Science.gov

Sample records for additional energy input

  1. The Additive Property of Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tsaoussis, Dimitris S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents exercises that analyze the additive property of energy. Concludes that if a body has more than one component of energy depending on the same physical quantity, the body's total energy will be the algebraic sum of the components if a linear relationship exists between the energy components and that physical quantity. (JRH)

  2. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-02-05

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  3. Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy Demonstration

    ScienceCinema

    Jackson, Roderick; Lee, Brian; Love, Lonnie; Mabe, Gavin; Keller, Martin; Curran, Scott; Chinthavali, Madhu; Green, Johney; Sawyer, Karma; Enquist, Phil

    2016-07-12

    Meet AMIE - the Additive Manufacturing Integrated Energy demonstration project. Led by Oak Ridge National Laboratory and many industry partners, the AMIE project changes the way we think about generating, storing, and using electrical power. AMIE uses an integrated energy system that shares energy between a building and a vehicle. And, utilizing advanced manufacturing and rapid innovation, it only took one year from concept to launch.

  4. Direct energy inputs to the middle atmosphere

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rosenberg, T. J.; Lanzerotti, L. J.

    1979-01-01

    As a working definition of the extent of the middle atmosphere (MA), the height range from 30 to 100 km was adopted. The neutral and ionic composition and the dynamics within this height range are, for the most part, poorly understood. From available information, the importance of various particle and photon energy sources, including their variability, for ionization of the neutral atmosphere in this height range is assessed. The following topics are discussed: (1) penetration of the MA by particle and electromagnetic energy; (2) ionization sources for the MA; (3) galactic cosmic rays; (4) solar H Ly alpha, other EUV, and X-rays; (5) magnetospheric electrons and bremsstrahlung X-rays; and (6) solar cosmic rays.

  5. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  6. 40 CFR 97.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... heat input data. 97.76 Section 97.76 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY... Monitoring and Reporting § 97.76 Additional requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of... a flow system shall also monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the...

  7. Additional Sawmill Electrical Energy Study.

    SciTech Connect

    Carroll, Hatch & Associates.

    1987-02-01

    This study was undertaken to investigate the potential for reducing use of electrical energy at lumber dry kilns by reducing fan speeds part way through the lumber drying process. It included three tasks: to quantify energy savings at a typical mill through field tests; to investigate the level of electric energy use at a representative sample of other mills and thereby to estimate the transferability of the conservation to the region; and to prepare a guidebook to present the technology to mill operators, and to allow them to estimate the economic value of adopting the technique at their facilities. This document reports on the first two tasks.

  8. Energy Inputs Uncertainty: Total Amount, Distribution and Correlation Between Different Forms of Energy

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Deng, Yue

    2014-01-01

    Describes solar energy inputs contributing to ionospheric and thermospheric weather processes, including total energy amounts, distributions and the correlation between particle precipitation and Poynting flux.

  9. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Additional requirements to provide heat... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg... monitor and report heat input rate at the unit level using the procedures set forth in part 75 of...

  10. Slow light in ruby: delaying energy beyond the input pulse

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wisniewski-Barker, Emma; Gibson, Graham; Franke-Arnold, Sonja; Shi, Zhimin; Narum, Paul; Boyd, Robert W.; Padgett, Miles J.

    2015-03-01

    The mechanism by which light is slowed through ruby has been the subject of great debate. To distinguish between the two main proposed mechanisms, we investigate the problem in the time domain by modulating a laser beam with a chopper to create a clean square wave. By exploring the trailing edge of the pulsed laser beam propagating through ruby, we can determine whether energy is delayed beyond the input pulse. The effects of a time-varying absorber alone cannot delay energy into the trailing edge of the pulse, as a time-varying absorber can only attenuate a coherent pulse. Therefore, our observation of an increase in intensity at the trailing edge of the pulse provides evidence for a complicated model of slow light in ruby that requires more than just pulse reshaping. In addition, investigating the Fourier components of the modulated square wave shows that harmonic components with different frequencies are delayed by different amounts, regardless of the intensity of the component itself. Understanding the difference in delays of the individual Fourier components of the modulated beam reveals the cause of the distortion the pulse undergoes as it propagates through the ruby.

  11. Estimation of input energy in rocket-triggered lightning

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jayakumar, Vinod; Rakov, Vladimir A.; Miki, Megumu; Uman, Martin A.; Schnetzer, George H.; Rambo, Keith J.

    2006-03-01

    Electric fields in the immediate vicinity (within 0.1 to 1.6 m) of the triggered-lightning channel were measured with Pockels sensors at the International Center for Lightning Research and Testing at Camp Blanding, Florida. These fields and the associated currents measured at the base of a 2-m strike object were used to compute the input power and energy, each per unit channel length and as a function of time, associated with return strokes in rocket-triggered lightning. In doing so, we assumed that the vertical component of the electric field at horizontal distances of 0.1 to 1.6 m from the lightning attachment point is not much different from the longitudinal electric field inside the channel (Borovsky, 1995). The estimated mean input energy over the first 50 μs or so is between 103 and 104 J/m, consistent with predictions of gas dynamic models, but one to two orders of magnitude smaller than Krider et al.'s (1968) estimate for a natural-lightning first stroke, based on the conversion of measured optical energy to total energy using energy ratios observed in laboratory long-spark experiments. The mean channel radius and resistance per unit channel length at the instance of peak power are estimated to be 0.32 cm and 7.5 Ω/m, respectively.

  12. 40 CFR 60.4176 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Additional requirements to provide heat... requirements to provide heat input data. The owner or operator of a Hg Budget unit that monitors and reports Hg mass emissions using a Hg concentration monitoring system and a flow monitoring system shall...

  13. On the rate of energy input in thermal solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Feldman, U.; Doschek, G. A.; Mckenzie, D. L.

    1984-01-01

    The rise phases of solar soft X-ray flares observed by X-ray crystal spectrometers on P78-1 are discussed in terms of the rate of change of X-ray flux as a function of time. It is shown that the flux increases exponentially over most of the rise time. The e-folding time (tau) has a cutoff at approximately 13 s. Soft X-ray flares with smaller values of tau are not observed. It is suggested that this phenomenon is due to the ability of the solar atmosphere to absorb the input energy and convert it into a typical soft X-ray flare, when the value of tau is greater than about 13 s. For energy input rates with tau greater than about 13 s, the temperature attained by the plasma is typically around 2 x 10 to the 7th K, but for values of tau less than 13 s, the gas is heated to much higher temperatures (about 10 to the 8th K), producing a certain class of hard X-ray flares.

  14. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOEpatents

    English, Jr., Ronald E.; Johnson, Steve A.

    1994-01-01

    An interface module (10) for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams (36) in the form of illumination bar (54) to the lasing zone (18) of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier (12). The preferred interface module (10) includes an optical fiber array (30) having a plurality of optical fibers (38) arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends (44) receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source (46), and their proximal ends (4) delivered into a relay structure (3). The proximal ends (42) of the optical fibers (38) are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array (36) delivered from the optical fiber array (30) is acted upon by an optical element array (34) to produce an illumination bar (54) which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window (18). The illumination bar (54) is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout.

  15. Interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules

    DOEpatents

    English, R.E. Jr.; Johnson, S.A.

    1994-10-11

    An interface module for transverse energy input to dye laser modules is provided particularly for the purpose of delivering enhancing transverse energy beams in the form of illumination bar to the lasing zone of a dye laser device, in particular to a dye laser amplifier. The preferred interface module includes an optical fiber array having a plurality of optical fibers arrayed in a co-planar fashion with their distal ends receiving coherent laser energy from an enhancing laser source, and their proximal ends delivered into a relay structure. The proximal ends of the optical fibers are arrayed so as to be coplanar and to be aimed generally at a common point. The transverse energy beam array delivered from the optical fiber array is acted upon by an optical element array to produce an illumination bar which has a cross section in the form of a elongated rectangle at the position of the lasing window. The illumination bar is selected to have substantially uniform intensity throughout. 5 figs.

  16. Microbial Communities Are Well Adapted to Disturbances in Energy Input

    PubMed Central

    Vallino, Joseph J.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Although microbial systems are well suited for studying concepts in ecological theory, little is known about how microbial communities respond to long-term periodic perturbations beyond diel oscillations. Taking advantage of an ongoing microcosm experiment, we studied how methanotrophic microbial communities adapted to disturbances in energy input over a 20-day cycle period. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes together with quantification of microbial abundance and ecosystem function were used to explore the long-term dynamics (510 days) of methanotrophic communities under continuous versus cyclic chemical energy supply. We observed that microbial communities appeared inherently well adapted to disturbances in energy input and that changes in community structure in both treatments were more dependent on internal dynamics than on external forcing. The results also showed that the rare biosphere was critical to seeding the internal community dynamics, perhaps due to cross-feeding or other strategies. We conclude that in our experimental system, internal feedbacks were more important than external drivers in shaping the community dynamics over time, suggesting that ecosystems can maintain their function despite inherently unstable community dynamics. IMPORTANCE Within the broader ecological context, biological communities are often viewed as stable and as only experiencing succession or replacement when subject to external perturbations, such as changes in food availability or the introduction of exotic species. Our findings indicate that microbial communities can exhibit strong internal dynamics that may be more important in shaping community succession than external drivers. Dynamic “unstable” communities may be important for ecosystem functional stability, with rare organisms playing an important role in community restructuring. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for internal community dynamics will certainly be required for understanding and

  17. Microbial Communities Are Well Adapted to Disturbances in Energy Input.

    PubMed

    Fernandez-Gonzalez, Nuria; Huber, Julie A; Vallino, Joseph J

    2016-01-01

    Although microbial systems are well suited for studying concepts in ecological theory, little is known about how microbial communities respond to long-term periodic perturbations beyond diel oscillations. Taking advantage of an ongoing microcosm experiment, we studied how methanotrophic microbial communities adapted to disturbances in energy input over a 20-day cycle period. Sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes together with quantification of microbial abundance and ecosystem function were used to explore the long-term dynamics (510 days) of methanotrophic communities under continuous versus cyclic chemical energy supply. We observed that microbial communities appeared inherently well adapted to disturbances in energy input and that changes in community structure in both treatments were more dependent on internal dynamics than on external forcing. The results also showed that the rare biosphere was critical to seeding the internal community dynamics, perhaps due to cross-feeding or other strategies. We conclude that in our experimental system, internal feedbacks were more important than external drivers in shaping the community dynamics over time, suggesting that ecosystems can maintain their function despite inherently unstable community dynamics. IMPORTANCE Within the broader ecological context, biological communities are often viewed as stable and as only experiencing succession or replacement when subject to external perturbations, such as changes in food availability or the introduction of exotic species. Our findings indicate that microbial communities can exhibit strong internal dynamics that may be more important in shaping community succession than external drivers. Dynamic "unstable" communities may be important for ecosystem functional stability, with rare organisms playing an important role in community restructuring. Understanding the mechanisms responsible for internal community dynamics will certainly be required for understanding and manipulating

  18. Spatial Statistical Procedures to Validate Input Data in Energy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    2006-01-27

    Energy modeling and analysis often relies on data collected for other purposes such as census counts, atmospheric and air quality observations, economic trends, and other primarily non-energy-related uses. Systematic collection of empirical data solely for regional, national, and global energy modeling has not been established as in the above-mentioned fields. Empirical and modeled data relevant to energy modeling is reported and available at various spatial and temporal scales that might or might not be those needed and used by the energy modeling community. The incorrect representation of spatial and temporal components of these data sets can result in energy models producing misleading conclusions, especially in cases of newly evolving technologies with spatial and temporal operating characteristics different from the dominant fossil and nuclear technologies that powered the energy economy over the last two hundred years. Increased private and government research and development and public interest in alternative technologies that have a benign effect on the climate and the environment have spurred interest in wind, solar, hydrogen, and other alternative energy sources and energy carriers. Many of these technologies require much finer spatial and temporal detail to determine optimal engineering designs, resource availability, and market potential. This paper presents exploratory and modeling techniques in spatial statistics that can improve the usefulness of empirical and modeled data sets that do not initially meet the spatial and/or temporal requirements of energy models. In particular, we focus on (1) aggregation and disaggregation of spatial data, (2) predicting missing data, and (3) merging spatial data sets. In addition, we introduce relevant statistical software models commonly used in the field for various sizes and types of data sets.

  19. Spatial Statistical Procedures to Validate Input Data in Energy Models

    SciTech Connect

    Johannesson, G.; Stewart, J.; Barr, C.; Brady Sabeff, L.; George, R.; Heimiller, D.; Milbrandt, A.

    2006-01-01

    Energy modeling and analysis often relies on data collected for other purposes such as census counts, atmospheric and air quality observations, economic trends, and other primarily non-energy related uses. Systematic collection of empirical data solely for regional, national, and global energy modeling has not been established as in the abovementioned fields. Empirical and modeled data relevant to energy modeling is reported and available at various spatial and temporal scales that might or might not be those needed and used by the energy modeling community. The incorrect representation of spatial and temporal components of these data sets can result in energy models producing misleading conclusions, especially in cases of newly evolving technologies with spatial and temporal operating characteristics different from the dominant fossil and nuclear technologies that powered the energy economy over the last two hundred years. Increased private and government research and development and public interest in alternative technologies that have a benign effect on the climate and the environment have spurred interest in wind, solar, hydrogen, and other alternative energy sources and energy carriers. Many of these technologies require much finer spatial and temporal detail to determine optimal engineering designs, resource availability, and market potential. This paper presents exploratory and modeling techniques in spatial statistics that can improve the usefulness of empirical and modeled data sets that do not initially meet the spatial and/or temporal requirements of energy models. In particular, we focus on (1) aggregation and disaggregation of spatial data, (2) predicting missing data, and (3) merging spatial data sets. In addition, we introduce relevant statistical software models commonly used in the field for various sizes and types of data sets.

  20. Effect of tutorial input in addition to augmented feedback on manual dexterity training and its retention.

    PubMed

    Wierinck, E; Puttemans, V; van Steenberghe, D

    2006-02-01

    Virtual reality (VR) simulators can be used as tools in manual dexterity training. The visual feedback guides the subject towards proper performance but creates, at the same time, some dependency on this feedback. To overcome this drawback, the effect of adjunct tutorial input on motor learning behaviour was examined. Novice dental students were randomly assigned to one of two training groups or to a non-training control group, given the task of preparing a geometrical class 1 cavity in phantom teeth. The feedback (FB) group trained under augmented visual feedback conditions, provided by the VR system (DentSim). The feedback-plus (FB+) group received, in addition, standardised expert input to enrich the augmented feedback information. The control group, consisting of same year students, did not participate in any training programme. All preparations were evaluated by the VR scoring system. Performance analyses revealed an overall trend towards significant improvement with practice for the training groups. Performance of the FB+ group was most accurate across training. After 1 day and 3 weeks of no practice, both training groups outperformed the control group. After 4 months, however, only the FB+ condition was significantly more accurate than the control group. The same tendency was noted for the transfer tests. Consequently, cavity preparation experience on a VR system under the condition of frequently provided feedback supplemented with expert input was most beneficial to long time learning.

  1. Sequential recovery of copper and nickel from wastewater without net energy input.

    PubMed

    Cai, Wen-Fang; Fang, Xiao-Wen; Xu, Meng-Xi; Liu, Xiao-He; Wang, Yun-Hai

    2015-01-01

    A novel bioelectrochemical system (BES) was designed to recover copper and nickel from wastewater sequentially. The BES has two chambers separated by a bipolar membrane and two cathodes. Firstly, the copper ions were reduced on a graphite cathode with electricity output, and then with an additional bias-potential applied, the nickel ions were recovered sequentially on a copper sheet with electricity input. In this design, nickel and copper can be recovered and separated sequentially on two cathodes. By adjusting the molar ratio of copper and nickel ions to 2.99:1 in wastewater, 1.40 mmol Cu²⁺ could be recovered with 143.78 J electricity outputs, while 50.68 J electricity was input for 0.32 mmol nickel reduction. The total energy output of copper recovery was far more than the electricity input of nickel reduction. The present technology provides a potential method for heavy metal ion separation and recovery.

  2. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies. PMID:25030908

  3. Antagonistic control of a dual-input mammalian gene switch by food additives.

    PubMed

    Xie, Mingqi; Ye, Haifeng; Hamri, Ghislaine Charpin-El; Fussenegger, Martin

    2014-08-01

    Synthetic biology has significantly advanced the design of mammalian trigger-inducible transgene-control devices that are able to programme complex cellular behaviour. Fruit-based benzoate derivatives licensed as food additives, such as flavours (e.g. vanillate) and preservatives (e.g. benzoate), are a particularly attractive class of trigger compounds for orthogonal mammalian transgene control devices because of their innocuousness, physiological compatibility and simple oral administration. Capitalizing on the genetic componentry of the soil bacterium Comamonas testosteroni, which has evolved to catabolize a variety of aromatic compounds, we have designed different mammalian gene expression systems that could be induced and repressed by the food additives benzoate and vanillate. When implanting designer cells engineered for gene switch-driven expression of the human placental secreted alkaline phosphatase (SEAP) into mice, blood SEAP levels of treated animals directly correlated with a benzoate-enriched drinking programme. Additionally, the benzoate-/vanillate-responsive device was compatible with other transgene control systems and could be assembled into higher-order control networks providing expression dynamics reminiscent of a lap-timing stopwatch. Designer gene switches using licensed food additives as trigger compounds to achieve antagonistic dual-input expression profiles and provide novel control topologies and regulation dynamics may advance future gene- and cell-based therapies.

  4. Modeling the cardiovascular system using a nonlinear additive autoregressive model with exogenous input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Riedl, M.; Suhrbier, A.; Malberg, H.; Penzel, T.; Bretthauer, G.; Kurths, J.; Wessel, N.

    2008-07-01

    The parameters of heart rate variability and blood pressure variability have proved to be useful analytical tools in cardiovascular physics and medicine. Model-based analysis of these variabilities additionally leads to new prognostic information about mechanisms behind regulations in the cardiovascular system. In this paper, we analyze the complex interaction between heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration by nonparametric fitted nonlinear additive autoregressive models with external inputs. Therefore, we consider measurements of healthy persons and patients suffering from obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), with and without hypertension. It is shown that the proposed nonlinear models are capable of describing short-term fluctuations in heart rate as well as systolic blood pressure significantly better than similar linear ones, which confirms the assumption of nonlinear controlled heart rate and blood pressure. Furthermore, the comparison of the nonlinear and linear approaches reveals that the heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects is caused by a higher level of noise as well as nonlinearity than in patients suffering from OSAS. The residue analysis points at a further source of heart rate and blood pressure variability in healthy subjects, in addition to heart rate, systolic blood pressure, and respiration. Comparison of the nonlinear models within and among the different groups of subjects suggests the ability to discriminate the cohorts that could lead to a stratification of hypertension risk in OSAS patients.

  5. An assessment of energy use efficiency and sensitivity analysis of inputs in rice paddy production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammadi, A.; Rafiee, S.; Jafari, A.; Keyhani, A.

    2012-04-01

    This research studies the energy balance between the inputs and the output and estimation of inputs sensitivity for paddy production in Golestan province, Iran. The sensitivity of energy inputs was estimated using the marginal physical productivity (MPP) method and partial regression coefficients on rice yield. The results indicated that total energy inputs were found to be 29668 MJ ha-1. The results showed that among energy inputs, the share of chemical fertilizers was highest with 39% followed by water for irrigation with 32%. Energy use efficiency and energy productivity were found to be 2.5 and 0.2 ¬kg MJ-1, respectively. Sensitivity analysis indicates that highest MPP was for machinery energy, followed by human labour energy. The MPP estimated for biocides energy was found negative, indicating that biocides energy consumption is high in paddy production. It is suggested that specific policy is to be taken to increase yield by raising partial productivity of energy inputs without depending on mainly non-renewable energy sources such as chemical fertilizers and biocides that create environmental risk problems. Keywords:Energy input, Sensitivity analysis, Chemical fertilizers, Paddy

  6. Influence of Energy Input on Degradation Behavior of Plastic Components Manufactured by Selective Laser Melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drummer, Dietmar; Wudy, Katrin; Drexler, Maximilian

    Additive manufacturing techniques, such as selective laser melting of plastics, generate components directly from a CAD data set without using a specific mold. High building chamber temperatures in combination with long building times lead to physical and chemical degradation of the surrounding powder and the manufactured component in the case of selective laser melting of polyamide 12 (PA12). Thus the following investigations show the influence of energy densities on mechanical properties as well as on the aging behavior of the manufactured components. Therefore several building processes with varying energy densities will be conducted. Aged polymer components were analyzed with physical, thermo analytical and mechanical methods with regards to their process relevant material properties. Considered material properties for example are phase transition temperatures, melting viscosity or molecular weight. The basic understanding of the influence of energy input on material properties will lead to new process strategies with minimized polymer degradation.

  7. Energy Policy Decision-Making: The Need for Balanced Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    DeVolpi, A.

    1974-01-01

    Indicates that the credibility of environmentalists and nuclear advocates has been damaged by misinformed alarmist positions. Advocates the public's right of equal standing on advisory councils in the areas of energy development, environmental protection, and public safety. (GS)

  8. Revolutions in energy input and material cycling in Earth history and human history

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lenton, Timothy M.; Pichler, Peter-Paul; Weisz, Helga

    2016-04-01

    Major revolutions in energy capture have occurred in both Earth and human history, with each transition resulting in higher energy input, altered material cycles and major consequences for the internal organization of the respective systems. In Earth history, we identify the origin of anoxygenic photosynthesis, the origin of oxygenic photosynthesis, and land colonization by eukaryotic photosynthesizers as step changes in free energy input to the biosphere. In human history we focus on the Palaeolithic use of fire, the Neolithic revolution to farming, and the Industrial revolution as step changes in free energy input to human societies. In each case we try to quantify the resulting increase in energy input, and discuss the consequences for material cycling and for biological and social organization. For most of human history, energy use by humans was but a tiny fraction of the overall energy input to the biosphere, as would be expected for any heterotrophic species. However, the industrial revolution gave humans the capacity to push energy inputs towards planetary scales and by the end of the 20th century human energy use had reached a magnitude comparable to the biosphere. By distinguishing world regions and income brackets we show the unequal distribution in energy and material use among contemporary humans. Looking ahead, a prospective sustainability revolution will require scaling up new renewable and decarbonized energy technologies and the development of much more efficient material recycling systems - thus creating a more autotrophic social metabolism. Such a transition must also anticipate a level of social organization that can implement the changes in energy input and material cycling without losing the large achievements in standard of living and individual liberation associated with industrial societies.

  9. Atmospheric transport and deposition, an additional input pathway for triazine herbicides to surface waters

    SciTech Connect

    Muir, D.C.G.; Rawn, D.F.

    1996-10-01

    Although surface runoff from treated fields is regarded as the major route of entry of triazine herbicides to surface waters, other pathways such as deposition via precipitation, gas absorption and dryfall may also be important. Triazine herbicides have been detected in precipitation but there has been only a very limited amount of work on gas phase and aerosols. To examine the importance of atmospheric inputs concentrations of atrazine, cyanazine and terbuthylazine in gas phase/aerosols, precipitation, and surface waters were determined (along with other herbicides) using selected ion GC-MS. Atrazine was detected at low ng/L concentrations in surface waters (<0.04-5.3 ng/L) and precipitation (0.1-53 ng/L), and at 0.02-0.1 ng/m{sup 3} in air. Cyanazine and terbuthylazine were detected in air and infrequently in water. Highest atrazine concentrations in air were found during June each year on both gas phase and particles. Concentrations of atrazine in surface waters at both locations increased during June, even in the absence of precipitation or overland flow, presumably due to inputs from dryfall and to gas areas and boreal forest lakes due to transport and deposition. Ecological risk assessment of triazines, especially for pristine aquatic environments should include consideration of this atmospheric pathway.

  10. FreeSolv: A database of experimental and calculated hydration free energies, with input files

    PubMed Central

    Mobley, David L.; Guthrie, J. Peter

    2014-01-01

    This work provides a curated database of experimental and calculated hydration free energies for small neutral molecules in water, along with molecular structures, input files, references, and annotations. We call this the Free Solvation Database, or FreeSolv. Experimental values were taken from prior literature and will continue to be curated, with updated experimental references and data added as they become available. Calculated values are based on alchemical free energy calculations using molecular dynamics simulations. These used the GAFF small molecule force field in TIP3P water with AM1-BCC charges. Values were calculated with the GROMACS simulation package, with full details given in references cited within the database itself. This database builds in part on a previous, 504-molecule database containing similar information. However, additional curation of both experimental data and calculated values has been done here, and the total number of molecules is now up to 643. Additional information is now included in the database, such as SMILES strings, PubChem compound IDs, accurate reference DOIs, and others. One version of the database is provided in the Supporting Information of this article, but as ongoing updates are envisioned, the database is now versioned and hosted online. In addition to providing the database, this work describes its construction process. The database is available free-of-charge via http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/6sd403pz. PMID:24928188

  11. FreeSolv: a database of experimental and calculated hydration free energies, with input files.

    PubMed

    Mobley, David L; Guthrie, J Peter

    2014-07-01

    This work provides a curated database of experimental and calculated hydration free energies for small neutral molecules in water, along with molecular structures, input files, references, and annotations. We call this the Free Solvation Database, or FreeSolv. Experimental values were taken from prior literature and will continue to be curated, with updated experimental references and data added as they become available. Calculated values are based on alchemical free energy calculations using molecular dynamics simulations. These used the GAFF small molecule force field in TIP3P water with AM1-BCC charges. Values were calculated with the GROMACS simulation package, with full details given in references cited within the database itself. This database builds in part on a previous, 504-molecule database containing similar information. However, additional curation of both experimental data and calculated values has been done here, and the total number of molecules is now up to 643. Additional information is now included in the database, such as SMILES strings, PubChem compound IDs, accurate reference DOIs, and others. One version of the database is provided in the Supporting Information of this article, but as ongoing updates are envisioned, the database is now versioned and hosted online. In addition to providing the database, this work describes its construction process. The database is available free-of-charge via http://www.escholarship.org/uc/item/6sd403pz .

  12. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Monitoring and Reporting § 96.76 Additional...

  13. 40 CFR 96.76 - Additional requirements to provide heat input data for allocations purposes.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR PROGRAMS (CONTINUED) NOX BUDGET TRADING PROGRAM AND CAIR NOX AND SO2 TRADING PROGRAMS FOR STATE IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Monitoring and Reporting § 96.76 Additional...

  14. Decadal variability of wind-energy input to the world ocean

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Rui Xin; Wang, Wei; Liu, Ling Ling

    2006-01-01

    Wind-stress energy input to the oceans is the most important source of mechanical energy in maintaining the oceanic general circulation. Previous studies indicate that wind-energy input to the Ekman layer and surface waves has varied greatly over the past 50 years. In this study, wind-energy input to surface current and surface geostrophic current was calculated as the scalar product of wind stress and surface current and surface geostrophic current. The surface geostrophic current was calculated in two ways: the surface geostrophic velocity was diagnosed from the TOPEX/POSEIDON altimeter data between 1993 and 2003, and calculated from the sea-surface height of the numerical model. The surface velocity was obtained from a numerical model. Estimate of wind-energy input based on altimetric data averaged over 1993-2003 is 0.84 TW (1TW=10W), excluding the equatorial band (within ±3∘ of the equator). Estimate of the wind-energy input to the surface geostrophic current based on the numerical model is 0.87 TW averaged from 1993 to 2003, and wind-energy input to the surface current for the same period is 1.16 TW. This input is primarily concentrated over the Southern Ocean and the equatorial region (20∘S-20∘N). This energy varied greatly on interannual and decadal time scales, and it increased 12% over the past 25 years, and the interannual variability mainly occurs in the latitude band of 40∘S-60∘S and the equatorial region.

  15. High-latitude energy input and its impact on the thermosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, G.; Richmond, A. D.; Lühr, H.; Paxton, L.

    2016-07-01

    This paper presents a quantitative assessment of high-latitude energy input and its partitioning in the polar cap by synthesizing various space and ground-based observations during the 17 January 2005 geomagnetic storm. It was found that Joule heating is the primary form of magnetospheric energy input, especially during active times when the hemispheric-integrated Joule heating can be an order of magnitude larger than the hemispheric-integrated auroral power. Most of magnetospheric energy is dissipated in the auroral zone rather than in the polar cap. On average, only about 22-25% of the total hemispheric energy input is dissipated into the polar cap region bordered by the convection reversal boundary (CRB) and the poleward auroral flux boundary (FXB). The impact of high-latitude energy input was also investigated to unveil the causal relationship between Joule heating and the formation of polar cap mass density anomalies. Our numerical simulation demonstrated that thermosphere dynamics readily redistributes composition, temperature, and mass through upwelling and atmospheric gravity waves. The polar cap mass density anomalies observed by the CHAMP satellite during the storm were largely a result of large-scale atmospheric gravity waves. Therefore, an increase in local thermospheric mass density does not necessarily mean there is direct energy input.

  16. Edible energy: balancing inputs and waste in food supply chain and biofuels from algae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alimonti, Gianluca; Brambilla, Riccardo; Pileci, Rosaria; Romano, Riccardo; Rosa, Francesca; Spinicci, Luca

    2017-01-01

    Energy is life. Without it there is no water, there is no nutrition. Man's ability to live, grow, produce wealth is closely linked to the energy availability and use. Fire has been the first energy conversion technology; since that moment, the link between energy and progress has been indissoluble. Nowadays, a much greater energy input into the food supply chain has made a much higher food production possible. This might have an impact on the water availability. Algae are a promising solution for the energy-food-water nexus.

  17. Input-Output Modeling for Urban Energy Consumption in Beijing: Dynamics and Comparison

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lixiao; Hu, Qiuhong; Zhang, Fan

    2014-01-01

    Input-output analysis has been proven to be a powerful instrument for estimating embodied (direct plus indirect) energy usage through economic sectors. Using 9 economic input-output tables of years 1987, 1990, 1992, 1995, 1997, 2000, 2002, 2005, and 2007, this paper analyzes energy flows for the entire city of Beijing and its 30 economic sectors, respectively. Results show that the embodied energy consumption of Beijing increased from 38.85 million tonnes of coal equivalent (Mtce) to 206.2 Mtce over the past twenty years of rapid urbanization; the share of indirect energy consumption in total energy consumption increased from 48% to 76%, suggesting the transition of Beijing from a production-based and manufacturing-dominated economy to a consumption-based and service-dominated economy. Real estate development has shown to be a major driving factor of the growth in indirect energy consumption. The boom and bust of construction activities have been strongly correlated with the increase and decrease of system-side indirect energy consumption. Traditional heavy industries remain the most energy-intensive sectors in the economy. However, the transportation and service sectors have contributed most to the rapid increase in overall energy consumption. The analyses in this paper demonstrate that a system-wide approach such as that based on input-output model can be a useful tool for robust energy policy making. PMID:24595199

  18. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  19. NECAP 4.1: NASA's Energy-Cost Analysis Program fast input manual and example

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.; Miner, D. L.

    1982-01-01

    NASA's Energy-Cost Analysis Program (NECAP) is a powerful computerized method to determine and to minimize building energy consumption. The program calculates hourly heat gain or losses taking into account the building thermal resistance and mass, using hourly weather and a response factor method. Internal temperatures are allowed to vary in accordance with thermostat settings and equipment capacity. NECAP 4.1 has a simplified input procedure and numerous other technical improvements. A very short input method is provided. It is limited to a single zone building. The user must still describe the building's outside geometry and select the type of system to be used.

  20. Effect of the shrinking dipole on solar-terrestrial energy input to the Earth's atmosphere

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McPherron, R. L.

    2011-12-01

    The global average temperature of the Earth is rising rapidly. This rise is primarily attributed to the release of greenhouse gases as a result of human activity. However, it has been argued that changes in radiation from the Sun might play a role. Most energy input to the Earth is light in the visible spectrum. Our best measurements suggest this power input has been constant for the last 40 years (the space age) apart from a small 11-year variation due to the solar cycle of sunspot activity. Another possible energy input from the Sun is the solar wind. The supersonic solar wind carries the magnetic field of the Sun into the solar system. As it passes the Earth it can connect to the Earth's magnetic field whenever it is antiparallel t the Earth's field. This connection allows mass, momentum, and energy from the solar wind to enter the magnetosphere producing geomagnetic activity. Ultimately much of this energy is deposited at high latitudes in the form of particle precipitation (aurora) and heating by electrical currents. Although the energy input by this process is miniscule compared to that from visible radiation it might alter the absorption of visible radiation. Two other processes affected by the solar cycle are atmospheric entry of galactic cosmic rays (GCR) and solar energetic protons (SEP). A weak solar magnetic field at sunspot minimum facilitates GCR entry which has been implicated in creation of clouds. Large coronal mass ejections and solar flares create SEP at solar maximum. All of these alternative energy inputs and their effects depend on the strength of the Earth's magnetic field. Currently the Earth's field is decreasing rapidly and conceivably might reverse polarity in 1000 years. In this paper we describe the changes in the Earth's magnetic field and how this might affect GCR, SEP, electrical heating, aurora, and radio propagation. Whether these effects are important in global climate change can only be determined by detailed physical models.

  1. Intensity of energy input during radiation drying of porcelain products in metallic molds

    SciTech Connect

    Bondarev, V.A.; Mikhalev, V.P.; Gubskii, G.Z.

    1987-03-01

    The authors seek to optimize the energy input and efficiency of the process and equipment for drying porcelain in a parametric analysis which maximizes the drying rate against the limiting condition of the onset of temperature-dependent crack propagation in the porcelain.

  2. Transition Region Emission and the Energy Input to Thermal Plasma in Solar Flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Holman, Gordon D.; Holman, Gordon D.; Dennis, Brian R.; Haga, Leah; Raymond, John C.; Panasyuk, Alexander

    2005-01-01

    Understanding the energetics of solar flares depends on obtaining reliable determinations of the energy input to flare plasma. X-ray observations of the thermal bremsstrahlung from hot flare plasma provide temperatures and emission measures which, along with estimates of the plasma volume, allow the energy content of this hot plasma to be computed. However, if thermal energy losses are significant or if significant energy goes directly into cooler plasma, this is only a lower limit on the total energy injected into thermal plasma during the flare. We use SOHO UVCS observations of O VI flare emission scattered by coronal O VI ions to deduce the flare emission at transition region temperatures between 100,000 K and 1 MK for the 2002 July 23 and other flares. We find that the radiated energy at these temperatures significantly increases the deduced energy input to the thermal plasma, but by an amount that is less than the uncertainty in the computed energies. Comparisons of computed thermal and nonthermal electron energies deduced from RHESSI, GOES, and UVCS are shown.

  3. Sustainable agricultural practices: energy inputs and outputs, pesticide, fertilizer and greenhouse gas management.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yue-Wen

    2009-01-01

    The food security issue was addressed by the development of "modern agriculture" in the last century. But food safety issues and environment degradation were the consequences suffered as a result. Climate change has been recognized as the result of release of stored energy in fossil fuel into the atmosphere. Homogeneous crop varieties, machinery, pesticides and fertilizers are the foundation of uniform commodities in modern agriculture. Fossil fuels are used to manufacture fertilizers and pesticides as well as the energy source for agricultural machinery, thus characterizes modern agriculture. Bio-fuel production and the possibility of the agriculture system as a form of energy input are discussed.

  4. Documentation of Calculation Methodology, Input data, and Infrastructure for the Home Energy Saver Web Site

    SciTech Connect

    Pinckard, Margaret J.; Brown, Richard E.; Mills, Evan; Lutz, James D.; Moezzi, Mithra M.; Atkinson, Celina; Bolduc, Chris; Homan, Gregory K.; Coughlin, Katie

    2005-07-13

    The Home Energy Saver (HES, http://HomeEnergySaver.lbl.gov) is an interactive web site designed to help residential consumers make decisions about energy use in their homes. This report describes the underlying methods and data for estimating energy consumption. Using engineering models, the site estimates energy consumption for six major categories (end uses); heating, cooling, water heating, major appliances, lighting, and miscellaneous equipment. The approach taken by the Home Energy Saver is to provide users with initial results based on a minimum of user input, allowing progressively greater control in specifying the characteristics of the house and energy consuming appliances. Outputs include energy consumption (by fuel and end use), energy-related emissions (carbon dioxide), energy bills (total and by fuel and end use), and energy saving recommendations. Real-world electricity tariffs are used for many locations, making the bill estimates even more accurate. Where information about the house is not available from the user, default values are used based on end-use surveys and engineering studies. An extensive body of qualitative decision-support information augments the analytical results.

  5. The influence of riparian vegetation on the energy input of the rivers Lafnitz and Pinka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holzapfel, Gerda; Rauch, Hans Peter; Weihs, Philipp; Trimmel, Heidelinde; Formayer, Herbert; Leitner, Patrick; Graf, Wolfram; Melcher, Andreas; Dossi, Florian

    2013-04-01

    In Central Europe freshwater ecosystems have to deal with a loss of habitat structures due to channelisation and standardisation. Unimpaired streams and rivers are very rare, which leads to a few, remaining populations of sensitive invertebrate species which are severely fragmented. This progress is mainly noticed in lowland rivers in agricultural intensely used areas, where habitat degradation and pollution affect the ecosystems. Additional pressures on the freshwater systems will be expected due to climate change effects. In the Austrian Lowlands, an increase of air temperature about 2-2.5 °C is predicted till 2040. This will in turn lead to the highest increase in water temperature in the lowland rivers of the "Hungarian Plains", Ecoregion 11 on which the impacts of climate change will most likely be highest in Austria. Global warming on its own may lead to severe changes in aquatic ecosystems. Human impacts increase the negative effects even more. Main factors for a sustainable survival of benthic invertebrates and fishes are closely connected with parameters like water temperature, the availability of oxygen and nutrients, or radiation and nutrients for primary production which are closely related to climate. Natural bank vegetation reduces the influx of solar radiation as well as it forms a microclimate of its own and could provide very important niches for terrestrial and aquatic stages. Riparian areas with trees provide direct shade for the water body and thus avoiding the corresponding increase in water temperature. Wide riparian wooded areas can even decrease evaporation and increase the relative air humidity, which contributes to reducing water temperature. Input of deadwood like trees or logs represents essential habitats for invertebrates and fish assemblages. Its presence is one essential drivers of bed-morphology creating heterogeneous instream habitat patterns. In the framework of the project BIO_CLIC the potential of riparian vegetation to

  6. Intrinsic Information Processing and Energy Dissipation in Stochastic Input-Output Dynamical Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-09

    intelligent” control can convert information to energy. However, these approaches have yet to account for the diverse kinds of information that complex...Army Research Office P.O. Box 12211 Research Triangle Park, NC 27709-2211 input-output processes, controlled thermodynamics systems, nonlinear...be subject to any oenalty for failing to comply with a collection of information if it does not display a currently valid OMB control number. PLEASE

  7. Exploring storm time ring current formation and response on the energy input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Raluca

    While extensive research has been made over the last decades regarding the storm-time dynamics, there are still unanswered questions regarding the ring current formation and plasmasphere evolution, specifically about the ring current response on the energy input. Large-scale data analysis and global magnetospheric simulations provide complementary alternatives for exploring highly complex coupling of the solar wind-ionosphere-magnetosphere system. Superposed Epoch analysis of intense storms data suggests that a distinct time stamp is needed in order to resolve certain solar wind features. However, when it conies to hot proton at geosynchronous orbit, the choice of reference time primarily matters to accurately describe the size of peaks, while the presence and time evolution is unaltered by it. Examination of the role the transient spikes in the solar wind parameters play in the development of magnetic storms, reveals that changes in the energy input produce a nonlinear response of the inner magnetosphere. While initial increases in the energy input enhance the magnetospheric response, as the power transferred to the system is increased, the growth of the ring current is stalled and a saturation limits sets in. A threshold in the energy input is necessary for the ring current to develop, while the short time scale fluctuations in the solar wind parameters did not have a significant contribution. This implies the existence of an internal feedback mechanism as the magnetosphere acts as a low-pass filter of the IMF, limiting the energy flow in the magnetosphere. Further, the main characteristic in determining IMF Bz fluctuation periodicity transfer of solar wind mass and energy to the inner magnetosphere, is the peak signal to noise ratio in the power spectrum of the input parameter, suggesting that a ratio of 10 is needed in order to trigger a similar periodicity in the magnetosphere response. Theoretical and numerical modifications to an inner magnetosphere model

  8. Spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt modelling in a mountainous river basin: estimation of meteorological inputs and verification of model results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garen, David C.; Marks, Danny

    2005-12-01

    A spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt model has been applied to a 2150 km 2 drainage basin in the Boise River, ID, USA, to simulate the accumulation and melt of the snowpack for the years 1998-2000. The simulation was run at a 3 h time step and a spatial resolution of 250 m. Spatial field time series of meteorological input data were obtained using various spatial interpolation and simulation methods. The variables include precipitation, air temperature, dew point temperature, wind speed, and solar and thermal radiation. The goal was to use readily available data and relatively straightforward, yet physically meaningful, methods to develop the spatial fields. With these meteorological fields as input, the simulated fields of snow water equivalent, snow depth, and snow covered area reproduce observations very well. The simulated snowmelt fields are also used as input to a spatially distributed hydrologic model to estimate streamflow. This gives an additional verification of the snowmelt modelling results as well as provides a linkage of the two models to generate hydrographs for water management information. This project is a demonstration of spatially distributed energy balance snowmelt modelling in a large mountainous catchment using data from existing meteorological networks. This capability then suggests the potential for developing new spatial hydrologic informational products and the possibility of improving the accuracy of the prediction of hydrologic processes for water and natural resources management.

  9. Autonomic energy conversion. I. The input relation: phenomenological and mechanistic considerations.

    PubMed

    Caplan, S R

    1968-10-01

    The differences between completely and incompletely coupled linear energy converters are discussed using suitable electrochemical cells as examples. The output relation for the canonically simplest class of self-regulated incompletely coupled linear energy converters has been shown to be identical to the Hill force-velocity characteristic for muscle. The corresponding input relation (the "inverse" Hill equation) is now derived by two independent methods. The first method is a direct transformation of the output relation through the phenomenological equations of the converter; Onsager symmetry has no influence on the result. The second method makes use of a model system, a hydroelectric device with a regulator mechanism which depends only on the operational limits of the converter (an electro-osmosis cell operated in reverse) and on the load. The inverse Hill equation is shown to be the simplest solution of the regulator equation. An interesting and testable series of relations between input and output parameters arises from the two forms of the Hill equation. For optimal regulation the input should not be greatly different in the two limiting stationary states (level flow and static head). The output power will then be nearly maximal over a considerable range of load resistance, peak output being obtained at close to peak efficiency.

  10. Input-output relation and energy efficiency in the neuron with different spike threshold dynamics.

    PubMed

    Yi, Guo-Sheng; Wang, Jiang; Tsang, Kai-Ming; Wei, Xi-Le; Deng, Bin

    2015-01-01

    Neuron encodes and transmits information through generating sequences of output spikes, which is a high energy-consuming process. The spike is initiated when membrane depolarization reaches a threshold voltage. In many neurons, threshold is dynamic and depends on the rate of membrane depolarization (dV/dt) preceding a spike. Identifying the metabolic energy involved in neural coding and their relationship to threshold dynamic is critical to understanding neuronal function and evolution. Here, we use a modified Morris-Lecar model to investigate neuronal input-output property and energy efficiency associated with different spike threshold dynamics. We find that the neurons with dynamic threshold sensitive to dV/dt generate discontinuous frequency-current curve and type II phase response curve (PRC) through Hopf bifurcation, and weak noise could prohibit spiking when bifurcation just occurs. The threshold that is insensitive to dV/dt, instead, results in a continuous frequency-current curve, a type I PRC and a saddle-node on invariant circle bifurcation, and simultaneously weak noise cannot inhibit spiking. It is also shown that the bifurcation, frequency-current curve and PRC type associated with different threshold dynamics arise from the distinct subthreshold interactions of membrane currents. Further, we observe that the energy consumption of the neuron is related to its firing characteristics. The depolarization of spike threshold improves neuronal energy efficiency by reducing the overlap of Na(+) and K(+) currents during an action potential. The high energy efficiency is achieved at more depolarized spike threshold and high stimulus current. These results provide a fundamental biophysical connection that links spike threshold dynamics, input-output relation, energetics and spike initiation, which could contribute to uncover neural encoding mechanism.

  11. Energy efficiency standards for residential and commercial equipment: Additional opportunities

    SciTech Connect

    Rosenquist, Greg; McNeil, Michael; Iyer, Maithili; Meyers, Steve; McMahon, Jim

    2004-08-02

    Energy efficiency standards set minimum levels of energy efficiency that must be met by new products. Depending on the dynamics of the market and the level of the standard, the effect on the market for a given product may be small, moderate, or large. Energy efficiency standards address a number of market failures that exist in the buildings sector. Decisions about efficiency levels often are made by people who will not be responsible for the energy bill, such as landlords or developers of commercial buildings. Many buildings are occupied for their entire lives by very temporary owners or renters, each unwilling to make long-term investments that would mostly reward subsequent users. And sometimes what looks like apathy about efficiency merely reflects inadequate information or time invested to evaluate it. In addition to these sector-specific market failures, energy efficiency standards address the endemic failure of energy prices to incorporate externalities. In the U.S., energy efficiency standards for consumer products were first implemented in California in 1977. National standards became effective starting in 1988. By the end of 2001, national standards were in effect for over a dozen residential appliances, as well as for a number of commercial sector products. Updated standards will take effect in the next few years for several products. Outside the U.S., over 30 countries have adopted minimum energy performance standards. Technologies and markets are dynamic, and additional opportunities to improve energy efficiency exist. There are two main avenues for extending energy efficiency standards. One is upgrading standards that already exist for specific products. The other is adopting standards for products that are not covered by existing standards. In the absence of new and upgraded energy efficiency standards, it is likely that many new products will enter the stock with lower levels of energy efficiency than would otherwise be the case. Once in the stock

  12. A Variable Input-Output Model for Inflation, Growth, and Energy for the Korean Economy.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-12-01

    source of energy to the coal mining industry . Its input elasticity is 0.0496, followed by the petroleum oroduc-s, 0.0102. Crude petroleum is the largest...ationary i mpacts when a wage hike is " intrcduced. The largest Irfla-ionary moact comes to k coal mining industry . A one percent 1vicrease -n wages in the...coal mining industry rs sults in a 0.9654 percent -ncrease in price levels. The inflationary impact of a one og9rcent wage hike is 0.CC5891 fcr

  13. Testing energy non-additivity in white dwarfs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carmona, J. M.; Cortés, J. L.; Gracia-Ruiz, R.; Loret, N.

    2014-03-01

    We consider a particular effect which can be expected in scenarios of deviations from special relativity induced by Planckian physics: the loss of additivity in the total energy of a system of particles. We argue about the necessity to introduce a length scale to control the effects of non-additivity for macroscopic objects and consider white dwarfs as an appropriate laboratory to test this kind of new physics. We study the sensitivity of the mass-radius relation of the Chandrasekhar model to these corrections by comparing the output of a simple phenomenological model to observational data of white dwarfs.

  14. Latitudinal Dependence of the Energy Input into the Mesosphere by High Energy Electrons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wagner, C. U.; Nikutowski, B.; Ranta, H.

    1984-01-01

    Night-time ionspheric absorption measurements give the possibility to study the precipitation of high energy electrons into the mesosphere during and after magnetospheric storms. The uniform Finnish riometer network was used together with measurements from Kuhlungsborn and Collm (GDR) to investigate the night-time absorption as a function of latitude (L=6.5 to 2.5) and storm-time for seven storms. The common trends visible in all these events are summarized in a schematic average picture, showing the distribution of increased ionospheric absorption as a function of latitude (L value) and storm-time.

  15. Down on the farm. An analysis of energy inputs in Tennessee Valley farms

    SciTech Connect

    Camp, W.A.

    1985-01-01

    There are 150,159 farms in the 170 power counties of TVA; the largest percentage are in the Central District (26.4%). The majority of the farm operators reside on the farm they operate (101,592 operators or 67.7%). Individual or family-owned farms represent the largest type of farm organization (134,111 farms or 89.3%). Over 71,000 farms use electricity in actual farm production; farm expenses for electricity totaled $37,040,000 in 1982. Approximately 18% of the energy requirements in the American food system is used for actual farm production, while 82% goes for processing, marketing, transporting, and preparing food for consumption. Field crop production in the Tennessee Valley expends the majority of the gasoline (91.4%) and diesel (85.8%) inputs in the farm system. Livestock production consumes the majority of the electricity (89.9%), L.P. gas (70.0%), fuel oil (97.2%), and liquid fuel (99.3%). Dairy cow production is the most energy-intensive production in livestock. It consumes 63.4% of the gasoline, 78.6% of the diesel, 40.5% of the L.P. gas, and 64.5% of the electricity inputs in livestock.

  16. Energy-Dominated Local Carbon Emissions in Beijing 2007: Inventory and Input-Output Analysis

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J. B.; Shao, Ling; Li, J. S.; An, Y. R.

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO2), methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO2-eq, of which energy-related CO2 emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO2 emissions 6.35%, CH4 emissions 2.33%, and N2O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO2 emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO2-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO2-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers. PMID:23193385

  17. Energy-dominated local carbon emissions in Beijing 2007: inventory and input-output analysis.

    PubMed

    Guo, Shan; Liu, J B; Shao, Ling; Li, J S; An, Y R

    2012-01-01

    For greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions by Beijing economy 2007, a concrete emission inventory covering carbon dioxide (CO(2)), methane (CH(4)), and nitrous oxide (N(2)O) is presented and associated with an input-output analysis to reveal the local GHG embodiment in final demand and trade without regard to imported emissions. The total direct GHG emissions amount to 1.06E + 08 t CO(2)-eq, of which energy-related CO(2) emissions comprise 90.49%, non-energy-related CO(2) emissions 6.35%, CH(4) emissions 2.33%, and N(2)O emissions 0.83%, respectively. In terms of energy-related CO(2) emissions, the largest source is coal with a percentage of 53.08%, followed by coke with 10.75% and kerosene with 8.44%. Sector 26 (Construction Industry) holds the top local emissions embodied in final demand of 1.86E + 07 t CO(2)-eq due to its considerable capital, followed by energy-intensive Sectors 27 (Transport and Storage) and 14 (Smelting and Pressing of Ferrous and Nonferrous Metals). The GHG emissions embodied in Beijing's exports are 4.90E + 07 t CO(2)-eq, accounting for 46.01% of the total emissions embodied in final demand. The sound scientific database totally based on local emissions is an important basis to make effective environment and energy policies for local decision makers.

  18. Achieving Actionable Results from Available Inputs: Metamodels Take Building Energy Simulations One Step Further

    SciTech Connect

    Horsey, Henry; Fleming, Katherine; Ball, Brian; Long, Nicholas

    2016-08-26

    Modeling commercial building energy usage can be a difficult and time-consuming task. The increasing prevalence of optimization algorithms provides one path for reducing the time and difficulty. Many use cases remain, however, where information regarding whole-building energy usage is valuable, but the time and expertise required to run and post-process a large number of building energy simulations is intractable. A relatively underutilized option to accurately estimate building energy consumption in real time is to pre-compute large datasets of potential building energy models, and use the set of results to quickly and efficiently provide highly accurate data. This process is called metamodeling. In this paper, two case studies are presented demonstrating the successful applications of metamodeling using the open-source OpenStudio Analysis Framework. The first case study involves the U.S. Department of Energy's Asset Score Tool, specifically the Preview Asset Score Tool, which is designed to give nontechnical users a near-instantaneous estimated range of expected results based on building system-level inputs. The second case study involves estimating the potential demand response capabilities of retail buildings in Colorado. The metamodel developed in this second application not only allows for estimation of a single building's expected performance, but also can be combined with public data to estimate the aggregate DR potential across various geographic (county and state) scales. In both case studies, the unique advantages of pre-computation allow building energy models to take the place of topdown actuarial evaluations. This paper ends by exploring the benefits of using metamodels and then examines the cost-effectiveness of this approach.

  19. GEM-CEDAR Study of Ionospheric Energy Input and Joule Dissipation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rastaetter, Lutz; Kuznetsova, Maria M.; Shim, Jasoon

    2012-01-01

    We are studying ionospheric model performance for six events selected for the GEM-CEDAR modeling challenge. DMSP measurements of electric and magnetic fields are converted into Poynting Flux values that estimate the energy input into the ionosphere. Models generate rates of ionospheric Joule dissipation that are compared to the energy influx. Models include the ionosphere models CTIPe and Weimer and the ionospheric electrodynamic outputs of global magnetosphere models SWMF, LFM, and OpenGGCM. This study evaluates the model performance in terms of overall balance between energy influx and dissipation and tests the assumption that Joule dissipation occurs locally where electromagnetic energy flux enters the ionosphere. We present results in terms of skill scores now commonly used in metrics and validation studies and we can measure the agreement in terms of temporal and spatial distribution of dissipation (i.e, location of auroral activity) along passes of the DMSP satellite with the passes' proximity to the magnetic pole and solar wind activity level.

  20. The energy and momentum input of supernova explosions in structured and ionized molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Walch, Stefanie; Naab, Thorsten

    2015-08-01

    We investigate the early impact of single and binary supernova (SN) explosions on dense gas clouds with three-dimensional, high-resolution, hydrodynamic simulations. The effect of cloud structure, radiative cooling and ionizing radiation from the progenitor stars on the net input of kinetic energy, fkin = Ekin/ESN, thermal energy, ftherm = Etherm/ESN, and gas momentum, fP = P/PSN, to the interstellar medium (ISM) is tested. For clouds with bar{n} = 100cm^{-3}, the momentum generating Sedov and pressure-driven snowplough phases are terminated early (∝0.01 Myr) and radiative cooling limits the coupling to ftherm ˜ 0.01, fkin ˜ 0.05, and fP ˜ 9, significantly lower than for the case without cooling. For pre-ionized clouds, these numbers are only increased by ˜50 per cent, independent of the cloud structure. This only suffices to accelerate ˜5 per cent of the cloud to radial velocities ≳30 km s-1. A second SN might enhance the coupling efficiencies if delayed past the Sedov phase of the first explosion. Such very low coupling efficiencies cast doubts on many subresolution models for SN feedback, which are, in general, validated a posteriori. Ionizing radiation appears not to significantly enhance the coupling of SNe to the surrounding gas as it drives the ISM into inert dense shells and cold clumps, a process which is unresolved in galaxy-scale simulations. Our results indicate that the momentum input of SNe in ionized, structured clouds is larger (more than a factor of 10) than the corresponding momentum yield of the progenitor's stellar winds.

  1. Redefining RECs: Additionality in the voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate market

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillenwater, Michael Wayne

    In the United States, electricity consumers are told that they can "buy" electricity from renewable energy projects, versus fossil fuel-fired facilities, through participation in a voluntary green power program. The marketing messages communicate to consumers that their participation and premium payments for a green label will cause additional renewable energy generation and thereby allow them to claim they consume electricity that is absent pollution as well as reduce pollutant emissions. Renewable Energy Certificates (RECs) and wind energy are the basis for the majority of the voluntary green power market in the United States. This dissertation addresses the question: Do project developers respond to the voluntary REC market in the United States by altering their decisions to invest in wind turbines? This question is investigated by modeling and probabilistically quantifying the effect of the voluntary REC market on a representative wind power investor in the United States using data from formal expert elicitations of active participants in the industry. It is further explored by comparing the distribution of a sample of wind power projects supplying the voluntary green power market in the United States against an economic viability model that incorporates geographic factors. This dissertation contributes the first quantitative analysis of the effect of the voluntary REC market on project investment. It is found that 1) RECs should be not treated as equivalent to emission offset credits, 2) there is no clearly credible role for voluntary market RECs in emissions trading markets without dramatic restructuring of one or both markets and the environmental commodities they trade, and 3) the use of RECs in entity-level GHG emissions accounting (i.e., "carbon footprinting") leads to double counting of emissions and therefore is not justified. The impotence of the voluntary REC market was, at least in part, due to the small magnitude of the REC price signal and lack of

  2. Energy input and response from prompt and early optical afterglow emission in gamma-ray bursts.

    PubMed

    Vestrand, W T; Wren, J A; Wozniak, P R; Aptekar, R; Golentskii, S; Pal'shin, V; Sakamoto, T; White, R R; Evans, S; Casperson, D; Fenimore, E

    2006-07-13

    The taxonomy of optical emission detected during the critical first few minutes after the onset of a gamma-ray burst (GRB) defines two broad classes: prompt optical emission correlated with prompt gamma-ray emission, and early optical afterglow emission uncorrelated with the gamma-ray emission. The standard theoretical interpretation attributes prompt emission to internal shocks in the ultra-relativistic outflow generated by the internal engine; early afterglow emission is attributed to shocks generated by interaction with the surrounding medium. Here we report on observations of a bright GRB that, for the first time, clearly show the temporal relationship and relative strength of the two optical components. The observations indicate that early afterglow emission can be understood as reverberation of the energy input measured by prompt emission. Measurements of the early afterglow reverberations therefore probe the structure of the environment around the burst, whereas the subsequent response to late-time impulsive energy releases reveals how earlier flaring episodes have altered the jet and environment parameters. Many GRBs are generated by the death of massive stars that were born and died before the Universe was ten per cent of its current age, so GRB afterglow reverberations provide clues about the environments around some of the first stars.

