years+/-1.6 SE, BMI 40.4+/-1.2 kg/m2) and nine NW (age 25.6 years+/-1.8, BMI 21.7+/-0.6 kg/m2) healthy young women were studied during a graded bicycle ergometer test at 40, 60, 80, 100 and 120 W. At rest and at all workloads, oxygen uptake VO2 was higher in OB than in NW women (Student's t test, P<0.05-0.01), as well as respiratory quotient during all exercise levels (P<0.05-0.01), while similar values of heart rate, pulmonary ventilation and breathing efficiency were found between the two groups. Maximal VO2 and anaerobic threshold were higher in OB women, and they also explained the higher oxygen pulse observed during submaximal exercise, but no difference was found when the values were adjusted for fat-free mass. While net mechanical efficiency (ME) was significantly lower in OB (ANOVA, P<0.05), delta ME was similar in both groups, indicating no substantial derangement of muscle intrinsic efficiency in obesity, but suggesting that the increased mass of body segments involved in cycling movements may be chiefly responsible for the higher energy cost of this type of exercise. Comparison of the actual VO2 presently measured with that predicted by available cycle ergometry equations at the different workloads indicated inaccuracy of various degrees ranging from 8.4 to -31.9%. It is concluded that the lower mechanical efficiency displayed by obese women in cycling has to be taken into account when prescribing exercise through methods predicting the metabolic load.

  7. Low cost energy storage flywheels from structural sheet molding compound

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kay, J. F.

    Compression molded structural sheet molding compound (SMC) composed of S-2 Glass and polyester resin has been used to fabricate energy storage flywheel rotors. This technique has the potential of low cost, high throughput production of rotors for the automobile industry. An isophthalic polyester resin and chopped S-2 Glass were used to mold flat, constant cross section discs 53.3 cm (21 innches) in diameter, 2.54 cm (1.0 inches) thick, and 49.5 kg (22.5 pounds) in weight. Materials characterizations have shown a tensile strength of 337 MPa (49 ksi) for the S-2 Glass reinforced rotors, which would allow the rotor to store 28.6 watt-hours per kilogram (13 watt-hours per pound) at 330 hertz when a filament wound carbon fiber/epoxy ring is fitted around the SMC core. A dynamic test of an SMC flywheel has shown an energy storage density of 27.7 watt-hours per kilogram (12.6 watt-hours per pound) at 330 hertz.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for Cement Making. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The cost of energy as part of the total production costs in the cement industry is significant, warranting attention for energy efficiency to improve the bottom line. Historically, energy intensity has declined, although more recently energy intensity seems to have stabilized with the gains. Coal and coke are currently the primary fuels for the sector, supplanting the dominance of natural gas in the 1970s. Most recently, there is a slight increase in the use of waste fuels, including tires. Between 1970 and 1999, primary physical energy intensity for cement production dropped 1 percent/year from 7.3 MBtu/short ton to 5.3 MBtu/short ton. Carbon dioxide intensity due to fuel consumption and raw material calcination dropped 16 percent, from 609 lb. C/ton of cement (0.31 tC/tonne) to 510 lb. C/ton cement (0.26 tC/tonne). Despite the historic progress, there is ample room for energy efficiency improvement. The relatively high share of wet-process plants (25 percent of clinker production in 1999 in the U.S.) suggests the existence of a considerable potential, when compared to other industrialized countries. We examined over 40 energy efficient technologies and measures and estimated energy savings, carbon dioxide savings, investment costs, and operation and maintenance costs for each of the measures. The report describes the measures and experiences of cement plants around the wold with these practices and technologies. Substantial potential for energy efficiency improvement exists in the cement industry and in individual plants. A portion of this potential will be achieved as part of (natural) modernization and expansion of existing facilities, as well as construction of new plants in particular regions. Still, a relatively large potential for improved energy management practices exists.

  9. Cost benefit analysis and energy savings of using compression and absorption chillers for air conditioners in hot and humid climates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shekarchian, M.; Moghavvemi, M.; Motasemi, F.; Mahlia, T. M. I.

    2012-06-01

    The electricity consumption growth has increased steadily in the recent decade which is a great concern for the environment. Increasing the number of high-rise air-conditioned buildings and the rapid use of electrical appliances in residential and commercial sectors are two important factors for high electricity consumption. This paper investigates the annual energy required for cooling per unit area and the total energy cost per unit area for each type of air conditioning systems in hot and humid climates. The effects of changing the coefficient of performance (COP) of absorption chillers on cost saving was also investigated in this study. The results showed that using absorption chillers for cooling will increase the amount of energy consumption per unit area; however the energy cost per unit area will decrease. In addition this research indicates that for each 0.1 increment in COP of absorption chillers, there is about 500 USD/m2 saved cost.

  10. Donohue Corporate Office Headquarters: a cost effective energy conscious design

    SciTech Connect

    Marcheske, M.; Ruppel, D.; Gau, R.; Vita, D.; Walsh, T.; Daryanani, S.

    1981-01-01

    The focus is on the design techniques in the recently completed corporate office building of Donohue and Associates, Engineers and Architects, located in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. The new location, located at a latitude of 43/sup 0/ north, will provide 25,000 additional square feet on two floors, while providing a regional show case for energy-efficient commercial building design that emphasizes a quality environment predicated on the integration of daylighting and indirect lighting systems as well as the coordination of passive solar techniques with auxiliary mechanical systems. Emphasis is on the utilization of a design-build approach, coupled with a design-team approach that required close cooperation between the architect, engineer, energy consultant and owner as well as the general contractor and subcontractors, in order to provide a qualtiy office environment in which to work.

  11. Donohue corporate office headquarters: a cost effective energy conscious design

    SciTech Connect

    Marcheske, M.; Ruppel, D.; Vita, D.; Walsh, T.; Daryanani, S.

    1982-01-01

    Focus is on the design technqiues utilized in the recently completed corporate office building of Donohue and Associates, Engineers and Architects, located in Sheboygan, Wisconsin. The new facility located at a latitude of 43/sup 0/ north, will provide 25,000 additional square feet on two floors, while providing a regional showcase for energy-efficient commercial buildings design that emphasizes a quality environment predicated on the integration of daylighting and indirect lighting systems as well as the coordination of passive solar techniques with auxiliary mechanical systems. The utilization of a design-build approach coupled with a design-team approach required close cooperation between the architect, engineer, energy consultant, and owner, as well as the general contractor and subcontractors, in order to provide a quality office environment in which to work.

  12. Rhode Island Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-04-01

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Rhode Island homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Rhode Island homeowners will save $11,011 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 1 year for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $629 for the 2012 IECC.

  13. Texas Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2009 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-06-15

    The 2012 International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) yields positive benefits for Texas homeowners. Moving to the 2012 IECC from the 2009 IECC is cost effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Texas homeowners will save $3,456 with the 2012 IECC. After accounting for upfront costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $259 for the 2012 IECC.

  14. Comparison of costs for automobile energy conservation vs synthetic fuel production

    SciTech Connect

    Gorman, R.; Heitner, K. L.

    1980-01-01

    This preliminary analysis suggests that there are a large number of potential technical options for reducing energy consumption in automobiles. Furthermore, the cost to the user of purchasing these conservation options is less than the discounted cost of purchasing the additional fuel required if the conservation option is not chosen. There is a significant cost savings even if fuel costs remain at current levels. These savings would increase if fuel prices continue to rise or if more costly than synthetic fuels, at least for another 15 to 20 years. Cost-effective conservation could enable new vehicles to reach 40 to 50 mpg corporate average fuel economy by the year 2000. It is clear that the potential for making these changes exists, but better data are needed to evaluate many of these options and to ensure the development and implementation of those that are desirable. Specifically, there is a need for more applied research in government and industry laboratories. Key areas for this work are discussed here for: (1) optimized engine designs, and (2) efficient vehicle body structures. 10 references, 10 figures, 3 tables.

  15. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. (a) Procedures for determining the estimated annual energy consumption, the estimated annual operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the...

  16. 78 FR 32224 - Availability of Version 3.1.2 of the Connect America Fund Phase II Cost Model; Additional...

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-05-29

    ...; Additional Discussion Topics in Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications... issues in the ongoing virtual workshop. DATES: Comments are due on or before June 18, 2013. If you... comments. Virtual Workshop: In addition to the usual methods for filing electronic comments, the...

  17. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy in Western Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Bolinger, Mark; Wiser, Ryan

    2005-08-10

    Markets for renewable energy have historically been motivated primarily by policy efforts, but a less widely recognized driver is poised to also play a major role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Resource planning has re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, the most recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions--primarily coming from wind power--are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. This report examines how twelve western utilities treat renewable energy in their recent resource plans. In aggregate, these utilities supply approximately half of all electricity demand in the western United States. Our purpose is twofold: (1) to highlight the growing importance of utility IRP as a current and future driver of renewable energy, and (2) to identify methodological/modeling issues, and suggest possible improvements to methods used to evaluate renewable energy as a resource option. Here we summarize the key findings of the report, beginning with a discussion of the planned renewable energy additions called for by the twelve utilities, an overview of how these plans incorporated renewables into candidate portfolios, and a review of the specific technology cost and performance assumptions they made, primarily for wind power. We then turn to the utilities' analysis of natural gas price and environmental compliance risks, and examine how the utilities traded off portfolio cost and risk in selecting a preferred portfolio.

  18. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; ...

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  19. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-09-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  20. Energy and Energy Cost Savings Analysis of the 2015 IECC for Commercial Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Jian; Xie, YuLong; Athalye, Rahul A.; Zhuge, Jing Wei; Rosenberg, Michael I.; Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-06-01

    As required by statute (42 USC 6833), DOE recently issued a determination that ANSI/ASHRAE/IES Standard 90.1-2013 would achieve greater energy efficiency in buildings subject to the code compared to the 2010 edition of the standard. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) conducted an energy savings analysis for Standard 90.1-2013 in support of its determination . While Standard 90.1 is the model energy standard for commercial and multi-family residential buildings over three floors (42 USC 6833), many states have historically adopted the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) for both residential and commercial buildings. This report provides an assessment as to whether buildings constructed to the commercial energy efficiency provisions of the 2015 IECC would save energy and energy costs as compared to the 2012 IECC. PNNL also compared the energy performance of the 2015 IECC with the corresponding Standard 90.1-2013. The goal of this analysis is to help states and local jurisdictions make informed decisions regarding model code adoption.

  1. Low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency of government office buildings: A case study in federal territory of Malaysia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tahir, Mohamad Zamhari; Nawi, Mohd Nasrun Mohd; Ibrahim, Amlus

    2016-08-01

    This paper presents the findings of a case study to achieve energy-efficient performance of conventional office buildings in Malaysia. Two multi-storey office buildings in Federal Territory of Malaysia have been selected. The aim is to study building energy saving potential then to highlight the appropriate measures that can be implemented. Data was collected using benchmarking method by comparing the measured consumption to other similar office buildings and a series of preliminary audit which involves interviews, a brief review of utility and operating data as well as a walkthrough in the buildings. Additionally, in order to get a better understanding of major energy consumption in the selected buildings, general audit have been conducted to collect more detailed information about building operation. In the end, this study emphasized low-cost and no-cost practice to achieve energy efficiency with significant results in some cases.

  2. Cost Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, Philip

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous United States. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  3. 5 CFR 591.220 - How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... cost indexes? 591.220 Section 591.220 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ALLOWANCES AND DIFFERENTIALS Cost-of-Living Allowance and Post Differential-Nonforeign Areas Cost-Of-Living Allowances § 591.220 How does OPM calculate energy utility cost indexes? (a)...

  4. Low-Cost High-Energy Potassium Cathode.

    PubMed

    Xue, Leigang; Li, Yutao; Gao, Hongcai; Zhou, Weidong; Lü, Xujie; Kaveevivitchai, Watchareeya; Manthiram, Arumugam; Goodenough, John B

    2017-02-15

    Potassium has as rich an abundance as sodium in the earth, but the development of a K-ion battery is lagging behind because of the higher mass and larger ionic size of K(+) than that of Li(+) and Na(+), which makes it difficult to identify a high-voltage and high-capacity intercalation cathode host. Here we propose a cyanoperovskite KxMnFe(CN)6 (0 ≤ x ≤ 2) as a potassium cathode: high-spin Mn(III)/Mn(II) and low-spin Fe(III)/Fe(II) couples have similar energies and exhibit two close plateaus centered at 3.6 V; two active K(+) per formula unit enable a theoretical specific capacity of 156 mAh g(-1); Mn and Fe are the two most-desired transition metals for electrodes because they are cheap and environmental friendly. As a powder prepared by an inexpensive precipitation method, the cathode delivers a specific capacity of 142 mAh g(-1). The observed voltage, capacity, and its low cost make it competitive in large-scale electricity storage applications.

  5. Energy savings estimates and cost benefit calculations for high performance relocatable classrooms

    SciTech Connect

    Rainer, Leo I.; Hoeschele, Marc A.; Apte, Michael G.; Shendell, Derek G.; Fisk, Wlliam J.

    2003-12-01

    This report addresses the results of detailed monitoring completed under Program Element 6 of Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's High Performance Commercial Building Systems (HPCBS) PIER program. The purpose of the Energy Simulations and Projected State-Wide Energy Savings project is to develop reasonable energy performance and cost models for high performance relocatable classrooms (RCs) across California climates. A key objective of the energy monitoring was to validate DOE2 simulations for comparison to initial DOE2 performance projections. The validated DOE2 model was then used to develop statewide savings projections by modeling base case and high performance RC operation in the 16 California climate zones. The primary objective of this phase of work was to utilize detailed field monitoring data to modify DOE2 inputs and generate performance projections based on a validated simulation model. Additional objectives include the following: (1) Obtain comparative performance data on base case and high performance HVAC systems to determine how they are operated, how they perform, and how the occupants respond to the advanced systems. This was accomplished by installing both HVAC systems side-by-side (i.e., one per module of a standard two module, 24 ft by 40 ft RC) on the study RCs and switching HVAC operating modes on a weekly basis. (2) Develop projected statewide energy and demand impacts based on the validated DOE2 model. (3) Develop cost effectiveness projections for the high performance HVAC system in the 16 California climate zones.

  6. Methodology for Evaluating Cost-effectiveness of Commercial Energy Code Changes

    SciTech Connect

    Hart, Philip R.; Liu, Bing

    2015-01-31

    This document lays out the U.S. Department of Energy’s (DOE’s) method for evaluating the cost-effectiveness of energy code proposals and editions. The evaluation is applied to provisions or editions of the American Society of Heating, Refrigerating and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90.1 and the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC). The method follows standard life-cycle cost (LCC) economic analysis procedures. Cost-effectiveness evaluation requires three steps: 1) evaluating the energy and energy cost savings of code changes, 2) evaluating the incremental and replacement costs related to the changes, and 3) determining the cost-effectiveness of energy code changes based on those costs and savings over time.

  7. Balancing Cost and Risk: The Treatment of Renewable Energy inWestern Utility Resource Plans

    SciTech Connect

    Wiser, Ryan; Bolinger, Mark

    2005-09-01

    Markets for renewable electricity have grown significantly in recent years, motivated in part by federal tax incentives and in part by state renewables portfolio standards and renewable energy funds. State renewables portfolio standards, for example, motivated approximately 45% of the 4,300 MW of wind power installed in the U.S. from 2001 through 2004, while renewable energy funds supported an additional 15% of these installations. Despite the importance of these state policies, a less widely recognized driver for renewable energy market growth is poised to also play an important role in the coming years: utility integrated resource planning (IRP). Formal resource planning processes have re-emerged in recent years as an important tool for utilities and regulators, particularly in regions where retail competition has failed to take root. In the western United States, recent resource plans contemplate a significant amount of renewable energy additions. These planned additions - primarily coming from wind power - are motivated by the improved economics of wind power, a growing acceptance of wind by electric utilities, and an increasing recognition of the inherent risks (e.g., natural gas price risk, environmental compliance risk) in fossil-based generation portfolios. The treatment of renewable energy in utility resource plans is not uniform, however. Assumptions about the direct and indirect costs of renewable resources, as well as resource availability, differ, as do approaches to incorporating such resources into the candidate portfolios that are analyzed in utility IRPs. The treatment of natural gas price risk, as well as the risk of future environmental regulations, also varies substantially. How utilities balance expected portfolio cost versus risk in selecting a preferred portfolio also differs. Each of these variables may have a substantial effect on the degree to which renewable energy contributes to the preferred portfolio of each utility IRP. This article

  8. Investigation of Cost and Energy Optimization of Drinking Water Distribution Systems.

    PubMed

    Cherchi, Carla; Badruzzaman, Mohammad; Gordon, Matthew; Bunn, Simon; Jacangelo, Joseph G

    2015-11-17

    Holistic management of water and energy resources through energy and water quality management systems (EWQMSs) have traditionally aimed at energy cost reduction with limited or no emphasis on energy efficiency or greenhouse gas minimization. This study expanded the existing EWQMS framework and determined the impact of different management strategies for energy cost and energy consumption (e.g., carbon footprint) reduction on system performance at two drinking water utilities in California (United States). The results showed that optimizing for cost led to cost reductions of 4% (Utility B, summer) to 48% (Utility A, winter). The energy optimization strategy was successfully able to find the lowest energy use operation and achieved energy usage reductions of 3% (Utility B, summer) to 10% (Utility A, winter). The findings of this study revealed that there may be a trade-off between cost optimization (dollars) and energy use (kilowatt-hours), particularly in the summer, when optimizing the system for the reduction of energy use to a minimum incurred cost increases of 64% and 184% compared with the cost optimization scenario. Water age simulations through hydraulic modeling did not reveal any adverse effects on the water quality in the distribution system or in tanks from pump schedule optimization targeting either cost or energy minimization.

  9. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities....58 Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. (a) Administrator: The authority to approve the following is reserved to the Administrator: (1) Allocation of appropriated funds among high energy...

  10. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities....58 Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. (a) Administrator: The authority to approve the following is reserved to the Administrator: (1) Allocation of appropriated funds among high energy...

  11. 16 CFR 305.5 - Determinations of estimated annual energy consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and...

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... consumption, estimated annual operating cost, and energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. 305.5... energy efficiency rating, and of water use rate. Link to an amendment published at 75 FR 41713, July 19... operating costs, the energy efficiency ratings, and the efficacy factors of the following covered...

  12. 78 FR 12271 - Wireline Competition Bureau Seeks Additional Comment In Connect America Cost Model Virtual Workshop

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2013-02-22

    ... Virtual Workshop AGENCY: Federal Communications Commission. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: In this... Site: http://fjallfoss.fcc.gov/ecfs2/ . Follow the instructions for submitting comments. Virtual...://www.fcc.gov/blog/wcb-cost-model-virtual-workshop-2012 . People with Disabilities: Contact the FCC...

  13. Caveat Emptor: Calculating All the Costs of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zinberg, Dorothy S.

    This paper examines the energy problem. Specific topics discussed include the recent history of oil and gas consumption in the United States, conservation, coal, solar energy, and nuclear energy. While solutions to the energy problem differ, there is an urgent need for broad, public debate. Ultimately, the decisions made regarding energy will be…

  14. How Schools Can Control the Increasing Cost of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Levy, Hans F.

    In a nontechnical way, this small book outlines the present use of energy in schools, what forms of energy will be available in the foreseeable future, how energy is presently wasted in educational facilities, and how energy can be conserved now and in the future. The school administrator can control the energy consumption in his schools and this…

  15. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Oportunities for the Concrete Industry

    SciTech Connect

    Kermeli, Katerina; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2011-12-01

    The U.S. concrete industry is the main consumer of U.S.-produced cement. The manufacturing of ready mixed concrete accounts for more than 75% of the U.S. concrete production following the manufacturing of precast concrete and masonry units. The most significant expenditure is the cost of materials accounting for more than 50% of total concrete production costs - cement only accounts for nearly 24%. In 2009, energy costs of the U.S. concrete industry were over $610 million. Hence, energy efficiency improvements along with efficient use of materials without negatively affecting product quality and yield, especially in times of increased fuel and material costs, can significantly reduce production costs and increase competitiveness. The Energy Guide starts with an overview of the U.S. concrete industry’s structure and energy use, a description of the various manufacturing processes, and identification of the major energy consuming areas in the different industry segments. This is followed by a description of general and process related energy- and cost-efficiency measures applicable to the concrete industry. Specific energy and cost savings and a typical payback period are included based on literature and case studies, when available. The Energy Guide intends to provide information on cost reduction opportunities to energy and plant managers in the U.S. concrete industry. Every cost saving opportunity should be assessed carefully prior to implementation in individual plants, as the economics and the potential energy and material savings may differ.

  16. United States biomass energy: An assessment of costs and infrastructure for alternative uses of biomass energy crops as an energy feedstock

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morrow, William Russell, III

    . Each linear program minimizes required bioenergy distribution and infrastructure costs. Truck and rail are the only two transportation modes allowed as they are the most likely bioenergy transportation modes. Switchgrass is chosen as a single bioenergy feedstock. All resulting costs are presented in units which reflect current energy markets price norms (¢/kWh, $/gal). The use of a common metric, carbon-dioxide emissions, allows a comparison of the two proposed uses. Additional analysis is provided to address aspects of each proposed use which are not reflected by a carbon-dioxide reduction metric. (Abstract shortened by UMI.)

  17. Government regulation and public opposition create high additional costs for field trials with GM crops in Switzerland.

    PubMed

    Bernauer, Thomas; Tribaldos, Theresa; Luginbühl, Carolin; Winzeler, Michael

    2011-12-01

    Field trials with GM crops are not only plant science experiments. They are also social experiments concerning the implications of government imposed regulatory constraints and public opposition for scientific activity. We assess these implications by estimating additional costs due to government regulation and public opposition in a recent set of field trials in Switzerland. We find that for every Euro spent on research, an additional 78 cents were spent on security, an additional 31 cents on biosafety, and an additional 17 cents on government regulatory supervision. Hence the total additional spending due to government regulation and public opposition was around 1.26 Euros for every Euro spent on the research per se. These estimates are conservative; they do not include additional costs that are hard to monetize (e.g. stakeholder information and dialogue activities, involvement of various government agencies). We conclude that further field experiments with GM crops in Switzerland are unlikely unless protected sites are set up to reduce these additional costs.

  18. A New Curriculum: Energy Outsourcing Brings Cost and Efficiency Benefits.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dickerman, Robert N.

    2002-01-01

    Considers the value of colleges and universities upgrading their energy infrastructure and using outsourcing energy management functions to save money and gain greater control of energy operations without substantial investments in staff and resources. (GR)

  19. Windscapes shape seabird instantaneous energy costs but adult behavior buffers impact on offspring

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Windscapes affect energy costs for flying animals, but animals can adjust their behavior to accommodate wind-induced energy costs. Theory predicts that flying animals should decrease air speed to compensate for increased tailwind speed and increase air speed to compensate for increased crosswind speed. In addition, animals are expected to vary their foraging effort in time and space to maximize energy efficiency across variable windscapes. Results We examined the influence of wind on seabird (thick-billed murre Uria lomvia and black-legged kittiwake Rissa tridactyla) foraging behavior. Airspeed and mechanical flight costs (dynamic body acceleration and wing beat frequency) increased with headwind speed during commuting flights. As predicted, birds adjusted their airspeed to compensate for crosswinds and to reduce the effect of a headwind, but they could not completely compensate for the latter. As we were able to account for the effect of sampling frequency and wind speed, we accurately estimated commuting flight speed with no wind as 16.6 ms?1 (murres) and 10.6 ms?1 (kittiwakes). High winds decreased delivery rates of schooling fish (murres), energy (murres) and food (kittiwakes) but did not impact daily energy expenditure or chick growth rates. During high winds, murres switched from feeding their offspring with schooling fish, which required substantial above-water searching, to amphipods, which required less above-water searching. Conclusions Adults buffered the adverse effect of high winds on chick growth rates by switching to other food sources during windy days or increasing food delivery rates when weather improved. PMID:26019870

  20. Development of an energy consumption and cost data base for fuel cell total energy systems and conventional building energy systems

    SciTech Connect

    Pine, G.D.; Christian, J.E.; Mixon, W.R.; Jackson, W.L.

    1980-07-01

    This report describes the procedures and data sources used to develop an energy-consumption and system-cost data base for use in predicting the market penetration of phosphoric acid fuel cell total-energy systems in the nonindustrial building market. A computer program was used to simulate the hourly energy requirements of six types of buildings - office buildings, retail stores, hotels and motels, schools, hospitals, and multifamily residences. The simulations were done by using hourly weather tapes for one city in each of the ten Department of Energy administrative regions. Two types of building construction were considered, one for existing buildings and one for new buildings. A fuel cell system combined with electrically driven heat pumps and one combined with a gas boiler and an electrically driven chiller were compared with similar conventional systems. The methods of system simulation, component sizing, and system cost estimation are described for each system. The systems were simulated for a single building size for each building type. Methods were developed to extrapolate the system cost and performance data to other building sizes.

  1. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  2. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  3. Energy and Cost Optimized Technology Options to Meet Energy Needs of Food Processors

    SciTech Connect

    Makhmalbaf, Atefe; Srivastava, Viraj; Hoffman, Michael G.; Wagner, Anne W.; Thornton, John

    2015-04-02

    ABSTRACT Combined cooling, heating and electric power (CCHP) distributed generation (DG) systems can provide electricity, heat, and cooling power to buildings and industrial processes directly onsite, while significantly increasing energy efficiency, security of energy supply, and grid independence. Fruit, vegetable, dairy and meat processing industries with simultaneous requirements for heat, steam, chilling and electricity, are well suited for the use of such systems to supply base-load electrical demand or as peak reducing generators with heat recovery in the forms of hot water, steam and/or chilled water. This paper documents results and analysis from a pilot project to evaluate opportunities for energy, emission, and cost for CCHP-DG and energy storage systems installed onsite at food processing facilities. It was found that a dairy processing plant purchasing 15,000 MWh of electricity will need to purchase 450 MWh with the integration of a 1.1 MW CCHP system. Here, the natural gas to be purchased increased from 190,000 MMBtu to 255,000 MMBtu given the fuel requirements of the CCHP system. CCHP systems lower emissions, however, in the Pacific Northwest the high percentage of hydro-power results in CO2 emissions from CCHP were higher than that attributed to the electric utility/regional energy mix. The value of this paper is in promoting and educating financial decision makers to seriously consider CCHP systems when building or upgrading facilities. The distributed generation aspect can reduce utility costs for industrial facilities and show non-wires solution benefits to delay or eliminate the need for upgrades to local electric transmission and distribution systems.

  4. 25 CFR 170.602 - If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false If a tribe incurs unforeseen construction costs, can it get additional funds? 170.602 Section 170.602 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER INDIAN RESERVATION ROADS PROGRAM Service Delivery for Indian Reservation...

  5. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan? 171.555 Section 171.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  6. 25 CFR 171.555 - What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan?

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false What additional costs will I incur if I am granted a Payment Plan? 171.555 Section 171.555 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR LAND AND WATER IRRIGATION OPERATION AND MAINTENANCE Financial Matters: Assessments, Billing,...

  7. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-01-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  8. Solar thermal technology development: Estimated market size and energy cost savings. Volume 1: Executive summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gates, W. R.

    1983-02-01

    Estimated future energy cost savings associated with the development of cost-competitive solar thermal technologies (STT) are discussed. Analysis is restricted to STT in electric applications for 16 high-insolation/high-energy-price states. The fuel price scenarios and three 1990 STT system costs are considered, reflecting uncertainty over future fuel prices and STT cost projections. STT R&D is found to be unacceptably risky for private industry in the absence of federal support. Energy cost savings were projected to range from $0 to $10 billion (1990 values in 1981 dollars), dependng on the system cost and fuel price scenario. Normal R&D investment risks are accentuated because the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) cartel can artificially manipulate oil prices and undercut growth of alternative energy sources. Federal participation in STT R&D to help capture the potential benefits of developing cost-competitive STT was found to be in the national interest.

  9. IEA Wind Task 26: The Past and Future Cost of Wind Energy, Work Package 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lantz, E.; Wiser, R.; Hand, M.

    2012-05-01

    Over the past 30 years, wind power has become a mainstream source of electricity generation around the world. However, the future of wind power will depend a great deal on the ability of the industry to continue to achieve cost of energy reductions. In this summary report, developed as part of the International Energy Agency Wind Implementing Agreement Task 26, titled 'The Cost of Wind Energy,' we provide a review of historical costs, evaluate near-term market trends, review the methods used to estimate long-term cost trajectories, and summarize the range of costs projected for onshore wind energy across an array of forward-looking studies and scenarios. We also highlight the influence of high-level market variables on both past and future wind energy costs.

  10. The levelized cost of energy for distributed PV : a parametric study.

    SciTech Connect

    Goodrich, Alan C.; Cameron, Christopher P.

    2010-06-01

    The maturation of distributed solar PV as an energy source requires that the technology no longer compete on module efficiency and manufacturing cost ($/Wp) alone. Solar PV must yield sufficient energy (kWh) at a competitive cost (c/kWh) to justify its system investment and ongoing maintenance costs. These metrics vary as a function of system design and interactions between parameters, such as efficiency and area-related installation costs. The calculation of levelized cost of energy includes energy production and costs throughout the life of the system. The life of the system and its components, the rate at which performance degrades, and operation and maintenance requirements all affect the cost of energy. Cost of energy is also affected by project financing and incentives. In this paper, the impact of changes in parameters such as efficiency and in assumptions about operating and maintenance costs, degradation rate and system life, system design, and financing will be examined in the context of levelized cost of energy.

  11. Tomorrow`s energy today for cities and counties: Cogeneration powers up cost-competitive energy

    SciTech Connect

    1995-11-01

    Cities and counties build many multi-million dollar facilities, and supplying energy to run these facilities is a long-term obligation for a community. Cogeneration offers local governments an opportunity to reduce the cost of providing electricity, heating, and cooling to their buildings. Sometimes cogeneration is combined with district heating and cooling systems. This kind of cogeneration results in system efficiencies as high as 70%--about twice the efficiency of a conventional power plant that produces only electricity! The article describes cogeneration combined with district cooling in Trenton, NJ, and cogeneration on a small scale in San Jose, California.

  12. Materials Testing and Cost Modeling for Composite Parts Through Additive Manufacturing

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-04-30

    êÅÜ=mêçÖê~ãW= `êÉ~íáåÖ=póåÉêÖó=Ñçê=fåÑçêãÉÇ=`Ü~åÖÉ= - 246 - Panel 17. Reducing Life- Cycle Costs: Adopting Emerging Manufacturing Technologies...chain. Introduction Modern manufacturing processes tend to reflect globalization, a concentration on core activities, shorter product life- cycles ... cycle perspective, a number of organizations recognize that environmental benefits and performance improvements can be achieved (Horn & Harrysson, 2012

  13. Sensitivity to Energy Technology Costs: A Multi-model comparison analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Bosetti, Valentina; Marangoni, Giacomo; Borgonovo, Emanuele; Anadon, Laura Diaz; Barron, Robert W.; McJeon, Haewon C.; Politis, Savvas; Friley, Paul

    2015-05-01

    In the present paper we use the output of multiple expert elicitation surveys on the future cost of key low-carbon technologies and use it as input of three Integrated Assessment models, GCAM, MARKAL_US and WITCH. By means of a large set of simulations we aim to assess the implications of these subjective distributions of technological costs over key model outputs. We are able to detect what sources of technology uncertainty are more influential, how this differs across models, and whether and how results are affected by the time horizon, the metric considered or the stringency of the climate policy. In unconstrained emission scenarios, within the range of future technology performances considered in the present analysis, the cost of nuclear energy is shown to dominate all others in affecting future emissions. Climate-constrained scenarios, stress the relevance, in addition to that of nuclear energy, of biofuels, as they represent the main source of decarbonization of the transportation sector and bioenergy, since the latter can be coupled with CCS to produce negative emissions.

  14. Compressed Air System Retrofit Reduces Energy Costs at a Newspaper Printing Facility

    SciTech Connect

    2002-05-01

    In 2000, a compressed air system optimization project was implemented at The Bakersfield Californian's printing facility in Bakersfield, California. The compressed air system was evaluated for potential energy efficiency improvement opportunities in response to rising energy costs.

  15. Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion Life Cycle Cost Assessment, Final Technical Report, 30 May 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, Laura; Smith, Paul; Rizea, Steven; Van Ryzin, Joe; Morgan, Charles; Noland, Gary; Pavlosky, Rick; Thomas, Michael; Halkyard, John

    2012-05-30

    The Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion (OTEC) Life Cycle Cost Assessment (OLCCA) is a study performed by members of the Lockheed Martin (LM) OTEC Team under funding from the Department of Energy (DOE), Award No. DE-EE0002663, dated 01/01/2010. OLCCA objectives are to estimate procurement, operations and maintenance, and overhaul costs for two types of OTEC plants: -Plants moored to the sea floor where the electricity produced by the OTEC plant is directly connected to the grid ashore via a marine power cable (Grid Connected OTEC plants) -Open-ocean grazing OTEC plant-ships producing an energy carrier that is transported to designated ports (Energy Carrier OTEC plants) Costs are developed using the concept of levelized cost of energy established by DOE for use in comparing electricity costs from various generating systems. One area of system costs that had not been developed in detail prior to this analysis was the operations and sustainment (O&S) cost for both types of OTEC plants. Procurement costs, generally referred to as capital expense and O&S costs (operations and maintenance (O&M) costs plus overhaul and replacement costs), are assessed over the 30 year operational life of the plants and an annual annuity calculated to achieve a levelized cost (constant across entire plant life). Dividing this levelized cost by the average annual energy production results in a levelized cost of electricity, or LCOE, for the OTEC plants. Technical and production efficiency enhancements that could result in a lower value of the OTEC LCOE were also explored. The thermal OTEC resource for Oahu, Hawaii and projected build out plan were developed. The estimate of the OTEC resource and LCOE values for the planned OTEC systems enable this information to be displayed as energy supplied versus levelized cost of the supplied energy; this curve is referred to as an Energy Supply Curve. The Oahu Energy Supply Curve represents initial OTEC deployment starting in 2018 and demonstrates the

  16. A Low-Cost Electronic Solar Energy Control

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Blade, Richard A.; Small, Charles T.

    1978-01-01

    Describes the design of a low-cost electronic circuit to serve as a differential thermostat, to control the operation of a solar heating system. It uses inexpensive diodes for sensoring temperature, and a mechanical relay for a switch. (GA)

  17. Facilitating Sound, Cost-Effective Federal Energy Management

    SciTech Connect

    FEMP

    2016-07-01

    Fact sheet offers an overview of the Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), which provides agencies and organizations with the information, tools, and assistance they need to achieve their energy-related requirements and goals through specialized initiatives.

  18. Omitted Costs, Inflated Benefits: Renewable Energy Policy in Ontario

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gallant, Parker; Fox, Glenn

    2011-01-01

    The government of Ontario has adopted wind energy development as an alternative energy source. It enacted the Green Energy and Economy Act, May 2009, with the intention to fast track the approval process regarding industrial wind turbines. The Act legislated a centralized decision making process while removing local jurisdictional authority.…

  19. Low-cost Electromagnetic Heating Technology for Polymer Extrusion-based Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Carter, William G.; Rios, Orlando; Akers, Ronald R.; Morrison, William A.

    2016-01-07

    To improve the flow of materials used in in polymer additive manufacturing, ORNL and Ajax Tocco created an induction system for heating fused deposition modeling (FDM) nozzles used in polymer additive manufacturing. The system is capable of reaching a temperature of 230 C, a typical nozzle temperature for extruding ABS polymers, in 17 seconds. A prototype system was built at ORNL and sent to Ajax Tocco who analyzed the system and created a finalized power supply. The induction system was mounted to a PrintSpace Altair desktop printer and used to create several test parts similar in quality to those created using a resistive heated nozzle.

  20. Audit of the management and cost of the Department of Energy`s protective forces

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1994-07-01

    The Department of Energy`s safeguards and security program is designed to provide appropriate, efficient, and effective protection of the Department`s nuclear weapons, nuclear materials, facilities, and classified information. These items must be protected against theft, sabotage, espionage, and terrorist activity, with continuing emphasis on protection against the insider threat. The purpose of the audit was to determine if protective forces were efficiently managed and appropriately sized in light of the changing missions and current budget constraints. The authors found that the cost of physical security at some sites had grown beyond those costs incurred when the site was in full production. This increase was due to a combination of factors, including concerns about the adequacy of physical security, reactions to the increase in terrorism in the early 1980s with the possibility of hostile attacks, and the selection of security system upgrades without adequate consideration of cost effectiveness. Ongoing projects to upgrade security systems were not promptly reassessed when missions changed and levels of protection were not determined in a way which considered the attractiveness of the material being protected. The authors also noted several opportunities for the Department to improve the operational efficiency of its protective force operations, including, eluminating overtime paid to officers prior to completion of the basic 40-hour workweek, paying hourly wages of unarmed guards which are commensurate with their duties, consolidating protective force units, transferring law enforcement duties to local law agencies, eliminating or reducing paid time to exercise, and standardizing supplies and equipment used by protective force members.

  1. A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps Expeditionary Operations (Briefing Charts)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-05-01

    days 75-134 for Salt Lake City, by year, 1961-2010 Cost projections: oil and solar 12 Oil cost projections (from USEIA, 2014) and PV array cost...A ROBUST DESIGN APPROACH TO COST ESTIMATION: SOLAR ENERGY FOR MARINE CORPS EXPEDITIONARY OPERATIONS S.M. Sanchez, M.M. Morse, S.C. Upton, M.L...DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE A Robust Design Approach to Cost Estimation: Solar Energy for Marine Corps

  2. Optical amplification and optical filter based signal processing for cost and energy efficient spatial multiplexing.

    PubMed

    Krummrich, Peter M

    2011-08-15

    Spatial division multiplexing has been proposed as an option for further capacity increase of transmission fibers. Application of this concept is attractive only, if cost and energy efficient implementations can be found. In this work, optical amplification and optical filter based signal processing concepts are investigated. Deployment of multi mode fibers as the waveguide type for erbium doped fiber amplifiers potentially offers cost and energy efficiency advantages compared to using multi core fibers in preamplifier as well as booster stages. Additional advantages can be gained from optimization of the amplifier module design. Together with transponder design optimizations, they can increase the attractiveness of inverse spatial multiplexing, which is proposed as an intermediate step. Signal processing based on adaptive passive optical filters offers an alternative approach for the separation of channels at the receiver which have experienced mode coupling along the link. With this optical filter based approach, fiber capacity can potentially be increased faster and more energy efficiently than with solutions relying solely on electronic signal processing.

  3. Municipal Rebate Programs for Environmental Retrofits: An Evaluation of Additionality and Cost-Effectiveness

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennear, Lori S.; Lee, Jonathan M.; Taylor, Laura O.

    2013-01-01

    When policies incentivize voluntary activities that also take place in the absence of the incentive, it is critical to identify the additionality of the policy--that is, the degree to which the policy results in actions that would not have occurred otherwise. Rebate programs have become a common conservation policy tool for local municipalities…

  4. Energy drinks: Getting wings but at what health cost?

    PubMed Central

    Ibrahim, Nahla Khamis; Iftikhar, Rahila

    2014-01-01

    Energy drink consumption represents a global public health problem, especially among adolescents and young adults. The consumption of energy drinks has seen a substantial increase during the past few decades, especially in the Western and Asian countries. Although manufacturers of energy drinks claim that these beverages are beneficial in that they can boost energy, physical performance, and improve cognitive performance, there is insufficient scientific evidence to support these claims. The known and unknown pharmacology of the constituents of energy drinks, supplemented with reports of toxicity, raise concern for the potentially severe adverse events linked with energy drink use. Limited numbers of reviews have been published on this important subject..The aim of this review was to identify the major ingredients in energy drinks and to delineate the adverse effects related to their consumption. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Clinical Key, and Google and Cochrane library were extensively searched for energy drink articles. More than hundred articles were reviewed, scrutinized and critically appraised and the most relevant forty articles were used Conclusion: Energy drinks & its ingredients are potentially dangerous to many aspects of health. Measures should be taken to improve awareness among adolescents and their parents regarding the potential hazards of energy drinks. Furthermore, the sale of energy drinks on college and university campuses and to adolescents below 16 years should be prohibited. PMID:25674149

  5. Landfill Gas Energy Cost Model Version 3.0 (LFGcost-Web V3.0)

    EPA Science Inventory

    To help stakeholders estimate the costs of a landfill gas (LFG) energy project, in 2002, LMOP developed a cost tool (LFGcost). Since then, LMOP has routinely updated the tool to reflect changes in the LFG energy industry. Initially the model was designed for EPA to assist landfil...

  6. Literature Review of Data on the Incremental Costs to Design and Build Low-Energy Buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Hunt, W. D.

    2008-05-14

    This document summarizes findings from a literature review into the incremental costs associated with low-energy buildings. The goal of this work is to help establish as firm an analytical foundation as possible for the Building Technology Program's cost-effective net-zero energy goal in the year 2025.

  7. Reducing Energy Cost and Greenhouse Gas Emission in the Corporate Sector, a Delphi Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kramer, Maxim L.

    2013-01-01

    The study is titled "Reducing energy cost and GreenHouse Gas emission in the corporate sector, A Delphi Study". The study applied the Delphi methodology and focused on the Green IT solutions that can help the modern corporate organizations with less than 1000 employees to decrease their energy costs and GHG emissions. The study presents…

  8. 7 CFR 1700.34 - Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to High Energy Cost Rural Communities. 1700.34 Section 1700.34 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Agency Organization and Functions § 1700.34 Assistance to High Energy Cost...

  9. 7 CFR 1700.58 - Assistance to high energy cost rural communities.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 11 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Assistance to high energy cost rural communities. 1700.58 Section 1700.58 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) RURAL UTILITIES SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE GENERAL INFORMATION Loan and Grant Approval Authorities § 1700.58 Assistance to high energy cost...

  10. 16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Representative Average Unit Energy Costs K... CONGRESS ENERGY AND WATER USE LABELING FOR CONSUMER PRODUCTS UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âENERGY LABELING RULEâ) Pt. 305, App. K Appendix K to Part 305—Representative Average Unit...

  11. Long GRB with Additional High Energy Maxima after the End of the Low Energy T90 Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irene, Arkhangelskaja; Alexander, Zenin; Dmitry, Kirin; Elena, Voevodina

    2013-01-01

    Now GRB high energy γ-emission was observed mostly by detectors onboard Fermi and Agile satellites. During most part of GRB high energy γ-emission registered some later than low energy trigger and lasts several hundreds of seconds, but its maxima are within low energy t90 intervals both for short and long bursts. But GRB090323, GRB090328 and GRB090626 temporal profiles have additional maxima after low energy t90 intervals finished. These bursts temporal profile analysis have shown that faint peaks in low energy bands close to the ends of low energy t90 intervals preceded such maxima. Moreover, these events low energy spectral index β behavior differs from usual GRB one according to preliminary analysis. We suppose that these GRB could be separated as different GRB type. In presented article this new GRB type properties are discussed.

  12. Money to burn. The high costs of energy subsidies

    SciTech Connect

    Kosmo, M.

    1987-01-01

    Although many countries have reduced petroleum subsidies substantially since 1981 or so, such subsidies still persist, especially in the oil-exporting countries. Moreover, subsidies to electricity, natural gas, and coal are even more pervasive. As for both microeconomic and macroeconomic effects, Kosmo shows that the putative benefits of subsidies - economic stimulation, enhanced trade performance, and inflation control - aren't the true effects. Indeed, subsidies tend to increase unemployment (as energy is substituted for labor) and encourage over-investment in energy-intensive industries at the expense of other sectors. At the same time, they have little impact on overall trade balances, inflation, or the lot of the poor. Energy subsidies also translate into foregone revenues and the inefficient use of energy. Of course, the ill effects of energy subsidies cannot be rooted out overnight without traumatizing a nation's economy, even if politics permitted. But Money to Burn. does point the way to a politically and economically acceptable transition to the next energy era, one based on sharp increases in energy efficiency in rich and poor countries alike. Chapters are devoted to the following: Energy Pricing Policy: Hwat is at Stake; Current Fuel-Pricing Trends; Macroeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies; and Microeconomic Effects of Energy Subsidies. 83 references, 11 figure, 14 tables.

  13. Low-Cost Nanocellulose-Reinforced High-Temperature Polymer Composites for Additive Manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Ozcan, Soydan; Tekinalp, Halil L.; Love, Lonnie J.; Kunc, Vlastimil; Nelson, Kim

    2016-07-13

    ORNL worked with American Process Inc. to demonstrate the potential use of bio-based BioPlus® lignin-coated cellulose nanofibrils (L-CNF) as a reinforcing agent in the development of polymer feedstock suitable for additive manufacturing. L-CNF-reinforced polylactic acid (PLA) testing coupons were prepared and up to 69% increase in tensile strength and 133% increase in elastic modulus were demonstrated.

  14. Identifying Cost-Effective Residential Energy Efficiency Opportunities for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative

    SciTech Connect

    Busche, S.; Hockett, S.

    2010-06-01

    This analysis is an update to the 2005 Energy Efficiency Potential Study completed by KEMA for the Kauai Island Utility Cooperative (KIUC) and identifies potential energy efficiency opportunities in the residential sector on Kauai (KEMA 2005). The Total Resource Cost (TRC) test is used to determine which of the energy efficiency measures analyzed in the KEMA report are cost effective for KIUC to include in a residential energy efficiency program. This report finds that there remains potential energy efficiency savings that could be cost-effectively incentivized through a utility residential demand-side management program on Kauai if implemented in such a way that the program costs per measure are consistent with the current residential program costs.

  15. Effect of warm up on energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise.

    PubMed

    Guidetti, Laura; Emerenziani, Gian Pietro; Gallotta, Maria Chiara; Baldari, Carlo

    2007-02-01

    To evaluate the effect of warm up on energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise, 12 adolescent talented female dancers performed a ballet exercise (30 s of tours piqués en dedans on pointe) without and following a warm up. Warm up consisted in a light running followed by a period of stretching and two ballet exercises. The overall energy requirement of dance exercise (VO(2eq)) was obtained by adding the amount of VO(2) during exercise above resting (aerobic source or VO(2ex)) to the VO(2) up to the fast component of recovery (anaerobic alactic source or VO(2al)) and to the energy equivalent of peak blood lactate accumulation (anaerobic lactic source or (VO2lA) of recovery. VO(2eq) of exercise preceded by warm up amounted to 37 +/- 3 ml kg(-1). VO(2al) represented the higher fraction (50 +/- 6%) of VO(2eq), the remaining fractions were: 39 +/- 5% for VO(2ex) and 11 +/- 3% for VO2lA . VO(2eq) of exercise without warm up amounted to 38 +/- 3 ml kg(-1). This value was made up of: 26 +/- 6% by VO(2ex), 56 +/- 6% by VO(2al) and 18 +/- 3% by VO2lA. Between exercise conditions, significant differences were found in VO(2ex) (P < 0.01), VO2lA (P < 0.01), and VO(2al) (P < 0.05). The metabolic power requirement, 1.6 times higher than subject's VO2max indicates a very demanding exercise. The anaerobic alactic source was the most utilized. It can be concluded that, when dance exercise was preceded by warm up, the anaerobic sources contribution decreased whereas the aerobic energy source increased.

  16. A novel approach to reduce greenhouse energy costs

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Irradiance, temperature, and carbon dioxide (CO2) are three environmental parameters growers can control during greenhouse production to alter crop growth, quality, and timing. Significant costs are incurred every year, especially during winter and early-spring production, to heat and light the gre...

  17. Rightsizing HVAC Systems to Reduce Capital Costs and Save Energy

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sebesta, James

    2010-01-01

    Nearly every institution is faced with the situation of having to reduce the cost of a construction project from time to time through a process generally referred to as "value engineering." Just the mention of those words, however, gives rise to all types of connotations, thoughts, and memories (usually negative) for those in the…

  18. Minnesota wood energy scale-up project 1994 establishment cost data

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Pierce, R.; Kroll, T.

    1996-03-18

    The Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project began in late 1993 with the first trees planted in the spring of 1994. The purpose of the project is to track and monitor economic costs of planting, maintaining and monitoring larger scale commercial plantings. For 15 years, smaller scale research plantings of hybrid poplar have been used to screen for promising, high-yielding poplar clones. In this project 1000 acres of hybrid poplar trees were planted on Conservation Reserve Program (CRP) land near Alexandria, Minnesota in 1994. The fourteen landowners involved re-contracted with the CRP for five-year extensions of their existing 10-year contracts. These extended contracts will expire in 2001, when the plantings are 7 years old. The end use for the trees planted in the Minnesota Wood Energy Scale-up Project is undetermined. They will belong to the owner of the land on which they are planted. There are no current contracts in place for the wood these trees are projected to supply. The structure of the wood industry in the Minnesota has changed drastically over the past 5 years. Stumpage values for fiber have risen to more than $20 per cord in some areas raising the possibility that these trees could be used for fiber rather than energy. Several legislative mandates have forced the State of Minnesota to pursue renewable energy including biomass energy. These mandates, a potential need for an additional 1700 MW of power by 2008 by Northern States Power, and agricultural policies will all affect development of energy markets for wood produced much like agricultural crops. There has been a tremendous amount of local and international interest in the project. Contractual negotiations between area landowners, the CRP, a local Resource Conservation and Development District, the Minnesota Department of Natural Resources and others are currently underway for additional planting of 1000 acres in spring 1995.

  19. The Energy Smart Guide to Campus Cost Savings.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Department of Energy, Washington, DC. Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy.