  3. Energy input in conventional and organic paddy rice production in Missouri and Italy: A comparative case study.

    PubMed

    Pagani, Marco; Johnson, Thomas G; Vittuari, Matteo

    2017-03-01

    The expected decline in availability of fossil fuels over the next several decades, either because of resource depletion or because of limits on carbon emissions, is leading to a keen interest in finding more sustainable energy sources. For this reason, it is useful to assess the energy footprint of alternative agricultural systems for crops and animal production and to identify potential transition scenarios to systems largely based on renewable energy. The present work aims to assess for the first time a comparative analysis of energy inputs in rice production systems in Southern Europe (Piemonte, Italy) and in North America (Missouri, USA). A total of twelve rice farms, either conventional or organic, were selected, collecting detailed data on direct (fuel and electricity) and indirect (machinery, fertilizers, pesticides, and seeds) energy inputs. While energy input of conventional farms ranged from 3.5 to 7 MJ/kg paddy rice, organic farming could reduce inputs by more than 50% with only 8% yield decrease. A significant reduction in fuel or electricity use can be achieved also with no till and surface irrigation. The use of renewable energy sources, as already practiced by some farms, could more than cover their electrical energy requirements.

  4. Demand-driven energy requirement of world economy 2007: A multi-region input-output network simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhan-Ming; Chen, G. Q.

    2013-07-01

    This study presents a network simulation of the global embodied energy flows in 2007 based on a multi-region input-output model. The world economy is portrayed as a 6384-node network and the energy interactions between any two nodes are calculated and analyzed. According to the results, about 70% of the world's direct energy input is invested in resource, heavy manufacture, and transportation sectors which provide only 30% of the embodied energy to satisfy final demand. By contrast, non-transportation services sectors contribute to 24% of the world's demand-driven energy requirement with only 6% of the direct energy input. Commodity trade is shown to be an important alternative to fuel trade in redistributing energy, as international commodity flows embody 1.74E + 20 J of energy in magnitude up to 89% of the traded fuels. China is the largest embodied energy exporter with a net export of 3.26E + 19 J, in contrast to the United States as the largest importer with a net import of 2.50E + 19 J. The recent economic fluctuations following the financial crisis accelerate the relative expansions of energy requirement by developing countries, as a consequence China will take over the place of the United States as the world's top demand-driven energy consumer in 2022 and India will become the third largest in 2015.

  5. Transonic flow over airfoils at energy input and with account for the real properties of the air

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aul'Chenko, S. M.; Zamuraev, V. P.; Kalinina, A. P.

    2010-07-01

    We have investigated the influence of molecular (thermodynamic and transfer) properties of the air on the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of the gas-dynamic effects of pulsed-periodic energy input in transonic flow over airfoils. The influence of the transfer properties (viscosity) has been taken into account approximately within the boundary layer. It has been shown that qualitative estimates of the above effects do not depend on the account of molecular properties of the air, but the existence of internal degrees of freedom leads to a marked lowering of the temperature level as compared to the ideal gas model. Account of the viscosity somewhat decreases the energy input estimates. The influence of the airfoil shape on the aerodynamic characteristics at energy input has been investigated.

  6. Dark energy and dark matter from an additional adiabatic fluid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dunsby, Peter K. S.; Luongo, Orlando; Reverberi, Lorenzo

    2016-10-01

    The dark sector is described by an additional barotropic fluid which evolves adiabatically during the Universe's history and whose adiabatic exponent γ is derived from the standard definitions of specific heats. Although in general γ is a function of the redshift, the Hubble parameter and its derivatives, we find that our assumptions lead necessarily to solutions with γ =constant in a Friedmann-Lemaître-Robertson-Walker universe. The adiabatic fluid acts effectively as the sum of two distinct components, one evolving like nonrelativistic matter and the other depending on the value of the adiabatic index. This makes the model particularly interesting as a way of simultaneously explaining the nature of both dark energy and dark matter, at least at the level of the background cosmology. The Λ CDM model is included in this family of theories when γ =0 . We fit our model to supernovae Ia, H (z ) and baryonic acoustic oscillation data, discussing the model selection criteria. The implications for the early Universe and the growth of small perturbations in this model are also discussed.

  7. Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smalheer, C. V.

    1973-01-01

    The chemistry of lubricant additives is discussed to show what the additives are chemically and what functions they perform in the lubrication of various kinds of equipment. Current theories regarding the mode of action of lubricant additives are presented. The additive groups discussed include the following: (1) detergents and dispersants, (2) corrosion inhibitors, (3) antioxidants, (4) viscosity index improvers, (5) pour point depressants, and (6) antifouling agents.

  8. Estimates of wind energy input to the Ekman layer in the Southern Ocean from surface drifter data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Elipot, Shane; Gille, Sarah T.

    2009-06-01

    The energy input to the upper ocean Ekman layer is assessed for the Southern Ocean by examining the rotary cross spectrum between wind stress and surface velocity for frequencies between 0 and 2 cpd. The wind stress is taken from European Center for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts ERA-40 reanalysis, and drifter measurements from 15 m depth are used to represent surface velocities, with an adjustment to account for the vertical structure of the upper ocean. The energy input occurs mostly through the nonzero frequencies rather than the mean. Phenomenologically, the combination of a stronger anticyclonic wind stress forcing associated with a greater anticyclonic response makes the contribution from the anticyclonic frequencies dominate the wind energy input. The latitudinal and seasonal variations of the wind energy input to the Ekman layer are closely related to the variations of the wind stress, both for the mean and for the time-varying components. The contribution from the near-inertial band follows a different trend, increasing from 30°S to about 45°S and decreasing further south, possibly a consequence of the lack of variance in this band in the drifter and wind stress data.

  9. Interrelationship between conservation tillage and energy and other input use in U.S. agriculture

    SciTech Connect

    Uri, N.D.

    1996-12-01

    An important issue with regard to the overall effectiveness of conservation tillage practices in reducing the impact of agricultural production on the environment concerns what happens to energy, pesticide, and fertilizer use as these practices are more extensively adopted. To gain some insight into this, the conservation tillage adoption decision is modeled. Starting with the assumption that the conservation tillage adoption decision is a two-step procedure--the first is the decision whether or not to adopt a conservation tillage production system and the second is the decision on the extent to which conservation tillage should be used--appropriate models of the Cragg and Heckman (dominance) type are estimated. Based on a farm-level data on corn production in the US for 1987, the profile of a farm on which conservation tillage was adopted is that the cropland had above average slope and experienced above average rainfall, the farm was a cash grain enterprise, and it had an above average expenditure on pesticides, a below average expenditure on energy, and a below average expenditure on custom pesticide applications. Additionally, for a farm adopting a no-tillage production practice, an above average expenditure was made on fertilizer.

  10. The roles of direct input of energy from the solar wind and unloading of stored magnetotail energy in driving magnetospheric substorms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rostoker, G.; Akasofu, S. I.; Baumjohann, W.; Kamide, Y.; Mcpherron, R. L.

    1987-01-01

    The contributions to the substorm expansive phase of direct energy input from the solar wind and from energy stored in the magnetotail which is released in an unpredictable manner are considered. Two physical processes for the dispensation of the energy input from the solar wind are identified: (1) a driven process in which energy supplied from the solar wind is directly dissipated in the ionosphere; and (2) a loading-unloading process in which energy from the solar wind is first stored in the magnetotail and then is suddenly released to be deposited in the ionosphere. The pattern of substorm development in response to changes in the interplanetary medium has been elucidated for a canonical isolated substorm.

  11. Converting oil shale to liquid fuels: energy inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the Shell in situ conversion process.

    PubMed

    Brandt, Adam R

    2008-10-01

    Oil shale is a sedimentary rock that contains kerogen, a fossil organic material. Kerogen can be heated to produce oil and gas (retorted). This has traditionally been a CO2-intensive process. In this paper, the Shell in situ conversion process (ICP), which is a novel method of retorting oil shale in place, is analyzed. The ICP utilizes electricity to heat the underground shale over a period of 2 years. Hydrocarbons are produced using conventional oil production techniques, leaving shale oil coke within the formation. The energy inputs and outputs from the ICP, as applied to oil shales of the Green River formation, are modeled. Using these energy inputs, the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from the ICP are calculated and are compared to emissions from conventional petroleum. Energy outputs (as refined liquid fuel) are 1.2-1.6 times greater than the total primary energy inputs to the process. In the absence of capturing CO2 generated from electricity produced to fuel the process, well-to-pump GHG emissions are in the range of 30.6-37.1 grams of carbon equivalent per megajoule of liquid fuel produced. These full-fuel-cycle emissions are 21%-47% larger than those from conventionally produced petroleum-based fuels.

  12. Energy input from quasars regulates the growth and activity of black holes and their host galaxies.

    PubMed

    Di Matteo, Tiziana; Springel, Volker; Hernquist, Lars

    2005-02-10

    In the early Universe, while galaxies were still forming, black holes as massive as a billion solar masses powered quasars. Supermassive black holes are found at the centres of most galaxies today, where their masses are related to the velocity dispersions of stars in their host galaxies and hence to the mass of the central bulge of the galaxy. This suggests a link between the growth of the black holes and their host galaxies, which has indeed been assumed for a number of years. But the origin of the observed relation between black hole mass and stellar velocity dispersion, and its connection with the evolution of galaxies, have remained unclear. Here we report simulations that simultaneously follow star formation and the growth of black holes during galaxy-galaxy collisions. We find that, in addition to generating a burst of star formation, a merger leads to strong inflows that feed gas to the supermassive black hole and thereby power the quasar. The energy released by the quasar expels enough gas to quench both star formation and further black hole growth. This determines the lifetime of the quasar phase (approaching 100 million years) and explains the relationship between the black hole mass and the stellar velocity dispersion.

  13. Inductive-Dynamic Simulation on Locations of Energy Input to and Deposition in the Ionosphere-Thermospher

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tu, J.

    2015-12-01

    Recent observations of the net Poynting flux deposition to the ionosphere showed that the strongest energy input from the magnetosphere is in the polar cap where the plasma flow speed is high and not where the flow reverses, implying that the field-aligned current is not the primary agent of the energy transfer and that other physical progresses are at play. In this study we assess locations of the energy transfer and deposition by a simulation conducted with a self-consistent inductive-dynamic (including self-consistent solutions of Faraday's law and retaining inertia terms in the plasma momentum equations) ionosphere-thermosphere model. In a 2-D global geometry (dawn-dusk meridian plane), we solve the multifluid-collisional-Hall MHD equations including photochemistry. The preliminary simulation results demonstrate propagation and evolution of the field-aligned currents and the dynamic processes of the formation of the ionospheric Pedersen currents. By comparing locations of the field-aligned currents and ionosphere/thermosphere heating driven by the magnetospheric convection we show that the energy input to the IT system and the energy dissipation occurs in the polar cap instead of regions where the field-aligned currents reside. The implication of these results is that the field-aligned currents are not the primary agent of the energy transfer from the magnetosphere to the IT system.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Determination of the Thermomechanical Response of Inelastic Structural Materials to High Energy Thermal Inputs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    CLASSIFICATION AUTHORITY 3 . DISTRIBUTION /AVAILABILITY OF REPORT __________________________________ A~PrOyed tOr publIc release, 2o. DECLASSIFICATION...DETERMINATION OF THE THERMOMECHANICAL RESPONSE OF INELASTIC STRUCTURAL MATERIALS TO HIGH ENERGY THERMAL INPUTS 3 Semi-Annual Technical Report Submitted by...D.H. Allen Aerospace Engineering Department and M.S. Pilant Mathematics Department 5Texas A&M University College Station, Texas 77843U 3 to the Air

  15. Interprovincial transfer of embodied energy between the Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China: A quantification using interprovincial input-output model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Weiming; Wu, Sanmang; Lei, Yalin; Li, Shantong

    2017-04-15

    Commodity trade between regions implies a large amount of energy transfer. As an important economic growth pole of China, the Jing-Jin-Ji area (Beijing-Tianjin-Hebei) is also one of the areas with the largest energy consumption in China. Moreover, the primary energy consumer goods in this area are fossil fuels, such as coal. This has led to serious air pollution in the area. Therefore, the reduction of energy consumption under the premise of maintaining sustained economic growth is an important task of the Jing-Jin-Ji area. In this study, an interprovincial input-output model was applied to quantitatively estimate the embodied energy transfer between Jing-Jin-Ji area and other provinces in China. The results indicated that the Metal and nonmetal mineral processing industry and the Electrical, gas and water industry in the Jing-Jin-Ji area exported a large amount of embodied energy to the Yangtze River Delta and the Pearl River Delta. However, the embodied energy export of the Jing-Jin-Ji area mainly exported by Hebei province. Beijing and Tianjin even have some net import of embodied energy. The embodied energy transfer between Tianjin, Hebei and other provinces was mainly driven by investment, while the main media of embodied energy transfer between Beijing and other provinces was consumption. Therefore, we suggest that the Jing-Jin-Ji area should further increase the degree of dependence on other provinces' energy-intensive products and reduce the export of energy-intensive products. In addition, there should be difference in the energy and industrial policies among Beijing, Tianjin and Hebei, and the problems of high energy consumption and high proportion of heavy industry in Hebei should be first resolved.

  16. Energy intensity of computer manufacturing: hybrid assessment combining process and economic input-output methods.

    PubMed

    Williams, Eric

    2004-11-15

    The total energy and fossil fuels used in producing a desktop computer with 17-in. CRT monitor are estimated at 6400 megajoules (MJ) and 260 kg, respectively. This indicates that computer manufacturing is energy intensive: the ratio of fossil fuel use to product weight is 11, an order of magnitude larger than the factor of 1-2 for many other manufactured goods. This high energy intensity of manufacturing, combined with rapid turnover in computers, results in an annual life cycle energy burden that is surprisingly high: about 2600 MJ per year, 1.3 times that of a refrigerator. In contrast with many home appliances, life cycle energy use of a computer is dominated by production (81%) as opposed to operation (19%). Extension of usable lifespan (e.g. by reselling or upgrading) is thus a promising approach to mitigating energy impacts as well as other environmental burdens associated with manufacturing and disposal.

  17. Regenerative Fuel Cells: Renewable Energy Storage Devices Based on Neutral Water Input

    SciTech Connect

    2010-09-01

    GRIDS Project: Proton Energy Systems is developing an energy storage device that converts water to hydrogen fuel when excess electricity is available, and then uses hydrogen to generate electricity when energy is needed. The system includes an electrolyzer, which generates and separates hydrogen and oxygen for storage, and a fuel cell which converts the hydrogen and oxygen back to electricity. Traditional systems use acidic membranes, and require expensive materials including platinum and titanium for key parts of the system. In contrast, Proton Energy Systems’ new system will use an inexpensive alkaline membrane and will contain only inexpensive metals such as nickel and stainless steel. If successful, Proton Energy Systems’ system will have similar performance to today’s regenerative fuel cell systems at a fraction of the cost, and can be used to store electricity on the electric grid.

  18. The effect of output-input isolation on the scaling and energy consumption of all-spin logic devices

    SciTech Connect

    Hu, Jiaxi; Haratipour, Nazila; Koester, Steven J.

    2015-05-07

    All-spin logic (ASL) is a novel approach for digital logic applications wherein spin is used as the state variable instead of charge. One of the challenges in realizing a practical ASL system is the need to ensure non-reciprocity, meaning the information flows from input to output, not vice versa. One approach described previously, is to introduce an asymmetric ground contact, and while this approach was shown to be effective, it remains unclear as to the optimal approach for achieving non-reciprocity in ASL. In this study, we quantitatively analyze techniques to achieve non-reciprocity in ASL devices, and we specifically compare the effect of using asymmetric ground position and dipole-coupled output/input isolation. For this analysis, we simulate the switching dynamics of multiple-stage logic devices with FePt and FePd perpendicular magnetic anisotropy materials using a combination of a matrix-based spin circuit model coupled to the Landau–Lifshitz–Gilbert equation. The dipole field is included in this model and can act as both a desirable means of coupling magnets and a source of noise. The dynamic energy consumption has been calculated for these schemes, as a function of input/output magnet separation, and the results show that using a scheme that electrically isolates logic stages produces superior non-reciprocity, thus allowing both improved scaling and reduced energy consumption.

  19. Compilation and application of Japanese inventories for energy consumption and air pollutant emissions using input-output tables.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Moriguchi, Yuichi; Tohno, Susumu

    2003-05-01

    Preparing emission inventories is essential to the assessment and management of our environment. In this study, Japanese air pollutant emissions, energy consumption, and CO2 emissions categorized by approximately 400 sectors (as classified by Japanese input-output tables in 1995) were estimated, and the contributions of each sector to the total amounts were analyzed. The air pollutants examined were nitrogen oxides (NOx), sulfur oxides (SOx), and suspended particulate matter (SPM). Consumptions of about 20 fossil fuels and five other fuels were estimated according to sector. Air pollutant emission factors for stationary sources were calculated from the results of a survey on air pollution prevention in Japan. Pollutant emissions from mobile sources were estimated taking into consideration vehicle types, traveling speeds, and distances. This work also counted energy supply and emissions from seven nonfossil fuel sources, including nonthermal electric power, and CO2 emissions from limestone (for example, during cement production). The total energy consumption in 1995 was concluded to be 18.3 EJ, and the annual total emissions of CO2, NOx, SOx, and SPM were, respectively, 343 Mt-C, 3.51 Mt, 1.87 Mt, and 0.32 Mt. An input-output analysis of the emission inventories was used to calculate the amounts of energy consumption and emissions induced in each sector by the economic final demand.

  20. Energy budgeting and carbon footprint of transgenic cotton-wheat production system through peanut intercropping and FYM addition.

    PubMed

    Singh, Raman Jeet; Ahlawat, I P S

    2015-05-01

    Two of the most pressing sustainability issues are the depletion of fossil energy resources and the emission of atmospheric green house gases like carbon dioxide to the atmosphere. The aim of this study was to assess energy budgeting and carbon footprint in transgenic cotton-wheat cropping system through peanut intercropping with using 25-50% substitution of recommended dose of nitrogen (RDN) of cotton through farmyard manure (FYM) along with 100% RDN through urea and control (0 N). To quantify the residual effects of previous crops and their fertility levels, a succeeding crop of wheat was grown with varying rates of nitrogen, viz. 0, 50, 100, and 150 kg ha(-1). Cotton + peanut-wheat cropping system recorded 21% higher system productivity which ultimately helped to maintain higher net energy return (22%), energy use efficiency (12%), human energy profitability (3%), energy productivity (7%), carbon outputs (20%), carbon efficiency (17%), and 11% lower carbon footprint over sole cotton-wheat cropping system. Peanut addition in cotton-wheat system increased the share of renewable energy inputs from 18 to 21%. With substitution of 25% RDN of cotton through FYM, share of renewable energy resources increased in the range of 21% which resulted into higher system productivity (4%), net energy return (5%), energy ratio (6%), human energy profitability (74%), energy productivity (6%), energy profitability (5%), and 5% lower carbon footprint over no substitution. The highest carbon footprint (0.201) was recorded under control followed by 50 % substitution of RDN through FYM (0.189). With each successive increase in N dose up to 150 kg N ha(-1) to wheat, energy productivity significantly reduced and share of renewable energy inputs decreased from 25 to 13%. Application of 100 kg N ha(-1) to wheat maintained the highest grain yield (3.71 t ha(-1)), net energy return (105,516 MJ ha(-1)), and human energy profitability (223.4) over other N doses applied to wheat

  1. NECAP 4.1: NASA's Energy-Cost Analysis Program input manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jensen, R. N.

    1982-01-01

    The computer program NECAP (NASA's Energy Cost Analysis Program) is described. The program is a versatile building design and energy analysis tool which has embodied within it state of the art techniques for performing thermal load calculations and energy use predictions. With the program, comparisons of building designs and operational alternatives for new or existing buildings can be made. The major feature of the program is the response factor technique for calculating the heat transfer through the building surfaces which accounts for the building's mass. The program expands the response factor technique into a space response factor to account for internal building temperature swings; this is extremely important in determining true building loads and energy consumption when internal temperatures are allowed to swing.

  2. Transition of building energy consumption using multi-input, single-output dynamic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pakanen, Jouko

    1992-10-01

    A new method based upon online measurements of weather and other characteristic data is proposed. The method is capable of being used with building automation systems for failure detection. The method uses a multi input, single output dynamic model to predict the power fluctuation of the building. The model parameters are identified recursively by measuring the actual power, outdoor temperature, solar radiation, wind velocity, and indoor temperatures. The stochastic variations in power caused by occupants, equipment, and lights, can be included in the model. Measurements are taken once every half hour and are used to update the model parameters by a recursive extended least square algorithm. The identified model can be used to detect failures of equipment and systems. Verification of the method was accomplished using real weather data and the TARP computer program for the simulation of a town house and measurements collected from a real test building.

  3. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2014-11-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 9.1 million liters of diesel to land 342.3 million kilograms of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.023-0.031 l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 200-900% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 6.69 GgC to the atmosphere, between 2300 and 3300 tons CO2 per year.

  4. Energy direct inputs and greenhouse gas emissions of the main industrial trawl fishery of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Port, Dagoberto; Perez, Jose Angel Alvarez; de Menezes, João Thadeu

    2016-06-15

    This study provides first-time estimates of direct fuel inputs and greenhouse gas emissions produced by the trawl fishing fleet operating off southeastern and southern Brazil. Analyzed data comprised vessel characteristics, landings, fishing areas and trawling duration of 10,144 fishing operations monitored in Santa Catarina State from 2003 to 2011. Three main fishing strategies were differentiated: 'shrimp trawling', 'slope trawling' and 'pair trawling'. Jointly these operations burned over 141.5millionl of diesel to land 342.3millionkg of fish and shellfish. Annually, 0.36-0.48l were consumed for every kg of catch landed. Because all fishing strategies relied on multispecific catches to raise total incomes, estimates of fuel use intensity were generally low but increased 316-1025% if only nominal targets were considered. In nine years, trawling operations emitted 104.07GgC to the atmosphere, between 36,800-49,500tons CO2 per year.

  5. Partitioning of Electromagnetic Energy Inputs to the Thermosphere during Geomagnetic Disturbances

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-01

    new theory that relates neutral density cell structure to divergences of the ⃗ ⃗⃗ force. At E-region altitudes these divergences arise because of...thermosphere. Solar wind energy is transferred indirectly through an interaction with Earth’s magnetic field that gives rise to an electromagnetic dynamo ... Dynamo energy flowing into the thermosphere is mediated by the ionosphere. Unlike solar EUV radiation to which the thermosphere responds passively

  6. Input vector optimization of feed-forward neural networks for fitting ab initio potential-energy databases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malshe, M.; Raff, L. M.; Hagan, M.; Bukkapatnam, S.; Komanduri, R.

    2010-05-01

    The variation in the fitting accuracy of neural networks (NNs) when used to fit databases comprising potential energies obtained from ab initio electronic structure calculations is investigated as a function of the number and nature of the elements employed in the input vector to the NN. Ab initio databases for H2O2, HONO, Si5, and H2CCHBr were employed in the investigations. These systems were chosen so as to include four-, five-, and six-body systems containing first, second, third, and fourth row elements with a wide variety of chemical bonding and whose conformations cover a wide range of structures that occur under high-energy machining conditions and in chemical reactions involving cis-trans isomerizations, six different types of two-center bond ruptures, and two different three-center dissociation reactions. The ab initio databases for these systems were obtained using density functional theory/B3LYP, MP2, and MP4 methods with extended basis sets. A total of 31 input vectors were investigated. In each case, the elements of the input vector were chosen from interatomic distances, inverse powers of the interatomic distance, three-body angles, and dihedral angles. Both redundant and nonredundant input vectors were investigated. The results show that among all the input vectors investigated, the set employed in the Z-matrix specification of the molecular configurations in the electronic structure calculations gave the lowest NN fitting accuracy for both Si5 and vinyl bromide. The underlying reason for this result appears to be the discontinuity present in the dihedral angle for planar geometries. The use of trigometric functions of the angles as input elements produced significantly improved fitting accuracy as this choice eliminates the discontinuity. The most accurate fitting was obtained when the elements of the input vector were taken to have the form Rij-n, where the Rij are the interatomic distances. When the Levenberg-Marquardt procedure was modified

  7. Energy balance in the solar transition region. II - Effects of pressure and energy input on hydrostatic models

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fontenla, J. M.; Avrett, E. H.; Loeser, R.

    1991-01-01

    The radiation of energy by hydrogen lines and continua in hydrostatic energy-balance models of the transition region between the solar chromosphere and corona is studied using models which assume that mechanical or magnetic energy is dissipated in the hot corona and is then transported toward the chromosphere down the steep temperature gradient of the transition region. These models explain the average quiet sun and also the entire range of variability of the Ly-alpha lines. The relations between the downward energy flux, the pressure of the transition region, and the different hydrogen emission are described.

  8. Improving power output of inertial energy harvesters by employing principal component analysis of input acceleration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smilek, Jan; Hadas, Zdenek

    2017-02-01

    In this paper we propose the use of principal component analysis to process the measured acceleration data in order to determine the direction of acceleration with the highest variance on given frequency of interest. This method can be used for improving the power generated by inertial energy harvesters. Their power output is highly dependent on the excitation acceleration magnitude and frequency, but the axes of acceleration measurements might not always be perfectly aligned with the directions of movement, and therefore the generated power output might be severely underestimated in simulations, possibly leading to false conclusions about the feasibility of using the inertial energy harvester for the examined application.

  9. An input-output approach to analyze the ways to increase total output of energy sectors: The case of Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2014-03-01

    The purpose of this study is to analyze the ways to increase total output of Japanese energy sectors in future time. In this study, Input-Output (IO) analysis is employed as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on petroleum refinery products and non-ferrous metals as analyzed sectors. The results show that positive impact observed in export and outside households consumption modifications while opposite impact is given by modification of import. The recommendations suggested based on these results are Japanese government should make breakthroughs so analyzed sector's export activities can increase and they have to careful in conducting import activities related to these sectors.

  10. The World's Largest Experiment Manipulating Solar Energy Input To Earth Resumed In 2003

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ward, P. L.

    2010-12-01

    Small amounts of solar-ultraviolet-energy absorbing gases such as ozone, SO2, and NO2 play an unusually large role warming the atmosphere. A mere 3 to 8 ppmv ozone at elevations of 15 to 50 km and associated exothermic chemical reactions warm the atmosphere >50oC, forming the stratosphere. All three molecules have an asymmetric top shape that, unlike linear molecules of CO2, forms a permanent electromagnetic dipole enhancing interaction with electromagnetic radiation. Planck’s postulate (Energy = a constant times frequency) implies that solar ultraviolet energy strongly absorbed by SO2 is 43 times greater than infrared energy radiated by earth and strongly absorbed by CO2. Solar energy in the blue visible spectrum and ultraviolet causes electronic transitions and an absorption spectrum that is a continuum, absorbing far more energy per unit gas than spectral line absorption of infrared energy caused by rotational and vibrational transitions. Absorption of electromagnetic energy by atmospheric gases increases rapidly with increasing frequency, an observation not accounted for by the use of specific heat in atmospheric models to link energy flux with temperature. While SO2 in the stratosphere is oxidized to a sulfuric acid aerosol that reflects sunlight, cooling the earth, SO2 in the troposphere is oxidized much more slowly than commonly assumed. Well-documented concentrations of tens of ppbv SO2 emitted by humans burning fossil fuels, especially coal, in northern mid-latitudes are contemporaneous, with suitable time delays for warming the ocean, with increased global warming during the 20th century, greatest by nearly a factor of two in the northern hemisphere. A decrease by 18% of anthropogenic SO2 emissions between 1979 and 2000 aimed at reducing acid rain had the unintended effect of reducing the global mean rate of temperature increase to zero by 1998. By 2003, global SO2 emissions began to rise sharply due to the rapid increase in number of new coal

  11. Solar energy conversion systems engineering and economic analysis radiative energy input/thermal electric output computation. Volume III

    SciTech Connect

    Russo, G.

    1982-09-01

    The direct energy flux analytical model, an analysis of the results, and a brief description of a non-steady state model of a thermal solar energy conversion system implemented on a code, SIRR2, as well as the coupling of CIRR2 which computes global solar flux on a collector and SIRR2 are presented. It is shown how the CIRR2 and, mainly, the SIRR2 codes may be used for a proper design of a solar collector system. (LEW)

  12. Substantial energy input to the mesopelagic ecosystem from the seasonal mixed-layer pump

    PubMed Central

    Dall’Olmo, Giorgio; Dingle, James; Polimene, Luca; Brewin, Robert J.W.; Claustre, Hervé

    2016-01-01

    The “mesopelagic” is the region of the ocean between about 100 and 1000 m that harbours one of the largest ecosystems and fish stocks on the planet1,2. This vastly unexplored ecosystem is believed to be mostly sustained by chemical energy, in the form of fast-sinking particulate organic carbon, supplied by the biological carbon pump3. Yet, this supply appears insufficient to match mesopelagic metabolic demands4–6. The mixed-layer pump is a physically-driven biogeochemical process7–11 that could further contribute to meet these energetic requirements. However, little is known about the magnitude and spatial distribution of this process at the global scale. Here we show that the mixed-layer pump supplies an important seasonal flux of organic carbon to the mesopelagic. By combining mixed-layer depths from Argo floats with satellite retrievals of particulate organic carbon, we estimate that this pump exports a global flux of about 0.3 Pg C yr−1 (range 0.1 – 0.5 Pg C yr−1). In high-latitude regions where mixed-layers are deep, this flux is on average 23%, but can be greater than 100% of the carbon supplied by fast sinking particles. Our results imply that a relatively large flux of organic carbon is missing from current energy budgets of the mesopelagic. PMID:27857779

  13. Nitrogen fertiliser production based on biogas - energy input, environmental impact and land use.

    PubMed

    Ahlgren, Serina; Bernesson, Sven; Nordberg, Ke; Hansson, Per-Anders

    2010-09-01

    The aim of the present paper was to investigate the land use, environmental impact and fossil energy use when using biogas instead of natural gas in the production of nitrogen fertilisers. The biogas was assumed to be produced from anaerobic digestion of ley grass and maize. The calculations showed that 1 ha of agricultural land in south-west Sweden can produce 1.7 metric ton of nitrogen in the form of ammonium nitrate per year from ley grass, or 3.6 ton from maize. The impact on global warming, from cradle to gate, was calculated to be lower when producing nitrogen fertiliser from biomass compared with natural gas. Eutrophication and acidification potential was higher in the biomass scenarios. The greatest advantage of the biomass systems however lies in the potential to reduce agriculture's dependency on fossil fuels. In the biomass scenarios, only 2-4 MJ of primary fossil energy was required, while 35 MJ/kgN was required when utilising natural gas.

  14. Wind Levelized Cost of Energy: A Comparison of Technical and Financing Input Variables

    SciTech Connect

    Cory, K.; Schwabe, P.

    2009-10-01

    The expansion of wind power capacity in the United States has increased the demand for project development capital. In response, innovative approaches to financing wind projects have emerged and are proliferating in the U.S. renewable energy marketplace. Wind power developers and financiers have become more efficient and creative in structuring their financial relationships, and often tailor them to different investor types and objectives. As a result, two similar projects may use very different cash flows and financing arrangements, which can significantly vary the economic competitiveness of wind projects. This report assesses the relative impact of numerous financing, technical, and operating variables on the levelized cost of energy (LCOE) associated with a wind project under various financing structures in the U.S. marketplace. Under this analysis, the impacts of several financial and technical variables on the cost of wind electricity generation are first examined individually to better understand the relative importance of each. Then, analysts examine a low-cost and a high-cost financing scenario, where multiple variables are modified simultaneously. Lastly, the analysis also considers the impact of a suite of financial variables versus a suite of technical variables.

  15. Analysis of health impact inputs to the US Department of Energy's risk information system

    SciTech Connect

    Droppo, J.G. Jr.; Buck, J.W.; Strenge, D.L.; Siegel, M.R.

    1990-08-01

    The US Department of Energy (DOE) is in the process of completing a survey of environmental problems, referred to as the Environmental Survey, at their facilities across the country. The DOE Risk Information System (RIS) is being used to prioritize these environmental problems identified in the Environmental Survey's findings. This report contains a discussion of site-specific public health risk parameters and the rationale for their inclusion in the RIS. These parameters are based on computed potential impacts obtained with the Multimedia Environmental Pollutant Assessment System (MEPAS). MEPAS is a computer-based methodology for evaluating the potential exposures resulting from multimedia environmental transport of hazardous materials. This report has three related objectives: document the role of MEPAS in the RIS framework, report the results of the analysis of alternative risk parameters that led to the current RIS risk parameters, and describe analysis of uncertainties in the risk-related parameters. 20 refs., 17 figs., 10 tabs.

  16. Coupling between fluid dynamics and energy addition in arcjet and microwave thrusters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Micci, M. M.

    1986-01-01

    A new approach to numerically solving the problem of the constricted electric arcjet is presented. An Euler Implicit finite difference scheme is used to solve the full compressible Navier Stokes equations in two dimensions. The boundary and initial conditions represent the constrictor section of the arcjet, and hydrogen is used as a propellant. The arc is modeled as a Gaussian distribution across the centerline of the constrictor. Temperature, pressure and velocity profiles for steady state converged solutions show both axial and radial changes in distributions resulting from their interaction with the arc energy source for specific input conditions. The temperature rise is largest at the centerline where there is a the greatest concentration arc energy. The solution does not converge for all initial inputs and the limitations in the range of obtainable solutions are discussed.

  17. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  18. 48 CFR 204.470 - U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 3 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol. 204.470 Section 204.470 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEFENSE... Information Within Industry 204.470 U.S.-International Atomic Energy Agency Additional Protocol....

  19. Journey on greener pathways: from the use of alternate energy inputs and benign reaction media to sustainable applications of nano-catalysts in synthesis and environmental remediation

    EPA Science Inventory

    Sustainable synthetic processes developed during the past two decades involving the use of alternate energy inputs and greener reaction media are summarized. These processes include examples of coupling reactions, the synthesis of heterocyclic compounds, and a variety of reactio...

  20. Substantial energy input to the mesopelagic ecosystem from the seasonal mixed-layer pump

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dall'Olmo, Giorgio; Dingle, James; Polimene, Luca; Brewin, Robert J. W.; Claustre, Hervé

    2016-11-01

    The ocean region known as the mesopelagic zone, which is at depths of about 100-1,000 m, harbours one of the largest ecosystems and fish stocks on the planet. Life in this region is believed to rely on particulate organic carbon supplied by the biological carbon pump. Yet this supply appears insufficient to meet mesopelagic metabolic demands. An additional organic carbon source to the mesopelagic zone could be provided by the seasonal entrainment of surface waters in deeper layers, a process known as the mixed-layer pump. Little is known about the magnitude and spatial distribution of this process globally or its potential to transport carbon to the mesopelagic zone. Here we combine mixed-layer depth data from Argo floats with satellite estimates of particulate organic carbon concentrations to show that the mixed-layer pump supplies an important seasonal flux of organic carbon to the mesopelagic zone. We estimate that this process is responsible for a global flux of 0.1-0.5 Pg C yr-1. In high-latitude regions where the mixed layer is usually deep, this flux amounts on average to 23% of the carbon supplied by fast sinking particles, but it can be greater than 100%. We conclude that the seasonal mixed-layer pump is an important source of organic carbon for the mesopelagic zone.

  1. Modulation of dayside on and neutral distributions at Venus Evidence of direct and indirect solar energy inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taylor, H. A., Jr.; Mayr, H. G.; Grebowsky, J. M.; Niemann, H. B.; Hartle, R. E.; Cloutier, P. A.; Barnes, A.; Daniell, R. E., Jr.

    1982-01-01

    The details of solar variability and its coupled effects on the Venusian dayside are examined for evidence of short-term perturbations and associated energy inputs. Ion and neutral measurements obtained from the Orbiter Ion Mass Spectrometer and Orbital Neutral mass Spectrometer are used to show that the dayside concentrations of CO2(+) and the neutral gas temperature are smoothly modulated with a 28-day cycle reasonably matching that of the solar F(10.7) and EUV fluxes. Earlier measurements show less pronounced and more irregular modulations and more conspicuous short-term day-to-day fluctuations in the ions and neutrals, as well as relatively large enhancements in the solar wind, which appear consistent with differences in solar coronal behavior during the two periods. It is suggested that the solar wind variations cause fluctuations in joule heating, producing the observed short-term ion and neutral variations.

  2. A stock-flow consistent input-output model with applications to energy price shocks, interest rates, and heat emissions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berg, Matthew; Hartley, Brian; Richters, Oliver

    2015-01-01

    By synthesizing stock-flow consistent models, input-output models, and aspects of ecological macroeconomics, a method is developed to simultaneously model monetary flows through the financial system, flows of produced goods and services through the real economy, and flows of physical materials through the natural environment. This paper highlights the linkages between the physical environment and the economic system by emphasizing the role of the energy industry. A conceptual model is developed in general form with an arbitrary number of sectors, while emphasizing connections with the agent-based, econophysics, and complexity economics literature. First, we use the model to challenge claims that 0% interest rates are a necessary condition for a stationary economy and conduct a stability analysis within the parameter space of interest rates and consumption parameters of an economy in stock-flow equilibrium. Second, we analyze the role of energy price shocks in contributing to recessions, incorporating several propagation and amplification mechanisms. Third, implied heat emissions from energy conversion and the effect of anthropogenic heat flux on climate change are considered in light of a minimal single-layer atmosphere climate model, although the model is only implicitly, not explicitly, linked to the economic model.

  3. The role of natural resource and environmental economics in determining the trade-offs in consumption and production of energy inputs: The case of biomass energy crops

    SciTech Connect

    Downing, M.; Graham, R.L.

    1993-12-31

    Natural resource economics issues deal with flows and funds of renewable and nonrenewable resources over time. These issues include topics concerned with management of fisheries, forests, mineral, energy resources, the extinction of species and the irreversibility of development over time. Environmental economics issues deal with regulation of polluting activities and the valuation of environmental amenities. In this study we outline a framework for studying both natural resource and environmental economics issues for any renewable or nonrenewable resource. Valuation from both the cost and benefit sides are addressed as they relate to the valuation of environmental programs or policies. By using this top-down approach to analyze and determine the costs and benefits of using renewable or nonrenewable resources, policy-makers on the global, national and local scales may be better informed as to the probable nonmarket and market ramifications of their natural resource and environmental policy decisions. This general framework for analysis is then focused to address biomass energy crops and their usage as inputs to energy production. As with any energy technology, a complete analysis must include an examination of the entire fuel cycle; specifically both production and consumption sides. From a production standpoint, market valuation issues such as crop management techniques, inputs to production, and community economics issues must be addressed as well as nonmarket valuation issues such as soil erosion, ground water effects and carbon sequestration. On the consumption side, market valuation considerations such as energy fuel efficiency and quality, cost of conversion and employment of labor are important factors while the critical nonmarket valuation factors are ambient air visibility, greenhouse gas release, and disposal of the by-products of conversion and combustion.

  4. Long GRB with Additional High Energy Maxima after the End of the Low Energy T90 Intervals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Irene, Arkhangelskaja; Alexander, Zenin; Dmitry, Kirin; Elena, Voevodina

    2013-01-01

    Now GRB high energy γ-emission was observed mostly by detectors onboard Fermi and Agile satellites. During most part of GRB high energy γ-emission registered some later than low energy trigger and lasts several hundreds of seconds, but its maxima are within low energy t90 intervals both for short and long bursts. But GRB090323, GRB090328 and GRB090626 temporal profiles have additional maxima after low energy t90 intervals finished. These bursts temporal profile analysis have shown that faint peaks in low energy bands close to the ends of low energy t90 intervals preceded such maxima. Moreover, these events low energy spectral index β behavior differs from usual GRB one according to preliminary analysis. We suppose that these GRB could be separated as different GRB type. In presented article this new GRB type properties are discussed.

  5. Closure of the energy balance equation over bare soil during the formation and evaporation of non-rainfall water inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Florentin, Anat; Agam, Nurit

    2015-04-01

    The Negev desert is characterized by an arid climate (annual mean precipitation is 90 mm) with sea breeze carrying moisture from the Mediterranean Sea during the afternoon regularly. Non-rainfall water inputs (NRWIs) are thus of great importance to the hydrometeorology and the ecological functioning of the region. The small magnitude of NRWIs challenges attempts to quantify these processes. The aim of this research was to test commonly used micrometeorological methods to quantify the energy balance components during the deposition and evaporation of NRWIs. A fully equipped micrometeorological station was set up near the Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (30o 51' 35.6" N; 34o 46' 24.8" E) during September-October 2014. Net-radiation was measured with a 4-way net radiometer, and soil heat flux was quantified by the calorimetric method in three replicates. Latent heat was measured using an eddy-covariance (EC) and compared to a micro-lysimeter (ML); sensible heat flux was measured with an EC and a surface layer scintillometer (SLS). Sensible heat fluxes measured by the EC and the SLS showed good agreement. EC latent heat fluxes were in good agreement with those derived by the ML. Nevertheless, derivation of latent heat flux from the SLS measurements through the energy balance equation showed a relatively large deviation from the directly measured latent heat flux. This deviation is likely attributed to measurement errors of the soil heat flux.

  6. Immobilization of antimony in waste-to-energy bottom ash by addition of calcium and iron containing additives.

    PubMed

    Van Caneghem, Jo; Verbinnen, Bram; Cornelis, Geert; de Wijs, Joost; Mulder, Rob; Billen, Pieter; Vandecasteele, Carlo

    2016-08-01

    The leaching of Sb from waste-to-energy (WtE) bottom ash (BA) often exceeds the Dutch limit value of 0.32mgkg(-1) for recycling of BA in open construction applications. From the immobilization mechanisms described in the literature, it could be concluded that both Ca and Fe play an important role in the immobilization of Sb in WtE BA. Therefore, Ca and Fe containing compounds were added to the samples of the sand fraction of WtE BA, which in contrast to the granulate fraction is not recyclable to date, and the effect on the Sb leaching was studied by means of batch leaching tests. Results showed that addition of 0.5 and 2.5% CaO, 5% CaCl2, 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 and 1% FeCl3 decreased the Sb leaching from 0.62±0.02mgkgDM(-1) to 0.20±0.02, 0.083±0.044, 0.25±0.01, 0.27±0.002 and 0.29±0.02mgkgDM(-1), respectively. Due to the increase in pH from 11.41 to 12.53 when 2.5% CaO was added, Pb and Zn leaching increased and exceeded the respective leaching limits. Addition of 5% CaCO3 had almost no effect on the Sb leaching, as evidenced by the resulting 0.53mgkgDM(-1) leaching concentration. This paper shows a complementary enhancement of the effect of Ca and Fe, by comparing the aforementioned Sb leaching results with those of WtE BA with combined addition of 2.5% CaO or 5% CaCl2 with 2.5% Fe2(SO4)3 or 1% FeCl3. These lab scale results suggest that formation of romeites with a high Ca content and formation of iron antimonate (tripuhyite) with a very low solubility are the main immobilization mechanisms of Sb in WtE BA. Besides the pure compounds and their mixtures, also addition of 10% of two Ca and Fe containing residues of the steel industry, hereafter referred to as R1 and R2, was effective in decreasing the Sb leaching from WtE BA below the Dutch limit value for reuse in open construction applications. To evaluate the long term effect of the additives, pilot plots of WtE BA with 10% of R1 and 5% and 10% of R2 were built and samples were submitted to leaching tests at

  7. Highly enhanced energy conversion from the streaming current by polymer addition.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Trieu; Xie, Yanbo; de Vreede, Lennart J; van den Berg, Albert; Eijkel, Jan C T

    2013-08-21

    In this contribution, we present for the first time the experimental results of energy conversion from the streaming current when a polymer is added to the working solution. We added polyacrylic acid (PAA) in concentrations of 200 ppm to 4000 ppm to a KCl solution. By introducing PAA, the input power, which is the product of volumetric flow rate and the applied pressure, reduced rapidly as compared to the case of using only a normal viscous electrolyte KCl solution. The output power at the same time remained largely constant, whereby an increase of the streaming current and a decrease of the streaming potential simultaneously occurred. These combined factors led to the massive increase of the energy conversion efficiency. Particularly, the results showed that when PAA was in a 0.01 mM KCl solution, the energy conversion efficiency of the system was enhanced by a factor of 447 (±2%), as compared to the case of the solution containing only 0.01 mM KCl. An enhancement factor of 249 (±4%) was also observed when PAA was added to the higher ionic strength background solution, 1 mM KCl. This finding can have practical use in microchannel-array energy conversion systems. When, instead of the negatively charged PAA, a non-ionic polymer polyethylene oxide (PEO) was added to the solution, no efficiency increase was observed, probably due to polymer wall adsorption.

  8. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy.

    PubMed

    Hollett, Joshua W

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is -0.11 kJ mol(-1) well(-1), which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  9. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  10. Cough reflex is additively potentiated by inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobronchial [corrected] receptors and enhanced by stimulation of the central respiratory neurons.

    PubMed

    Kondo, Tetsuri; Hayama, Naoki

    2009-09-01

    The cough is an essential airway defense reflex. In this study we investigated the coordination of inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobronchial receptors in the cough reflex. In 15 beagle dogs (7-9 kg) lightly anesthetized with intravenous profobol (20-30 mg/kg/h), the cough response was elicited with mechanical stimulation of either the vocal chord or tracheal bifurcation. Simultaneous stimulation of both sites increased all the parameters of cough strength, that is, mean pleural pressure (P (pl)), mean expiratory flow, number of cough bouts, and cough duration, in comparison with stimulation of the sites individually. The increases in mean P (pl) and cough duration reached statistical significance (13.3 vs. 18.4 cmH(2)O and 13.3 vs. 18.2 s, respectively). When the anesthetic level became deeper, the prolongation of cough duration almost disappeared, but the augmentation of mean P (pl) was much less affected. During stimulation of the central respiratory neurons by intravenous dimorphoramine or acute hyperoxic hypercapnia, the cough strength increased significantly. We concluded that inputs from the laryngeal and tracheobonchial cough receptors acted in concert and potentiated the cough reflex. Furthermore, stimulation of the central respiratory neurons may increase the intensity of a cough response.

  11. Energy deposition by heavy ions: Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Y. Y.; Grygiel, C.; Dufour, C.; Sun, J. R.; Wang, Z. G.; Zhao, Y. T.; Xiao, G. Q.; Cheng, R.; Zhou, X. M.; Ren, J. R.; Liu, S. D.; Lei, Y.; Sun, Y. B.; Ritter, R.; Gruber, E.; Cassimi, A.; Monnet, I.; Bouffard, S.; Aumayr, F.; Toulemonde, M.

    2014-07-01

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe22+ to Xe30+) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  12. Energy deposition by heavy ions: additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in hillock formation on CaF2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Y Y; Grygiel, C; Dufour, C; Sun, J R; Wang, Z G; Zhao, Y T; Xiao, G Q; Cheng, R; Zhou, X M; Ren, J R; Liu, S D; Lei, Y; Sun, Y B; Ritter, R; Gruber, E; Cassimi, A; Monnet, I; Bouffard, S; Aumayr, F; Toulemonde, M

    2014-07-18

    Modification of surface and bulk properties of solids by irradiation with ion beams is a widely used technique with many applications in material science. In this study, we show that nano-hillocks on CaF2 crystal surfaces can be formed by individual impact of medium energy (3 and 5 MeV) highly charged ions (Xe(22+) to Xe(30+)) as well as swift (kinetic energies between 12 and 58 MeV) heavy xenon ions. For very slow highly charged ions the appearance of hillocks is known to be linked to a threshold in potential energy (Ep) while for swift heavy ions a minimum electronic energy loss per unit length (Se) is necessary. With our results we bridge the gap between these two extreme cases and demonstrate, that with increasing energy deposition via Se the Ep-threshold for hillock production can be lowered substantially. Surprisingly, both mechanisms of energy deposition in the target surface seem to contribute in an additive way, which can be visualized in a phase diagram. We show that the inelastic thermal spike model, originally developed to describe such material modifications for swift heavy ions, can be extended to the case where both kinetic and potential energies are deposited into the surface.

  13. Drag Reduction by Laser-Plasma Energy Addition in Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-04-28

    An experimental study was conducted to investigate the drag reduction by laser-plasma energy addition in a low density Mach 7 hypersonic flow. The experiments were conducted in a shock tunnel and the optical beam of a high power pulsed CO{sub 2} TEA laser operating with 7 J of energy and 30 MW peak power was focused to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The non-intrusive schlieren optical technique was used to visualize the effects of the energy addition to hypersonic flow, from the plasma generation until the mitigation of the shock wave profile over the model surface. Aside the optical technique, a piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to measure the impact pressure at stagnation point of the hemispherical model and the pressure reduction could be observed.

  14. Activation energies for addition of O/3P/ to simple olefins.

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Demore, W. B.

    1972-01-01

    Description of relative rate measurements for the addition of O(3P) to C2H4, C2F4, C3H6, and C4H8-1 in liquid argon at 87.5 K. The data strongly indicate that the activation energies for the addition of O(3P) to the double bonds of propylene and butene-1 are identical, probably to within 0.1 kcal/mole. It is very doubtful that differences in pre-exponential factors or other factors such as solvent effects, could invalidate this conclusion. A similar argument holds for the C2H4 and C2F4 reactions. Furthermore, the experiments suggest that the activation energy for addition of O(3P) to the double bond of butene-1 is about 0.1 kcal/mole.

  15. Ultrasonic energy input influence οn the production of sub-micron o/w emulsions containing whey protein and common stabilizers.

    PubMed

    Kaltsa, O; Michon, C; Yanniotis, S; Mandala, I

    2013-05-01

    Ultrasonication may be a cost-effective emulsion formation technique, but its impact on emulsion final structure and droplet size needs to be further investigated. Olive oil emulsions (20wt%) were formulated (pH∼7) using whey protein (3wt%), three kinds of hydrocolloids (0.1-0.5wt%) and two different emulsification energy inputs (single- and two-stage, methods A and B, respectively). Formula and energy input effects on emulsion performance are discussed. Emulsions stability was evaluated over a 10-day storage period at 5°C recording the turbidity profiles of the emulsions. Optical micrographs, droplet size and viscosity values were also obtained. A differential scanning calorimetric (DSC) multiple cool-heat cyclic method (40 to -40°C) was performed to examine stability via crystallization phenomena of the dispersed phase. Ultrasonication energy input duplication from 11kJ to 25kJ (method B) resulted in stable emulsions production (reduction of back scattering values, dBS∼1% after 10days of storage) at 0.5wt% concentration of any of the stabilizers used. At lower gum amount samples became unstable due to depletion flocculation phenomena, regardless of emulsification energy input used. High energy input during ultrasonic emulsification also resulted in sub-micron oil-droplets emulsions (D(50)=0.615μm compared to D(50)=1.3μm using method A) with narrower particle size distribution and in viscosity reduction. DSC experiments revealed no presence of bulk oil formation, suggesting stability for XG 0.5wt% emulsions prepared by both methods. Reduced enthalpy values found when method B was applied suggesting structural modifications produced by extensive ultrasonication. Change of ultrasonication conditions results in significant changes of oil droplet size and stability of the produced emulsions.

  16. Non-pairwise additivity of the leading-order dispersion energy

    SciTech Connect

    Hollett, Joshua W.

    2015-02-28

    The leading-order (i.e., dipole-dipole) dispersion energy is calculated for one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) infinite lattices, and an infinite 1D array of infinitely long lines, of doubly occupied locally harmonic wells. The dispersion energy is decomposed into pairwise and non-pairwise additive components. By varying the force constant and separation of the wells, the non-pairwise additive contribution to the dispersion energy is shown to depend on the overlap of density between neighboring wells. As well separation is increased, the non-pairwise additivity of the dispersion energy decays. The different rates of decay for 1D and 2D lattices of wells is explained in terms of a Jacobian effect that influences the number of nearest neighbors. For an array of infinitely long lines of wells spaced 5 bohrs apart, and an inter-well spacing of 3 bohrs within a line, the non-pairwise additive component of the leading-order dispersion energy is −0.11 kJ mol{sup −1} well{sup −1}, which is 7% of the total. The polarizability of the wells and the density overlap between them are small in comparison to that of the atomic densities that arise from the molecular density partitioning used in post-density-functional theory (DFT) damped dispersion corrections, or DFT-D methods. Therefore, the nonadditivity of the leading-order dispersion observed here is a conservative estimate of that in molecular clusters.

  17. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    SciTech Connect

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-15

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO{sub 3}) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO{sub 4}) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO{sub 4} the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO{sub 4} increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO{sub 4}. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO{sub 4} concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO{sub 4} promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO{sub 4} adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  18. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    DOE PAGES

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; ...

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO₃) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO₄) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO₄ the film exhibits thermalmore » instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO₄ increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO₄. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO₄ concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO₄ promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO₄ adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.« less

  19. Development of flexible, free-standing, thin films for additive manufacturing and localized energy generation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Billy; McCollum, Jena; Pantoya, Michelle L.; Heaps, Ronald J.; Daniels, Michael A.

    2015-08-01

    Film energetics are becoming increasingly popular because a variety of technologies are driving a need for localized energy generation in a stable, safe and flexible form. Aluminum (Al) and molybdenum trioxide (MoO3) composites were mixed into a silicon binder and extruded using a blade casting technique to form flexible free-standing films ideal for localized energy generation. Since this material can be extruded onto a surface it is well suited to additive manufacturing applications. This study examines the influence of 0-35% by mass potassium perchlorate (KClO4) additive on the combustion behavior of these energetic films. Without KClO4 the film exhibits thermal instabilities that produce unsteady energy propagation upon reaction. All films were cast at a thickness of 1 mm with constant volume percent solids to ensure consistent rheological properties. The films were ignited and flame propagation was measured. The results show that as the mass percent KClO4 increased, the flame speed increased and peaked at 0.43 cm/s and 30 wt% KClO4. Thermochemical equilibrium simulations show that the heat of combustion increases with increasing KClO4 concentration up to a maximum at 20 wt% when the heat of combustion plateaus, indicating that the increased chemical energy liberated by the additional KClO4 promotes stable energy propagation. Differential scanning calorimeter and thermogravimetric analysis show that the silicone binder participates as a fuel and reacts with KClO4 adding energy to the reaction and promoting propagation.

  20. High Energy Density Additives for Hybrid Fuel Rockets to Improve Performance and Enhance Safety

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jaffe, Richard L.

    2014-01-01

    We propose a conceptual study of prototype strained hydrocarbon molecules as high energy density additives for hybrid rocket fuels to boost the performance of these rockets without compromising safety and reliability. Use of these additives could extend the range of applications for which hybrid rockets become an attractive alternative to conventional solid or liquid fuel rockets. The objectives of the study were to confirm and quantify the high enthalpy of these strained molecules and to assess improvement in rocket performance that would be expected if these additives were blended with conventional fuels. We confirmed the chemical properties (including enthalpy) of these additives. However, the predicted improvement in rocket performance was too small to make this a useful strategy for boosting hybrid rocket performance.

  1. Modeling the ionosphere-thermosphere response to a geomagnetic storm using physics-based magnetospheric energy input: OpenGGCM-CTIM results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Connor, Hyunju Kim; Zesta, Eftyhia; Fedrizzi, Mariangel; Shi, Yong; Raeder, Joachim; Codrescu, Mihail V.; Fuller-Rowell, Tim J.

    2016-06-01

    The magnetosphere is a major source of energy for the Earth's ionosphere and thermosphere (IT) system. Current IT models drive the upper atmosphere using empirically calculated magnetospheric energy input. Thus, they do not sufficiently capture the storm-time dynamics, particularly at high latitudes. To improve the prediction capability of IT models, a physics-based magnetospheric input is necessary. Here, we use the Open Global General Circulation Model (OpenGGCM) coupled with the Coupled Thermosphere Ionosphere Model (CTIM). OpenGGCM calculates a three-dimensional global magnetosphere and a two-dimensional high-latitude ionosphere by solving resistive magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) equations with solar wind input. CTIM calculates a global thermosphere and a high-latitude ionosphere in three dimensions using realistic magnetospheric inputs from the OpenGGCM. We investigate whether the coupled model improves the storm-time IT responses by simulating a geomagnetic storm that is preceded by a strong solar wind pressure front on August 24, 2005. We compare the OpenGGCM-CTIM results with low-earth-orbit satellite observations and with the model results of Coupled Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Plasmasphere electrodynamics (CTIPe). CTIPe is an up-to-date version of CTIM that incorporates more IT dynamics such as a low-latitude ionosphere and a plasmasphere, but uses empirical magnetospheric input. OpenGGCM-CTIM reproduces localized neutral density peaks at ~ 400 km altitude in the high-latitude dayside regions in agreement with in situ observations during the pressure shock and the early phase of the storm. Although CTIPe is in some sense a much superior model than CTIM, it misses these localized enhancements. Unlike the CTIPe empirical input models, OpenGGCM-CTIM more faithfully produces localized increases of both auroral precipitation and ionospheric electric fields near the high-latitude dayside region after the pressure shock and after the storm onset, which in turn

  2. Initiation and Modification of Reaction by Energy Addition: Kinetic and Transport Phenomena

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-10-01

    MODIFICATION OF REACTION BY ENERGY ADDITION: KINETIC AND TRANSPORT PHENOMENA by Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou Center for Propulsion Technology...TA - A2 L AUHOWAC - F49620-90-C-0070 Francis E. Fendell and Mau-Song Chou 7. PEMOS101IG ORGANIZATION NAME(S AND...a gaseous mixture is more pertinent for the supersonic-combustor applications of interest to the Air Force (compare Figs. 1 and 2) (Carrier, Fendell

  3. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    DOE PAGES

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a frictionmore » term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.« less

  4. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy loss in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-29

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. As a result, we found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  5. Additive effects of electronic and nuclear energy losses in irradiation-induced amorphization of zircon

    SciTech Connect

    Zarkadoula, Eva; Toulemonde, Marcel; Weber, William J.

    2015-12-28

    We used a combination of ion cascades and the unified thermal spike model to study the electronic effects from 800 keV Kr and Xe ion irradiation in zircon. We compared the damage production for four cases: (a) due to ion cascades alone, (b) due to ion cascades with the electronic energy loss activated as a friction term, (c) due to the thermal spike from the combined electronic and nuclear energy losses, and (d) due to ion cascades with electronic stopping and the electron-phonon interactions superimposed. We found that taking the electronic energy loss out as a friction term results in reduced damage, while the electronic electron-phonon interactions have additive impact on the final damage created per ion.

  6. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-03-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  7. Inventory of CO2 emissions driven by energy consumption in Hubei Province: a time-series energy input-output analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jiashuo; Luo, Ran; Yang, Qing; Yang, Haiping

    2016-12-01

    Based on an input-output analysis, this paper compiles inventories of fuel-related CO2 emissions of Hubei economy in the years of 2002, 2005, and 2007. Results show that calculated total direct CO2 emissions rose from 114,462.69 kt (2002) to 196,650.31 kt (2005), reaching 210,419.93 kt in 2007, with an average 22.50% rate of increase. Raw coal was the dominant source of the direct emissions throughout the three years. The sector of Electric Power, Heat Production, and Supply was the main direct emissions contributor, with the largest intensities observed from 2002 (1192.97 g/CNY) to 2007 (1739.15 g/ CNY). From the industrial perspective, the secondary industry, which is characterized as manufacture of finished products, was still the pillar of the Hubei economy during this period concerned, contributing more than 80% of the total direct emissions. As a net exporter of embodied CO2 emissions in 2002 and 2007, Hubei reported net-exported emissions of 4109.00 kt and 17,871.77 kt respectively; however, Hubei was once a net importer of CO2 emissions in 2005 (2511.93 kt). The CO2 emissions embodied in export and fixed capital formation had the two leading fractions of emissions embodied in the final use. The corresponding countermeasures, such as promoting renewable and clean energy and properly reducing the exports of low value added and carbon-intensive products are suggestions for reducing CO2 emissions in Hubei.

  8. Estimates of embodied global energy and air-emission intensities of Japanese products for building a Japanese input-output life cycle assessment database with a global system boundary.

    PubMed

    Nansai, Keisuke; Kondo, Yasushi; Kagawa, Shigemi; Suh, Sangwon; Nakajima, Kenichi; Inaba, Rokuta; Tohno, Susumu

    2012-08-21

    To build a life cycle assessment (LCA) database of Japanese products embracing their global supply chains in a manner requiring lower time and labor burdens, this study estimates the intensity of embodied global environmental burden for commodities produced in Japan. The intensity of embodied global environmental burden is a measure of the environmental burden generated globally by unit production of the commodity and can be used as life cycle inventory data in LCA. The calculation employs an input-output LCA method with a global link input-output model that defines a global system boundary grounded in a simplified multiregional input-output framework. As results, the intensities of embodied global environmental burden for 406 Japanese commodities are determined in terms of energy consumption, greenhouse-gas emissions (carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, perfluorocarbons, hydrofluorocarbons, sulfur hexafluoride, and their summation), and air-pollutant emissions (nitrogen oxide and sulfur oxide). The uncertainties in the intensities of embodied global environmental burden attributable to the simplified structure of the global link input-output model are quantified using Monte Carlo simulation. In addition, by analyzing the structure of the embodied global greenhouse-gas intensities we characterize Japanese commodities in the context of LCA embracing global supply chains.

  9. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; Warren, Joshua; Das, Sujit; Nimbalkar, Sachin; Cresko, Joe; Masanet, Eric

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integrates engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.

  10. Responses of primiparous and multiparous Holstein cows to additional energy from fat or concentrate during summer.

    PubMed

    Drackley, J K; Cicela, T M; LaCount, D W

    2003-04-01

    Supplemental fat has been advocated for use during hot weather and often increases milk yield of cows past peak production when energy intake should not be limiting. Relative responses of primiparous and multiparous cows to supplemental fat or isocaloric addition of concentrates under hot weather conditions have not been determined. Nine multiparous and nine primiparous Holstein cows (154 and 167 d in milk, respectively) were used in a replicated 3 x 3 Latin square design with 28-d periods. Diets were 1) control (35% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 40% concentrate, dry matter [DM] basis); 2) control plus 3% fat (HF); and 3) high concentrate ([HC] 15% alfalfa silage, 25% corn silage, and 60% concentrate). Diets were isonitrogenous; diets HF and HC were isocaloric (1.60 Mcal of net energy for lactation [NE(L)] per kilogram DM) and higher energy than the control (1.52 Mcal/kg). No parity x diet interactions approached significance. DM intake (DMI) was greater when cows were fed HC than when they were fed HF (21.0, 20.1, and 21.3 kg/d for control, HF, and HC, respectively); intake of NE(L) tended to be increased only for HC. Milk yield was increased by higher-energy diets, but milk fat content was decreased. Milk total protein content was decreased by HF and increased by HC. Yield of solids-corrected milk (SCM) was not different among diets. Efficiency of milk production, expressed either as total milk solids yield per kilogram of DMI or as kilograms of SCM per megacalorie of NE(L) intake, was greater for HF than for HC. Plasma glucose was higher after feeding for cows fed HC; plasma nonesterified fatty acids were greater for HF. Respiration rate and rectal temperature were greater for HC than for HF. Regardless of parity, increased energy density from either fat or concentrate increased milk yield in midlactation cows, but diets caused energy to be partitioned differently among milk components and body storage. Supplemental rumen-active fat had modest advantages

  11. Computational study of the rate constants and free energies of intramolecular radical addition to substituted anilines

    PubMed Central

    Seddiqzai, Meriam; Dahmen, Tobias; Sure, Rebecca

    2013-01-01

    Summary The intramolecular radical addition to aniline derivatives was investigated by DFT calculations. The computational methods were benchmarked by comparing the calculated values of the rate constant for the 5-exo cyclization of the hexenyl radical with the experimental values. The dispersion-corrected PW6B95-D3 functional provided very good results with deviations for the free activation barrier compared to the experimental values of only about 0.5 kcal mol−1 and was therefore employed in further calculations. Corrections for intramolecular London dispersion and solvation effects in the quantum chemical treatment are essential to obtain consistent and accurate theoretical data. For the investigated radical addition reaction it turned out that the polarity of the molecules is important and that a combination of electrophilic radicals with preferably nucleophilic arenes results in the highest rate constants. This is opposite to the Minisci reaction where the radical acts as nucleophile and the arene as electrophile. The substitution at the N-atom of the aniline is crucial. Methyl substitution leads to slower addition than phenyl substitution. Carbamates as substituents are suitable only when the radical center is not too electrophilic. No correlations between free reaction barriers and energies (ΔG ‡ and ΔG R) are found. Addition reactions leading to indanes or dihydrobenzofurans are too slow to be useful synthetically. PMID:24062821

  12. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; Yeom, Min Sun; Eastman, Peter K.; Lemkul, Justin A.; Wei, Shuai; Buckner, Joshua; Jeong, Jong Cheol; Qi, Yifei; Jo, Sunhwan; Pande, Vijay S.; Case, David A.; Brooks, Charles L.; MacKerell, Alexander D.; Klauda, Jeffery B.; Im, Wonpil

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find the optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.

  13. CHARMM-GUI Input Generator for NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM Simulations Using the CHARMM36 Additive Force Field

    DOE PAGES

    Lee, Jumin; Cheng, Xi; Swails, Jason M.; ...

    2015-11-12

    Here we report that proper treatment of nonbonded interactions is essential for the accuracy of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations, especially in studies of lipid bilayers. The use of the CHARMM36 force field (C36 FF) in different MD simulation programs can result in disagreements with published simulations performed with CHARMM due to differences in the protocols used to treat the long-range and 1-4 nonbonded interactions. In this study, we systematically test the use of the C36 lipid FF in NAMD, GROMACS, AMBER, OpenMM, and CHARMM/OpenMM. A wide range of Lennard-Jones (LJ) cutoff schemes and integrator algorithms were tested to find themore » optimal simulation protocol to best match bilayer properties of six lipids with varying acyl chain saturation and head groups. MD simulations of a 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-phosphatidylcholine (DPPC) bilayer were used to obtain the optimal protocol for each program. MD simulations with all programs were found to reasonably match the DPPC bilayer properties (surface area per lipid, chain order parameters, and area compressibility modulus) obtained using the standard protocol used in CHARMM as well as from experiments. The optimal simulation protocol was then applied to the other five lipid simulations and resulted in excellent agreement between results from most simulation programs as well as with experimental data. AMBER compared least favorably with the expected membrane properties, which appears to be due to its use of the hard-truncation in the LJ potential versus a force-based switching function used to smooth the LJ potential as it approaches the cutoff distance. The optimal simulation protocol for each program has been implemented in CHARMM-GUI. This protocol is expected to be applicable to the remainder of the additive C36 FF including the proteins, nucleic acids, carbohydrates, and small molecules.« less

  14. Schlieren Visualization of the Energy Addition by Multi Laser Pulse in Hypersonic Flow

    SciTech Connect

    Oliveira, A. C.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Toro, P. G. P.; Chanes, J. B. Jr; Myrabo, L. N.

    2008-04-28

    The experimental results of the energy addition by multi laser pulse in Mach 7 hypersonic flow are presented. Two high power pulsed CO{sub 2} TEA lasers (TEA1 5.5 J, TEA2 3.9 J) were assembled sharing the same optical cavity to generate the plasma upstream of a hemispherical model installed in the tunnel test section. The lasers can be triggered with a selectable time delay and in the present report the results obtained with delay between 30 {mu}s and 80 {mu}s are shown. The schlieren technique associated with a high speed camera was used to accomplish the influence of the energy addition in the mitigation of the shock wave formed on the model surface by the hypersonic flow. A piezoelectric pressure transducer was used to obtain the time history of the impact pressure at stagnation point of the model and the pressure reduction could be measured. The total recovery of the shock wave between pulses as well as the prolonged effect of the mitigation without recovery was observed by changing the delay.

  15. Energy and emissions saving potential of additive manufacturing: the case of lightweight aircraft components

    DOE PAGES

    Huang, Runze; Riddle, Matthew; Graziano, Diane; ...

    2015-05-08

    Additive manufacturing (AM) holds great potential for improving materials efficiency, reducing life-cycle impacts, and enabling greater engineering functionality compared to conventional manufacturing (CM) processes. For these reasons, AM has been adopted by a growing number of aircraft component manufacturers to achieve more lightweight, cost-effective designs. This study estimates the net changes in life-cycle primary energy and greenhouse gas emissions associated with AM technologies for lightweight metallic aircraft components through the year 2050, to shed light on the environmental benefits of a shift from CM to AM processes in the U.S. aircraft industry. A systems modeling framework is presented, with integratesmore » engineering criteria, life-cycle environmental data, and aircraft fleet stock and fuel use models under different AM adoption scenarios. Estimated fleetwide life-cycle primary energy savings in a rapid adoption scenario reach 70-174 million GJ/year in 2050, with cumulative savings of 1.2-2.8 billion GJ. Associated cumulative emission reduction potentials of CO2e were estimated at 92.8-217.4 million metric tons. About 95% of the savings is attributed to airplane fuel consumption reductions due to lightweighting. In addition, about 4050 tons aluminum, 7600 tons titanium and 8100 tons of nickel alloys could be saved per year in 2050. The results indicate a significant role of AM technologies in helping society meet its long-term energy use and GHG emissions reduction goals, and highlight barriers and opportunities for AM adoption for the aircraft industry.« less

  16. Control of Metal/graphite Interfacial Energy Through the Interfacial Segregation of Alloying Additions.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gangopadhyay, Utpal

    Equilibrium segregation of Ni to the interface of a solid Pb/graphite and Au/graphite was studied using a solid state wetting approach and the crater edge profiling technique on a scanning Auger microprobe (SAM). All experiments were performed under ultra high vacuum (UHV) to reduce the effects due to surface adsorption of impurities. For the Pb/graphite system, increasing amounts of Ni ranging from 0 to 0.2wt% Ni added to Pb were found to systematically lower the contact angle for samples equilibrated at 285 ^circC. No significant surface segregation of Ni was observed at the Pb surface. The reduction of the contact angle was therefore attributed entirely to the lowering of the interfacial energy by interfacial adsorption of Ni. The interfacial energy and interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of bulk Ni content. The presence of excess Ni at the interface was also determined using the crater edge profiling technique on the SAM for various bulk concentrations of Ni in Pb. The temperature dependence of the segregation process was also studied using the solid state wetting approach. The contact angle of Pb(Ni)/graphite was found to vary as a function of temperature for a given Ni content. No temperature dependence was observed in the case of pure Pb/graphite. The change in interfacial energy and the interfacial Ni concentration were obtained as a function of temperature from thermodynamic considerations, and from that the enthalpy and the entropy of interfacial segregation were determined. For the Au/graphite system at 850^circC, addition of 15at%Ni to Au caused a reduction of contact angle by 7.8^circ with accompanying reduction in interfacial energy. Ni was found to segregate to both the free Au surface as well as to the Au/graphite interface. In addition C was also found to segregate to the Au surface thus lowering the surface energy. The modified surface energy was considered in the determination of the interfacial energy and interfacial Ni

  17. Structure and function of natural sulphide-oxidizing microbial mats under dynamic input of light and chemical energy

    PubMed Central

    Klatt, Judith M; Meyer, Steffi; Häusler, Stefan; Macalady, Jennifer L; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-01-01

    We studied the interaction between phototrophic and chemolithoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing microorganisms in natural microbial mats forming in sulphidic streams. The structure of these mats varied between two end-members: one characterized by a layer dominated by large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB; mostly Beggiatoa-like) on top of a cyanobacterial layer (B/C mats) and the other with an inverted structure (C/B mats). C/B mats formed where the availability of oxygen from the water column was limited (<5 μm). Aerobic chemolithotrophic activity of the SOB depended entirely on oxygen produced locally by cyanobacteria during high light conditions. In contrast, B/C mats formed at locations where oxygen in the water column was comparatively abundant (>45 μM) and continuously present. Here SOB were independent of the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and outcompeted the cyanobacteria in the uppermost layer of the mat where energy sources for both functional groups were concentrated. Outcompetition of photosynthetic microbes in the presence of light was facilitated by the decoupling of aerobic chemolithotrophy and oxygenic phototrophy. Remarkably, the B/C mats conserved much less energy than the C/B mats, although similar amounts of light and chemical energy were available. Thus ecosystems do not necessarily develop towards optimal energy usage. Our data suggest that, when two independent sources of energy are available, the structure and activity of microbial communities is primarily determined by the continuous rather than the intermittent energy source, even if the time-integrated energy flux of the intermittent energy source is greater. PMID:26405833

  18. Where is the chromospheric response to conductive energy input from a hot pre-flare coronal loop?

    SciTech Connect

    Battaglia, Marina; Fletcher, Lyndsay; Simões, Paulo J. A.

    2014-07-01

    Before the onset of a flare is observed in hard X-rays, there is often a prolonged pre-flare or pre-heating phase with no detectable hard X-ray emission but pronounced soft X-ray emission, which suggests that energy is already being released and deposited into the corona and chromosphere at this stage. This work analyzes the temporal evolution of coronal source heating and the chromospheric response during this pre-heating phase to investigate the origin and nature of early energy release and transport during a solar flare. Simultaneous X-ray, EUV, and microwave observations of a well-observed flare with a prolonged pre-heating phase are analyzed to study the time evolution of the thermal emission and to determine the onset of particle acceleration. During the 20 minute duration of the pre-heating phase we find no hint of accelerated electrons in either hard X-rays or microwave emission. However, the total energy budget during the pre-heating phase suggests that energy must be supplied to the flaring loop to sustain the observed temperature and emission measure. Under the assumption of this energy being transported toward the chromosphere via thermal conduction, significant energy deposition at the chromosphere is expected. However, no detectable increase of the emission in the AIA wavelength channels sensitive to chromospheric temperatures is observed. The observations suggest energy release and deposition in the flaring loop before the onset of particle acceleration, yet a model in which energy is conducted to the chromosphere and subsequent heating of the chromosphere is not supported by the observations.

  19. Structure and function of natural sulphide-oxidizing microbial mats under dynamic input of light and chemical energy.

    PubMed

    Klatt, Judith M; Meyer, Steffi; Häusler, Stefan; Macalady, Jennifer L; de Beer, Dirk; Polerecky, Lubos

    2016-04-01

    We studied the interaction between phototrophic and chemolithoautotrophic sulphide-oxidizing microorganisms in natural microbial mats forming in sulphidic streams. The structure of these mats varied between two end-members: one characterized by a layer dominated by large sulphur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB; mostly Beggiatoa-like) on top of a cyanobacterial layer (B/C mats) and the other with an inverted structure (C/B mats). C/B mats formed where the availability of oxygen from the water column was limited (<5 μm). Aerobic chemolithotrophic activity of the SOB depended entirely on oxygen produced locally by cyanobacteria during high light conditions. In contrast, B/C mats formed at locations where oxygen in the water column was comparatively abundant (>45 μM) and continuously present. Here SOB were independent of the photosynthetic activity of cyanobacteria and outcompeted the cyanobacteria in the uppermost layer of the mat where energy sources for both functional groups were concentrated. Outcompetition of photosynthetic microbes in the presence of light was facilitated by the decoupling of aerobic chemolithotrophy and oxygenic phototrophy. Remarkably, the B/C mats conserved much less energy than the C/B mats, although similar amounts of light and chemical energy were available. Thus ecosystems do not necessarily develop towards optimal energy usage. Our data suggest that, when two independent sources of energy are available, the structure and activity of microbial communities is primarily determined by the continuous rather than the intermittent energy source, even if the time-integrated energy flux of the intermittent energy source is greater.

  20. Estimating oxygen uptake and energy expenditure during treadmill walking by neural network analysis of easy-to-obtain inputs.

    PubMed

    Beltrame, Thomas; Amelard, Robert; Villar, Rodrigo; Shafiee, Mohammad J; Wong, Alexander; Hughson, Richard L

    2016-11-01

    The study of oxygen uptake (V̇o2) dynamics during walking exercise transitions adds valuable information regarding fitness. However, direct V̇o2 measurements are not practical for general population under realistic settings. Devices to measure V̇o2 are associated with elevated cost, uncomfortable use of a mask, need of trained technicians, and impossibility of long-term data collection. The objective of this study was to predict the V̇o2 dynamics from heart rate and inputs from the treadmill ergometer by a novel artificial neural network approach. To accomplish this, 10 healthy young participants performed one incremental and three moderate constant work rate treadmill walking exercises. The speed and grade used for the moderate-intensity protocol was related to 80% of the V̇o2 response at the gas exchange threshold estimated during the incremental exercise. The measured V̇o2 was used to train an artificial neural network to create an algorithm able to predict the V̇o2 based on easy-to-obtain inputs. The dynamics of the V̇o2 response during exercise transition were evaluated by exponential modeling. Within each participant, the predicted V̇o2 was strongly correlated to the measured V̇o2 ( = 0.97 ± 0.0) and presented a low bias (~0.2%), enabling the characterization of the V̇o2 dynamics during treadmill walking exercise. The proposed algorithm could be incorporated into smart devices and fitness equipment, making them suitable for tracking changes in aerobic fitness and physical health beyond the infrequent monitoring of patients during clinical interventions and rehabilitation programs.

  1. Statistical comparison of WINDII auroral green line emission rate with DMSP/SSJ4 electron energy input for high and low solar flux years

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Y.-S.; Shepherd, G. G.

    2007-12-01

    The atmospheric response to precipitating auroral electrons under varying conditions of solar illumination is investigated using a statistical approach with respect to magnetic local time (MLT), solar zenith angle (χ), and geomagnetic latitude (MLAT) in the northern high-latitude region. Vertical profiles of daytime auroral O(1S) emission rate are obtained from UARS/WINDII measurements by removing the airglow components. These are compared with precipitating electron and proton input observed with DMSP-F10 and -F12 SSJ4 from which total energy and average energy are obtained. In order to investigate the solar flux effect, 2 a of data are examined, 1993 (high solar flux) and 1996 (low solar flux). Total electron energy flux increases with increasing solar zenith angle from 40° to 160° so that the energy flux during nighttime is much greater than in the daytime. During the daytime (χ <= 90°) the auroral atmospheric response correlates well with electron energy input yielding auroral production rates of 1.2 and 1.6 kR erg-1 cm2 s, but this relation breaks down beyond χ = 90°. It is suspected that nighttime thin sheet auroral profiles are not correctly inverted for this limb-viewing imager. A strong anticorrelation is found between the altitude of peak auroral volume emission rate and the average precipitating electron energy with slopes of 12.1 km keV-1 and 5.7 km keV-1 for 1993 and 1996, respectively. The dependence of auroral emission rate on solar illumination conditions is consistent with earlier work by Newell et al. (1996b) and others, but the clear dependence on solar zenith angle has not been demonstrated before.

  2. Acceleration of type 2 spicules in the solar chromosphere. II. Viscous braking and upper bounds on coronal energy input

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, Michael L.

    2014-04-20

    A magnetohydrodynamic model is used to determine conditions under which the Lorentz force accelerates plasma to type 2 spicule speeds in the chromosphere. The model generalizes a previous model to include a more realistic pre-spicule state, and the vertical viscous force. Two cases of acceleration under upper chromospheric conditions are considered. The magnetic field strength for these cases is ≤12.5 and 25 G. Plasma is accelerated to terminal vertical speeds of 66 and 78 km s{sup –1} in 100 s, compared with 124 and 397 km s{sup –1} for the case of zero viscosity. The flows are localized within horizontal diameters ∼80 and 50 km. The total thermal energy generated by viscous dissipation is ∼10 times larger than that due to Joule dissipation, but the magnitude of the total cooling due to rarefaction is ≳ this energy. Compressive heating dominates during the early phase of acceleration. The maximum energy injected into the corona by type 2 spicules, defined as the energy flux in the upper chromosphere, may largely balance total coronal energy losses in quiet regions, possibly also in coronal holes, but not in active regions. It is proposed that magnetic flux emergence in intergranular regions drives type 2 spicules.

  3. Analysis of Upper Bound Power Output for a Wrist-Worn Rotational Energy Harvester from Real-World Measured Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xue, T.; Ma, X.; Rahn, C.; Roundy, S.

    2014-11-01

    Energy harvesting from human motion addresses the growing need for battery-free health and wellness sensors in wearable applications. The major obstacles to harvesting energy in such applications are low and random frequencies due to the nature of human motion. This paper presents a generalized rotational harvester model in 3 dimensions to determine the upper bound of power output from real world measured data. Simulation results indicate much space for improvement on power generation comparing to existing devices. We have developed a rotational energy harvester for human motion that attempts to close the gap between theoretical possibility and demonstrated devices. Like previous work, it makes use of magnetically plucked piezoelectric beams. However, it more fully utilizes the space available and has many degrees of freedom available for optimization. Finally we present a prototype harvester based on the coupled harvester model with preliminary experimental validation.

  4. The initial mass function and global rates of mass, momentum, and energy input to the interstellar medium via stellar winds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Van Buren, D.

    1985-01-01

    Published observational data are compiled and analyzed, using theoretical stellar-evolution models to determine the global rates of mass, momentum, and energy injected into the interstellar medium (ISM) by stellar winds. Expressions derived include psi = 0.00054 x (M to the -1.03) stars formed/sq kpc yr log M (where M is the initial mass function in solar mass units) and mass-loss = (2 x 10 to the -13th) x (L to the 1.25) solar mass/yr (with L in solar luminosity units). It is found that the wind/supernova injection of energy into the ISM and the mass loss from stars of 5 solar mass or more are approximately balanced by the dissipation of energy by cloud-cloud collisions and the formation of stars, respectively.

  5. Effect of electrolyte addition to rehydration drinks consumed after severe fluid and energy restriction.

    PubMed

    James, Lewis J; Shirreffs, Susan M

    2015-02-01

    This study examined the effect of electrolyte addition to drinks ingested after severe fluid and energy restriction (FER). Twelve subjects (6 male and 6 female) completed 3 trials consisting of 24-hour FER (energy intake: 21 kJ·kg body mass; water intake: 5 ml·kg body mass), followed by a 2-hour rehydration period and a 4-hour monitoring period. During rehydration, subjects ingested a volume of drink equal to 125% of the body mass lost during FER in 6 aliquots, once every 20 minutes. Drinks were a sugar-free lemon squash (P) or the P drink with the addition of 50 mmol·L sodium chloride (Na) or 30 mmol·L potassium chloride (K). Total void urine samples were given before and after FER and every hour during rehydration and monitoring. Over all trials, FER produced a 2.1% reduction in body mass and negative sodium (-67 mmol), potassium (-48 mmol), and chloride (-84 mmol) balances. Urine output after drinking was 1627 (540) ml (P), 1391 (388) ml (K), and 1150 (438) ml (Na), with a greater postdrinking urine output during P than Na (p ≤ 0.05). Ingestion of drink Na resulted in a more positive sodium balance compared with P or K (p < 0.001), whereas ingestion of drink K resulted in a more positive potassium balance compared with P or Na (p < 0.001). These results demonstrate that after 24-hour FER, ingestion of a high sodium drink results in an increased sodium balance that augments greater drink retention compared with a low electrolyte placebo drink.

  6. Noontime Latitudinal Behavior of the Ionospheric Peak Parameters (foF2 and hmF2) to the Variation of Solar Energy Input for the American Sector

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cabassa-Miranda, E.; Garnett Marques Brum, C.

    2013-12-01

    We are presenting a statistical study of the behavior of the noontime F2 peak parameters (foF2 and hmF2) to the variation of solar energy input based on digisonde data and EUV-UV solar emissions registered by SOHO satellite for geomagnetic quiet-to-normal condition. For this, we selected digisonde data from fourteen different stations spread along the American sector (ten of them located above and four below the equator). These registers were collected from 2000 to 2012 and encompass the last unusual super minimum period.

  7. Temperature and Input Energy Dependence of the 946-nm Stimulated Emission Cross Section of Nd3+:YAG Pumped by a Flashlamp

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seyed Ebrahim, Pourmand; Noriah, Bidin; Hazri, Bakhtiar

    2012-03-01

    The thermal effect on the laser transition at 946 nm is investigated. The temperature of the cooling system is verified in the range 2-60°C. A Nd:YAG laser crystal is utilized as a gain medium and is pumped by a newly developed flashlamp. The variable pumping energy is accomplished within the 5-40 J range. The stimulated emission cross section of the 946-nm line is estimated based on the fluorescence spectrum of the Nd:YAG laser. The stimulated emission cross section of the 946-nm line is found to be inversely proportional to the temperature and to the input energy due to the increase of the thermal population at the ground level.

  8. Photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements z=1 to 92 and 48 additional substances of dosimetric interest.

    PubMed

    Kato, Hideki

    2014-07-01

    Photon mass energy transfer coefficient is an essential factor when converting photon energy fluence into kinetic energy released per unit mass (kerma). Although mass attenuation coefficient and mass energy absorption coefficients can be looked up in databases, the mass energy transfer coefficient values are still controversial. In this paper, the photon mass energy transfer coefficients for elements Z=1-92 were calculated based on cross-sectional data for each photon interaction type. Mass energy transfer coefficients for 48 compounds and/or mixtures of dosimetric interest were calculated from coefficient data for elements using Bragg's additivity rule. We additionally developed software that can search these coefficient data for any element or substance of dosimetric interest. The database and software created in this paper should prove useful for radiation measurements and/or dose calculations.

  9. Sensing for directed energy deposition and powder bed fusion additive manufacturing at Penn State University

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nassar, Abdalla R.; Reutzel, Edward W.; Brown, Stephen W.; Morgan, John P.; Morgan, Jacob P.; Natale, Donald J.; Tutwiler, Rick L.; Feck, David P.; Banks, Jeffery C.

    2016-04-01

    Additive manufacturing of metal components through directed energy deposition or powder bed fusion is a complex undertaking, often involving hundreds or thousands of individual laser deposits. During processing, conditions may fluctuate, e.g. material feed rate, beam power, surrounding gas composition, local and global temperature, build geometry, etc., leading to unintended variations in final part geometry, microstructure and properties. To assess or control as-deposited quality, researchers have used a variety of methods, including those based on sensing of melt pool and plume emission characteristics, characteristics of powder application, and layer-wise imaging. Here, a summary of ongoing process monitoring activities at Penn State is provided, along with a discussion of recent advancements in the area of layer-wise image acquisition and analysis during powder bed fusion processing. Specifically, methods that enable direct comparisons of CAD model, build images, and 3D micro-tomographic scan data will be covered, along with thoughts on how such analyses can be related to overall process quality.

  10. Additions and improvements to the high energy density physics capabilities in the FLASH code

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2016-10-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation magnetohydrodynamics code that has the capabilities to treat a broad range of physical processes. FLASH performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive high energy density physics (HEDP) capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic HEDP community. We summarize these capabilities, emphasizing recent additions and improvements. In particular, we showcase the ability of FLASH to simulate the Faraday Rotation Measure produced by the presence of magnetic fields; and proton radiography, proton self-emission, and Thomson scattering diagnostics with and without the presence of magnetic fields. We also describe several collaborations with the academic HEDP community in which FLASH simulations were used to design and interpret HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under Grant PHY-0903997.

  11. Additions and Improvements to the FLASH Code for Simulating High Energy Density Physics Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lamb, D. Q.; Daley, C.; Dubey, A.; Fatenejad, M.; Flocke, N.; Graziani, C.; Lee, D.; Tzeferacos, P.; Weide, K.

    2015-11-01

    FLASH is an open source, finite-volume Eulerian, spatially adaptive radiation hydrodynamics and magnetohydrodynamics code that incorporates capabilities for a broad range of physical processes, performs well on a wide range of computer architectures, and has a broad user base. Extensive capabilities have been added to FLASH to make it an open toolset for the academic high energy density physics (HEDP) community. We summarize these capabilities, with particular emphasis on recent additions and improvements. These include advancements in the optical ray tracing laser package, with methods such as bi-cubic 2D and tri-cubic 3D interpolation of electron number density, adaptive stepping and 2nd-, 3rd-, and 4th-order Runge-Kutta integration methods. Moreover, we showcase the simulated magnetic field diagnostic capabilities of the code, including induction coils, Faraday rotation, and proton radiography. We also describe several collaborations with the National Laboratories and the academic community in which FLASH has been used to simulate HEDP experiments. This work was supported in part at the University of Chicago by the DOE NNSA ASC through the Argonne Institute for Computing in Science under field work proposal 57789; and the NSF under grant PHY-0903997.

  12. Solvation free energy of the peptide group: its model dependence and implications for the additive-transfer free-energy model of protein stability.

    PubMed

    Tomar, Dheeraj S; Asthagiri, D; Weber, Valéry

    2013-09-17

    The group-additive decomposition of the unfolding free energy of a protein in an osmolyte solution relative to that in water poses a fundamental paradox: whereas the decomposition describes the experimental results rather well, theory suggests that a group-additive decomposition of free energies is, in general, not valid. In a step toward resolving this paradox, here we study the peptide-group transfer free energy. We calculate the vacuum-to-solvent (solvation) free energies of (Gly)n and cyclic diglycine (cGG) and analyze the data according to experimental protocol. The solvation free energies of (Gly)n are linear in n, suggesting group additivity. However, the slope interpreted as the free energy of a peptide unit differs from that for cGG scaled by a factor of half, emphasizing the context dependence of solvation. However, the water-to-osmolyte transfer free energies of the peptide unit are relatively independent of the peptide model, as observed experimentally. To understand these observations, a way to assess the contribution to the solvation free energy of solvent-mediated correlation between distinct groups is developed. We show that linearity of solvation free energy with n is a consequence of uniformity of the correlation contributions, with apparent group-additive behavior in the water-to-osmolyte transfer arising due to their cancellation. Implications for inferring molecular mechanisms of solvent effects on protein stability on the basis of the group-additive transfer model are suggested.

  13. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness.

    PubMed

    Vivek, A; Hansen, S R; Daehn, Glenn S

    2014-07-01

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  14. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vivek, A.; Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2014-07-01

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  15. High strain rate metalworking with vaporizing foil actuator: Control of flyer velocity by varying input energy and foil thickness

    SciTech Connect

    Vivek, A. Hansen, S. R.; Daehn, Glenn S.

    2014-07-15

    Electrically driven rapid vaporization of thin metallic foils can generate a high pressure which can be used to launch flyers at high velocities. Recently, vaporizing foil actuators have been applied toward a variety of impulse-based metal working operations. In order to exercise control over this useful tool, it is imperative that an understanding of the effect of characteristics of the foil actuator on its ability for mechanical impulse generation is developed. Here, foil actuators made out of 0.0508 mm, 0.0762 mm, and 0.127 mm thick AA1145 were used for launching AA2024-T3 sheets of thickness 0.508 mm toward a photonic Doppler velocimeter probe. Launch velocities ranging between 300 m/s and 1100 m/s were observed. In situ measurement of velocity, current, and voltage assisted in understanding the effect of burst current density and deposited electrical energy on average pressure and velocity with foil actuators of various thicknesses. For the pulse generator, geometry, and flyer used here, the 0.0762 mm thick foil was found to be optimal for launching flyers to high velocities over short distances. Experimenting with annealed foil actuators resulted in no change in the temporal evolution of flyer velocity as compared to foil actuators of full hard temper. A physics-based analytical model was developed and found to have reasonable agreement with experiment.

  16. Department of Energy Efforts to Promote Universal Adherence to the IAEA Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Hansen, Linda H.; Kovacic, Don N.; VanSickle, Matthew; Apt, Kenneth E.

    2009-10-06

    Entry-into-force of the U.S. Additional Protocol (AP) in January 2009 continues to demonstrate the ongoing commitment by the United States to promote universal adherence to the AP. The AP is a critical tool for improving the International Atomic Energy Agency’s (IAEA) capabilities to detect undeclared activities that indicate a clandestine nuclear weapons program. This is because States Parties are required to provide information about, and access to, nuclear fuel cycle activities beyond their traditional safeguards reporting requirements. As part of the U.S. AP Implementation Act and Senate Resolution of Ratification, the Administration is required to report annually to Congress on measures taken to achieve the adoption of the AP in non-nuclear weapon states, as well as assistance to the IAEA to promote the effective implementation of APs in those states. A key U.S. effort in this area is being managed by the International Nuclear Safeguards and Engagement Program (INSEP) of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). Through new and existing bilateral cooperation agreements, INSEP has initiated technical assistance projects for AP implementation with selected non-weapon states. States with which INSEP is currently cooperating include Vietnam and Thailand, with Indonesia, Algeria, Morocco, and other countries as possible future collaborators in the area of AP implementation. The INSEP collaborative model begins with a joint assessment with our partners to identify specific needs they may have regarding entering the AP into force and any impediments to successful implementation. An action plan is then developed detailing and prioritizing the necessary joint activities. Such assistance may include: advice on developing legal frameworks and regulatory documents; workshops to promote understanding of AP requirements; training to determine possible declarable activities; assistance in developing a system to collect and submit declarations; performing industry outreach to

  17. Solar zenith angle dependence of empirical formulas between energy inputs to the ionosphere and O+ and H+ ion outflows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kitamura, N.; Seki, K.; Keika, K.; Nishimura, Y.; Hori, T.; Strangeway, R. J.; Lund, E. J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent satellite observations and simulations have clarified that plasma outflows play an important role in abrupt changes in the ion composition in the plasmasheet and ring current during geomagnetic storms. Statistical studies by Strangeway et al. [2005] and Brambles et al. [2011] indicated that fluxes of ion outflows are correlated well with soft electron precipitation (precipitating electron density and electron density in the loss cone), and DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes using the data obtained by the FAST satellite near the cusp region in the dayside during the 24-25 September 1998 geomagnetic storm. To evaluate the correlations for H+ and O+ ions separately, we performed statistical studies using the ion composition data in addition to the ion, electron, and field data obtained by the FAST satellite during January 1998 and January 1999. The longer dataset enables us to identify empirical formulas between outflowing O+ and H+ ion fluxes and precipitating electron densities, DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes in a wide solar zenith angle (SZA) range (45°-145°). These empirical formulas would be useful for global magnetospheric simulations as the boundary conditions. Under dark conditions, H+ ion fluxes increases with increasing precipitating electron density, but not as much as those do under sunlit conditions. The precipitating electron density that corresponds to the H+ ion flux of ~107 /cm2/s (mapped to 1000 km altitude) decreases with increasing SZA. This SZA dependence is less clear for O+ ions as compared with H+ ions. The empirical formulas between outflowing O+ and H+ ion fluxes and DC and Alfvenic Poynting fluxes are not so strongly affected by SZA. Under sunlit conditions, the flux O+ ions tends to be larger than that of H+ ions, while H+ ions tend to become dominant under dark conditions. Intense ion (especially O+ ion) outflow events (>108 /cm2/s mapped to 1000 km altitude) mostly occurred under sunlit conditions or near the terminator.

  18. Addition of capsaicin and exchange of carbohydrate with protein counteract energy intake restriction effects on fullness and energy expenditure.

    PubMed

    Smeets, Astrid J; Janssens, Pilou L H R; Westerterp-Plantenga, Margriet S

    2013-04-01

    Energy intake restriction causes a yo-yo effect by decreasing energy expenditure (EE) and decreasing fullness. We investigated the 24-h effect of protein and capsaicin, singly or combined, on fullness and EE during 20% energy intake restriction. The 24 participants (12 male, 12 female; BMI, 25.2 ± 0.4 kg/m(2); age, 27 ± 4 y; body fat, 25.6 ± 5.7%; 3-factor eating questionnaire, F1: 6 ± 2, F2: 4 ± 2, F3: 3 ± 2) underwent eight 36-h sessions in a respiration chamber. The study had a randomized crossover design with 8 randomly sequenced conditions. The participants were fed 100 or 80% of their daily energy requirements. There were 2 control (C) conditions: 100%C and 80%C; 2 conditions with capsaicin (Caps): 100%Caps and 80%Caps; 2 conditions with elevated protein (P): 100%P and 80%P; and 2 conditions with a mixture of protein and capsaicin (PCaps): 100%PCaps and 80%PCaps. Appetite profile, EE, and substrate oxidation were monitored. Compared with 100%C, the 80%C group had expected negative energy-balance effects with respect to total EE, diet-induced thermogenesis, and fullness, whereas the 80%Caps diet counteracted these effects, and the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets exceeded these effects (P < 0.01). In energy balance and negative energy balance, fat balance was more negative in the 80%Caps, P, and PCaps groups than in the 80%C group (P < 0.05) and respiratory quotient values were lower. A negative protein balance was prevented with the 80%P and 80%PCaps diets compared with the 80%C diet. Our results suggest that protein and capsaicin, consumed singly or mixed, counteracted the energy intake restriction effects on fullness and EE. During energy restriction, protein and capsaicin promoted a negative fat balance and protein treatments also prevented a negative protein balance.

  19. An application of input-output analysis in analyzing the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors: A further study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zuhdi, Ubaidillah

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study is to continue the previous study which discussed the impacts of final demands changes on the total outputs of Japanese energy sectors. More specifically, this study aims to conduct a deeper analysis regarding these impacts. This study employs a demand-pull Input- Output (IO) quantity model, one of the calculation instruments in IO analysis, as a tool of analysis. This study focuses on two sectors, namely (1) petroleum refinery products, and (2) non-ferrous metals. Two conditions are considered in the analysis part, namely (1) “whole sector change”, and (2) “pure change”. The results show that in both conditions, both discussed sectors have similar patterns. The results also explain that, in both conditions, the biggest positive impact for the sector of petroleum refinery products is given by scenario 4, the modification of consumption expenditures of private.

  20. Photoelectron determination of the EUV and XUV energy input variability to the Mars ionosphere/thermosphere during the 2005 Mars-Earth-Sun alignment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peterson, W. K.; Brain, D. A.; Mitchell, D. L.; Bailey, S. M.

    2012-12-01

    EUV and XUV radiation is the primary source heating the Mars thermosphere as well as the major source of ionization producing the ionosphere. Currently solar irradiance models are used to model this variability. Recently Peterson et al., 2012 JGR have used photoelectron observations at Earth to show that solar irradiance models do not fully capture variability of EUV and XUV radiation over solar rotation time scales. We apply the technique to photoelectrons observed by the Mars Global Surveyor Electron Reflectometer during the interval in 2005 when Earth, Mars, and the sun were aligned. Comparisons with EUV and XUV variability determined from photoelectrons observed on the Earth orbiting FAST satellite show that variability of EUV and XUV energy input to Mars can also be determined from photoelectron observations.

  1. Activation energy associated with the electromigration of oligosaccharides through viscosity modifier and polymeric additive containing background electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Kerékgyártó, Márta; Járvás, Gábor; Novák, Levente; Guttman, András

    2016-02-01

    The activation energy related to the electromigration of oligosaccharides can be determined from their measured electrophoretic mobilities at different temperatures. The effects of a viscosity modifier (ethylene glycol) and a polymeric additive (linear polyacrylamide) on the electrophoretic mobility of linear sugar oligomers with α1-4 linked glucose units (maltooligosaccharides) were studied in CE using the activation energy concept. The electrophoretic separations of 8-aminopyrene-1,3,6-trisulfonate-labeled maltooligosaccharides were monitored by LIF detection in the temperature range of 20-50°C, using either 0-60% ethylene glycol (viscosity modifier) or 0-3% linear polyacrylamide (polymeric additive) containing BGEs. Activation energy curves were constructed based on the slopes of the Arrhenius plots. With the use of linear polyacrylamide additive, solute size-dependent activation energy variations were found for the maltooligosaccharides with polymerization degrees below and above maltoheptaose (DP 7), probably due to molecular conformation changes and possible matrix interaction effects.

  2. The influence of feed energy density and a formulated additive on rumen and rectal temperature in hanwoo steers.

    PubMed

    Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Shim, Kwanseob; Lee, A-Leum; Oh, Seong-Jin; Yang, Jinho; Ryu, Chaehwa; Kim, Young-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Chae, Jung-Il; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-11-01

    The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower

  3. The Influence of Feed Energy Density and a Formulated Additive on Rumen and Rectal Temperature in Hanwoo Steers

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Sangbuem; Mbiriri, David Tinotenda; Shim, Kwanseob; Lee, A-Leum; Oh, Seong-Jin; Yang, Jinho; Ryu, Chaehwa; Kim, Young-Hoon; Seo, Kang-Seok; Chae, Jung-Il; Oh, Young Kyoon; Choi, Nag-Jin

    2014-01-01

    The present study investigated the optimum blending condition of protected fat, choline and yeast culture for lowering of rumen temperature. The Box Benken experimental design, a fractional factorial arrangement, and response surface methodology were employed. The optimum blending condition was determined using the rumen simulated in vitro fermentation. An additive formulated on the optimum condition contained 50% of protected fat, 25% of yeast culture, 5% of choline, 7% of organic zinc, 6.5% of cinnamon, and 6.5% of stevioside. The feed additive was supplemented at a rate of 0.1% of diet (orchard grass:concentrate, 3:7) and compared with a control which had no additive. The treatment resulted in lower volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and biogas than the control. To investigate the effect of the optimized additive and feed energy levels on rumen and rectal temperatures, four rumen cannulated Hanwoo (Korean native beef breed) steers were in a 4×4 Latin square design. Energy levels were varied to low and high by altering the ratio of forage to concentrate in diet: low energy (6:4) and high energy (4:6). The additive was added at a rate of 0.1% of the diet. The following parameters were measured; feed intake, rumen and rectal temperatures, ruminal pH and VFA concentration. This study was conducted in an environmentally controlled house with temperature set at 30°C and relative humidity levels of 70%. Steers were housed individually in raised crates to facilitate collection of urine and feces. The adaptation period was for 14 days, 2 days for sampling and 7 days for resting the animals. The additive significantly reduced both rumen (p<0.01) and rectal temperatures (p<0.001) without depressed feed intake. There were interactions (p<0.01) between energy level and additive on ruminal temperature. Neither additive nor energy level had an effect on total VFA concentration. The additive however, significantly increased (p<0.01) propionate and subsequently had lower

  4. Biofuels from pyrolysis in perspective: trade-offs between energy yields and soil-carbon additions.

    PubMed

    Woolf, Dominic; Lehmann, Johannes; Fisher, Elizabeth M; Angenent, Largus T

    2014-06-03

    Coproduction of biofuels with biochar (the carbon-rich solid formed during biomass pyrolysis) can provide carbon-negative bioenergy if the biochar is sequestered in soil, where it can improve fertility and thus simultaneously address issues of food security, soil degradation, energy production, and climate change. However, increasing biochar production entails a reduction in bioenergy obtainable per unit biomass feedstock. Quantification of this trade-off for specific biochar-biofuel pathways has been hampered by lack of an accurate-yet-simple model for predicting yields, product compositions, and energy balances from biomass slow pyrolysis. An empirical model of biomass slow pyrolysis was developed and applied to several pathways for biochar coproduction with gaseous and liquid biofuels. Here, we show that biochar production reduces liquid biofuel yield by at least 21 GJ Mg(-1) C (biofuel energy sacrificed per unit mass of biochar C), with methanol synthesis giving this lowest energy penalty. For gaseous-biofuel production, the minimum energy penalty for biochar production is 33 GJ Mg(-1) C. These substitution rates correspond to a wide range of Pareto-optimal system configurations, implying considerable latitude to choose pyrolysis conditions to optimize for desired biochar properties or to modulate energy versus biochar yields in response to fluctuating price differentials for the two commodities.

  5. Intermediate inputs and economic productivity.

    PubMed

    Baptist, Simon; Hepburn, Cameron

    2013-03-13

    Many models of economic growth exclude materials, energy and other intermediate inputs from the production function. Growing environmental pressures and resource prices suggest that this may be increasingly inappropriate. This paper explores the relationship between intermediate input intensity, productivity and national accounts using a panel dataset of manufacturing subsectors in the USA over 47 years. The first contribution is to identify sectoral production functions that incorporate intermediate inputs, while allowing for heterogeneity in both technology and productivity. The second contribution is that the paper finds a negative correlation between intermediate input intensity and total factor productivity (TFP)--sectors that are less intensive in their use of intermediate inputs have higher productivity. This finding is replicated at the firm level. We propose tentative hypotheses to explain this association, but testing and further disaggregation of intermediate inputs is left for further work. Further work could also explore more directly the relationship between material inputs and economic growth--given the high proportion of materials in intermediate inputs, the results in this paper are suggestive of further work on material efficiency. Depending upon the nature of the mechanism linking a reduction in intermediate input intensity to an increase in TFP, the implications could be significant. A third contribution is to suggest that an empirical bias in productivity, as measured in national accounts, may arise due to the exclusion of intermediate inputs. Current conventions of measuring productivity in national accounts may overstate the productivity of resource-intensive sectors relative to other sectors.

  6. Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence Spectrometry: A Long Overdue Addition to the Chemistry Curriculum

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Palmer, Peter T.

    2011-01-01

    Portable Energy-Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (XRF) analyzers have undergone significant improvements over the past decade. Salient advantages of XRF for elemental analysis include minimal sample preparation, multielement analysis capabilities, detection limits in the low parts per million (ppm) range, and analysis times on the order of 1 min.…

  7. Additive effects on the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion cause supralinear effects on the vesicle fusion rate.

    PubMed

    Schotten, Sebastiaan; Meijer, Marieke; Walter, Alexander Matthias; Huson, Vincent; Mamer, Lauren; Kalogreades, Lawrence; ter Veer, Mirelle; Ruiter, Marvin; Brose, Nils; Rosenmund, Christian; Sørensen, Jakob Balslev; Verhage, Matthijs; Cornelisse, Lennart Niels

    2015-04-14

    The energy required to fuse synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane ('activation energy') is considered a major determinant in synaptic efficacy. From reaction rate theory, we predict that a class of modulations exists, which utilize linear modulation of the energy barrier for fusion to achieve supralinear effects on the fusion rate. To test this prediction experimentally, we developed a method to assess the number of releasable vesicles, rate constants for vesicle priming, unpriming, and fusion, and the activation energy for fusion by fitting a vesicle state model to synaptic responses induced by hypertonic solutions. We show that complexinI/II deficiency or phorbol ester stimulation indeed affects responses to hypertonic solution in a supralinear manner. An additive vs multiplicative relationship between activation energy and fusion rate provides a novel explanation for previously observed non-linear effects of genetic/pharmacological perturbations on synaptic transmission and a novel interpretation of the cooperative nature of Ca(2+)-dependent release.

  8. Additivity of kinetic and potential energy contributions in modification of graphene supported on SiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xitong; Zhao, Shijun; Wang, Yuyu; Xue, Jianming

    2017-04-01

    The damage production induced by MeV highly charged ions (HCI) irradiations in graphene supported on a SiO2 substrate is investigated using molecular dynamics method. We get results in agreement with our recent experiments. We find that the electronic energy loss and potential energy deposition have similar effects on the defects creation in SiO2 substrate-supported graphene and both mechanisms of energy deposition seem to contribute in an additive way. The influences of the energy deposition depth and radius are studied. Only the energy deposited below the surface within 2.5 nm will induce the damage in graphene. Hence, the HCI can be a powerful tool to induce defects in graphene without causing deep damage of the substrate. When charge of incident Xeq+ is above 30, a nanopore is formed and the size of nanopore in graphene can be controlled by changing the incident charge state.

  9. Feasibility and testing of lighweight, energy efficient, additive manufactured pneumatic control valve

    SciTech Connect

    Love, Lonnie J.; Mell, Ellen

    2015-02-01

    AeroValve s innovative pneumatic valve technology recycles compressed air through the valve body with each cycle of the valve, and was reported to reduce compressed air requirements by an average of 25% 30%.This technology collaboration project between ORNL and Aerovalve confirms the energy efficiency of valve performance. Measuring air consumption per work completed, the AeroValve was as much as 85% better than the commercial Festo valve.

  10. Pairwise additivity of energy components in protein-ligand binding: The HIV II protease-Indinavir case

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ucisik, Melek N.; Dashti, Danial S.; Faver, John C.; Merz, Kenneth M.

    2011-08-01

    An energy expansion (binding energy decomposition into n-body interaction terms for n ≥ 2) to express the receptor-ligand binding energy for the fragmented HIV II protease-Indinavir system is described to address the role of cooperativity in ligand binding. The outcome of this energy expansion is compared to the total receptor-ligand binding energy at the Hartree-Fock, density functional theory, and semiempirical levels of theory. We find that the sum of the pairwise interaction energies approximates the total binding energy to ˜82% for HF and to >95% for both the M06-L density functional and PM6-DH2 semiempirical method. The contribution of the three-body interactions amounts to 18.7%, 3.8%, and 1.4% for HF, M06-L, and PM6-DH2, respectively. We find that the expansion can be safely truncated after n = 3. That is, the contribution of the interactions involving more than three parties to the total binding energy of Indinavir to the HIV II protease receptor is negligible. Overall, we find that the two-body terms represent a good approximation to the total binding energy of the system, which points to pairwise additivity in the present case. This basic principle of pairwise additivity is utilized in fragment-based drug design approaches and our results support its continued use. The present results can also aid in the validation of non-bonded terms contained within common force fields and in the correction of systematic errors in physics-based score functions.

  11. Yield Improvement and Energy Savings Uing Phosphonates as Additives in Kraft pulping

    SciTech Connect

    Ulrike W. Tschirner; Timothy Smith

    2007-03-31

    Project Objective: Develop a commercially viable modification to the Kraft process resulting in energy savings, increased yield and improved bleachability. Evaluate the feasibility of this technology across a spectrum of wood species used in North America. Develop detailed fundamental understanding of the mechanism by which phosphonates improve KAPPA number and yield. Evaluate the North American market potential for the use of phosphonates in the Kraft pulping process. Examine determinants of customer perceived value and explore organizational and operational factors influencing attitudes and behaviors. Provide an economic feasibility assessment for the supply chain, both suppliers (chemical supply companies) and buyers (Kraft mills). Provide background to most effectively transfer this new technology to commercial mills.

  12. Engineering evaluation of the proposed boiler addition for Minnegasco Energy Center, Minneapolis, Minnesota. Final draft report

    SciTech Connect

    Abendroth, H.R.; Poon, A.

    1981-03-16

    The results are reported of a technical evaluation of alternate fuels for the proposed oil and natural gas fired No. 3 boiler at the Minnegasco Energy Center (MEC) located in Minneapolis, Minnesota. This report has been prepared for the Department of Energy, Office of Fuels Conversion for their use in considering an alternate fuel exemption petition submitted by MEC. The fuels considered for the proposed boiler include oil, natural gas, bituminous coal, petroleum coke/coal mixture, refuse-derived fuel (RDF), coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel fired. The purchase of steam from the Northern States Power Company (NSPCo) was also considered as an alternative to construction of another boiler at MEC. Evaluation of each fuel included review of the overall plant design, estimates of capital and O and M costs, salvage value, useful life, and quantities of solid waste produced. The MEC supplies steam and chilled water to the downtown Minneapolis area for building heating and cooling using two presently owned and operated 200,000 lb/h oil/natural gas fired boilers. If the proposed boiler is permitted to burn oil and natural gas, it will be identical in design to the existing boilers. The evaluation showed that the use of oil, natural gas, coal, petroleum coke-coal mixtures, coal-oil mixtures, and coal/oil dual fuel firing appear technically feasible as fuel choices for the proposed boiler. The purchase of steam from the NSPCo appears feasible as an alternative to the installation of a new boiler at the MEC. Offsite storage space would be required for receiving and storing coal, petroleum coke, or RDF Offsite fuel preparation facilities are required for preparing petroleum coke-coal mixtures and RDF.

  13. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-01-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs. PMID:27184260

  14. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes.

    PubMed

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-17

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  15. Enhancing Specific Energy and Power in Asymmetric Supercapacitors - A Synergetic Strategy based on the Use of Redox Additive Electrolytes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Singh, Arvinder; Chandra, Amreesh

    2016-05-01

    The strategy of using redox additive electrolyte in combination with multiwall carbon nanotubes/metal oxide composites leads to a substantial improvements in the specific energy and power of asymmetric supercapacitors (ASCs). When the pure electrolyte is optimally modified with a redox additive viz., KI, ~105% increase in the specific energy is obtained with good cyclic stability over 3,000 charge-discharge cycles and ~14.7% capacitance fade. This increase is a direct consequence of the iodine/iodide redox pairs that strongly modifies the faradaic and non-faradaic type reactions occurring on the surface of the electrodes. Contrary to what is shown in few earlier reports, it is established that indiscriminate increase in the concentration of redox additives will leads to performance loss. Suitable explanations are given based on theoretical laws. The specific energy or power values being reported in the fabricated ASCs are comparable or higher than those reported in ASCs based on toxic acetonitrile or expensive ionic liquids. The paper shows that the use of redox additive is economically favorable strategy for obtaining cost effective and environmentally friendly ASCs.