    Rebuild America is a program of the U.S. Department of Energy that focuses on energy-savings solutions as community solutions. It works with K-12 schools, colleges and universities, state and local governments, public and multifamily housing, and commercial buildings. This guide focuses on colleges and universities. Each chapter spells out options…

  20. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the U.S. Iron and Steel Industry An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Worrell, Ernst; Blinde, Paul; Neelis, Maarten; Blomen, Eliane; Masanet, Eric

    2010-10-21

    Energy is an important cost factor in the U.S iron and steel industry. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. iron and steel industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the structure, production trends, energy consumption, and greenhouse gas emissions of the iron and steel industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the steel and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. iron and steel industry reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures?and on their applicability to different production practices?is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  1. Primer: The DOE Wind Energy Program's Approach to Calculating Cost of Energy: July 9, 2005 - July 8, 2006

    SciTech Connect

    George, K.; Schweizer, T.

    2008-01-01

    This report details the methodology used by DOE to calculate levelized cost of wind energy and demonstrates the variation in COE estimates due to different financing assumptions independent of wind generation technology.

  2. Costs and benefits of energy efficiency improvements in ceiling fans

    SciTech Connect

    Shah, Nihar; Sathaye, Nakul; Phadke, Amol; Letschert, Virginie

    2013-10-15

    Ceiling fans contribute significantly to residential electricity consumption, especially in developing countries with warm climates. The paper provides analysis of costs and benefits of several options to improve the efficiency of ceiling fans to assess the global potential for electricity savings and green house gas (GHG) emission reductions. Ceiling fan efficiency can be cost-effectively improved by at least 50% using commercially available technology. If these efficiency improvements are implemented in all ceiling fans sold by 2020, 70 terawatt hours per year could be saved and 25 million metric tons of carbon dioxide equivalent (CO2-e) emissions per year could be avoided, globally. We assess how policies and programs such as standards, labels, and financial incentives can be used to accelerate the adoption of efficient ceiling fans in order to realize potential savings.

  3. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2014

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Bob S.

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 156 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project. For all 156 projects, there was sufficient information to compare estimated, reported, and guaranteed cost savings. For this group, the total estimated cost savings for the reporting periods addressed were $210.6 million, total reported cost savings were $215.1 million, and total guaranteed cost savings were $204.5 million. This means that on average: ESPC contractors guaranteed 97% of the estimated cost savings; projects reported achieving 102% of the estimated cost savings; and projects reported achieving 105% of the guaranteed cost savings. For 155 of the projects examined, there was sufficient information to compare estimated and reported energy savings. On the basis of site energy, estimated savings for those projects for the previous year totaled 11.938 million MMBtu, and reported savings were 12.138 million MMBtu, 101.7% of the estimated energy savings. On the basis of source energy, total estimated energy savings for the 155 projects were 19.052 million MMBtu, and reported saving were 19.516 million MMBtu, 102.4% of the estimated energy savings.

  4. High Performance, Low Cost Hydrogen Generation from Renewable Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ayers, Katherine; Dalton, Luke; Roemer, Andy; Carter, Blake; Niedzwiecki, Mike; Manco, Judith; Anderson, Everett; Capuano, Chris; Wang, Chao-Yang; Zhao, Wei

    2014-02-05

    Renewable hydrogen from proton exchange membrane (PEM) electrolysis is gaining strong interest in Europe, especially in Germany where wind penetration is already at critical levels for grid stability. For this application as well as biogas conversion and vehicle fueling, megawatt (MW) scale electrolysis is required. Proton has established a technology roadmap to achieve the necessary cost reductions and manufacturing scale up to maintain U.S. competitiveness in these markets. This project represents a highly successful example of the potential for cost reduction in PEM electrolysis, and provides the initial stack design and manufacturing development for Proton’s MW scale product launch. The majority of the program focused on the bipolar assembly, from electrochemical modeling to subscale stack development through prototyping and manufacturing qualification for a large active area cell platform. Feasibility for an advanced membrane electrode assembly (MEA) with 50% reduction in catalyst loading was also demonstrated. Based on the progress in this program and other parallel efforts, H2A analysis shows the status of PEM electrolysis technology dropping below $3.50/kg production costs, exceeding the 2015 target.

  5. Potential for the Use of Energy Savings Performance Contracts to Reduce Energy Consumption and Provide Energy and Cost Savings in Non-Building Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Williams, Charles; Green, Andrew S.; Dahle, Douglas; Barnett, John; Butler, Pat; Kerner, David

    2013-08-01

    The findings of this study indicate that potential exists in non-building applications to save energy and costs. This potential could save billions of federal dollars, reduce reliance on fossil fuels, increase energy independence and security, and reduce greenhouse gas emissions. The Federal Government has nearly twenty years of experience with achieving similar energy cost reductions, and letting the energy costs savings pay for themselves, by applying energy savings performance contracts (ESPC) inits buildings. Currently, the application of ESPCs is limited by statute to federal buildings. This study indicates that ESPCs can be a compatible and effective contracting tool for achieving savings in non-building applications.

  6. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  7. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-17

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  8. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  9. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  10. 16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Representative Average Unit Energy Costs K... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  11. 16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Representative Average Unit Energy Costs K... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  12. 16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Representative Average Unit Energy Costs K... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  13. 16 CFR Appendix K to Part 305 - Representative Average Unit Energy Costs

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 16 Commercial Practices 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Representative Average Unit Energy Costs K... CONGRESS RULE CONCERNING DISCLOSURES REGARDING ENERGY CONSUMPTION AND WATER USE OF CERTAIN HOME APPLIANCES AND OTHER PRODUCTS REQUIRED UNDER THE ENERGY POLICY AND CONSERVATION ACT (âAPPLIANCE LABELING...

  14. Replacement energy, capacity, and reliability costs for permanent nuclear reactor shutdowns

    SciTech Connect

    VanKuiken, J.C., Buehring, W.A.; Hamilton, S.; Kavicky, J.A.; Cavallo, J.D.; Veselka, T.D.; Willing, D.L.

    1993-10-01

    Average replacement power costs are estimated for potential permanent shutdowns of nuclear electricity-generating units. Replacement power costs are considered to include replacement energy, capacity, and reliability cost components. These estimates were developed to assist the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission in evaluating regulatory issues that potentially affect changes in serious reactor accident frequencies. Cost estimates were derived from long-term production-cost and capacity expansion simulations of pooled utility-system operations. Factors that affect replacement power cost, such as load growth, replacement sources of generation, and capital costs for replacement capacity, were treated in the analysis. Costs are presented for a representative reactor and for selected subcategories of reactors, based on estimates for 112 individual reactors.

  15. Soybean protein as a cost-effective lignin-blocking additive for the saccharification of sugarcane bagasse.

    PubMed

    Florencio, Camila; Badino, Alberto C; Farinas, Cristiane S

    2016-12-01

    Addition of surfactants, polymers, and non-catalytic proteins can improve the enzymatic hydrolysis of lignocellulosic materials by blocking the exposed lignin surfaces, but involves extra expense. Here, soybean protein, one of the cheapest proteins available, was evaluated as an alternative additive for the enzymatic hydrolysis of pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The effect of the enzyme source was investigated using enzymatic cocktails from A. niger and T. reesei cultivated under solid-state, submerged, and sequential fermentation. The use of soybean protein led to approximately 2-fold increases in hydrolysis, relative to the control, for both A. niger and T. reesei enzymatic cocktails from solid-state fermentation. The effect was comparable to that of BSA. Moreover, the use of soybean protein and a 1:1 combination of A. niger and T. reesei enzymatic cocktails resulted in 54% higher glucose release, compared to the control. Soybean protein is a potential cost-effective additive for use in the biomass conversion process.

  16. IMPROVING ENERGY EFFICIENCY AND REDUCING COSTS IN THE DRINKING WATER SUPPLY INDUSTRY: An ENERGY STAR Resource Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Melody, Moya; Dunham Whitehead, Camilla; Brown, Richard

    2010-09-30

    As American drinking water agencies face higher production costs, demand, and energy prices, they seek opportunities to reduce costs without negatively affecting the quality of the water they deliver. This guide describes resources for cost-effectively improving the energy efficiency of U.S. public drinking water facilities. The guide (1) describes areas of opportunity for improving energy efficiency in drinking water facilities; (2) provides detailed descriptions of resources to consult for each area of opportunity; (3) offers supplementary suggestions and information for the area; and (4) presents illustrative case studies, including analysis of cost-effectiveness.

  17. DEVELOPMENT OF A LOW COST INFERENTIAL NATURAL GAS ENERGY FLOW RATE PROTOTYPE RETROFIT MODULE

    SciTech Connect

    E. Kelner; D. George; T. Morrow; T. Owen; M. Nored; R. Burkey; A. Minachi

    2005-05-01

    In 1998, Southwest Research Institute began a multi-year project to develop a working prototype instrument module for natural gas energy measurement. The module will be used to retrofit a natural gas custody transfer flow meter for energy measurement, at a cost an order of magnitude lower than a gas chromatograph. Development and evaluation of the prototype energy meter in 2002-2003 included: (1) refinement of the algorithm used to infer properties of the natural gas stream, such as heating value; (2) evaluation of potential sensing technologies for nitrogen content, improvements in carbon dioxide measurements, and improvements in ultrasonic measurement technology and signal processing for improved speed of sound measurements; (3) design, fabrication and testing of a new prototype energy meter module incorporating these algorithm and sensor refinements; and (4) laboratory and field performance tests of the original and modified energy meter modules. Field tests of the original energy meter module have provided results in close agreement with an onsite gas chromatograph. The original algorithm has also been tested at a field site as a stand-alone application using measurements from in situ instruments, and has demonstrated its usefulness as a diagnostic tool. The algorithm has been revised to use measurement technologies existing in the module to measure the gas stream at multiple states and infer nitrogen content. The instrumentation module has also been modified to incorporate recent improvements in CO{sub 2} and sound speed sensing technology. Laboratory testing of the upgraded module has identified additional testing needed to attain the target accuracy in sound speed measurements and heating value.

  18. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2014-06-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects. Costs have been developed at the pilot scale and for commercial arrays for a surge wave energy converter

  19. Harvesting forest biomass for energy in Minnesota: An assessment of guidelines, costs and logistics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saleh, Dalia El Sayed Abbas Mohamed

    The emerging market for renewable energy in Minnesota has generated a growing interest in utilizing more forest biomass for energy. However, this growing interest is paralleled with limited knowledge of the environmental impacts and cost effectiveness of utilizing this resource. To address environmental and economic viability concerns, this dissertation has addressed three areas related to biomass harvest: First, existing biomass harvesting guidelines and sustainability considerations are examined. Second, the potential contribution of biomass energy production to reduce the costs of hazardous fuel reduction treatments in these trials is assessed. Third, the logistics of biomass production trials are analyzed. Findings show that: (1) Existing forest related guidelines are not sufficient to allow large-scale production of biomass energy from forest residue sustainably. Biomass energy guidelines need to be based on scientific assessments of how repeated and large scale biomass production is going to affect soil, water and habitat values, in an integrated and individual manner over time. Furthermore, such guidelines would need to recommend production logistics (planning, implementation, and coordination of operations) necessary for a potential supply with the least site and environmental impacts. (2) The costs of biomass production trials were assessed and compared with conventional treatment costs. In these trials, conventional mechanical treatment costs were lower than biomass energy production costs less income from biomass sale. However, a sensitivity analysis indicated that costs reductions are possible under certain site, prescriptions and distance conditions. (3) Semi-structured interviews with forest machine operators indicate that existing fuel reduction prescriptions need to be more realistic in making recommendations that can overcome operational barriers (technical and physical) and planning and coordination concerns (guidelines and communications

  20. System engineering and energy costs of small and medium wind turbines

    SciTech Connect

    Tu, P K.C.

    1985-07-01

    A preliminary system-level, computational model was developed to allow broad assessment and optimization of wind turbine design and costs analysis at The Wind Energy Research Center, Solar Energy Research Institute under contract to the US Department of Energy (DOE). This paper briefly describes the basic principles used in the model for energy capture and cost-of-energy (COE), and demonstrates the model's usefulness in determining the effects of rotor and system design modifications. The model's utilization for conducting parametric studies and defining the energy cost of small and medium-sized wind turbines is also shown. Topics of interest to wind turbine engineers and designers include the effects on rotor performance of airfoil geometry, blade pitch angle setting, and the system RPM schedule, etc.

  1. Energy Costs of Urban Water Supply Systems: Evidence from India (Invited)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malghan, D.; Mehta, V. K.; Goswami, R.

    2013-12-01

    For the first time in human history more people around the globe now live in urban centres rather than in rural settings. Although India's urban population proportion at 31% is still below the global average, it has been urbanizing rapidly. The population growth rate in urban India is more than two-and-half times that of rural India. The current Indian urban population, of over 370 million people, exceeds that of the total population of every other country on the planet with the exception of China. Supplying water to India's burgeoning urban agglomerations poses a challenge in terms of social equity, biophysical sustainability, and economic efficiency. A typical Indian city relies on both surface and ground water sources. Several Indian cities import surface water from distances that now exceed a hundred kilometres and across gradients of up to three thousand metres. While the depleting groundwater levels as a result of rapidly growing demand from urban India is at least anecdotally understood even when reliable estimates are not available, the energy costs of supplying water to urban India has thus far not received academic or policy attention it deserves. We develop a simple framework to integrate distributed groundwater models with water consumption data to estimate the energy and emissions associated with supplying water to urban centres. We assemble a unique data set from seventy five of the largest urban agglomerations in India and derive estimated values of energy consumption and carbon emissions associated with water provision in urban India. Our analysis shows that in every major city, the energy cost associated with long distance import of surface water significantly exceeds groundwater extraction. However, with rapidly depleting groundwater levels, we estimate inflection points for select cities when energy costs of groundwater extraction will exceed energy required to import surface water into the city. In addition to the national snapshot, we also

  2. Electrical energy and cost for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility

    SciTech Connect

    Pence, G.A.

    1983-02-01

    An operational scenario for the Mirror Fusion Test Facility has been developed based on System Requirements, experience with existing systems, and discussions with project engineers and designers who are responsible for the systems. This scenario was used to project the electrical energy required for the facility. Each system is listed showing the equipment that has been considered, the amount of power requested, and in most cases, the power that it is now connected.

  3. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Baking Industry: An ENERGY STAR® Guide for Plant and Energy Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Therkelsen, Peter; Worrell, Ernst

    2012-12-28

    The U.S. baking industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the manufacture of commercial bakery products such as breads, rolls, frozen cakes, pies, pastries, and cookies and crackers—consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in food processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. A summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency is also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. baking industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  4. Reported Energy and Cost Savings from the DOE ESPC Program: FY 2015

    SciTech Connect

    Slattery, Bob S.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of this work was to determine the realization rate of energy and cost savings from the Department of Energy’s Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC) program based on information reported by the energy services companies (ESCOs) that are carrying out ESPC projects at federal sites. Information was extracted from 151 Measurement and Verification (M&V) reports to determine reported, estimated, and guaranteed cost savings and reported and estimated energy savings for the previous contract year. Because the quality of the reports varied, it was not possible to determine all of these parameters for each project.

  5. [Cost and energy density of diet in Brazil, 2008-2009].

    PubMed

    Ricardo, Camila Zancheta; Claro, Rafael Moreira

    2012-12-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the relationship between the cost and energy density of diet consumed in Brazilian households. Data from the Brazilian Household Budget Survey (POF 2008/2009) were used to identify the main foods and their prices. Similar items were grouped, resulting in a basket of 67 products. Linear programming was applied for the composition of isoenergetic baskets, minimizing the deviation from the average household diet. Restrictions were imposed on the inclusion of items and the energy contribution of the various food groups. A reduction in average cost of diet was applied at intervals of R$0.15 to the lowest possible cost. We identified an inverse association between energy density and cost of diet (p < 0.05), and at the lowest possible cost we obtained the maximum value of energy density. Restrictions on the diet's cost resulted in the selection of diets with higher energy density, indicating that cost of diet may lead to the adoption of inadequate diets in Brazil.

  6. Glycolytic strategy as a tradeoff between energy yield and protein cost.

    PubMed

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron

    2013-06-11

    Contrary to the textbook portrayal of glycolysis as a single pathway conserved across all domains of life, not all sugar-consuming organisms use the canonical Embden-Meyerhoff-Parnass (EMP) glycolytic pathway. Prokaryotic glucose metabolism is particularly diverse, including several alternative glycolytic pathways, the most common of which is the Entner-Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The prevalence of the ED pathway is puzzling as it produces only one ATP per glucose--half as much as the EMP pathway. We argue that the diversity of prokaryotic glucose metabolism may reflect a tradeoff between a pathway's energy (ATP) yield and the amount of enzymatic protein required to catalyze pathway flux. We introduce methods for analyzing pathways in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics and show that the ED pathway is expected to require several-fold less enzymatic protein to achieve the same glucose conversion rate as the EMP pathway. Through genomic analysis, we further show that prokaryotes use different glycolytic pathways depending on their energy supply. Specifically, energy-deprived anaerobes overwhelmingly rely upon the higher ATP yield of the EMP pathway, whereas the ED pathway is common among facultative anaerobes and even more common among aerobes. In addition to demonstrating how protein costs can explain the use of alternative metabolic strategies, this study illustrates a direct connection between an organism's environment and the thermodynamic and biochemical properties of the metabolic pathways it employs.

  7. Glycolytic strategy as a tradeoff between energy yield and protein cost

    PubMed Central

    Flamholz, Avi; Noor, Elad; Bar-Even, Arren; Liebermeister, Wolfram; Milo, Ron

    2013-01-01

    Contrary to the textbook portrayal of glycolysis as a single pathway conserved across all domains of life, not all sugar-consuming organisms use the canonical Embden–Meyerhoff–Parnass (EMP) glycolytic pathway. Prokaryotic glucose metabolism is particularly diverse, including several alternative glycolytic pathways, the most common of which is the Entner–Doudoroff (ED) pathway. The prevalence of the ED pathway is puzzling as it produces only one ATP per glucose—half as much as the EMP pathway. We argue that the diversity of prokaryotic glucose metabolism may reflect a tradeoff between a pathway’s energy (ATP) yield and the amount of enzymatic protein required to catalyze pathway flux. We introduce methods for analyzing pathways in terms of thermodynamics and kinetics and show that the ED pathway is expected to require several-fold less enzymatic protein to achieve the same glucose conversion rate as the EMP pathway. Through genomic analysis, we further show that prokaryotes use different glycolytic pathways depending on their energy supply. Specifically, energy-deprived anaerobes overwhelmingly rely upon the higher ATP yield of the EMP pathway, whereas the ED pathway is common among facultative anaerobes and even more common among aerobes. In addition to demonstrating how protein costs can explain the use of alternative metabolic strategies, this study illustrates a direct connection between an organism’s environment and the thermodynamic and biochemical properties of the metabolic pathways it employs. PMID:23630264

  8. Energy cost of arousal: effect of sex, race and obesity.

    PubMed

    Fontvieille, A M; Ferraro, R T; Rising, R; Larson, D E; Ravussin, E

    1993-12-01

    The basal (BMR) to sleeping metabolic rate (SMR) ratio might represent an estimate of the activation of the nervous system (central/sympathetic) from sleeping to basal state. Since this activation might be influenced by the degree of obesity, and might be different between sexes, we retrospectively analysed energy expenditure data collected for a large number of subjects. Twenty-four hour energy expenditure (24EE), BMR and SMR were measured in a respiratory chamber in 122 Caucasians (63 males/59 females, 32 +/- 10 years, 94 +/- 33 kg, 29 +/- 11% fat) (means +/- s.d.) and in 123 Pima Indians (68 males/55 females, 29 +/- 7 years, 100 +/- 25 kg, 34 +/- 9% fat). The BMR/SMR ratio varied greatly between individuals (1.05 +/- 0.08; range 0.87-1.34). In Pima Indians, BMR/SMR was inversely correlated to both fat mass (r = -0.26; P < 0.01) and BMI (r = -0.22; P < 0.05), whereas, in Caucasians, BMR/SMR was inversely correlated to waist/thigh circumference ratio (r = -0.28; P < 0.01). On average, the BMR/SMR was higher in Pima Indians than in Caucasians (1.06 +/- 0.08 vs. 1.03 +/- 0.07, P < 0.01) and higher in Pima Indian males than in Pima Indian females (1.08 +/- 0.09 vs. 1.04 +/- 0.06, P < 0.05). Studies are needed to investigate whether these differences in the increase in energy expenditure from the sleeping to the basal state are related to differences in the activation of the nervous system and/or to other metabolic factors.

  9. Retrospective Benefit-Cost Evaluation of U.S. DOE Wind Energy R&D Program: Impact of Selected Energy Technology Investments

    SciTech Connect

    Pelsoci, Thomas M.

    2010-06-01

    This benefit-cost analysis focuses on the DOE Wind Energy Program's public sector R&D investments and returns. The analysis accounts for the program's additionality – that is, comparing what has happened as a result of the program to what would have happened without it. The analysis does not address the return on the investments of private companies ("private returns"). Public returns on the program's investments from 1976 to 2008 are identified and analyzed using retrospective analysis.

  10. Processes and energy costs for mining lunar Helium-3

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I. N.

    1988-01-01

    Preliminary investigations show that obtaining He-3 from the moon is technically feasible and economically viable. With the exception of beneficiation, the proposed procedures are state of the art. Mass of equipment needed from earth is of some concern, but resupply will eventually be ameliorated by the use of titanium from indigenous ilmenite. A complete energy payback from a D/He-3 fusion reactor utilizing lunar He-3 is approx. 80, providing ample incentive for commercial investment is forthcoming. Byproducts will be of great value to the resupply of a permanent lunar base and enhancement of space exploration.

  11. Processes and energy costs for mining lunar Helium-3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sviatoslavsky, I. N.

    1988-09-01

    Preliminary investigations show that obtaining He-3 from the moon is technically feasible and economically viable. With the exception of beneficiation, the proposed procedures are state of the art. Mass of equipment needed from earth is of some concern, but resupply will eventually be ameliorated by the use of titanium from indigenous ilmenite. A complete energy payback from a D/He-3 fusion reactor utilizing lunar He-3 is approx. 80, providing ample incentive for commercial investment is forthcoming. Byproducts will be of great value to the resupply of a permanent lunar base and enhancement of space exploration.

  12. Low Cost Solar Energy Conversion (Carbon Cycle 2.0)

    ScienceCinema

    Ramesh, Ramamoorthy

    2016-07-12

    Ramamoorthy Ramesh from LBNL's Materials Science Division speaks at the Carbon Cycle 2.0 kick-off symposium Feb. 2, 2010. We emit more carbon into the atmosphere than natural processes are able to remove - an imbalance with negative consequences. Carbon Cycle 2.0 is a Berkeley Lab initiative to provide the science needed to restore this balance by integrating the Labs diverse research activities and delivering creative solutions toward a carbon-neutral energy future. http://carboncycle2.lbl.gov/

  13. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy.

    PubMed

    Hollett, Joshua W

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is -0.11 kJ mol(-1) well(-1), which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  14. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  15. Reducing metal alloy powder costs for use in powder bed fusion additive manufacturing: Improving the economics for production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Medina, Fransisco

    Titanium and its associated alloys have been used in industry for over 50 years and have become more popular in the recent decades. Titanium has been most successful in areas where the high strength to weight ratio provides an advantage over aluminum and steels. Other advantages of titanium include biocompatibility and corrosion resistance. Electron Beam Melting (EBM) is an additive manufacturing (AM) technology that has been successfully applied in the manufacturing of titanium components for the aerospace and medical industry with equivalent or better mechanical properties as parts fabricated via more traditional casting and machining methods. As the demand for titanium powder continues to increase, the price also increases. Titanium spheroidized powder from different vendors has a price range from 260/kg-450/kg, other spheroidized alloys such as Niobium can cost as high as $1,200/kg. Alternative titanium powders produced from methods such as the Titanium Hydride-Dehydride (HDH) process and the Armstrong Commercially Pure Titanium (CPTi) process can be fabricated at a fraction of the cost of powders fabricated via gas atomization. The alternative powders can be spheroidized and blended. Current sectors in additive manufacturing such as the medical industry are concerned that there will not be enough spherical powder for production and are seeking other powder options. It is believed the EBM technology can use a blend of spherical and angular powder to build fully dense parts with equal mechanical properties to those produced using traditional powders. Some of the challenges with angular and irregular powders are overcoming the poor flow characteristics and the attainment of the same or better packing densities as spherical powders. The goal of this research is to demonstrate the feasibility of utilizing alternative and lower cost powders in the EBM process. As a result, reducing the cost of the raw material to reduce the overall cost of the product produced with

  16. City-scale analysis of water-related energy identifies more cost-effective solutions.

    PubMed

    Lam, Ka Leung; Kenway, Steven J; Lant, Paul A

    2017-02-01

    Energy and greenhouse gas management in urban water systems typically focus on optimising within the direct system boundary of water utilities that covers the centralised water supply and wastewater treatment systems, despite a greater energy influence by the water end use. This work develops a cost curve of water-related energy management options from a city perspective for a hypothetical Australian city. It is compared with that from the water utility perspective. The curves are based on 18 water-related energy management options that have been implemented or evaluated in Australia. In the studied scenario, the cost-effective energy saving potential from a city perspective (292 GWh/year) is far more significant than that from a utility perspective (65 GWh/year). In some cases, for similar capital cost, if regional water planners invested in end use options instead of utility options, a greater energy saving potential at a greater cost-effectiveness could be achieved in urban water systems. For example, upgrading a wastewater treatment plant for biogas recovery at a capital cost of $27.2 million would save 31 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $63/MWh, while solar hot water system rebates at a cost of $28.6 million would save 67 GWh/year with a marginal cost saving of $111/MWh. Options related to hot water use such as water-efficient shower heads, water-efficient clothes washers and solar hot water system rebates are among the most cost-effective city-scale opportunities. This study demonstrates the use of cost curves to compare both utility and end use options in a consistent framework. It also illustrates that focusing solely on managing the energy use within the utility would miss substantial non-utility water-related energy saving opportunities. There is a need to broaden the conventional scope of cost curve analysis to include water-related energy and greenhouse gas at the water end use, and to value their management from a city perspective. This

  17. Reducing the energy cost of human walking using an unpowered exoskeleton.

    PubMed

    Collins, Steven H; Wiggin, M Bruce; Sawicki, Gregory S

    2015-06-11

    With efficiencies derived from evolution, growth and learning, humans are very well-tuned for locomotion. Metabolic energy used during walking can be partly replaced by power input from an exoskeleton, but is it possible to reduce metabolic rate without providing an additional energy source? This would require an improvement in the efficiency of the human-machine system as a whole, and would be remarkable given the apparent optimality of human gait. Here we show that the metabolic rate of human walking can be reduced by an unpowered ankle exoskeleton. We built a lightweight elastic device that acts in parallel with the user's calf muscles, off-loading muscle force and thereby reducing the metabolic energy consumed in contractions. The device uses a mechanical clutch to hold a spring as it is stretched and relaxed by ankle movements when the foot is on the ground, helping to fulfil one function of the calf muscles and Achilles tendon. Unlike muscles, however, the clutch sustains force passively. The exoskeleton consumes no chemical or electrical energy and delivers no net positive mechanical work, yet reduces the metabolic cost of walking by 7.2 ± 2.6% for healthy human users under natural conditions, comparable to savings with powered devices. Improving upon walking economy in this way is analogous to altering the structure of the body such that it is more energy-effective at walking. While strong natural pressures have already shaped human locomotion, improvements in efficiency are still possible. Much remains to be learned about this seemingly simple behaviour.