  16. Large-scale Manufacturing of Nanoparticulate-based Lubrication Additives for Improved Energy Efficiency and Reduced Emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Erdemir, Ali

    2013-09-26

    This project was funded under the Department of Energy (DOE) Lab Call on Nanomanufacturing for Energy Efficiency and was directed toward the development of novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives for improving the friction and wear performance of machine components in a wide range of industrial and transportation applications. Argonne's research team concentrated on the scientific and technical aspects of the project, using a range of state-of-the art analytical and tribological test facilities. Argonne has extensive past experience and expertise in working with boron-based solid and liquid lubrication additives, and has intellectual property ownership of several. There were two industrial collaborators in this project: Ashland Oil (represented by its Valvoline subsidiary) and Primet Precision Materials, Inc. (a leading nanomaterials company). There was also a sub-contract with the University of Arkansas. The major objectives of the project were to develop novel boron-based nanocolloidal lubrication additives and to optimize and verify their performance under boundary-lubricated sliding conditions. The project also tackled problems related to colloidal dispersion, larger-scale manufacturing and blending of nano-additives with base carrier oils. Other important issues dealt with in the project were determination of the optimum size and concentration of the particles and compatibility with various base fluids and/or additives. Boron-based particulate additives considered in this project included boric acid (H{sub 3}BO{sub 3}), hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), boron oxide, and borax. As part of this project, we also explored a hybrid MoS{sub 2} + boric acid formulation approach for more effective lubrication and reported the results. The major motivation behind this work was to reduce energy losses related to friction and wear in a wide spectrum of mechanical systems and thereby reduce our dependence on imported oil. Growing concern over greenhouse gas

  17. Development of a New Hypersonic Shock Tunnel Facility to Investigate Electromagnetic Energy Addition for Flow Control and Basic Supersonic Combustion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Toro, P. G. P.; Minucci, M. A. S.; Chanes, J. B.; Pereira, A. L.; Nagamatsu, H. T.

    2006-05-01

    A new 0.6-m. diameter Hypersonic Shock Tunnel is been designed, fabricated and will be installed at the Laboratory of Aerothermodynamics and Hypersonics IEAv-CTA, Brazil. The brand new hypersonic facility, designated as T3, is primarily intended to be used as an important tool in the investigation of supersonic combustion management and of electromagnetic energy addition for flow control. The design of the runnel enables relatively long test times, 2-10 milliseconds, suitable for basic supersonic combustion and energy addition by laser experiments. Free stream Mach numbers ranging from 6 to 25 can be produced and stagnation pressures and temperatures of 200 atm. and 5,500 K, respectively, can be generated. Shadowgraph and schlieren optical techniques will be used for flow visualization and the new facility is expected to be commissioned by the end of 2006.

  18. Flight Test Validation of Optimal Input Design and Comparison to Conventional Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1997-01-01

    A technique for designing optimal inputs for aerodynamic parameter estimation was flight tested on the F-18 High Angle of Attack Research Vehicle (HARV). Model parameter accuracies calculated from flight test data were compared on an equal basis for optimal input designs and conventional inputs at the same flight condition. In spite of errors in the a priori input design models and distortions of the input form by the feedback control system, the optimal inputs increased estimated parameter accuracies compared to conventional 3-2-1-1 and doublet inputs. In addition, the tests using optimal input designs demonstrated enhanced design flexibility, allowing the optimal input design technique to use a larger input amplitude to achieve further increases in estimated parameter accuracy without departing from the desired flight test condition. This work validated the analysis used to develop the optimal input designs, and demonstrated the feasibility and practical utility of the optimal input design technique.

  19. Estimating the CCSD basis-set limit energy from small basis sets: basis-set extrapolations vs additivity schemes

    SciTech Connect

    Spackman, Peter R.; Karton, Amir

    2015-05-15

    Coupled cluster calculations with all single and double excitations (CCSD) converge exceedingly slowly with the size of the one-particle basis set. We assess the performance of a number of approaches for obtaining CCSD correlation energies close to the complete basis-set limit in conjunction with relatively small DZ and TZ basis sets. These include global and system-dependent extrapolations based on the A + B/L{sup α} two-point extrapolation formula, and the well-known additivity approach that uses an MP2-based basis-set-correction term. We show that the basis set convergence rate can change dramatically between different systems(e.g.it is slower for molecules with polar bonds and/or second-row elements). The system-dependent basis-set extrapolation scheme, in which unique basis-set extrapolation exponents for each system are obtained from lower-cost MP2 calculations, significantly accelerates the basis-set convergence relative to the global extrapolations. Nevertheless, we find that the simple MP2-based basis-set additivity scheme outperforms the extrapolation approaches. For example, the following root-mean-squared deviations are obtained for the 140 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies in the W4-11 database: 9.1 (global extrapolation), 3.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.4 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}. The CCSD energy in these approximations is obtained from basis sets of up to TZ quality and the latter two approaches require additional MP2 calculations with basis sets of up to QZ quality. We also assess the performance of the basis-set extrapolations and additivity schemes for a set of 20 basis-set limit CCSD atomization energies of larger molecules including amino acids, DNA/RNA bases, aromatic compounds, and platonic hydrocarbon cages. We obtain the following RMSDs for the above methods: 10.2 (global extrapolation), 5.7 (system-dependent extrapolation), and 2.9 (additivity scheme) kJ mol{sup –1}.

  20. Additive effects on the energy barrier for synaptic vesicle fusion cause supralinear effects on the vesicle fusion rate

    PubMed Central

    Schotten, Sebastiaan; Meijer, Marieke; Walter, Alexander Matthias; Huson, Vincent; Mamer, Lauren; Kalogreades, Lawrence; ter Veer, Mirelle; Ruiter, Marvin; Brose, Nils; Rosenmund, Christian

    2015-01-01

    The energy required to fuse synaptic vesicles with the plasma membrane (‘activation energy’) is considered a major determinant in synaptic efficacy. From reaction rate theory, we predict that a class of modulations exists, which utilize linear modulation of the energy barrier for fusion to achieve supralinear effects on the fusion rate. To test this prediction experimentally, we developed a method to assess the number of releasable vesicles, rate constants for vesicle priming, unpriming, and fusion, and the activation energy for fusion by fitting a vesicle state model to synaptic responses induced by hypertonic solutions. We show that complexinI/II deficiency or phorbol ester stimulation indeed affects responses to hypertonic solution in a supralinear manner. An additive vs multiplicative relationship between activation energy and fusion rate provides a novel explanation for previously observed non-linear effects of genetic/pharmacological perturbations on synaptic transmission and a novel interpretation of the cooperative nature of Ca2+-dependent release. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.05531.001 PMID:25871846

  1. Calcium Carbonate Nanoplate Assemblies with Directed High-Energy Facets: Additive-Free Synthesis, High Drug Loading, and Sustainable Releasing.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Li, Yu; Xie, Hao; Su, Bao-Lian; Yao, Bin; Yin, Yixia; Li, Shipu; Chen, Fang; Fu, Zhengyi

    2015-07-29

    Developing drug delivery systems (DDSs) with high drug-loading capacity and sustainable releasing is critical for long-term chemotherapeutic efficacy, and it still remains challenging. Herein, vaterite CaCO3 nanoplate assemblies with exposed high-energy {001} facets have been synthesized via a novel, additive-free strategy. The product shows a high doxorubicin-loading capacity (65%); the best of all the CaCO3-based DDSs so far. Also, the product's sustainable releasing performance and its inhibition of the initial burst release, together, endow it with long-term drug efficacy. The work may shed light on exposing directed high-energy facets for rationally designing of a drug delivery system with long-term efficacy.

  2. Recent Additions in the Modeling Capabilities of an Open-Source Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-04-20

    WEC-Sim is a midfidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve multibody dynamics and models wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency-domain boundary-element methods. This paper presents the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim. The first feature discussed conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space form. This enhancement offers a substantial computational benefit after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced and the number of interactions increases exponentially with each additional body. Additional features include the ability to calculate the wave-excitation forces based on the instantaneous incident wave angle, allowing the device to weathervane, as well as import a user-defined wave elevation time series. A review of the hydrodynamic theory for each feature is provided and the successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  3. The Addition of a Video Game to Stationary Cycling: The Impact on Energy Expenditure in Overweight Children.

    PubMed

    Haddock, Bryan L; Siegel, Shannon R; Wikin, Linda D

    2009-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The prevalence of obesity in children has reached epidemic proportions with over 37% of children aged 6-11 years in the U.S. being classified as "at risk for overweight" or "overweight." Utilization of active video games has been proposed as one possible mechanism to help shift the tide of the obesity epidemic. PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if riding a stationary bike that controlled a video game would lead to significantly greater energy expenditure than riding the same bike without the video game connected. METHODS: Twenty children, 7-14 years old, with a BMI classification of "at risk for overweight" or "overweight" participated in this study. Following familiarization, energy expenditure was evaluated while riding a stationary bike for 20 minutes. One test was performed without the addition of a video game and one test with the bike controlling the speed of a car on the video game. RESULTS: Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure were significantly elevated above baseline in both conditions. Energy expenditure was significantly higher while riding the bike as it controlled the video game (4.4 ± 1.2 Kcal·min(-1)) than when riding the bike by itself (3.7 ± 1.1 Kcal·min(-1)) (p<0.05). Perceived exertion was not significantly different between the two sessions (p>0.05). CONCLUSION: Using a stationary bike to control a video game led to greater energy expenditure than riding a stationary bike without the video game and without a related increase in perceived exertion.

  4. Diet and energy-sensing inputs affect TorC1-mediated axon misrouting but not TorC2-directed synapse growth in a Drosophila model of tuberous sclerosis.

    PubMed

    Dimitroff, Brian; Howe, Katie; Watson, Adrienne; Campion, Bridget; Lee, Hyun-Gwan; Zhao, Na; O'Connor, Michael B; Neufeld, Thomas P; Selleck, Scott B

    2012-01-01

    The Target of Rapamycin (TOR) growth regulatory system is influenced by a number of different inputs, including growth factor signaling, nutrient availability, and cellular energy levels. While the effects of TOR on cell and organismal growth have been well characterized, this pathway also has profound effects on neural development and behavior. Hyperactivation of the TOR pathway by mutations in the upstream TOR inhibitors TSC1 (tuberous sclerosis complex 1) or TSC2 promotes benign tumors and neurological and behavioral deficits, a syndrome known as tuberous sclerosis (TS). In Drosophila, neuron-specific overexpression of Rheb, the direct downstream target inhibited by Tsc1/Tsc2, produced significant synapse overgrowth, axon misrouting, and phototaxis deficits. To understand how misregulation of Tor signaling affects neural and behavioral development, we examined the influence of growth factor, nutrient, and energy sensing inputs on these neurodevelopmental phenotypes. Neural expression of Pi3K, a principal mediator of growth factor inputs to Tor, caused synapse overgrowth similar to Rheb, but did not disrupt axon guidance or phototaxis. Dietary restriction rescued Rheb-mediated behavioral and axon guidance deficits, as did overexpression of AMPK, a component of the cellular energy sensing pathway, but neither was able to rescue synapse overgrowth. While axon guidance and behavioral phenotypes were affected by altering the function of a Tor complex 1 (TorC1) component, Raptor, or a TORC1 downstream element (S6k), synapse overgrowth was only suppressed by reducing the function of Tor complex 2 (TorC2) components (Rictor, Sin1). These findings demonstrate that different inputs to Tor signaling have distinct activities in nervous system development, and that Tor provides an important connection between nutrient-energy sensing systems and patterning of the nervous system.

  5. Fabrication of Thermoelectric Devices Using Additive-Subtractive Manufacturing Techniques: Application to Waste-Heat Energy Harvesting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tewolde, Mahder

    Thermoelectric generators (TEGs) are solid-state devices that convert heat directly into electricity. They are well suited for waste-heat energy harvesting applications as opposed to primary energy generation. Commercially available thermoelectric modules are flat, inflexible and have limited sizes available. State-of-art manufacturing of TEG devices relies on assembling prefabricated parts with soldering, epoxy bonding, and mechanical clamping. Furthermore, efforts to incorporate them onto curved surfaces such as exhaust pipes, pump housings, steam lines, mixing containers, reaction chambers, etc. require custom-built heat exchangers. This is costly and labor-intensive, in addition to presenting challenges in terms of space, thermal coupling, added weight and long-term reliability. Additive manufacturing technologies are beginning to address many of these issues by reducing part count in complex designs and the elimination of sub-assembly requirements. This work investigates the feasibility of utilizing such novel manufacturing routes for improving the manufacturing process of thermoelectric devices. Much of the research in thermoelectricity is primarily focused on improving thermoelectric material properties by developing of novel materials or finding ways to improve existing ones. Secondary to material development is improving the manufacturing process of TEGs to provide significant cost benefits. To improve the device fabrication process, this work explores additive manufacturing technologies to provide an integrated and scalable approach for TE device manufacturing directly onto engineering component surfaces. Additive manufacturing techniques like thermal spray and ink-dispenser printing are developed with the aim of improving the manufacturing process of TEGs. Subtractive manufacturing techniques like laser micromachining are also studied in detail. This includes the laser processing parameters for cutting the thermal spray materials efficiently by

  6. Minority additive distributions in a ceramic metal-halide arc lamp using high-energy x-ray induced fluorescence

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Curry, J. J.; Adler, H. G.; Shastri, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    2001-09-01

    X-ray induced fluorescence is used to measure the elemental densities of minority additives in a metal-halide arc contained inside a translucent ceramic envelope. A monochromatic x-ray beam from the Sector 1 Insertion Device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is used to excite K-shell x-ray fluorescence in the constituents of a ceramic metal-halide arc lamp dosed with DyI3 and CsI. Fluorescence and scattered photons are collected by a cryogenic energy-resolving Ge detector. The high signal-to-noise spectra show strong fluorescence from Dy, Cs, and I, as well as elastic scattering from Hg. Radial distributions of the absolute elemental densities of Dy, Cs, and I are obtained.

  7. Minority additive distributions in a ceramic metal-halide arc lamp using high-energy x-ray induced fluorescence

    SciTech Connect

    Curry, J. J.; Adler, H. G.; Shastri, S. D.; Lawler, J. E.

    2001-09-24

    X-ray induced fluorescence is used to measure the elemental densities of minority additives in a metal-halide arc contained inside a translucent ceramic envelope. A monochromatic x-ray beam from the Sector 1 Insertion Device beamline at the Advanced Photon Source is used to excite K-shell x-ray fluorescence in the constituents of a ceramic metal-halide arc lamp dosed with DyI{sub 3} and CsI. Fluorescence and scattered photons are collected by a cryogenic energy-resolving Ge detector. The high signal-to-noise spectra show strong fluorescence from Dy, Cs, and I, as well as elastic scattering from Hg. Radial distributions of the absolute elemental densities of Dy, Cs, and I are obtained.

  8. Assessment of PNGV fuels infrastructure. Phase 1 report: Additional capital needs and fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, M.; Stork, K.; Vyas, A.; Mintz, M.; Singh, M.; Johnson, L.

    1997-01-01

    This report presents the methodologies and results of Argonne`s assessment of additional capital needs and the fuel-cycle energy and emissions impacts of using six different fuels in the vehicles with tripled fuel economy (3X vehicles) that the Partnership for a New Generation of Vehicles is currently investigating. The six fuels included in this study are reformulated gasoline, low-sulfur diesel, methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Reformulated gasoline, methanol, and ethanol are assumed to be burned in spark-ignition, direct-injection engines. Diesel and dimethyl ether are assumed to be burned in compression-ignition, direct-injection engines. Hydrogen and methanol are assumed to be used in fuel-cell vehicles. The authors have analyzed fuels infrastructure impacts under a 3X vehicle low market share scenario and a high market share scenario. The assessment shows that if 3X vehicles are mass-introduced, a considerable amount of capital investment will be needed to build new fuel production plants and to establish distribution infrastructure for methanol, ethanol, dimethyl ether, and hydrogen. Capital needs for production facilities will far exceed those for distribution infrastructure. Among the four fuels, hydrogen will bear the largest capital needs. The fuel efficiency gain by 3X vehicles translates directly into reductions in total energy demand, fossil energy demand, and CO{sub 2} emissions. The combination of fuel substitution and fuel efficiency results in substantial petroleum displacement and large reductions in emissions of nitrogen oxide, carbon monoxide, volatile organic compounds, sulfur oxide, and particulate matter of size smaller than 10 microns.

  9. The role of input-output analysis of energy and ecologic systems. In the early development of ecological economics--a personal perspective.

    PubMed

    Hannon, Bruce

    2010-01-01

    A summary is provided of the early history of research on the flow of nonrenewable energy resources through the economy and of the flow of renewable energy resources through a natural ecosystem. The techniques are similar, and many specific applications are provided. A combined economic and ecological technique is also defined. The early history and people of the International Society Ecological Economic are cited.

  10. High input impedance amplifier

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kleinberg, Leonard L.

    1995-01-01

    High input impedance amplifiers are provided which reduce the input impedance solely to a capacitive reactance, or, in a somewhat more complex design, provide an extremely high essentially infinite, capacitive reactance. In one embodiment, where the input impedance is reduced in essence, to solely a capacitive reactance, an operational amplifier in a follower configuration is driven at its non-inverting input and a resistor with a predetermined magnitude is connected between the inverting and non-inverting inputs. A second embodiment eliminates the capacitance from the input by adding a second stage to the first embodiment. The second stage is a second operational amplifier in a non-inverting gain-stage configuration where the output of the first follower stage drives the non-inverting input of the second stage and the output of the second stage is fed back to the non-inverting input of the first stage through a capacitor of a predetermined magnitude. These amplifiers, while generally useful, are very useful as sensor buffer amplifiers that may eliminate significant sources of error.

  11. MDS MIC Catalog Inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Johnson-Throop, Kathy A.; Vowell, C. W.; Smith, Byron; Darcy, Jeannette

    2006-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the inputs to the MDS Medical Information Communique (MIC) catalog. The purpose of the group is to provide input for updating the MDS MIC Catalog and to request that MMOP assign Action Item to other working groups and FSs to support the MITWG Process for developing MIC-DDs.

  12. Talking Speech Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Berliss-Vincent, Jane; Whitford, Gigi

    2002-01-01

    This article presents both the factors involved in successful speech input use and the potential barriers that may suggest that other access technologies could be more appropriate for a given individual. Speech input options that are available are reviewed and strategies for optimizing use of speech recognition technology are discussed. (Contains…

  13. Ground motion input in seismic evaluation studies

    SciTech Connect

    Sewell, R.T.; Wu, S.C.

    1996-07-01

    This report documents research pertaining to conservatism and variability in seismic risk estimates. Specifically, it examines whether or not artificial motions produce unrealistic evaluation demands, i.e., demands significantly inconsistent with those expected from real earthquake motions. To study these issues, two types of artificial motions are considered: (a) motions with smooth response spectra, and (b) motions with realistic variations in spectral amplitude across vibration frequency. For both types of artificial motion, time histories are generated to match target spectral shapes. For comparison, empirical motions representative of those that might result from strong earthquakes in the Eastern U.S. are also considered. The study findings suggest that artificial motions resulting from typical simulation approaches (aimed at matching a given target spectrum) are generally adequate and appropriate in representing the peak-response demands that may be induced in linear structures and equipment responding to real earthquake motions. Also, given similar input Fourier energies at high-frequencies, levels of input Fourier energy at low frequencies observed for artificial motions are substantially similar to those levels noted in real earthquake motions. In addition, the study reveals specific problems resulting from the application of Western U.S. type motions for seismic evaluation of Eastern U.S. nuclear power plants.

  14. Demonstration of the Recent Additions in Modeling Capabilities for the WEC-Sim Wave Energy Converter Design Tool: Preprint

    SciTech Connect

    Tom, N.; Lawson, M.; Yu, Y. H.

    2015-03-01

    WEC-Sim is a mid-fidelity numerical tool for modeling wave energy conversion (WEC) devices. The code uses the MATLAB SimMechanics package to solve the multi-body dynamics and models the wave interactions using hydrodynamic coefficients derived from frequency domain boundary element methods. In this paper, the new modeling features introduced in the latest release of WEC-Sim will be presented. The first feature discussed is the conversion of the fluid memory kernel to a state-space approximation that provides significant gains in computational speed. The benefit of the state-space calculation becomes even greater after the hydrodynamic body-to-body coefficients are introduced as the number of interactions increases exponentially with the number of floating bodies. The final feature discussed is the capability toadd Morison elements to provide additional hydrodynamic damping and inertia. This is generally used as a tuning feature, because performance is highly dependent on the chosen coefficients. In this paper, a review of the hydrodynamic theory for each of the features is provided and successful implementation is verified using test cases.

  15. Integrated Autopilot/Autothrottle Based on a Total Energy Control Concept: Design and Evaluation of Additional Autopilot Modes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bruce, Kevin R.

    1988-01-01

    An integrated autopilot/autothrottle system was designed using a total energy control design philosophy. This design ensures that the system can differentiate between maneuvers requiring a change in thrust to accomplish a net energy change, and those maneuvers which only require elevator control to redistribute energy. The system design, the development of the system, and a summary of simulation results are defined.

  16. Gibbs energy additivity approaches to QSRR in generating gas chromatographic retention time for identification of fatty acid methyl ester.

    PubMed

    Pojjanapornpun, Siriluck; Aryusuk, Kornkanok; Lilitchan, Supathra; Krisnangkura, Kanit

    2017-02-06

    The Gibbs energy additivity method was used to correlate the retention time (t R) of common fatty acid methyl esters (FAMEs) to their chemical structures. The t R of 20 standard FAMEs eluted from three capillary columns of different polarities (ZB-WAXplus, BPX70, and SLB-IL111) under both isothermal gas chromatography and temperature-programmed gas chromatography (TPGC) conditions were accurately predicted. Also, the predicted t R of FAMEs prepared from flowering pak choi seed oil obtained by multistep TPGC with the BPX70 column were within 1.0% of the experimental t R. The predicted t R or mathematical t R (t R(math)) values could possibly be used as references in identification of common FAMEs. Hence, FAMEs prepared from horse mussel and fish oil capsules were chromatographed on the BPX70 and ZB-WAXplus columns in single-step and multistep TPGC. Identification was done by comparison of t R with the t R of standard FAMEs and with t R(math). Both showed correct identifications. The proposed model has six numeric constants. Five of six could be directly transferred to other columns of the same stationary phase. The first numeric constant (a), which contained the column phase ratio, could also be transferred with the adjustment of the column phase ratio to the actual phase ratio of the transferred column. Additionally, the numeric constants could be transferred across laboratories, with similar correction of the first numeric constant. The TPGC t R predicted with the transferred column constants were in good agreement with the reported experimental t R of FAMEs. Moreover, hexane was used in place of the conventional t M marker in the calculation. Hence, the experimental methods were much simplified and practically feasible. The proposed method for using t R(math) as the references would provide an alternative to the uses of real FAMEs as the references. It is simple and rapid and with good accuracy compared with the use of experimental t R as references.

  17. On the additional information content of hyperspectral remote sensing data for estimating ecosystem carbon dioxde and energy exchange

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohlfahrt, Georg; Hammerle, Albin; Tomelleri, Enrico

    2015-04-01

    Radiation reflected back from an ecosystem carries a spectral signature resulting from the interaction of radiation with the vegetation canopy and the underlying soil and thus allows drawing conclusions about the structure and functioning of an ecosystem. When this information is linked to a model of the leaf CO2 exchange, the ecosystem-scale CO2 exchange can be simulated. A well-known and very simplistic example for this approach is the light-use efficiency (LUE) model proposed by Monteith which links the flux of absorbed photosynthetically active radiation times a LUE parameter, both of which may be estimated based on remote sensing data, to predict the ecosystem gross photosynthesis. Here we explore the ability of a more elaborate approach by using near-surface remote sensing of hyperspectral reflected radiation, eddy covariance CO2 and energy flux measurements and a coupled radiative transfer and soil-vegetation-atmosphere-transfer (SVAT) model. Our main objective is to understand to what degree the joint assimilation of hyperspectral reflected radiation and eddy covariance flux measurements into the model helps to better constrain model parameters. To this end we use the SCOPE model, a combination of the well-known PROSAIL model and a SVAT model, and the Bayesian inversion algorithm DREAM. In order to explicitly link reflectance in the visible light and the leaf CO2 exchange, a novel parameterisation of the maximum carboxylation capacity parameter (Vcmax) on the leaf a+b chlorophyll content parameter of PROSAIL is introduced. Results are discussed with respect to the additional information content the hyperspectral data yield for simulating canopy photosynthesis.

  18. Evidence of Significant Energy Input in the Late Phase of a Solar Flare from NuSTAR X-Ray Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kuhar, Matej; Krucker, Säm; Hannah, Iain G.; Glesener, Lindsay; Saint-Hilaire, Pascal; Grefenstette, Brian W.; Hudson, Hugh S.; White, Stephen M.; Smith, David M.; Marsh, Andrew J.; Wright, Paul J.; Boggs, Steven E.; Christensen, Finn E.; Craig, William W.; Hailey, Charles J.; Harrison, Fiona A.; Stern, Daniel; Zhang, William W.

    2017-01-01

    We present observations of the occulted active region AR 12222 during the third Nuclear Spectroscopic Telescope ARray (NuSTAR) solar campaign on 2014 December 11, with concurrent Solar Dynamics Observatory (SDO)/AIA and FOXSI-2 sounding rocket observations. The active region produced a medium-size solar flare 1 day before the observations, at ∼18 UT on 2014 December 10, with the post-flare loops still visible at the time of NuSTAR observations. The time evolution of the source emission in the SDO/AIA 335 Å channel reveals the characteristics of an extreme-ultraviolet late-phase event, caused by the continuous formation of new post-flare loops that arch higher and higher in the solar corona. The spectral fitting of NuSTAR observations yields an isothermal source, with temperature 3.8–4.6 MK, emission measure (0.3–1.8) × 1046 cm‑3, and density estimated at (2.5–6.0) × 108 cm‑3. The observed AIA fluxes are consistent with the derived NuSTAR temperature range, favoring temperature values in the range of 4.0–4.3 MK. By examining the post-flare loops’ cooling times and energy content, we estimate that at least 12 sets of post-flare loops were formed and subsequently cooled between the onset of the flare and NuSTAR observations, with their total thermal energy content an order of magnitude larger than the energy content at flare peak time. This indicates that the standard approach of using only the flare peak time to derive the total thermal energy content of a flare can lead to a large underestimation of its value.

  19. Signal Prediction With Input Identification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juang, Jer-Nan; Chen, Ya-Chin

    1999-01-01

    A novel coding technique is presented for signal prediction with applications including speech coding, system identification, and estimation of input excitation. The approach is based on the blind equalization method for speech signal processing in conjunction with the geometric subspace projection theory to formulate the basic prediction equation. The speech-coding problem is often divided into two parts, a linear prediction model and excitation input. The parameter coefficients of the linear predictor and the input excitation are solved simultaneously and recursively by a conventional recursive least-squares algorithm. The excitation input is computed by coding all possible outcomes into a binary codebook. The coefficients of the linear predictor and excitation, and the index of the codebook can then be used to represent the signal. In addition, a variable-frame concept is proposed to block the same excitation signal in sequence in order to reduce the storage size and increase the transmission rate. The results of this work can be easily extended to the problem of disturbance identification. The basic principles are outlined in this report and differences from other existing methods are discussed. Simulations are included to demonstrate the proposed method.

  20. Input-current shaped ac to dc converters

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1986-01-01

    The problem of achieving near unity power factor while supplying power to a dc load from a single phase ac source of power is examined. Power processors for this application must perform three functions: input current shaping, energy storage, and output voltage regulation. The methods available for performing each of these three functions are reviewed. Input current shaping methods are either active or passive, with the active methods divided into buck-like and boost-like techniques. In addition to large reactances, energy storage methods include resonant filters, active filters, and active storage schemes. Fast voltage regulation can be achieved by post regulation or by supplementing the current shaping topology with an extra switch. Some indications of which methods are best suited for particular applications concludes the discussion.

  1. Input and Input Processing in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alcon, Eva

    1998-01-01

    Analyzes second-language learners' processing of linguistic data within the target language, focusing on input and intake in second-language acquisition and factors and cognitive processes that affect input processing. Input factors include input simplification, input enhancement, and interactional modifications. Individual learner differences…

  2. Input Decimated Ensembles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tumer, Kagan; Oza, Nikunj C.; Clancy, Daniel (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Using an ensemble of classifiers instead of a single classifier has been shown to improve generalization performance in many pattern recognition problems. However, the extent of such improvement depends greatly on the amount of correlation among the errors of the base classifiers. Therefore, reducing those correlations while keeping the classifiers' performance levels high is an important area of research. In this article, we explore input decimation (ID), a method which selects feature subsets for their ability to discriminate among the classes and uses them to decouple the base classifiers. We provide a summary of the theoretical benefits of correlation reduction, along with results of our method on two underwater sonar data sets, three benchmarks from the Probenl/UCI repositories, and two synthetic data sets. The results indicate that input decimated ensembles (IDEs) outperform ensembles whose base classifiers use all the input features; randomly selected subsets of features; and features created using principal components analysis, on a wide range of domains.

  3. Affinity and Specificity of Protein U1A-RNA Complex Formation Based on an Additive Component Free Energy Model

    PubMed Central

    Kormos, Bethany L.; Benitex, Yulia; Baranger, Anne M.; Beveridge, David L.

    2007-01-01

    Summary A MM-GBSA computational protocol was used successfully to account for wild type U1A-RNA and F56 U1A mutant experimental binding free energies. The trend in mutant binding free energies compared to wild type is well-reproduced. Following application of a linear-response-like equation to scale the various energy components, the binding free energies agree quantitatively with observed experimental values. Conformational adaptation contributes to the binding free energy for both the protein and the RNA in these systems. Small differences in ΔGs are the result of different and sometimes quite large relative contributions from various energetic components. Residual free energy decomposition indicates differences not only at the site of mutation, but throughout the entire protein. MM-GBSA and ab initio calculations performed on model systems suggest that stacking interactions may nearly, but not completely, account for observed differences in mutant binding affinities. This study indicates that there may be different underlying causes of ostensibly similar experimentally observed binding affinities of different mutants, and thus recommends caution in the interpretation of binding affinities and specificities purely by inspection. PMID:17603075

  4. Implications of Export/Import Reporting Requirements in the United States - International Atomic Energy Agency Safeguards Additional Protocol

    SciTech Connect

    Killinger, Mark H.; Benjamin, Eugene L.; McNair, Gary W.

    2001-02-20

    The United States has signed but not ratified the US/IAEA Safeguards Additional Protocol. If ratified, the Additional Protocol will require the US to report to the IAEA certain nuclear-related exports and imports to the IAEA. This document identifies and assesses the issues associated with the US making those reports. For example, some regulatory changes appear to be necessary. The document also attempts to predict the impact on the DOE Complex by assessing the historical flow of exports and imports that would be reportable if the Additional Protocol were in force.

  5. Hydrogen radical additions to unsaturated hydrocarbons and the reverse beta-scission reactions: modeling of activation energies and pre-exponential factors.

    PubMed

    Sabbe, Maarten K; Reyniers, Marie-Françoise; Waroquier, Michel; Marin, Guy B

    2010-01-18

    The group additivity method for Arrhenius parameters is applied to hydrogen addition to alkenes and alkynes and the reverse beta-scission reactions, an important family of reactions in thermal processes based on radical chemistry. A consistent set of group additive values for 33 groups is derived to calculate the activation energy and pre-exponential factor for a broad range of hydrogen addition reactions. The group additive values are determined from CBS-QB3 ab-initio-calculated rate coefficients. A mean factor of deviation of only two between CBS-QB3 and experimental rate coefficients for seven reactions in the range 300-1000 K is found. Tunneling coefficients for these reactions were found to be significant below 400 K and a correlation accounting for tunneling is presented. Application of the obtained group additive values to predict the kinetics for a set of 11 additions and beta-scissions yields rate coefficients within a factor of 3.5 of the CBS-QB3 results except for two beta-scissions with severe steric effects. The mean factor of deviation with respect to experimental rate coefficients of 2.0 shows that the group additive method with tunneling corrections can accurately predict the kinetics and is at least as accurate as the most commonly used density functional methods. The constructed group additive model can hence be applied to predict the kinetics of hydrogen radical additions for a broad range of unsaturated compounds.

  6. Potlining Additives

    SciTech Connect

    Rudolf Keller

    2004-08-10

    In this project, a concept to improve the performance of aluminum production cells by introducing potlining additives was examined and tested. Boron oxide was added to cathode blocks, and titanium was dissolved in the metal pool; this resulted in the formation of titanium diboride and caused the molten aluminum to wet the carbonaceous cathode surface. Such wetting reportedly leads to operational improvements and extended cell life. In addition, boron oxide suppresses cyanide formation. This final report presents and discusses the results of this project. Substantial economic benefits for the practical implementation of the technology are projected, especially for modern cells with graphitized blocks. For example, with an energy savings of about 5% and an increase in pot life from 1500 to 2500 days, a cost savings of $ 0.023 per pound of aluminum produced is projected for a 200 kA pot.

  7. Investigation of the oxidation states of Cu additive in colored borosilicate glasses by electron energy loss spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, Guang Cheng, Shaodong; Li, Chao; Ma, Chuansheng; Zhong, Jiasong; Xiang, Weidong; Wang, Zhao

    2014-12-14

    Three optically transparent colorful (red, green, and blue) glasses were synthesized by the sol-gel method. Nano-sized precipitates were found in scanning electron microscopy images. The precipitates were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and high resolution TEM. The measured lattice parameters of these precipitates were found to fit the metallic copper in red glass but deviate from single valenced Cu oxides in green and blue glasses. The chemistry of these nano-sized particles was confirmed by electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS). By fitting the EELS spectra obtained from the precipitates with the linear combination of reference spectra from Cu reference compounds, the oxidation states of Cu in the precipitates have been derived. First principle calculations suggested that the Cu nano-particles, which are in the similar oxidation states as our measurement, would show green color in the visible light range.

  8. Ammonium Additives to Dissolve Lithium Sulfide through Hydrogen Binding for High-Energy Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    PubMed

    Pan, Huilin; Han, Kee Sung; Vijayakumar, M; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Ruiguo; Chen, Junzheng; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2017-02-08

    In rechargeable Li-S batteries, the uncontrollable passivation of electrodes by highly insulating Li2S limits sulfur utilization, increases polarization, and decreases cycling stability. Dissolving Li2S in organic electrolyte is a facile solution to maintain the active reaction interface between electrolyte and sulfur cathode, and thus address the above issues. Herein, ammonium salts are demonstrated as effective additives to promote the dissolution of Li2S to 1.25 M in DMSO solvent at room temperature. NMR measurements show that the strong hydrogen binding effect of N-H groups plays a critical role in dissolving Li2S by forming complex ligands with S(2-) anions coupled with the solvent's solvating surrounding. Ammonium additives in electrolyte can also significantly improve the oxidation kinetics of Li2S, and therefore enable the direct use of Li2S as cathode material in Li-S battery system in the future. This provides a new approach to manage the solubility of lithium sulfides through cation coordination with sulfide anion.

  9. Ammonium Additives to Dissolve Lithium Sulfide through Hydrogen Binding for High-Energy Lithium–Sulfur Batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Pan, Huilin; Han, Kee Sung; Vijayakumar, M.; Xiao, Jie; Cao, Ruiguo; Chen, Junzheng; Zhang, Jiguang; Mueller, Karl T.; Shao, Yuyan; Liu, Jun

    2016-07-01

    In rechargeable Li-S batteries, the uncontrollable passivation of electrodes by highly insulating Li2S limits sulfur utilization, increases polarization and decreases cycling stability. Dissolving Li2S in organic electrolyte is a facile solution to maintain the active reaction interface between electrolyte and sulfur cathode, and thus address the above issues. Herein, ammonium salts are demonstrated as effective additives to promote the dissolution of Li2S to 1.25 M in DMSO solvent at room temperature. NMR measurements show that the strong hydrogen binding effect of N-H groups plays a critical role in dissolving Li2S by forming complex ligands with S2- anions coupled with the solvent’s solvating surrounding. Ammonium additives in electrolyte can also significantly improve the oxidation kinetics of Li2S, therefore enables the direct use of Li2S as cathode material in Li-S battery system in the future. This provides a new approach to manage the solubility of lithium sulfides through cation coordination with sulfide anion.

  10. Investigation of RADTRAN Stop Model input parameters for truck stops

    SciTech Connect

    Griego, N.R.; Smith, J.D.; Neuhauser, K.S.

    1996-03-01

    RADTRAN is a computer code for estimating the risks and consequences as transport of radioactive materials (RAM). RADTRAN was developed and is maintained by Sandia National Laboratories for the US Department of Energy (DOE). For incident-free transportation, the dose to persons exposed while the shipment is stopped is frequently a major percentage of the overall dose. This dose is referred to as Stop Dose and is calculated by the Stop Model. Because stop dose is a significant portion of the overall dose associated with RAM transport, the values used as input for the Stop Model are important. Therefore, an investigation of typical values for RADTRAN Stop Parameters for truck stops was performed. The resulting data from these investigations were analyzed to provide mean values, standard deviations, and histograms. Hence, the mean values can be used when an analyst does not have a basis for selecting other input values for the Stop Model. In addition, the histograms and their characteristics can be used to guide statistical sampling techniques to measure sensitivity of the RADTRAN calculated Stop Dose to the uncertainties in the stop model input parameters. This paper discusses the details and presents the results of the investigation of stop model input parameters at truck stops.

  11. Partitioning of dietary energy of chickens fed maize- or wheat-based diets with and without a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives.

    PubMed

    Pirgozliev, V; Beccaccia, A; Rose, S P; Bravo, D

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of a standardized mixture of a commercial blend of phytogenic feed additives containing 5% carvacrol, 3% cinnamaldehyde, and 2% capsicum on utilization of dietary energy and performance in broiler chickens. Four experimental diets were offered to the birds from 7 to 21 d of age. These included 2 basal control diets based on either wheat or maize that contained 215 g CP/kg and 12.13 MJ/kg ME and another 2 diets using the basal control diets supplemented with the plant extracts combination at 100 mg/kg diet. Each diet was fed to 16 individually penned birds following randomization. Dietary plant extracts improved feed intake and weight gain (P < 0.05) and slightly (P < 0.1) improved feed efficiency of birds fed the maize-based diet. Supplementary plant extracts did not change dietary ME (P > 0.05) but improved (P < 0.05) dietary NE by reducing the heat increment (P < 0.05) per kilogram feed intake. Feeding phytogenics improved (P < 0.05) total carcass energy retention and the efficiency of dietary ME for carcass energy retention. The number of interactions between type of diet and supplementary phytogenic feed additive suggest that the chemical composition and the energy to protein ratio of the diet may influence the efficiency of phytogenics when fed to chickens. The experiment showed that although supplementary phytogenic additives did not affect dietary ME, they caused a significant improvement in the utilization of dietary energy for carcass energy retention but this did not always relate to growth performance.

  12. Additive Manufacturing of AlSi10Mg Alloy Using Direct Energy Deposition: Microstructure and Hardness Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Javidani, M.; Arreguin-Zavala, J.; Danovitch, J.; Tian, Y.; Brochu, M.

    2016-12-01

    This paper aims to study the manufacturing of the AlSi10Mg alloy with direct energy deposition (DED) process. Following fabrication, the macro- and microstructural evolution of the as-processed specimens was initially investigated using optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy. Columnar dendritic structure was the dominant solidification feature of the deposit; nevertheless, detailed microstructural analysis revealed cellular morphology near the substrate and equiaxed dendrites at the top end of the deposit. Moreover, the microstructural morphology in the melt pool boundary of the deposit differed from the one in the core of the layers. The remaining porosity of the deposit was evaluated by Archimedes' principle and by image analysis of the polished surface. Crystallographic texture in the deposit was also assessed using electron backscatter diffraction and x-ray diffraction analysis. The dendrites were unidirectionally oriented at an angle of 80° to the substrate. EPMA line scans were performed to evaluate the compositional variation and elemental segregation in different locations. Eventually, microhardness (HV) tests were conducted in order to study the hardness gradient in the as-DED-processed specimen along the deposition direction. The presented results, which exhibited a deposit with an almost defect free structure, indicate that the DED process can suitable for the deposition of Al-Si-based alloys with a highly consolidated structure.

  13. TASSRAP Input Module

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1977-07-29

    retrieve data necessary for the other modules to function. Initially there are 13 inputs, with the CRT dis - playing the information to be entered...id 46aý .0sso somma % 4bt--f. ft Aa W #4t - lQ *a - 4 c ,0 45 40 aK 43 ’ C = 04 ZSC 0 de *020.4 %- li’l ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ ~ & 1&.1 gol~ -,.-’ ow. -6 -N*4••1L...tv Z (𔃽 - C- ft %- ftb 0*4 *- -1 *4* (30 w ag &h 𔃾 0 a _6a .N I 0 A. 6.2 IL ILN ’ S MS 6C 0 to ~ 0 " di a S 0 m J *- -j f’ md op9 -9 $-. -6 = -A U .Af

  14. Effect of Rashba and Dresselhaus interactions on the energy spectrum, chemical potential, addition energy and spin-splitting in a many-electron parabolic GaAs quantum dot in a magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kumar, D. Sanjeev; Mukhopadhyay, Soma; Chatterjee, Ashok

    2016-11-01

    The effect of electron-electron interaction and the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions on the electronic properties of a many-electron system in a parabolically confined quantum dot placed in an external magnetic field is studied. With a simple and physically reasonable model potential for electron-electron interaction term, the problem is solved exactly to second-order in the spin-orbit coupling constants to obtain the energy spectrum, the chemical potential, addition energy and the spin-splitting energy.

  15. Motor Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple motor inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: High Efficiency Motor retrofit and Cogged V-belts retrofit. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  16. Alternative energy sources and new energy technologies for Turkish rural areas

    SciTech Connect

    Ultanir, M.O.

    1983-12-01

    Modern agriculture is an energy consumer sector, also agriculture is an energy conversion process. In addition to biomass energy's raw materials are harvested by agriculture. The concept of energy in agriculture, energy is one of the main and outstanding factor which renders the realization of the overall development of the agriculture and rural areas. Agricultural income depends on total mechanical power in agricultural mechanization; general energy consumption of rural sector; cultural energy consumption by agricultural inputs which are fertilizer, pesticides, indirect energy in machinery, irrigation equipments, buildings and other services; direct energy consumption in agricultural mechanization which are fuel and electricity etc. In general, energy input in the rural areas is classified as direct and indirect. Direct energy input reflects demands for mechanical energy, electrical energy and heat energy. Indirect energy consists of inputs which have been produced by industrial sector and introduced into rural sector. Although conventional energy sources, especially petroleum products are used in meeting direct energy input requirements, alternative energy sources may be used as well in this respect. Especially emphasis is being given to new and renewable alternative sources for heat and electrical energy requirements.

  17. Addition complex and insertion isomers on the potential energy surface of the reaction of indium dimer with water studied with relativistic ECP

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moc, Jerzy

    2013-10-01

    Stationary points on the lowest singlet and triplet In2 + H2O potential energy surfaces (PESs) have been explored using the coupled cluster method, including single and double excitations with perturbative triples (CCSD(T)), and the density functional theory (DFT), employing the effective core potential (ECP) for indium (In), which accounts for scalar relativistic effects, with the triple-zeta quality basis set. The CCSD(T) calculated binding energy and anharmonic ν2-bending mode frequency for the triplet ground-state addition complex, In2… OH2(3B1), are consistent with the complex detected in the matrix isolation infrared (IR) spectroscopic study under the thermal conditions. The two minimum energy crossing points between the triplet and the singlet PESs that have been located between the structures of In2…OH2 and the transition state for the O-H bond breakage are not likely to be thermally accessible under the low-temperature matrix conditions. With the CCSD(T)-calculated In2 + H2O reaction profile and anharmonic vibrational frequencies for several In2(H)(OH) insertion product isomers, we support the IR matrix isolation detection (by two experimental groups) of the lowest energy singlet double-bridged In(μ-H)(μ-OH)In isomer. For the proposed two-step mechanism of H2 elimination from the In2(H)(OH) species, the estimated energy barriers are also compatible with experiment.

  18. Input Multiplicities in Process Control.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Koppel, Lowell B.

    1983-01-01

    Describes research investigating potential effect of input multiplicity on multivariable chemical process control systems. Several simple processes are shown to exhibit the possibility of theoretical developments on input multiplicity and closely related phenomena are discussed. (JN)

  19. Modeling and generating input processes

    SciTech Connect

    Johnson, M.E.

    1987-01-01

    This tutorial paper provides information relevant to the selection and generation of stochastic inputs to simulation studies. The primary area considered is multivariate but much of the philosophy at least is relevant to univariate inputs as well. 14 refs.

  20. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    A novel input filter compensation scheme for a buck regulator that eliminates the interaction between the input filter output impedance and the regulator control loop is presented. The scheme is implemented using a feedforward loop that senses the input filter state variables and uses this information to modulate the duty cycle signal. The feedforward design process presented is seen to be straightforward and the feedforward easy to implement. Extensive experimental data supported by analytical results show that significant performance improvement is achieved with the use of feedforward in the following performance categories: loop stability, audiosusceptibility, output impedance and transient response. The use of feedforward results in isolating the switching regulator from its power source thus eliminating all interaction between the regulator and equipment upstream. In addition the use of feedforward removes some of the input filter design constraints and makes the input filter design process simpler thus making it possible to optimize the input filter. The concept of feedforward compensation can also be extended to other types of switching regulators.

  1. The Kepler Input Catalog

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Latham, D. W.; Brown, T. M.; Monet, D. G.; Everett, M.; Esquerdo, G. A.; Hergenrother, C. W.

    2005-12-01

    The Kepler mission will monitor 170,000 planet-search targets during the first year, and 100,000 after that. The Kepler Input Catalog (KIC) will be used to select optimum targets for the search for habitable earth-like transiting planets. The KIC will include all known catalogued stars in an area of about 177 square degrees centered at RA 19:22:40 and Dec +44:30 (l=76.3 and b=+13.5). 2MASS photometry will be supplemented with new ground-based photometry obtained in the SDSS g, r, i, and z bands plus a custom filter centered on the Mg b lines, using KeplerCam on the 48-inch telescope at the Whipple Observatory on Mount Hopkins, Arizona. The photometry will be used to estimate stellar characteristics for all stars brighter than K 14.5 mag. The KIC will include effective temperature, surface gravity, metallicity, reddening, distance, and radius estimates for these stars. The CCD images are pipeline processed to produce instrumental magnitudes at PSI. The photometry is then archived and transformed to the SDSS system at HAO, where the astrophysical analysis of the stellar characteristics is carried out. The results are then merged with catalogued data at the USNOFS to produce the KIC. High dispersion spectroscopy with Hectochelle on the MMT will be used to supplement the information for many of the most interesting targets. The KIC will be released before launch for use by the astronomical community and will be available for queries over the internet. Support from the Kepler mission is gratefully acknowledged.

  2. INGEN: A COBRA-NC input generator user's manual

    SciTech Connect

    Wheeler, C.L.; Dodge, R.E.

    1986-12-01

    The INGEN (INput GENerator) computer program has been developed as a preprocessor to simplify input generation for the COBRA-NC computer program. INGEN uses several empirical correlations and geometric assumptions to simplify the data input requirements for the COBRA-NC computer code. The simplified input scheme is obtained at the expense of much flexibility provided by COBRA-NC. For more complex problems requiring additional flexibility however, INGEN may be used to provide a skeletal input file to which the more detailed input may be added. This report describes the input requirements for INGEN and describes the algorithms and correlations used to generate the COBRA-NC input. 9 refs., 3 figs., 6 tabs.

  3. Diversity matters: parent input predicts toddler verb production.

    PubMed

    Hsu, Ning; Hadley, Pamela A; Rispoli, Matthew

    2017-01-01

    The contribution of parent input to children's subsequent expressive verb diversity was explored in twenty typically developing toddlers with small verb lexicons. Child developmental factors and parent input measures (i.e. verb quantity, verb diversity, and verb-related structural cues) at age 1;9 were examined as potential predictors of children's verb production in spontaneous language samples at age 2;3. Parent verb input diversity, rather than input quantity, was the primary input factor contributing to children's subsequent verb diversity. Regression analysis showed that verb diversity in parent input at age 1;9 accounted for 30% of the variance in children's verb production six months later, with children's total vocabulary size at age 1;9 accounting for an additional 16% of the variance. These findings demonstrate the relative contributions of developmental and input factors to individual differences in toddlers' language development and establish the importance of input diversity to verb acquisition.

  4. Theoretical characterization of the minimum energy path for hydrogen atom addition to N2 - Implications for the unimolecular lifetime of HN2

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Walch, Stephen P.; Duchovic, Ronald J.; Rohlfing, Celeste Mcmichael

    1989-01-01

    Results are reported from CASSCF externally contracted CI ab initio computations of the minimum-energy path for the addition of H to N2. The theoretical basis and numerical implementation of the computations are outlined, and the results are presented in extensive tables and graphs and characterized in detail. The zero-point-corrected barrier for HN2 dissociation is estimated as 8.5 kcal/mol, and the lifetime of the lowest-lying quasi-bound vibrational state of HN2 is found to be between 88 psec and 5.8 nsec (making experimental observation of this species very difficult).

  5. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  6. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  7. 18 CFR 33.4 - Additional information requirements for applications involving vertical competitive impacts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 18 Conservation of Power and Water Resources 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Additional information... and Water Resources FEDERAL ENERGY REGULATORY COMMISSION, DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY REGULATIONS UNDER THE... entities that provides inputs to electricity products and one or more merging entities that...

  8. Serial Input Output

    SciTech Connect

    Waite, Anthony; /SLAC

    2011-09-07

    Serial Input/Output (SIO) is designed to be a long term storage format of a sophistication somewhere between simple ASCII files and the techniques provided by inter alia Objectivity and Root. The former tend to be low density, information lossy (floating point numbers lose precision) and inflexible. The latter require abstract descriptions of the data with all that that implies in terms of extra complexity. The basic building blocks of SIO are streams, records and blocks. Streams provide the connections between the program and files. The user can define an arbitrary list of streams as required. A given stream must be opened for either reading or writing. SIO does not support read/write streams. If a stream is closed during the execution of a program, it can be reopened in either read or write mode to the same or a different file. Records represent a coherent grouping of data. Records consist of a collection of blocks (see next paragraph). The user can define a variety of records (headers, events, error logs, etc.) and request that any of them be written to any stream. When SIO reads a file, it first decodes the record name and if that record has been defined and unpacking has been requested for it, SIO proceeds to unpack the blocks. Blocks are user provided objects which do the real work of reading/writing the data. The user is responsible for writing the code for these blocks and for identifying these blocks to SIO at run time. To write a collection of blocks, the user must first connect them to a record. The record can then be written to a stream as described above. Note that the same block can be connected to many different records. When SIO reads a record, it scans through the blocks written and calls the corresponding block object (if it has been defined) to decode it. Undefined blocks are skipped. Each of these categories (streams, records and blocks) have some characteristics in common. Every stream, record and block has a name with the condition that each

  9. Characterisation of vibration input to flywheel used on urban bus

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, L.; Kanarachos, S.; Christensen, J.

    2016-09-01

    Vibration induced from road surface has an impact on the durability and reliability of electrical and mechanical components attached on the vehicle. There is little research published relevant to the durability assessment of a flywheel energy recovery system installed on city and district buses. Relevant international standards and legislations were reviewed and large discrepancy was found among them, in addition, there are no standards exclusively developed for kinetic energy recovery systems on vehicles. This paper describes the experimentation of assessment of road surface vibration input to the flywheel on a bus as obtained at the MIRA Proving Ground. Power density spectra have been developed based on the raw data obtained during the experimentation. Validation of this model will be carried out using accelerated life time tests that will be carried out on a shaker rig using an accumulated profile based on the theory of fatigue damage equivalence in time and frequency domain aligned with the model predictions.

  10. SDR Input Power Estimation Algorithms

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nappier, Jennifer M.; Briones, Janette C.

    2013-01-01

    The General Dynamics (GD) S-Band software defined radio (SDR) in the Space Communications and Navigation (SCAN) Testbed on the International Space Station (ISS) provides experimenters an opportunity to develop and demonstrate experimental waveforms in space. The SDR has an analog and a digital automatic gain control (AGC) and the response of the AGCs to changes in SDR input power and temperature was characterized prior to the launch and installation of the SCAN Testbed on the ISS. The AGCs were used to estimate the SDR input power and SNR of the received signal and the characterization results showed a nonlinear response to SDR input power and temperature. In order to estimate the SDR input from the AGCs, three algorithms were developed and implemented on the ground software of the SCAN Testbed. The algorithms include a linear straight line estimator, which used the digital AGC and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a narrower section of the SDR input power range. There is a linear adaptive filter algorithm that uses both AGCs and the temperature to estimate the SDR input power over a wide input power range. Finally, an algorithm that uses neural networks was designed to estimate the input power over a wide range. This paper describes the algorithms in detail and their associated performance in estimating the SDR input power.

  11. An update of input instructions to TEMOD

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1973-01-01

    The theory and operation of a FORTRAN 4 computer code, designated as TEMOD, used to calcuate tubular thermoelectric generator performance is described in WANL-TME-1906. The original version of TEMOD was developed in 1969. A description is given of additions to the mathematical model and an update of the input instructions to the code. Although the basic mathematical model described in WANL-TME-1906 has remained unchanged, a substantial number of input/output options were added to allow completion of module performance parametrics as required in support of the compact thermoelectric converter system technology program.

  12. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels

    PubMed Central

    Ferreira, H. C.; Hannas, M. I.; Albino, L. F. T.; Rostagno, H. S.; Neme, R.; Faria, B. D.; Xavier, M. L.; Rennó, L. N.

    2016-01-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase (BM) supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels (NL) were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers (NL1); reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy (NL2); 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain (BWG) and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion (FCR) for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance, energy

  13. Effect of the addition of β-mannanase on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility coefficients, and immune functions of broilers fed different nutritional levels.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, H C; Hannas, M I; Albino, L F T; Rostagno, H S; Neme, R; Faria, B D; Xavier, M L; Rennó, L N

    2016-08-01

    Three experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of β-mannanase BM: supplementation on the performance, metabolizable energy, amino acid digestibility, and immune function of broilers. A total of 1,600 broilers were randomly distributed in a 4 × 2 factorial arrangement (4 nutritional levels × 0 or 500 g/ton BM), with 10 replicates and 20 broilers per pen. The same design was used in the energy and digestibility experiments with 8 and 6 replicates, respectively, and 6 broilers per pen. The nutritional levels : NL : were formulated to meet the nutritional requirements of broilers : NL1 : ; reductions of 100 kcal metabolizable energy : NL2 : ; 3% of the total amino acids (NL3); and 100 kcal metabolizable energy and 3% total amino acids (NL4) from NL1. The serum immunoglobulin (Ig) concentration was determined in two broilers per pen, and these broilers were slaughtered to determine the relative weight of spleen, thymus, and bursa of Fabricius. Throughout the experiment, the lower nutritional levels reduced (P < 0.05) body weight gain : BWG : and increased (P < 0.05) feed conversion : FCR : for the NL4 treatment. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the BWG values and improved (P < 0.05) the FCR of the broilers. The apparent metabolizable energy corrected for nitrogen balance (AMEn) values were reduced (P < 0.05) for NL2 and NL3. The BM increased (P < 0.05) the AMEn values and reduced (P < 0.05) the excreted nitrogen. NL3 and NL4 reduced (P < 0.05) the true ileal digestibility coefficients (TIDc) of the amino acids cystine and glycine, and BM increased (P < 0.05) the TIDc for all amino acids. The addition of BM reduced (P < 0.05) the relative weights of the spleen and bursa. NL2 increased (P < 0.05) the Ig values, whereas BM reduced (P < 0.05) the serum IgA, IgG, and IgM values of the broilers. This study indicates that using suboptimal nutrient levels leads to losses in production parameters, whereas BM-supplemented diets were effective in improving performance

  14. Biogenic inputs to ocean mixing.

    PubMed

    Katija, Kakani

    2012-03-15

    Recent studies have evoked heated debate about whether biologically generated (or biogenic) fluid disturbances affect mixing in the ocean. Estimates of biogenic inputs have shown that their contribution to ocean mixing is of the same order as winds and tides. Although these estimates are intriguing, further study using theoretical, numerical and experimental techniques is required to obtain conclusive evidence of biogenic mixing in the ocean. Biogenic ocean mixing is a complex problem that requires detailed understanding of: (1) marine organism behavior and characteristics (i.e. swimming dynamics, abundance and migratory behavior), (2) mechanisms utilized by swimming animals that have the ability to mix stratified fluids (i.e. turbulence and fluid drift) and (3) knowledge of the physical environment to isolate contributions of marine organisms from other sources of mixing. In addition to summarizing prior work addressing the points above, observations on the effect of animal swimming mode and body morphology on biogenic fluid transport will also be presented. It is argued that to inform the debate on whether biogenic mixing can contribute to ocean mixing, our studies should focus on diel vertical migrators that traverse stratified waters of the upper pycnocline. Based on our understanding of mixing mechanisms, body morphologies, swimming modes and body orientation, combined with our knowledge of vertically migrating populations of animals, it is likely that copepods, krill and some species of gelatinous zooplankton and fish have the potential to be strong sources of biogenic mixing.

  15. REL - English Bulk Data Input.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bigelow, Richard Henry

    A bulk data input processor which is available for the Rapidly Extensible Language (REL) English versions is described. In REL English versions, statements that declare names of data items and their interrelationships normally are lines from a terminal or cards in a batch input stream. These statements provide a convenient means of declaring some…

  16. Inputs for L2 Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saleemi, Anjum P.

    1989-01-01

    Major approaches of describing or examining linguistic data from a potential target language (input) are analyzed for adequacy in addressing the concerns of second language learning theory. Suggestions are made for making the best of these varied concepts of input and for reformulation of a unified concept. (MSE)

  17. Input in Second Language Acquisition.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M., Ed.; Madden, Carolyn G., Ed.

    This collection of conference papers includes: "When Does Teacher Talk Work as Input?"; "Cultural Input in Second Language Learning"; "Skilled Variation in a Kindergarten Teacher's Use of Foreigner Talk"; "Teacher-Pupil Interaction in Second Language Development"; "Foreigner Talk in the University…

  18. Food additives

    PubMed Central

    Spencer, Michael

    1974-01-01

    Food additives are discussed from the food technology point of view. The reasons for their use are summarized: (1) to protect food from chemical and microbiological attack; (2) to even out seasonal supplies; (3) to improve their eating quality; (4) to improve their nutritional value. The various types of food additives are considered, e.g. colours, flavours, emulsifiers, bread and flour additives, preservatives, and nutritional additives. The paper concludes with consideration of those circumstances in which the use of additives is (a) justified and (b) unjustified. PMID:4467857

  19. Early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition and ontogenetic changes in muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout: short- and long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Alami-Durante, Hélène; Cluzeaud, Marianne; Duval, Carine; Maunas, Patrick; Girod-David, Virginia; Médale, Françoise

    2014-09-14

    As the understanding of the nutritional regulation of muscle growth mechanisms in fish is fragmentary, the present study aimed to (1) characterise ontogenetic changes in muscle growth-related genes in parallel to changes in muscle cellularity; (2) determine whether an early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition affects the muscle growth mechanisms of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) alevins; and (3) determine whether this early feeding of a high-fat (HF) diet to alevins had a long-term effect on muscle growth processes in juveniles fed a commercial diet. Developmental regulation of hyperplasia and hypertrophy was evidenced at the molecular (expression of myogenic regulatory factors, proliferating cell nuclear antigen and myosin heavy chains (MHC)) and cellular (number and diameter of white muscle fibres) levels. An early decrease in dietary protein:energy ratio by fat addition stimulated the body growth of alevins but led to a fatty phenotype, with accumulation of lipids in the anterior part, and less caudal muscle when compared at similar body weights, due to a decrease in both the white muscle hyperplasia and maximum hypertrophy of white muscle fibres. These HF diet-induced cellular changes were preceded by a very rapid down-regulation of the expression of fast-MHC. The present study also demonstrated that early dietary composition had a long-term effect on the subsequent muscle growth processes of juveniles fed a commercial diet for 3 months. When compared at similar body weights, initially HF diet-fed juveniles indeed had a lower mean diameter of white muscle fibres, a smaller number of large white muscle fibres, and lower expression levels of MyoD1 and myogenin. These findings demonstrated the strong effect of early feed composition on the muscle growth mechanisms of trout alevins and juveniles.

  20. Dual-source dual-energy CT with additional tin filtration: Dose and image quality evaluation in phantoms and in-vivo

    PubMed Central

    Primak, Andrew N.; Giraldo, Juan Carlos Ramirez; Eusemann, Christian D.; Schmidt, Bernhard; Kantor, B.; Fletcher, Joel G.; McCollough, Cynthia H.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose To investigate the effect on radiation dose and image quality of the use of additional spectral filtration for dual-energy CT (DECT) imaging using dual-source CT (DSCT). Materials and Methods A commercial DSCT scanner was modified by adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube, and radiation output and noise measured in water phantoms. Dose values for equivalent image noise were compared among DE-modes with and without tin filtration and single-energy (SE) mode. To evaluate DECT material discrimination, the material-specific DEratio for calcium and iodine were determined using images of anthropomorphic phantoms. Data were additionally acquired in 38 and 87 kg pigs, and noise for the linearly mixed and virtual non-contrast (VNC) images compared between DE-modes. Finally, abdominal DECT images from two patients of similar sizes undergoing clinically-indicated CT were compared. Results Adding tin filtration to the high-kV tube improved the DE contrast between iodine and calcium as much as 290%. Pig data showed that the tin filtration had no effect on noise in the DECT mixed images, but decreased noise by as much as 30% in the VNC images. Patient VNC-images acquired using 100/140 kV with added tin filtration had improved image quality compared to those generated with 80/140 kV without tin filtration. Conclusion Tin filtration of the high-kV tube of a DSCT scanner increases the ability of DECT to discriminate between calcium and iodine, without increasing dose relative to SECT. Furthermore, use of 100/140 kV tube potentials allows improved DECT imaging of large patients. PMID:20966323

  1. Hybrid Energy System Modeling in Modelica

    SciTech Connect

    William R. Binder; Christiaan J. J. Paredis; Humberto E. Garcia

    2014-03-01

    In this paper, a Hybrid Energy System (HES) configuration is modeled in Modelica. Hybrid Energy Systems (HES) have as their defining characteristic the use of one or more energy inputs, combined with the potential for multiple energy outputs. Compared to traditional energy systems, HES provide additional operational flexibility so that high variability in both energy production and consumption levels can be absorbed more effectively. This is particularly important when including renewable energy sources, whose output levels are inherently variable, determined by nature. The specific HES configuration modeled in this paper include two energy inputs: a nuclear plant, and a series of wind turbines. In addition, the system produces two energy outputs: electricity and synthetic fuel. The models are verified through simulations of the individual components, and the system as a whole. The simulations are performed for a range of component sizes, operating conditions, and control schemes.

  2. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Online-Offline, 1998

    1998-01-01

    This issue focuses on the theme of "Energy," and describes several educational resources (Web sites, CD-ROMs and software, videos, books, activities, and other resources). Sidebars offer features on alternative energy, animal energy, internal combustion engines, and energy from food. Subthemes include harnessing energy, human energy, and…

  3. Input management of production systems.

    PubMed

    Odum, E P

    1989-01-13

    Nonpoint sources of pollution, which are largely responsible for stressing regional and global life-supporting atmosphere, soil, and water, can only be reduced (and ultimately controlled) by input management that involves increasing the efficiency of production systems and reducing the inputs of environmentally damaging materials. Input management requires a major change, an about-face, in the approach to management of agriculture, power plants, and industries because the focus is on waste reduction and recycling rather than on waste disposal. For large-scale ecosystem-level situations a top-down hierarchical approach is suggested and illustrated by recent research in agroecology and landscape ecology.

  4. Steam System Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: fixing steam leaks. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, and building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  5. System monitors discrete computer inputs

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, J. J.

    1966-01-01

    Computer system monitors inputs from checkout devices. The comparing, addressing, and controlling functions are performed in the I/O unit. This leaves the computer main frame free to handle memory, access priority, and interrupt instructions.

  6. The effectiveness of power-generating complexes constructed on the basis of nuclear power plants combined with additional sources of energy determined taking risk factors into account

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aminov, R. Z.; Khrustalev, V. A.; Portyankin, A. V.

    2015-02-01

    The effectiveness of combining nuclear power plants equipped with water-cooled water-moderated power-generating reactors (VVER) with other sources of energy within unified power-generating complexes is analyzed. The use of such power-generating complexes makes it possible to achieve the necessary load pickup capability and flexibility in performing the mandatory selective primary and emergency control of load, as well as participation in passing the night minimums of electric load curves while retaining high values of the capacity utilization factor of the entire power-generating complex at higher levels of the steam-turbine part efficiency. Versions involving combined use of nuclear power plants with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units for generating electricity are considered. In view of the fact that hydrogen is an unsafe energy carrier, the use of which introduces additional elements of risk, a procedure for evaluating these risks under different conditions of implementing the fuel-and-hydrogen cycle at nuclear power plants is proposed. Risk accounting technique with the use of statistical data is considered, including the characteristics of hydrogen and gas pipelines, and the process pipelines equipment tightness loss occurrence rate. The expected intensities of fires and explosions at nuclear power plants fitted with hydrogen toppings and gas turbine units are calculated. In estimating the damage inflicted by events (fires and explosions) occurred in nuclear power plant turbine buildings, the US statistical data were used. Conservative scenarios of fires and explosions of hydrogen-air mixtures in nuclear power plant turbine buildings are presented. Results from calculations of the introduced annual risk to the attained net annual profit ratio in commensurable versions are given. This ratio can be used in selecting projects characterized by the most technically attainable and socially acceptable safety.

  7. EnergyPlus Air Source Integrated Heat Pump Model

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Bo; Adams, Mark B.; New, Joshua Ryan

    2016-03-30

    This report summarizes the development of the EnergyPlus air-source integrated heat pump model. It introduces its physics, sub-models, working modes, and control logic. In addition, inputs and outputs of the new model are described, and input data file (IDF) examples are given.

  8. Food additives

    MedlinePlus

    ... or natural. Natural food additives include: Herbs or spices to add flavor to foods Vinegar for pickling ... Certain colors improve the appearance of foods. Many spices, as well as natural and man-made flavors, ...

  9. Aortic Input Impedance during Nitroprusside Infusion

    PubMed Central

    Pepine, Carl J.; Nichols, W. W.; Curry, R. C.; Conti, C. Richard

    1979-01-01

    Beneficial effects of nitroprusside infusion in heart failure are purportedly a result of decreased afterload through “impedance” reduction. To study the effect of nitroprusside on vascular factors that determine the total load opposing left ventricular ejection, the total aortic input impedance spectrum was examined in 12 patients with heart failure (cardiac index <2.0 liters/min per m2 and left ventricular end diastolic pressure >20 mm Hg). This input impedance spectrum expresses both mean flow (resistance) and pulsatile flow (compliance and wave reflections) components of vascular load. Aortic root blood flow velocity and pressure were recorded continuously with a catheter-tip electromagnetic velocity probe in addition to left ventricular pressure. Small doses of nitroprusside (9-19 μg/min) altered the total aortic input impedance spectrum as significant (P < 0.05) reductions in both mean and pulsatile components were observed within 60-90 s. With these acute changes in vascular load, left ventricular end diastolic pressure declined (44%) and stroke volume increased (20%, both P < 0.05). Larger nitroprusside doses (20-38 μg/min) caused additional alteration in the aortic input impedance spectrum with further reduction in left ventricular end diastolic pressure and increase in stroke volume but no additional changes in the impedance spectrum or stroke volume occurred with 39-77 μg/min. Improved ventricular function persisted when aortic pressure was restored to control values with simultaneous phenylephrine infusion in three patients. These data indicate that nitroprusside acutely alters both the mean and pulsatile components of vascular load to effect improvement in ventricular function in patients with heart failure. The evidence presented suggests that it may be possible to reduce vascular load and improve ventricular function independent of aortic pressure reduction. PMID:457874

  10. Structured ZnO films: Effect of copper nitrate addition to precursor solution on topography, band gap energy and photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Heinonen, S.; Nikkanen, J.-P.; Kaleva, A.; Hyvärinen, L.; Levänen, E.

    2017-02-01

    ZnO is a widely studied semiconductor material with interesting properties such as photocatalytic activity leading to wide range of applications, for example in the field of opto-electronics and self-cleaning and antimicrobial applications. Doping of photocatalytic semiconductor materials has been shown to introduce variation in the band gap energy of the material. In this work, ZnO rods were grown on a stainless steel substrates using hydrothermal method introducing copper nitrate into the precursor solution. Zinc nitrate and hexamethylenetetramine were used as precursor materials and the growth was conducted at 90 °C for 2 h in order to achieve a well-aligned evenly distributed rod structure. Copper was introduced as copper nitrate that was added in the precursor solution in the beginning of the growth. The as-prepared films were then heat-treated at 350 °C and band gap measurements were performed for prepared films. It was found that increase in the copper concentration in the precursor solution decreased the band gap of the ZnO film. Methylene blue discolouration tests were then performed in order to study the effect of the copper nitrate addition to precursor solution on photocatalytic activity of the structured ZnO films.

  11. CASIM input parameters for various materials

    SciTech Connect

    Malensek, A.J.; Elwyn, A.J.

    1994-07-14

    During the past year, the computer program CASIM has been placed in a common area from which copies can be obtained by a wide array of users. The impetus for this arrangement was the need to have a standard code that could be maintained and transported to other platforms. In addition, an historical record would be kept of each version as the program evolved. CASIM requires a series of parameters (input by the user) that describe the medium in which the cascade develops. Presently a total of 9 materials can be defined. Occasions arise when one needs to know the properties of materials (elements, compounds, and mixtures) that have not been defined. Because it is desirable to have a uniform set of values for all CASIM users, this note presents a methodology for obtaining the input parameters for an arbitrary material. They are read in by the Subroutine CASIM{underscore}PROG from the user supplied file CASIM.DAT.

  12. Design of the spoke cavity ED&D input coupler.

    SciTech Connect

    Schmierer, E. N.; Chan, K. D.; Gentzlinger, R.C.; Haynes, W. B.; Krawczyk, F. L.; Montoya, D. I.; Roybal, P. L.; Schrage, D. L.; Tajima, T.

    2001-01-01

    The current design of the Accelerator Driven Test Facility (ADTF) accelerator contains multiple {beta}, superconducting, resonant cavities. Spoke-type resonators ({beta} = 0.175 and {beta} = 0.34) are proposed for the low energy linac immediately following the radio frequency quadrupole. A continuous wave power requirement of 8.5 - 211.8 kW, 350 MHz has been established for the input couplers of these spoke cavities. The coupler design approach was to have a single input coupler design for beam currents of 13.3 mA and 100 mA and both cavity {beta}'s. The baseline design consists of a half-height WR2300 waveguide section merged with a shorted coaxial conductor. At the transition is a 4.8-mm thick cylindrical ceramic window creating the air/vacuum barrier. The coax is 103-mm inner diameter, 75 Ohm. The coax extends from the short through the waveguide and terminates with an antenna tip in the sidewall of the cavity. A full diameter pumping port is located in the quarter-wave stub to facilitate good vacuum. The coaxial geometry chosen was based on multipacting and thermal design considerations. The coupling coefficient is adjusted by statically adjusting the outer conductor length. The RF-physics, thermal, vacuum, and structural design considerations will be discussed in this paper, in addition to future room temperature testing plans.

  13. Residential oil burners with low input and two stages firing

    SciTech Connect

    Butcher, T.; Krajewski, R.; Leigh, R.

    1997-12-31

    The residential oil burner market is currently dominated by the pressure-atomized, retention head burner. At low firing rates pressure atomizing nozzles suffer rapid fouling of the small internal passages, leading to bad spray patterns and poor combustion performance. To overcome the low input limitations of conventional burners, a low pressure air-atomized burner has been developed watch can operate at fining rates as low as 0.25 gallons of oil per hour (10 kW). In addition, the burner can be operated in a high/low fining rate mode. Field tests with this burner have been conducted at a fixed input rate of 0.35 gph (14 kW) with a side-wall vented boiler/water storage tank combination. At the test home, instrumentation was installed to measure fuel and energy flows and record trends in system temperatures. Laboratory efficiency testing with water heaters and boilers has been completed using standard single purpose and combined appliance test procedures. The tests quantify benefits due to low firing rates and other burner features. A two stage oil burner gains a strong advantage in rated efficiency while maintaining capacity for high domestic hot water and space heating loads.

  14. Input Type and Parameter Resetting: Is Naturalistic Input Necessary?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Iverson, Michael

    2007-01-01

    It has been argued that extended exposure to naturalistic input provides L2 learners with more of an opportunity to converge of target morphosyntactic competence as compared to classroom-only environments, given that the former provide more positive evidence of less salient linguistic properties than the latter (e.g., Isabelli 2004). Implicitly,…

  15. Mass exchange processes with input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krapivsky, P. L.

    2015-05-01

    We investigate a system of interacting clusters evolving through mass exchange and supplemented by input of small clusters. Three possibilities depending on the rate of exchange generically occur when input is homogeneous: continuous growth, gelation, and instantaneous gelation. We mostly study the growth regime using scaling methods. An exchange process with reaction rates equal to the product of reactant masses admits an exact solution which allows us to justify the validity of scaling approaches in this special case. We also investigate exchange processes with a localized input. We show that if the diffusion coefficients are mass-independent, the cluster mass distribution becomes stationary and develops an algebraic tail far away from the source.

  16. Phosphazene additives

    DOEpatents

    Harrup, Mason K; Rollins, Harry W

    2013-11-26

    An additive comprising a phosphazene compound that has at least two reactive functional groups and at least one capping functional group bonded to phosphorus atoms of the phosphazene compound. One of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with cellulose and the other of the at least two reactive functional groups is configured to react with a resin, such as an amine resin of a polycarboxylic acid resin. The at least one capping functional group is selected from the group consisting of a short chain ether group, an alkoxy group, or an aryloxy group. Also disclosed are an additive-resin admixture, a method of treating a wood product, and a wood product.

  17. High atomic weight, high-energy radiation (HZE) induces transcriptional responses shared with conventional stresses in addition to a core "DSB" response specific to clastogenic treatments.

    PubMed

    Missirian, Victor; Conklin, Phillip A; Culligan, Kevin M; Huefner, Neil D; Britt, Anne B

    2014-01-01

    Plants exhibit a robust transcriptional response to gamma radiation which includes the induction of transcripts required for homologous recombination and the suppression of transcripts that promote cell cycle progression. Various DNA damaging agents induce different spectra of DNA damage as well as "collateral" damage to other cellular components and therefore are not expected to provoke identical responses by the cell. Here we study the effects of two different types of ionizing radiation (IR) treatment, HZE (1 GeV Fe(26+) high mass, high charge, and high energy relativistic particles) and gamma photons, on the transcriptome of Arabidopsis thaliana seedlings. Both types of IR induce small clusters of radicals that can result in the formation of double strand breaks (DSBs), but HZE also produces linear arrays of extremely clustered damage. We performed these experiments across a range of time points (1.5-24 h after irradiation) in both wild-type plants and in mutants defective in the DSB-sensing protein kinase ATM. The two types of IR exhibit a shared double strand break-repair-related damage response, although they differ slightly in the timing, degree, and ATM-dependence of the response. The ATM-dependent, DNA metabolism-related transcripts of the "DSB response" were also induced by other DNA damaging agents, but were not induced by conventional stresses. Both Gamma and HZE irradiation induced, at 24 h post-irradiation, ATM-dependent transcripts associated with a variety of conventional stresses; these were overrepresented for pathogen response, rather than DNA metabolism. In contrast, only HZE-irradiated plants, at 1.5 h after irradiation, exhibited an additional and very extensive transcriptional response, shared with plants experiencing "extended night." This response was not apparent in gamma-irradiated plants.

  18. Input Impedance of the Microstrip SQUID Amplifier

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kinion, Darin; Clarke, John

    2008-03-01

    We present measurements of the complex scattering parameters of microstrip SQUID amplifiers (MSA) cooled to 4.2 K. The input of the MSA is a microstrip transmission line in the shape of a square spiral coil surrounding the hole in the SQUID washer that serves as the ground plane. The input impedance is found by measuring the reverse scattering parameter (S11) and is described well by a low-loss transmission line model. We map the low-loss transmission line model into an equivalent parallel RLC circuit in which a resistance R, inductance L, and capacitance C are calculated from the resonant frequency, characteristic impedance and attenuation factor. Using this equivalent RLC circuit, we model the MSA and input network with a lumped circuit model that accurately predicts the observed gain given by the forward scattering parameter (S21). We will summarize results for different coil geometries and terminations as well as SQUID bias conditions. A portion of this work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in part under Contract W-7405-Eng-48 and in part under Contract DE-AC52-07NA27344 and by Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  19. Analog Input Data Acquisition Software

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2009-01-01

    DAQ Master Software allows users to easily set up a system to monitor up to five analog input channels and save the data after acquisition. This program was written in LabVIEW 8.0, and requires the LabVIEW runtime engine 8.0 to run the executable.

  20. Optimal Inputs for System Identification.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1995-09-01

    The derivation of the power spectral density of the optimal input for system identification is addressed in this research. Optimality is defined in...identification potential of general System Identification algorithms, a new and efficient System Identification algorithm that employs Iterated Weighted Least

  1. World Input-Output Network

    PubMed Central

    Cerina, Federica; Zhu, Zhen; Chessa, Alessandro; Riccaboni, Massimo

    2015-01-01

    Production systems, traditionally analyzed as almost independent national systems, are increasingly connected on a global scale. Only recently becoming available, the World Input-Output Database (WIOD) is one of the first efforts to construct the global multi-regional input-output (GMRIO) tables. By viewing the world input-output system as an interdependent network where the nodes are the individual industries in different economies and the edges are the monetary goods flows between industries, we analyze respectively the global, regional, and local network properties of the so-called world input-output network (WION) and document its evolution over time. At global level, we find that the industries are highly but asymmetrically connected, which implies that micro shocks can lead to macro fluctuations. At regional level, we find that the world production is still operated nationally or at most regionally as the communities detected are either individual economies or geographically well defined regions. Finally, at local level, for each industry we compare the network-based measures with the traditional methods of backward linkages. We find that the network-based measures such as PageRank centrality and community coreness measure can give valuable insights into identifying the key industries. PMID:26222389

  2. The advanced LIGO input optics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mueller, Chris L.; Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; DeRosa, Ryan. T.; Effler, Anamaria; Feldbaum, David; Frolov, Valery V.; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Kawabe, Keita; King, Eleanor J.; Kokeyama, Keiko; Korth, William Z.; Martin, Rodica M.; Mullavey, Adam; Peold, Jan; Quetschke, Volker; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Vorvick, Cheryl; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido

    2016-01-01

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  3. Lab Inputs for Common Micros.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tinker, Robert

    1984-01-01

    The game paddle inputs of Apple microcomputers provide a simple way to get laboratory measurements into the computer. Discusses these game paddles and the necessary interface software. Includes schematics for Apple built-in paddle electronics, TRS-80 game paddle I/O, Commodore circuit for user port, and bus interface for Sinclair/Timex, Commodore,…

  4. The advanced LIGO input optics

    SciTech Connect

    Mueller, Chris L. Arain, Muzammil A.; Ciani, Giacomo; Feldbaum, David; Fulda, Paul; Gleason, Joseph; Heintze, Matthew; Martin, Rodica M.; Reitze, David H.; Tanner, David B.; Williams, Luke F.; Mueller, Guido; DeRosa, Ryan T.; Effler, Anamaria; Kokeyama, Keiko; Frolov, Valery V.; Mullavey, Adam; Kawabe, Keita; Vorvick, Cheryl; King, Eleanor J.; and others

    2016-01-15

    The advanced LIGO gravitational wave detectors are nearing their design sensitivity and should begin taking meaningful astrophysical data in the fall of 2015. These resonant optical interferometers will have unprecedented sensitivity to the strains caused by passing gravitational waves. The input optics play a significant part in allowing these devices to reach such sensitivities. Residing between the pre-stabilized laser and the main interferometer, the input optics subsystem is tasked with preparing the laser beam for interferometry at the sub-attometer level while operating at continuous wave input power levels ranging from 100 mW to 150 W. These extreme operating conditions required every major component to be custom designed. These designs draw heavily on the experience and understanding gained during the operation of Initial LIGO and Enhanced LIGO. In this article, we report on how the components of the input optics were designed to meet their stringent requirements and present measurements showing how well they have lived up to their design.

  5. Application of calcium chloride as an additive for secondary refrigerant in the air conditioning system type chiller to minimized energy consumption

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suwono, A.; Indartono, Y. S.; Irsyad, M.; Al-Afkar, I. C.

    2015-09-01

    One way to resolve the energy problem is to increase the efficiency of energy use. Air conditioning system is one of the equipment that needs to be considered, because it is the biggest energy user in commercial building sector. Research currently developing is the use of phase change materials (PCM) as thermal energy storage (TES) in the air conditioning system to reduce energy consumption. Salt hydrates have been great potential to be developed because they have been high latent heat and thermal conductivity. This study has used a salt hydrate from calcium chloride to be tested in air conditioning systems type chiller. Thermal characteristics were examined using temperature history (T-history) test and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The test results showed that the thermal characteristics of the salt hydrate has been a high latent heat and in accordance with the evaporator temperature. The use of salt hydrates in air conditioning system type chiller can reduce energy consumption by 51.5%.

  6. Energy Sector Market Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Arent, D.; Benioff, R.; Mosey, G.; Bird, L.; Brown, J.; Brown, E.; Vimmerstedt, L.; Aabakken, J.; Parks, K.; Lapsa, M.; Davis, S.; Olszewski, M.; Cox, D.; McElhaney, K.; Hadley, S.; Hostick, D.; Nicholls, A.; McDonald, S.; Holloman, B.

    2006-10-01

    This paper presents the results of energy market analysis sponsored by the Department of Energy's (DOE) Weatherization and International Program (WIP) within the Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). The analysis was conducted by a team of DOE laboratory experts from the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL), and Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL), with additional input from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory (LBNL). The analysis was structured to identify those markets and niches where government can create the biggest impact by informing management decisions in the private and public sectors. The analysis identifies those markets and niches where opportunities exist for increasing energy efficiency and renewable energy use.

  7. Systems and methods for reconfiguring input devices

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lancaster, Jeff (Inventor); De Mers, Robert E. (Inventor)

    2012-01-01

    A system includes an input device having first and second input members configured to be activated by a user. The input device is configured to generate activation signals associated with activation of the first and second input members, and each of the first and second input members are associated with an input function. A processor is coupled to the input device and configured to receive the activation signals. A memory coupled to the processor, and includes a reconfiguration module configured to store the input functions assigned to the first and second input members and, upon execution of the processor, to reconfigure the input functions assigned to the input members when the first input member is inoperable.

  8. The effect of smoothed solar wind inputs on global modeling results

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ilie, Raluca; Liemohn, Michael W.; Ridley, Aaron

    2010-01-01

    This study investigates the role of fluctuations in the solar wind parameters in triggering a magnetic storm and assesses the storm simulation ability of the Space Weather Modeling Framework (SWMF) through a model-data comparison. The event of 22 September 1999 is examined through global magnetosphere simulations, using as input Advanced Composition Explorer (ACE) observations (4 min temporal resolution) along with running averages of this data with windows of 60, 120, and 180 min. It is noted that for this storm the model produces a two phase, fast then slow recovery phase due to a sudden drop in plasma sheet density during the interval of southward interplanetary magnetic field (IMF). Also, smoothing the input with a window larger than 60 min changes the entire magnetosphere and reduces the plasma sheet density and pressure, therefore a less intense storm develops. It is worth mentioning that the main phase (measured from Storm Sudden Commencement to minimum Dst) for this magnetic storm lasted about 3 h. This explains the change in the Dst profile for the 120 and 180 min averaged input. Averaging only IMF Bz or solar wind density reveals that all input parameters are important for the development of the storm, but Bz is the most significant. Also, comparison with Dst predictions (using the formula of O'Brien and McPherron (2000)) are presented and discussed. For all cases studied, there are no significant differences for Cross Polar Cap Potential (CPCP) in both hemispheres, while the nightside plasma sheet density shows a sharp drop when the input is averaged over 60 min or more. Our results indicate that the magnetosphere responds nonlinearly to the changes in the energy input, suggesting the need for a threshold in the amount of energy transferred to the system in order for the ring current to develop. Further increase of the energy input leads to a saturation limit where the inner magnetosphere response is no longer affected by any additional amount of energy

  9. Thermochemical Properties and Bond Dissociation Energies for Fluorinated Methanol, CH3-xFxOH, and Fluorinated Methyl Hydroperoxides, CH3-xFxOOH: Group Additivity.

    PubMed

    Wang, Heng; Bozzelli, Joseph W

    2016-09-08

    Oxygenated fluorocarbons are routinely found in sampling of environmental soils and waters as a result of the widespread use of fluoro and chlorofluoro carbons as heat transfer fluids, inert materials, polymers, fire retardants and solvents; the influence of these chemicals on the environment is a growing concern. The thermochemical properties of these species are needed for understanding their stability and reactions in the environment and in thermal process. Structures and thermochemical properties on the mono- to trifluoromethanol, CH3-xFxOH, and fluoromethyl hydroperoxide, CH3-xFxOOH (1 ≤ x ≤ 3), are determined by CBS-QB3, CBS-APNO, and G4 calculations. Entropy, S°298, and heat capacities, Cp(T)'s (300 ≤ T/K ≤ 1500) from vibration, translation, and external rotation contributions are calculated on the basis of the vibration frequencies and structures obtained from the B3LYP/6-31+G(d,p) density functional method. Potential barriers for the internal rotations are also calculated from this method and used to calculate hindered rotor contributions to S°298 and Cp(T)'s using direct integration over energy levels of the internal rotational potentials. Standard enthalpies of formation, ΔfH°298 (units in kcal mol(-1)) are CH2FOOH (-83.7), CHF2OOH (-138.1), CF3OOH (-193.6), CH2FOO(•) (-44.9), CHF2OO(•) (-99.6), CF3OO(•) (-153.8), CH2FOH (-101.9), CHF2OH (-161.6), CF3OH (-218.1), CH2FO(•) (-49.1), CHF2O(•) (-97.8), CF3O(•) (-150.5), CH2F(•) (-7.6), CHF2(•) (-58.8), and CF3(•) (-112.6). Bond dissociation energies for the R-OOH, RO-OH, ROO-H, R-OO(•), RO-O(•), R-OH, RO-H, R-O(•), and R-H bonds are determined and compared with methyl hydroperoxide to observe the trends from added fluoro substitutions. Enthalpy of formation for the fluoro-hydrocarbon oxygen groups C/F/H2/O, C/F2/H/O, C/F3/O, are derived from the above fluorinated methanol and fluorinated hydroperoxide species for use in Benson's Group Additivity. It was determined that

  10. Input from Key Stakeholders in the National Security Technology Incubator

    SciTech Connect

    2008-01-31

    This report documents the input from key stakeholders of the National Security Technology Incubator (NSTI) in developing a new technology incubator and related programs for southern New Mexico. The technology incubator is being developed as part of the National Security Preparedness Project (NSPP), funded by a Department of Energy (DOE)/National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA) grant. This report includes identification of key stakeholders as well as a description and analysis of their input for the development of an incubator.

  11. Energy Sources of T-Tauri Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Calvet, N.; Albarran, J.

    1984-06-01

    We empirically estimated the total energy loss from the atmospheric regions above the photo sphere in T Tauri stars. We have also estimated the flux input into the atmosphere by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) aves produced in the subphotospheric convection zone. Within the uncertainties of both theory and observations, this flux seems to represent the basic energy input into the atmosphere provided that a large surface coverage of magnetic regions exists. In addition to this basic energy input from the convection zone the T Tauri atmospheres must have other energy sources, originating in the stellar surfitee. Among those we can include the flux of energy carried by Alfven waves resulting from the action of surface material motions on magnetic flux tubes, as well as dissipation and annihilation of magnetic fields in flare events. The observed decrease in emission line fluxes with luminosity seems to indicate that MHD wave fluxes heat the chromosphere, while the uppermost atmospheric regions require another source of heating.

  12. National hospital input price index.

    PubMed

    Freeland, M S; Anderson, G; Schendler, C E

    1979-01-01

    The national community hospital input price index presented here isolates the effects of prices of goods and services required to produce hospital care and measures the average percent change in prices for a fixed market basket of hospital inputs. Using the methodology described in this article, weights for various expenditure categories were estimated and proxy price variables associated with each were selected. The index is calculated for the historical period 1970 through 1978 and forecast for 1979 through 1981. During the historical period, the input price index increased an average of 8.0 percent a year, compared with an average rate of increase of 6.6 percent for overall consumer prices. For the period 1979 through 1981, the average annual increase is forecast at between 8.5 and 9.0 per cent. Using the index to deflate growth in expenses, the level of real growth in expenditures per inpatient day (net service intensity growth) averaged 4.5 percent per year with considerable annual variation related to government and hospital industry policies.

  13. Energy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-01-01

    Canada, Britain, and Spain. We found that the energy industry is not in crisis ; however, U.S. government policies, laws, dollars, and even public...CEIMAT (Centro de Investagaciones Energeticas , Medioambeintales y Tecnologicas) Research and development Page 3 of 28ENERGY 8/10/04http://www.ndu.edu...procurement or storage of standard, common use fuels. NATURAL GAS Natural gas, abundant globally and domestically, offers energy versatility among

  14. Optimal input shaping for Fisher identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rothenberger, Michael J.

    This dissertation examines the fundamental challenge of optimally shaping input trajectories to maximize parameter identifiability of control-oriented lithium-ion battery models. Identifiability is a property from information theory that determines the solvability of parameter estimation for mathematical models using input-output measurements. This dissertation creates a framework that exploits the Fisher information metric to quantify the level of battery parameter identifiability, optimizes this metric through input shaping, and facilitates faster and more accurate estimation. The popularity of lithium-ion batteries is growing significantly in the energy storage domain, especially for stationary and transportation applications. While these cells have excellent power and energy densities, they are plagued with safety and lifespan concerns. These concerns are often resolved in the industry through conservative current and voltage operating limits, which reduce the overall performance and still lack robustness in detecting catastrophic failure modes. New advances in automotive battery management systems mitigate these challenges through the incorporation of model-based control to increase performance, safety, and lifespan. To achieve these goals, model-based control requires accurate parameterization of the battery model. While many groups in the literature study a variety of methods to perform battery parameter estimation, a fundamental issue of poor parameter identifiability remains apparent for lithium-ion battery models. This fundamental challenge of battery identifiability is studied extensively in the literature, and some groups are even approaching the problem of improving the ability to estimate the model parameters. The first approach is to add additional sensors to the battery to gain more information that is used for estimation. The other main approach is to shape the input trajectories to increase the amount of information that can be gained from input

  15. Dynamics of ultrasonic additive manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Hehr, Adam; Dapino, Marcelo J

    2017-01-01

    Ultrasonic additive manufacturing (UAM) is a solid-state technology for joining similar and dissimilar metal foils near room temperature by scrubbing them together with ultrasonic vibrations under pressure. Structural dynamics of the welding assembly and work piece influence how energy is transferred during the process and ultimately, part quality. To understand the effect of structural dynamics during UAM, a linear time-invariant model is proposed to relate the inputs of shear force and electric current to resultant welder velocity and voltage. Measured frequency response and operating performance of the welder under no load is used to identify model parameters. Using this model and in-situ measurements, shear force and welder efficiency are estimated to be near 2000N and 80% when welding Al 6061-H18 weld foil, respectively. Shear force and welder efficiency have never been estimated before in UAM. The influence of processing conditions, i.e., welder amplitude, normal force, and weld speed, on shear force and welder efficiency are investigated. Welder velocity was found to strongly influence the shear force magnitude and efficiency while normal force and weld speed showed little to no influence. The proposed model is used to describe high frequency harmonic content in the velocity response of the welder during welding operations and coupling of the UAM build with the welder.

  16. Input parameters for LEAP and analysis of the Model 22C data base

    SciTech Connect

    Stewart, L.; Goldstein, M.

    1981-05-01

    The input data for the Long-Term Energy Analysis Program (LEAP) employed by EIA for projections of long-term energy supply and demand in the US were studied and additional documentation provided. Particular emphasis has been placed on the LEAP Model 22C input data base, which was used in obtaining the output projections which appear in the 1978 Annual Report to Congress. Definitions, units, associated model parameters, and translation equations are given in detail. Many parameters were set to null values in Model 22C so as to turn off certain complexities in LEAP; these parameters are listed in Appendix B along with parameters having constant values across all activities. The values of the parameters for each activity are tabulated along with the source upon which each parameter is based - and appropriate comments provided, where available. The structure of the data base is briefly outlined and an attempt made to categorize the parameters according to the methods employed for estimating the numerical values. Due to incomplete documentation and/or lack of specific parameter definitions, few of the input values could be traced and uniquely interpreted using the information provided in the primary and secondary sources. Input parameter choices were noted which led to output projections which are somewhat suspect. Other data problems encountered are summarized. Some of the input data were corrected and a revised base case was constructed. The output projections for this revised case are compared with the Model 22C output for the year 2020, for the Transportation Sector. LEAP could be a very useful tool, especially so in the study of emerging technologies over long-time frames.

  17. Statistical plant set estimation using Schroeder-phased multisinusoidal input design

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bayard, D. S.

    1992-01-01

    A frequency domain method is developed for plant set estimation. The estimation of a plant 'set' rather than a point estimate is required to support many methods of modern robust control design. The approach here is based on using a Schroeder-phased multisinusoid input design which has the special property of placing input energy only at the discrete frequency points used in the computation. A detailed analysis of the statistical properties of the frequency domain estimator is given, leading to exact expressions for the probability distribution of the estimation error, and many important properties. It is shown that, for any nominal parametric plant estimate, one can use these results to construct an overbound on the additive uncertainty to any prescribed statistical confidence. The 'soft' bound thus obtained can be used to replace 'hard' bounds presently used in many robust control analysis and synthesis methods.

  18. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    SciTech Connect

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  19. ArnHF van der Waals clusters revisited: II. Energetics and HF vibrational frequency shifts from diffusion Monte Carlo calculations on additive and nonadditive potential-energy surfaces for n =1-12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Hao; Xu, Minzhong; Hutson, Jeremy M.; Bačić, Zlatko

    2005-08-01

    The ground-state energies and HF vibrational frequency shifts of ArnHF clusters have been calculated on the nonadditive potential-energy surfaces (PESs) for n =2-7 and on the pairwise-additive PESs for the clusters with n =1-12, using the diffusion Monte Carlo (DMC) method. For n >3, the calculations have been performed for the lowest-energy isomer and several higher-lying isomers which are the closest in energy. They provide information about the isomer dependence of the HF redshift, and enable direct comparison with the experimental data recently obtained in helium nanodroplets. The agreement between theory and experiment is excellent, in particular, for the nonadditive DMC redshifts. The relative, incremental redshifts are reproduced accurately even at the lower level of theory, i.e., the DMC and quantum five-dimensional (rigid Arn) calculations on the pairwise-additive PESs. The nonadditive interactions make a significant contribution to the frequency shift, on the order of 10%-12%, and have to be included in the PESs in order for the theory to yield accurate magnitude of the HF redshift. The energy gaps between the DMC ground states of the cluster isomers are very different from the energy separation of their respective minima on the PES, due to the considerable variations in the intermolecular zero-point energy of different ArnHF isomers.

  20. Application of input amplitude masks in scheme of optical image encryption with spatially-incoherent illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shifrina, A. V.; Evtikhiev, N. N.; Krasnov, V. V.

    2016-08-01

    Optical encryption with spatially incoherent illumination does not have drawbacks of coherent encryption techniques. In this case however, one of the factors affecting decrypted image quality is original image spectrum. In most cases, majority of image energy is concentrated in area of low spatial frequencies. Therefore, only this area in spectrum of encrypted image contains information about original image, while other areas contain only noise. Additional amplitude encoding of input scene can be used for increase of the size of the area of spatial frequencies containing useful information. Numerical simulation demonstrates reduction of decryption error up to 2.7 times.

  1. Operational Realities: Obtaining adequate drivers and inputs for radiation belt models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Friedel, R. H. W.; Chen, Y.; Tu, W.; Cunningham, G.; Reeves, G. D.; Lichtenberger, J.

    2014-12-01

    Recent developments in 3D diffusion codes for the high energy electron radiation belt have shown that the model representation of microphysical processes in terms of diffusion coefficients, capturing radial, energy and pitch-angle diffusion (including mixed diffusion terms) is quite capable of capturing the dynamics and physics of the radiation belt system, while remaining computationally tractable; making these codes an ideal candidate for operational application. However, we hold that the major obstacle to a realistic application of such codes for now- or forecasting is our insufficient knowledge of drivers and inputs to these codes - rather than any additional improved physics in the codes. These include the specification of the initial conditions, knowledge of the background plasma distribution, the global distribution of waves, the low-energy boundary condition and the outer boundary condition. In this talk we will discuss realistic and affordable strategies of specifying these inputs through the use of proxies, ground based measurement techniques and data assimilative methods; present examples of where this is already possible (outer boundary and global chorus wave and plasma density specification), and outline where additional effort is needed. Finally we present an example of using such realistic model drivers in a state-of-the-art 3D diffusion code which demonstrates a remarkable ability of such codes to reproduce the observed dynamics - by simply using the existing physics in the code but providing the "correct" drivers and boundary conditions.

  2. Effect of organic additives on the mitigation of volatility of 1-nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ): next generation powerful melt cast able high energy material.

    PubMed

    Talawar, M B; Singh, Alok; Naik, N H; Polke, B G; Gore, G M; Asthana, S N; Gandhe, B R

    2006-06-30

    1-Nitro-3,3'-dinitroazetidine (TNAZ) was synthesized based on the lines of reported method. Thermolysis studies on synthesized and characterized TNAZ using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and hyphenated TG-FT-IR techniques were undertaken to generate data on decomposition pattern. FT-IR of decomposition products of TNAZ revealed the evolution of oxides of nitrogen and HCN containing species suggesting the cleavage of C/N-NO(2) bond accompanied with the collapse of ring structure. The effect of incorporation of 15% additives namely, 3-amino-1,2,4-triazole (AT), 3,5-diamino-1,2,4-triazole (DAT), carbohydrazide (CHZ), 5,7-dinitrobenzofuroxan (DNBF), bis (2,2-dinitropropyl) succinate (BNPS), triaminoguanidinium nitrate (TAGN), 2,4,6-trinitrobenzoic acid (TNBA) and nitroguanidine (NQ) on the volatility of TNAZ was investigated by undertaking thermogravimetric analysis. The TG pattern brings out the potential of BNPS and TAGN as additives to mitigate the volatility of TNAZ. The influence of additives on thermal decomposition of pattern of TNAZ was also investigated by DSC. The DSC results indicated that the additives did not have appreciable effect on the melting point of TNAZ. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) studies were carried out to investigate the effect of additives on morphology of TNAZ. This paper also discusses the possible mechanism involved in between the TNAZ and TAGN and BNPS. It appears that the formation of charge transfer complex formation between the TNAZ and TAGN/BNPS. The effect of addition of high explosives such as CL-20, HMX and RDX on thermo-physical characteristics of TNAZ is also reported in this paper.

  3. An investigation of CO2 splitting using nanosecond pulsed corona discharge: effect of argon addition on CO2 conversion and energy efficiency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moss, M. S.; Yanallah, K.; Allen, R. W. K.; Pontiga, F.

    2017-03-01

    The plasma chemical splitting of carbon dioxide (CO2) to produce carbon monoxide (CO) in a pulsed corona discharge was investigated from both an experimental and a numerical standpoint. High voltage nanosecond pulses were applied to a stream of pure CO2 and its mixture with argon, and the gaseous products were identified using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. Due to the shape of pulses, the process of CO2 splitting was found to proceed in two phases. The first phase is dominated by ionization, which generates a high electron density. Then, during the second phase, direct electron impact dissociation of CO2 contributes to a large portion of CO production. Conversion and energy efficiency were calculated for the tested conditions. The conversions achieved are comparable to those obtained using other high pressure non-thermal discharges, such as dielectric barrier discharge. However, the energy efficiencies were considerably higher, which are favorable to industrial applications that require atmospheric conditions and elevated gas flow rates.

  4. Gaussian capacity of the quantum bosonic memory channel with additive correlated Gaussian noise

    SciTech Connect

    Schaefer, Joachim; Karpov, Evgueni; Cerf, Nicolas J.

    2011-09-15

    We present an algorithm for calculation of the Gaussian classical capacity of a quantum bosonic memory channel with additive Gaussian noise. The algorithm, restricted to Gaussian input states, is applicable to all channels with noise correlations obeying certain conditions and works in the full input energy domain, beyond previous treatments of this problem. As an illustration, we study the optimal input states and capacity of a quantum memory channel with Gauss-Markov noise [J. Schaefer, Phys. Rev. A 80, 062313 (2009)]. We evaluate the enhancement of the transmission rate when using these optimal entangled input states by comparison with a product coherent-state encoding and find out that such a simple coherent-state encoding achieves not less than 90% of the capacity.

  5. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: equilateral triangle and collinear configurations.

    PubMed

    Salam, A

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R(-11) dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R(-13) behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R(-1) in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  6. Higher-order electric multipole contributions to retarded non-additive three-body dispersion interaction energies between atoms: Equilateral triangle and collinear configurations

    SciTech Connect

    Salam, A.

    2013-12-28

    The theory of molecular quantum electrodynamics (QED) is used to calculate higher electric multipole contributions to the dispersion energy shift between three atoms or molecules arranged in a straight line or in an equilateral triangle configuration. As in two-body potentials, three-body dispersion interactions are viewed in the QED formalism to arise from exchange of virtual photons between coupled pairs of particles. By employing an interaction Hamiltonian that is quadratic in the electric displacement field means that third-order perturbation theory can be used to yield the energy shift for a particular combination of electric multipole polarizable species, with only six time-ordered diagrams needing to be summed over. Specific potentials evaluated include dipole-dipole-quadrupole (DDQ), dipole-quadrupole-quadrupole (DQQ), and dipole-dipole-octupole (DDO) terms. For the geometries of interest, near-zone limiting forms are found to exhibit an R{sup −11} dependence on separation distance for the DDQ interaction, and an R{sup −13} behaviour for DQQ and DDO shifts, agreeing with an earlier semi-classical computation. Retardation weakens the potential in each case by R{sup −1} in the far-zone. It is found that by decomposing the octupole moment into its irreducible components of weights-1 and -3 that the former contribution to the DDO potential may be taken to be a higher-order correction to the leading triple dipole energy shift.

  7. Tilt compensated MOEMS projector as input device

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Grüger, Heinrich; Heberer, Andreas; Gerwig, Christian; Nauber, Petra; Scholles, Michael; Lakner, Hubert

    2007-02-01

    Silicon micro machining once headed into two directions: MEMS (micro electro mechanical systems) based sensors like accelerometers and gyroscopes on the one hand, MOEMS (micro opto electro mechanical systems) based actuators like scanner mirrors on the other hand. Now both directions meet again: A tilt compensated projector module uses a two dimensional excited scanner mirror as well as accelerometers and gyroscopes. The projector module can have a minimum size of 30 x 15 x 15 mm 3 with a monochrome red laser source (λ = 635 nm). It reaches a resolution of 640 x 480 pixels (VGA) and a frame rate of 50fps. Colour projection requires lager size due to the lack of compact green laser sources. The tilt and roll angles are measured statically by a three axes accelerometer, fast movement is detected dynamically by three single axis gyroscopes. Thus tilt of the projection systems was compensated successfully. The dynamic range was set to 300 x 300 pixels for sufficient system dynamic. Furthermore the motion detection was used to achieve control and input device functions. The first demonstration and test system consists of a projector mounted at the axis of a PC racing wheel together with the additional inertial measurement unit (IMU) system. It was shown that projection and input function work well together. Using this approach, new possibilities for hand-held devices arise in the close future.

  8. Input Shaping to Reduce Solar Array Structural Vibrations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doherty, Michael J.; Tolson, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    Structural vibrations induced by actuators can be minimized using input shaping. Input shaping is a feedforward method in which actuator commands are convolved with shaping functions to yield a shaped set of commands. These commands are designed to perform the maneuver while minimizing the residual structural vibration. In this report, input shaping is extended to stepper motor actuators. As a demonstration, an input-shaping technique based on pole-zero cancellation was used to modify the Solar Array Drive Assembly (SADA) actuator commands for the Lewis satellite. A series of impulses were calculated as the ideal SADA output for vibration control. These impulses were then discretized for use by the SADA stepper motor actuator and simulated actuator outputs were used to calculate the structural response. The effectiveness of input shaping is limited by the accuracy of the knowledge of the modal frequencies. Assuming perfect knowledge resulted in significant vibration reduction. Errors of 10% in the modal frequencies caused notably higher levels of vibration. Controller robustness was improved by incorporating additional zeros in the shaping function. The additional zeros did not require increased performance from the actuator. Despite the identification errors, the resulting feedforward controller reduced residual vibrations to the level of the exactly modeled input shaper and well below the baseline cases. These results could be easily applied to many other vibration-sensitive applications involving stepper motor actuators.

  9. Canopy Research Network seeks input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    In July 1993, the Canopy Research Network was established with a 2-year planning grant from the National Science Foundation to bring together forest canopy researchers, quantitative scientists, and computer specialists to establish methods for collecting, storing, analyzing, interpreting, and displaying three-dimensional data that relate to tree crowns and forest canopies. The CRN is now soliciting input from scientists in other fields who may have developed techniques and software to help obtain answers to questions that concern the complex three-dimensional structure of tree crowns and forest canopies. Over the next 3 years, the CRN plans to compile an array of research questions and issues requiring information on canopy structure, examine useful information models and software tools already in use in allied fields, and develop conceptual models and recommendations for the types and format of information and analyses necessary to answer research questions posed by canopy researchers.

  10. Super-flat coherent supercontinuum source in As38.8Se61.2 chalcogenide photonic crystal fiber with all-normal dispersion engineering at a very low input energy.

    PubMed

    Diouf, Mbaye; Salem, Amine Ben; Cherif, Rim; Saghaei, Hamed; Wague, Ahmadou

    2017-01-10

    We numerically report super-flat coherent mid-infrared supercontinuum (MIR-SC) generation in a chalcogenide As38.8Se61.2 photonic crystal fiber (PCF). The dispersion and nonlinear parameters of As38.8Se61.2 chalcogenide PCFs by varying the diameter of the air holes are engineered to obtain all-normal dispersion (ANDi) with high nonlinearities. We show that launching low-energy 50 fs optical pulses with 0.88 kW peak power (corresponding to pulse energy of 0.05 nJ) at a central wavelength of 3.7 μm into a 5 cm long ANDi-PCF generates a flat-top coherent MIR-SC spanning from 2900 to 4575 nm with a high spectral flatness of 3 dB. This ultra-wide and flattened spectrum has excellent stability and coherence properties that can be used for MIR applications such as medical diagnosis of diseases, atmospheric pollution monitoring, and drug detection.

  11. Comment on "Carbon-negative biofuels from low-input high-diversity grassland biomass".

    PubMed

    Russelle, Michael P; Morey, R Vance; Baker, John M; Porter, Paul M; Jung, Hans-Joachim G

    2007-06-15

    Tilman et al. (Reports, 8 December 2006, p. 1598) argued that low-input high-diversity grasslands can provide a substantial proportion of global energy needs. We contend that their conclusions are not substantiated by their experimental protocol. The authors understated the management inputs required to establish prairies, extrapolated globally from site-specific results, and presented potentially misleading energy accounting.

  12. Halogen-free bis(imidazolium)/bis(ammonium)-di[bis(salicylato)borate] ionic liquids as energy-efficient and environmentally friendly lubricant additives.

    PubMed

    Gusain, Rashi; Gupta, Piyush; Saran, Sandeep; Khatri, Om P

    2014-09-10

    Bis(imidazolium)- and bis(ammonium)-di[bis(salicylato)borate] ionic liquids with variable alkyl chain and cyclic ring structures, were synthesized and then evaluated them as potential lubricant additives. The copper strip test results revealed noncorrosive properties of these ionic liquids. Introduction of halogen content in bis(imidazolium) ionic liquid by replacement of bis(salicylato)borate (BScB) anion with hexafluorophosphate (PF6(-)), severely corroded the copper strip. Thermogravimetric results showed that bis(imidazolium) ionic liquids exhibited higher thermal stability than bis(ammonium) ionic liquids owing to compact structure provided by imidazolium rings, higher intermolecular interactions, smaller free volume and low steric hindrance. The lubrication properties of these ionic liquids as additives to synthetic lubricant poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG 200) were evaluated for steel balls. Results showed that bis(ammonium)- and bis(imidazolium)-(BScB)2 ionic liquids as additives significantly reduced both friction coefficient and wear of PEG 200. The structure of cations, particularly the variation in substituted alkyl chain length monitored the degree of reduction in friction and wear. The excellent lubrication properties were attributed to the formation of adsorbed tribo-thin film and tribochemical product during the tribo-contact. Being halogen-, phosphorus-, and sulfur-free, these ionic liquids (a) protects contact surfaces from tribo-corrosive events, (b) reduces the friction and wear, and (c) keep environment green and clean.

  13. Energy.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shanebrook, J. Richard

    This document describes a course designed to acquaint students with the many societal and technological problems facing the United States and the world due to the increasing demand for energy. The course begins with a writing assignment that involves readings on the environmental philosophy of Native Americans and the Chernobyl catastrophe.…

  14. Calculation of ionization energy, electron affinity, and hydride affinity trends in pincer-ligated d(8)-Ir((tBu4)PXCXP) complexes: implications for the thermodynamics of oxidative H2 addition.

    PubMed

    Baroudi, Abdulkader; El-Hellani, Ahmad; Bengali, Ashfaq A; Goldman, Alan S; Hasanayn, Faraj

    2014-12-01

    DFT methods are used to calculate the ionization energy (IE) and electron affinity (EA) trends in a series of pincer ligated d(8)-Ir((tBu4)PXCXP) complexes (1-X), where C is a 2,6-disubstituted phenyl ring with X = O, NH, CH2, BH, S, PH, SiH2, and GeH2. Both C2v and C2 geometries are considered. Two distinct σ-type ((2)A1 or (2)A) and π-type ((2)B1 or (2)B) electronic states are calculated for each of the free radical cation and anion. The results exhibit complex trends, but can be satisfactorily accounted for by invoking a combination of electronegativity and specific π-orbital effects. The calculations are also used to study the effects of varying X on the thermodynamics of oxidative H2 addition to 1-X. Two closed shell singlet states differentiated in the C2 point group by the d(6)-electon configuration are investigated for the five-coordinate Ir(III) dihydride product. One electronic state has a d(6)-(a)(2)(b)(2)(b)(2) configuration and a square pyramidal geometry, the other a d(6)-(a)(2)(b)(2)(a)(2) configuration with a distorted-Y trigonal bipyramidal geometry. No simple correlations are found between the computed reaction energies of H2 addition and either the IEs or EAs. To better understand the origin of the computed trends, the thermodynamics of H2 addition are analyzed using a cycle of hydride and proton addition steps. The analysis highlights the importance of the electron and hydride affinities, which are not commonly used in rationalizing trends of oxidative addition reactions. Thus, different complexes such as 1-O and 1-CH2 can have very similar reaction energies for H2 addition arising from opposing hydride and proton affinity effects. Additional calculations on methane C-H bond addition to 1-X afford reaction and activation energy trends that correlate with the reaction energies of H2 addition leading to the Y-product.

  15. Detection of Floating Inputs in Logic Circuits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cash, B.; Thornton, M. G.

    1984-01-01

    Simple modification of oscilloscope probe allows easy detection of floating inputs or tristate outputs in digital-IC's. Oscilloscope probe easily modified with 1/4 W resistor and switch for detecting floating inputs in CMOS logic circuits.

  16. Repositioning Recitation Input in College English Teaching

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Qing

    2009-01-01

    This paper tries to discuss how recitation input helps overcome the negative influences on the basis of second language acquisition theory and confirms the important role that recitation input plays in improving college students' oral and written English.