  18. Energy savings and cost-benefit analysis of the new commercial building standard in China

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Shanguo; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Shicong; Hou, Jing; Zhou, Nan; Levine, Mark

    2015-10-07

    In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the commercial building energy efficiency standard between the previous 2005 version and the new proposed version is conducted, including the energy efficiency analysis and cost-benefit analysis. To better understand the tech-economic performance of the new Chinese standard, energy models were set up based on a typical commercial office building in Chinese climate zones. The building energy standard in 2005 is used as the baseline for this analysis. Key building technologies measures are analyzed individually, including roof, wall, window, lighting and chiller and so on and finally whole building cost-benefit analysis was conducted. Results show that the new commercial building energy standard demonstrates good cost-effective performance, with whole building payback period around 4 years.

  19. Energy savings and cost-benefit analysis of the new commercial building standard in China

    DOE PAGES

    Zhao, Shanguo; Feng, Wei; Zhang, Shicong; ...

    2015-10-07

    In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the commercial building energy efficiency standard between the previous 2005 version and the new proposed version is conducted, including the energy efficiency analysis and cost-benefit analysis. To better understand the tech-economic performance of the new Chinese standard, energy models were set up based on a typical commercial office building in Chinese climate zones. The building energy standard in 2005 is used as the baseline for this analysis. Key building technologies measures are analyzed individually, including roof, wall, window, lighting and chiller and so on and finally whole building cost-benefit analysis was conducted. Resultsmore » show that the new commercial building energy standard demonstrates good cost-effective performance, with whole building payback period around 4 years.« less

  20. Long-term exposure of the isopod Porcellionides pruinosus to nickel: Costs in the energy budget and detoxification enzymes.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Nuno G C; Cardoso, Diogo N; Morgado, Rui; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Loureiro, Susana

    2015-09-01

    Terrestrial isopods from the species Porcellionides pruinosus were exposed to the maximum allowed nickel concentration in the Canadian framework guideline (50 mg Ni/kg soil) and to 5× this concentration (250 mg Ni/kg soil). The exposure lasted for 28 days and was followed by a recovery period of 14 days where organisms were changed to clean soil. Organisms were sampled after 24 h, 48 h, 96 h, 7 days, 14 days, 21 days, and 28 days of exposure, and at days 35 and 42 during the recovery period. For each sampling time the acetylcholinesterase (AChE), glutathione-S-transferases (GST), catalase (CAT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined as well as lipid peroxidation rate (LPO) along with lipids, carbohydrates, proteins content, energy available (Ea), energy consumption (Ec) and cellular energy allocation (CEA). The integrated biomarker response (IBR) was calculated for each sampling time as well as for each one of the above parameters. In addition, mortality was also recorded throughout the assay. The results obtained showed that nickel induced oxidative stress, evidenced by results on GST, GPx, CAT or LPO, but also on changes in the energy reserves content of these organisms. In addition, this study showed that these organisms possess a specific strategy to handle nickel toxicity. In this case, biomarkers were associated with costs in the energy budget, and the increase of energy reserves has a compensation for that cost.

  1. Benefit and cost competitiveness analysis of wind and solar power inter-continent transmission under global energy interconnection mode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaoxia; Ding, Jian; Liu, Jie; Wei, Tiezhong

    2017-01-01

    Relying on the global energy Interconnection, considering the energy implementation, carrying out clean energy alternative is mainly to use the clean energy to take place of fossil energy. Under the green development scenario, This research gives the global energy interconnection development model, makes the Artic and the Equation as the connection points, gives the Northern hemisphere interconnection model and equator interconnection model unite the whole world energy. This research also identifies the factors effecting the transmission changes cost, including generation cost, transmission cost and landing cost. And take two continents connection as the prediction example, estimate these two continents cost benefit and variable power-jointed scheme cost competitiveness. It showed that under the global energy interconnection mode, the trans-continent mode had better benefit, and the landing cost is good to be used, can solve the pollution and energy restriction.

  2. Data of cost-optimality and technical solutions for high energy performance buildings in warm climate

    PubMed Central

    Zacà, Ilaria; D’Agostino, Delia; Maria Congedo, Paolo; Baglivo, Cristina

    2015-01-01

    The data reported in this article refers to input and output information related to the research articles entitled Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area by Zacà et al. (Assessment of cost-optimality and technical solutions in high performance multi-residential buildings in the Mediterranean area, in press.) and related to the research article Cost-optimal analysis and technical comparison between standard and high efficient mono residential buildings in a warm climate by Baglivo et al. (Energy, 2015, 10.1016/j.energy.2015.02.062, in press). PMID:26217793

  3. Levelized Cost of Energy Analysis of Marine and Hydrokinetic Reference Models: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Jenne, D. S.; Yu, Y. H.; Neary, V.

    2015-04-24

    In 2010 the U.S. Department of Energy initiated the development of six marine energy converter reference models. The reference models are point designs of well-known marine energy converters. Each device was designed to operate in a specific marine resource, instead of a generic device that can be deployed at any location. This method allows each device to be used as a benchmark for future reference model to benchmark future devices. The six designs consist of three current energy converters and three wave energy converters. The reference model project has generated both technical and economic data sets that are available in the public domain. The methodology to calculate the levelized cost of energy for the reference model project and an overall comparison of the cost of energy from these six reference-model designs are presented in this paper.

  4. Energy and costs scoping study for plasma pyrolysis thermal processing system

    SciTech Connect

    Sherick, K.E.; Findley, J.E.

    1992-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to provide information in support of an investigation of thermal technologies as possible treatment process for buried wastes at the INEL. Material and energy balances and a cost estimate were generated for a representative plasma torch-based thermal waste treatment system operating in a pyrolysis mode. Two waste streams were selected which are representative of INEL buried wastes, large in volume, and difficult to treat by other technologies. These streams were a solidified nitrate sludge waste stream and a waste/soil mix of other buried waste components. The treatment scheme selected includes a main plasma chamber operating under pyrolyzing conditions; a plasma afterburner to provide additional residence time at high temperature to ensure complete destruction of hazardous organics; an off-gas treatment system; and a incinerator and stack to oxidize carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide and vent the clean, oxidized gases to atmosphere. The material balances generated provide materials flow and equipment duty information of sufficient accuracy to generate initial rough-order-of-magnitude (ROM) system capital and operating cost estimates for a representative plasma thermal processing system.

  5. The Contribution of Environmental Siting and Permitting Requirements to the Cost of Energy for Oscillating Water Column Wave Energy Devices

    SciTech Connect

    Copping, Andrea E.; Geerlofs, Simon H.; Hanna, Luke A.

    2013-09-01

    Responsible deployment of marine and hydrokinetic (MHK) devices in estuaries, coastal areas, and major rivers requires that biological resources and ecosystems be protected through siting and permitting (consenting) processes. Scoping appropriate deployment locations, collecting pre-installation (baseline) and post-installation data all add to the cost of developing MHK projects, and hence to the cost of energy. Under the direction of the U.S. Department of Energy, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory scientists have developed logic models that describe studies and processes for environmental siting and permitting. Each study and environmental permitting process has been assigned a cost derived from existing and proposed tidal, wave, and riverine MHK projects, as well as expert opinion of marine environmental research professionals. Cost estimates have been developed at the pilot and commercial scale. The reference model described in this document is an oscillating water column device deployed in Northern California at approximately 50 meters water depth.

  6. Long-range, low-cost electric vehicles enabled by robust energy storage

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Ping; Ross, Russel; Newman, Aron

    2015-09-18

    ABSTRACT

    A variety of inherently robust energy storage technologies hold the promise to increase the range and decrease the cost of electric vehicles (EVs). These technologies help diversify approaches to EV energy storage, complementing current focus on high specific energy lithium-ion batteries.

    The need for emission-free transportation and a decrease in reliance on imported oil has prompted the development of EVs. To reach mass adoption, a significant reduction in cost and an increase in range are needed. Using the cost per mile of range as the metric, we analyzed the various factors that contribute to the cost and weight of EV energy storage systems. Our analysis points to two primary approaches for minimizing cost. The first approach, of developing redox couples that offer higher specific energy than state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries, dominates current research effort, and its challenges and potentials are briefly discussed. The second approach represents a new insight into the EV research landscape. Chemistries and architectures that are inherently more robust reduce the need for system protection and enables opportunities of using energy storage systems to simultaneously serve vehicle structural functions. This approach thus enables the use of low cost, lower specific energy chemistries without increasing vehicle weight. Examples of such systems include aqueous batteries, flow cells, and all solid-state batteries. Research progress in these technical areas is briefly reviewed. Potential research directions that can enable low-cost EVs using multifunctional energy storage technologies are described.

  7. Marginal abatement cost curve for NOx incorporating controls, renewable electricity, energy efficiency and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  8. Marginal abatement cost curves for NOx that account for renewable electricity, energy efficiency, and fuel switching

    EPA Science Inventory

    A marginal abatement cost curve (MACC) traces out the relationship between the quantity of pollution abated and the marginal cost of abating each additional unit. In the context of air quality management, MACCs typically are developed by sorting end-of-pipe controls by their resp...

  9. Integrating Land Conservation and Renewable Energy Goals in California: Assessing Land Use and Economic Cost Impacts Using the Optimal Renewable Energy Build-Out (ORB) Model.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, G. C.; Schlag, N. H.; Cameron, D. R.; Brand, E.; Crane, L.; Williams, J.; Price, S.; Hernandez, R. R.; Torn, M. S.

    2015-12-01

    There is a lack of understanding of the environmental impacts and economic costs of potential renewable energy (RE) siting decisions that achieve ambitious RE targets. Such analyses are needed to inform policy recommendations that minimize potential conflicts between conservation and RE development. We use the state of California's rapid development of utility-scale RE as a case study to examine how possible land use constraints impact the total electricity land area, areas with conservation value, water use, and electricity cost of ambitious RE portfolios. We developed the Optimal Renewable energy Build-out (ORB) model, and used it in conjunction with the Renewable Portfolio Standard (RPS) Calculator, a RE procurement and transmission planning tool used by utilities within California, to generate environmentally constrained renewable energy potential and assess the cost and siting-associated impacts of wind, solar photovoltaic, concentrating solar power (CSP), and geothermal technologies. We find that imposing environmental constraints on RE development achieves lower conservation impacts and results in development of more fragmented land areas. With increased RE and environmental exclusions, generation becomes more widely distributed across the state, which results in more development on herbaceous agricultural vegetation, grasslands, and developed & urban land cover types. We find land use efficiencies of RE technologies are relatively inelastic to changes in environmental constraints, suggesting that cost-effective substitutions that reduce environmental impact and achieve RE goals is possible under most scenarios and exclusion categories. At very high RE penetration that is limited to in-state development, cost effectiveness decreases substantially under the highest level of environmental constraint due to the over-reliance on solar technologies. This additional cost is removed once the in-state constraint is lifted, suggesting that minimizing both negative

  10. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Petrochemical Industry - An ENERGY STAR(R) Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Neelis, Maarten; Worrell, Ernst; Masanet, Eric

    2008-09-01

    Energy is the most important cost factor in the U.S petrochemical industry, defined in this guide as the chemical industry sectors producing large volume basic and intermediate organic chemicals as well as large volume plastics. The sector spent about $10 billion on fuels and electricity in 2004. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. petrochemical industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the petrochemical industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in the petrochemical and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. petrochemical industry reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--and on their applicability to different production practices--is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  11. Energy and cost associated with ventilating office buildings in a tropical climate.

    PubMed

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W

    2015-01-01

    Providing sufficient amounts of outdoor air to occupants is a critical building function for supporting occupant health, well-being and productivity. In tropical climates, high ventilation rates require substantial amounts of energy to cool and dehumidify supply air. This study evaluates the energy consumption and associated cost for thermally conditioning outdoor air provided for building ventilation in tropical climates, considering Singapore as an example locale. We investigated the influence on energy consumption and cost of the following factors: outdoor air temperature and humidity, ventilation rate (L/s per person), indoor air temperature and humidity, air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP), and cost of electricity. Results show that dehumidification of outdoor air accounts for more than 80% of the energy needed for building ventilation in Singapore's tropical climate. Improved system performance and/or a small increase in the indoor temperature set point would permit relatively large ventilation rates (such as 25 L/s per person) at modest or no cost increment. Overall, even in a thermally demanding tropical climate, the energy cost associated with increasing ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person is less than 1% of the wages of an office worker in an advanced economy like Singapore's. This result implies that the benefits of increasing outdoor air ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person--which is suggested to provide for productivity increases, lower sick building syndrome symptom prevalence, and reduced sick leave--can be much larger than the incremental cost of ventilation.

  12. Energy cost and putative benefits of cellular mechanisms modulating buoyancy in aflagellate marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Lavoie, Michel; Raven, John A; Levasseur, Maurice

    2016-04-01

    Little information is available on the energetics of buoyancy modulation in aflagellate phytoplankton, which comprises the majority of autotrophic cells found in the ocean. Here, we computed for three aflagellate species of marine phytoplankton (Emiliania huxleyi, Thalassiosira pseudonana, and Ethmodiscus rex) the theoretical minimum energy cost as photons absorbed and nitrogen resource required of the key physiological mechanisms (i.e., replacement of quaternary ammonium by dimethyl-sulfoniopropionate, storage of polysaccharides, and cell wall biosynthesis) affecting the cell's vertical movement as a function of nitrogen (N) availability. These energy costs were also normalized to the capacity of each buoyancy mechanism to modulate sinking or rising rates based on Stokes' law. The three physiological mechanisms could act as ballast in the three species tested in conditions of low N availability at a low fraction (<12%) of the total photon energy cost for growth. Cell wall formation in E. huxleyi was the least costly ballast strategy, whereas in T. pseudonana, the photon energy cost of the three ballast strategies was similar. In E. rex, carbohydrate storage and mobilization appear to be energetically cheaper than modulations in organic solute synthesis to achieve vertical migration. This supports the carbohydrate-ballast strategy for vertical migration for this species, but argues against the theory of replacement of low- or high-density organic solutes. This study brings new insights into the energy cost and potential selective advantages of several strategies modulating the buoyancy of aflagellate marine phytoplankton.

  13. Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; Gruber, E.; Cassimi, A.; Monnet, I.; Bouffard, S.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  14. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  15. Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-04-28

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO{sub 2} TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed.

  16. Cost of Wind Energy in the United States: Trends from 2007 to 2012 (Presentation)

    SciTech Connect

    Hand, M.

    2015-01-01

    This presentation provides an overview of recent technology trends observed in the United States including project size, turbine size, rotor diameter, hub height, annual average wind speed, and annual energy production. It also highlights area where system analysis is required to fully understand how these technology trends relate to the cost of wind energy.

  17. Characterizing Synergistic Water and Energy Efficiency at the Residential Scale Using a Cost Abatement Curve Approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stillwell, A. S.; Chini, C. M.; Schreiber, K. L.; Barker, Z. A.

    2015-12-01

    Energy and water are two increasingly correlated resources. Electricity generation at thermoelectric power plants requires cooling such that large water withdrawal and consumption rates are associated with electricity consumption. Drinking water and wastewater treatment require significant electricity inputs to clean, disinfect, and pump water. Due to this energy-water nexus, energy efficiency measures might be a cost-effective approach to reducing water use and water efficiency measures might support energy savings as well. This research characterizes the cost-effectiveness of different efficiency approaches in households by quantifying the direct and indirect water and energy savings that could be realized through efficiency measures, such as low-flow fixtures, energy and water efficient appliances, distributed generation, and solar water heating. Potential energy and water savings from these efficiency measures was analyzed in a product-lifetime adjusted economic model comparing efficiency measures to conventional counterparts. Results were displayed as cost abatement curves indicating the most economical measures to implement for a target reduction in water and/or energy consumption. These cost abatement curves are useful in supporting market innovation and investment in residential-scale efficiency.

  18. An Investigation of Energy Consumption and Cost in Large Air-Conditioned Buildings. An Interim Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Milbank, N. O.

    Two similarly large buildings and air conditioning systems are comparatively analyzed as to energy consumption, costs, and inefficiency during certain measured periods of time. Building design and velocity systems are compared to heating, cooling, lighting and distribution capabilities. Energy requirements for pumps, fans and lighting are found to…

  19. Social Status and the Differential Impacts of Increasing Energy Costs on Families in Mississippi. Final Report.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lang, Marvel; Smith, James C.

    Research was undertaken to determine how differences in social status among various segments of the population in Mississippi contribute to differences in household energy costs and how socioeconomic differences coupled with social status have impact on energy consumption behavior. Two samples of the state's population were used for comparative…

  20. Activation energies for addition of O/3P/ to simple olefins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Description of relative rate measurements for the addition of O(3P) to C2H4, C2F4, C3H6, and C4H8-1 in liquid argon at 87.5 K. The data strongly indicate that the activation energies for the addition of O(3P) to the double bonds of propylene and butene-1 are identical, probably to within 0.1 kcal/mole. It is very doubtful that differences in pre-exponential factors or other factors such as solvent effects, could invalidate this conclusion. A similar argument holds for the C2H4 and C2F4 reactions. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the activation energy for addition of O(3P) to the double bond of butene-1 is about 0.1 kcal/mole.

  1. Advanced Flywheel Composite Rotors: Low-Cost, High-Energy Density Flywheel Storage Grid Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    2010-10-01

    GRIDS Project: Boeing is developing a new material for use in the rotor of a low-cost, high-energy flywheel storage technology. Flywheels store energy by increasing the speed of an internal rotor —slowing the rotor releases the energy back to the grid when needed. The faster the rotor spins, the more energy it can store. Boeing’s new material could drastically improve the energy stored in the rotor. The team will work to improve the storage capacity of their flywheels and increase the duration over which they store energy. The ultimate goal of this project is to create a flywheel system that can be scaled up for use by electric utility companies and produce power for a full hour at a cost of $100 per kilowatt hour.

  2. Potential Offshore Wind Energy Areas in California: An Assessment of Locations, Technology, and Costs

    SciTech Connect

    Musial, Walter; Beiter, Philipp; Tegen, Suzanne; Smith, Aaron

    2016-12-01

    This report summarizes a study of possible offshore wind energy locations, technologies, and levelized cost of energy in the state of California between 2015 and 2030. The study was funded by the U.S. Department of the Interior's Bureau of Ocean Energy Management (BOEM), the federal agency responsible for regulating renewable energy development on the Outer Continental Shelf. It is based on reference wind energy areas where representative technology and performance characteristics were evaluated. These reference areas were identified as sites that were suitable to represent offshore wind cost and technology based on physical site conditions, wind resource quality, known existing site use, and proximity to necessary infrastructure. The purpose of this study is to assist energy policy decision-making by state utilities, independent system operators, state government officials and policymakers, BOEM, and its key stakeholders. The report is not intended to serve as a prescreening exercise for possible future offshore wind development.

  3. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    emissions was also a major reason. The transportation sector alone consumes about 13 million barrels of crude oil per day (nearly 60% of which is imported) and is responsible for about 30% of the CO{sub 2} emission. When we consider manufacturing and other energy-intensive industrial processes, the amount of petroleum being consumed due to friction and wear reaches more than 20 million barrels per day (from official energy statistics, U.S. Energy Information Administration). Frequent remanufacturing and/or replacement of worn parts due to friction-, wear-, and scuffing-related degradations also consume significant amounts of energy and give rise to additional CO{sub 2} emission. Overall, the total annual cost of friction- and wear-related energy and material losses is estimated to be rather significant (i.e., as much as 5% of the gross national products of highly industrialized nations). It is projected that more than half of the total friction- and wear-related energy losses can be recovered by developing and implementing advanced friction and wear control technologies. In transportation vehicles alone, 10% to 15% of the fuel energy is spent to overcome friction. If we can cut down the friction- and wear-related energy losses by half, then we can potentially save up to 1.5 million barrels of petroleum per day. Also, less friction and wear would mean less energy consumption as well as less carbon emissions and hazardous byproducts being generated and released to the environment. New and more robust anti-friction and -wear control technologies may thus have a significant positive impact on improving the efficiency and environmental cleanliness of the current legacy fleet and future transportation systems. Effective control of friction in other industrial sectors such as manufacturing, power generation, mining and oil exploration, and agricultural and earthmoving machinery may bring more energy savings. Therefore, this project was timely and responsive to the energy and

  4. Treatment of a simulated textile wastewater in a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) with addition of a low-cost adsorbent.

    PubMed

    Santos, Sílvia C R; Boaventura, Rui A R

    2015-06-30

    Color removal from textile wastewaters, at a low-cost and consistent technology, is even today a challenge. Simultaneous biological treatment and adsorption is a known alternative to the treatment of wastewaters containing biodegradable and non-biodegradable contaminants. The present work aims at evaluating the treatability of a simulated textile wastewater by simultaneously combining biological treatment and adsorption in a SBR (sequencing batch reactor), but using a low-cost adsorbent, instead of a commercial one. The selected adsorbent was a metal hydroxide sludge (WS) from an electroplating industry. Direct Blue 85 dye (DB) was used in the preparation of the synthetic wastewater. Firstly, adsorption kinetics and equilibrium were studied, in respect to many factors (temperature, pH, WS dosage and presence of salts and dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the aqueous media). At 25 °C and pH 4, 7 and 10, maximum DB adsorption capacities in aqueous solution were 600, 339 and 98.7 mg/g, respectively. These values are quite considerable, compared to other reported in literature, but proved to be significantly reduced by the presence of dyeing auxiliary chemicals in the wastewater. The simulated textile wastewater treatment in SBR led to BOD5 removals of 53-79%, but color removal was rather limited (10-18%). The performance was significantly enhanced by the addition of WS, with BOD5 removals above 91% and average color removals of 60-69%.

  5. Energy technologies evaluated against climate targets using a cost and carbon trade-off curve.

    PubMed

    Trancik, Jessika E; Cross-Call, Daniel

    2013-06-18

    Over the next few decades, severe cuts in emissions from energy will be required to meet global climate-change mitigation goals. These emission reductions imply a major shift toward low-carbon energy technologies, and the economic cost and technical feasibility of mitigation are therefore highly dependent upon the future performance of energy technologies. However, existing models do not readily translate into quantitative targets against which we can judge the dynamic performance of technologies. Here, we present a simple, new model for evaluating energy-supply technologies and their improvement trajectories against climate-change mitigation goals. We define a target for technology performance in terms of the carbon intensity of energy, consistent with emission reduction goals, and show how the target depends upon energy demand levels. Because the cost of energy determines the level of adoption, we then compare supply technologies to one another and to this target based on their position on a cost and carbon trade-off curve and how the position changes over time. Applying the model to U.S. electricity, we show that the target for carbon intensity will approach zero by midcentury for commonly cited emission reduction goals, even under a high demand-side efficiency scenario. For Chinese electricity, the carbon intensity target is relaxed and less certain because of lesser emission reductions and greater variability in energy demand projections. Examining a century-long database on changes in the cost-carbon space, we find that the magnitude of changes in cost and carbon intensity that are required to meet future performance targets is not unprecedented, providing some evidence that these targets are within engineering reach. The cost and carbon trade-off curve can be used to evaluate the dynamic performance of existing and new technologies against climate-change mitigation goals.

  6. A Development Path to the Efficient and Cost-Effective Bulk Storage of Electrical Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Post, R F

    2009-09-24

    Efficient and cost-effective means for storing electrical energy is becoming an increasing need in our electricity-oriented society. For example, for electric utilities an emerging need is for distributed storage systems, that is, energy storage at substations, at solar or wind-power sites, or for load-leveling at the site of major consumers of their electricity. One of the important consequences of distributed storage for the utilities would be the reduction in transmission losses that would result from having a local source of load-leveling power. For applications such as these there are three criteria that must be satisfied by any new system that is developed to meet such needs. These criteria are: (1) high 'turn-around' efficiency, that is, high efficiency of both storing and recovering the stored energy in electrical form, (2) long service life (tens of years), with low maintenance requirements, and, (3) acceptably low capital cost. An additional requirement for these particular applications is that the system should have low enough standby losses to permit operation on a diurnal cycle, that is, storing the energy during a portion of a given day (say during sunlight hours) followed several hours later by its use during night-time hours. One answer to the spectrum of energy storage needs just outlined is the 'electromechanical battery'. The E-M battery, under development for several years at the Laboratory and elsewhere in the world, has the potential to solve the above energy storage problems in a manner superior to the electro-chemical battery in the important attributes of energy recovery efficiency, cycle lifetime, and amortized capital cost. An electromechanical battery is an energy storage module consisting of a high-speed rotor, fabricated from fiber composite, and having an integrally mounted generator/motor. The rotor operates at high speed, in vacuo, inside of a hermetically sealed enclosure, supported by a 'magnetic bearing', that is, a bearing that

  7. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, Joshua W.

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is −0.11 kJ mol{sup −1} well{sup −1}, which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  8. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Fruit and Vegetable Processing Industry. An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Masanet, Eric; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst; Graus, Wina; Galitsky, Christina

    2008-01-01

    The U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry--defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the canning, freezing, and drying or dehydrating of fruits and vegetables--consumes over $800 million worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement isan important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry to reduce energy consumption in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to fruit and vegetable processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in fruit and vegetable processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in fruit and vegetable processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving plant-level water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. fruit and vegetable processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures--as well as on their applicability to different production

  9. Energy Efficiency Improvement and Cost Saving Opportunities for the Dairy Processing Industry: An ENERGY STAR? Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Brush, Adrian; Masanet, Eric; Worrell, Ernst

    2011-10-01

    The U.S. dairy processing industry—defined in this Energy Guide as facilities engaged in the conversion of raw milk to consumable dairy products—consumes around $1.5 billion worth of purchased fuels and electricity per year. Energy efficiency improvement is an important way to reduce these costs and to increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy price volatility. There are a variety of opportunities available at individual plants in the U.S. dairy processing industry to reduce energy consumption and greenhouse gas emissions in a cost-effective manner. This Energy Guide discusses energy efficiency practices and energy-efficient technologies that can be implemented at the component, process, facility, and organizational levels. A discussion of the trends, structure, and energy consumption characteristics of the U.S. dairy processing industry is provided along with a description of the major process technologies used within the industry. Next, a wide variety of energy efficiency measures applicable to dairy processing plants are described. Many measure descriptions include expected savings in energy and energy-related costs, based on case study data from real-world applications in dairy processing facilities and related industries worldwide. Typical measure payback periods and references to further information in the technical literature are also provided, when available. Given the importance of water in dairy processing, a summary of basic, proven measures for improving water efficiency are also provided. The information in this Energy Guide is intended to help energy and plant managers in the U.S. dairy processing industry reduce energy and water consumption in a cost-effective manner while maintaining the quality of products manufactured. Further research on the economics of all measures—as well as on their applicability to different production practices—is needed to assess their cost effectiveness at individual plants.

  10. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  11. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; ...

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermalmore » instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.« less

  12. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  13. An Evaluation of the Consumer Costs and Benefits of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lessans, Mark D.

    Of the modern-day policies designed to encourage energy efficiency, one with a significant potential for impact is that of Energy Efficiency Resource Standards (EERS). EERS policies place the responsibility for meeting an efficiency target on the electric and gas utilities, typically setting requirements for annual reductions in electricity generation or gas distribution to customers as a percentage of sales. To meet these requirements, utilities typically implement demand-side management (DSM) programs, which encourage energy efficiency at the customer level through incentives and educational initiatives. In Maryland, a statewide EERS has provided for programs which save a significant amount of energy, but is ultimately falling short in meeting the targets established by the policy. This study evaluates residential DSM programs offered by Pepco, a utility in Maryland, for cost-effectiveness. However, unlike most literature on the topic, analysis focuses on the costs-benefit from the perspective of the consumer, and not the utility. The results of this study are encouraging: the majority of programs analyzed show that the cost of electricity saved, or levelized cost of saved energy (LCSE), is less expensive than the current retail cost of electricity cost in Maryland. A key goal of this study is to establish a metric for evaluating the consumer cost-effectiveness of participation in energy efficiency programs made available by EERS. In doing so, the benefits of these programs can be effectively marketed to customers, with the hope that participation will increase. By increasing consumer awareness and buy-in, the original goals set out through EERS can be realized and the policies can continue to receive support.

  14. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  15. Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing, 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship Maintenance and Modernization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-01

    1 Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing , 3D Laser Scanning Technology, and Collaborative Product Lifecycle Management on Ship...DATES COVERED 00-00-2015 to 00-00-2015 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Make or Buy: Cost Impacts of Additive Manufacturing , 3D Laser Scanning Technology...management during operations 4 Potential Technology 3: Additive Manufacturing (“3D Printing”) 5 • 3D design/image (e.g. from 3D LS) of final part

  16. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  17. Energy efficiency improvement and cost saving opportunities for the Corn Wet Milling Industry: An ENERGY STAR Guide for Energy and Plant Managers

    SciTech Connect

    Galitsky, Christina; Worrell, Ernst; Ruth, Michael

    2003-07-01

    Corn wet milling is the most energy intensive industry within the food and kindred products group (SIC 20), using 15 percent of the energy in the entire food industry. After corn, energy is the second largest operating cost for corn wet millers in the United States. A typical corn wet milling plant in the United States spends approximately $20 to $30 million per year on energy, making energy efficiency improvement an important way to reduce costs and increase predictable earnings, especially in times of high energy-price volatility. This report shows energy efficiency opportunities available for wet corn millers. It begins with descriptions of the trends, structure and production of the corn wet milling industry and the energy used in the milling and refining process. Specific primary energy savings for each energy efficiency measure based on case studies of plants and references to technical literature are provided. If available, typical payback periods are also listed. The report draws upon the experiences of corn, wheat and other starch processing plants worldwide for energy efficiency measures. The findings suggest that given available resources and technology, there are opportunities to reduce energy consumption cost-effectively in the corn wet milling industry while maintaining the quality of the products manufactured. Further research on the economics of the measures, as well as the applicability of these to different wet milling practices, is needed to assess the feasibility of implementation of selected technologies at individual plants.

  18. Energy recovery efficiency and cost analysis of VOC thermal oxidation pollution control technology.

    PubMed

    Warahena, Aruna S K; Chuah, Yew Khoy

    2009-08-01

    Thermal oxidation of VOC is extremely energy intensive, and necessitates high efficiency heat recovery from the exhaust heat. In this paper, two independent parameters heat recovery factor (HRF) and equipment cost factor (ECF) are introduced. HRF and ECF can be used to evaluate separately the merits of energy efficiency and cost effectiveness of VOC oxidation systems. Another parameter equipment cost against heat recovery (ECHR) which is a function of HRF and ECF is introduced to evaluate the merit of different systems for the thermal oxidation of VOC. Respective cost models were derived for recuperative thermal oxidizer (TO) and regenerative thermal oxidizer (RTO). Application examples are presented to show the use and the importance of these parameters. An application examples show that TO has a lower ECF while RTO has a higher HRF. However when analyzed using ECHR, RTO would be of advantage economically in longer periods of use. The analytical models presented can be applied in similar environmental protection systems.

  19. Energy information systems (EIS): Technology costs, benefit, and best practice uses

    SciTech Connect

    Granderson, Jessica; Lin, Guanjing; Piette, Mary Ann

    2013-11-26

    Energy information systems are the web-based software, data acquisition hardware, and communication systems used to store, analyze, and display building energy data. They often include analysis methods such as baselining, benchmarking, load profiling, and energy anomaly detection. This report documents a large-scale assessment of energy information system (EIS) uses, costs, and energy benefits, based on a series of focused case study investigations that are synthesized into generalizable findings. The overall objective is to provide organizational decision makers with the information they need to make informed choices as to whether or not to invest in an EIS--a promising technology that can enable up to 20 percent site energy savings, quick payback, and persistent low-energy performance when implemented as part of best-practice energy management programs.

  20. Potential supply and cost of biomass from energy crops in the TVA region

    SciTech Connect

    Graham, R.L.; Downing, M.E.

    1995-04-01

    The economic and supply structures of energy crop markets have not been established. Establishing the likely price and supply of energy crop biomass in a region is a complex task because biomass is not an established commodity as are oil, natural gas, and coal. In this study, the cost and supply of short-rotation woody crop (SRWC) and switchgrass biomass for the Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA) region-a 276-county area that includes portions of 11 states in the southeastern United States - are projected. Projected prices and quantities of biomass are assumed to be a function of the amount and quality of crop and pasture land available in a region, expected energy crop yields and production costs on differing soils and land types, and the profit that could be obtained from current conventional crop production on these same lands. Results include the supply curves of SRWC and switchgrass biomass that are projected to be available from the entire region, the amount and location of crop and pasture land that would be used, and the conventional agricultural crops that would be displaced as a function of energy crop production. Finally, the results of sensitivity analysis on the projected cost and supply of energy crop biomass are shown. In particular, the separate impacts of varying energy crop production costs and yields, and interest rates are examined.

  1. Energy and cost analysis of commercial building shell characteristics and operating schedules

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, W.S.; Pierce, F.E.

    1980-04-01

    Eight prototypical commercial buildings were considered, and estimates of the energy savings realized from various conservation measures are presented. For each of four building types (hospital, office, educational, and retail) two building designs representative of both pre- and post-embargo construction were analyzed. The ongoing program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory aims to develop an engineering-economic model to forecast annual energy use in the US commercial sector. This particular study was undertaken to define relationships among energy-conservation measures, energy savings, and capital costs. Buildings were modeled and analyzed using NECAP (NASA Energy-Cost Analysis Program) based on hourly weather data in Kansas City (selected as typical of the entire country). Energy-conservation measures considered include night and weekend thermostat setback, reduction in ventilation, reduction in lighting, window alterations (shading, dual panes, and size reduction), economizer cycle, reset of supply temperature based on zone demand, and improvements in equipment efficiencies. Results indicate energy savings as a function of the capital cost of each energy-conservation measure for each of the eight buildings considered.

  2. Development of low-cost, compact, reliable, high energy density ceramic nanocomposite capacitors.

    SciTech Connect

    Cooley, Erika J.; Monson, Todd C.; DiAntonio, Christopher Brian; Huber, Dale L.; Fellows, Benjamin D.; Stevens, Tyler E.; Roesler, Alexander William; Chavez, Tom P.; Winter, Michael R.

    2010-05-01

    The ceramic nanocomposite capacitor goals are: (1) more than double energy density of ceramic capacitors (cutting size and weight by more than half); (2) potential cost reductino (factor of >4) due to decreased sintering temperature (allowing the use of lower cost electrode materials such as 70/30 Ag/Pd); and (3) lower sintering temperature will allow co-firing with other electrical components.

  3. Initiation and Modification of Reaction by Energy Addition: Kinetic and Transport Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    MODIFICATION OF REACTION BY ENERGY ADDITION: KINETIC AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA by Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou Center for Propulsion Technology...TA - A2 L AUHOWAC - F49620-90-C-0070 Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou 7. PEMOS101IG ORGANIZATION NAME(S AND...a gaseous mixture is more pertinent for the supersonic-combustor applications of interest to the Air Force (compare Figs. 1 and 2) (Carrier, Fendell

  4. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  6. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy losses in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-28

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. We found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  7. Technological cost-reduction pathways for attenuator wave energy converters in the marine hydrokinetic environment.

    SciTech Connect

    Bull, Diana L; Ochs, Margaret Ellen

    2013-09-01

    This report considers and prioritizes the primary potential technical costreduction pathways for offshore wave activated body attenuators designed for ocean resources. This report focuses on technical research and development costreduction pathways related to the device technology rather than environmental monitoring or permitting opportunities. Three sources of information were used to understand current cost drivers and develop a prioritized list of potential costreduction pathways: a literature review of technical work related to attenuators, a reference device compiled from literature sources, and a webinar with each of three industry device developers. Data from these information sources were aggregated and prioritized with respect to the potential impact on the lifetime levelized cost of energy, the potential for progress, the potential for success, and the confidence in success. Results indicate the five most promising costreduction pathways include advanced controls, an optimized structural design, improved power conversion, planned maintenance scheduling, and an optimized device profile.

  8. Regional Analysis of Building Distributed Energy Costs and CO2 Abatement: A U.S. - China Comparison

    SciTech Connect

    Mendes, Goncalo; Feng, Wei; Stadler, Michael; Steinbach, Jan; Lai, Judy; Zhou, Nan; Marnay, Chris; Ding, Yan; Zhao, Jing; Tian, Zhe; Zhu, Neng

    2014-04-09

    , distributed energy resources (DER) comprising of small, modular, electrical renewable or fossil-based electricity generation units placed at or near the point of energy consumption, has gained much attention as a viable alternative or addition to the current energy system. In 2010, China consumed about 30percent of its primary energy in the buildings sector, leading the country to pay great attention to DER development and its applications in buildings. During the 11th Five Year Plan (FYP), China has implemented 371 renewable energy building demonstration projects, and 210 photovoltaics (PV) building integration projects. At the end of the 12th FYP, China is targeting renewable energy to provide 10percent of total building energy, and to save 30 metric tons of CO2 equivalents (mtce) of energy with building integrated renewables. China is also planning to implement one thousand natural gas-based distributed cogeneration demonstration projects with energy utilization rates over 70percent in the 12th FYP. All these policy targets require significant DER systems development for building applications. China?s fast urbanization makes building energy efficiency a crucial economic issue; however, only limited studies have been done that examine how to design and select suitable building energy technologies in its different regions. In the U.S., buildings consumed 40percent of the total primary energy in 2010 [1] and it is estimated that about 14 billion m2 of floor space of the existing building stock will be remodeled over the next 30 years. Most building?s renovation work has been on building envelope, lighting and HVAC systems. Although interest has emerged, less attention is being paid to DER for buildings. This context has created opportunities for research, development and progressive deployment of DER, due to its potential to combine the production of power and heat (CHP) near the point of consumption and delivering multiple benefits to customers, such as cost

  9. The energy costs of sexual dimorphism in mole-rats are morphological not behavioural

    PubMed Central

    Scantlebury, M; Speakman, J.R; Bennett, N.C

    2005-01-01

    Different reproductive strategies of males and females may lead to the evolution of differences in their energetic costs of reproduction, overall energetic requirements and physiological performances. Sexual dimorphism is often associated with costly behaviours (e.g. large males might have a competitive advantage in fighting, which is energetically expensive). However, few studies of mammals have directly compared the energy costs of reproductive activities between sexes. We compared the daily energy expenditure (DEE) and resting metabolic rate (RMR) of males and females of two species of mole-rat, Bathyergus janetta and Georychus capensis (the former is sexually dimorphic in body size and the latter is not) during a period of intense digging when males seek females. We hypothesized that large body size might be indicative of greater digging or fighting capabilities, and hence greater mass-independent DEE values in males of the sexually dimorphic species. In contrast to this prediction, although absolute values of DEE were greater in B. janetta males, mass-independent values were not. No differences were apparent between sexes in G. capensis. By comparison, although RMR values were greater in B. janetta than G. capensis, no differences were apparent between the sexes for either species. The energy cost of dimorphism is most likely to be the cost of maintenance of a large body size, and not the cost of behaviours performed when an individual is large. PMID:16519235

  10. Simulating the Value of Concentrating Solar Power with Thermal Energy Storage in a Production Cost Model

    SciTech Connect

    Denholm, P.; Hummon, M.

    2012-11-01

    Concentrating solar power (CSP) deployed with thermal energy storage (TES) provides a dispatchable source of renewable energy. The value of CSP with TES, as with other potential generation resources, needs to be established using traditional utility planning tools. Production cost models, which simulate the operation of grid, are often used to estimate the operational value of different generation mixes. CSP with TES has historically had limited analysis in commercial production simulations. This document describes the implementation of CSP with TES in a commercial production cost model. It also describes the simulation of grid operations with CSP in a test system consisting of two balancing areas located primarily in Colorado.

  11. Minimizing Wind Power Producer's Balancing Costs Using Electrochemical Energy Storage: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Miettinen, J.; Tikka, V.; Lassila, J.; Partanen, J.; Hodge, B. M.

    2014-08-01

    This paper examines how electrochemical energy storage can be used to decrease the balancing costs of a wind power producer in the Nordic market. Because electrochemical energy storage is developing in both technological and financial terms, a sensitivity analysis was carried out for the most important variables in the wind-storage hybrid system. The system was studied from a wind power producer's point of view. The main result is that there are no technical limitations to using storage for reducing the balancing costs. However, in terms of economic feasibility, installing hybrid wind-storage systems such as the one studied in this paper faces challenges in both the short and long terms.

  12. Electric energy costs and firm productivity in the countries of the Pacific Alliance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Camacho, Anamaria

    This paper explores the relation between energy as an input of production and firm-level productivity for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru, all country members of the Pacific Alliance economic bloc. The empirical literature, has explored the impact of infrastructure on productivity; however there is limited analysis on the impact of particular infrastructure variables, such as energy, on productivity at the firm level in Latin America. Therefore, this study conducts a quantitative assessment of the responsiveness of productivity to energy cost and quality for Chile, Colombia, Mexico and Peru. For this, the empirical strategy is to estimate a Cobb-Douglas production function using the World Bank's Enterprise Survey to obtain comparable measures of output and inputs of production. This approach provides estimates of input factor elasticities for all of the factors of production including energy. The results indicate that electric energy costs explain cross-country differences in firm level productivity. For the particular case of Colombia, the country exhibits the lowest capital and labor productivity of the PA, and firm output is highly responsive to changes in energy use. As a result, the evidence suggests that policies reducing electric energy costs are an efficient alternative to increase firm performance, particularly in the case of Colombia.

  13. A novel cost based model for energy consumption in cloud computing.

    PubMed

    Horri, A; Dastghaibyfard, Gh

    2015-01-01

    Cloud data centers consume enormous amounts of electrical energy. To support green cloud computing, providers also need to minimize cloud infrastructure energy consumption while conducting the QoS. In this study, for cloud environments an energy consumption model is proposed for time-shared policy in virtualization layer. The cost and energy usage of time-shared policy were modeled in the CloudSim simulator based upon the results obtained from the real system and then proposed model was evaluated by different scenarios. In the proposed model, the cache interference costs were considered. These costs were based upon the size of data. The proposed model was implemented in the CloudSim simulator and the related simulation results indicate that the energy consumption may be considerable and that it can vary with different parameters such as the quantum parameter, data size, and the number of VMs on a host. Measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment. Also, measured results validate the model and demonstrate that there is a tradeoff between energy consumption and QoS in the cloud environment.

  14. Cost-Effectiveness of Home Energy Retrofits in Pre-Code Vintage Homes in the United States

    SciTech Connect

    Fairey, P.; Parker, D.

    2012-11-01

    This analytical study examines the opportunities for cost-effective energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofits in residential archetypes constructed prior to 1980 (Pre-Code) in fourteen U.S. cities. These fourteen cities are representative of each of the International Energy Conservation Code (IECC) climate zones in the contiguous U.S. The analysis is conducted using an in-house version of EnergyGauge USA v.2.8.05 named CostOpt that has been programmed to perform iterative, incremental economic optimization on a large list of residential energy efficiency and renewable energy retrofit measures. The principle objectives of the study are as follows: to determine the opportunities for cost effective source energy reductions in this large cohort of existing residential building stock as a function of local climate and energy costs; and to examine how retrofit financing alternatives impact the source energy reductions that are cost effectively achievable.

  15. Building Commissioning: A Golden Opportunity for Reducing Energy Costs and Greenhouse-gas Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Mills, Evan

    2009-07-16

    The aim of commissioning new buildings is to ensure that they deliver, if not exceed, the performance and energy savings promised by their design. When applied to existing buildings, commissioning identifies the almost inevitable 'drift' from where things should be and puts the building back on course. In both contexts, commissioning is a systematic, forensic approach to quality assurance, rather than a technology per se. Although commissioning has earned increased recognition in recent years - even a toehold in Wikipedia - it remains an enigmatic practice whose visibility severely lags its potential. Over the past decade, Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory has built the world's largest compilation and meta-analysis of commissioning experience in commercial buildings. Since our last report (Mills et al. 2004) the database has grown from 224 to 643 buildings (all located in the United States, and spanning 26 states), from 30 to 100 million square feet of floorspace, and from $17 million to $43 million in commissioning expenditures. The recorded cases of new-construction commissioning took place in buildings representing $2.2 billion in total construction costs (up from 1.5 billion). The work of many more commissioning providers (18 versus 37) is represented in this study, as is more evidence of energy and peak-power savings as well as cost-effectiveness. We now translate these impacts into avoided greenhouse gases and provide new indicators of cost-effectiveness. We also draw attention to the specific challenges and opportunities for high-tech facilities such as labs, cleanrooms, data centers, and healthcare facilities. The results are compelling. We developed an array of benchmarks for characterizing project performance and cost-effectiveness. The median normalized cost to deliver commissioning was $0.30/ft2 for existing buildings and $1.16/ft2 for new construction (or 0.4% of the overall construction cost). The commissioning projects for which data are

  16. Levelized cost of energy and sensitivity analysis for the hydrogen-bromine flow battery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Nirala; McFarland, Eric W.

    2015-08-01

    The technoeconomics of the hydrogen-bromine flow battery are investigated. Using existing performance data the operating conditions were optimized to minimize the levelized cost of electricity using individual component costs for the flow battery stack and other system units. Several different configurations were evaluated including use of a bromine complexing agent to reduce membrane requirements. Sensitivity analysis of cost is used to identify the system elements most strongly influencing the economics. The stack lifetime and round-trip efficiency of the cell are identified as major factors on the levelized cost of electricity, along with capital components related to hydrogen storage, the bipolar plate, and the membrane. Assuming that an electrocatalyst and membrane with a lifetime of 2000 cycles can be identified, the lowest cost market entry system capital is 220 kWh-1 for a 4 h discharge system and for a charging energy cost of 0.04 kWh-1 the levelized cost of the electricity delivered is 0.40 kWh-1. With systems manufactured at large scales these costs are expected to be lower.

  17. High Energy Density Utracapacitors: Low-Cost, High Energy and Power Density, Nanotube-Enhanced Ultracapacitors

    SciTech Connect

    2010-04-01

    Broad Funding Opportunity Announcement Project: FastCAP is improving the performance of an ultracapacitor—a battery-like electronic device that can complement, and possibly even replace, an HEV or EV battery pack. Ultracapacitors have many advantages over conventional batteries, including long lifespans (over 1 million cycles, as compared to 10,000 for conventional batteries) and better durability. Ultracapacitors also charge more quickly than conventional batteries, and they release energy more quickly. However, ultracapacitors have fallen short of batteries in one key metric: energy density—high energy density means more energy storage. FastCAP is redesigning the ultracapacitor’s internal structure to increase its energy density. Ultracapacitors traditionally use electrodes made of irregularly shaped, porous carbon. FastCAP’s ultracapacitors are made of tiny, aligned carbon nanotubes. The nanotubes provide a regular path for ions moving in and out of the ultracapacitor’s electrode, increasing the overall efficiency and energy density of the device.

  18. Improving cost-effectiveness and mitigating risks of renewable energy requirements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Griffin, James P.