  17. Non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ermolaev, B. I.; Troyan, S. I.

    2017-03-01

    Description of hadronic reactions at high energies is conventionally done in the framework of QCD factorization. All factorization convolutions comprise non-perturbative inputs mimicking non-perturbative contributions and perturbative evolution of those inputs. We construct inputs for the gluon-hadron scattering amplitudes in the forward kinematics and, using the optical theorem, convert them into inputs for gluon distributions in the hadrons, embracing the cases of polarized and unpolarized hadrons. In the first place, we formulate mathematical criteria which any model for the inputs should obey and then suggest a model satisfying those criteria. This model is based on a simple reasoning: after emitting an active parton off the hadron, the remaining set of spectators becomes unstable and therefore it can be described through factors of the resonance type, so we call it the resonance model. We use it to obtain non-perturbative inputs for gluon distributions in unpolarized and polarized hadrons for all available types of QCD factorization: basic, K_T-and collinear factorizations.

  18. Textual Enhancement of Input: Issues and Possibilities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Han, ZhaoHong; Park, Eun Sung; Combs, Charles

    2008-01-01

    The input enhancement hypothesis proposed by Sharwood Smith (1991, 1993) has stimulated considerable research over the last 15 years. This article reviews the research on textual enhancement of input (TE), an area where the majority of input enhancement studies have aggregated. Methodological idiosyncrasies are the norm of this body of research.…

  19. Input Devices for Young Handicapped Children.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Morris, Karen

    The versatility of the computer can be expanded considerably for young handicapped children by using input devices other than the typewriter-style keyboard. Input devices appropriate for young children can be classified into four categories: alternative keyboards, contact switches, speech input devices, and cursor control devices. Described are…

  20. Input filter compensation for switching regulators

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, F. C.

    1984-01-01

    Problems caused by input filter interaction and conventional input filter design techniques are discussed. The concept of feedforward control is modeled with an input filter and a buck regulator. Experimental measurement and comparison to the analytical predictions is carried out. Transient response and the use of a feedforward loop to stabilize the regulator system is described. Other possible applications for feedforward control are included.

  1. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  2. 10 CFR 810.14 - Additional information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional information. 810.14 Section 810.14 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY ASSISTANCE TO FOREIGN ATOMIC ENERGY ACTIVITIES § 810.14 Additional information. The Department of Energy may at any time require a person engaging in any generally or specifically...

  3. The effect of input perturbations on swimming performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lehn, Andrea M.; Thornycroft, Patrick J. M.; Lauder, George V.; Leftwich, Megan C.

    2014-11-01

    The influence of flexibility and fluid characteristics on the hydrodynamics of swimming has been investigated for a range of experimental systems. One investigative method is to use reduced-order physical models--pitching and heaving hydrofoils. Typically, a smooth, periodic, input signal is used to control foil motion in experiments that explore fundamental factors (aspect ratio, shape, etc.) in swimming performance. However, the significance of non-smooth input signals in undulating swimmers is non-trivial. Instead of varying external properties, we study the impact of perturbed input motions on swimming performance. A smooth sinusoid is overlaid with high frequency, low amplitude perturbations as the input signal for a heaving panel in a closed loop flow tank. Specifically, 1 cm heave amplitude base sinusoids are added to 0.1 cm heave perturbations with frequencies ranging from 0.5 to 13 Hz. Two thin foils with different stiffness are flapped with the combined input signals in addition to the individual high heave and low heave signals that were added to create the combined inputs. Results demonstrate that perturbations can increase thrust and that adding the perturbed signal to a base frequency alters wake structure.

  4. Different Effect of the Additional Electron-Withdrawing Cyano Group in Different Conjugation Bridge: The Adjusted Molecular Energy Levels and Largely Improved Photovoltaic Performance.

    PubMed

    Li, Huiyang; Fang, Manman; Hou, Yingqin; Tang, Runli; Yang, Yizhou; Zhong, Cheng; Li, Qianqian; Li, Zhen

    2016-05-18

    Four organic sensitizers (LI-68-LI-71) bearing various conjugated bridges were designed and synthesized, in which the only difference between LI-68 and LI-69 (or LI-70 and LI-71) was the absence/presence of the CN group as the auxiliary electron acceptor. Interestingly, compared to the reference dye of LI-68, LI-69 bearing the additional CN group exhibited the bad performance with the decreased Jsc and Voc values. However, once one thiophene moiety near the anchor group was replaced by pyrrole with the electron-rich property, the resultant LI-71 exhibited a photoelectric conversion efficiency increase by about 3 folds from 2.75% (LI-69) to 7.95% (LI-71), displaying the synergistic effect of the two moieties (CN and pyrrole). Computational analysis disclosed that pyrrole as the auxiliary electron donor (D') in the conjugated bridge can compensate for the lower negative charge in the electron acceptor, which was caused by the CN group as the electron trap, leading to the more efficient electron injection and better photovoltaic performance.

  5. PREVIMER : Meteorological inputs and outputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravenel, H.; Lecornu, F.; Kerléguer, L.

    2009-09-01

    PREVIMER is a pre-operational system aiming to provide a wide range of users, from private individuals to professionals, with short-term forecasts about the coastal environment along the French coastlines bordering the English Channel, the Atlantic Ocean, and the Mediterranean Sea. Observation data and digital modelling tools first provide 48-hour (probably 96-hour by summer 2009) forecasts of sea states, currents, sea water levels and temperatures. The follow-up of an increasing number of biological parameters will, in time, complete this overview of coastal environment. Working in partnership with the French Naval Hydrographic and Oceanographic Service (Service Hydrographique et Océanographique de la Marine, SHOM), the French National Weather Service (Météo-France), the French public science and technology research institute (Institut de Recherche pour le Développement, IRD), the European Institute of Marine Studies (Institut Universitaire Européen de la Mer, IUEM) and many others, IFREMER (the French public institute fo marine research) is supplying the technologies needed to ensure this pertinent information, available daily on Internet at http://www.previmer.org, and stored at the Operational Coastal Oceanographic Data Centre. Since 2006, PREVIMER publishes the results of demonstrators assigned to limited geographic areas and to specific applications. This system remains experimental. The following topics are covered : Hydrodynamic circulation, sea states, follow-up of passive tracers, conservative or non-conservative (specifically of microbiological origin), biogeochemical state, primary production. Lastly, PREVIMER provides researchers and R&D departments with modelling tools and access to the database, in which the observation data and the modelling results are stored, to undertake environmental studies on new sites. The communication will focus on meteorological inputs to and outputs from PREVIMER. It will draw the lessons from almost 3 years during

  6. Turn customer input into innovation.

    PubMed

    Ulwick, Anthony W

    2002-01-01

    It's difficult to find a company these days that doesn't strive to be customer-driven. Too bad, then, that most companies go about the process of listening to customers all wrong--so wrong, in fact, that they undermine innovation and, ultimately, the bottom line. What usually happens is this: Companies ask their customers what they want. Customers offer solutions in the form of products or services. Companies then deliver these tangibles, and customers just don't buy. The reason is simple--customers aren't expert or informed enough to come up with solutions. That's what your R&D team is for. Rather, customers should be asked only for outcomes--what they want a new product or service to do for them. The form the solutions take should be up to you, and you alone. Using Cordis Corporation as an example, this article describes, in fine detail, a series of effective steps for capturing, analyzing, and utilizing customer input. First come indepth interviews, in which a moderator works with customers to deconstruct a process or activity in order to unearth "desired outcomes." Addressing participants' comments one at a time, the moderator rephrases them to be both unambiguous and measurable. Once the interviews are complete, researchers then compile a comprehensive list of outcomes that participants rank in order of importance and degree to which they are satisfied by existing products. Finally, using a simple mathematical formula called the "opportunity calculation," researchers can learn the relative attractiveness of key opportunity areas. These data can be used to uncover opportunities for product development, to properly segment markets, and to conduct competitive analysis.

  7. Effects of control inputs on the estimation of stability and control parameters of a light airplane

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cannaday, R. L.; Suit, W. T.

    1977-01-01

    The maximum likelihood parameter estimation technique was used to determine the values of stability and control derivatives from flight test data for a low-wing, single-engine, light airplane. Several input forms were used during the tests to investigate the consistency of parameter estimates as it relates to inputs. These consistencies were compared by using the ensemble variance and estimated Cramer-Rao lower bound. In addition, the relationship between inputs and parameter correlations was investigated. Results from the stabilator inputs are inconclusive but the sequence of rudder input followed by aileron input or aileron followed by rudder gave more consistent estimates than did rudder or ailerons individually. Also, square-wave inputs appeared to provide slightly improved consistency in the parameter estimates when compared to sine-wave inputs.

  8. Design, performance and production of the Fermilab TESLA RF input couplers

    SciTech Connect

    Champion, M.

    1996-10-01

    The TeV Energy Superconducting Linear Accelerator (TESLA) requires as one of its technical components a radiofrequency (rf) input coupler that transfers 1.3 GHz rf energy from the rf distribution system to a nine-cell superconducting accelerating cavity operating at a temperature of 1.8 K. The input coupler design is driven by numerous design criteria, which result in a rather complicated implementation. The production of twelve input couplers for the TESLA Test Facility (TTF) is underway at Fermilab, with the first two couplers having been delivered late in 1995. This paper discusses the Fermilab TESLA rf input coupler design, recent test results, and production issues.

  9. Optical device with conical input and output prism faces

    DOEpatents

    Brunsden, Barry S.

    1981-01-01

    A device for radially translating radiation in which a right circular cylinder is provided at each end thereof with conical prism faces. The faces are oppositely extending and the device may be severed in the middle and separated to allow access to the central part of the beam. Radiation entering the input end of the device is radially translated such that radiation entering the input end at the perimeter is concentrated toward the output central axis and radiation at the input central axis is dispersed toward the output perimeter. Devices are disclosed for compressing beam energy to enhance drilling techniques, for beam manipulation of optical spatial frequencies in the Fourier plane and for simplification of dark field and color contrast microscopy. Both refracting and reflecting devices are disclosed.

  10. Optimized input shaping for a single flexible robot link

    SciTech Connect

    Wilson, D.G.; Stokes, D.; Starr, G.; Robinett, R.D.

    1996-03-01

    This paper will discuss the design of an input shaped open-loop control for a single flexible robot link. The authors develop the equations of motion, including the first flexible mode shape and the actuator dynamics. Additional content includes the hardware system identification iterative runs used to update the model. Optimized input shaped commands for the flexible robot link to produce a rest-to-rest, residual vibration-free, 90 degree maneuver are developed. Correlation between both experimental and analytical results of the 90{degree} slew, using two different identification models, are reviewed.

  11. Kriging atomic properties with a variable number of inputs.

    PubMed

    Davie, Stuart J; Di Pasquale, Nicodemo; Popelier, Paul L A

    2016-09-14

    A new force field called FFLUX uses the machine learning technique kriging to capture the link between the properties (energies and multipole moments) of topological atoms (i.e., output) and the coordinates of the surrounding atoms (i.e., input). Here we present a novel, general method of applying kriging to chemical systems that do not possess a fixed number of (geometrical) inputs. Unlike traditional kriging methods, which require an input system to be of fixed dimensionality, the method presented here can be readily applied to molecular simulation, where an interaction cutoff radius is commonly used and the number of atoms or molecules within the cutoff radius is not constant. The method described here is general and can be applied to any machine learning technique that normally operates under a fixed number of inputs. In particular, the method described here is also useful for interpolating methods other than kriging, which may suffer from difficulties stemming from identical sets of inputs corresponding to different outputs or input biasing. As a demonstration, the new method is used to predict 54 energetic and electrostatic properties of the central water molecule of a set of 5000, 4 Å radius water clusters, with a variable number of water molecules. The results are validated against equivalent models from a set of clusters composed of a fixed number of water molecules (set to ten, i.e., decamers) and against models created by using a naïve method of treating the variable number of inputs problem presented. Results show that the 4 Å water cluster models, utilising the method presented here, return similar or better kriging models than the decamer clusters for all properties considered and perform much better than the truncated models.

  12. Kriging atomic properties with a variable number of inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Davie, Stuart J.; Di Pasquale, Nicodemo; Popelier, Paul L. A.

    2016-09-01

    A new force field called FFLUX uses the machine learning technique kriging to capture the link between the properties (energies and multipole moments) of topological atoms (i.e., output) and the coordinates of the surrounding atoms (i.e., input). Here we present a novel, general method of applying kriging to chemical systems that do not possess a fixed number of (geometrical) inputs. Unlike traditional kriging methods, which require an input system to be of fixed dimensionality, the method presented here can be readily applied to molecular simulation, where an interaction cutoff radius is commonly used and the number of atoms or molecules within the cutoff radius is not constant. The method described here is general and can be applied to any machine learning technique that normally operates under a fixed number of inputs. In particular, the method described here is also useful for interpolating methods other than kriging, which may suffer from difficulties stemming from identical sets of inputs corresponding to different outputs or input biasing. As a demonstration, the new method is used to predict 54 energetic and electrostatic properties of the central water molecule of a set of 5000, 4 Å radius water clusters, with a variable number of water molecules. The results are validated against equivalent models from a set of clusters composed of a fixed number of water molecules (set to ten, i.e., decamers) and against models created by using a naïve method of treating the variable number of inputs problem presented. Results show that the 4 Å water cluster models, utilising the method presented here, return similar or better kriging models than the decamer clusters for all properties considered and perform much better than the truncated models.

  13. Effects of segregation and impact of specific feeding behaviour and additional fruit on voluntary nutrient and energy intake in yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona barbadensis) when fed a multi-component seed diet ad libitum.

    PubMed

    Kalmar, I D; Veys, A C; Geeroms, B; Reinschmidt, M; Waugh, D; Werquin, G; Janssens, G P J

    2010-12-01

    Parrots are commonly fed multi-component seed diets; however, both segregation and feeding behaviour might alter ingredient and nutrient composition of the offered diet. First, the nutritional impact of segregation was assessed as it occurs when multi-component diets are temporarily stored in food containers that are replenished before completely emptied and birds being fed from the upper layer. The most detrimental effect hereof was a vast decrease in mineral supplements, leading to a decrease in Ca:P ratio in the offered food in relation to the formulated diet. Next, caloric distribution shifted towards more EE energy at the expense of NFE energy, as proportion of oilseeds increased and NFE-rich seeds decreased. Next, a feeding trial was performed on six yellow-shouldered amazons (Amazona Barbadensis) in which nutritional impact of parrot-specific feeding behaviour was assessed as well as the influence of additional provision of fruit next to the seed mixture. Profound selective feeding behaviour and dehusking of seeds resulted in a vast increase in energetic density by up to 64% in the ingested fraction in relation to the offered mixture in toto. Furthermore, the already suboptimal Ca:P ratio further deteriorated and caloric distribution shifted by over twofold towards EE energy accompanied with a vast decline in NFE energy, CP energy remaining similar. Finally, provision of fruit next to the seed diet significantly lowered voluntary energy intake from 936 ± 71 to 809 ± 109 kJ ME/kg(0.75)/day, without compromising adequate protein intake. In conclusion, notwithstanding efforts of nutritionists to formulate diets to approximate estimated, species-specific requirements, nutritional composition of the actually consumed fraction of multi-component seed diets can be vastly deteriorated by both animal and management factors. Furthermore, offering of fruit next to a seed-based diet effectively reduces voluntary energy intake and can hence be applied to abate obesity.

  14. Mixing at the microscale: Power input in shaken microtiter plates.

    PubMed

    Dürauer, Astrid; Hobiger, Stefanie; Walther, Cornelia; Jungbauer, Alois

    2016-12-01

    Power input and local energy dissipation are crucial parameters for the engineering characterization of mixing and fluid dynamics at the microscale. Since hydrodynamic stress is solely dependent on the maximum power input, we adapted the clay/polymer method to obtain flock destruction kinetics in six-, 24-, and 96-well microtiter plates on orbital shakers. We also determined the specific power input using calorimetry and found that the power input is at the same order of magnitude for the six- and 96-well plates and the laboratory-scale stirred tank reactor, with 40 to 90 W/m(3) (Re' = 180 to 440), 40 to 140 W/m3 (Re' = 320 to 640), and 30 to 50 W/m(3) (Re = 4000 to 8500), respectively. All of these values are significantly below 450 to 2100 W/m(3) determined for the pilot-scale reactor. The hydrodynamic stress differs significantly between the different formats of MTPs, as the 96-well plates showed very low shear stress on the shaker with a shaking amplitude of 3 mm. Thus, the transfer of mixing conditions from the microtiter plate to small-scale and pilot-scale reactors must be undertaken with care. Our findings, especially the power input determined by the calorimetric method, show that the hydrodynamic conditions in laboratory- and pilot-scale reactors cannot be reached.

  15. Chemical input multiplicity facilitates arithmetical processing.

    PubMed

    Margulies, David; Melman, Galina; Felder, Clifford E; Arad-Yellin, Rina; Shanzer, Abraham

    2004-12-01

    We describe the design and function of a molecular logic system, by which a combinatorial recognition of the input signals is utilized to efficiently process chemically encoded information. Each chemical input can target simultaneously multiple domains on the same molecular platform, resulting in a unique combination of chemical states, each with its characteristic fluorescence output. Simple alteration of the input reagents changes the emitted logic pattern and enables it to perform different algebraic operations between two bits, solely in the fluorescence mode. This system exhibits parallelism in both its chemical inputs and light outputs.

  16. Input apparatus for dynamic signature verification systems

    DOEpatents

    EerNisse, Errol P.; Land, Cecil E.; Snelling, Jay B.

    1978-01-01

    The disclosure relates to signature verification input apparatus comprising a writing instrument and platen containing piezoelectric transducers which generate signals in response to writing pressures.

  17. Dynamic Input Conductances Shape Neuronal Spiking(1,2).

    PubMed

    Drion, Guillaume; Franci, Alessio; Dethier, Julie; Sepulchre, Rodolphe

    2015-01-01

    Assessing the role of biophysical parameter variations in neuronal activity is critical to the understanding of modulation, robustness, and homeostasis of neuronal signalling. The paper proposes that this question can be addressed through the analysis of dynamic input conductances. Those voltage-dependent curves aggregate the concomitant activity of all ion channels in distinct timescales. They are shown to shape the current-voltage dynamical relationships that determine neuronal spiking. We propose an experimental protocol to measure dynamic input conductances in neurons. In addition, we provide a computational method to extract dynamic input conductances from arbitrary conductance-based models and to analyze their sensitivity to arbitrary parameters. We illustrate the relevance of the proposed approach for modulation, compensation, and robustness studies in a published neuron model based on data of the stomatogastric ganglion of the crab Cancer borealis.

  18. Practical input optimization for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. Ph.D. Thesis, 1990

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morelli, Eugene A.

    1993-01-01

    The object of this research was to develop an algorithm for the design of practical, optimal flight test inputs for aircraft parameter estimation experiments. A general, single pass technique was developed which allows global optimization of the flight test input design for parameter estimation using the principles of dynamic programming with the input forms limited to square waves only. Provision was made for practical constraints on the input, including amplitude constraints, control system dynamics, and selected input frequency range exclusions. In addition, the input design was accomplished while imposing output amplitude constraints required by model validity and considerations of safety during the flight test. The algorithm has multiple input design capability, with optional inclusion of a constraint that only one control move at a time, so that a human pilot can implement the inputs. It is shown that the technique can be used to design experiments for estimation of open loop model parameters from closed loop flight test data. The report includes a new formulation of the optimal input design problem, a description of a new approach to the solution, and a summary of the characteristics of the algorithm, followed by three example applications of the new technique which demonstrate the quality and expanded capabilities of the input designs produced by the new technique. In all cases, the new input design approach showed significant improvement over previous input design methods in terms of achievable parameter accuracies.

  19. Nitrogen input effectiveness on carbon sequestration in rainfed cropping system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novara, Agata; Gristina, Luciano; Poma, Ignazio

    2016-04-01

    The combined effect of total N and C/N ratio had a large influence on the decomposition rate and consequently on potential soil organic carbon sequestration. The aim of the work was to evaluate Carbon sequestration potentiality under three mineral N fertilization levels in interaction with two cropping systems characterized by addition of N input due to leguminous species in the rotation. The study was carried out in the semiarid Mediterranean environment in a 18years long-term experiment. Is well know that in the semiarid environment the excess of N fertilization reduces biomass yield and the consequent C input. On the contrary, both N and C input determine high difference in C/N input ratio and faster organic matter mineralization. Results showed no influence of N fertilization on SOC sequestration and a reduction of SOC stock due to crop rotation due to lower C input. Crop residue quality of durum wheat-pea crop rotation characterized by a faster decomposition rate could explain the lower ability of crop rotation to sequester C in the semiarid environment.

  20. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  1. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... of Energy from granting additional nonexclusive, or exclusive, or partially exclusive licenses...

  2. Remote sensing inputs to water demand modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Estes, J. E.; Jensen, J. R.; Tinney, L. R.; Rector, M.

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to determine the ability of remote sensing techniques to economically generate data required by water demand models, the Geography Remote Sensing Unit, in conjunction with the Kern County Water Agency of California, developed an analysis model. As a result it was determined that agricultural cropland inventories utilizing both high altitude photography and LANDSAT imagery can be conducted cost effectively. In addition, by using average irrigation application rates in conjunction with cropland data, estimates of agricultural water demand can be generated. However, more accurate estimates are possible if crop type, acreage, and crop specific application rates are employed. An analysis of the effect of saline-alkali soils on water demand in the study area is also examined. Finally, reference is made to the detection and delineation of water tables that are perched near the surface by semi-permeable clay layers. Soil salinity prediction, automated crop identification on a by-field basis, and a potential input to the determination of zones of equal benefit taxation are briefly touched upon.

  3. Singular year of high geomagnetic responses to the same solar wind input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamauchi, Masatoshi; Olsthoorn, Bart; Nicolaou, Georgios

    2016-04-01

    Using high-resolution (5 min) solar wind data and westward auroral electrojet index (AL) index since 1981, temporal variation of the Sun-Earth coupling efficiency (AL response to the solar wind electromagnetic energy/flux input) was examined. To separate the seasonal variation, 3-month averaged statistics is used. (1) The Sun-Earth coupling efficiency for moderate solar wind input occasionally increased beyond the seasonal variation for about half a year during the declining phase of solar cycles; (2) Excluding these singular years and seasonal variation, the Sun-Earth coupling efficiency for moderate or low solar wind input continuously decreased over the past three decades; (3) These temporal variations do not correlate with F10.7 index (proxy for the Solar UV flux). The results confirm some of the previous study using 1-hour resolution data with a better accuracy, and suggest that the existence of additional controlling mechanisms either at the Sun (e.g., magnetic field or solar cycle strength) or solar wind-magnetosphere-ionosphere coupling (e.g., through the solar wind composition). On the other hand, the Sun-Earth coupling efficiency for large solar wind input is very variable and the present correlation method is not sufficient to determine the conditions for large AL activities and its temporal variation. Acknowledgement: Auroral electrojet (AE) indices and sunspot numbers (RI) are official IAGA and IAA endorsed indices that are provided by World Data Center for Geomagnetism, Kyoto University, Japan (AE) and the Royal Observatory of Belgium, Brussels (RI). Including these indices, all data in 5-minutes values are obtained from NASA-GSFC/SPDF through OMNIWeb (http://omniweb.gsfc.nasa.gov/ow.html).

  4. Incinerator performance: effects of changes in waste input and furnace operation on air emissions and residues.

    PubMed

    Astrup, Thomas; Riber, Christian; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2011-10-01

    Waste incineration can be considered a robust technology for energy recovery from mixed waste. Modern incinerators are generally able to maintain relatively stable performance, but changes in waste input and furnace operation may affect emissions. This study investigated how inorganic air emissions and residue composition at a full-scale incinerator were affected by known additions of specific waste materials to the normal municipal solid waste (MSW) input. Six individual experiments were carried out (% ww of total waste input): NaCl (0.5%), shoes (1.6%), automobile shredder waste (14%), batteries (0.5%), poly(vinyl chloride) (5.5%) and chromate-cupper-arsenate impregnated wood (11%). Materials were selected based on chemical composition and potential for being included or excluded from the waste mix. Critical elements in the waste materials were identified based on comparison with six experiments including 'as-large-as-possible' changes in furnace operation (oxygen levels, air supply and burnout level) only using normal MSW as input. The experiments showed that effects from the added waste materials were significant in relation to: air emissions (in particular As, Cd, Cr, Hg, Sb), element transfer coefficients, and residue composition (As, Cd, Cl, Cr, Cu, Hg, Mo, Ni, Pb, S, Sb, Zn). Changes in furnace operation could not be directly linked to changes in emissions and residues. The results outlined important elements in waste which should be addressed in relation to waste incinerator performance. Likely ranges of element transfer coefficients were provided as the basis for sensitivity analysis of life-cycle assessment (LCA) results involving waste incinerator technologies.

  5. Fresh carbon input differentially impacts soil carbon decomposition across natural and managed systems.

    PubMed

    Luo, Zhongkui; Wang, Enli; Smith, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The amount of fresh carbon input into soil is experiencing substantial changes under global change. It is unclear what will be the consequences of such input changes on native soil carbon decomposition across ecosystems. By synthesizing data from 143 experimental comparisons, we show that, on average, fresh carbon input stimulates soil carbon decomposition by 14%. The response was lower in forest soils (1%) compared with soils from other ecosystems (> 24%), and higher following inputs of plant residue-like substrates (31%) compared to root exudate-like substrates (9%). The responses decrease with the baseline soil carbon decomposition rate under no additional carbon input, but increase with the fresh carbon input rate. The rates of these changes vary significantly across ecosystems and with the carbon substrates being added. These findings can be applied to provide robust estimates of soil carbon balance across ecosystems under changing aboveground and belowground inputs as consequence of climate and land management changes.

  6. Computing Functions by Approximating the Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-01-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their…

  7. Tools to Develop or Convert MOVES Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The following tools are designed to help users develop inputs to MOVES and post-process the output. With the release of MOVES2014, EPA strongly encourages state and local agencies to develop local inputs based on MOVES fleet and activity categories.

  8. EDP Applications to Musical Bibliography: Input Considerations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Robbins, Donald C.

    1972-01-01

    The application of Electronic Data Processing (EDP) has been a boon in the analysis and bibliographic control of music. However, an extra step of encoding must be undertaken for input of music. The best hope to facilitate musical input is the development of an Optical Character Recognition (OCR) music-reading machine. (29 references) (Author/NH)

  9. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  12. 7 CFR 3430.607 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 15 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Stakeholder input. 3430.607 Section 3430.607 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... input and/or via Web site), as well as through a notice in the Federal Register, from the...

  13. CREATING INPUT TABLES FROM WAPDEG FOR RIP

    SciTech Connect

    K.G. Mon

    1998-08-10

    The purpose of this calculation is to create tables for input into RIP ver. 5.18 (Integrated Probabilistic Simulator for Environmental Systems) from WAPDEG ver. 3.06 (Waste Package Degradation) output. This calculation details the creation of the RIP input tables for TSPA-VA REV.00.

  14. Managing Input during Assistive Technology Product Design

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Choi, Young Mi

    2011-01-01

    Many different sources of input are available to assistive technology innovators during the course of designing products. However, there is little information on which ones may be most effective or how they may be efficiently utilized within the design process. The aim of this project was to compare how three types of input--from simulation tools,…

  15. Input, Interaction, and Second Language Production.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan M.; Varonis, Evangeline Marlos

    1994-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship among input, interaction, and second-language production among 16 native-nonnative dyads. The results indicated that both modified input and interaction initiated by the native speaker lead to greater comprehension by the nonnative speaker, as measured by task performance. (Contains 48 references.) (MDM)

  16. Making Input Comprehensible: Do Interactional Modifications Help?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Pica, Teresa; And Others

    1990-01-01

    A pilot study of a larger project on second language comprehension under two input conditions is reported. The first condition is characterized by the availability of samples of target input that have been modified a priori toward greater semantic redundancy and transparency and less complex syntax. The second condition is characterized by the…

  17. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs.

  18. Carbon and nitrogen additions induce distinct priming effects along an organic-matter decay continuum

    PubMed Central

    Qiao, Na; Xu, Xingliang; Hu, Yuehua; Blagodatskaya, Evgenia; Liu, Yongwen; Schaefer, Douglas; Kuzyakov, Yakov

    2016-01-01

    Decomposition of organic matter (OM) in soil, affecting carbon (C) cycling and climate feedbacks, depends on microbial activities driven by C and nitrogen (N) availability. However, it remains unknown how decomposition of various OMs vary across global supplies and ratios of C and N inputs. We examined OM decomposition by incubating four types of OM (leaf litter, wood, organic matter from organic and mineral horizons) from a decay continuum in a subtropical forest at Ailao Mountain, China with labile C and N additions. Decomposition of wood with high C:N decreased for 3.9 to 29% with these additions, while leaf decomposition was accelerated only within a narrow C:N range of added C and N. Decomposition of OM from organic horizon was accelerated by high C:N and suppressed by low C:N, but mineral soil was almost entirely controlled by high C:N. These divergent responses to C and N inputs show that mechanisms for priming (i.e. acceleration or retardation of OM decomposition by labile inputs) vary along this decay continuum. We conclude that besides C:N ratios of OM, those of labile inputs control the OM decay in the litter horizons, while energy (labile C) regulates decomposition in mineral soil. This suggests that OM decomposition can be predicted from its intrinsic C:N ratios and those of labile inputs. PMID:26806914

  19. CHARACTERISTIC LENGTH SCALE OF INPUT DATA IN DISTRIBUTED MODELS: IMPLICATIONS FOR MODELING GRID SIZE. (R824784)

    EPA Science Inventory

    The appropriate spatial scale for a distributed energy balance model was investigated by: (a) determining the scale of variability associated with the remotely sensed and GIS-generated model input data; and (b) examining the effects of input data spatial aggregation on model resp...

  20. Composition of riparian litter input regulates organic matter decomposition: Implications for headwater stream functioning in a managed forest landscape.

    PubMed

    Lidman, Johan; Jonsson, Micael; Burrows, Ryan M; Bundschuh, Mirco; Sponseller, Ryan A

    2017-02-01

    Although the importance of stream condition for leaf litter decomposition has been extensively studied, little is known about how processing rates change in response to altered riparian vegetation community composition. We investigated patterns of plant litter input and decomposition across 20 boreal headwater streams that varied in proportions of riparian deciduous and coniferous trees. We measured a suite of in-stream physical and chemical characteristics, as well as the amount and type of litter inputs from riparian vegetation, and related these to decomposition rates of native (alder, birch, and spruce) and introduced (lodgepole pine) litter species incubated in coarse- and fine-mesh bags. Total litter inputs ranged more than fivefold among sites and increased with the proportion of deciduous vegetation in the riparian zone. In line with differences in initial litter quality, mean decomposition rate was highest for alder, followed by birch, spruce, and lodgepole pine (12, 55, and 68% lower rates, respectively). Further, these rates were greater in coarse-mesh bags that allow colonization by macroinvertebrates. Variance in decomposition rate among sites for different species was best explained by different sets of environmental conditions, but litter-input composition (i.e., quality) was overall highly important. On average, native litter decomposed faster in sites with higher-quality litter input and (with the exception of spruce) higher concentrations of dissolved nutrients and open canopies. By contrast, lodgepole pine decomposed more rapidly in sites receiving lower-quality litter inputs. Birch litter decomposition rate in coarse-mesh bags was best predicted by the same environmental variables as in fine-mesh bags, with additional positive influences of macroinvertebrate species richness. Hence, to facilitate energy turnover in boreal headwaters, forest management with focus on conifer production should aim at increasing the presence of native deciduous

  1. Development of a Novel Bi-Directional Isolated Multiple-Input DC-DC Converter

    SciTech Connect

    Li, H.

    2005-10-24

    There is vital need for a compact, lightweight, and efficient energy-storage system that is both affordable and has an acceptable cycle life for the large-scale production of electric vehicles (EVs) and hybrid electric vehicles (HEVs). Most of the current research employs a battery-storage unit (BU) combined with a fuel cell (FC) stack in order to achieve the operating voltage-current point of maximum efficiency for the FC system. A system block diagram is shown in Fig.1.1. In such a conventional arrangement, the battery is sized to deliver the difference between the energy required by the traction drive and the energy supplied by the FC system. Energy requirements can increase depending on the drive cycle over which the vehicle is expected to operate. Peak-power transients result in an increase of losses and elevated temperatures which result in a decrease in the lifetime of the battery. This research will propose a novel two-input direct current (dc) dc to dc converter to interface an additional energy-storage element, an ultracapacitor (UC), which is shown in Fig.1.2. It will assist the battery during transients to reduce the peak-power requirements of the battery.

  2. Statistical identification of effective input variables. [SCREEN

    SciTech Connect

    Vaurio, J.K.

    1982-09-01

    A statistical sensitivity analysis procedure has been developed for ranking the input data of large computer codes in the order of sensitivity-importance. The method is economical for large codes with many input variables, since it uses a relatively small number of computer runs. No prior judgemental elimination of input variables is needed. The sceening method is based on stagewise correlation and extensive regression analysis of output values calculated with selected input value combinations. The regression process deals with multivariate nonlinear functions, and statistical tests are also available for identifying input variables that contribute to threshold effects, i.e., discontinuities in the output variables. A computer code SCREEN has been developed for implementing the screening techniques. The efficiency has been demonstrated by several examples and applied to a fast reactor safety analysis code (Venus-II). However, the methods and the coding are general and not limited to such applications.

  3. Using multiple-accumulator CMACs to improve efficiency of the X part of an input-buffered FX correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapshev, Stepan; Hasan, S. M. Rezaul

    2017-01-01

    This paper presents the approach of using complex multiplier-accumulators (CMACs) with multiple accumulators to reduce the total number of memory operations in an input-buffered architecture for the X part of an FX correlator. A processing unit of this architecture uses an array of CMACs that are reused for different groups of baselines. The disadvantage of processing correlations in this way is that each input data sample has to be read multiple times from the memory because each input signal is used in many of these baseline groups. While a one-accumulator CMAC cannot switch to a different baseline until it is finished integrating the current one, a multiple-accumulator CMAC can. Thus, the array of multiple-accumulator CMACs can switch between processing different baselines that share some input signals at any moment to reuse the current data in the processing buffers. In this way significant reductions in the number of memory read operations are achieved with only a few accumulators per CMAC. For example, for a large number of input signals three-accumulator CMACs reduce the total number of memory operations by more than a third. Simulated energy measurements of four VLSI designs in a high-performance 28 nm CMOS technology are presented in this paper to demonstrate that using multiple accumulators can also lead to reduced power dissipation of the processing array. Using three accumulators as opposed to one has been found to reduce the overall energy of 8-bit CMACs by 1.4% through the reduction of the switching activity within their circuits, which is in addition to a more than 30% reduction in the memory.

  4. Using multiple-accumulator CMACs to improve efficiency of the X part of an input-buffered FX correlator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lapshev, Stepan; Hasan, S. M. Rezaul

    2017-04-01

    This paper presents the approach of using complex multiplier-accumulators (CMACs) with multiple accumulators to reduce the total number of memory operations in an input-buffered architecture for the X part of an FX correlator. A processing unit of this architecture uses an array of CMACs that are reused for different groups of baselines. The disadvantage of processing correlations in this way is that each input data sample has to be read multiple times from the memory because each input signal is used in many of these baseline groups. While a one-accumulator CMAC cannot switch to a different baseline until it is finished integrating the current one, a multiple-accumulator CMAC can. Thus, the array of multiple-accumulator CMACs can switch between processing different baselines that share some input signals at any moment to reuse the current data in the processing buffers. In this way significant reductions in the number of memory read operations are achieved with only a few accumulators per CMAC. For example, for a large number of input signals three-accumulator CMACs reduce the total number of memory operations by more than a third. Simulated energy measurements of four VLSI designs in a high-performance 28 nm CMOS technology are presented in this paper to demonstrate that using multiple accumulators can also lead to reduced power dissipation of the processing array. Using three accumulators as opposed to one has been found to reduce the overall energy of 8-bit CMACs by 1.4% through the reduction of the switching activity within their circuits, which is in addition to a more than 30% reduction in the memory.

  5. Measuring Input Thresholds on an Existing Board

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kuperman, Igor; Gutrich, Daniel G.; Berkun, Andrew C.

    2011-01-01

    A critical PECL (positive emitter-coupled logic) interface to Xilinx interface needed to be changed on an existing flight board. The new Xilinx input interface used a CMOS (complementary metal-oxide semiconductor) type of input, and the driver could meet its thresholds typically, but not in worst-case, according to the data sheet. The previous interface had been based on comparison with an external reference, but the CMOS input is based on comparison with an internal divider from the power supply. A way to measure what the exact input threshold was for this device for 64 inputs on a flight board was needed. The measurement technique allowed an accurate measurement of the voltage required to switch a Xilinx input from high to low for each of the 64 lines, while only probing two of them. Directly driving an external voltage was considered too risky, and tests done on any other unit could not be used to qualify the flight board. The two lines directly probed gave an absolute voltage threshold calibration, while data collected on the remaining 62 lines without probing gave relative measurements that could be used to identify any outliers. The PECL interface was forced to a long-period square wave by driving a saturated square wave into the ADC (analog to digital converter). The active pull-down circuit was turned off, causing each line to rise rapidly and fall slowly according to the input s weak pull-down circuitry. The fall time shows up as a change in the pulse width of the signal ready by the Xilinx. This change in pulse width is a function of capacitance, pulldown current, and input threshold. Capacitance was known from the different trace lengths, plus a gate input capacitance, which is the same for all inputs. The pull-down current is the same for all inputs including the two that are probed directly. The data was combined, and the Excel solver tool was used to find input thresholds for the 62 lines. This was repeated over different supply voltages and

  6. Alternative Energy Development and China's Energy Future

    SciTech Connect

    Zheng, Nina; Fridley, David

    2011-06-15

    In addition to promoting energy efficiency, China has actively pursued alternative energy development as a strategy to reduce its energy demand and carbon emissions. One area of particular focus has been to raise the share of alternative energy in China’s rapidly growing electricity generation with a 2020 target of 15% share of total primary energy. Over the last ten years, China has established several major renewable energy regulations along with programs and subsidies to encourage the growth of non-fossil alternative energy including solar, wind, nuclear, hydro, geothermal and biomass power as well as biofuels and coal alternatives. This study thus seeks to examine China’s alternative energy in terms of what has and will continue to drive alternative energy development in China as well as analyze in depth the growth potential and challenges facing each specific technology. This study found that despite recent policies enabling extraordinary capacity and investment growth, alternative energy technologies face constraints and barriers to growth. For relatively new technologies that have not achieved commercialization such as concentrated solar thermal, geothermal and biomass power, China faces technological limitations to expanding the scale of installed capacity. While some alternative technologies such as hydropower and coal alternatives have been slowed by uneven and often changing market and policy support, others such as wind and solar PV have encountered physical and institutional barriers to grid integration. Lastly, all alternative energy technologies face constraints in human resources and raw material resources including land and water, with some facing supply limitations in critical elements such as uranium for nuclear, neodymium for wind and rare earth metals for advanced solar PV. In light of China’s potential for and barriers to growth, the resource and energy requirement for alternative energy technologies were modeled and scenario analysis

  7. Overview of Heat Addition and Efficiency Predictions for an Advanced Stirling Convertor

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, Scott D.; Reid, Terry V.; Schifer, Nicholas A.; Briggs, Maxwell H.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. Microporous bulk insulation is used in the ground support test hardware to minimize the loss of thermal energy from the electric heat source to the environment. The insulation package is characterized before operation to predict how much heat will be absorbed by the convertor and how much will be lost to the environment during operation. In an effort to validate these predictions, numerous tasks have been performed, which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs. This test and modeling effort included: (a) making thermophysical property measurements of test setup materials to provide inputs to the numerical models, (b) acquiring additional test data that was collected during convertor tests to provide numerical models with temperature profiles of the test setup via thermocouple and infrared measurements, (c) using multidimensional numerical models (computational fluid dynamics code) to predict net heat input of an operating convertor, and (d) using validation test hardware to provide direct comparison of numerical results and validate the multidimensional numerical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This effort produced high fidelity ASC net heat input predictions, which were successfully validated using

  8. Dimensionless numbers in additive manufacturing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, T.; Manvatkar, V.; De, A.; DebRoy, T.

    2017-02-01

    The effects of many process variables and alloy properties on the structure and properties of additively manufactured parts are examined using four dimensionless numbers. The structure and properties of components made from 316 Stainless steel, Ti-6Al-4V, and Inconel 718 powders for various dimensionless heat inputs, Peclet numbers, Marangoni numbers, and Fourier numbers are studied. Temperature fields, cooling rates, solidification parameters, lack of fusion defects, and thermal strains are examined using a well-tested three-dimensional transient heat transfer and fluid flow model. The results show that lack of fusion defects in the fabricated parts can be minimized by strengthening interlayer bonding using high values of dimensionless heat input. The formation of harmful intermetallics such as laves phases in Inconel 718 can be suppressed using low heat input that results in a small molten pool, a steep temperature gradient, and a fast cooling rate. Improved interlayer bonding can be achieved at high Marangoni numbers, which results in vigorous circulation of liquid metal, larger pool dimensions, and greater depth of penetration. A high Fourier number ensures rapid cooling, low thermal distortion, and a high ratio of temperature gradient to the solidification growth rate with a greater tendency of plane front solidification.

  9. Input-state approach to Boolean networks.

    PubMed

    Cheng, Daizhan

    2009-03-01

    This paper investigates the structure of Boolean networks via input-state structure. Using the algebraic form proposed by the author, the logic-based input-state dynamics of Boolean networks, called the Boolean control networks, is converted into an algebraic discrete-time dynamic system. Then the structure of cycles of Boolean control systems is obtained as compounded cycles. Using the obtained input-state description, the structure of Boolean networks is investigated, and their attractors are revealed as nested compounded cycles, called rolling gears. This structure explains why small cycles mainly decide the behaviors of cellular networks. Some illustrative examples are presented.

  10. Non-recursive sequential input deconvolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, Dionisio

    2017-01-01

    A scheme for sequential deconvolution of inputs from measured outputs is presented. The key feature in the formulation is elimination of the initial state from the input-output relations by projecting the output in the left null space of the observability block. Removal of the initial state allows the sequential format of the deconvolution, essential for computational reasons, to be implemented non-recursively, assuring unconditional stability. Identifiability is realized when the input-output arrangement does not have transmission zeros, and observability and controllability are shown immaterial. Comparison of results from the scheme with those from Dynamic Programming highlights the benefits of eliminating the initial state.

  11. Wireless, relative-motion computer input device

    DOEpatents

    Holzrichter, John F.; Rosenbury, Erwin T.

    2004-05-18

    The present invention provides a system for controlling a computer display in a workspace using an input unit/output unit. A train of EM waves are sent out to flood the workspace. EM waves are reflected from the input unit/output unit. A relative distance moved information signal is created using the EM waves that are reflected from the input unit/output unit. Algorithms are used to convert the relative distance moved information signal to a display signal. The computer display is controlled in response to the display signal.

  12. Sky input horn for a far-infrared interferometer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, M. S.; Eichhorn, W. L.; Mather, J. C.

    1982-01-01

    A unique design has been developed whereby a compound parabolic concentrator (CPC) and a compound elliptical concentrator (CEC) are joined at their throats. The CPC serves as the field-defining optics, in that it accepts up to a certain maximum acceptance angle and then concentrates this accepted energy at its throat. Energy incident from angles greater than the acceptance angle is rejected. The CEC takes the energy concentrated at the CPC throat and then redirects this energy into a finite-sized pupil a given distance away. The considered design will be used as the sky input horn for a cryogenic far-infrared polarizing interferometer to be flown on NASA's Cosmic Background Explorer satellite. The interferometer will operate at 2 K and measure the 3-K cosmic background radiation of the universe in the 100-micrometer-1-cm spectral range.

  13. A novel feedforward compensation canceling input filter-regulator interaction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kelkar, S. S.; Lee, F. C.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction between the input and the control loop of switching regulators often results in deterimental effects, such as loop instability, degradation of transient response, and audiosusceptibility, etc. The concept of pole-zero cancelation is employed to mitigate some of these detrimental effects and is implemented using a novel feedforward loop, in addition to existing feedback loops of a buck regulator. Experimental results are presented which show excellent correlation with theory.

  14. Energy Efficiency Collaboratives

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Michael; Bryson, Joe

    2015-09-01

    Collaboratives for energy efficiency have a long and successful history and are currently used, in some form, in more than half of the states. Historically, many state utility commissions have used some form of collaborative group process to resolve complex issues that emerge during a rate proceeding. Rather than debate the issues through the formality of a commission proceeding, disagreeing parties are sent to discuss issues in a less-formal setting and bring back resolutions to the commission. Energy efficiency collaboratives take this concept and apply it specifically to energy efficiency programs—often in anticipation of future issues as opposed to reacting to a present disagreement. Energy efficiency collaboratives can operate long term and can address the full suite of issues associated with designing, implementing, and improving energy efficiency programs. Collaboratives can be useful to gather stakeholder input on changing program budgets and program changes in response to performance or market shifts, as well as to provide continuity while regulators come and go, identify additional energy efficiency opportunities and innovations, assess the role of energy efficiency in new regulatory contexts, and draw on lessons learned and best practices from a diverse group. Details about specific collaboratives in the United States are in the appendix to this guide. Collectively, they demonstrate the value of collaborative stakeholder processes in producing successful energy efficiency programs.

  15. An evaluation of atomic and molecular mixture rules and group additivity concepts for the estimation of radiation absorption by long-chained, saturated hydrocarbons at vacuum UV and soft X-ray energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Au, Jennifer W.; Cooper, Glyn; Burton, Gordon R.; Brion, C. E.

    1994-10-01

    The feasibility of using atomic and molecular mixture rules as well as group additivity concepts for predicting valence shell photoabsorption oscillator strengths (cross sections) for long-chained alkane molecules has been investigated over a wide energy range from 18 to 220 eV. The predictions are discussed with reference to recently reported experimental measurements (Chem. Phys. 173 (1993) 209) for normal alkanes, C nH 2 n+2 ( n=1-8). Atomic mixture rules based on either theoretical or experimental atomic oscillator strength sums are found to be unsatisfactory, giving very large errors at most photon energies. A wide range of molecular mixture rules based on linear combinations of measured oscillator strength values for small 'component' alkane molecules and molecular hydrogen have also been evaluated. Although good agreement with experiment is obtained with some linear combinations, many others result in substantial errors. Molecular mixture rules constructed using oscillator strength for larger component alkanes generally give better estimates of the experimentally measured data; however, since no other a priori physical or chemical reasons can be advanced for any particular choice of molecular mixture rule, this procedure is unsatisfactory for general application. In contrast, a group additivity procedure based on oscillator strength estimates for the methylene (CH 2) and methyl (CH 3) alkane group fragments, derived entirely from the photoabsorption measurements for lower alkanes, provides excellent agreement with the measured oscillator strengths for C 8H 18 over the entire energy range studied (18-220 eV). The absolute photoabsorption group oscillator strengths derived for the CH 2 and CH 3 fragments should be applicable to assessing the contributions from saturated hydrocarbon groupings to vacuum UV and soft X-ray absorption in larger chemical and biochemical systems.

  16. Frequency dependent precompensation for dominance in a four input/output theme problem model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Schafer, R. M.; Sain, M. K.

    1979-01-01

    This paper reports on additional experience in applying the CARDIAD methodology to design of dynamical input compensation to achieve column dominance for linear multivariable models of realistic turbine engine simulations. In particular, the approach has been extended to models having four inputs and four outputs, and successful compensations have been achieved with an investment of about thirty minutes desk time.

  17. Inputs and Processes in Education: A Background Paper. Final Report Deliverable #1-2.2b.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schrag, Judy A.

    This background paper is a result of a literature review conducted under Project FORUM that identifies research-based inputs and processes related to student outcomes. It was intended to provide background information for the participants attending the Wingspread Conference on Inputs and Processes in October, 1998. In addition, the report is…

  18. Handling Input and Output for COAMPS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fitzpatrick, Patrick; Tran, Nam; Li, Yongzuo; Anantharaj, Valentine

    2007-01-01

    Two suites of software have been developed to handle the input and output of the Coupled Ocean Atmosphere Prediction System (COAMPS), which is a regional atmospheric model developed by the Navy for simulating and predicting weather. Typically, the initial and boundary conditions for COAMPS are provided by a flat-file representation of the Navy s global model. Additional algorithms are needed for running the COAMPS software using global models. One of the present suites satisfies this need for running COAMPS using the Global Forecast System (GFS) model of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration. The first step in running COAMPS downloading of GFS data from an Internet file-transfer-protocol (FTP) server computer of the National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP) is performed by one of the programs (SSC-00273) in this suite. The GFS data, which are in gridded binary (GRIB) format, are then changed to a COAMPS-compatible format by another program in the suite (SSC-00278). Once a forecast is complete, still another program in the suite (SSC-00274) sends the output data to a different server computer. The second suite of software (SSC- 00275) addresses the need to ingest up-to-date land-use-and-land-cover (LULC) data into COAMPS for use in specifying typical climatological values of such surface parameters as albedo, aerodynamic roughness, and ground wetness. This suite includes (1) a program to process LULC data derived from observations by the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) instruments aboard NASA s Terra and Aqua satellites, (2) programs to derive new climatological parameters for the 17-land-use-category MODIS data; and (3) a modified version of a FORTRAN subroutine to be used by COAMPS. The MODIS data files are processed to reformat them into a compressed American Standard Code for Information Interchange (ASCII) format used by COAMPS for efficient processing.

  19. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input..., for technology development, applied research, and/or training....

  20. The Linguistic Landscape as an Additional Source of Input in Second Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cenoz, Jasone; Gorter, Durk

    2008-01-01

    In this article we explore the role that the linguistic landscape, in the sense of all the written language in the public space, can have in second language acquisition (SLA). The linguistic landscape has symbolic and informative functions and it is multimodal, because it combines visual and printed texts, and multilingual, because it uses several…

  1. Computing functions by approximating the input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldberg, Mayer

    2012-12-01

    In computing real-valued functions, it is ordinarily assumed that the input to the function is known, and it is the output that we need to approximate. In this work, we take the opposite approach: we show how to compute the values of some transcendental functions by approximating the input to these functions, and obtaining exact answers for their output. Our approach assumes only the most rudimentary knowledge of algebra and trigonometry, and makes no use of calculus.

  2. Combined LTP and LTD of modulatory inputs controls neuronal processing of primary sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Doiron, Brent; Zhao, Yanjun; Tzounopoulos, Thanos

    2011-07-20

    A hallmark of brain organization is the integration of primary and modulatory pathways by principal neurons. However, the pathway interactions that shape primary input processing remain unknown. We investigated this problem in mouse dorsal cochlear nucleus (DCN) where principal cells integrate primary, auditory nerve input with modulatory, parallel fiber input. Using a combined experimental and computational approach, we show that combined LTP and LTD of parallel fiber inputs to DCN principal cells and interneurons, respectively, broaden the time window within which synaptic inputs summate. Enhanced summation depolarizes the resting membrane potential and thus lowers the response threshold to auditory nerve inputs. Combined LTP and LTD, by preserving the variance of membrane potential fluctuations and the membrane time constant, fixes response gain and spike latency as threshold is lowered. Our data reveal a novel mechanism mediating adaptive and concomitant homeostatic regulation of distinct features of neuronal processing of sensory inputs.

  3. The role of chemical additives to the phase change process of CaCl2.6H2O to optimize its performance as latent heat energy storage system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sutjahja, I. M.; U, S. Rahayu A.; Kurniati, Nia; Pallitine, Ivyalentine D.; Kurnia, D.

    2016-08-01

    CaCl2.6H2O is one of salt hydrate based phase change material (PCM) which is suitable for room air-temperature stabilizer because it has the melting temperature just above the human comfort zone temperature (Tm ∼⃒ 29 oC) and a relatively large heat entalphy (AH ∼⃒ 190 kJ/kg). This paper reports the role of the type of chemical additives to PCM CaCl2.6H2O to the phase change process throughout the solidification process or heat release in order to optimize its performance as latent heat energy storage system. In this research we used several kinds of chemical additive, namely SrCl2.6H2O (1.0 wt%), BaCO3 (0.5 wt%), and K2CO3 (0.5 wt%). In terms of its latent time for phase change process the order the effectiveness of those chemical additives are reduced from SrCl2.6H2O, BaCO3and K2CO3. We found that this is also related to their role in suppression supercooling and phase separation effects which occurs during crystallization process of CaCl2.6H2O.

  4. Electrochemical Reduction of Ag2VP2O8 Composite Electrodes Visualized via In situ Energy Dispersive X-ray Diffraction (EDXRD). Unexpected Conductive Additive Effects

    SciTech Connect

    Kirshenbaum, Kevin C.; Bock, David C.; Zhong, Zhong; Marschilok, Amy C.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther

    2015-07-29

    In our study, we characterize the deposition of silver metal nanoparticles formed during discharge of Li/Ag2VP2O8 cells with composite cathodes containing conductive carbon additive. Using in situ energy dispersive X-ray diffraction (EDXRD) of an intact battery, the location and distribution of silver metal nanoparticles generated upon reduction-displacement deposition within an Ag2VP2O8 cathode containing a pre-existing percolation network can be observed for the first time. Our study yielded unexpected results where higher rate initial discharge generated a more effective conductive matrix. This stands in contrast to cells with cathodes with no conductive additive where a low rate initial discharge proved more effective. Our results provide evidence that using conductive additives in conjunction with an in situ reduction-displacement deposition of silver metal provides a path toward the ultimate goal of complete electrical contact and full utilization of all electroactive particles.

  5. Influential input classification in probabilistic multimedia models

    SciTech Connect

    Maddalena, Randy L.; McKone, Thomas E.; Hsieh, Dennis P.H.; Geng, Shu

    1999-05-01

    Monte Carlo analysis is a statistical simulation method that is often used to assess and quantify the outcome variance in complex environmental fate and effects models. Total outcome variance of these models is a function of (1) the uncertainty and/or variability associated with each model input and (2) the sensitivity of the model outcome to changes in the inputs. To propagate variance through a model using Monte Carlo techniques, each variable must be assigned a probability distribution. The validity of these distributions directly influences the accuracy and reliability of the model outcome. To efficiently allocate resources for constructing distributions one should first identify the most influential set of variables in the model. Although existing sensitivity and uncertainty analysis methods can provide a relative ranking of the importance of model inputs, they fail to identify the minimum set of stochastic inputs necessary to sufficiently characterize the outcome variance. In this paper, we describe and demonstrate a novel sensitivity/uncertainty analysis method for assessing the importance of each variable in a multimedia environmental fate model. Our analyses show that for a given scenario, a relatively small number of input variables influence the central tendency of the model and an even smaller set determines the shape of the outcome distribution. For each input, the level of influence depends on the scenario under consideration. This information is useful for developing site specific models and improving our understanding of the processes that have the greatest influence on the variance in outcomes from multimedia models.

  6. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources - a nominal 300-Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28-Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power supplies that provide power to the thruster auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300-Volts to 500-Volts to the thruster discharge supply. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall Effect Thruster. The performance of unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate the exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97. With a space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power device, this design could evolve into a flight design for future missions that require high power electric propulsion systems.

  7. High Input Voltage, Silicon Carbide Power Processing Unit Performance Demonstration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozak, Karin E.; Pinero, Luis R.; Scheidegger, Robert J.; Aulisio, Michael V.; Gonzalez, Marcelo C.; Birchenough, Arthur G.

    2015-01-01

    A silicon carbide brassboard power processing unit has been developed by the NASA Glenn Research Center in Cleveland, Ohio. The power processing unit operates from two sources: a nominal 300 Volt high voltage input bus and a nominal 28 Volt low voltage input bus. The design of the power processing unit includes four low voltage, low power auxiliary supplies, and two parallel 7.5 kilowatt (kW) discharge power supplies that are capable of providing up to 15 kilowatts of total power at 300 to 500 Volts (V) to the thruster. Additionally, the unit contains a housekeeping supply, high voltage input filter, low voltage input filter, and master control board, such that the complete brassboard unit is capable of operating a 12.5 kilowatt Hall effect thruster. The performance of the unit was characterized under both ambient and thermal vacuum test conditions, and the results demonstrate exceptional performance with full power efficiencies exceeding 97%. The unit was also tested with a 12.5kW Hall effect thruster to verify compatibility and output filter specifications. With space-qualified silicon carbide or similar high voltage, high efficiency power devices, this would provide a design solution to address the need for high power electric propulsion systems.