    Policy makers at the federal and state levels of government are debating actions to reduce U.S. greenhouse gas emissions and dependence on oil as an energy source. Several concerns drive this debate: sharp rises in energy prices, increasing unease about the risks of climate change, energy security, and interest in expanding the domestic renewable energy industry. Renewable energy requirements are frequently proposed to address these concerns, and are currently in place, in various forms, at the federal and state levels of government. These policies specify that a certain portion of the energy supply come from renewable energy sources. This dissertation focuses on a specific proposal, known as 25 X 25, which requires 25% of electricity and motor vehicle transportation fuels supplied to U.S. consumers to come from renewable energy sources, such as wind power and ethanol, by 2025. This dissertation builds on prior energy policy analysis, and more specifically analyses of renewable energy requirements, by assessing the social welfare implications of a 25 x 25 policy and applying new methods of uncertainty analysis to multiple policy options decision makers can use to implement the policy. These methods identify policy options that can improve the cost-effectiveness and reduce the risks of renewable energy requirements. While the dissertation focuses on a specific policy, the research methods and findings are applicable to other renewable energy requirement policies. In the dissertation, I analyze six strategies for implementing a 25 x 25 policy across several hundred scenarios that represent plausible futures for uncertainties in energy markets, such as renewable energy costs, energy demand, and fossil fuel prices. The strategies vary in the availability of resources that qualify towards the policy requirement and the use of a "safety valve" that allows refiners and utilities to pay a constant fee after renewable energy costs reach a predetermined threshold. I test

  19. Relation between physical time-energy cost of a quantum process and its information fidelity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fung, Chi-Hang Fred; Chau, H. F.

    2014-08-01

    A quantum system can be described and characterized by at least two different concepts, namely, its physical and informational properties. Here, we explicitly connect these two concepts, by equating the time-energy cost which is the product of the largest energy of a Hamiltonian of quantum dynamics and the evolution time, and the entanglement fidelity which is the informational difference between an input state and the corresponding output state produced by a quantum channel characterized by the Hamiltonian. Specifically, the worst-case entanglement fidelity between the input and output states is exactly the cosine of the channel's time-energy cost (except when the fidelity is zero). The exactness of our relation makes a strong statement about the intimate connection between information and physics. Our exact result may also be regarded as a time-energy uncertainty relation for the fastest state that achieves a certain fidelity.

  20. Energy and Cost Associated with Ventilating Office Buildings in a Tropical Climate

    PubMed Central

    Rim, Donghyun; Schiavon, Stefano; Nazaroff, William W.

    2015-01-01

    Providing sufficient amounts of outdoor air to occupants is a critical building function for supporting occupant health, well-being and productivity. In tropical climates, high ventilation rates require substantial amounts of energy to cool and dehumidify supply air. This study evaluates the energy consumption and associated cost for thermally conditioning outdoor air provided for building ventilation in tropical climates, considering Singapore as an example locale. We investigated the influence on energy consumption and cost of the following factors: outdoor air temperature and humidity, ventilation rate (L/s per person), indoor air temperature and humidity, air conditioning system coefficient of performance (COP), and cost of electricity. Results show that dehumidification of outdoor air accounts for more than 80% of the energy needed for building ventilation in Singapore’s tropical climate. Improved system performance and/or a small increase in the indoor temperature set point would permit relatively large ventilation rates (such as 25 L/s per person) at modest or no cost increment. Overall, even in a thermally demanding tropical climate, the energy cost associated with increasing ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person is less than 1% of the wages of an office worker in an advanced economy like Singapore’s. This result implies that the benefits of increasing outdoor air ventilation rate up to 25 L/s per person — which is suggested to provide for productivity increases, lower sick building syndrome symptom prevalence, and reduced sick leave — can be much larger than the incremental cost of ventilation. PMID:25822504

  1. Energy Efficiency and Least-Cost Planning: The Best Way to Save Money and Reduce Energy Use in Hawaii

    SciTech Connect

    Mowris, Robert J.

    1990-05-21

    If the 500 MW geothermal project on the Big Island of Hawaii is developed as planned, the Wao Kele O Puna rain forest will be severely damaged or destroyed. If this happens the State will lose one of its most precious resources. It would be tragic for this to happen, since on a least-cost basis, the geothermal project does not make economic sense. Improving energy efficiency in the commercial and residential sectors of Hawaii can save about 500 MW of power at a cost of $700 million.

  2. Report of the 1990 HEPAP (High Energy Physics Advisory Panel) Subpanel on SSC (Superconducting Super Collider) Cost Estimate Oversight

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1990-07-01

    At the request of the Office of Energy Research, the High Energy Physics Advisory Panel (HEPAP) established a subpanel to conduct an independent assessment of the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC). This assessment was conducted before, during, and after the DOE's in-depth assessment of the entire project in June 1990. In summary, the subpanel believes that to reduce risk, 6 to 12 months should be added to the schedule; the project should be rephased; and additional funding planned to bring the total project cost, including contingency and escalation, to about $8.6 billion. In addition, we suggest adding another $300 million to the detector budget to allow for two large detectors and, therefore, a more balanced experimental program initially.

  3. Colorado Energy and Cost Savings for New Single- and Multifamily Homes: 2009 and 2012 IECC as Compared to the 2006 IECC

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, Robert G.; Taylor, Zachary T.; Mendon, Vrushali V.; Goel, Supriya

    2012-07-04

    The 2009 and 2012 International Energy Conservation Codes (IECC) yield positive benefits for Colorado homeowners. Moving to either the 2009 or 2012 IECC from the 2006 IECC is cost-effective over a 30-year life cycle. On average, Colorado homeowners will save $1,528 over 30 years under the 2009 IECC, with savings still higher at $5,435 under the 2012 IECC. Each year, the reduction to energy bills will significantly exceed increased mortgage costs. After accounting for up-front costs and additional costs financed in the mortgage, homeowners should see net positive cash flows (i.e., cumulative savings exceeding cumulative cash outlays) in 2 years for the 2009 and 2 years with the 2012 IECC. Average annual energy savings are $119 for the 2009 IECC and $392 for the 2012 IECC.

  4. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR® (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for 15 Chicagoland single family housing archetypes. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these 15 housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost effectiveness.

  5. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades Versus Cost-Optimized Solutions

    SciTech Connect

    Yee, S.; Milby, M.; Baker, J.

    2014-06-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR(R) (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  6. Evaluation of Missed Energy Saving Opportunity Based on Illinois Home Performance Program Field Data: Homeowner Selected Upgrades vs. Cost-Optimized Solutions; Chicago, Illinois (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-07-01

    Expanding on previous research by PARR, this study compares measure packages installed during 800 Illinois Home Performance with ENERGY STAR (IHP) residential retrofits to those recommended as cost-optimal by Building Energy Optimization (BEopt) modeling software. In previous research, cost-optimal measure packages were identified for fifteen Chicagoland single family housing archetypes, called housing groups. In the present study, 800 IHP homes are first matched to one of these fifteen housing groups, and then the average measures being installed in each housing group are modeled using BEopt to estimate energy savings. For most housing groups, the differences between recommended and installed measure packages is substantial. By comparing actual IHP retrofit measures to BEopt-recommended cost-optimal measures, missed savings opportunities are identified in some housing groups; also, valuable information is obtained regarding housing groups where IHP achieves greater savings than BEopt-modeled, cost-optimal recommendations. Additionally, a measure-level sensitivity analysis conducted for one housing group reveals which measures may be contributing the most to gas and electric savings. Overall, the study finds not only that for some housing groups, the average IHP retrofit results in more energy savings than would result from cost-optimal, BEopt-recommended measure packages, but also that linking home categorization to standardized retrofit measure packages provides an opportunity to streamline the process for single family home energy retrofits and maximize both energy savings and cost-effectiveness.

  7. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  8. DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates to Fully Meet Best Practices

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    DOD BUSINESS SYSTEMS MODERNIZATION Additional Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost...DATE SEP 2014 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED 00-00-2014 to 00-00-2014 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE DOD Business Systems Modernization: Additional...Enhancements Are Needed for Army Business System Schedule and Cost Estimates to Fully Meet Best Practices 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c

  9. Nutrient-dense food groups have high energy costs: an econometric approach to nutrient profiling.

    PubMed

    Maillot, Matthieu; Darmon, Nicole; Darmon, Michel; Lafay, Lionel; Drewnowski, Adam

    2007-07-01

    Consumers wishing to replace some of the foods in their diets with more nutrient-dense options need to be able to identify such foods on the basis of nutrient profiling. The present study used nutrient profiling to rank 7 major food groups and 25 subgroups in terms of their contribution to dietary energy, diet quality, and diet cost for 1332 adult participants in the French National INCA1 Study. Nutrient profiles were based on the presence of 23 qualifying nutrients, expressed as the percentage of nutrient adequacy per 8 MJ, and 3 negative or disqualifying nutrients, expressed as the percentage of the maximal recommended values for saturated fatty acids, added sugar, and sodium per 1.4 kg. Calculated cost of energy (euro/8 MJ) was based on the mean retail price of 619 foods in the nutrient composition database. The meat and the fruit and vegetables food groups had the highest nutritional quality but were associated with highest energy costs. Sweets and salted snacks had the lowest nutritional quality but were also one of the least expensive sources of dietary energy. Starches and grains were unique because they were low in disqualifying nutrients yet provided low-cost dietary energy. Within each major food group, some subgroups had a higher nutritient-to-price ratio than others. However, the fact that food groups with the more favorable nutrient profiles were also associated with higher energy costs suggests that the present structure of food prices may be a barrier to the adoption of food-based dietary guidelines, at least by low-income households.

  10. Parasite-induced increases in the energy costs of movement of host freshwater fish.

    PubMed

    Slavík, Ondřej; Horký, Pavel; Douda, Karel; Velíšek, Josef; Kolářová, Jitka; Lepič, Pavel

    2017-03-15

    Parasitization by the larvae (glochidia) of freshwater mussels can cause harm to a fish's gills, resulting in less effective respiration and/or reduced activity by the host fish. The impact of glochidia infections on the host's physiology remains poorly understood, and no information is available concerning energy consumption in parasitized fish. Hence, we obtained glochidia of the invasive unionid mussel Sinanodonta (Anodonta) woodiana and experimentally infected common carp, Cyprinus carpio, tagged with physiological sensors to measure energy consumption. We tested the hypothesis that parasitization affects energy consumption in the host fish, reflected as higher energy costs for movement and reduced movement activity over eight days post-infection within a twenty-four-hour cycle. Parasitized fish showed higher energy costs of movement; however, no changes in movement activity were found compared with activity in control fish. Significantly increased biochemical indices were measured in host fish blood samples, including aspartate (AST) and alanine (ALT) aminotransferase levels, indicating liver injury, and high concentrations of potassium (K(+)), signifying kidney injury (hyperkalemia). Increased Cl(-) concentrations indicate gill dysfunction. Our results show that the energy costs due to glochidia parasitization are independent of overall movement activity patterns and vary in time according to the parasitic phase and the diurnal cycle. Moreover, the side effects of parasitization have a more important impact on fish hosts than has been shown in previous reports.

  11. Cost estimates for advanced/innovative wind energy conversion systems /AWECS/

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacobs, E. W.

    1981-12-01

    Three computer models for determining the economics of advanced wind energy conversion systems (AWECS) in production status are discussed. The SAMICS program, designed for estimating costs of production-line operations, includes details of expenses for a plant in steady-state operation, and yields results in terms of prices, quantities, and a breakdown of cost components. The PRICE model gives cost estimates for electromechanical hardware systems, and comprises design, manufacturing, and subassembly costs. The FAST program derives costs of energy systems in terms of construction and installation. All three models provide production costing, and it is noted that the FAST model can be used as an adjunct to the other two. Small WECS are viewed to become commercially viable at the 10,000 units/yr production level, using a one product job shop mode. Examples for existing 40 kW and 10 kW preproduction model SWECS are provided and a price lowering curve is generated which is similar to a learning curve.

  12. Immune activity elevates energy expenditure of house sparrows: a link between direct and indirect costs?

    PubMed

    Martin, Lynn B; Scheuerlein, Alex; Wikelski, Martin

    2003-01-22

    The activation of an immune response is beneficial for organisms but may also have costs that affect fitness. Documented immune costs include those associated with acquisition of special nutrients, as well as immunopathology or autoimmunity. Here, we test whether an experimental induction of the immune system with a non-pathological stimulant can elevate energy turnover in passerine birds. We injected phytohaemagglutinin (PHA), a commonly used mitogen that activates the cell-mediated immune response, into the wing web of house sparrows, Passer domesticus. We then examined energetic costs resulting from this immune activity and related those costs to other physiological activities. We found that PHA injection significantly elevated resting metabolic rate (RMR) of challenged sparrows relative to saline controls. We calculated the total cost of this immune activity to be ca. 4.20 kJ per day (29% RMR), which is equivalent to the cost of production of half of an egg (8.23 kJ egg(-1)) in this species. We suggest that immune activity in wild passerines increases energy expenditure, which in turn may influence important life-history characteristics such as clutch size, timing of breeding or the scheduling of moult.

  13. Energy benchmarking of commercial buildings: a low-cost pathway toward urban sustainability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cox, Matt; Brown, Marilyn A.; Sun, Xiaojing

    2013-09-01

    US cities are beginning to experiment with a regulatory approach to address information failures in the real estate market by mandating the energy benchmarking of commercial buildings. Understanding how a commercial building uses energy has many benefits; for example, it helps building owners and tenants identify poor-performing buildings and subsystems and it enables high-performing buildings to achieve greater occupancy rates, rents, and property values. This paper estimates the possible impacts of a national energy benchmarking mandate through analysis chiefly utilizing the Georgia Tech version of the National Energy Modeling System (GT-NEMS). Correcting input discount rates results in a 4.0% reduction in projected energy consumption for seven major classes of equipment relative to the reference case forecast in 2020, rising to 8.7% in 2035. Thus, the official US energy forecasts appear to overestimate future energy consumption by underestimating investments in energy-efficient equipment. Further discount rate reductions spurred by benchmarking policies yield another 1.3-1.4% in energy savings in 2020, increasing to 2.2-2.4% in 2035. Benchmarking would increase the purchase of energy-efficient equipment, reducing energy bills, CO2 emissions, and conventional air pollution. Achieving comparable CO2 savings would require more than tripling existing US solar capacity. Our analysis suggests that nearly 90% of the energy saved by a national benchmarking policy would benefit metropolitan areas, and the policy’s benefits would outweigh its costs, both to the private sector and society broadly.

  14. Barriers to Building Energy Efficiency (BEE) promotion: A transaction costs perspective

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qian Kun, Queena

    Worldwide, buildings account for a surprisingly high 40% of global energy consumption, and the resulting carbon footprint significantly exceeds that of all forms of transportation combined. Large and attractive opportunities exist to reduce buildings' energy use at lower costs and higher returns than in other sectors. This thesis analyzes the concerns of the market stakeholders, mainly real estate developers and end-users, in terms of transaction costs as they make decisions about investing in Building Energy Efficiency (BEE). It provides a detailed analysis of the current situation and future prospects for BEE adoption by the market's stakeholders. It delineates the market and lays out the economic and institutional barriers to the large-scale deployment of energy-efficient building techniques. The aim of this research is to investigate the barriers raised by transaction costs that hinder market stakeholders from investing in BEES. It explains interactions among stakeholders in general and in the specific case of Hong Kong as they consider transaction costs. It focuses on the influence of transaction costs on the decision-making of the stakeholders during the entire process of real estate development. The objectives are: 1) To establish an analytical framework for understanding the barriers to BEE investment with consideration of transaction costs; 2) To build a theoretical game model of decision making among the BEE market stakeholders; 3) To study the empirical data from questionnaire surveys of building designers and from focused interviews with real estate developers in Hong Kong; 4) To triangulate the study's empirical findings with those of the theoretical model and analytical framework. The study shows that a coherent institutional framework needs to be established to ensure that the design and implementation of BEE policies acknowledge the concerns of market stakeholders by taking transaction costs into consideration. Regulatory and incentive options

  15. Solar energy for process heat: Design/cost studies of four industrial retrofit applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    French, R. L.; Bartera, R. E.

    1978-01-01

    Five specific California plants with potentially attractive solar applications were identified in a process heat survey. These five plants were visited, process requirements evaluated, and conceptual solar system designs were generated. Four DOE (ERDA) sponsored solar energy system demonstration projects were also reviewed and compared to the design/cost cases included in this report. In four of the five cases investigated, retrofit installations providing significant amounts of thermal energy were found to be feasible. The fifth was rejected because of the condition of the building involved, but the process (soap making) appears to be an attractive potential solar application. Costs, however, tend to be high. Several potential areas for cost reduction were identified including larger collector modules and higher duty cycles.

  16. Cost and size estimates for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.; Wright, L. O.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary capital cost and size estimates were made for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept. The electrochemical system considered was an electrically rechargeable flow cell with a redox couple. On the basis of preliminary capital cost estimates, size estimates, and several other important considerations, the redox-flow-cell system emerges as having great promise as a bulk energy storage system for power load leveling. The size of this system would be less than 2 percent of that of a comparable pumped hydroelectric plant. The capital cost of a 10-megawatt, 60- and 85-megawatt-hour redox system is estimated to be $190 to $330 per kilowatt. The other important features of the redox system contributing to its load leveling application are its low adverse environmental impact, its high efficiency, its apparent absence of electrochemically-related cycle life limitations, and its fast response.

  17. [Reduce Energy Costs While Maintaining Healthy IAQ.] "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update #17

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    US Environmental Protection Agency, 2009

    2009-01-01

    This issue of "Indoor Air Quality Tools for Schools" Update ("IAQ TfS" Update) contains the following items: (1) News and Events; (2) Feature Article: Reduce Energy Costs while Maintaining Healthy IAQ; (3) Insight into Excellence: North East Independent School District ; (4) School Building Week 2009; and (5) Have Your Questions Answered!

  18. Effect of increasing energy cost on arm coordination in elite sprint swimmers.

    PubMed

    Komar, J; Leprêtre, P M; Alberty, M; Vantorre, J; Fernandes, R J; Hellard, P; Chollet, D; Seifert, L

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the changes in stroke parameters, motor organization and swimming efficiency with increasing energy cost in aquatic locomotion. Seven elite sprint swimmers performed a 6×300-m incremental swimming test. Stroke parameters (speed, stroke rate and stroke length), motor organization (arm stroke phases and arm coordination index), swimming efficiency (swimming speed squared and hand speed squared) and stroke index were calculated from aerial and underwater side-view cameras. The energy cost of locomotion was assessed by measuring oxygen consumption and blood lactate. Results showed that the increase in energy cost of locomotion was correlated to an increase in the index of coordination and stroke rate, and a decrease in stroke length (p<.05). Furthermore, indicators of swimming efficiency and stroke index did not change significantly with the speed increments (p<.05), indicating that swimmers did not decrease their efficiency despite the increase in energy cost. In parallel, an increase in the index of coordination IdC and stroke rate were observed, along with a decrease in stroke length, stroke index and hand speed squared with each increment, revealing an adaptation to the fatigue within the 300m.

  19. Low-Cost, Robust, Threat-aware Wireless Sensor Network for Assuring the Nation's Energy Infrastructure

    SciTech Connect

    Carlos H. Rentel

    2007-03-31

    The objective of this project was to create a low-cost, robust anticipatory wireless sensor network (A-WSN) to ensure the security and reliability of the United States energy infrastructure. This document highlights Eaton Corporation's plan to bring these technologies to market.

  20. Low Cost Chemical Feedstocks Using an Improved and Energy Efficient Natural Gas Liquid Removal Process

    SciTech Connect

    2004-07-01

    This factsheet describes a research project whose goal is to develop a new low-cost and energy efficient NGL recovery process - through a combination of theoretical, bench-scale, and pilot-scale testing - so that it can be offered to the natural gas industry for commercialization.

  1. Assessment of Indoor Air Quality Benefits and Energy Costs of Mechanical Ventilation

    SciTech Connect

    Logue, J.M.; Price, P.N.; Sherman, M.H.; Singer, B.C.

    2011-07-01

    Intake of chemical air pollutants in residences represents an important and substantial health hazard. Sealing homes to reduce air infiltration can save space conditioning energy, but can also increase indoor pollutant concentrations. Mechanical ventilation ensures a minimum amount of outdoor airflow that helps reduce concentrations of indoor emitted pollutants while requiring some energy for fan(s) and thermal conditioning of the added airflow. This work demonstrates a physics based, data driven modeling framework for comparing the costs and benefits of whole-house mechanical ventilation and applied the framework to new California homes. The results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits from reduced exposure to indoor pollutants in New California homes are worth the energy costs of adding mechanical ventilation as specified by ASHRAE Standard 62.2.This study determines the health burden for a subset of pollutants in indoor air and the costs and benefits of ASHRAE's mechanical ventilation standard (62.2) for new California homes. Results indicate that, on a population basis, the health benefits of new home mechanical ventilation justify the energy costs.

  2. CHARACTERIZING COSTS, SAVINGS AND BENEFITS OF A SELECTION OF ENERGY EFFICIENT EMERGING TECHNOLOGIES IN THE UNITED STATES

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, T.; Slaa, J.W.; Sathaye, J.

    2010-12-15

    Implementation and adoption of efficient end-use technologies have proven to be one of the key measures for reducing greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions throughout the industries. In many cases, implementing energy efficiency measures is among one of the most cost effective investments that the industry could make in improving efficiency and productivity while reducing CO2 emissions. Over the years, there have been incentives to use resources and energy in a cleaner and more efficient way to create industries that are sustainable and more productive. With the working of energy programs and policies on GHG inventory and regulation, understanding and managing the costs associated with mitigation measures for GHG reductions is very important for the industry and policy makers around the world. Successful implementation of emerging technologies not only can help advance productivities and competitiveness but also can play a significant role in mitigation efforts by saving energy. Providing evaluation and estimation of the costs and energy savings potential of emerging technologies is the focus of our work in this project. The overall goal of the project is to identify and select emerging and under-utilized energy-efficient technologies and practices as they are important to reduce energy consumption in industry while maintaining economic growth. This report contains the results from performing Task 2"Technology evaluation" for the project titled"Research Opportunities in Emerging and Under-Utilized Energy-Efficient Industrial Technologies," which was sponsored by California Energy Commission and managed by CIEE. The project purpose is to analyze market status, market potential, and economic viability of selected technologies applicable to the U.S. In this report, LBNL first performed re-assessments of all of the 33 emerging energy-efficient industrial technologies, including re-evaluation of the 26 technologies that were previously identified by Martin et al. (2000) and

  3. Geography and the costs of urban energy infrastructure: The case of electricity and natural gas capital investments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Senyel, Muzeyyen Anil

    Investments in the urban energy infrastructure for distributing electricity and natural gas are analyzed using (1) property data measuring distribution plant value at the local/tax district level, and (2) system outputs such as sectoral numbers of customers and energy sales, input prices, company-specific characteristics such as average wages and load factor. Socio-economic and site-specific urban and geographic variables, however, often been neglected in past studies. The purpose of this research is to incorporate these site-specific characteristics of electricity and natural gas distribution into investment cost model estimations. These local characteristics include (1) socio-economic variables, such as income and wealth; (2) urban-related variables, such as density, land-use, street pattern, housing pattern; (3) geographic and environmental variables, such as soil, topography, and weather, and (4) company-specific characteristics such as average wages, and load factor. The classical output variables include residential and commercial-industrial customers and sales. In contrast to most previous research, only capital investments at the local level are considered. In addition to aggregate cost modeling, the analysis focuses on the investment costs for the system components: overhead conductors, underground conductors, conduits, poles, transformers, services, street lighting, and station equipment for electricity distribution; and mains, services, regular and industrial measurement and regulation stations for natural gas distribution. The Box-Cox, log-log and additive models are compared to determine the best fitting cost functions. The Box-Cox form turns out to be superior to the other forms at the aggregate level and for network components. However, a linear additive form provides a better fit for end-user related components. The results show that, in addition to output variables and company-specific variables, various site-specific variables are statistically

  4. The total cost and measured performance of utility-sponsored energy efficiency programs

    SciTech Connect

    Eto, J.; Vine, E.; Shown, L.

    1996-06-01

    By examining the actual performance of conservation or demand-side management (DSM) programs for ten utilities, Joskow and Marron (1992) have made an important contribution to policy discussions about the wisdom of relying on utilities to improve customer energy efficiency. We use Joskow and Marron`s method to analyze twenty utility commercial lighting programs and, like Joskow and Marron, find wide variations in industry reporting practices and savings evaluation methods. We extend the method by systematically accounting for several of the most important sources of variation and comment on how they influence total program costs. Our accounting also allows us to relate remaining program cost variations to the program sizes and the electric supply costs avoided by the programs. We draw qualified, yet affirmative, conclusions regarding the cost effectiveness of the programs.

  5. A cost-benefit analysis of blood donor vaccination as an alternative to additional DNA testing for reducing transfusion transmission of hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Fischinger, J M; Stephan, B; Wasserscheid, K; Eichler, H; Gärtner, B C

    2010-11-16

    A survey-based, cost-benefit analysis was performed comparing blood screening strategies with vaccination strategies for the reduction of transfusion transmission of HBV. 231 whole blood donors and 126 apheresis donors were eligible and completed a questionnaire detailing their donation habits. The cost-benefit analysis included current mandatory HBV testing (HbsAg+anti-Hbc, A1), A1 with additional nucleic acid testing (NAT) for minipool (A2) or individual donation testing (A3), as well as HBV vaccination strategies using time-dependant (B1) or titre dependent booster vaccination solely (B2), or B2 in addition to current mandatory testing procedures (B3). Different cost models were applied using a 5% rate of discount. Absolute costs for current mandatory testing procedures (A1) over 20 years in Germany were €1009 million. Additional NAT would lead to incremental costs of 43% (A2) or 339% (A3), respectively. Vaccination strategies B1 and B2 showed cost-reductions relative to A1 of 30% and 14%, respectively. The number of remaining HBV infections could be reduced from 360 (for A1) to 13, using vaccination, compared with 144 or 105 remaining infections for A2 or A3, respectively. Absolute cost per prevented infection is similar (€2.0 million) for A2 and B3. HBV vaccination offers the near-elimination of transfusion infections while representing a potential cost-reduction.

  6. Cost of protein synthesis and energy allocation during development of antarctic sea urchin embryos and larvae.

    PubMed

    Pace, Douglas A; Manahan, Donal T

    2007-04-01

    Cold environments represent a substantial volume of the biosphere. To study developmental physiology in subzero seawater temperatures typically found in the Southern Ocean, rates and costs of protein synthesis were measured in embryos and larvae of Sterechinus neumayeri, the Antarctic sea urchin. Our analysis of the "cost of living" in extreme cold for this species shows (1) that cost of protein synthesis is strikingly low during development, at 0.41 +/- 0.05 J (mg protein synthesized)(-1) (n = 16); (2) that synthesis cost is fixed and independent of synthesis rate; and (3) that a low synthesis cost permits high rates of protein turnover at -1 degrees C, at rates comparable to those of temperate species of sea urchin embryos developing at 15 degrees C. With a low synthesis cost, even at the highest synthesis rates measured (gastrulae), the proportion of total metabolism accounted for by protein synthesis in the Antarctic sea urchin was 54%-a value similar to that of temperate sea urchin embryos. In the Antarctic sea urchin, up to 87% of metabolic rate can be accounted for by the combined energy costs of protein synthesis and the sodium pump. We conclude that, in Antarctic sea urchin embryos, high rates of protein synthesis can be supported in extreme-cold environments while still maintaining low rates of respiration.

  7. Responses of primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows to additional energy from fat or concentrate during summer.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Cicela, T M; LaCount, D W

    2003-04-01

    Supplemental fat has been advocated for use during hot weather and often increases milk yield of cows past peak production when energy intake should not be limiting. Relative responses of primiparous and multiparous cows to supplemental fat or isocaloric addition of concentrates under hot weather conditions have not been determined. Nine multiparous and nine primiparous Holstein cows (154 and 167 d in milk, respectively) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were 1) control (35% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 40% concentrate, dry matter [DM] basis); 2) control plus 3% fat (HF); and 3) high concentrate ([HC] 15% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 60% concentrate). Diets were isonitrogenous; diets HF and HC were isocaloric (1.60 Mcal of net energy for lactation [NE(L)] per kilogram DM) and higher energy than the control (1.52 Mcal/kg). No parity x diet interactions approached significance. DM intake (DMI) was greater when cows were fed HC than when they were fed HF (21.0, 20.1, and 21.3 kg/d for control, HF, and HC, respectively); intake of NE(L) tended to be increased only for HC. Milk yield was increased by higher-energy diets, but milk fat content was decreased. Milk total protein content was decreased by HF and increased by HC. Yield of solids-corrected milk (SCM) was not different among diets. Efficiency of milk production, expressed either as total milk solids yield per kilogram of DMI or as kilograms of SCM per megacalorie of NE(L) intake, was greater for HF than for HC. Plasma glucose was higher after feeding for cows fed HC; plasma nonesterified fatty acids were greater for HF. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were greater for HC than for HF. Regardless of parity, increased energy density from either fat or concentrate increased milk yield in midlactation cows, but diets caused energy to be partitioned differently among milk components and body storage. Supplemental rumen-active fat had modest advantages

  8. Low energy stage study. Volume 4: Cost benefits analysis and recommendations. [orbital launching of space shuttle payloads

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1978-01-01

    The costs and benefits of existing/planned systems, new propulsion concepts, and adaptations of existing/planned systems (as supported by Orbiter interface requirements and operations requirements) were quantified. Scenarios of these propulsion approaches were established which accommodate the low energy regime as defined by the new low energy payload mission model. These scenarios were screened on a cost and then a benefits basis. A propulsion approach comprising existing/planned systems and a new propulsion concept were selected as the most cost effective approach to accommodate the model payloads and the low energy regime they represent. Key cost drivers and sensitivity trends were identified. All costs were derived in 1977 dollars.

  9. Audit of Department of Energy`s contractor liability insurance costs

    SciTech Connect

    1996-09-13

    Fifty-four of DOE`s major contractors reported expending $44.3 million in liability insurance costs for the last 3 years of operation. Purpose of this audit was to evaluate how DOE implemented its policy to assume the risk of losses for its contractors rather than to insure them commercially. Contractors are required to use self-insurance if combined annual premiums for commercial insurance exceed $10,000. Review of 18 major contractors showed that DOE was not consistently following its policy and that contractors using commercial insurance incurred higher costs. Required approvals were not always obtained prior to purchasing certain other types of liability insurance. It is recommended that DOE`s policies requiring self-insurance be fully implemented; that requests for approval for commercial insurance when annual premiums exceeded $10,000 be fully justified; and that the commercial insurance policies specifically define the liability coverage prior to approval and payment. It is also recommended that the contracts include clauses limiting reimbursements for insurance expenditures to actual losses and administrative costs.

  10. Energy Cost of Standing in a Multi-Ethnic Cohort: Are Energy-Savers a Minority or the Majority?

    PubMed Central

    Monnard, Cathríona R.

    2017-01-01

    Background The disease risks associated with sedentary behavior are now firmly established, and consequently there is much interest in methods of increasing low-intensity physical activity. In this context, it is a widely held belief that altering posture allocation can modify energy expenditure (EE) to impact upon body weight regulation and health. However, we recently showed the existence of two distinct phenotypes pertaining to the energy cost of standing–with the majority of a Caucasian cohort showing no sustained increase in EE during standing relative to sitting. Here we investigated whether this phenomenon is also observed across a multi-ethnic male cohort. Objective To determine the magnitude and time-course of changes in EE and respiratory quotient (RQ) during steady-state standing versus sitting, and to explore inter-individual variability in these responses across 4 ethnic groups (European, Indian, Chinese, African) Design Min-by-min monitoring using posture-adapted ventilated-hood indirect calorimetry was conducted in 35 healthy, men (20–43 years) during 10 min of steady-state standing versus sitting comfortably. Results 69% of subjects showed little or no increase (<5%) in EE during standing compared to sitting (energy savers). Furthermore, the proportion of energy savers did not significantly differ between ethnic groups, despite ethnic differences in anthropometry; with body weight as the primary predictor of the energy cost of standing maintenance (r2 = 0.30, p = 0.001). Conclusion Our results indicate that the majority of individuals in a multi-ethnic cohort display a postural energy-saver phenotype. The mechanisms by which the large majority of individuals appear to maintain sitting and standing postures at the same energetic cost remains to be elucidated but is of considerable importance to our understanding of the spontaneous physical activity compartment of EE and its potential as a target for weight regulation. PMID:28056094

  11. Utilizing an Energy Management System with Distributed Resources to Manage Critical Loads and Reduce Energy Costs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-01

    Systems with Electric Power Systems,” IEEE std 1547.4–2011, IEEE , 2011. [3] Department of the Navy, “Department of the Navy’s Energy Program for...Providing Improved Power Quality in Microgrids,” IEEE Industry Applications Magazine , pp. 34–43, September– October 2014. [27] A. Julian, N. Peck...and G. Oriti, “ Power electronics enabled energy management systems,” in Proceedings of IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference, Long Beach, CA

  12. Some Simple Arguments about Cost Externalization and its Relevance to the Price of Fusion Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Budny, R.; Winfree, R.

    1999-09-27

    The primary goal of fusion energy research is to develop a source of energy that is less harmful to the environment than are the present sources. A concern often expressed by critics of fusion research is that fusion energy will never be economically competitive with fossil fuels, which in 1997 provided 75% of the world's energy. And in fact, studies of projected fusion electricity generation generally project fusion costs to be higher than those of conventional methods. Yet it is widely agreed that the environmental costs of fossil fuel use are high. Because these costs aren't included in the market price, and furthermore because many governments subsidize fossil fuel production, fossil fuels seem less expensive than they really are. Here we review some simple arguments about cost externalization which provide a useful background for discussion of energy prices. The collectively self-destructive behavior that is the root of many environmental problems, including fossil fuel use, was termed ''the tragedy of the commons'' by the biologist G. Hardin. Hardin's metaphor is that of a grazing commons that is open to all. Each herdsman, in deciding whether to add a cow to his herd, compares the benefit of doing so, which accrues to him alone, to the cost, which is shared by all the herdsmen using the commons, and therefore adds his cow. In this way individually rational behavior leads to the collective destruction of the shared resource. As Hardin pointed out, pollution is one kind of tragedy of the commons. CO{sub 2} emissions and global warming are in this sense classic tragedies.

  13. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  14. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  15. Blue Heron Paper Company: Oregon Mill Uses Model-Based Energy Assessment to Identify Energy and Cost Savings Opportunities (Revision)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-04-01

    Blue Heron Paper Company conducted a model-based energy assessment (MEA) to determine how to reduce effluent flow and heat load, minimize fresh water, and reduce process energy use at the company's Oregon City, Oregon, paper mill. Assessment staff recommended 15 projects, 7 of which the company considered. These projects would save an estimated 608,161 million British thermal units per year in natural gas and 990 kilowatt hours per year in electricity. Corresponding annual cost savings would be about $2.9 million per year. Furthermore, by reducing fuel requirements for the plant steam system, Blue Heron would also reduce stack gas emissions.

  16. Reducing Idle Power Consumption in Office Spaces Saves U.S. Navy in Energy Costs (Fact Sheet)

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2014-04-01

    As part of a two-year project to demonstrate energy efficiency measures, renewable energy generation, and energy systems integration, the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) has identified advanced plug load controls as a promising technology for reducing energy use and related costs in the U.S. Navy's Naval Facilities Engineering Command (NAVFAC) office spaces.

  17. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications.

  18. Cost and energy consumption estimates for the aluminum-air battery anode fuel cycle

    SciTech Connect

    Humphreys, K.K.; Brown, D.R.

    1990-01-01

    At the request of DOE's Office of Energy Storage and Distribution (OESD), Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) conducted a study to generate estimates of the energy use and costs associated with the aluminum anode fuel cycle of the aluminum-air (Al-air) battery. The results of this analysis indicate that the cost and energy consumption characteristics of the mechanically rechargeable Al-air battery system are not as attractive as some other electrically rechargeable electric vehicle battery systems being developed by OESD. However, there are distinct advantages to mechanically rechargeable batteries, which may make the Al-air battery (or other mechanically rechargeable batteries) attractive for other uses, such as stand-alone applications. Fuel cells, such as the proton exchange membrane (PEM), and advanced secondary batteries may be better suited to electric vehicle applications. 26 refs., 3 figs., 25 tabs.

  19. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of$6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities.

  20. A decision model for cost effective design of biomass based green energy supply chains.

    PubMed

    Yılmaz Balaman, Şebnem; Selim, Hasan

    2015-09-01

    The core driver of this study is to deal with the design of anaerobic digestion based biomass to energy supply chains in a cost effective manner. In this concern, a decision model is developed. The model is based on fuzzy multi objective decision making in order to simultaneously optimize multiple economic objectives and tackle the inherent uncertainties in the parameters and decision makers' aspiration levels for the goals. The viability of the decision model is explored with computational experiments on a real-world biomass to energy supply chain and further analyses are performed to observe the effects of different conditions. To this aim, scenario analyses are conducted to investigate the effects of energy crop utilization and operational costs on supply chain structure and performance measures.

  1. Heating Water with Solar Energy Costs Less at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution

    SciTech Connect

    2004-09-01

    A large solar thermal system installed at the Phoenix Federal Correctional Institution (FCI) in 1998 heats water for the prison and costs less than buying electricity to heat that water. This renewable energy system provides 70% of the facility's annual hot water needs. The Federal Bureau of Prisons did not incur the up-front cost of this system because it was financed through an Energy Savings Performance Contract (ESPC). The ESPC payments are 10% less than the energy savings so that the prison saves an average of $6,700 per year, providing an immediate payback. The solar hot water system produces up to 50,000 gallons of hot water daily, enough to meet the needs of 1,250 inmates and staff who use the kitchen, shower, and laundry facilities. This publication details specifications of the parabolic trough solar system and highlights 5 years of measured performance data.

  2. Schlieren Visualization of the Energy Addition by Multi Laser Pulse in Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-04-28

    The experimental results of the energy addition by multi laser pulse in Mach 7 hypersonic flow are presented. Two high power pulsed CO{sub 2} TEA lasers (TEA1 5.5 J, TEA2 3.9 J) were assembled sharing the same optical cavity to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The lasers can be triggered with a selectable time delay and in the present report the results obtained with delay between 30 {mu}s and 80 {mu}s are shown. The schlieren technique associated with a high speed camera was used to accomplish the influence of the energy addition in the mitigation of the shock wave formed on the model surface by the hypersonic flow. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to obtain the time history of the impact pressure at stagnation point of the model and the pressure reduction could be measured. The total recovery of the shock wave between pulses as well as the prolonged effect of the mitigation without recovery was observed by changing the delay.

  3. IEA solar: Working toward greater cost-effectiveness, report of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling Programme

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Blum, S.

    1986-02-01

    This is the 1985 Annual Report of the International Energy Agency Solar Heating and Cooling (SHC) Program. The format of the report has been changed substantially from that of previous years. In addition, the report has been given a special theme: Working Toward Greater Cost-Effectiveness. Section 2 of this report, the special theme chapter, discusses the contributions of the cooperative activities to achieving more cost-effective solar heating and cooling systems. A report on the progress and accomplishments during 1985 of the current tasks is found in Section 3. Section 4, Appendix, contains a description of each of the tasks as background information for those unfamiliar with all or parts of the program. Finally, the Appendix also contains information on IEA SHC reports, meetings, Executive Committee Members and task technical participants.

  4. Cost and energy demand of producing nickel manganese cobalt cathode material for lithium ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahmed, Shabbir; Nelson, Paul A.; Gallagher, Kevin G.; Susarla, Naresh; Dees, Dennis W.

    2017-02-01

    The price of the cathode active materials in lithium ion batteries is a key cost driver and thus significantly impacts consumer adoption of devices that utilize large energy storage contents (e.g. electric vehicles). A process model has been developed and used to study the production process of a common lithium-ion cathode material, lithiated nickel manganese cobalt oxide, using the co-precipitation method. The process was simulated for a plant producing 6500 kg day-1. The results indicate that the process will consume approximately 4 kWh kgNMC-1 of energy, 15 L kgNMC-1 of process water, and cost 23 to produce a kg of Li-NMC333. The calculations were extended to compare the production cost using two co-precipitation reactions (with Na2CO3 and NaOH), and similar cathode active materials such as lithium manganese oxide and lithium nickel cobalt aluminum oxide. A combination of cost saving opportunities show the possibility to reduce the cost of the cathode material by 19%.

  5. A system-level cost-of-energy wind farm layout optimization with landowner modeling

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, Le; MacDonald, Erin

    2013-10-01

    This work applies an enhanced levelized wind farm cost model, including landowner remittance fees, to determine optimal turbine placements under three landowner participation scenarios and two land-plot shapes. Instead of assuming a continuous piece of land is available for the wind farm construction, as in most layout optimizations, the problem formulation represents landowner participation scenarios as a binary string variable, along with the number of turbines. The cost parameters and model are a combination of models from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory, and Windustiy. The system-level cost-of-energy (COE) optimization model is also tested under two land-plot shapes: equally-sized square land plots and unequal rectangle land plots. The optimal COEs results are compared to actual COE data and found to be realistic. The results show that landowner remittances account for approximately 10% of farm operating costs across all cases. Irregular land-plot shapes are easily handled by the model. We find that larger land plots do not necessarily receive higher remittance fees. The model can help site developers identify the most crucial land plots for project success and the optimal positions of turbines, with realistic estimates of costs and profitability. (C) 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Risks and psychic costs of alternative energy sources for generating electricity

    SciTech Connect

    Spangler, M.B.

    1981-01-01

    Divisive personal issues will continue to impede the formulation of a coherent national energy policy until we come to grips with the disagreements and anxieties behind the issues. Variations in individual anxiety profiles and limited knowledge are the major sources of conflict. A structured approach for analyzing psychic costs in the risk-cost-benefit analyses of energy options focuses on the electric-utility industry. Coupling psychic costs with economic costs requires an understanding of how social values interact to produce either risk acceptance or risk rejection. A review of the literature shows that people experiencing a continuous anxiety state may come to value the focus of their fear as a policy issue more than on loss of life. Public reaction after the Three Mile Island accident illustrates this condition. Personal bias in risk perception is variable partly because of differences in information. Information and personal values, however, can be mutually incompatible and lead to psychic conflicts. Proponents of soft energy technology, for example, are criticized for their lack of information about the associated risks and not credited for the psychic benefits of their goals. 58 references. (DCK)

  7. Energy cost based design optimization method for medium temperature CPC collectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Horta, Pedro; Osório, Tiago; Collares-Pereira, Manuel

    2016-05-01

    CPC collectors, approaching the ideal concentration limits established by non-imaging optics, can be designed to have such acceptance angles enabling fully stationary designs, useful for applications in the low temperature range (T < 100°C). Their use in the medium temperature range (100°C < T < 250°C) typically requires higher concentration factors in turn requiring seasonal tracking strategies. Considering the CPC design options in terms of effective concentration factor, truncation, concentrator height, mirror perimeter, seasonal tracking, trough spacing, etc., an energy cost function based design optimization method is presented in this article. Accounting for the impact of the design on its optical (optical efficiency, Incidence Angle Modifier, diffuse acceptance) and thermal performances (dependent on the concentration factor), the optimization function integrates design (e.g. mirror area, frame length, trough spacing/shading), concept (e.g. rotating/stationary components, materials) and operation (e.g. O&M, tilt shifts and tracking strategy) costs into a collector specific energy cost function, in €/(kWh.m2). The use of such function stands for a location and operating temperature dependent design optimization procedure, aiming at the lowest solar energy cost. Illustrating this approach, optimization results will be presented for a (tubular) evacuated absorber CPC design operating in Morocco.

  8. Cost effectiveness of the 1993 model energy code in New Jersey

    SciTech Connect

    Lucas, R.G.

    1995-09-01

    This is an analysis of cost effectiveness the Council of American Building Officials` 1993 Model Energy Code (MEC) building thermal-envelope requirements for single-family houses and multifamily housing units in New Jersey. Goal was to compare the cost effectiveness of the 1993 MEC to the alternate allowed in the 1993 Building Officials & Code Administrators (BOCA) National Energy Conservation Code -- American Society of Heating, Refrigerating, and Air-Conditioning Engineers (ASHRAE) Standard 90A-1980 -- based on a comparison of the costs and benefits associated with complying with each. This comparison was performed for Camden, New Brunswick; Somerville, and Sparta. The analysis was done for two different scenarios: a ``move-up`` home buyer purchasing a single-family house and a ``first-time`` financially limited home buyer purchasing a multifamily unit. For the single-family home buyer, compliance with the 1993 MEC was estimated to increase first costs by $1028 to $1564, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $206 to $313 (at 20% down). The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for houses built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was from 1 to 5 years. The home buyer who paid 20% down had recovered increases in down payments and mortgage payments in energy cost savings by the end of the fifth year or sooner and thereafter will save more money each year. For the multifamily unit home buyer first costs were estimated to increase by $121 to $223, resulting in an incremental down payment increase of $12 to $22 (at 10% down). The time when the homeowner realizes net cash savings (net positive cash flow) for houses built in accordance with the 1993 MEC was 1 to 3 years.

  9. Flying at no mechanical energy cost: disclosing the secret of wandering albatrosses.

    PubMed

    Sachs, Gottfried; Traugott, Johannes; Nesterova, Anna P; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Kümmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang; Vyssotski, Alexei L; Bonadonna, Francesco

    2012-01-01

    Albatrosses do something that no other birds are able to do: fly thousands of kilometres at no mechanical cost. This is possible because they use dynamic soaring, a flight mode that enables them to gain the energy required for flying from wind. Until now, the physical mechanisms of the energy gain in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the bird were mostly unknown. Here we show that the energy gain is achieved by a dynamic flight manoeuvre consisting of a continually repeated up-down curve with optimal adjustment to the wind. We determined the energy obtained from the wind by analysing the measured trajectories of free flying birds using a new GPS-signal tracking method yielding a high precision. Our results reveal an evolutionary adaptation to an extreme environment, and may support recent biologically inspired research on robotic aircraft that might utilize albatrosses' flight technique for engineless propulsion.

  10. Flying at No Mechanical Energy Cost: Disclosing the Secret of Wandering Albatrosses

    PubMed Central

    Sachs, Gottfried; Traugott, Johannes; Nesterova, Anna P.; Dell'Omo, Giacomo; Kümmeth, Franz; Heidrich, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    Albatrosses do something that no other birds are able to do: fly thousands of kilometres at no mechanical cost. This is possible because they use dynamic soaring, a flight mode that enables them to gain the energy required for flying from wind. Until now, the physical mechanisms of the energy gain in terms of the energy transfer from the wind to the bird were mostly unknown. Here we show that the energy gain is achieved by a dynamic flight manoeuvre consisting of a continually repeated up-down curve with optimal adjustment to the wind. We determined the energy obtained from the wind by analysing the measured trajectories of free flying birds using a new GPS-signal tracking method yielding a high precision. Our results reveal an evolutionary adaptation to an extreme environment, and may support recent biologically inspired research on robotic aircraft that might utilize albatrosses' flight technique for engineless propulsion. PMID:22957014

  11. Energy and cost saving results for advanced technology systems from the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study (CTAS)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sagerman, G. D.; Barna, G. J.; Burns, R. K.

    1979-01-01

    An overview of the organization and methodology of the Cogeneration Technology Alternatives Study is presented. The objectives of the study were to identify the most attractive advanced energy conversion systems for industrial cogeneration applications in the future and to assess the advantages of advanced technology systems compared to those systems commercially available today. Advanced systems studied include steam turbines, open and closed cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, diesel engines, Stirling engines, phosphoric acid and molten carbonate fuel cells and thermionics. Steam turbines, open cycle gas turbines, combined cycles, and diesel engines were also analyzed in versions typical of today's commercially available technology to provide a base against which to measure the advanced systems. Cogeneration applications in the major energy consuming manufacturing industries were considered. Results of the study in terms of plant level energy savings, annual energy cost savings and economic attractiveness are presented for the various energy conversion systems considered.

  12. A Feasibility Analysis Methodology for Decentralized Wastewater Systems - Energy-Efficiency and Cost.

    PubMed

    Naik, Kartiki S; Stenstrom, Michael K

    2016-03-01

    Centralized wastewater treatment, widely practiced in developed areas, involves transporting wastewater from large urban areas to a large capacity plant using a single network of sewers, whereas decentralization is the concept of wastewater collection, treatment and reuse at or near its point of generation. Smaller decentralized plants can achieve extensive reclamation and wastewater management with energy-efficient reclaimed water pumping, modularized expansion and lower capital investment. We devised a methodology to preliminarily assess these alternatives using local constraints and conducted a feasibility analysis for each option. It addressed various scenarios using the pump-back energy consumption, sewer and treatment plant construction and capacity expansion cost. We demonstrated this methodology by applying it to the Hollywood vicinity (California). In this study, the decentralized configuration was more economical and energy-efficient than the centralized system. The pump-back energy consumption was about 50% of the aeration energy consumption for the centralized option.

  13. Feasibility of Achieving a Zero-Net-Energy, Zero-Net-Cost Homes

    SciTech Connect

    Al-Beaini, S.; Borgeson, S.; Coffery, B.; Gregory, D.; Konis, K.; Scown, C.; Simjanovic, J.; Stanley, J.; Strogen, B.; Walker, I.