  8. Conceptualizing, Understanding, and Predicting Responsible Decisions and Quality Input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wall, N.; PytlikZillig, L. M.

    2012-12-01

    reported use of climate information in one's personal and work-related decisions, as well as significant predictors of one's willingness to commit to attend a four-hour public meeting and discussion with city leaders and energy experts for the purposes of thinking about and discussing local energy-related decisions. Finally, in order to consider future directions for assessing "responsible" or "quality" input in the area of climate change, we report data and results from experimental studies conducted in a different area of science: nanotechnology. Specifically, we discuss our methods for assessing quality of written input on the future development and regulation of nanotechnology under different experimental conditions (e.g., written alone or after discussion with a group), and the compare and contrast the best predictors of those operational definitions to those that we have explored in the area of climate change outreach contexts. Discussion will focus on the pros and cons of different ways of assessing the quality of public input.

  9. Statistics of power input into a vibrated granular system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongqiang; Feitosa, Klebert; Menon, Narayanan

    2004-03-01

    Statistics of power input into a vibrated granular system Authors: Hongqiang Wang, Klebert Feitosa, Narayanan Menon Motivated by the recent Fluctuation theorem of Gallavotti and Cohen, we demonstrate a numerical and experimental exploration of the fluctuations in power input and energy dissipation in a sub-volume of a vibrated granular system. Both experimental and simulation results are in accord with the Fluctuation relation, even for short-time fluctuations. In the simulations, we are also able to compare power fluctuations in rotational and translational modes; we discuss the effective temperatures arising from this fluctuation relation. Finally, in the simulations, we also study the dependence of our results on the size of the sub-volume considered in the system. Supported by: NSF DMR 9878433, DMR 0216719

  10. The effect of cutting conditions on power inputs when machining

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrushin, S. I.; Gruby, S. V.; Nosirsoda, Sh C.

    2016-08-01

    Any technological process involving modification of material properties or product form necessitates consumption of a certain power amount. When developing new technologies one should take into account the benefits of their implementation vs. arising power inputs. It is revealed that procedures of edge cutting machining are the most energy-efficient amongst the present day forming procedures such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc, such as physical and technical methods including electrochemical, electroerosion, ultrasound, and laser processing, rapid prototyping technologies etc. An expanded formula for calculation of power inputs is deduced, which takes into consideration the mode of cutting together with the tip radius, the form of the replaceable multifaceted insert and its wear. Having taken as an example cutting of graphite iron by the assembled cutting tools with replaceable multifaceted inserts the authors point at better power efficiency of high feeding cutting in comparison with high-speed cutting.

  11. Interaction between rod and cone inputs in mixed-input bipolar cells in goldfish retina.

    PubMed

    Joselevitch, Christina; Kamermans, Maarten

    2007-05-15

    One class of goldfish bipolar cells, the mixed-input bipolar cell, contacts both rods and cones. Although the morphology of the different mixed-input bipolar cell subtypes has been described, insight into the interaction between rods and cones at the bipolar cell level is scarce. The aim of this study was to characterize this interaction in the different physiological types of mixed-input bipolar cells. We found mixed-input bipolar cells that depolarized, hyperpolarized, or showed a combination of the two types of response after center stimulation. The relative contributions of rod and cone inputs varied strongly in these cell populations. Depolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells are rod-dominated, having the highest sensitivity and the smallest dynamic range. Hyperpolarizing mixed-input bipolar cells, on the other hand, have a more balanced rod-cone input ratio. This extends their dynamic range and decreases their sensitivity. Finally, opponent mixed-input bipolar cells seem to be mostly cone-dominated, although some rod input is present. The antagonistic photoreceptor inputs form a push-pull system that makes these mixed-input bipolar cells very sensitive to changes in light intensity. Our finding that spectral tuning changes with light intensity conflicts with the idea that the separate non-opponent and opponent channels are related to coding of brightness and color, respectively. The organization of mixed-input bipolar cells into various classes with different dynamic ranges and absolute sensitivities might be a strategy to transmit information about all visual aspects most efficiently, given the sustained nature of bipolar cell responses and their limited voltage range.

  12. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  13. 10 CFR 55.7 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional requirements. 55.7 Section 55.7 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) OPERATORS' LICENSES General Provisions § 55.7 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or order, impose upon any licensee such requirements, in addition...

  14. Lattice QCD input for axion cosmology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Berkowitz, Evan; Buchoff, Michael I.; Rinaldi, Enrico

    2015-08-01

    One intriguing beyond-the-Standard-Model particle is the QCD axion, which could simultaneously provide a solution to the Strong C P Problem and account for some, if not all, of the dark matter density in the Universe. This particle is a pseudo-Nambu-Goldstone boson of the conjectured Peccei-Quinn symmetry of the Standard Model. Its mass and interactions are suppressed by a heavy symmetry-breaking scale, fa, the value of which is roughly greater than 109 GeV (or, conversely, the axion mass, ma, is roughly less than 104 μ eV ). The density of axions in the Universe, which cannot exceed the relic dark matter density and is a quantity of great interest in axion experiments like ADMX, is a result of the early Universe interplay between cosmological evolution and the axion mass as a function of temperature. The latter quantity is proportional to the second derivative of the temperature-dependent QCD free energy with respect to the C P -violating phase, θ . However, this quantity is generically nonperturbative, and previous calculations have only employed instanton models at the high temperatures of interest (roughly 1 GeV). In this and future works, we aim to calculate the temperature-dependent axion mass at small θ from first-principle lattice calculations, with controlled statistical and systematic errors. Once calculated, this temperature-dependent axion mass is input for the classical evolution equations of the axion density of the Universe, which is required to be less than or equal to the dark matter density. Due to a variety of lattice systematic effects at the very high temperatures required, we perform a calculation of the leading small-θ cumulant of the theta vacua on large volume lattices for SU(3) Yang-Mills with high statistics as a first proof of concept, before attempting a full QCD calculation in the future. From these pure glue results, the misalignment mechanism yields the axion mass bound ma≥(14.6 ±0.1 ) μ eV when Peccei-Quinn breaking occurs

  15. Six axis force feedback input device

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ohm, Timothy (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    The present invention is a low friction, low inertia, six-axis force feedback input device comprising an arm with double-jointed, tendon-driven revolute joints, a decoupled tendon-driven wrist, and a base with encoders and motors. The input device functions as a master robot manipulator of a microsurgical teleoperated robot system including a slave robot manipulator coupled to an amplifier chassis, which is coupled to a control chassis, which is coupled to a workstation with a graphical user interface. The amplifier chassis is coupled to the motors of the master robot manipulator and the control chassis is coupled to the encoders of the master robot manipulator. A force feedback can be applied to the input device and can be generated from the slave robot to enable a user to operate the slave robot via the input device without physically viewing the slave robot. Also, the force feedback can be generated from the workstation to represent fictitious forces to constrain the input device's control of the slave robot to be within imaginary predetermined boundaries.

  16. High-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple high-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: 1000 Watt to 750 Watt High-pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, 400 Watt to 360 Watt High Pressure Sodium lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T5 lighting retrofit, High Intensity Discharge to T8 lighting retrofit, and Daylighting. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  17. Low-bay Lighting Energy Conservation Measures

    SciTech Connect

    Ian Metzger, Jesse Dean

    2010-12-31

    This software requires inputs of simple low-bay lighting system inventory information and calculates the energy and cost benefits of various retrofit opportunities. This tool includes energy conservation measures for: Low-wattage T8 lighting retrofit, T12 to T8 lighting retrofit, LED Exit signs retrofit, Occupancy sensors, Screw-in lighting retrofit, and central lighting controls. This tool calculates energy savings, demand reduction, cooling load reduction, heating load increases, cost savings, building life cycle costs including: Simple payback, discounted payback, net-present value, and savings to investment ratio. In addition this tool also displays the environmental benefits of a project.

  18. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... Energy Organization Act or other law. Procedures...

  19. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... Energy Organization Act or other law. Procedures...

  20. 10 CFR 781.53 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 4 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional licenses. 781.53 Section 781.53 Energy DEPARTMENT OF ENERGY DOE PATENT LICENSING REGULATIONS Types of Licenses and Conditions for Licensing § 781.53... Energy Organization Act or other law. Procedures...

  1. Decontextualized language input and preschoolers' vocabulary development.

    PubMed

    Rowe, Meredith L

    2013-11-01

    This article discusses the importance of using decontextualized language, or language that is removed from the here and now including pretend, narrative, and explanatory talk, with preschool children. The literature on parents' use of decontextualized language is reviewed and results of a longitudinal study of parent decontextualized language input in relation to child vocabulary development are explained. The main findings are that parents who provide their preschool children with more explanations and narrative utterances about past or future events in the input have children with larger vocabularies 1 year later, even with quantity of parent input and child prior vocabulary skill controlled. Recommendations for how to engage children in decontextualized language conversations are provided.

  2. Wind Energy

    SciTech Connect

    Ganley, Jason; Zhang, Jie; Hodge, Bri-Mathias

    2016-03-15

    Wind energy is a variable and uncertain renewable resource that has long been used to produce mechanical work, and has developed into a large producer of global electricity needs. As renewable sources of energy and feedstocks become more important globally to produce sustainable products, many different processes have started adopting wind power as an energy source. Many times this is through a conversion to hydrogen through electrolysis that allows for a more continuous process input. Other important pathways include methanol and ammonia. As the demand for sustainable products and production pathways increases, and wind power capital costs decrease, the role of wind power in chemical and energy production seems poised to increase significantly.

  3. Simple circuit performs binary addition and subtraction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cliff, R. A.; Schaefer, D. H.

    1965-01-01

    Ripple adder reduces the number of logic circuits required to preform binary addition and subtraction. The adder uses dual input and delayed output flip-flops in one register. The contents of this register are summed with those of a standard register through conventional AND/gates.

  4. Teaching Additional Languages. Educational Practices Series 6.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Judd, Elliot L.; Tan, Lihua; Walberg, Herbert J.

    This booklet describes key principles of and research on teaching additional languages. The 10 chapters focus on the following: (1) "Comprehensible Input" (learners need exposure to meaningful, understandable language); (2) "Language Opportunities" (classroom activities should let students use natural and meaningful language with their…

  5. Nuclear reaction inputs based on effective interactions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hilaire, S.; Goriely, S.; Péru, S.; Dubray, N.; Dupuis, M.; Bauge, E.

    2016-11-01

    Extensive nuclear structure studies have been performed for decades using effective interactions as sole input. They have shown a remarkable ability to describe rather accurately many types of nuclear properties. In the early 2000s, a major effort has been engaged to produce nuclear reaction input data out of the Gogny interaction, in order to challenge its quality also with respect to nuclear reaction observables. The status of this project, well advanced today thanks to the use of modern computers as well as modern nuclear reaction codes, is reviewed and future developments are discussed.

  6. Comprehensible Input and Second Language Acquisition: What Is the Relationship?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Loschky, Lester

    1994-01-01

    Examined the influence of input and interactional modifications on second-language acquisition, assigning 41 learners of Japanese to 1 of 3 experimental groups: (1) unmodified input with no interaction; (2) premodified input with no interaction; and (3) unmodified input with the chance for negotiated input. Results indicated that comprehension was…

  7. Energy demand, energy substitution and economic growth : Evidence from developed and developing countries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abd Aziz, Azlina

    substitution took place from petroleum to coal, natural gas and especially to electricity. In addition, the evidence for significant inter-fuel substitution between coal and natural gas implies that there is a possibility of replacing the use of coal with natural gas in the industrial sector. The existence of moderate input substitution suggests that there is some flexibility in energy policy options and energy utilization. Finally, the empirical evidence presented in this study suggests that the direction of causality between energy consumption and economic growth varies substantially across countries. There is a unidirectional causality running from GDP to energy consumption in 12 developed countries and in 5 developing countries. A unidirectional causality from energy to GDP exists in Netherlands and bidirectional causality exists in Slovak Republic.

  8. Input and Intake in Language Acquisition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gagliardi, Ann C.

    2012-01-01

    This dissertation presents an approach for a productive way forward in the study of language acquisition, sealing the rift between claims of an innate linguistic hypothesis space and powerful domain general statistical inference. This approach breaks language acquisition into its component parts, distinguishing the input in the environment from…

  9. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. NIFA...: (a) Community college(s). (b) Advanced technological center(s), located in rural area, for...

  10. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. NIFA...: (a) Community college(s). (b) Advanced technological center(s), located in rural area, for...

  11. 7 CFR 3430.907 - Stakeholder input.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) NATIONAL INSTITUTE OF FOOD AND... ADMINISTRATIVE PROVISIONS New Era Rural Technology Competitive Grants Program § 3430.907 Stakeholder input. NIFA...: (a) Community college(s). (b) Advanced technological center(s), located in rural area, for...

  12. Multiple Input Microcantilever Sensor with Capacitive Readout

    SciTech Connect

    Britton, C.L., Jr.; Brown, G.M.; Bryan, W.L.; Clonts, L.G.; DePriest, J.C.; Emergy, M.S.; Ericson, M.N.; Hu, Z.; Jones, R.L.; Moore, M.R.; Oden, P.I.; Rochelle, J.M.; Smith, S.F.; Threatt, T.D.; Thundat, T.; Turner, G.W.; Warmack, R.J.; Wintenberg, A.L.

    1999-03-11

    A surface-micromachined MEMS process has been used to demonstrate multiple-input chemical sensing using selectively coated cantilever arrays. Combined hydrogen and mercury-vapor detection was achieved with a palm-sized, self-powered module with spread-spectrum telemetry reporting.

  13. Input-Based Incremental Vocabulary Instruction

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barcroft, Joe

    2012-01-01

    This fascinating presentation of current research undoes numerous myths about how we most effectively learn new words in a second language. In clear, reader-friendly text, the author details the successful approach of IBI vocabulary instruction, which emphasizes the presentation of target vocabulary as input early on and the incremental (gradual)…

  14. Treatments of Precipitation Inputs to Hydrologic Models

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Hydrological models are used to assess many water resources problems from agricultural use and water quality to engineering issues. The success of these models are dependent on correct parameterization; the most sensitive being the rainfall input time series. These records can come from land-based ...

  15. Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon sequ...

  16. Soil Organic Carbon Input from Urban Turfgrasses

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Turfgrass is a major vegetation type in the urban and suburban environment. Management practices such as species selection, irrigation, and mowing may affect carbon (C) input and storage in these systems. Research was conducted to determine the rate of soil organic carbon (SOC) changes, soil carbon ...

  17. Young Children's Use of Microcomputer Input Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John; Alloway, Nola

    1993-01-01

    Reports on a study of the ability of preschoolers and first, second, and third graders to use three computer input devices: a joystick, a mouse, and a keyboard. For all grade levels, the mouse offered the greatest ease of use in manipulating icons, followed by the joystick and the keyboard. No effect for gender was found. (Contains 30 references.)…

  18. Preschooler's Use of Microcomputers and Input Devices.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    King, John; Alloway, Nola

    1992-01-01

    Describes a study that measured preschoolers' use of microcomputers in the following areas: (1) efficiency of use of input devices, including the keyboard, the joystick, and the mouse; (2) use during free-play activities, including interaction with the microcomputer and with each other; and (3) gender differences. (40 references) (LRW)

  19. Input, Interaction and Output: An Overview

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Gass, Susan; Mackey, Alison

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of what has come to be known as the "Interaction Hypothesis," the basic tenet of which is that through input and interaction with interlocutors, language learners have opportunities to notice differences between their own formulations of the target language and the language of their conversational…

  20. Adaptive random testing with combinatorial input domain.

    PubMed

    Huang, Rubing; Chen, Jinfu; Lu, Yansheng

    2014-01-01

    Random testing (RT) is a fundamental testing technique to assess software reliability, by simply selecting test cases in a random manner from the whole input domain. As an enhancement of RT, adaptive random testing (ART) has better failure-detection capability and has been widely applied in different scenarios, such as numerical programs, some object-oriented programs, and mobile applications. However, not much work has been done on the effectiveness of ART for the programs with combinatorial input domain (i.e., the set of categorical data). To extend the ideas to the testing for combinatorial input domain, we have adopted different similarity measures that are widely used for categorical data in data mining and have proposed two similarity measures based on interaction coverage. Then, we propose a new version named ART-CID as an extension of ART in combinatorial input domain, which selects an element from categorical data as the next test case such that it has the lowest similarity against already generated test cases. Experimental results show that ART-CID generally performs better than RT, with respect to different evaluation metrics.

  1. 'GAIM' - Gas-addition, impedance-matched arc driver. [shock tube gas dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dannenberg, R. E.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual view for a GAIM energy/driver system to maximize shock-tube performance through efficient interfacing of the energy source with the gas dynamics of the arc driver is presented. Electrical and arc-chamber requirements are evaluated utilizing two new computer codes. One code calculates the shock wave generated for a selected time rate and magnitude of arc-energy input; the other computes the values of external circuit elements required to produce the selected energy input, with the driver represented as the load element of the electrical discharge circuit. Results indicate that the energy-storage capability and the driver arrangement needed to produce the highest shock Mach number can be achieved by means of driver gas addition and by impedance matching (GAIM). Design criteria are presented for arc energy requirements necessary to produce given shock-wave speeds. Shock velocities as high as the 70 km/sec required for simulating Jovian entry now seem possible in shock-tube operation. Practical implementation of a GAIM system is discussed.

  2. Fermi Observations of GRB 090510: A Short-Hard Gamma-ray Burst with an Additional, Hard Power-law Component from 10 keV TO GeV Energies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ackermann, M.; Asano, K.; Atwood, W. B.; Axelsson, M.; Baldini, L.; Ballet, J.; Barbiellini, G.; Baring, M. G.; Bastieri, D.; Bechtol, K.; Bellazzini, R.; Berenji, B.; Bhat, P. N.; Bissaldi, E.; Blandford, R. D.; Bloom, E. D.; Bonamente, E.; Borgland, A. W.; Bouvier, A.; Bregeon, J.; Brez, A.; Briggs, M. S.; Brigida, M.; Bruel, P.; Buson, S.; Caliandro, G. A.; Cameron, R. A.; Caraveo, P. A.; Carrigan, S.; Casandjian, J. M.; Cecchi, C.; Çelik, Ö.; Charles, E.; Chiang, J.; Ciprini, S.; Claus, R.; Cohen-Tanugi, J.; Connaughton, V.; Conrad, J.; Dermer, C. D.; de Palma, F.; Dingus, B. L.; Silva, E. do Couto e.; Drell, P. S.; Dubois, R.; Dumora, D.; Farnier, C.; Favuzzi, C.; Fegan, S. J.; Finke, J.; Focke, W. B.; Frailis, M.; Fukazawa, Y.; Fusco, P.; Gargano, F.; Gasparrini, D.; Gehrels, N.; Germani, S.; Giglietto, N.; Giordano, F.; Glanzman, T.; Godfrey, G.; Granot, J.; Grenier, I. A.; Grondin, M.-H.; Grove, J. E.; Guiriec, S.; Hadasch, D.; Harding, A. K.; Hays, E.; Horan, D.; Hughes, R. E.; Jóhannesson, G.; Johnson, W. N.; Kamae, T.; Katagiri, H.; Kataoka, J.; Kawai, N.; Kippen, R. M.; Knödlseder, J.; Kocevski, D.; Kouveliotou, C.; Kuss, M.; Lande, J.; Latronico, L.; Lemoine-Goumard, M.; Llena Garde, M.; Longo, F.; Loparco, F.; Lott, B.; Lovellette, M. N.; Lubrano, P.; Makeev, A.; Mazziotta, M. N.; McEnery, J. E.; McGlynn, S.; Meegan, C.; Mészáros, P.; Michelson, P. F.; Mitthumsiri, W.; Mizuno, T.; Moiseev, A. A.; Monte, C.; Monzani, M. E.; Moretti, E.; Morselli, A.; Moskalenko, I. V.; Murgia, S.; Nakajima, H.; Nakamori, T.; Nolan, P. L.; Norris, J. P.; Nuss, E.; Ohno, M.; Ohsugi, T.; Omodei, N.; Orlando, E.; Ormes, J. F.; Ozaki, M.; Paciesas, W. S.; Paneque, D.; Panetta, J. H.; Parent, D.; Pelassa, V.; Pepe, M.; Pesce-Rollins, M.; Piron, F.; Preece, R.; Rainò, S.; Rando, R.; Razzano, M.; Razzaque, S.; Reimer, A.; Ritz, S.; Rodriguez, A. Y.; Roth, M.; Ryde, F.; Sadrozinski, H. F.-W.; Sander, A.; Scargle, J. D.; Schalk, T. L.; Sgrò, C.; Siskind, E. J.; Smith, P. D.; Spandre, G.; Spinelli, P.; Stamatikos, M.; Stecker, F. W.; Strickman, M. S.; Suson, D. J.; Tajima, H.; Takahashi, H.; Takahashi, T.; Tanaka, T.; Thayer, J. B.; Thayer, J. G.; Thompson, D. J.; Tibaldo, L.; Toma, K.; Torres, D. F.; Tosti, G.; Tramacere, A.; Uchiyama, Y.; Uehara, T.; Usher, T. L.; van der Horst, A. J.; Vasileiou, V.; Vilchez, N.; Vitale, V.; von Kienlin, A.; Waite, A. P.; Wang, P.; Wilson-Hodge, C.; Winer, B. L.; Wu, X. F.; Yamazaki, R.; Yang, Z.; Ylinen, T.; Ziegler, M.

    2010-06-01

    We present detailed observations of the bright short-hard gamma-ray burst GRB 090510 made with the Gamma-ray Burst Monitor (GBM) and Large Area Telescope (LAT) on board the Fermi observatory. GRB 090510 is the first burst detected by the LAT that shows strong evidence for a deviation from a Band spectral fitting function during the prompt emission phase. The time-integrated spectrum is fit by the sum of a Band function with E peak = 3.9 ± 0.3 MeV, which is the highest yet measured, and a hard power-law component with photon index -1.62 ± 0.03 that dominates the emission below ≈20 keV and above ≈100 MeV. The onset of the high-energy spectral component appears to be delayed by ~0.1 s with respect to the onset of a component well fit with a single Band function. A faint GBM pulse and a LAT photon are detected 0.5 s before the main pulse. During the prompt phase, the LAT detected a photon with energy 30.5+5.8 -2.6 GeV, the highest ever measured from a short GRB. Observation of this photon sets a minimum bulk outflow Lorentz factor, Γgsim 1200, using simple γγ opacity arguments for this GRB at redshift z = 0.903 and a variability timescale on the order of tens of ms for the ≈100 keV-few MeV flux. Stricter high confidence estimates imply Γ >~ 1000 and still require that the outflows powering short GRBs are at least as highly relativistic as those of long-duration GRBs. Implications of the temporal behavior and power-law shape of the additional component on synchrotron/synchrotron self-Compton, external-shock synchrotron, and hadronic models are considered.

  3. Application of Voice Recognition Input to Decision Support Systems

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1988-12-01

    Support System (GDSS) Talkwriter Human Computer Interface Voice Input Individual Decision Support System (IDSS) Voice Input/Output Man Machine Voice ... Interface Voice Processing Natural Language Voice Input Voice Recognition Natural Language Accessed Voice Recognizer Speech Entry Voice Vocabulary

  4. CADDIS Volume 2. Sources, Stressors and Responses: Urbanization - Wastewater Inputs

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Intro to wastewater inputs associated with urbanization, overview of combined sewer overflows, overview of how wastewater inputs can contribute to enrichment or eutrophication, overview of how wastewater inputs can affect reproduction by stream fauna.

  5. Glycine input induces the synaptic facilitation in salamander rod photoreceptors.

    PubMed

    Shen, Wen; Jiang, Zheng; Li, Baoqin

    2008-11-01

    Glycinergic synapses in photoreceptors are made by centrifugal feedback neurons in the network, but the function of the synapses is largely unknown. Here we report that glycinergic input enhances photoreceptor synapses in amphibian retinas. Using specific antibodies against a glycine transporter (GlyT2) and glycine receptor beta subunit, we identified the morphology of glycinergic input in photoreceptor terminals. Electrophysiological recordings indicated that 10 muM glycine depolarized rods and activated voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in the neurons. The effects facilitated glutamate vesicle release in photoreceptors, meanwhile increased the spontaneous excitatory postsynaptic currents in Off-bipolar cells. Endogenous glycine feedback also enhanced glutamate transmission in photoreceptors. Additionally, inhibition of a Cl(-) uptake transporter NKCC1 with bumetanid effectively eliminated glycine-evoked a weak depolarization in rods, suggesting that NKCC1 maintains a high Cl(-) level in rods, which causes to depolarize in responding to glycine input. This study reveals a new function of glycine in retinal synaptic transmission.

  6. Feed and manure use in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle production systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Powell, J. Mark

    2014-11-01

    In most parts of Sub-Saharan Africa fertilizers and feeds are costly, not readily available and used sparingly in agricultural production. In many parts of Western Europe, North America, and Oceania fertilizers and feeds are relatively inexpensive, readily available and used abundantly to maximize profitable agricultural production. A case study, dairy systems approach was used to illustrate how differences in feed and manure management in a low-N-input dairy cattle system (Niger, West Africa) and a high-N-input dairy production system (Wisconsin, USA) impact agricultural production and environmental N loss. In Niger, an additional daily feed N intake of 114 g per dairy animal unit (AU, 1000 kg live weight) could increase annual milk production from 560 to 1320 kg AU-1, and the additional manure N could greatly increase millet production. In Wisconsin, reductions in daily feed N intake of 100 g AU-1 would not greatly impact milk production but decrease urinary N excretion by 25% and ammonia and nitrous oxide emissions from manure by 18% to 30%. In Niger, compared to the practice of housing livestock and applying dung only onto fields, corralling cattle or sheep on cropland (to capture urinary N) increased millet yields by 25% to 95%. The additional millet grain due to dung applications or corralling would satisfy the annual food grain requirements of 2-5 persons; the additional forage would provide 120-300 more days of feed for a typical head of cattle; and 850 to 1600 kg ha-1 more biomass would be available for soil conservation. In Wisconsin, compared to application of barn manure only, corralling heifers in fields increased forage production by only 8% to 11%. The application of barn manure or corralling increased forage production by 20% to 70%. This additional forage would provide 350-580 more days of feed for a typical dairy heifer. Study results demonstrate how different approaches to feed and manure management in low-N-input and high-N-input dairy cattle

  7. Output-input ratio in thermally fluctuating biomolecular machines.

    PubMed

    Kurzynski, Michal; Torchala, Mieczyslaw; Chelminiak, Przemyslaw

    2014-01-01

    Biological molecular machines are proteins that operate under isothermal conditions and hence are referred to as free energy transducers. They can be formally considered as enzymes that simultaneously catalyze two chemical reactions: the free energy-donating (input) reaction and the free energy-accepting (output) one. Most if not all biologically active proteins display a slow stochastic dynamics of transitions between a variety of conformational substates composing their native state. This makes the description of the enzymatic reaction kinetics in terms of conventional rate constants insufficient. In the steady state, upon taking advantage of the assumption that each reaction proceeds through a single pair (the gate) of transition conformational substates of the enzyme-substrates complex, the degree of coupling between the output and the input reaction fluxes has been expressed in terms of the mean first-passage times on a conformational transition network between the distinguished substates. The theory is confronted with the results of random-walk simulations on the five-dimensional hypercube. The formal proof is given that, for single input and output gates, the output-input degree of coupling cannot exceed unity. As some experiments suggest such exceeding, looking for the conditions for increasing the degree of coupling value over unity challenges the theory. Performed simulations of random walks on several model networks involving more extended gates indicate that the case of the degree of coupling value higher than 1 is realized in a natural way on critical branching trees extended by long-range shortcuts. Such networks are scale-free and display the property of the small world. For short-range shortcuts, the networks are scale-free and fractal, representing a reasonable model for biomolecular machines displaying tight coupling, i.e., the degree of coupling equal exactly to unity. A hypothesis is stated that the protein conformational transition networks, as

  8. The role of the input scale in parton distribution analyses

    SciTech Connect

    Pedro Jimenez-Delgado

    2012-08-01

    A first systematic study of the effects of the choice of the input scale in global determinations of parton distributions and QCD parameters is presented. It is shown that, although in principle the results should not depend on these choices, in practice a relevant dependence develops as a consequence of what is called procedural bias. This uncertainty should be considered in addition to other theoretical and experimental errors, and a practical procedure for its estimation is proposed. Possible sources of mistakes in the determination of QCD parameter from parton distribution analysis are pointed out.

  9. The definition of input parameters for modelling of energetic subsystems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ptacek, M.

    2013-06-01

    This paper is a short review and a basic description of mathematical models of renewable energy sources which present individual investigated subsystems of a system created in Matlab/Simulink. It solves the physical and mathematical relationships of photovoltaic and wind energy sources that are often connected to the distribution networks. The fuel cell technology is much less connected to the distribution networks but it could be promising in the near future. Therefore, the paper informs about a new dynamic model of the low-temperature fuel cell subsystem, and the main input parameters are defined as well. Finally, the main evaluated and achieved graphic results for the suggested parameters and for all the individual subsystems mentioned above are shown.

  10. Disentangling input and output-related components of spatial neglect

    PubMed Central

    Loetscher, Tobias; Nicholls, Michael E. R.; Brodtmann, Amy; Thomas, Nicole A.; Brugger, Peter

    2012-01-01

    Spatial neglect is a heterogeneous disorder with a multitude of manifestations and subtypes. Common clinical paper and pencil neglect tests fail to differentiate between these subtypes. For example, neglect patients typically bisect lines to the right. This bias can be caused by an underestimation of the left half of the line (input-related deficit), by the failure to direct actions toward the left side of space (output-related deficit), or by a mixture of these impairments. To disentangle these impairments, we used a test consisting of a line bisection task on a touch screen monitor (manual motor task) and the subsequent judgment of one's own bisection performance (visual perceptual task). It was hypothesized that patients with mainly output-related neglect should be better able to recognize their misbisected lines than patients with purely input-related neglect. In a group of 16 patients suffering from spatial neglect after right brain damage, we found that patients were three times more likely to suffer from a predominantly input-related than from an output-related subtype. The results thus suggest that neglect is typically an input-related impairment. Additional analysis of the line bisection task revealed that temporal (slowness in initiation and execution of contralateral movements) and spatial (insufficient movement amplitude toward the contralesional side) aspects of output-related neglect were mutually unrelated. This independence raises the possibility that a fine-grained differentiation of output-related neglect is required. That is, impairments in lateralized temporal and spatial aspects of movements may underlie different neglect subtypes. PMID:22707937

  11. Transformation priming helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs.

    PubMed

    Pastukhov, Alexander; Vivian-Griffiths, Solveiga; Braun, Jochen

    2015-11-01

    Retinal input is riddled with abrupt transients due to self-motion, changes in illumination, object-motion, etc. Our visual system must correctly interpret each of these changes to keep visual perception consistent and sensitive. This poses an enormous challenge, as many transients are highly ambiguous in that they are consistent with many alternative physical transformations. Here we investigated inter-trial effects in three situations with sudden and ambiguous transients, each presenting two alternative appearances (rotation-reversing structure-from-motion, polarity-reversing shape-from-shading, and streaming-bouncing object collisions). In every situation, we observed priming of transformations as the outcome perceived in earlier trials tended to repeat in subsequent trials and this repetition was contingent on perceptual experience. The observed priming was specific to transformations and did not originate in priming of perceptual states preceding a transient. Moreover, transformation priming was independent of attention and specific to low level stimulus attributes. In summary, we show how "transformation priors" and experience-driven updating of such priors helps to disambiguate sudden changes of sensory inputs. We discuss how dynamic transformation priors can be instantiated as "transition energies" in an "energy landscape" model of the visual perception.

  12. Virtual input device with diffractive optical element

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Ching Chin; Chu, Chang Sheng

    2005-02-01

    As a portable device, such as PDA and cell phone, a small size build in virtual input device is more convenient for complex input demand. A few years ago, a creative idea called 'virtual keyboard' is announced, but up to now there's still no mass production method for this idea. In this paper we'll show the whole procedure of making a virtual keyboard. First of all is the HOE (Holographic Optical Element) design of keyboard image which yields a fan angle about 30 degrees, and then use the electron forming method to copy this pattern in high precision. And finally we can product this element by inject molding. With an adaptive lens design we can get a well correct keyboard image in distortion and a wilder fan angle about 70 degrees. With a batter alignment of HOE pattern lithography, we"re sure to get higher diffraction efficiency.

  13. XBox Input -Version 1.0

    SciTech Connect

    2012-10-03

    Contains class for connecting to the Xbox 360 controller, displaying the user inputs {buttons, triggers, analog sticks), and controlling the rumble motors. Also contains classes for converting the raw Xbox 360 controller inputs into meaningful commands for the following objects: • Robot arms - Provides joint control and several tool control schemes • UGV's - Provides translational and rotational commands for "skid-steer" vehicles • Pan-tilt units - Provides several modes of control including velocity, position, and point-tracking • Head-mounted displays (HMO)- Controls the viewpoint of a HMO • Umbra frames - Controls the position andorientation of an Umbra posrot object • Umbra graphics window - Provides several modes of control for the Umbra OSG window viewpoint including free-fly, cursor-focused, and object following.

  14. Multimodal interfaces with voice and gesture input

    SciTech Connect

    Milota, A.D.; Blattner, M.M.

    1995-07-20

    The modalities of speech and gesture have different strengths and weaknesses, but combined they create synergy where each modality corrects the weaknesses of the other. We believe that a multimodal system such a one interwining speech and gesture must start from a different foundation than ones which are based solely on pen input. In order to provide a basis for the design of a speech and gesture system, we have examined the research in other disciplines such as anthropology and linguistics. The result of this investigation was a taxonomy that gave us material for the incorporation of gestures whose meanings are largely transparent to the users. This study describes the taxonomy and gives examples of applications to pen input systems.

  15. Neuroprosthetics and the science of patient input.

    PubMed

    Benz, Heather L; Civillico, Eugene F

    2017-01-01

    Safe and effective neuroprosthetic systems are of great interest to both DARPA and CDRH, due to their innovative nature and their potential to aid severely disabled populations. By expanding what is possible in human-device interaction, these devices introduce new potential benefits and risks. Therefore patient input, which is increasingly important in weighing benefits and risks, is particularly relevant for this class of devices. FDA has been a significant contributor to an ongoing stakeholder conversation about the inclusion of the patient voice, working collaboratively to create a new framework for a patient-centered approach to medical device development. This framework is evolving through open dialogue with researcher and patient communities, investment in the science of patient input, and policymaking that is responsive to patient-centered data throughout the total product life cycle. In this commentary, we will discuss recent developments in patient-centered benefit-risk assessment and their relevance to the development of neural prosthetic systems.

  16. Sensory synergy as environmental input integration

    PubMed Central

    Alnajjar, Fady; Itkonen, Matti; Berenz, Vincent; Tournier, Maxime; Nagai, Chikara; Shimoda, Shingo

    2015-01-01

    The development of a method to feed proper environmental inputs back to the central nervous system (CNS) remains one of the challenges in achieving natural movement when part of the body is replaced with an artificial device. Muscle synergies are widely accepted as a biologically plausible interpretation of the neural dynamics between the CNS and the muscular system. Yet the sensorineural dynamics of environmental feedback to the CNS has not been investigated in detail. In this study, we address this issue by exploring the concept of sensory synergy. In contrast to muscle synergy, we hypothesize that sensory synergy plays an essential role in integrating the overall environmental inputs to provide low-dimensional information to the CNS. We assume that sensor synergy and muscle synergy communicate using these low-dimensional signals. To examine our hypothesis, we conducted posture control experiments involving lateral disturbance with nine healthy participants. Proprioceptive information represented by the changes on muscle lengths were estimated by using the musculoskeletal model analysis software SIMM. Changes on muscles lengths were then used to compute sensory synergies. The experimental results indicate that the environmental inputs were translated into the two dimensional signals and used to move the upper limb to the desired position immediately after the lateral disturbance. Participants who showed high skill in posture control were found to be likely to have a strong correlation between sensory and muscle signaling as well as high coordination between the utilized sensory synergies. These results suggest the importance of integrating environmental inputs into suitable low-dimensional signals before providing them to the CNS. This mechanism should be essential when designing the prosthesis' sensory system to make the controller simpler. PMID:25628523

  17. Generalized Input-Output Inequality Systems

    SciTech Connect

    Liu Yingfan Zhang Qinghong

    2006-09-15

    In this paper two types of generalized Leontief input-output inequality systems are introduced. The minimax properties for a class of functions associated with the inequalities are studied. Sufficient and necessary conditions for the inequality systems to have solutions are obtained in terms of the minimax value. Stability analysis for the solution set is provided in terms of upper semi-continuity and hemi-continuity of set-valued maps.

  18. Reduction of environmental and energy footprint of microalgal biodiesel production through material and energy integration.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, Raja; Viamajala, Sridhar; Gerlach, Robin

    2012-03-01

    The life cycle impacts were assessed for an integrated microalgal biodiesel production system that facilitates energy- and nutrient- recovery through anaerobic digestion, and utilizes glycerol generated within the facility for additional heterotrophic biodiesel production. Results show that when external fossil energy inputs are lowered through process integration, the energy demand, global warming potential (GWP), and process water demand decrease significantly and become less sensitive to algal lipid content. When substitution allocation is used to assign additional credit for avoidance of fossil energy use (through utilization of recycled nutrients and biogas), GWP and water demand can, in fact, increase with increase in lipid content. Relative to stand-alone algal biofuel facilities, energy demand can be lowered by 3-14 GJ per ton of biodiesel through process integration. GWP of biodiesel from the integrated system can be lowered by up to 71% compared to petroleum fuel. Evaporative water loss was the primary water demand driver.

  19. Minimizing structural vibrations with Input Shaping (TM)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Singhose, Bill; Singer, Neil

    1995-01-01

    A new method for commanding machines to move with increased dynamic performance was developed. This method is an enhanced version of input shaping, a patented vibration suppression algorithm. This technique intercepts a command input to a system command that moves the mechanical system with increased performance and reduced residual vibration. This document describes many advanced methods for generating highly optimized shaping sequences which are tuned to particular systems. The shaping sequence is important because it determines the trade off between move/settle time of the system and the insensitivity of the input shaping algorithm to variations or uncertainties in the machine which can be controlled. For example, a system with a 5 Hz resonance that takes 1 second to settle can be improved to settle instantaneously using a 0.2 shaping sequence (thus improving settle time by a factor of 5). This system could vary by plus or minus 15% in its natural frequency and still have no apparent vibration. However, the same system shaped with a 0.3 second shaping sequence could tolerate plus or minus 40% or more variation in natural frequency. This document describes how to generate sequences that maximize performance, sequences that maximize insensitivity, and sequences that trade off between the two. Several software tools are documented and included.

  20. Light inputs shape the Arabidopsis circadian system.

    PubMed

    Wenden, Bénédicte; Kozma-Bognár, László; Edwards, Kieron D; Hall, Anthony J W; Locke, James C W; Millar, Andrew J

    2011-05-01

    The circadian clock is a fundamental feature of eukaryotic gene regulation that is emerging as an exemplar genetic sub-network for systems biology. The circadian system in Arabidopsis plants is complex, in part due to its phototransduction pathways, which are themselves under circadian control. We therefore analysed two simpler experimental systems. Etiolated seedlings entrained by temperature cycles showed circadian rhythms in the expression of genes that are important for the clock mechanism, but only a restricted set of downstream target genes were rhythmic in microarray assays. Clock control of phototransduction pathways remained robust across a range of light inputs, despite the arrhythmic transcription of light-signalling genes. Circadian interactions with light signalling were then analysed using a single active photoreceptor. Phytochrome A (phyA) is expected to be the only active photoreceptor that can mediate far-red (FR) light input to the circadian clock. Surprisingly, rhythmic gene expression was profoundly altered under constant FR light, in a phyA-dependent manner, resulting in high expression of evening genes and low expression of morning genes. Dark intervals were required to allow high-amplitude rhythms across the transcriptome. Clock genes involved in this response were identified by mutant analysis, showing that the EARLY FLOWERING 4 gene is a likely target and mediator of the FR effects. Both experimental systems illustrate how profoundly the light input pathways affect the plant circadian clock, and provide strong experimental manipulations to understand critical steps in the plant clock mechanism.

  1. 10 CFR 2.605 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.605 Section 2.605 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... Permit § 2.605 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct more than one review...

  2. 10 CFR 2.625 - Additional considerations.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional considerations. 2.625 Section 2.625 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION RULES OF PRACTICE FOR DOMESTIC LICENSING PROCEEDINGS AND ISSUANCE OF ORDERS... License Under 10 Cfr Part 52 § 2.625 Additional considerations. (a) The Commission will not conduct...

  3. 10 CFR 71.65 - Additional requirements.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional requirements. 71.65 Section 71.65 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) PACKAGING AND TRANSPORTATION OF RADIOACTIVE MATERIAL Package Approval Standards § 71.65 Additional requirements. The Commission may, by rule, regulation, or...

  4. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  5. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  6. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  7. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  8. 10 CFR 81.50 - Additional licenses.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Additional licenses. 81.50 Section 81.50 Energy NUCLEAR... Inventions-Patents and Applications § 81.50 Additional licenses. Subject to any outstanding licenses, nothing... exclusive licenses for inventions covered by this subpart when the Commission determines that to do so...

  9. Multi-heat addition turbine engine

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Franciscus, Leo C. (Inventor); Brabbs, Theodore A. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A multi-heat addition turbine engine (MHATE) incorporates a plurality of heat addition devices to transfer energy to air and a plurality of turbines to extract energy from the air while converting it to work. The MHATE provides dry power and lower fuel consumption or lower combustor exit temperatures.

  10. Additive Similarity Trees

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sattath, Shmuel; Tversky, Amos

    1977-01-01

    Tree representations of similarity data are investigated. Hierarchical clustering is critically examined, and a more general procedure, called the additive tree, is presented. The additive tree representation is then compared to multidimensional scaling. (Author/JKS)

  11. Macroscopic singlet oxygen model incorporating photobleaching as an input parameter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Michele M.; Finlay, Jarod C.; Zhu, Timothy C.

    2015-03-01

    A macroscopic singlet oxygen model for photodynamic therapy (PDT) has been used extensively to calculate the reacted singlet oxygen concentration for various photosensitizers. The four photophysical parameters (ξ, σ, β, δ) and threshold singlet oxygen dose ([1O2]r,sh) can be found for various drugs and drug-light intervals using a fitting algorithm. The input parameters for this model include the fluence, photosensitizer concentration, optical properties, and necrosis radius. An additional input variable of photobleaching was implemented in this study to optimize the results. Photobleaching was measured by using the pre-PDT and post-PDT sensitizer concentrations. Using the RIF model of murine fibrosarcoma, mice were treated with a linear source with fluence rates from 12 - 150 mW/cm and total fluences from 24 - 135 J/cm. The two main drugs investigated were benzoporphyrin derivative monoacid ring A (BPD) and 2-[1-hexyloxyethyl]-2-devinyl pyropheophorbide-a (HPPH). Previously published photophysical parameters were fine-tuned and verified using photobleaching as the additional fitting parameter. Furthermore, photobleaching can be used as an indicator of the robustness of the model for the particular mouse experiment by comparing the experimental and model-calculated photobleaching ratio.

  12. Additional risk of end-of-the-pipe geoengineering technologies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bohle, Martin

    2014-05-01

    Humans are engineers, even the artists who engineer the surface of the globe. Should humans endeavour to engineer the Earth to counter climate change hazards? Striving towards 'global sustainability' will require to adjust the current production and consumption patterns. Contrary to an approach of global sustainability, 'geoengineering' deploys a 'technology fix' for the same purpose. Humans are much inclined to look for technological fixes for problems because well engineered technological methods have created modern societies. Thus, it seems obvious to apply an engineering solution to climate change issues too. In particular, as air pollution causing acid rains has been reduced by cleaner combustion processes or ozone destructing chemical coolants have been replaced by other substances. Common to these approaches was to reduce inputs into global or regional systems by withholding emission, replacing substances or limiting use cases for certain substances. Thus, the selected approach was a technological fix or regulatory measure targeting the 'start of the pipe'. However applying a 'start of the pipe' approach to climate change faces the issue that mankind should reduce inputs were its hurts, namely reducing radically energy that is produced from burning fossil fuels. Capping burning of fossil fuels would be disruptive for the economic structures or the consumption pattern of the developed and developing industrialised societies. Facing that dilemma, affordable geoengineering looks tempting for some. However geoengineering technologies, which counter climate change by other means than carbon capture at combustion, are of a different nature than the technological fixes and negotiated regulatory actions, which so far have been applied to limit threats to regional and global systems. Most of the proposed technologies target other parts of the climate system but the carbon-dioxide input into the atmosphere. Therefore, many geoengineering technologies differ

  13. Inputs to combination-sensitive neurons of the inferior colliculus.

    PubMed

    Wenstrup, J J; Mittmann, D H; Grose, C D

    1999-07-12

    In the mustached bat, combination-sensitive neurons display integrative responses to combinations of acoustic elements in biosonar or social vocalizations. One type of combination-sensitive neuron responds to multiple harmonics of the frequency-modulated (FM) components in the sonar pulse and echo of the bat. These neurons, termed FM-FM neurons, are sensitive to the pulse-echo delay and may encode the distance of sonar targets. FM-FM neurons are common in high-frequency regions of the central nucleus of the inferior colliculus (ICC) and may be created there. If so, they must receive low-frequency inputs in addition to the expected high-frequency inputs. We placed single deposits of a tracer at FM-FM recording sites in the ICC and then analyzed retrograde labeling in the brainstem and midbrain. We were particularly interested in labeling patterns suggestive of low-frequency input to these FM-FM neurons. In most nuclei containing labeled cells, there was a single focus of labeling in regions thought to be responsive to high-frequency sounds. More complex labeling patterns were observed in three nuclei. In the anteroventral cochlear nucleus, labeling in the anterior and marginal cell divisions occurred in regions thought to respond to low-frequency sounds. This labeling comprised 6% of total brainstem labeled cells. Labeling in the intermediate nucleus of the lateral lemniscus and the magnocellular part of the ventral nucleus of the lateral lemniscus together comprised nearly 40% of all labeled cells. In both nuclei, multiple foci of labeling occurred. These different foci may represent groups of cells tuned to different frequency bands. Thus, one or more of these three nuclei may provide low-frequency input to high-frequency-sensitive cells in the ICC, creating FM-FM responses. We also examined whether ICC neurons responsive to lower frequencies project to high-frequency-sensitive ICC regions; only 0.15% of labeling originated from these lower frequency

  14. INDES User's guide multistep input design with nonlinear rotorcraft modeling

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1979-01-01

    The INDES computer program, a multistep input design program used as part of a data processing technique for rotorcraft systems identification, is described. Flight test inputs base on INDES improve the accuracy of parameter estimates. The input design algorithm, program input, and program output are presented.

  15. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. R.; St. Clair, T. L.; Burks, H. D.; Stoakley, D. M.

    1987-01-01

    A method has been found for enhancing the melt flow of thermoplastic polyimides during processing. A high molecular weight 422 copoly(amic acid) or copolyimide was fused with approximately 0.05 to 5 pct by weight of a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive, and this melt was studied by capillary rheometry. Excellent flow and improved composite properties on graphite resulted from the addition of a PMDA-aniline additive to LARC-TPI. Solution viscosity studies imply that amic acid additives temporarily lower molecular weight and, hence, enlarge the processing window. Thus, compositions containing the additive have a lower melt viscosity for a longer time than those unmodified.

  16. [Food additives and healthiness].

    PubMed

    Heinonen, Marina

    2014-01-01

    Additives are used for improving food structure or preventing its spoilage, for example. Many substances used as additives are also naturally present in food. The safety of additives is evaluated according to commonly agreed principles. If high concentrations of an additive cause adverse health effects for humans, a limit of acceptable daily intake (ADI) is set for it. An additive is a risk only when ADI is exceeded. The healthiness of food is measured on the basis of nutrient density and scientifically proven effects.

  17. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Slotwinski, JA; Garboczi, EJ; Stutzman, PE; Ferraris, CF; Watson, SS; Peltz, MA

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques1 can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process. PMID:26601040

  18. Characterization of Metal Powders Used for Additive Manufacturing.

    PubMed

    Slotwinski, J A; Garboczi, E J; Stutzman, P E; Ferraris, C F; Watson, S S; Peltz, M A

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques can produce complex, high-value metal parts, with potential applications as critical parts, such as those found in aerospace components. The production of AM parts with consistent and predictable properties requires input materials (e.g., metal powders) with known and repeatable characteristics, which in turn requires standardized measurement methods for powder properties. First, based on our previous work, we assess the applicability of current standardized methods for powder characterization for metal AM powders. Then we present the results of systematic studies carried out on two different powder materials used for additive manufacturing: stainless steel and cobalt-chrome. The characterization of these powders is important in NIST efforts to develop appropriate measurements and standards for additive materials and to document the property of powders used in a NIST-led additive manufacturing material round robin. An extensive array of characterization techniques was applied to these two powders, in both virgin and recycled states. The physical techniques included laser diffraction particle size analysis, X-ray computed tomography for size and shape analysis, and optical and scanning electron microscopy. Techniques sensitive to structure and chemistry, including X-ray diffraction, energy dispersive analytical X-ray analysis using the X-rays generated during scanning electron microscopy, and X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy were also employed. The results of these analyses show how virgin powder changes after being exposed to and recycled from one or more Direct Metal Laser Sintering (DMLS) additive manufacturing build cycles. In addition, these findings can give insight into the actual additive manufacturing process.

  19. Food Production and the Energy Crisis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    And Others; Pimentel, David

    1973-01-01

    Analyzes the energy inputs in United States and green revolution crop production techniques, using corn as a typical crop. Examines the energy needs for a world food supply that depends on modern energy intensive agriculture, and considers alternatives in crop production technology which might reduce energy inputs in food production. (CC)

  20. Influence of proprioceptive input on parkinsonian tremor.

    PubMed

    Spiegel, Jörg; Fuss, Gerhard; Krick, Christoph; Schimrigk, Klaus; Dillmann, Ulrich

    2002-01-01

    Previous studies have shown a modification of parkinsonian tremor (PT) by proprioceptive input induced by passive joint movements. The authors investigated the impact of electrically evoked proprioceptive input on PT. In eight patients with PT they recorded surface EMG from the opponens pollicis muscle, and forearm extensors and flexors. Rhythmic electrical stimulation was applied to the ipsilateral median nerve at the wrist using a submaximal stimulus intensity and stimulus frequencies between two stimuli per second and five stimuli per second. The tremor frequency did not adapt to the stimulus frequency. Tremor frequency of parkinsonian resting tremor increased significantly in the directly stimulated opponens pollicis muscle (mean +/- standard deviation, 4.35 +/- 0.64 Hz without stimulation versus 4.53 +/- 0.68 Hz with stimulation; P < 0.05, paired t-test), the not directly stimulated forearm muscles (4.90 +/- 0.72 Hz versus 5.18 +/- 0.73 Hz, P < 0.001), and the upper arm muscles (5.13 +/- 0.61 Hz versus 5.36 +/- 0.68 Hz, P < 0.01). Furthermore, the parkinsonian postural tremor accelerated significantly during ipsilateral median nerve stimulation (5.31 +/- 0.99 Hz versus 5.44 +/- 1.03 Hz, P < 0.05). Parkinsonian resting tremor in the forearm muscles also accelerated significantly during ipsilateral ulnar nerve stimulation (4.85 +/- 0.57 Hz versus 5.05 +/- 0.65 Hz, P < 0.05). Contralateral median nerve stimulation had no significant effect. These results suggest a close interaction between proprioceptive input and PT generation.

  1. Energy efficient data centers

    SciTech Connect

    Tschudi, William; Xu, Tengfang; Sartor, Dale; Koomey, Jon; Nordman, Bruce; Sezgen, Osman

    2004-03-30

    Data Center facilities, prevalent in many industries and institutions are essential to California's economy. Energy intensive data centers are crucial to California's industries, and many other institutions (such as universities) in the state, and they play an important role in the constantly evolving communications industry. To better understand the impact of the energy requirements and energy efficiency improvement potential in these facilities, the California Energy Commission's PIER Industrial Program initiated this project with two primary focus areas: First, to characterize current data center electricity use; and secondly, to develop a research ''roadmap'' defining and prioritizing possible future public interest research and deployment efforts that would improve energy efficiency. Although there are many opinions concerning the energy intensity of data centers and the aggregate effect on California's electrical power systems, there is very little publicly available information. Through this project, actual energy consumption at its end use was measured in a number of data centers. This benchmark data was documented in case study reports, along with site-specific energy efficiency recommendations. Additionally, other data center energy benchmarks were obtained through synergistic projects, prior PG&E studies, and industry contacts. In total, energy benchmarks for sixteen data centers were obtained. For this project, a broad definition of ''data center'' was adopted which included internet hosting, corporate, institutional, governmental, educational and other miscellaneous data centers. Typically these facilities require specialized infrastructure to provide high quality power and cooling for IT equipment. All of these data center types were considered in the development of an estimate of the total power consumption in California. Finally, a research ''roadmap'' was developed through extensive participation with data center professionals, examination of case

  2. Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jickells, Tim D.

    2016-04-01

    Atmospheric Nitrogen Inputs to the Ocean and their Impact T Jickells (1), K. Altieri (2), D. Capone (3), E. Buitenhuis (1), R. Duce (4), F. Dentener (5), K. Fennel (6), J. Galloway (7), M. Kanakidou (8), J. LaRoche (9), K. Lee (10), P. Liss (1), J. Middleburg (11), K. Moore (12), S. Nickovic (13), G. Okin (14), A. Oschilies (15), J. Prospero (16), M. Sarin (17), S. Seitzinger (18), J. Scharples (19), P. Suntharalingram (1), M. Uematsu (20), L. Zamora (21) Atmospheric nitrogen inputs to the ocean have been identified as an important source of nitrogen to the oceans which has increased greatly as a result of human activity. The significance of atmospheric inputs for ocean biogeochemistry were evaluated in a seminal paper by Duce et al., 2008 (Science 320, 893-7). In this presentation we will update the Duce et al 2008 study estimating the impact of atmospheric deposition on the oceans. We will summarise the latest model estimates of total atmospheric nitrogen deposition to the ocean, their chemical form (nitrate, ammonium and organic nitrogen) and spatial distribution from the TM4 model. The model estimates are somewhat smaller than the Duce et al estimate, but with similar spatial distributions. We will compare these flux estimates with a new estimate of the impact of fluvial nitrogen inputs on the open ocean (Sharples submitted) which estimates some transfer of fluvial nitrogen to the open ocean, particularly at low latitudes, compared to the complete trapping of fluvial inputs on the continental shelf assumed by Duce et al. We will then estimate the impact of atmospheric deposition on ocean primary productivity and N2O emissions from the oceans using the PlankTOM10 model. The impacts of atmospheric deposition we estimate on ocean productivity here are smaller than those predicted by Duce et al impacts, consistent with the smaller atmospheric deposition estimates. However, the atmospheric input is still larger than the estimated fluvial inputs to the open ocean

  3. Water resources and environmental input-output analysis and its key study issues: a review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    YANG, Z.; Xu, X.

    2013-12-01

    Used to study the material and energy flow in socioeconomic system, Input-Output Analysis(IOA) had been an effective analysis tool since its appearance. The research fields of Input-Output Analysis were increasingly expanded and studied in depth with the development of fundamental theory. In this paper, starting with introduction of theory development, the water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been specifically reviewed, and two key study issues mentioned as well. Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis whose proposal and development were introduced firstly could be regard as the effective complements of traditional IOA theory. Because of the hypotheses of homogeneity, stability and proportionality, Input-Occupancy-Output Analysis and Grey Input-Output Analysis always had been restricted in practical application inevitably. In the applied study aspect, with investigation of abundant literatures, research of water resources input-output analysis and environmental input-output analysis had been comprehensively reviewed and analyzed. The regional water resources flow between different economic sectors had been systematically analyzed and stated, and several types of environmental input-output analysis models combined with other effective analysis tools concluded. In two perspectives in terms of external and inland aspect, the development of water resources and environmental input-output analysis model had been explained, and several typical study cases in recent years listed respectively. By the aid of sufficient literature analysis, the internal development tendency and study hotspot had also been summarized. In recent years, Chinese literatures reporting water resources consumption analysis and virtue water study had occupied a large share. Water resources consumption analysis had always been the emphasis of inland water resources IOA. Virtue water study had been considered as the new hotspot of

  4. Lattices of processes in graphs with inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Shakhbazyan, K.V.

    1995-09-01

    This article is a continuation of others work, presenting a detailed analysis of finite lattices of processes in graphs with input nodes. Lattices of processes in such graphs are studied by representing the lattices in the form of an algebra of pairs. We define the algebra of pairs somewhat generalizing the definition. Let K and D be bounded distributive lattices. A sublattice {delta} {contained_in} K x D is called an algebra of pairs if for all K {element_of} K we have (K, 1{sub D}) {element_of} {delta} and for all d {element_of} D we have (O{sub K}).