    2009-09-01

    A green building competition, to be known as the Energy Free Home Challenge (EFHC), is scheduled to be opened to teams around the world in 2010. This competition will encourage both design innovation and cost reduction, by requiring design entries to meet 'zero net energy' and 'zero net cost' criteria. For the purposes of this competition, a 'zero net energy' home produces at least as much energy as it purchases over the course of a year, regardless of the time and form of the energy (e.g., electricity, heat, or fuel) consumed or produced. A 'zero net cost' home is no more expensive than a traditional home of comparable size and comfort, when evaluated over the course of a 30-year mortgage. In other words, the 'green premium' must have a payback period less than 30 years, based on the value of energy saved. The overarching goal of the competition is to develop affordable, high-performance homes that can be mass-produced at a large scale, and are able to meet occupant needs in harsh climates (as can be found where the competition will be held in Illinois). This report outlines the goals of the competition, and gauges their feasibility using both modeling results and published data. To ensure that the established rules are challenging, yet reasonable, this report seeks to refine the competition goals after exploring their feasibility through case studies, cost projections, and energy modeling. The authors of this report conducted a survey of the most progressive home energy-efficiency practices expected to appear in competition design submittals. In Appendix A, a summary can be found of recent projects throughout the United States, Canada, Germany, Switzerland, Sweden and Japan, where some of the most progressive technologies have been implemented. As with past energy efficient home projects, EFHC competitors will incorporate a multitude of energy efficiency measures into their home designs. The authors believe that the cost of electricity generated by home

  14. Control of Metal/graphite Interfacial Energy Through the Interfacial Segregation of Alloying Additions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Utpal

    Equilibrium segregation of Ni to the interface of a solid Pb/graphite and Au/graphite was studied using a solid state wetting approach and the crater edge profiling technique on a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). All experiments were performed under ultra high vacuum (UHV) to reduce the effects due to surface adsorption of impurities. For the Pb/graphite system, increasing amounts of Ni ranging from 0 to 0.2wt% Ni added to Pb were found to systematically lower the contact angle for samples equilibrated at 285 ^circC. No significant surface segregation of Ni was observed at the Pb surface. The reduction of the contact angle was therefore attributed entirely to the lowering of the interfacial energy by interfacial adsorption of Ni. The interfacial energy and interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of bulk Ni content. The presence of excess Ni at the interface was also determined using the crater edge profiling technique on the SAM for various bulk concentrations of Ni in Pb. The temperature dependence of the segregation process was also studied using the solid state wetting approach. The contact angle of Pb(Ni)/graphite was found to vary as a function of temperature for a given Ni content. No temperature dependence was observed in the case of pure Pb/graphite. The change in interfacial energy and the interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of temperature from thermodynamic considerations, and from that the enthalpy and the entropy of interfacial segregation were determined. For the Au/graphite system at 850^circC, addition of 15at%Ni to Au caused a reduction of contact angle by 7.8^circ with accompanying reduction in interfacial energy. Ni was found to segregate to both the free Au surface as well as to the Au/graphite interface. In addition C was also found to segregate to the Au surface thus lowering the surface energy. The modified surface energy was considered in the determination of the interfacial energy and interfacial Ni

  15. Daily Energy Expenditure and Its Relation to Health Care Costs in Patients Undergoing Ambulatory Electrocardiographic Monitoring.

    PubMed

    George, Jason; Abdulla, Rami Khoury; Yeow, Raymond; Aggarwal, Anshul; Boura, Judith; Wegner, James; Franklin, Barry A

    2017-02-15

    Our increasingly sedentary lifestyle is associated with a heightened risk of obesity, diabetes, heart disease, and cardiovascular mortality. Using the recently developed heart rate index formula in 843 patients (mean ± SD age 62.3 ± 15.7 years) who underwent 24-hour ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG) monitoring, we estimated average and peak daily energy expenditure, expressed as metabolic equivalents (METs), and related these data to subsequent hospital encounters and health care costs. In this cohort, estimated daily average and peak METs were 1.7 ± 0.7 and 5.5 ± 2.1, respectively. Patients who achieved daily bouts of peak energy expenditure ≥5 METs had fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.006) and median health care costs that were nearly 50% lower (p <0.001) than their counterparts who attained <5 METs. In patients whose body mass index was ≥30 kg/m(2), there were significant differences in health care costs depending on whether they achieved <5 or ≥5 METs estimated by ambulatory ECG monitoring (p = 0.005). Interestingly, patients who achieved ≥5 METs had lower and no significant difference in their health care costs, regardless of their body mass index (p = 0.46). Patients with previous percutaneous coronary intervention who achieved ≥5 METs had lower health care costs (p = 0.044) and fewer hospital encounters (p = 0.004) than those who achieved <5 METs. In conclusion, average and peak daily energy expenditures estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring may provide useful information regarding health care utilization in patients with and without previous percutaneous coronary intervention, irrespective of body habitus. Our findings are the first to link lower intensities of peak daily energy expenditure, estimated from ambulatory ECG monitoring, with increased health care utilization.

  16. Projections of costs, financing, and additional resource requirements for low- and lower middle-income country immunization programs over the decade, 2011-2020.

    PubMed

    Gandhi, Gian; Lydon, Patrick; Cornejo, Santiago; Brenzel, Logan; Wrobel, Sandra; Chang, Hugh

    2013-04-18

    The Decade of Vaccines Global Vaccine Action Plan has outlined a set of ambitious goals to broaden the impact and reach of immunization across the globe. A projections exercise has been undertaken to assess the costs, financing availability, and additional resource requirements to achieve these goals through the delivery of vaccines against 19 diseases across 94 low- and middle-income countries for the period 2011-2020. The exercise draws upon data from existing published and unpublished global forecasts, country immunization plans, and costing studies. A combination of an ingredients-based approach and use of approximations based on past spending has been used to generate vaccine and non-vaccine delivery costs for routine programs, as well as supplementary immunization activities (SIAs). Financing projections focused primarily on support from governments and the GAVI Alliance. Cost and financing projections are presented in constant 2010 US dollars (US$). Cumulative total costs for the decade are projected to be US$57.5 billion, with 85% for routine programs and the remaining 15% for SIAs. Delivery costs account for 54% of total cumulative costs, and vaccine costs make up the remainder. A conservative estimate of total financing for immunization programs is projected to be $34.3 billion over the decade, with country governments financing 65%. These projections imply a cumulative funding gap of $23.2 billion. About 57% of the total resources required to close the funding gap are needed just to maintain existing programs and scale up other currently available vaccines (i.e., before adding in the additional costs of vaccines still in development). Efforts to mobilize additional resources, manage program costs, and establish mutual accountability between countries and development partners will all be necessary to ensure the goals of the Decade of Vaccines are achieved. Establishing or building on existing mechanisms to more comprehensively track resources and

  17. Cost and size estimates for an electrochemical bulk energy storage concept

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warshay, M.; Wright, L. O.

    1975-01-01

    Preliminary capital cost and size estimates were made for a titanium trichloride, titanium tetrachloride, ferric chloride, ferrous chloride redox-flow-cell electric power system. On the basis of these preliminary estimates plus other important considerations, this electrochemical system emerged as having great promise as a bulk energy storage system for power load leveling. The size of this system is less than two per cent of that of a comparable pumped hydroelectric plant. The estimated capital cost of a 10 MW, 60- and 85-MWh redox-flow system compared well with that of competing systems.

  18. Engineering evaluation of the proposed boiler addition for Minnegasco Energy Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Abendroth, H.R.; Poon, A.

    1981-03-16

    The results are reported of a technical evaluation of alternate fuels for the proposed oil and natural gas fired No. 3 boiler at the Minnegasco Energy Center (MEC) located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion for their use in considering an alternate fuel exemption petition submitted by MEC. The fuels considered for the proposed boiler include oil, natural gas, bituminous coal, petroleum coke/coal mixture, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel fired. The purchase of steam from the Northern States Power Company (NSPCo) was also considered as an alternative to construction of another boiler at MEC. Evaluation of each fuel included review of the overall plant design, estimates of capital and O and M costs, salvage value, useful life, and quantities of solid waste produced. The MEC supplies steam and chilled water to the downtown Minneapolis area for building heating and cooling using two presently owned and operated 200,000 lb/h oil/natural gas fired boilers. If the proposed boiler is permitted to burn oil and natural gas, it will be identical in design to the existing boilers. The evaluation showed that the use of oil, natural gas, coal, petroleum coke-coal mixtures, coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel firing appear technically feasible as fuel choices for the proposed boiler. The purchase of steam from the NSPCo appears feasible as an alternative to the installation of a new boiler at the MEC. Offsite storage space would be required for receiving and storing coal, petroleum coke, or RDF Offsite fuel preparation facilities are required for preparing petroleum coke-coal mixtures and RDF.

  19. Reducing energy costs at state agencies and institutions in Texas through the Governor's energy management center

    SciTech Connect

    White, J.A.

    1989-01-01

    The one year internship required for partial fulfillment of the Doctor of Engineering Degree was completed at the Governor's Energy Management Center in Austin, Texas. The intern worked for the State Agencies Department of the Energy Management Center. The intern was involved in a variety of projects, but the primary projects requiring the greatest time were the involvement with the design reviews for energy efficiency of new prisons being constructed in Texas, conducting energy management audits at 18 major state universities, and the technical and administrative assistance to the State Cogeneration Council. Other project involvement included managing the preliminary engineering design of the cogeneration facility at Austin State Hospital, responsibility for applying for a $1.4 million dollar crude oil refund on the behalf of all state agencies in Texas, and assisting in the planning and coordination of the $48 million Revolving Loan Program for the state of Texas. The internship taught many things about management and communications. The experience also provided a better understanding of how the state and federal government operate. The greatest contribution of the internship experience was the improvement of the intern's written and oral communication skills.

  20. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    DOE PAGES

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; ...

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigatedmore » for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.« less

  1. Levelized cost of energy (LCOE) metric to characterize solar absorber coatings for the CSP industry

    SciTech Connect

    Boubault, Antoine; Ho, Clifford K.; Hall, Aaron; Lambert, Timothy N.; Ambrosini, Andrea

    2015-07-08

    The contribution of each component of a power generation plant to the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) can be estimated and used to increase the power output while reducing system operation and maintenance costs. The LCOE is used in order to quantify solar receiver coating influence on the LCOE of solar power towers. Two new parameters are introduced: the absolute levelized cost of coating (LCOC) and the LCOC efficiency. Depending on the material properties, aging, costs, and temperature, the absolute LCOC enables quantifying the cost-effectiveness of absorber coatings, as well as finding optimal operating conditions. The absolute LCOC is investigated for different hypothetic coatings and is demonstrated on Pyromark 2500 paint. Results show that absorber coatings yield lower LCOE values in most cases, even at significant costs. Optimal reapplication intervals range from one to five years. At receiver temperatures greater than 700 °C, non-selective coatings are not always worthwhile while durable selective coatings consistently reduce the LCOE—up to 12% of the value obtained for an uncoated receiver. Moreover the absolute LCOC is a powerful tool to characterize and compare different coatings, not only considering their initial efficiencies but also including their durability.

  2. New technologies for solar energy silicon - Cost analysis of dichlorosilane process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yaws, C. L.; Li, K.-Y.; Chu, T. C. T.; Fang, C. S.; Lutwack, R.; Briglio, A., Jr.

    1981-01-01

    A reduction in the cost of silicon for solar cells is an important objective in a project concerned with the reduction of the cost of electricity produced with solar cells. The cost goal for the silicon material is about $14 per kg (1980 dollars). The process which is currently employed to produce semiconductor grade silicon from trichlorosilane is not suited for meeting this cost goal. Other processes for producing silicon are, therefore, being investigated. A description is presented of results obtained for the DCS process which involves the production of dichlorosilane as a silicon source material for solar energy silicon. Major benefits of dichlorosilane as a silicon source material include faster reaction rates for chemical vapor deposition of silicon. The DCS process involves the reaction 2SiHCl3 yields reversibly SiH2Cl2 + SiCl4. The results of a cost analysis indicate a total product cost without profit of $1.29/kg of SiH2Cl2.

  3. Low-Cost Bio-Based Phase Change Materials as an Energy Storage Medium in Building Envelopes

    SciTech Connect

    Biswas, Kaushik; Abhari, Mr. Ramin; Shukla, Dr. Nitin; Kosny, Dr. Jan

    2015-01-01

    A promising approach to increasing the energy efficiency of buildings is the implementation of phase change material (PCM) in building envelope systems. Several studies have reported the energy saving potential of PCM in building envelopes. However, wide application of PCMs in building applications has been inhibited, in part, by their high cost. This article describes a novel paraffin product made of naturally occurring fatty acids/glycerides trapped into high density polyethylene (HDPE) pellets and its performance in a building envelope application, with the ultimate goal of commercializing a low-cost PCM platform. The low-cost PCM pellets were mixed with cellulose insulation, installed in external walls and field-tested under natural weatherization conditions for a period of several months. In addition, several PCM samples and PCM-cellulose samples were prepared under controlled conditions for laboratory-scale testing. The laboratory tests were performed to determine the phase change properties of PCM-enhanced cellulose insulation both at microscopic and macroscopic levels. This article presents the data and analysis from the exterior test wall and the laboratory-scale test data. PCM behavior is influenced by the weather and interior conditions, PCM phase change temperature and PCM distribution within the wall cavity, among other factors. Under optimal conditions, the field data showed up to 20% reduction in weekly heat transfer through an external wall due to the PCM compared to cellulose-only insulation.

  4. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-01-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  5. Energy cost of NaCl transport in isolated gills of cutthroat trout.

    PubMed

    Morgan, J D; Iwama, G K

    1999-09-01

    Few studies have made direct estimates of the energy required for ion transport in gills of freshwater (FW) and seawater (SW) fish. Oxygen consumption was measured in excised gill tissue of FW-adapted cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarki clarki) to estimate the energy cost of NaCl transport in that osmoregulatory organ. Ouabain (0.5 mM) and bafilomycin A1 (1 microM) were used to inhibit the Na+-K+ and H+ pumps, respectively. Both inhibitors significantly decreased gill tissue oxygen consumption, accounting for 37% of total tissue respiration. On a whole mass basis, the cost of NaCl uptake in the FW trout gill was estimated to be 1.8% of whole animal oxygen uptake. An isolated, saline-perfused gill arch preparation was also used to compare gill energetics in FW- and SW-adapted trout. The oxygen consumption of FW gills was significantly (33%) higher than SW gills. On a whole animal basis, total gill oxygen consumption in FW and SW trout accounted for 3.9 and 2.4% of resting metabolic rate, respectively. The results of both experiments suggest that the energy cost of NaCl transport in FW and SW trout gills represents a relatively small (<4%) portion of the animal's total energy budget.

  6. Performance and cost of energy transport and storage systems for dish applications using reversible chemical reactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schredder, J. M.; Fujita, T.

    1984-10-01

    The use of reversible chemical reactions for energy transport and storage for parabolic dish networks is considered. Performance and cost characteristics are estimated for systems using three reactions (sulfur-trioxide decomposition, steam reforming of methane, and carbon-dioxide reforming of methane). Systems are considered with and without storage, and in several energy-delivery configurations that give different profiles of energy delivered versus temperature. Cost estimates are derived assuming the use of metal components and of advanced ceramics. (The latter reduces the costs by three- to five-fold). The process that led to the selection of the three reactions is described, and the effects of varying temperatures, pressures, and heat exchanger sizes are addressed. A state-of-the-art survey was performed as part of this study. As a result of this survey, it appears that formidable technical risks exist for any attempt to implement the systems analyzed in this study, especially in the area of reactor design and performance. The behavior of all components and complete systems under thermal energy transients is very poorly understood. This study indicates that thermochemical storage systems that store reactants as liquids have efficiencies below 60%, which is in agreement with the findings of earlier investigators.

  7. A low-cost iron-cadmium redox flow battery for large-scale energy storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Y. K.; Zhao, T. S.; Zhou, X. L.; Wei, L.; Jiang, H. R.

    2016-10-01

    The redox flow battery (RFB) is one of the most promising large-scale energy storage technologies that offer a potential solution to the intermittency of renewable sources such as wind and solar. The prerequisite for widespread utilization of RFBs is low capital cost. In this work, an iron-cadmium redox flow battery (Fe/Cd RFB) with a premixed iron and cadmium solution is developed and tested. It is demonstrated that the coulombic efficiency and energy efficiency of the Fe/Cd RFB reach 98.7% and 80.2% at 120 mA cm-2, respectively. The Fe/Cd RFB exhibits stable efficiencies with capacity retention of 99.87% per cycle during the cycle test. Moreover, the Fe/Cd RFB is estimated to have a low capital cost of 108 kWh-1 for 8-h energy storage. Intrinsically low-cost active materials, high cell performance and excellent capacity retention equip the Fe/Cd RFB to be a promising solution for large-scale energy storage systems.

  8. The energy cost of action potential propagation in dopamine neurons: clues to susceptibility in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    Pissadaki, Eleftheria K.; Bolam, J. Paul

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are uniquely sensitive to degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its models. Although a variety of molecular characteristics have been proposed to underlie this sensitivity, one possible contributory factor is their massive, unmyelinated axonal arbor that is orders of magnitude larger than other neuronal types. We suggest that this puts them under such a high energy demand that any stressor that perturbs energy production leads to energy demand exceeding supply and subsequent cell death. One prediction of this hypothesis is that those dopamine neurons that are selectively vulnerable in PD will have a higher energy cost than those that are less vulnerable. We show here, through the use of a biology-based computational model of the axons of individual dopamine neurons, that the energy cost of axon potential propagation and recovery of the membrane potential increases with the size and complexity of the axonal arbor according to a power law. Thus SNc dopamine neurons, particularly in humans, whose axons we estimate to give rise to more than 1 million synapses and have a total length exceeding 4 m, are at a distinct disadvantage with respect to energy balance which may be a factor in their selective vulnerability in PD. PMID:23515615

  9. The energy cost of action potential propagation in dopamine neurons: clues to susceptibility in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Pissadaki, Eleftheria K; Bolam, J Paul

    2013-01-01

    Dopamine neurons of the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) are uniquely sensitive to degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and its models. Although a variety of molecular characteristics have been proposed to underlie this sensitivity, one possible contributory factor is their massive, unmyelinated axonal arbor that is orders of magnitude larger than other neuronal types. We suggest that this puts them under such a high energy demand that any stressor that perturbs energy production leads to energy demand exceeding supply and subsequent cell death. One prediction of this hypothesis is that those dopamine neurons that are selectively vulnerable in PD will have a higher energy cost than those that are less vulnerable. We show here, through the use of a biology-based computational model of the axons of individual dopamine neurons, that the energy cost of axon potential propagation and recovery of the membrane potential increases with the size and complexity of the axonal arbor according to a power law. Thus SNc dopamine neurons, particularly in humans, whose axons we estimate to give rise to more than 1 million synapses and have a total length exceeding 4 m, are at a distinct disadvantage with respect to energy balance which may be a factor in their selective vulnerability in PD.

  10. Alternative strategies for energy recovery from municipal solid waste Part B: Emission and cost estimates.

    PubMed

    Consonni, S; Giugliano, M; Grosso, M

    2005-01-01

    This two-part paper assesses four strategies for energy recovery from Municipal Solid Waste (MSW) by dedicated Waste-To-Energy (WTE) plants. In strategy 1, the residue of Material Recovery (MR) is fed directly to a grate combustor, while in strategy 2 the grate combustor comes downstream of light mechanical treatment. In strategies 3 and 4, the MR residue is converted into Refuse Derived Fuel (RDF), in a fluidized cumbuster bed. The results of Part A, devoted to mass and energy balances, clearly show that pre-treating the MR residue in order to increase the heating value of the feedstock fed to the WTE plant has marginal effects on the energy efficiency of the WTE plant. When considering the efficiency of the whole strategy of waste management, the energy balances show that the more thorough the pre-treatment, the smaller the amount of energy recovered per unit of MR residue. Starting from the heat/mass balances illustrated in Part A, Part B examines the environmental impacts and economics of the various strategies by means of a Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Results show that treating the MR residues ahead of the WTE plant does not provide environmental or economic benefits. RDF production worsens almost all impact indicators because it reduces net electricity production and thus the displacement of power plant emissions; it also increases costs, because the benefits of improving the quality of the material fed to the WTE plant do not compensate the cost of such improvement.

  11. Material and energy recovery in integrated waste management systems: a life-cycle costing approach.

    PubMed

    Massarutto, Antonio; de Carli, Alessandro; Graffi, Matteo

    2011-01-01

    A critical assumption of studies assessing comparatively waste management options concerns the constant average cost for selective collection regardless the source separation level (SSL) reached, and the neglect of the mass constraint. The present study compares alternative waste management scenarios through the development of a desktop model that tries to remove the above assumption. Several alternative scenarios based on different combinations of energy and materials recovery are applied to two imaginary areas modelled in order to represent a typical Northern Italian setting. External costs and benefits implied by scenarios are also considered. Scenarios are compared on the base of the full cost for treating the total waste generated in the area. The model investigates the factors that influence the relative convenience of alternative scenarios.

  12. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  13. Energy balance and cost-benefit analysis of biogas production from perennial energy crops pretreated by wet oxidation.

    PubMed

    Uellendahl, H; Wang, G; Møller, H B; Jørgensen, U; Skiadas, I V; Gavala, H N; Ahring, B K

    2008-01-01

    Perennial crops need far less energy to plant, require less fertilizer and pesticides, and show a lower negative environmental impact compared with annual crops like for example corn. This makes the cultivation of perennial crops as energy crops more sustainable than the use of annual crops. The conversion into biogas in anaerobic digestion plants shows however much lower specific methane yields for the raw perennial crops like miscanthus and willow due to their lignocellulosic structure. Without pretreatment the net energy gain is therefore lower for the perennials than for corn. When applying wet oxidation to the perennial crops, however, the specific methane yield increases significantly and the ratio of energy output to input and of costs to benefit for the whole chain of biomass supply and conversion into biogas becomes higher than for corn. This will make the use of perennial crops as energy crops competitive to the use of corn and this combination will make the production of biogas from energy crops more sustainable.

  14. Evaluation of estimated energy conservation measure costs and benefits in the residential multifamily sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1982-09-01

    Supporting data for a policy review to determine how the multifamily buildings subsector is responding to market signals was sought. What role, if any, the federal government should play in encouraging conservation in multifamily buildings is discussed. The policy review seeks to develop an understanding of the current level of and trends in energy conservation activity in multifamily housing. The availability of the required data is determined and information in a form which facilitates its use by policy analysts is compiled. The results are presented in four parts. Part I provides an overview. Part II presents, in tabular form, the cost of selected retrofit items and the resulting energy and cost savings. As an aid to understanding the data in Part II, the salient assumptions underlying the data are also included in this part. Part III describes how the data in Part II were developed.

  15. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs

    PubMed Central

    Hubel, Tatjana Y.; Myatt, Julia P.; Jordan, Neil R.; Dewhirst, Oliver P.; McNutt, J. Weldon; Wilson, Alan M.

    2016-01-01

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs. PMID:27023457

  16. Systems and methods for energy cost optimization in a building system

    DOEpatents

    Turney, Robert D.; Wenzel, Michael J.

    2016-09-06

    Methods and systems to minimize energy cost in response to time-varying energy prices are presented for a variety of different pricing scenarios. A cascaded model predictive control system is disclosed comprising an inner controller and an outer controller. The inner controller controls power use using a derivative of a temperature setpoint and the outer controller controls temperature via a power setpoint or power deferral. An optimization procedure is used to minimize a cost function within a time horizon subject to temperature constraints, equality constraints, and demand charge constraints. Equality constraints are formulated using system model information and system state information whereas demand charge constraints are formulated using system state information and pricing information. A masking procedure is used to invalidate demand charge constraints for inactive pricing periods including peak, partial-peak, off-peak, critical-peak, and real-time.

  17. Energy cost and return for hunting in African wild dogs and cheetahs.

    PubMed

    Hubel, Tatjana Y; Myatt, Julia P; Jordan, Neil R; Dewhirst, Oliver P; McNutt, J Weldon; Wilson, Alan M

    2016-03-29

    African wild dogs (Lycaon pictus) are reported to hunt with energetically costly long chase distances. We used high-resolution GPS and inertial technology to record 1,119 high-speed chases of all members of a pack of six adult African wild dogs in northern Botswana. Dogs performed multiple short, high-speed, mostly unsuccessful chases to capture prey, while cheetahs (Acinonyx jubatus) undertook even shorter, higher-speed hunts. We used an energy balance model to show that the energy return from group hunting and feeding substantially outweighs the cost of multiple short chases, which indicates that African wild dogs are more energetically robust than previously believed. Comparison with cheetah illustrates the trade-off between sheer athleticism and high individual kill rate characteristic of cheetahs, and the energetic robustness of frequent opportunistic group hunting and feeding by African wild dogs.

  18. NECAP 4.1: NASA's Energy-Cost Analysis Program input manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The computer program NECAP (NASA's Energy Cost Analysis Program) is described. The program is a versatile building design and energy analysis tool which has embodied within it state of the art techniques for performing thermal load calculations and energy use predictions. With the program, comparisons of building designs and operational alternatives for new or existing buildings can be made. The major feature of the program is the response factor technique for calculating the heat transfer through the building surfaces which accounts for the building's mass. The program expands the response factor technique into a space response factor to account for internal building temperature swings; this is extremely important in determining true building loads and energy consumption when internal temperatures are allowed to swing.

  19. NWTC Aerodynamics Studies Improve Energy Capture and Lower Costs of Wind-Generated Electricity

    SciTech Connect

    2015-08-01

    Researchers at the National Wind Technology Center (NWTC) at the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) have expanded wind turbine aerodynamic research from blade and rotor aerodynamics to wind plant and atmospheric inflow effects. The energy capture from wind plants is dependent on all of these aerodynamic interactions. Research at the NWTC is crucial to understanding how wind turbines function in large, multiple-row wind plants. These conditions impact the cumulative fatigue damage of turbine structural components that ultimately effect the useful lifetime of wind turbines. This work also is essential for understanding and maximizing turbine and wind plant energy production. Both turbine lifetime and wind plant energy production are key determinants of the cost of wind-generated electricity.

  20. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.