  5. Input data to run Landis-II

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    DeJager, Nathan R.

    2017-01-01

    The data are input data files to run the forest simulation model Landis-II for Isle Royale National Park. Files include: a) Initial_Comm, which includes the location of each mapcode, b) Cohort_ages, which includes the ages for each tree species-cohort within each mapcode, c) Ecoregions, which consist of different regions of soils and climate, d) Ecoregion_codes, which define the ecoregions, and e) Species_Params, which link the potential establishment and growth rates for each species with each ecoregion.

  6. Intelligent Graph Layout Using Many Users' Input.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoru; Che, Limei; Hu, Yifan; Zhang, Xin

    2012-12-01

    In this paper, we propose a new strategy for graph drawing utilizing layouts of many sub-graphs supplied by a large group of people in a crowd sourcing manner. We developed an algorithm based on Laplacian constrained distance embedding to merge subgraphs submitted by different users, while attempting to maintain the topological information of the individual input layouts. To facilitate collection of layouts from many people, a light-weight interactive system has been designed to enable convenient dynamic viewing, modification and traversing between layouts. Compared with other existing graph layout algorithms, our approach can achieve more aesthetic and meaningful layouts with high user preference.

  7. Energy demand in sludge dewatering.

    PubMed

    Chu, C P; Lee, D J; Chang, C Y

    2005-05-01

    This work investigates the energy required to dewater a suspension, i.e., activated sludge dewatered by centrifugation or consolidation. Total energy input to the suspension from the dewatering device, bond strength between adjacent water and solid surface, and intra-cake friction loss were evaluated for original and flocculated sludges. In centrifugal dewatering, most energy input during the initial stage was consumed by overcoming process irreversibility other than intra-cake friction, and, thereby, had a low energy efficiency. To increase centrifuge speed or to flocculate the sludge at optimal flocculant dosage would yield a high-energy input. In the consolidation test, most energy input at the initial stage was consumed in breaking down the bond strength until the moisture content reduced to less than the critical content. During subsequent dewatering stages, friction loss became the dominant source of energy loss. Dewatering sludge with high-energy efficiency is beneficial to optimally operate a dewatering process.

  8. A note on scrap in the 1992 U.S. input-output tables

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Swisko, George M.

    2000-01-01

    Introduction A key concern of industrial ecology and life cycle analysis is the disposal and recycling of scrap. One might conclude that the U.S. input-output tables are appropriate tools for analyzing scrap flows. Duchin, for instance, has suggested using input-output analysis for industrial ecology, indicating that input-output economics can trace the stocks and flows of energy and other materials from extraction through production and consumption to recycling or disposal. Lave and others use input-output tables to design life cycle assessment models for studying product design, materials use, and recycling strategies, even with the knowledge that these tables suffer from a lack of comprehensive and detailed data that may never be resolved. Although input-output tables can offer general guidance about the interdependence of economic and environmental processes, data reporting by industry and the economic concepts underlying these tables pose problems for rigorous material flow examinations. This is especially true for analyzing the output of scrap and scrap flows in the United States and estimating the amount of scrap that can be recycled. To show how data reporting has affected the values of scrap in recent input-output tables, this paper focuses on metal scrap generated in manufacturing. The paper also briefly discusses scrap that is not included in the input-output tables and some economic concepts that limit the analysis of scrap flows.

  9. Responses of tree and insect herbivores to elevated nitrogen inputs: A meta-analysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Furong; Dudley, Tom L.; Chen, Baoming; Chang, Xiaoyu; Liang, Liyin; Peng, Shaolin

    2016-11-01

    Increasing atmospheric nitrogen (N) inputs have the potential to alter terrestrial ecosystem function through impacts on plant-herbivore interactions. The goal of our study is to search for a general pattern in responses of tree characteristics important for herbivores and insect herbivorous performance to elevated N inputs. We conducted a meta-analysis based on 109 papers describing impacts of nitrogen inputs on tree characteristics and 16 papers on insect performance. The differences in plant characteristics and insect performance between broadleaves and conifers were also explored. Tree aboveground biomass, leaf biomass and leaf N concentration significantly increased under elevated N inputs. Elevated N inputs had no significantly overall effect on concentrations of phenolic compounds and lignin but adversely affected tannin, as defensive chemicals for insect herbivores. Additionally, the overall effect of insect herbivore performance (including development time, insect biomass, relative growth rate, and so on) was significantly increased by elevated N inputs. According to the inconsistent responses between broadleaves and conifers, broadleaves would be more likely to increase growth by light interception and photosynthesis rather than producing more defensive chemicals to elevated N inputs by comparison with conifers. Moreover, the overall carbohydrate concentration was significantly reduced by 13.12% in broadleaves while increased slightly in conifers. The overall tannin concentration decreased significantly by 39.21% in broadleaves but a 5.8% decrease in conifers was not significant. The results of the analysis indicated that elevated N inputs would provide more food sources and ameliorate tree palatability for insects, while the resistance of trees against their insect herbivores was weakened, especially for broadleaves. Thus, global forest insect pest problems would be aggravated by elevated N inputs. As N inputs continue to rise in the future, forest

  10. MERRA-2 Input Observations: Summary and Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Koster, Randal D. (Editor); McCarty, Will; Coy, Lawrence; Gelaro, Ronald; Huang, Albert; Merkova, Dagmar; Smith, Edmond B.; Sienkiewicz, Meta; Wargan, Krzysztof

    2016-01-01

    The Modern-Era Retrospective Analysis for Research and Applications, Version 2 (MERRA-2) is an atmospheric reanalysis, spanning 1980 through near-realtime, that uses state-of-the-art processing of observations from the continually evolving global observing system. The effectiveness of any reanalysis is a function not only of the input observations themselves, but also of how the observations are handled in the assimilation procedure. Relevant issues to consider include, but are not limited to, data selection, data preprocessing, quality control, bias correction procedures, and blacklisting. As the assimilation algorithm and earth system models are fundamentally fixed in a reanalysis, it is often a change in the character of the observations, and their feedbacks on the system, that cause changes in the character of the reanalysis. It is therefore important to provide documentation of the observing system so that its discontinuities and transitions can be readily linked to discontinuities seen in the gridded atmospheric fields of the reanalysis. With this in mind, this document provides an exhaustive list of the input observations, the context under which they are assimilated, and an initial assessment of selected core observations fundamental to the reanalysis.

  11. Processing in (linear) systems with stochastic input

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nutu, Catalin Silviu; Axinte, Tiberiu

    2016-12-01

    The paper is providing a different approach to real-world systems, such as micro and macro systems of our real life, where the man has little or no influence on the system, either not knowing the rules of the respective system or not knowing the input of the system, being thus mainly only spectator of the system's output. In such a system, the input of the system and the laws ruling the system could be only "guessed", based on intuition or previous knowledge of the analyzer of the respective system. But, as we will see in the paper, it exists also another, more theoretical and hence scientific way to approach the matter of the real-world systems, and this approach is mostly based on the theory related to Schrödinger's equation and the wave function associated with it and quantum mechanics as well. The main results of the paper are regarding the utilization of the Schrödinger's equation and related theory but also of the Quantum mechanics, in modeling real-life and real-world systems.

  12. Optimization of input-constrained systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malki, Suleyman; Spaanenburg, Lambert

    2009-05-01

    The computational demands of algorithms are rapidly growing. The naive implementation uses extended doubleprecision floating-point numbers and has therefore extreme difficulties in maintaining real-time performance. For fixedpoint numbers, the value representation pushes in two directions (value range and step size) to set the applicationdependent word size. In the general case, checking all combinations of all different values on all system inputs will easily become computationally infeasible. Checking corner cases only helps to reduce the combinatorial explosion, as still checking for accuracy and precision to limit word size remains a considerable effort. A range of evolutionary techniques have been tried where the sheer size of the problem withstands an extensive search. When the value range can be limited, the problem becomes tractable and a constructive approach becomes feasible. We propose an approach that is reminiscent of the Quine-Mc.Cluskey logic minimization procedure. Next to the conjunctive search as popular in Boolean minimization, we investigate the disjunctive approach that starts from a presumed minimal word size. To eliminate the occurrence of anomalies, this still has to be checked for larger word sizes. The procedure has initially been implemented using Java and Matlab. We have applied the above procedure to feed-forward and to cellular neural networks (CNN) as typical examples of input-constrained systems. In the case of hole-filling by means of a CNN, we find that the 1461 different coefficient sets can be reduced to 360, each giving robust behaviour on 7-bits internal words.

  13. Experimental Studies of Nuclear Physics Input for γ -Process Nucleosynthesis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scholz, Philipp; Heim, Felix; Mayer, Jan; Netterdon, Lars; Zilges, Andreas

    The predictions of reaction rates for the γ process in the scope of the Hauser-Feshbach statistical model crucially depend on nuclear physics input-parameters as optical-model potentials (OMP) or γ -ray strength functions. Precise cross-section measurements at astrophysically relevant energies help to constrain adopted models and, therefore, to reduce the uncertainties in the theoretically predicted reaction rates. During the last years, several cross-sections of charged-particle induced reactions on heavy nuclei have been measured at the University of Cologne. Either by means of the in-beam method at the HORUS γ -ray spectrometer or the activation technique using the Cologne Clover Counting Setup, total and partial cross-sections could be used to further constrain different models for nuclear physics input-parameters. It could be shown that modifications on the α -OMP in the case of the 112Sn(α , γ ) reaction also improve the description of the recently measured cross sections of the 108Cd(α , γ ) and 108Cd(α , n) reaction and other reactions as well. Partial cross-sections of the 92Mo(p, γ ) reaction were used to improve the γ -strength function model in 93Tc in the same way as it was done for the 89Y(p, γ ) reaction.

  14. Synchronized amplification of local information transmission by peripheral retinal input

    PubMed Central

    Jadzinsky, Pablo D; Baccus, Stephen A

    2015-01-01

    Sensory stimuli have varying statistics influenced by both the environment and by active sensing behaviors that rapidly and globally change the sensory input. Consequently, sensory systems often adjust their neural code to the expected statistics of their sensory input to transmit novel sensory information. Here, we show that sudden peripheral motion amplifies and accelerates information transmission in salamander ganglion cells in a 50 ms time window. Underlying this gating of information is a transient increase in adaptation to contrast, enhancing sensitivity to a broader range of stimuli. Using a model and natural images, we show that this effect coincides with an expected increase in information in bipolar cells after a global image shift. Our findings reveal the dynamic allocation of energy resources to increase neural activity at times of expected high information content, a principle of adaptation that balances the competing requirements of conserving spikes and transmitting information. DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.7554/eLife.09266.001 PMID:26568312

  15. Direct Neutron Capture Calculations with Covariant Density Functional Theory Inputs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Shi-Sheng; Peng, Jin-Peng; Smith, Michael S.; Arbanas, Goran; Kozub, Ray L.

    2014-09-01

    Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculate the direct capture cross sections for E1 transitions using nuclear structure information from a covariant density functional theory as input for the FRESCO coupled-channels reaction code. We find good agreement of our predictions with experimental cross section data on the double closed-shell targets 16O, 48Ca, and 90Zr, and the exotic nucleus 36S. Extensions of the technique for unstable nuclei and for large-scale calculations will be discussed. Predictions of direct neutron capture are of vital importance for simulations of nucleosynthesis in supernovae, merging neutron stars, and other astrophysical environments. We calculate the direct capture cross sections for E1 transitions using nuclear structure information from a covariant density functional theory as input for the FRESCO coupled-channels reaction code. We find good agreement of our predictions with experimental cross section data on the double closed-shell targets 16O, 48Ca, and 90Zr, and the exotic nucleus 36S. Extensions of the technique for unstable nuclei and for large-scale calculations will be discussed. Supported by the U.S. Dept. of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics.

  16. RF Input Power Couplers for High Current SRF Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Khan, V. F.; Anders, W.; Burrill, Andrew; Knobloch, Jens; Kugeler, Oliver; Neumann, Axel; Wang, Haipeng

    2014-12-01

    High current SRF technology is being explored in present day accelerator science. The bERLinPro project is presently being built at HZB to address the challenges involved in high current SRF machines with the goal of generating and accelerating a 100 mA electron beam to 50 MeV in continuous wave (cw) mode at 1.3 GHz. One of the main challenges in this project is that of handling the high input RF power required for the photo-injector as well as booster cavities where there is no energy recovery process. A high power co-axial input power coupler is being developed to be used for the photo-injector and booster cavities at the nominal beam current. The coupler is based on the KEK–cERL design and has been modified to minimise the penetration of the coupler tip in the beam pipe without compromising on beam-power coupling (Qext ~105). Herein we report on the RF design of the high power (115 kW per coupler, dual couplers per cavity) bERLinPro (BP) coupler along with initial results on thermal calculations. We summarise the RF conditioning of the TTF-III couplers (modified for cw operation) performed in the past at BESSY/HZB. A similar conditioning is envisaged in the near future for the low current SRF photo-injector and the bERLinPro main linac cryomodule.

  17. Polylactides in additive biomanufacturing.

    PubMed

    Poh, Patrina S P; Chhaya, Mohit P; Wunner, Felix M; De-Juan-Pardo, Elena M; Schilling, Arndt F; Schantz, Jan-Thorsten; van Griensven, Martijn; Hutmacher, Dietmar W

    2016-12-15

    New advanced manufacturing technologies under the alias of additive biomanufacturing allow the design and fabrication of a range of products from pre-operative models, cutting guides and medical devices to scaffolds. The process of printing in 3 dimensions of cells, extracellular matrix (ECM) and biomaterials (bioinks, powders, etc.) to generate in vitro and/or in vivo tissue analogue structures has been termed bioprinting. To further advance in additive biomanufacturing, there are many aspects that we can learn from the wider additive manufacturing (AM) industry, which have progressed tremendously since its introduction into the manufacturing sector. First, this review gives an overview of additive manufacturing and both industry and academia efforts in addressing specific challenges in the AM technologies to drive toward AM-enabled industrial revolution. After which, considerations of poly(lactides) as a biomaterial in additive biomanufacturing are discussed. Challenges in wider additive biomanufacturing field are discussed in terms of (a) biomaterials; (b) computer-aided design, engineering and manufacturing; (c) AM and additive biomanufacturing printers hardware; and (d) system integration. Finally, the outlook for additive biomanufacturing was discussed.

  18. Additive Manufactured Product Integrity

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Waller, Jess; Wells, Doug; James, Steve; Nichols, Charles

    2017-01-01

    NASA is providing key leadership in an international effort linking NASA and non-NASA resources to speed adoption of additive manufacturing (AM) to meet NASA's mission goals. Participants include industry, NASA's space partners, other government agencies, standards organizations and academia. Nondestructive Evaluation (NDE) is identified as a universal need for all aspects of additive manufacturing.

  19. Multiple-Input Multiple-Output (MIMO) Linear Systems Extreme Inputs/Outputs

    DOE PAGES

    Smallwood, David O.

    2007-01-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the autospectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the autospectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input autospectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one willmore » result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.« less

  20. Extreme inputs/outputs for multiple input multiple output linear systems.

    SciTech Connect

    Smallwood, David Ora

    2005-09-01

    A linear structure is excited at multiple points with a stationary normal random process. The response of the structure is measured at multiple outputs. If the auto spectral densities of the inputs are specified, the phase relationships between the inputs are derived that will minimize or maximize the trace of the auto spectral density matrix of the outputs. If the autospectral densities of the outputs are specified, the phase relationships between the outputs that will minimize or maximize the trace of the input auto spectral density matrix are derived. It is shown that other phase relationships and ordinary coherence less than one will result in a trace intermediate between these extremes. Least favorable response and some classes of critical response are special cases of the development. It is shown that the derivation for stationary random waveforms can also be applied to nonstationary random, transients, and deterministic waveforms.

  1. Comparison of pulse propagation and gain saturation characteristics among different input pulse shapes in semiconductor optical amplifiers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barua, Suchi; Das, Narottam; Nordholm, Sven; Razaghi, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    This paper presents the pulse propagation and gain saturation characteristics for different input optical pulse shapes with different energy levels in semiconductor optical amplifiers (SOAs). A finite-difference beam propagation method (FD-BPM) is used to solve the modified nonlinear Schrödinger equation (MNLSE) for the simulation of nonlinear optical pulse propagation and gain saturation characteristics in the SOAs. In this MNLSE, the gain spectrum dynamics, gain saturation are taken into account those are depend on the carrier depletion, carrier heating, spectral hole-burning, group velocity dispersion, self-phase modulation and two photon absorption. From this simulation, we obtained the output waveforms and spectra for different input pulse shapes considering different input energy levels. It has shown that the output pulse shape has changed due to the variation of input parameters, such as input pulse shape, input pulse width, and input pulse energy levels. It also shown clearly that the peak position of the output waveforms are shifted toward the leading edge which is due to the gain saturation of the SOA. We also compared the gain saturation characteristics in the SOA for different input pulse shapes.

  2. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input

    PubMed Central

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha-1 yr-1) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1, and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha-1 yr-1). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha-1 yr-1. Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold. PMID:26731691

  3. The Sensitivity of Moss-Associated Nitrogen Fixation towards Repeated Nitrogen Input.

    PubMed

    Rousk, Kathrin; Michelsen, Anders

    2016-01-01

    Nitrogen (N2) fixation is a major source of available N in ecosystems that receive low amounts of atmospheric N deposition. In boreal forest and subarctic tundra, the feather moss Hylocomium splendens is colonized by N2 fixing cyanobacteria that could contribute fundamentally to increase the N pool in these ecosystems. However, N2 fixation in mosses is inhibited by N input. Although this has been shown previously, the ability of N2 fixation to grow less sensitive towards repeated, increased N inputs remains unknown. Here, we tested if N2 fixation in H. splendens can recover from increased N input depending on the N load (0, 5, 20, 80, 320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)) after a period of N deprivation, and if sensitivity towards increased N input can decrease after repeated N additions. Nitrogen fixation in the moss was inhibited by the highest N addition, but was promoted by adding 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1), and increased in all treatments during a short period of N deprivation. The sensitivity of N2 fixation towards repeated N additions seem to decrease in the 20 and 80 kg N additions, but increased in the highest N addition (320 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1)). Recovery of N in leachate samples increased with increasing N loads, suggesting low retention capabilities of mosses if N input is above 5 kg N ha(-1) yr(-1). Our results demonstrate that the sensitivity towards repeated N additions is likely to decrease if N input does not exceed a certain threshold.

  4. Nation's energy dilemma

    SciTech Connect

    Krenz, J.H.

    1981-05-01

    Because we understand production patterns better than energy-use patterns, Americans find it difficult to grasp the significance of resource scarcity and depletion and the need to continue energy inputs to sustain a developed society. Arguments against more-efficient energy use cite cost and life-style disruptions, but these must be weighed against the socio-economic impacts of traditional energy expansion. A new energy consciousness should be applied to investment decisions involving energy to eliminate waste. This will require changes in products, habits, and attitudes. Policies that will develop data and expertise in the thermodynamic principles of energy usage will help to change the way energy is valued. (DCK)

  5. Re-evaluating the Malawian Farm Input Subsidy Programme.

    PubMed

    Messina, Joseph P; Peter, Brad G; Snapp, Sieglinde S

    2017-03-06

    The Malawian Farm Input Subsidy Programme (FISP) has received praise as a proactive policy that has transformed the nation's food security, yet irreconcilable differences exist between maize production estimates distributed by the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO), the Malawi Ministry of Agriculture and Food Security (MoAFS) and the National Statistical Office (NSO) of Malawi. These differences illuminate yield-reporting deficiencies and the value that alternative, politically unbiased yield estimates could play in understanding policy impacts. We use net photosynthesis (PsnNet) as an objective source of evidence to evaluate production history and production potential under a fertilizer input scenario. Even with the most generous harvest index (HI) and area manipulation to match a reported error, we are unable to replicate post-FISP production gains. In addition, we show that the spatial delivery of FISP may have contributed to popular perception of widespread maize improvement. These triangulated lines of evidence suggest that FISP may not have been the success it was thought to be. Lastly, we assert that fertilizer subsidies may not be sufficient or sustainable strategies for production gains in Malawi.

  6. Auto Draw from Excel Input Files

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Strauss, Karl F.; Goullioud, Renaud; Cox, Brian; Grimes, James M.

    2011-01-01

    The design process often involves the use of Excel files during project development. To facilitate communications of the information in the Excel files, drawings are often generated. During the design process, the Excel files are updated often to reflect new input. The problem is that the drawings often lag the updates, often leading to confusion of the current state of the design. The use of this program allows visualization of complex data in a format that is more easily understandable than pages of numbers. Because the graphical output can be updated automatically, the manual labor of diagram drawing can be eliminated. The more frequent update of system diagrams can reduce confusion and reduce errors and is likely to uncover symmetric problems earlier in the design cycle, thus reducing rework and redesign.

  7. Dual motion valve with single motion input

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Belew, Robert (Inventor)

    1987-01-01

    A dual motion valve includes two dual motion valve assemblies with a rotary input which allows the benefits of applying both rotary and axial motion to a rotary sealing element with a plurality of ports. The motion of the rotary sealing element during actuation provides axial engagement of the rotary sealing element with a stationary valve plate which also has ports. Fluid passages are created through the valve when the ports of the rotary sealing element are aligned with the ports of the stationary valve plate. Alignment is achieved through rotation of the rotary sealing element with respect to the stationary valve plate. The fluid passages provide direct paths which minimize fluid turbulence created in the fluid as it passes through the valve.

  8. Variation in active and passive resource inputs to experimental pools: mechanisms and possible consequences for food webs

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kraus, Johanna M.; Pletcher, Leanna T.; Vonesh, James R.

    2010-01-01

    1. Cross-ecosystem movements of resources, including detritus, nutrients and living prey, can strongly influence food web dynamics in recipient habitats. Variation in resource inputs is thought to be driven by factors external to the recipient habitat (e.g. donor habitat productivity and boundary conditions). However, inputs of or by ‘active’ living resources may be strongly influenced by recipient habitat quality when organisms exhibit behavioural habitat selection when crossing ecosystem boundaries. 2. To examine whether behavioural responses to recipient habitat quality alter the relative inputs of ‘active’ living and ‘passive’ detrital resources to recipient food webs, we manipulated the presence of caged predatory fish and measured biomass, energy and organic content of inputs to outdoor experimental pools of adult aquatic insects, frog eggs, terrestrial plant matter and terrestrial arthropods. 3. Caged fish reduced the biomass, energy and organic matter donated to pools by tree frog eggs by ∼70%, but did not alter insect colonisation or passive allochthonous inputs of terrestrial arthropods and plant material. Terrestrial plant matter and adult aquatic insects provided the most energy and organic matter inputs to the pools (40–50%), while terrestrial arthropods provided the least (7%). Inputs of frog egg were relatively small but varied considerably among pools and over time (3%, range = 0–20%). Absolute and proportional amounts varied by input type. 4. Aquatic predators can strongly affect the magnitude of active, but not passive, inputs and that the effect of recipient habitat quality on active inputs is variable. Furthermore, some active inputs (i.e. aquatic insect colonists) can provide similar amounts of energy and organic matter as passive inputs of terrestrial plant matter, which are well known to be important. Because inputs differ in quality and the trophic level they subsidise, proportional changes in input type could have

  9. Input and output constraints affecting irrigation development

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schramm, G.

    1981-05-01

    In many of the developing countries the expansion of irrigated agriculture is used as a major development tool for bringing about increases in agricultural output, rural economic growth and income distribution. Apart from constraints imposed by water availability, the major limitations considered to any acceleration of such programs are usually thought to be those of costs and financial resources. However, as is shown on the basis of empirical data drawn from Mexico, in reality the feasibility and effectiveness of such development programs is even more constrained by the lack of specialized physical and human factors on the input and market limitations on the output side. On the input side, the limited availability of complementary factors such as, for example, truly functioning credit systems for small-scale farmers or effective agricultural extension services impose long-term constraints on development. On the output side the limited availability, high risk, and relatively slow growth of markets for high-value crops sharply reduce the usually hoped-for and projected profitable crop mix that would warrant the frequently high costs of irrigation investments. Three conclusions are drawn: (1) Factors in limited supply have to be shadow-priced to reflect their high opportunity costs in alternative uses. (2) Re-allocation of financial resources from immediate construction of projects to longer-term increase in the supply of scarce, highly-trained manpower resources are necessary in order to optimize development over time. (3) Inclusion of high-value, high-income producing crops in the benefit-cost analysis of new projects is inappropriate if these crops could potentially be grown in already existing projects.

  10. The IVS data input to ITRF2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nothnagel, Axel; Alef, Walter; Amagai, Jun; Andersen, Per Helge; Andreeva, Tatiana; Artz, Thomas; Bachmann, Sabine; Barache, Christophe; Baudry, Alain; Bauernfeind, Erhard; Baver, Karen; Beaudoin, Christopher; Behrend, Dirk; Bellanger, Antoine; Berdnikov, Anton; Bergman, Per; Bernhart, Simone; Bertarini, Alessandra; Bianco, Giuseppe; Bielmaier, Ewald; Boboltz, David; Böhm, Johannes; Böhm, Sigrid; Boer, Armin; Bolotin, Sergei; Bougeard, Mireille; Bourda, Geraldine; Buttaccio, Salvo; Cannizzaro, Letizia; Cappallo, Roger; Carlson, Brent; Carter, Merri Sue; Charlot, Patrick; Chen, Chenyu; Chen, Maozheng; Cho, Jungho; Clark, Thomas; Collioud, Arnaud; Colomer, Francisco; Colucci, Giuseppe; Combrinck, Ludwig; Conway, John; Corey, Brian; Curtis, Ronald; Dassing, Reiner; Davis, Maria; de-Vicente, Pablo; De Witt, Aletha; Diakov, Alexey; Dickey, John; Diegel, Irv; Doi, Koichiro; Drewes, Hermann; Dube, Maurice; Elgered, Gunnar; Engelhardt, Gerald; Evangelista, Mark; Fan, Qingyuan; Fedotov, Leonid; Fey, Alan; Figueroa, Ricardo; Fukuzaki, Yoshihiro; Gambis, Daniel; Garcia-Espada, Susana; Gaume, Ralph; Gaylard, Michael; Geiger, Nicole; Gipson, John; Gomez, Frank; Gomez-Gonzalez, Jesus; Gordon, David; Govind, Ramesh; Gubanov, Vadim; Gulyaev, Sergei; Haas, Ruediger; Hall, David; Halsig, Sebastian; Hammargren, Roger; Hase, Hayo; Heinkelmann, Robert; Helldner, Leif; Herrera, Cristian; Himwich, Ed; Hobiger, Thomas; Holst, Christoph; Hong, Xiaoyu; Honma, Mareki; Huang, Xinyong; Hugentobler, Urs; Ichikawa, Ryuichi; Iddink, Andreas; Ihde, Johannes; Ilijin, Gennadiy; Ipatov, Alexander; Ipatova, Irina; Ishihara, Misao; Ivanov, D. V.; Jacobs, Chris; Jike, Takaaki; Johansson, Karl-Ake; Johnson, Heidi; Johnston, Kenneth; Ju, Hyunhee; Karasawa, Masao; Kaufmann, Pierre; Kawabata, Ryoji; Kawaguchi, Noriyuki; Kawai, Eiji; Kaydanovsky, Michael; Kharinov, Mikhail; Kobayashi, Hideyuki; Kokado, Kensuke; Kondo, Tetsuro; Korkin, Edward; Koyama, Yasuhiro; Krasna, Hana; Kronschnabl, Gerhard; Kurdubov, Sergey; Kurihara, Shinobu; Kuroda, Jiro; Kwak, Younghee; La Porta, Laura; Labelle, Ruth; Lamb, Doug; Lambert, Sébastien; Langkaas, Line; Lanotte, Roberto; Lavrov, Alexey; Le Bail, Karine; Leek, Judith; Li, Bing; Li, Huihua; Li, Jinling; Liang, Shiguang; Lindqvist, Michael; Liu, Xiang; Loesler, Michael; Long, Jim; Lonsdale, Colin; Lovell, Jim; Lowe, Stephen; Lucena, Antonio; Luzum, Brian; Ma, Chopo; Ma, Jun; Maccaferri, Giuseppe; Machida, Morito; MacMillan, Dan; Madzak, Matthias; Malkin, Zinovy; Manabe, Seiji; Mantovani, Franco; Mardyshkin, Vyacheslav; Marshalov, Dmitry; Mathiassen, Geir; Matsuzaka, Shigeru; McCarthy, Dennis; Melnikov, Alexey; Michailov, Andrey; Miller, Natalia; Mitchell, Donald; Mora-Diaz, Julian Andres; Mueskens, Arno; Mukai, Yasuko; Nanni, Mauro; Natusch, Tim; Negusini, Monia; Neidhardt, Alexander; Nickola, Marisa; Nicolson, George; Niell, Arthur; Nikitin, Pavel; Nilsson, Tobias; Ning, Tong; Nishikawa, Takashi; Noll, Carey; Nozawa, Kentarou; Ogaja, Clement; Oh, Hongjong; Olofsson, Hans; Opseth, Per Erik; Orfei, Sandro; Pacione, Rosa; Pazamickas, Katherine; Petrachenko, William; Pettersson, Lars; Pino, Pedro; Plank, Lucia; Ploetz, Christian; Poirier, Michael; Poutanen, Markku; Qian, Zhihan; Quick, Jonathan; Rahimov, Ismail; Redmond, Jay; Reid, Brett; Reynolds, John; Richter, Bernd; Rioja, Maria; Romero-Wolf, Andres; Ruszczyk, Chester; Salnikov, Alexander; Sarti, Pierguido; Schatz, Raimund; Scherneck, Hans-Georg; Schiavone, Francesco; Schreiber, Ulrich; Schuh, Harald; Schwarz, Walter; Sciarretta, Cecilia; Searle, Anthony; Sekido, Mamoru; Seitz, Manuela; Shao, Minghui; Shibuya, Kazuo; Shu, Fengchun; Sieber, Moritz; Skjaeveland, Asmund; Skurikhina, Elena; Smolentsev, Sergey; Smythe, Dan; Sousa, Don; Sovers, Ojars; Stanford, Laura; Stanghellini, Carlo; Steppe, Alan; Strand, Rich; Sun, Jing; Surkis, Igor; Takashima, Kazuhiro; Takefuji, Kazuhiro; Takiguchi, Hiroshi; Tamura, Yoshiaki; Tanabe, Tadashi; Tanir, Emine; Tao, An; Tateyama, Claudio; Teke, Kamil; Thomas, Cynthia; Thorandt, Volkmar; Thornton, Bruce; Tierno Ros, Claudia; Titov, Oleg; Titus, Mike; Tomasi, Paolo; Tornatore, Vincenza; Trigilio, Corrado; Trofimov, Dmitriy; Tsutsumi, Masanori; Tuccari, Gino; Tzioumis, Tasso; Ujihara, Hideki; Ullrich, Dieter; Uunila, Minttu; Venturi, Tiziana; Vespe, Francesco; Vityazev, Veniamin; Volvach, Alexandr; Vytnov, Alexander; Wang, Guangli; Wang, Jinqing; Wang, Lingling; Wang, Na; Wang, Shiqiang; Wei, Wenren; Weston, Stuart; Whitney, Alan; Wojdziak, Reiner; Yatskiv, Yaroslav; Yang, Wenjun; Ye, Shuhua; Yi, Sangoh; Yusup, Aili; Zapata, Octavio; Zeitlhoefler, Reinhard; Zhang, Hua; Zhang, Ming; Zhang, Xiuzhong; Zhao, Rongbing; Zheng, Weimin; Zhou, Ruixian; Zubko, Nataliya

    2015-01-01

    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) is a primary space-geodetic technique for determining precise coordinates on the Earth, for monitoring the variable Earth rotation and orientation with highest precision, and for deriving many other parameters of the Earth system. The International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS, http://ivscc.gsfc.nasa.gov/) is a service of the International Association of Geodesy (IAG) and the International Astronomical Union (IAU). The datasets published here are the results of individual Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) sessions in the form of normal equations in SINEX 2.0 format (http://www.iers.org/IERS/EN/Organization/AnalysisCoordinator/SinexFormat/sinex.html, the SINEX 2.0 description is attached as pdf) provided by IVS as the input for the next release of the International Terrestrial Reference System (ITRF): ITRF2014. This is a new version of the ITRF2008 release (Bockmann et al., 2009). For each session/ file, the normal equation systems contain elements for the coordinate components of all stations having participated in the respective session as well as for the Earth orientation parameters (x-pole, y-pole, UT1 and its time derivatives plus offset to the IAU2006 precession-nutation components dX, dY (https://www.iau.org/static/resolutions/IAU2006_Resol1.pdf). The terrestrial part is free of datum. The data sets are the result of a weighted combination of the input of several IVS Analysis Centers. The IVS contribution for ITRF2014 is described in Bachmann et al (2015), Schuh and Behrend (2012) provide a general overview on the VLBI method, details on the internal data handling can be found at Behrend (2013).

  11. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fletcher, James C. (Inventor); Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1992-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  12. Polyimide processing additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Pratt, J. Richard (Inventor); St.clair, Terry L. (Inventor); Stoakley, Diane M. (Inventor); Burks, Harold D. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    A process for preparing polyimides having enhanced melt flow properties is described. The process consists of heating a mixture of a high molecular weight poly-(amic acid) or polyimide with a low molecular weight amic acid or imide additive in the range of 0.05 to 15 percent by weight of the additive. The polyimide powders so obtained show improved processability, as evidenced by lower melt viscosity by capillary rheometry. Likewise, films prepared from mixtures of polymers with additives show improved processability with earlier onset of stretching by TMA.

  13. User's manual for master: Modeling of aerodynamic surfaces by 3-dimensional explicit representation. [input to three dimensional computational fluid dynamics

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gibson, S. G.

    1983-01-01

    A system of computer programs was developed to model general three dimensional surfaces. Surfaces are modeled as sets of parametric bicubic patches. There are also capabilities to transform coordinates, to compute mesh/surface intersection normals, and to format input data for a transonic potential flow analysis. A graphical display of surface models and intersection normals is available. There are additional capabilities to regulate point spacing on input curves and to compute surface/surface intersection curves. Input and output data formats are described; detailed suggestions are given for user input. Instructions for execution are given, and examples are shown.

  14. Selection of LCTV operating curves for input and filter. [Liquid Crystal TeleVision

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Juday, Richard D.; Lacroix, Jennifer L.; Rajan, P. K.

    1992-01-01

    A liquid crystal television (LCTV) SLM's phase, amplitude, and polarization all influence our selection of operating curves for input and filter. With its continuum of drive voltage, the LCTV permits grey-level control in both locations. Selection of an optimum curve depends on expected variations in signal amplitude, presence of input scene structured noise, and other factors. Using modulators obtained from a commercially available projection LCTV, and with no specifically added input noise present, we have obtained laboratory results in which the ratio of peak intensity to correlator system noise exceeded 100:1. Unfortunately, it was massively inefficient to implement the algorithm which had been developed as the abstract for this paper was submitted. Fortunately, we have quite recently developed two insights that will speed it by several orders of magnitude, and we shall report that result in the future. We will also extend the work to include clutter objects and additive input scene noise.

  15. Evaluating the uncertainty of input quantities in measurement models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Possolo, Antonio; Elster, Clemens

    2014-06-01

    The Guide to the Expression of Uncertainty in Measurement (GUM) gives guidance about how values and uncertainties should be assigned to the input quantities that appear in measurement models. This contribution offers a concrete proposal for how that guidance may be updated in light of the advances in the evaluation and expression of measurement uncertainty that were made in the course of the twenty years that have elapsed since the publication of the GUM, and also considering situations that the GUM does not yet contemplate. Our motivation is the ongoing conversation about a new edition of the GUM. While generally we favour a Bayesian approach to uncertainty evaluation, we also recognize the value that other approaches may bring to the problems considered here, and focus on methods for uncertainty evaluation and propagation that are widely applicable, including to cases that the GUM has not yet addressed. In addition to Bayesian methods, we discuss maximum-likelihood estimation, robust statistical methods, and measurement models where values of nominal properties play the same role that input quantities play in traditional models. We illustrate these general-purpose techniques in concrete examples, employing data sets that are realistic but that also are of conveniently small sizes. The supplementary material available online lists the R computer code that we have used to produce these examples (stacks.iop.org/Met/51/3/339/mmedia). Although we strive to stay close to clause 4 of the GUM, which addresses the evaluation of uncertainty for input quantities, we depart from it as we review the classes of measurement models that we believe are generally useful in contemporary measurement science. We also considerably expand and update the treatment that the GUM gives to Type B evaluations of uncertainty: reviewing the state-of-the-art, disciplined approach to the elicitation of expert knowledge, and its encapsulation in probability distributions that are usable in

  16. Energy and materials flows in the production of olefins and their derivatives

    SciTech Connect

    Gaines, L.L.; Shen, S.Y.

    1980-08-01

    Production of olefins and their derivatives uses almost 3.5% of the oil and gas consumed annually in the United States. It is estimated that their production requires an input energy of 2 Q, which is 50% of the energy used in the production of all petrochemicals. Substantial amounts of this energy could be recovered through recycling. For example, recycling of a single plastic product, polyester soft drink bottles, could have recovered about 0.014 Q in 1979. (About 1.4 Q is used to produce plastic derivatives of olefins). Petrochemical processes use fuels as feedstocks, as well as for process energy, and a portion of this energy is not foregone and can be recovered through combustion of the products. The energy foregone in the production of ethylene is estimated to be 7800 Btu/lb. The energy foregone in plastics production ranges from 12,100 Btu/lb for the new linear low-density polyethylene to 77,200 Btu/lb for nylon 66, which is about 60% of the total energy input for that product. Further investigation of the following areas could yield both material and energy savings in the olefins industry: (1) recycling of petrochemical products to recover energy in addition to that recoverable through combustion, (2) impact of feedstock substitution on utilization of available national resources, and (3) effective use of the heat embodied in process steam. This steam accounts for a major fraction of the industry's energy input.

  17. Food Additives and Hyperkinesis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Wender, Ester H.

    1977-01-01

    The hypothesis that food additives are causally associated with hyperkinesis and learning disabilities in children is reviewed, and available data are summarized. Available from: American Medical Association 535 North Dearborn Street Chicago, Illinois 60610. (JG)

  18. Smog control fuel additives

    SciTech Connect

    Lundby, W.

    1993-06-29

    A method is described of controlling, reducing or eliminating, ozone and related smog resulting from photochemical reactions between ozone and automotive or industrial gases comprising the addition of iodine or compounds of iodine to hydrocarbon-base fuels prior to or during combustion in an amount of about 1 part iodine per 240 to 10,000,000 parts fuel, by weight, to be accomplished by: (a) the addition of these inhibitors during or after the refining or manufacturing process of liquid fuels; (b) the production of these inhibitors for addition into fuel tanks, such as automotive or industrial tanks; or (c) the addition of these inhibitors into combustion chambers of equipment utilizing solid fuels for the purpose of reducing ozone.

  19. Exploring Input Processing in the Classroom: An Experimental Comparison of Processing Instruction and Enriched Input

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Marsden, Emma

    2006-01-01

    The research reported here tests the claim made in the Input Processing approach to second language (L2) acquisition that interpreting the meaning of language form is essential for learning. This claim has been put forward as an underlying part of the pedagogical package known as Processing Instruction (PI) (VanPatten, 1996, 2002a, 2004). Two…

  20. How Much Input Is Enough? Correlating Comprehension and Child Language Input in an Endangered Language

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Meakins, Felicity; Wigglesworth, Gillian

    2013-01-01

    In situations of language endangerment, the ability to understand a language tends to persevere longer than the ability to speak it. As a result, the possibility of language revival remains high even when few speakers remain. Nonetheless, this potential requires that those with high levels of comprehension received sufficient input as children for…

  1. Input Quality Matters: Some Comments on Input Type and Age-Effects in Adult SLA

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rothman, Jason; Guijarro-Fuentes, Pedro

    2010-01-01

    In accord with the general program of researching factors relating to ultimate attainment and maturational constraints in adult language acquisition, this commentary highlights the importance of input differences in amount, type, and setting between naturalistic and classroom learners of an L2. It is suggested that these variables are often…

  2. A circuit design for multi-inputs stateful OR gate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Qiao; Wang, Xiaoping; Wan, Haibo; Yang, Ran; Zheng, Jian

    2016-09-01

    The in situ logic operation on memristor memory has attracted researchers' attention. In this brief, a new circuit structure that performs a stateful OR logic operation is proposed. When our OR logic is operated in series with other logic operations (IMP, AND), only two voltages should to be changed while three voltages are necessary in the previous one-step OR logic operation. In addition, this circuit structure can be extended to multi-inputs OR operation to perfect the family of logic operations on memristive memory in nanocrossbar based networks. The proposed OR gate can enable fast logic operation, reduce the number of required memristors and the sequential steps. Through analysis and simulation, the feasibility of OR operation is demonstrated and the appropriate parameters are obtained.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide production during decomposition of landfill inputs

    SciTech Connect

    Fairweather, R.J.; Barlaz, M.A.

    1998-04-01

    The objective of this research was to evaluate the effects of a number of landfill inputs on hydrogen sulfide production and on competition between methane production and sulfate reduction during refuse decomposition. Tests were conducted in four-liter reactors that contained residential municipal waste; decomposed refuse as a seed; and various mixtures of anaerobically digested polymer-treated sludge, anaerobically digested lime-stabilized sludge, and wallboard (calcium sulfate) simulating construction and demolition waste. Tests demonstrated that wallboard was the major cause of hydrogen sulfide production and that methanogenesis and sulfate reduction occur concurrently during refuse decomposition. Additionally, both polymer- and lime-treated sludge enhanced refuse decomposition. Despite the presence of excess sulfate, 2.9 to 7.0 times more organic carbon was biodegraded through methanogenesis than through sulfate reduction.

  4. Toward an inventory of nitrogen input to the United States

    EPA Science Inventory

    Accurate accounting of nitrogen inputs is increasingly necessary for policy decisions related to aquatic nutrient pollution. Here we synthesize available data to provide the first integrated estimates of the amount and uncertainty of nitrogen inputs to the United States. Abou...

  5. Group Sparse Additive Models

    PubMed Central

    Yin, Junming; Chen, Xi; Xing, Eric P.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of sparse variable selection in nonparametric additive models, with the prior knowledge of the structure among the covariates to encourage those variables within a group to be selected jointly. Previous works either study the group sparsity in the parametric setting (e.g., group lasso), or address the problem in the nonparametric setting without exploiting the structural information (e.g., sparse additive models). In this paper, we present a new method, called group sparse additive models (GroupSpAM), which can handle group sparsity in additive models. We generalize the ℓ1/ℓ2 norm to Hilbert spaces as the sparsity-inducing penalty in GroupSpAM. Moreover, we derive a novel thresholding condition for identifying the functional sparsity at the group level, and propose an efficient block coordinate descent algorithm for constructing the estimate. We demonstrate by simulation that GroupSpAM substantially outperforms the competing methods in terms of support recovery and prediction accuracy in additive models, and also conduct a comparative experiment on a real breast cancer dataset.

  6. Additive Manufacturing Infrared Inspection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaddy, Darrell

    2014-01-01

    Additive manufacturing is a rapid prototyping technology that allows parts to be built in a series of thin layers from plastic, ceramics, and metallics. Metallic additive manufacturing is an emerging form of rapid prototyping that allows complex structures to be built using various metallic powders. Significant time and cost savings have also been observed using the metallic additive manufacturing compared with traditional techniques. Development of the metallic additive manufacturing technology has advanced significantly over the last decade, although many of the techniques to inspect parts made from these processes have not advanced significantly or have limitations. Several external geometry inspection techniques exist such as Coordinate Measurement Machines (CMM), Laser Scanners, Structured Light Scanning Systems, or even traditional calipers and gages. All of the aforementioned techniques are limited to external geometry and contours or must use a contact probe to inspect limited internal dimensions. This presentation will document the development of a process for real-time dimensional inspection technique and digital quality record of the additive manufacturing process using Infrared camera imaging and processing techniques.

  7. Metal Additive Manufacturing: A Review

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frazier, William E.

    2014-06-01

    This paper reviews the state-of-the-art of an important, rapidly emerging, manufacturing technology that is alternatively called additive manufacturing (AM), direct digital manufacturing, free form fabrication, or 3D printing, etc. A broad contextual overview of metallic AM is provided. AM has the potential to revolutionize the global parts manufacturing and logistics landscape. It enables distributed manufacturing and the productions of parts-on-demand while offering the potential to reduce cost, energy consumption, and carbon footprint. This paper explores the material science, processes, and business consideration associated with achieving these performance gains. It is concluded that a paradigm shift is required in order to fully exploit AM potential.

  8. Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe

    PubMed Central

    Leff, Jonathan W.; Jones, Stuart E.; Prober, Suzanne M.; Barberán, Albert; Borer, Elizabeth T.; Firn, Jennifer L.; Harpole, W. Stanley; Hobbie, Sarah E.; Hofmockel, Kirsten S.; Knops, Johannes M. H.; McCulley, Rebecca L.; La Pierre, Kimberly; Risch, Anita C.; Seabloom, Eric W.; Schütz, Martin; Steenbock, Christopher; Stevens, Carly J.; Fierer, Noah

    2015-01-01

    Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide. PMID:26283343

  9. Consistent responses of soil microbial communities to elevated nutrient inputs in grasslands across the globe.

    PubMed

    Leff, Jonathan W; Jones, Stuart E; Prober, Suzanne M; Barberán, Albert; Borer, Elizabeth T; Firn, Jennifer L; Harpole, W Stanley; Hobbie, Sarah E; Hofmockel, Kirsten S; Knops, Johannes M H; McCulley, Rebecca L; La Pierre, Kimberly; Risch, Anita C; Seabloom, Eric W; Schütz, Martin; Steenbock, Christopher; Stevens, Carly J; Fierer, Noah

    2015-09-01

    Soil microorganisms are critical to ecosystem functioning and the maintenance of soil fertility. However, despite global increases in the inputs of nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) to ecosystems due to human activities, we lack a predictive understanding of how microbial communities respond to elevated nutrient inputs across environmental gradients. Here we used high-throughput sequencing of marker genes to elucidate the responses of soil fungal, archaeal, and bacterial communities using an N and P addition experiment replicated at 25 globally distributed grassland sites. We also sequenced metagenomes from a subset of the sites to determine how the functional attributes of bacterial communities change in response to elevated nutrients. Despite strong compositional differences across sites, microbial communities shifted in a consistent manner with N or P additions, and the magnitude of these shifts was related to the magnitude of plant community responses to nutrient inputs. Mycorrhizal fungi and methanogenic archaea decreased in relative abundance with nutrient additions, as did the relative abundances of oligotrophic bacterial taxa. The metagenomic data provided additional evidence for this shift in bacterial life history strategies because nutrient additions decreased the average genome sizes of the bacterial community members and elicited changes in the relative abundances of representative functional genes. Our results suggest that elevated N and P inputs lead to predictable shifts in the taxonomic and functional traits of soil microbial communities, including increases in the relative abundances of faster-growing, copiotrophic bacterial taxa, with these shifts likely to impact belowground ecosystems worldwide.

  10. Variability of aboveground litter inputs alters soil physicochemical and biological processes: a meta-analysis of litterfall-manipulation experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, S.; Liu, L.; Sayer, E. J.

    2013-03-01

    Global change has been shown to greatly alter the amount of aboveground litter inputs to soil, which could cause substantial cascading effects on belowground biogeochemical cyling. Although having been studied extensively, there is uncertainty about how changes in aboveground litter inputs affect soil carbon and nutrient turnover and transformation. Here, we conducted a comprehensive compilation of 68 studies on litter addition or removal experiments, and used meta-analysis to assess the responses of soil physicochemical properties and carbon and nutrient cycling under changed aboveground litter inputs. Our results suggested that litter addition or removal could significantly alter soil temperature and moisture, but not soil pH. Litter inputs were more crucial in buffering soil temperature and moisture fluctuations in grassland than in forest. Soil respiration, soil microbial biomass carbon and total carbon in the mineral soil increased with increasing litter inputs, suggesting that soil acted as a~net carbon sink although carbon loss and transformation increased with increasing litter inputs. Total nitrogen and the C : N ratio in the mineral soil increased with increased litter inputs. However, there was no correlation between litter inputs and extractable inorganic nitrogen in the mineral soil. Compared to other ecosystems, tropical and subtropical forests are more sensitive to variation in litter inputs. Increased or decreased litter inputs altered the turnover and accumulation of soil carbon and nutrient in tropical and subtropical forests more substantially over a shorter time period compared to other ecosystems. Overall, our study suggested that, although the magnitude of responses differed greatly among ecosystems, increased litter inputs generally accelerated the decomposition and accumulation of carbon and nutrients in soil, and decreased litter inputs reduced them.

  11. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamine, containing phenylethvnvl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynviphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pvrrolidinone to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  12. Fused Lasso Additive Model

    PubMed Central

    Petersen, Ashley; Witten, Daniela; Simon, Noah

    2016-01-01

    We consider the problem of predicting an outcome variable using p covariates that are measured on n independent observations, in a setting in which additive, flexible, and interpretable fits are desired. We propose the fused lasso additive model (FLAM), in which each additive function is estimated to be piecewise constant with a small number of adaptively-chosen knots. FLAM is the solution to a convex optimization problem, for which a simple algorithm with guaranteed convergence to a global optimum is provided. FLAM is shown to be consistent in high dimensions, and an unbiased estimator of its degrees of freedom is proposed. We evaluate the performance of FLAM in a simulation study and on two data sets. Supplemental materials are available online, and the R package flam is available on CRAN. PMID:28239246

  13. Phenylethynyl Containing Reactive Additives

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Connell, John W. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G., Jr. (Inventor); Hergenrother, Paul M. (Inventor)

    2002-01-01

    Phenylethynyl containing reactive additives were prepared from aromatic diamines containing phenylethynyl groups and various ratios of phthalic anhydride and 4-phenylethynylphthalic anhydride in glacial acetic acid to form the imide in one step or in N-methyl-2-pyrrolidi none to form the amide acid intermediate. The reactive additives were mixed in various amounts (10% to 90%) with oligomers containing either terminal or pendent phenylethynyl groups (or both) to reduce the melt viscosity and thereby enhance processability. Upon thermal cure, the additives react and become chemically incorporated into the matrix and effect an increase in crosslink density relative to that of the host resin. This resultant increase in crosslink density has advantageous consequences on the cured resin properties such as higher glass transition temperature and higher modulus as compared to that of the host resin.

  14. Atmospheric input of inorganic nitrogen to Delaware Bay

    SciTech Connect

    Scudlark, J.R.; Church, T.M. )

    1993-12-01

    The coastal waters of the mid-Atlantic region of the United States receive inputs of atmospheric pollutants as a consequence of being located downwind from major industrial and urban emission. These inputs are potentially the largest received by any marine area of the country. Of current interest is the atmospheric input of dissolved inorganic nitrogen (DIN = NO[sub 3][sup [minus

  15. Comparison of Linear Microinstability Calculations of Varying Input Realism

    SciTech Connect

    G. Rewoldt

    2003-09-08

    The effect of varying ''input realism'' or varying completeness of the input data for linear microinstability calculations, in particular on the critical value of the ion temperature gradient for the ion temperature gradient mode, is investigated using gyrokinetic and gyrofluid approaches. The calculations show that varying input realism can have a substantial quantitative effect on the results.

  16. Exergetic assessment for resources input and environmental emissions by Chinese industry during 1997-2006.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997-2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from "three wastes" emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002-2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed.

  17. Field measurement of moisture-buffering model inputs for residential buildings

    SciTech Connect

    Woods, Jason; Winkler, Jon

    2016-02-05

    Moisture adsorption and desorption in building materials impact indoor humidity. This effect should be included in building-energy simulations, particularly when humidity is being investigated or controlled. Several models can calculate this moisture-buffering effect, but accurate ones require model inputs that are not always known to the user of the building-energy simulation. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model. The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative-humidity profile, measure all of the moisture-transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air-conditioner condensate), and calculate the only unmeasured term—the moisture sorption into the materials. We validated this method with laboratory measurements, which we used to measure the EMPD model inputs of two houses. After deriving these inputs, we measured the humidity of the same houses during tests with realistic latent and sensible loads and demonstrated the accuracy of this approach. Furthermore, these results show that the EMPD model, when given reasonable inputs, is an accurate moisture-buffering model.

  18. Field measurement of moisture-buffering model inputs for residential buildings

    DOE PAGES

    Woods, Jason; Winkler, Jon

    2016-02-05

    Moisture adsorption and desorption in building materials impact indoor humidity. This effect should be included in building-energy simulations, particularly when humidity is being investigated or controlled. Several models can calculate this moisture-buffering effect, but accurate ones require model inputs that are not always known to the user of the building-energy simulation. This research developed an empirical method to extract whole-house model inputs for the effective moisture penetration depth (EMPD) model. The experimental approach was to subject the materials in the house to a square-wave relative-humidity profile, measure all of the moisture-transfer terms (e.g., infiltration, air-conditioner condensate), and calculate the onlymore » unmeasured term—the moisture sorption into the materials. We validated this method with laboratory measurements, which we used to measure the EMPD model inputs of two houses. After deriving these inputs, we measured the humidity of the same houses during tests with realistic latent and sensible loads and demonstrated the accuracy of this approach. Furthermore, these results show that the EMPD model, when given reasonable inputs, is an accurate moisture-buffering model.« less

  19. Exergetic Assessment for Resources Input and Environmental Emissions by Chinese Industry during 1997–2006

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Bo; Peng, Beihua; Liu, Mingchu

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of the resources use and environmental impact of the Chinese industry during 1997–2006. For the purpose of this analysis the thermodynamic concept of exergy has been employed both to quantify and aggregate the resources input and the environmental emissions arising from the sector. The resources input and environmental emissions show an increasing trend in this period. Compared with 47568.7 PJ in 1997, resources input in 2006 increased by 75.4% and reached 83437.9 PJ, of which 82.5% came from nonrenewable resources, mainly from coal and other energy minerals. Furthermore, the total exergy of environmental emissions was estimated to be 3499.3 PJ in 2006, 1.7 times of that in 1997, of which 93.4% was from GHG emissions and only 6.6% from “three wastes” emissions. A rapid increment of the nonrenewable resources input and GHG emissions over 2002–2006 can be found, owing to the excessive expansion of resource- and energy-intensive subsectors. Exergy intensities in terms of resource input intensity and environmental emission intensity time-series are also calculated, and the trends are influenced by the macroeconomic situation evidently, particularly by the investment-derived economic development in recent years. Corresponding policy implications to guide a more sustainable industry system are addressed. PMID:22973176

  20. Evaluation of Advanced Stirling Convertor Net Heat Input Correlation Methods Using a Thermal Standard

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Briggs, Maxwell H.; Schifer, Nicholas A.

    2012-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and Lockheed Martin Space Systems Company (LMSSC) have been developing the Advanced Stirling Radioisotope Generator (ASRG) for use as a power system for space science missions. This generator would use two high-efficiency Advanced Stirling Convertors (ASCs), developed by Sunpower Inc. and NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). The ASCs convert thermal energy from a radioisotope heat source into electricity. As part of ground testing of these ASCs, different operating conditions are used to simulate expected mission conditions. These conditions require achieving a particular operating frequency, hot end and cold end temperatures, and specified electrical power output for a given net heat input. In an effort to improve net heat input predictions, numerous tasks have been performed which provided a more accurate value for net heat input into the ASCs, including testing validation hardware, known as the Thermal Standard, to provide a direct comparison to numerical and empirical models used to predict convertor net heat input. This validation hardware provided a comparison for scrutinizing and improving empirical correlations and numerical models of ASC-E2 net heat input. This hardware simulated the characteristics of an ASC-E2 convertor in both an operating and non-operating mode. This paper describes the Thermal Standard testing and the conclusions of the validation effort applied to the empirical correlation methods used by the Radioisotope Power System (RPS) team at NASA Glenn.